These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

2

Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate,

Michael E. Stiles

1996-01-01

3

Energy transduction in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discovery of some general principles of energy transduction, lactic acid bacteria have played an important role. In this review, the energy transducing processes of lactic acid bacteria are discussed with the emphasis on the major developments of the past 5 years. This work not only includes the biochemistry of the enzymes and the bioenergetics of the processes, but

Bert Poolman

1993-01-01

4

Proteolytic systems in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria are important as a means of making protein and peptide N available for growth and as part of the curing or maturation processes which give foods their characteristic rheological and organoleptic properties. The proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria are described in relation to their growth and their functions in protein-rich foods. Their

Barry A. Law; Jens Kolstad; Pekka Varmanen; Bert Poolman I; Wil N. Konings

1983-01-01

5

Identification of predominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditionally fermented vegetable products of the Eastern Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gundruk, sinki and khalpi are lactic-fermented vegetable products of Sikkim in India, and inziangsang is a fermented leafy vegetable product of Nagaland and Manipur in India. A total of 65 samples of gundruk (25), sinki (12), khalpi (25) and inziangsang (3) were analysed for microbial counts. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as well as aerobic mesophilic counts were

Jyoti P. Tamang; Buddhiman Tamang; Ulrich Schillinger; Charles M. A. P. Franz; Michael Gores; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

2005-01-01

6

Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a hand-made blue cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 500 strains isolated from different media used to study the aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid flora of Valdeón cheese (a Spanish hand-made blue cheese) have been identified. Nearly 95% of aerobic mesophiles were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). From these, Enterococcus (40·4%) and Lactococcus (42·2%) were the dominant genera, with Lactobacillus (4·1%) and Leuconostoc (5·0%) being also found. The selectivity

T. M López-D??az; C Alonso; C Román; M. L Garc??a-López; B Moreno

2000-01-01

7

Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats. PMID:17030793

Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rohksar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V.; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

2006-01-01

8

Probiotic Spectra of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their probio-active cellular substances exert many beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract. LAB prevent adherence, establishment, and replication of several enteric mucosal pathogens through several antimicrobial mechanisms. LAB also release various enzymes into the intestinal lumen and exert potential synergistic effects on digestion and alleviate symptoms of intestinal malabsoption. Consumption of LAB fermented dairy products

A. S. Naidu; W. R. Bidlack; R. A. Clemens

1999-01-01

9

The proteotytic systems of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolysis in dairy lactic acid bacteria has been studied in great detail by genetic, biochemical and ultrastructural methods. From these studies the picture emerges that the proteolytic systems of lactococci and lactobacilli are remarkably similar in their components and mode of action. The proteolytic system consists of an extracellularly located serine-proteinase, transport systems specific for di-tripeptides and oligopeptides (> 3

Edmund R. S. Kunji; Igor Mierau; Anja Hagting; Bert Poolman; Wil N. Konings

1996-01-01

10

Original article Antagonism of lactic acid bacteria towards  

E-print Network

Original article Antagonism of lactic acid bacteria towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia 10 October 1994; accepted 22 May 1995) Summary ― The antagonistic effect of lactic acid aureus/Escherichia colii INTRODUCTION Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are the normal flora of digestive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Carbohydrate metabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “lactic acid bacteria” is discussed. An overview of the following topics is given: main pathways of homo- and heterofermentation of hexoses, i.e. glycolysis, bifidus pathway, 6-phosphogluconate pathway; uptake and dissimilation of lactose (tagatose pathway); fermentation of pentoses and pentitols; alternative fates of pyruvate, i.e. splitting to formate and acetate, CO2 and acetate or formation of acetoin and diacetyl;

Otto Kandler

1983-01-01

12

Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics.  

PubMed

A number of Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium sp, Saccharomyces boulardii, and some other microbes have been proposed as and are used as probiotic strains, i.e. live microorganisms as food supplement in order to benefit health. The health claims range from rather vague as regulation of bowel activity and increasing of well-being to more specific, such as exerting antagonistic effect on the gastroenteric pathogens Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and rotavirus, neutralising food mutagens produced in colon, shifting the immune response towards a Th2 response, and thereby alleviating allergic reactions, and lowering serum cholesterol (Tannock, 2002). Unfortunately, most publications are case reports, uncontrolled studies in humans, or reports of animal or in vitro studies. Whether or not the probiotic strains employed shall be of human origin is a matter of debate but this is not a matter of concern, as long as the strains can be shown to survive the transport in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to colonise the human large intestine. This includes survival in the stressful environment of the stomach - acidic pH and bile - with induction of new genes encoding a number of stress proteins. Since the availability of antioxidants decreases rostrally in the GI tract production of antioxidants by colonic bacteria provides a beneficial effect in scavenging free radicals. LAB strains commonly produce antimicrobial substance(s) with activity against the homologous strain, but LAB strains also often produce microbicidal substances with effect against gastric and intestinal pathogens and other microbes, or compete for cell surface and mucin binding sites. This could be the mechanism behind reports that some probiotic strains inhibit or decrease translocation of bacteria from the gut to the liver. A protective effect against cancer development can be ascribed to binding of mutagens by intestinal bacteria, reduction of the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase, and deconjugation of bile acids, or merely by enhancing the immune system of the host. The latter has attracted considerable interest, and LAB have been tested in several clinical trials in allergic diseases. Characteristics ascribed to a probiotic strain are in general strain specific, and individual strains have to be tested for each property. Survival of strains during production, packing and storage of a viable cell mass has to be tested and declared. PMID:16875422

Ljungh, Asa; Wadström, Torkel

2006-09-01

13

Antagonism of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Phytopathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A variety of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from plant surfaces and plant-associated products, were found to be antagonistic to test strains of the phytopathogens Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. Effective “in vitro” inhibition was found both on agar plates and in broth cultures. In pot trials, treatment of bean plants with a Lactobacillus plantarum strain before inoculation with P. syringae caused a significant reduction of the disease incidence. Images PMID:16347150

Visser, Ronel; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Bezuidenhout, Johannes J.; Kotze, Johannes M.

1986-01-01

14

Technological, phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of wild lactic acid bacteria involved  

E-print Network

Technological, phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of wild lactic acid bacteria involved of the research was to investigate the dynamics of wild lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in Bitto production Keywords Lactic acid bacteria . Raw milk cheese . Bitto . Technological characterization . Antimicrobial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of molecular genetic techniques to determine the relatedness of food-associated lactic acid bacteria has resulted in significant changes in their taxonomic classification. During the 1980s the genus Streptococcus was separated into the three genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus,

Michael E. Stiles; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

1997-01-01

16

Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were screened of their ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on MRS agar. Of 28 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria examined, 12 of 16 Lactobacillus strains and 7 of 8 Bifidobacterium strains fermented FOS. Only strains that gave a positive reaction by the agar method reached high cell densities in broth containing FOS.

Handan Kaplan; Robert W. Hutkins

2000-01-01

17

Controlled overproduction of proteins by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria are widely used in industrial food fermentations, contributing to flavour, texture and preservation of the fermented products. Here we describe recent advances in the development of controlled gene expression systems, which allow the regulated overproduction of any desirable protein by lactic acid bacteria. Some systems benefit from the fact that the expression vectors, marker genes and inducing

O. P. Kuipers; Ruyter de P. G. G. A; M. Kleerebezem; Vos de W. M

1997-01-01

18

Towards lactic acid bacteria-based biorefineries.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in industrial applications mainly as starters for food fermentation or as biocontrol agents or as probiotics. However, LAB possess several characteristics that render them among the most promising candidates for use in future biorefineries in converting plant-derived biomass-either from dedicated crops or from municipal/industrial solid wastes-into biofuels and high value-added products. Lactic acid, their main fermentation product, is an attractive building block extensively used by the chemical industry, owing to the potential for production of polylactides as biodegradable and biocompatible plastic alternative to polymers derived from petrochemicals. LA is but one of many high-value compounds which can be produced by LAB fermentation, which also include biofuels such as ethanol and butanol, biodegradable plastic polymers, exopolysaccharides, antimicrobial agents, health-promoting substances and nutraceuticals. Furthermore, several LAB strains have ascertained probiotic properties, and their biomass can be considered a high-value product. The present contribution aims to provide an extensive overview of the main industrial applications of LAB and future perspectives concerning their utilization in biorefineries. Strategies will be described in detail for developing LAB strains with broader substrate metabolic capacity for fermentation of cheaper biomass. PMID:25087936

Mazzoli, Roberto; Bosco, Francesca; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Bayer, Edward A; Pessione, Enrica

2014-11-15

19

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation and Catalase Activity in the Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Some lactic acid bacteria formed detectable H202 and some did not, regardless of their preference or requirement for aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Whether or not H202 was formed depended in some instances on the substrate used as energy source. Two H202-splitting activities were encountered though never in the same organism. One, named pseudo- catalase activity, was insensitive to 0.01

R. Whittenbury

1964-01-01

20

Factors influencing the production of volatile phenols by wine lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of certain factors on the production of volatile phenols from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus). The studied factors were: pH, l-malic acid concentration, glucose and fructose concentrations and aerobic\\/anaerobic conditions. It was found that, in the pH range of 3.5 to

Isa Silva; Francisco M. Campos; Tim Hogg; José António Couto

2011-01-01

21

Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Michigan Cherry Wines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors contribute to the final flavor of wine. One factor is malolactic fermentation, during which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) transform the harsh tasting malic acid into a more drinkable lactic acid in grape wine. The role of LAB in the production of cherry wine is completely unknown. The goal of this study is to identify the species of LAB

Emily Henk; Margaret Dietrich; Terri Weese

2008-01-01

22

Stress responses in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of bacteria that are traditionally used to produce fermented foods. The industrialization of food bio-transformations increased the economical importance of LAB, as they play a crucial role in the development of the organoleptique and hygienic quality of fermented products. Therefore, the reliability of starter strains in terms of quality and functional properties (important for the development of aroma and texture), but also in terms of growth performance and robustness has become essential. These strains should resist to adverse conditions encountered in industrial processes, for example during starter handling and storage (freeze-drying, freezing or spray-drying). The development of new applications such as life vaccines and probiotic foods reinforces the need for robust LAB since they may have to survive in the digestive tract, resist the intestinal flora, maybe colonize the digestive or uro-genital mucosa and express specific functions under conditions that are unfavorable to growth (for example, during stationary phase or storage). Also in nature, the ability to quickly respond to stress is essential for survival and it is now well established that LAB, like other bacteria, evolved defense mechanisms against stress that allow them to withstand harsh conditions and sudden environmental changes. While genes implicated in stress responses are numerous, in LAB the levels of characterization of their actual role and regulation differ widely between species. The functional conservation of several stress proteins (for example, HS proteins, Csp, etc) and of some of their regulators (for example, HrcA, CtsR) renders even more striking the differences that exist between LAB and the classical model micro-organisms. Among the differences observed between LAB species and B. subtilis, one of the most striking is the absence of a sigma B orthologue in L. lactis ssp. lactis as well as in at least two streptococci and probably E. faecalis. The overview of LAB stress responses also reveals common aspects of stress responses. As in other bacteria, adaptive responses appear to be a usual mode of stress protection in LAB. However, the cross-protection to other stress often induced by the expression of a given adaptive response, appears to vary between species. This observation suggests that the molecular bases of adaptive responses are, at least in part, species (or even subspecies) specific. A better understanding of the mechanisms of stress resistance should allow to understand the bases of the adaptive responses and cross protection, and to rationalize their exploitation to prepare LAB to industrial processes. Moreover, the identification of crucial stress related genes will reveal targets i) for specific manipulation (to promote or limit growth), ii) to develop tools to screen for tolerant or sensitive strains and iii) to evaluate the fitness and level of adaptation of a culture. In this context, future genome and transcriptome analyses will undoubtedly complement the proteome and genetic information available today, and shed a new light on the perception of, and the response to, stress by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:12369188

van de Guchte, Maarten; Serror, Pascale; Chervaux, Christian; Smokvina, Tamara; Ehrlich, Stanislav D; Maguin, Emmanuelle

2002-08-01

23

Identification and functional properties of dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated at different stages of solid state fermentation of cassava during traditional gari production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture-based technique was used to study the population dynamics of the bacteria and determine the dominant lactic acid bacteria\\u000a (LAB) during cassava fermentation. LAB was consistently isolated from the fermented mash with an initial viable count of 6.00 log c.f.u. g?1 observed at 12 h. The aerobic viable count of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) was higher than other group of LAB throughout\\u000a the

F. A. Oguntoyinbo

2007-01-01

24

Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA binding probes propidium iodide (PI) and TOTO-1 were tested for live\\/dead discrimination using a Lactococcus, a Streptococcus,

CHRISTINE J. BUNTHOF; KAREN BLOEMEN; PIETER BREEUWER; FRANK M. ROMBOUTS; TJAKKO ABEE

2001-01-01

25

Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.  

PubMed

Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2012-08-01

26

Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

2011-01-01

27

Comparative analysis of CRISPR loci in lactic acid bacteria genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are hypervariable loci widely distributed in bacteria and archaea, that provide acquired immunity against foreign genetic elements. Here, we investigate the occurrence of CRISPR loci in the genomes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including members of the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla. A total of 102 complete and draft genomes across 11 genera were

Philippe Horvath; Anne-Claire Coûté-Monvoisin; Dennis A. Romero; Patrick Boyaval; Christophe Fremaux; Rodolphe Barrangou

2009-01-01

28

Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.  

PubMed

Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

2014-08-29

29

Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health  

PubMed Central

Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

2014-01-01

30

Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquin J.; Oren, Aharon

1998-01-01

31

Symbionts as Major Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees  

E-print Network

Symbionts as Major Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees Alejandra Va), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33188. doi:10.1371/journal

Paxton, Robert

32

Taxonomy and physiology of probiotic lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current taxonomy of probiotic lactic acid bacteria is reviewed with special focus on the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus. The physiology and taxonomic position of species and strains of these genera were investigated by phenotypic and genomic methods. In total, 176 strains, including the type strains, have been included. Phenotypic methods applied were based on biochemical, enzymatical and physiological

Günter Klein; Alexander Pack; Christine Bonaparte; Gerhard Reuter

1998-01-01

33

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus

D. W. Schafner; R. L. Beuchat

1986-01-01

34

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

35

Polyphasic characterization of the lactic acid bacteria in kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacteria of kefir were isolated and characterized using phenotypical, biochemical, and genotypical methods. Polyphasic analyses of results permitted the identification of the microflora to the strain level. The genus Lactobacillus was represented by the species Lb. kefir and Lb. kefiranofaciens. Both subspecies of Lactococcus lactis (lactis and cremoris) were isolated. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris was also found.The

Isabelle Mainville; Normand Robert; Byong Lee; Edward R. Farnworth

2006-01-01

36

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having modified diacetyl reductase activities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having a reduced or lacking or enhanced diacetyl reductase activity, acetoin reductase activity and/or butanediol dehydrogenase activity are provided. Such bacteria are used in starter cultures in the production of food products including dairy products where it is desired to have a high content of diacetyl and for reducing or completely removing diacetyl in beverages including beers, fruit juices and certain types of wine, where the presence of diacetyl is undesired.

2002-07-02

37

Lactic acid bacteria, probiotics and immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucous membranes of the body are in direct contact with the outside environment and they are colonised by a large number of different bacteria. ?rough mucous membranes, the organism is in permanent con - tact with different antigens. Mucous surfaces are protected by many defence mechanisms that ensure a permanent and effective protection. ?ey include the production of secretory IgA,

R. HERICH; M. LEVKUT

2002-01-01

38

Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic

Aline Lonvaud-Funel

1999-01-01

39

The effect of addition of lactic acid bacteria inoculum to wheat and corn silages in Israel  

E-print Network

The effect of addition of lactic acid bacteria inoculum to wheat and corn silages in Israel Zwi under farm conditions as well. The rates of change in pH, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), lactic acid counts and the numbers of epiphytic lactic-acid bacteria on wheat plants before ensiling were studied

Boyer, Edmond

40

Isolation, screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria from traditional food fermentation processes and culture collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a search for lactic acid bacteria capable of exo?polysaccharide production or exhibiting antimicrobial or proteolytic activities. About 400 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from traditional fermented foods (sour dough, sausages, table olives, cheese and other dairy products). Together with almost 200 lactic acid bacterial strains obtained from culture collections, these strains were screened for exo?polysaccharide production, bacteriocin

Dick J. C. van den Berg; Annelies Smits; Bruno Pot; Aat M. Ledeboer; Karel Kersters; John M. A. Verbake; C. Theo Verrips

1993-01-01

41

Method for the preparation of stabile microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method to produce viable and stabile dry microorganisms for food and agricultural purposes was developed. Spray-dried, freeze-dried or liquid culture concentrates of lactic acid-producing bacteria were mixed with various bulking agents to form a homogeneous wet granulation having a water content of 35–60% (w\\/w). The wet granulation was extruded through a dye onto a spinning plate (350–500 rpm)

H. S. Kim; B. J. Kamara; I. C. Good; G. L. Enders

1988-01-01

42

Quorum sensing-controlled gene expression in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involves peptides that are directly sensed by membrane-located histidine kinases, after which the signal is transmitted to an intracellular response regulator. This regulator in turn activates transcription of target genes, that commonly include the structural gene for the inducer molecule. The two-component signal-transduction machinery has proven to be indispensable for transcription activation and

Oscar P. Kuipers; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos

1998-01-01

43

Identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeast from boza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boza is a low-alcohol beverage produced from the fermentation of barley, oats, millet, maize, wheat or rice. The number of lactic acid bacteria isolated from three boza samples ranged from 9×106 to 5×107CFU\\/mL. Carbohydrate fermentation reactions and PCR with species-specific primers classified the isolates as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum.

Angela Botes; Svetoslav D. Todorov; Johan W. von Mollendorff; Alfred Botha; Leon M. T. Dicks

2007-01-01

44

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are characterized by the following physiological and ecological features. A mother AAPB cell can unusually di- vide into 3 daughter cells and looks like a \\

Nianzhi JIAO; Michael E. Sieracki; Yao Zhang; Hailian Du

2003-01-01

45

In vaginal fluid, bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis can be suppressed with lactic acid but not hydrogen peroxide  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by vaginal lactobacilli is generally believed to protect against bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and strains of lactobacilli that can produce H2O2 are being developed as vaginal probiotics. However, evidence that led to this belief was based in part on non-physiological conditions, antioxidant-free aerobic conditions selected to maximize both production and microbicidal activity of H2O2. Here we used conditions more like those in vivo to compare the effects of physiologically plausible concentrations of H2O2 and lactic acid on a broad range of BV-associated bacteria and vaginal lactobacilli. Methods Anaerobic cultures of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria and four species of vaginal lactobacilli were exposed to H2O2, lactic acid, or acetic acid at pH 7.0 and pH 4.5. After two hours, the remaining viable bacteria were enumerated by growth on agar media plates. The effect of vaginal fluid (VF) on the microbicidal activities of H2O2 and lactic acid was also measured. Results Physiological concentrations of H2O2 (< 100 ?M) failed to inactivate any of the BV-associated bacteria tested, even in the presence of human myeloperoxidase (MPO) that increases the microbicidal activity of H2O2. At 10 mM, H2O2 inactivated all four species of vaginal lactobacilli but only one of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria. Moreover, the addition of just 1% vaginal fluid (VF) blocked the microbicidal activity of 1 M H2O2. In contrast, lactic acid at physiological concentrations (55-111 mM) and pH (4.5) inactivated all the BV-associated bacteria tested, and had no detectable effect on the vaginal lactobacilli. Also, the addition of 10% VF did not block the microbicidal activity of lactic acid. Conclusions Under optimal, anaerobic growth conditions, physiological concentrations of lactic acid inactivated BV-associated bacteria without affecting vaginal lactobacilli, whereas physiological concentrations of H2O2 produced no detectable inactivation of either BV-associated bacteria or vaginal lactobacilli. Moreover, at very high concentrations, H2O2 was more toxic to vaginal lactobacilli than to BV-associated bacteria. On the basis of these in vitro observations, we conclude that lactic acid, not H2O2, is likely to suppress BV-associated bacteria in vivo. PMID:21771337

2011-01-01

46

Contribution of lactic acid bacteria to flavour compound formation in dairy products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheese flavour cannot be produced without starter bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria convert lactose to lactic acid and this together with their production of diacetyl and acetaldehyde are their main contributions to the flavour of cultured milks and fresh cheeses. In matured cheeses, the starter bacteria die out quickly and the rate at which they lyse and release their enzymes into

G. Urbach

1995-01-01

47

Lactic acid bacteria and health: are probiotics safe for human?  

PubMed

The effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on human health has been examined for many years. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed the beneficial activity of some exogenous lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of rotaviral infection, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics support the action of the intestinal microflora and exhibit a favorable modulatory effect on the host's immune system. However, it should be remembered that relatively harmless lactobacilli can occasionally induce opportunistic infections. Due to reaching almost 20 x 1012 probiotic doses per year which contain live cultures of bacteria, it is essential to monitor the safety aspect of their administration. In recent years, infections caused by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium made up 0.05% to 0.4% of cases of endocarditis and bacteremia. In most cases, the infections were caused by endogenous microflora of the host or bacterial strains colonizing the host's oral cavity. According to a review of cases of infections caused by bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus from 2005 (collected by J.P. Cannot'a), 1.7% of infections have been linked directly with intensive dairy probiotic consumption by patients. Additionally, due to the lack of a precise description of most individuals' eating habits, the possible effect of probiotics on infection development definitively should not be ruled out. The present paper describes cases of diseases caused by lactic acid bacteria, a potential mechanism for the adverse action of bacteria, and the possible hazard connected with probiotic supplementation for seriously ill and hospitalized patients. PMID:25404621

Kubiszewska, Izabela; Januszewska, Milena; Rybka, Joanna; Gackowska, Lidia

2014-01-01

48

Soil and Sediment Bacteria Capable of Aerobic Nitrate Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence ofoxygen,althoughthephysiologicaladvantagegainedfromthisprocessisnotentirelyclear.Thecontribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. As afirst step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been developed.

JON P. CARTER; YA HSIN HSIAO; STEPHEN SPIRO; ANDDAVID J. RICHARDSON

1995-01-01

49

Degradation of fructans by epiphytic and inoculated lactic acid bacteria during ensilage of normal and sterile ryegrass  

E-print Network

Degradation of fructans by epiphytic and inoculated lactic acid bacteria during ensilage of normal is readily available for fermentation in the silo by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and other silage bacteria of whether microbial fructan hydrolase activity, particularly in lactic acid bacteria, is a prerequisite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Engineering strategies aimed at control of acidification rate of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of lactic acid bacteria to produce lactic acid from various sugars plays an important role in food fermentations. Lactic acid is derived from pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis and thus a fast lactic acid production rate requires a high glycolytic flux. In addition to lactic acid, alternative end products--ethanol, acetic acid and formic acid--are formed by many species. The central role of glycolysis in lactic acid bacteria has provoked numerous studies aiming at identifying potential bottleneck(s) since knowledge about flux control could be important not only for optimizing food fermentation processes, but also for novel applications of lactic acid bacteria, such as cell factories for the production of green fuels and chemicals. With respect to the control and regulation of the fermentation mode, some progress has been made, but the question of which component(s) control the main glycolytic flux remains unanswered. PMID:23266099

Martinussen, Jan; Solem, Christian; Holm, Anders Koefoed; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

2013-04-01

51

Surface Binding of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Specific lactic acid bacterial strains remove toxins from liquid media by physical binding. The stability of the aflatoxin B1 complexes formed with 12 bacterial strains in both viable and nonviable (heat- or acid-treated) forms was assessed by repetitive aqueous extraction. By the fifth extraction, up to 71% of the total aflatoxin B1 remained bound. Nonviable bacteria retained the highest amount of aflatoxin B1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and L. rhamnosus strain LC-705 (DSM 7061) removed aflatoxin B1 from solution most efficiently and were selected for further study. The accessibility of bound aflatoxin B1 to an antibody in an indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay suggests that surface components of these bacteria are involved in binding. Further evidence is the recovery of around 90% of the bound aflatoxin from the bacteria by solvent extraction. Autoclaving and sonication did not release any detectable aflatoxin B1. Variation in temperature (4 to 37°C) and pH (2 to 10) did not have any significant effect on the amount of aflatoxin B1 released. Binding of aflatoxin B1 appears to be predominantly extracellular for viable and heat-treated bacteria. Acid treatment may permit intracellular binding. In all cases, binding is of a reversible nature, but the stability of the complexes formed depends on strain, treatment, and environmental conditions. PMID:11425726

Haskard, Carolyn A.; El-Nezami, Hani S.; Kankaanpää, Pasi E.; Salminen, Seppo; Ahokas, Jorma T.

2001-01-01

52

Genomic reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Genome scale annotation of regulatory interactions and reconstruction of regulatory networks are the crucial problems in bacterial genomics. The Lactobacillales order of bacteria collates various microorganisms having a large economic impact, including both human and animal pathogens and strains used in the food industry. Nonetheless, no systematic genome-wide analysis of transcriptional regulation has been previously made for this taxonomic group. Results A comparative genomics approach was used for reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in 30 selected genomes of lactic acid bacteria. The inferred networks comprise regulons for 102 orthologous transcription factors (TFs), including 47 novel regulons for previously uncharacterized TFs. Numerous differences between regulatory networks of the Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae groups were described on several levels. The two groups are characterized by substantially different sets of TFs encoded in their genomes. Content of the inferred regulons and structure of their cognate TF binding motifs differ for many orthologous TFs between the two groups. Multiple cases of non-orthologous displacements of TFs that control specific metabolic pathways were reported. Conclusions The reconstructed regulatory networks substantially expand the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in lactic acid bacteria. In each of 30 studied genomes the obtained regulatory network contains on average 36 TFs and 250 target genes that are mostly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, metal homeostasis and amino acids biosynthesis. The inferred networks can be used for genetic experiments, functional annotations of genes, metabolic reconstruction and evolutionary analysis. All reconstructed regulons are captured within the Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae collections in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). PMID:23398941

2013-01-01

53

Bioprotective potential of lactic acid bacteria in malting and brewing.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are naturally associated with many foods or their raw ingredients and are popularly used in food fermentation to enhance the sensory, aromatic, and textural properties of food. These microorganisms are well recognized for their biopreservative properties, which are achieved through the production of antimicrobial compounds such as lactic acid, diacetyl, bacteriocins, and other metabolites. The antifungal activity of certain LAB is less well characterized, but organic acids, as yet uncharacterized proteinaceous compounds, and cyclic dipeptides can inhibit the growth of some fungi. A variety of microbes are carried on raw materials used in beer brewing, rendering the process susceptible to contamination and often resulting in spoilage or inferior quality of the finished product. The application of antimicrobial-producing LAB at various points in the malting and brewing process could help to negate this problem, providing an added hurdle for spoilage organisms to overcome and leading to the production of a higher quality beer. This review outlines the bioprotective potential of LAB and its application with specific reference to the brewing industry. PMID:18724772

Rouse, Susan; van Sinderen, Douwe

2008-08-01

54

Probiotic lactic acid bacteria detoxify N-nitrosodimethylamine.  

PubMed

Humans can be exposed to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) due to many environmental sources, as well as endogenous formation. The main nitrosamine found in food products and also synthesised in vivo by intestinal microbiota is N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). It can cause cancer of the stomach, kidney and colon. The effect of four probiotic Lactobacillus strains on NDMA was studied under different culture conditions (24 h in MRS, 168 h in modified MRS N, and 168 h in phosphate buffer). HPLC and GC-TEA methods were used for NDMA determination in supernatants. The influence of lactic acid bacteria on NDMA genotoxicity was investigated by means of the comet assay. Additionally, the effect of NDMA (2-100 µg ml(-1)) on the growth and survival of the probiotic strains was studied. The results indicate that the bacteria decreased NDMA concentration by up to 50%, depending on the culture conditions, time of incubation, NDMA concentration, pH and bacterial strain. Lb. brevis 0945 lowered the concentration and genotoxicity of NDMA most effectively by up to 50%. This could be due to either adsorption or metabolism. The growth and survival of the bacteria was not affected by any of the tested NDMA concentrations. PMID:25010287

Nowak, Adriana; Kuberski, S?awomir; Libudzisz, Zdzis?awa

2014-10-01

55

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process. PMID:21092306

2010-01-01

56

Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is a complex assemblage of glycopolymers and proteins. It consists of a thick peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and that is decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. It plays a major role in bacterial physiology since it maintains cell shape and integrity during growth and division; in addition, it acts as the interface between the bacterium and its environment. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are traditionally and widely used to ferment food, and they are also the subject of more and more research because of their potential health-related benefits. It is now recognized that understanding the composition, structure, and properties of LAB cell walls is a crucial part of developing technological and health applications using these bacteria. In this review, we examine the different components of the Gram-positive cell wall: peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. We present recent findings regarding the structure and function of these complex compounds, results that have emerged thanks to the tandem development of structural analysis and whole genome sequencing. Although general structures and biosynthesis pathways are conserved among Gram-positive bacteria, studies have revealed that LAB cell walls demonstrate unique properties; these studies have yielded some notable, fundamental, and novel findings. Given the potential of this research to contribute to future applied strategies, in our discussion of the role played by cell wall components in LAB physiology, we pay special attention to the mechanisms controlling bacterial autolysis, bacterial sensitivity to bacteriophages and the mechanisms underlying interactions between probiotic bacteria and their hosts. PMID:25186919

2014-01-01

57

Lactic Acid Bacteria Convert Human Fibroblasts to Multipotent Cells  

PubMed Central

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a vast community of symbionts and commensals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form a group of related, low-GC-content, gram-positive bacteria that are considered to offer a number of probiotic benefits to general health. While the role of LAB in gastrointestinal microecology has been the subject of extensive study, little is known about how commensal prokaryotic organisms directly influence eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate the generation of multipotential cells from adult human dermal fibroblast cells by incorporating LAB. LAB-incorporated cell clusters are similar to embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells and can differentiate into endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal cells in vivo and in vitro. LAB-incorporated cell clusters express a set of genes associated with multipotency, and microarray analysis indicates a remarkable increase of NANOG, a multipotency marker, and a notable decrease in HOX gene expression in LAB-incorporated cells. During the cell culture, the LAB-incorporated cell clusters stop cell division and start to express early senescence markers without cell death. Thus, LAB-incorporated cell clusters have potentially wide-ranging implications for cell generation, reprogramming, and cell-based therapy. PMID:23300571

Ohta, Kunimasa; Kawano, Rie; Ito, Naofumi

2012-01-01

58

Effect of aflatoxin B-1 on the proteolytic activity of some lactic-acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The proteolytic activity of five (ATCC) strains of lactic acid bacteria were investigated in the presence of different concentrations of aflatoxin B-1. The presented data revealed that aflatoxin in milk can affect the lactic acid bacteria which are used in the manufacture of dairy products. Such effect depends on toxin concentration and the species of lactic acid bacteria. This investigation is of practical value because it may explain the effect which occurs during cheese manufacture. This defect can be characterized by off flavour which can be very undesirable for a ripened cheese. PMID:6429542

Mohran, M A; Megalla, S E; Said, M R

1984-05-30

59

The Benefits of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Yogurt on the Gastrointestinal Function and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The nutritional value of yogurt and Lactic Acid-producing Bacteria (LAB) on the gastrointestinal health and function, have been investigated in this study. Both Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (LAB) species, contribute to the formation of yogurt as a result of anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid in the milk. The present study focuses on the effect of yogurt consumption

Ayman Suliman Mazahreh; Omer Turki Mamdoh Ershidat

2009-01-01

60

Aerobic Respiration in the Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group of Gram-positive bacteria is a major phylum of prokaryotes, including several typical saprophytic aerobes. Their\\u000a respiratory chains are apparently similar to those of eukaryotic mitochondria, but in several points are different from them.\\u000a The respiratory chain of Gram-positives, like many bacteria, contains branched electron transfer pathways, usually 1-3 heme-Cu\\u000a oxidases, but SoxB-type cytochrome c oxidases (cytochrome b(a\\/o)3) are

Nobhuito Sone; Cecilia Hagerhall; Junshi Sakamoto

61

Short communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation with  

E-print Network

Kimchi is a fermented vegetable product made of various vegetables such as Chinese cabbage, radishShort communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation microbial diversity and biological activity during the fermentation of kimchi, a traditional Korean

Bae, Jin-Woo

62

Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria of kefir grains.  

PubMed

A Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1 strain with high exopolysaccharide activity was selected from among 40 strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains. By associating the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1 strain with Streptococcus thermophilus T15, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C15, Lactobacillus helveticus MP12, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae A13, a kefir starter was formed. The associated cultivation of the lactobacteria and yeast had a positive effect on the exopolysaccharide activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1. The maximum exopolysaccharide concentration of the starter culture exceeded the one by the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1 monoculture by approximately 1.7 times, and the time needed to reach the maximum concentration (824.3 mg exopolysacharides/l) was shortened by 6 h. The monomer composition of the exopolysaccharides from the kefir starter culture was represented by glucose and galactose in a 1.0:0.94 ratio, which proves that the polymer synthesized is kefiran. PMID:12440716

Frengova, Ginka I; Simova, Emilina D; Beshkova, Dora M; Simov, Zhelyasko I

2002-01-01

63

Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

2014-01-01

64

Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.  

PubMed

The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed. PMID:25170152

Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

2014-08-29

65

Systems biology of lactic acid bacteria: a critical review  

PubMed Central

Understanding the properties of a system as emerging from the interaction of well described parts is the most important goal of Systems Biology. Although in the practice of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) physiology we most often think of the parts as the proteins and metabolites, a wider interpretation of what a part is can be useful. For example, different strains or species can be the parts of a community, or we could study only the chemical reactions as the parts of metabolism (and forgetting about the enzymes that catalyze them), as is done in flux balance analysis. As long as we have some understanding of the properties of these parts, we can investigate whether their interaction leads to novel or unanticipated behaviour of the system that they constitute. There has been a tendency in the Systems Biology community to think that the collection and integration of data should continue ad infinitum, or that we will otherwise not be able to understand the systems that we study in their details. However, it may sometimes be useful to take a step back and consider whether the knowledge that we already have may not explain the system behaviour that we find so intriguing. Reasoning about systems can be difficult, and may require the application of mathematical techniques. The reward is sometimes the realization of unexpected conclusions, or in the worst case, that we still do not know enough details of the parts, or of the interactions between them. We will discuss a number of cases, with a focus on LAB-related work, where a typical systems approach has brought new knowledge or perspective, often counterintuitive, and clashing with conclusions from simpler approaches. Also novel types of testable hypotheses may be generated by the systems approach, which we will illustrate. Finally we will give an outlook on the fields of research where the systems approach may point the way for the near future. PMID:21995498

2011-01-01

66

Animal rennets as sources of dairy lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions. PMID:24441167

Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

2014-04-01

67

Animal Rennets as Sources of Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions. PMID:24441167

Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L.; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

68

Predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk products in the Sichuan Province  

E-print Network

. Yak milk is a highly nutritious product rich in fat, protein, essential minerals, and healthyNOTE Predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk products in the Sichuan bacteria (LAB) were obtained by traditional pure culture method and all strains were identified to species

Boyer, Edmond

69

Evaluation of Cathra system for identifying gram negative aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Cathra system is a commercial multipoint inoculation method for the identification of aerobic Gram negative bacteria. The system uses a replicator technique in which 21 different agar media can be inoculated simultaneously with 36 organisms. Identifications are made by use of a special computer database. The performance of this system was compared with that of the API 20E for the identification of 372 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and 133 miscellaneous Gram negative bacteria. For enterobacteria, the Cathra system was in 97% agreement with API 20E at species level and 98% at genus level. For miscellaneous Gram negative strains the two systems were in 59% agreement at species level and 77% at genus level. The Cathra system is suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories, especially those with a heavy workload and a wish to use break-point sensitivity testing. The identification database for miscellaneous Gram negative organisms, however, needs to be expanded. PMID:2199538

Ling, J M; Zhang, L C; Hui, Y W; French, G L

1990-01-01

70

Effect of inoculating lactic acid bacteria starter cultures on the nitrite concentration of fermenting Chinese paocai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Chinese paocai (a type of mildly salted and lactic acid fermented vegetable) were studied for their ability to deplete nitrite during fermentation. Lactobacillus pentosus, Lb. plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lb. brevis, Lb. lactis, Lb. fermentum depleted 99.6%, 99.3%, 99.2%, 97.0%, 98.5% and 98.8% of the initial nitrite present in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS)

Ping-Mei Yan; Wen-Tong Xue; Sze-Sze Tan; Hui Zhang; Xiao-Hui Chang

2008-01-01

71

Use of virginiamycin to control the growth of lactic acid bacteria during alcohol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The antibiotic virginiamycin was investigated for its effects on growth and lactic acid production by seven strains of lactobacilli\\u000a during the alcoholic fermentation of wheat mash by yeast. The lowest concentration of virginiamycin tested (0.5?mg Lactrol\\u000a TMkg?1 mash), was effective against most of the lactic acid bacteria under study, but Lactobacillus plantarum was not significantly inhibited at this concentration. The

S H Hynes; D M Kjarsgaard; K C Thomas; W M Ingledew

1997-01-01

72

Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.  

PubMed

During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals. PMID:12238371

Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

2002-07-01

73

Cell wall component and mycotoxin moieties involved in the binding of fumonisin B1 and B2 by lactic acid bacteria  

E-print Network

@clermont.inra.fr KEYWORDS binding ; bioavailability ; detoxification ; fumonisins ; lactic acid bacteria ; peptidoglycan ; probiotics ABSTRACT Aims: The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to bind fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1, FB2, respectively, involved in the binding interaction. Significance and Impact of the Study: Lactic acid bacteria

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

A polyphasic approach in order to identify dominant lactic acid bacteria during pasta manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a polyphasic approach, we have isolated and identified, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in samples directly collected from an artisanal pasta-making manufactory located in Puglia (South Italy). Samples were collected during several steps of pasta processing and LAB were isolated on MRS and M17 plates. Furthermore, strains were grouped in a total of eight species by means of randomly amplified

P. Russo; R. Beleggia; S. Ferrer; I. Pardo; G. Spano

2010-01-01

75

Survival of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Stomach and Adhesion to Intestinal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of four strains of lactic acid bacteria in human gastric juice, in vivo and in vitro, and in buffered saline, pH 1 to 5, has been investigated. The strains studied include two Lactobacillus acidophilus strains, Lactobacillus bul- garicus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. In addition, the adhesion of these strains to freshly collected human and pig small intestinal cells and

P. L. Conway; S. L. Gorbach; B. R. Goldin

1987-01-01

76

Isolation and Selection of Anti-Candida albicans Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from various fermented foods. The cross streak plate method was used to preliminary screen for antimicrobial activity. LAB were isolated by selective medium, Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS). Most of the isolates showed inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 517, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Escherichia coli TISTR 887,

Monthon LERTCANAWANICHAKUL

77

Probiotic properties of lactic-acid bacteria: plenty of scope for fundamental R & D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic products are marketed widely throughout the world. This is especially true of yogurts that contain strains of lactic-acid bacteria of intestinal origin. Consumption of these products is aimed at promoting the wellbeing of the consumer by impacting on the collection of microorganisms that normally inhabit the intestinal tract. The development of scientifically valid probiotics requires more detailed knowledge of

Gerald W Tannock

1997-01-01

78

RELATIONSHIP OF RUMEN GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA AND FREE ENDOTOXIN TO LACTIC ACIDOSIS IN CATTLE x  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Feeding grain to animals not adapted to grain resulted in a marked increase in the .\\/ . concentration of free endotoxln m the rumen. Endotoxin concentration increased 15 to 18 times within 12 hr after lactic acidosis was induced through grain engorgement. The increase was accompanied by a shift from predominantly gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria. Data from in vitro

T. G. Nagaraja; E. E. Bartley; L. R. Fina; H. D. Anthony

2010-01-01

79

Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for improvements in food safety and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for centuries in the fermentation of a variety of dairy products. The preservative ability of LAB in foods is attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites including organic acids and bacteriocins. Bacteriocins generally exert their anti-microbial action by interfering with the cell wall or the membrane of target organisms, either by inhibiting cell

L O’Sullivan; R. P Ross; C Hill

2002-01-01

80

Survival of probiotic bacteria during lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general objective of this research was to perform the lactic acid fermentative processes using different probiotic bacteria species unspecific to epiphytic microbiota of vegetables, with a view to achieve new knowledge concerning the possibility of developing and preservation their viability in vegetable juices. The carrots and the red beet were evaluated as potential substrat for the production of probiotic

Carmen Leane Nicolescu; Daniela Avram; Magda Gabriela; Bratu Iuliana Manea

81

Functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented vegetables of the Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 94 strains of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from ethnic fermented vegetables and tender bamboo shoots of the Himalayas, were screened for functional properties such as acidification capacity, enzymatic activities, degradation of antinutritive factors and oligosaccharides, production of biogenic amines, hydrophobicity and adherence to mucus secreting HT29 MTX cells. Strong acidification and coagulation activities of LAB

Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Buddhiman Tamang; Ulrich Schillinger; Claudia Guigas; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

2009-01-01

82

Improved screening procedure for biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved screening plate method for the detection of amino acid decarboxylase-positive microorganisms (especially lactic acid bacteria) was developed. The suitability and detection level of the designed medium were quantitatively evaluated by confirmation of amine-forming capacity using an HPLC procedure. The potential to produce the biogenic amines (BA) tyramine, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine, was investigated in a wide number of

Sara Bover-Cid; Wilhelm Heinrich Holzapfel

1999-01-01

83

Characterization of Proteolytic Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures on Thai Fermented Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of starter culture addition on proteolysis of Thai fermented sausages. Sausages inoculated with six different external starter cultures—Pediococcus pentosaceous, Pediococcus acidilactici, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei—were compared with naturally fermented sausages. The results of microbiological analysis indicated that the dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could

Wiramsri Sriphochanart; Wanwisa Skolpap

2010-01-01

84

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria used to improve cheese quality and provide health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) dominate cheese microbiota during ripening. They tolerate the hostile environment well and strongly influence the biochemistry of curd maturation, contributing to the development of the final characteristics of cheese. Several NSLAB are selected on the basis of their health benefits (enhancement of intestinal probiosis, production of bioactive peptides, generation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and inactivation of

Luca Settanni; Giancarlo Moschetti

2010-01-01

85

Ecology of lactic acid bacteria in Italian fermented sausages: isolation, identification and molecular characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ecology of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of three naturally fermented sausages produced in the Friuli-Venezia-Giulia region, in the North East of Italy, was investigated. A total of 465 strains isolated from three fermentations were identified by molecular methods and 12 different species of LAB were detected. Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sakei were the most numerous

Rosalinda Urso; Giuseppe Comi; Luca Cocolin

2006-01-01

86

Isolation, characterisation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from bushera: a Ugandan traditional fermented beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and thirteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were selected from 351 isolates from 15 samples of traditionally fermented household bushera from Uganda and also from laboratory-prepared bushera. Isolates were phenotypically characterised by their ability to ferment 49 carbohydrates using API 50 CHL kits and additional biochemical tests. Coliforms, yeasts and LAB were enumerated in bushera. The pH,

C. M. B. K. Muyanja; J. A. Narvhus; J. Treimo; T. Langsrud

2003-01-01

87

Synthesis of  -Aminobutyric Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Variety of Italian Cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 22 Italian cheese varieties that differ in several technological traits markedly varied from 0.26 to 391 mg kg1. Presumptive lactic acid bacteria were isolated from each cheese variety (total of 440 isolates) and screened for the capacity to synthesize GABA. Only 61 isolates showed this activity and were identified by partial sequencing of

S. Siragusa; M. De Angelis; R. Di Cagno; C. G. Rizzello; R. Coda; M. Gobbetti

2007-01-01

88

Enhancing stability of lactic acid bacteria and probiotics by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus in fermented milks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There is a need to improve stability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and probiotics in fermented milks especially at elevated temperatures. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of yeast Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus on stability of LAB and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus in fermented milks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Fermented milks were made from reconstituted whole milk

Shao-Quan Liu; Marlene Tsao

2010-01-01

89

Disease-Dependent Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to the Human Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Peter J. Roberts; Jari Ovaska; Eeva Salminen

2003-01-01

90

An improved method for the electrotransformation of lactic acid bacteria: A comparative survey.  

PubMed

An efficient method for genetic transformation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by electroporation is presented in this work. A comparative survey with other electrotransformation methods already published showed that the method proposed here yields the higher electrotransformation efficiency in the 12 LAB strains tested, which could make the method applicable to other LAB species or genera. PMID:25086179

Landete, José M; Arqués, Juan L; Peirotén, Angela; Langa, Susana; Medina, Margarita

2014-10-01

91

Rapid and sensitive in situ hybridization method for detecting and identifying lactic acid bacteria in wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and sensitivein situhybridization method, using total genomic DNA probes, can specifically detect and identify the lactic acid bacteria in wine. The total genomic DNA probes were labelled with digoxygenin (DIG) by random priming and hybridized with the genomic DNA of the bacteria to be identified. The hybrids were detected with fluorescent anti-DIG Fab-fragments or with enzyme-conjugated anti-DIG Fab-fragments.

D Sohier; A Lonvaud-Funel

1998-01-01

92

Development and PFGE monitoring of dominance among spoilage lactic acid bacteria from cured meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from intact vacuum-packaged cured meats obtained at retail, were subjected to single inhibitory factor and mixed-culture dominance tests during challenge with different conditions of pH and temperature in the presence of NaCl and NaNO2to study reasons for strain dominance. Bacteria were checked for bacteriocin production. Both initial pH and temperature had a significant

Guopeng Zhang; Richard A Holley

1999-01-01

93

Genetic screening of lactic acid bacteria of oenological origin for bacteriocin-encoding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 330 lactic acid bacteria isolated from South African red wines during alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and 9 commercial malolactic bacteria starter cultures were screened for antimicrobial activity. Of the entire screened isolates, 26 strains, belonging to the species Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Oenococcus oeni, showed activity towards various wine-related and non-wine-related indicator strains. A

Caroline Knoll; Benoit Divol; Maret du Toit

2008-01-01

94

Precipitation of Dolomite in Aerobic Culture Experiments Using Halophilic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of carbonate biomineralization in hypersaline environments provides information about the key role microorganisms have played in global carbon cycling, especially in the Precambrian. Recently, a microbial dolomite model was proposed based on the study of a hypersaline coastal lagoon, Lagoa Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This model suggests that sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate dolomite precipitation by increasing pH and removing the sulfate inhibitor. The anoxic conditions of this system may not, however, apply to all ancient dolomite formation. Dolomite is an abundant carbonate mineral found widespread in the geological record in a variety of environmental settings. Thus, a single microbial dolomite model probably cannot explain its widespread distribution and a broad spectrum of conditions may be linked with its formation. In contrast to Lagoa Vermelha, Brejo do Espinho, a shallow hypersaline lagoon located in the same region, is a dolomite-forming environment with oxic bottom conditions. The sediment comprises primarily high Mg-calcite and Ca-dolomite. Heterotrophic microorganisms have been isolated from algal mats growing in Brejo do Espinho, and biomineralization experiments have been conducted at variable temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40° C) and salinities (sea water and 2x seawater) to simulate the natural environmental conditions. After a 20-day incubation period, several aerobic culture experiments have crystal growth of Ca-dolomite and high Mg-calcite. Our study demonstrates that, under aerobic conditions, heterotrophic microorganisms can mediate dolomite precipitation. These results indicate that microbial dolomite precipitation is not necessarily linked to any particular group of organisms or specific metabolic processes or even a specific environment, i.e., it is not exclusively an anoxic mineral but can be precipitated in the presence of oxygen. This has implications for the distribution of dolomite in the geologic record.

Roman, M. S.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

2003-12-01

95

Organism-Adapted Specificity of the Allosteric Regulation of Pyruvate Kinase in Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate kinase (PYK) is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric activation may reflect adaptation to different environments with different concentrations of activating compounds. The combined computational approach employed can readily be applied to other enzymes. PMID:23946717

Veith, Nadine; Feldman-Salit, Anna; Cojocaru, Vlad; Henrich, Stefan; Kummer, Ursula; Wade, Rebecca C.

2013-01-01

96

Effects of Lactic Acid-Forming Bacteria on Vibrio comma Inoculated into Intestinal Segments of Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Hattori, H. (Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), H. Misawa, I. Igarashi, and Y. Sugiya. Effects of lactic acid-forming bacteria on Vibrio comma inoculated into intestinal segments of rabbits. J. Bacteriol. 90:541–545. 1965.—Mixed inocula of Vibrio comma KC-4 and various lactic acid-forming bacteria were injected into the intestinal segments of rabbits (De and Chatterje, 1953) to observe the effects of the latter agents in altering the changes produced by strain KC-4. The animals were sacrificed 10 and 20 hr after inoculation. The inoculated intestinal segments were first examined grossly, and the amount of exudate in the segments, if any, was measured, after which the tissues were subjected to pathological examination. When KC-4 cells together with spore-bearing lactic acid-forming bacilli, strain P-22, or Lactobacillus casei were introduced, the intestinal segments showed few or no macroscopic and microscopic changes, and no accumulation of exudate. With mixed inoculation with lactic acid bacteria such as L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, Streptococcus lactis, and S. faecalis, changes were produced by strain KC-4. Macroscopically, no difference was discernible between the changes caused by mixed inoculation and those produced by single inoculation of KC-4. Upon pathological examination, however, it was seen that changes resulting from mixed inoculation were slightly less severe than those produced by inoculation with strain KC-4 only. Images PMID:14329471

Hattori, Zenpachiro; Misawa, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Isamu; Sugiya, Yukio

1965-01-01

97

Influence of aflatoxin B1 on gas production by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The main characteristic of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria is that they do not produce gas from glucose and other sugars. However, in these experiments Lactobacillus casei, Lb. plantarum and Streptococcus lactis in broth media with glucose, galactose, lactose and sucrose, and aflatoxin B1 produces acid and also a significant amount of gas. In the control media without aflatoxin, these bacteria did not produce gas. The data suggest that lactic acid bacteria, known until now as homofermentative, become heterofermentative because of the influence of aflatoxin B1. The results of these investigations are of practical value because they may explain the defect of cheese "blowing," which can appear in Trapist cheese vacuum packed in foil. This type of unusual "blowing" occurs approximately one month after cheese manufacture. This defect can be characterized by very large holes and cracks inside the cheese. The flavor is similar to that of young cheese, which can be very undesirable for a ripened, Trapist, aged cheese. PMID:2123930

Suti?, M; Banina, A

1990-01-01

98

High Abundances of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria in the South Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the abundance, distribution, and ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, particularly in oligotrophic environments, which represent 60% of the ocean. We investigated the abundance of AAP bacteria across the South Pacific Ocean, including the center of the gyre, the most oligotrophic water body of the world ocean. AAP bacteria, Prochlorococcus, and total prokaryotic abundances, as

Raphael Lami; Matthew T. Cottrell; Josephine Ras; Osvaldo Ulloa; Ingrid Obernosterer; H. Claustre; D. L. Kirchman; P. Lebaron

2007-01-01

99

Determination of some characteristics coccoid forms of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish kefirs with natural probiotic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a total of 21 coccoid forms of lactic acid bacteria (lactococci) were isolated from Turkish kefir samples. As a result of the identification tests, 21 lactococci isolates were identified as Lactococcus cremoris (11 strains), Lactococcus lactis (4 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (3 strains) and Streptococcus durans (3 strains). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity,

Z. N Yüksekda?; Y Beyatli; B Aslim

2004-01-01

100

Preliminary studies on the microbiological characterization of lactic acid bacteria in suero costeño, a Colombian traditional fermented milk product.  

PubMed

Suero costeño is a fermented milk product from the Colombian Atlantic coast, which is produced by the spontaneous acidification of raw milk due to the action of environmental microbes during traditional and semi-industrial processes. Eleven fermentations were carried out in experimental settings replicating traditional conditions and changes in concentration among microbial groups involved during the process (Aerobic Mesophilic bacteria, Yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)). LAB plays an important role in the fermentation process, especially during the final stage (24 hours). In addition, yeasts seem to have an effect on fermentation, showing an increase during the first hours of the process, while Enterobacterial counts decreased during fermentation. Thirty six LAB strains were isolated from commercial samples and thirty two were identified using the API 50 CH kit (BioMCrieux). 41% of the strains identified belonged to the species Lb. plantarum, and 19% were Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei. Sugars fermented by LAB include milk carbohydrates such as D-Lactose, D-Glucose and D-Galactose. Because of their capacity to use other carbohydrates (manose, celobiose, maltose, fructose, ribose, trehalose, salicin, gentiobiose), it would also be possible to use these strains as starter cultures for other fermentations. PMID:18693547

Cueto, C; García, D; Garcés, F; Cruz, J

2007-01-01

101

Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin12 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G) commensals, such as members of the family Entero- bacteriaceae, may, however, be immunomodulators that are as important as G organisms but tend to be overlooked.

Louise Hjerrild Zeuthen; Hanne Risager Christensen; H. Frokiaer

2006-01-01

102

Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

2013-01-01

103

The catalytic mechanism for aerobic formation of methane by bacteria.  

PubMed

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that is produced in significant quantities by aerobic marine organisms. These bacteria apparently catalyse the formation of methane through the cleavage of the highly unreactive carbon-phosphorus bond in methyl phosphonate (MPn), but the biological or terrestrial source of this compound is unclear. However, the ocean-dwelling bacterium Nitrosopumilus maritimus catalyses the biosynthesis of MPn from 2-hydroxyethyl phosphonate and the bacterial C-P lyase complex is known to convert MPn to methane. In addition to MPn, the bacterial C-P lyase complex catalyses C-P bond cleavage of many alkyl phosphonates when the environmental concentration of phosphate is low. PhnJ from the C-P lyase complex catalyses an unprecedented C-P bond cleavage reaction of ribose-1-phosphonate-5-phosphate to methane and ribose-1,2-cyclic-phosphate-5-phosphate. This reaction requires a redox-active [4Fe-4S]-cluster and S-adenosyl-L-methionine, which is reductively cleaved to L-methionine and 5'-deoxyadenosine. Here we show that PhnJ is a novel radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine enzyme that catalyses C-P bond cleavage through the initial formation of a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical and two protein-based radicals localized at Gly?32 and Cys?272. During this transformation, the pro-R hydrogen from Gly?32 is transferred to the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical to form 5'-deoxyadenosine and the pro-S hydrogen is transferred to the radical intermediate that ultimately generates methane. A comprehensive reaction mechanism is proposed for cleavage of the C-P bond by the C-P lyase complex that uses a covalent thiophosphate intermediate for methane and phosphate formation. PMID:23615610

Kamat, Siddhesh S; Williams, Howard J; Dangott, Lawrence J; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Raushel, Frank M

2013-05-01

104

Rapid PCR-based procedure to identify lactic acid bacteria: application to six common Lactobacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a method allowing rapid identification of the lactic acid bacteria strains in use in the laboratory (Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826; L. fermentum KLD; L. reuteri 100-23; L. salivarius UCC43321; L. paracasei LbTGS1.4; L. casei ATCC393), based on PCR amplification of 16S RNA coding sequences. First, specific forward oligonucleotides were designed in the variable

Patrice Chagnaud; Kalotina Machinis; Armelle Marecat; Annick Mercenier

2001-01-01

105

New Procedure for the Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Vegetables Producing Antibacterial Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in antibacterial-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as protective cultures on ready-to-use vegetables. A new procedure for detection of active strains has been developed, which consisted of anaerobic incubation (30 °C, 2 d) of juice of ‘i ceberglettuce’ on MRS agar or lactose-bromcresol purple (LBP) agar followed by overlaying with the indicator strain in soft agar

Rosario Gómez; Marina Muñoz; Begoña de Ancos; M. Pilar Cano

2002-01-01

106

Inoculation of beef with lactic-acid bacteria prior to vacuum packaging  

E-print Network

- acteristics could be used in identification of lactic-acid bacteria: (1) Gram stain, (2) catalase test, (3) end-prod- ucts of carbohydrate fermentation and (4) a test to indi- cate whether the organism is homofermentative or heterofer- mentative. CHAPTER...-stain, reaction of catalase and benzadine tests and colony morphology. Retail Displa Evaluation After pH measurements were obtained, 3 steaks from each organism x inoculation level x storage interval treat- ment were placed in styrofoam trays and overwrapped...

Hall, Lester Cedric

2012-06-07

107

Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolating From Blue Mouldy Tulum Cheese Produced With Penicillium Roqueforti  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 228 lactic acid bacteria colonies were isolated from blue moldy Tulum cheese inoculated withPenicillium roquefortialong with the ripening (4 months). Three different medias (PCA, MRS or M17 agar) were used for isolation, while two API tests were used for identification of LAB. As a result, Enterococcussp. (53.3%) andLactobacillus sp.(26.7%) was found as dominant flora at end of

Ahmet Erdogan; Mustafa Gurses

2005-01-01

108

Modeling lactic acid bacteria growth in vacuum-packaged cooked meat emulsions stored at three temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three storage temperatures on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in cooked meat emulsions packaged in low oxygen permeability film was investigated. Bacterial counts at 0°C, 8°C and 15°C were fitted to the Gompertz equation and the maximum specific growth rate (?) was obtained as derived parameter, this value being maximal at 15°C (1.16 days?1). Arrhenius

Mar??a Elisa Cayré; Graciela Vignolo; Oscar Garro

2003-01-01

109

Modeling lactic acid bacteria growth in vacuum-packaged cooked meat emulsions stored at three temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three storage temperatures on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in cooked meat emulsions packaged in low oxygen permeability film was investigated. Bacterial counts at 01C, 81C and 151C were fitted to the Gompertz equation and the maximum specific growth rate (m) was obtained as derived parameter, this value being maximal at 151C (1.16 days? 1).

Graciela Vignolo; Oscar Garroa; C. Fern

110

Lactic acid bacteria used in inoculants for silage as probiotics for ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown the beneficial effects on ruminant performance of feeding them with silages inoculated with lactic\\u000a acid bacteria (LAB). These benefits might derive from probiotic effects. The purpose of the current study was to determine\\u000a whether LAB included in inoculants for silage can survive in rumen fluid (RF), as the first step in studying their probiotic\\u000a effects. Experiments

Zwi G. Weinberg; Richard E. Muck; Paul J. Weimer; Yaira Chen; Mira Gamburg

2004-01-01

111

Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg21 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison

JØRGEN J. LEISNER; BRUNO POT; HENRIK CHRISTENSEN; GULAM RUSUL; JOHN E. OLSEN; BEE WAH WEE; KHARIDAH MUHAMAD; HASANAH M. GHAZALI

1999-01-01

112

Characterization and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study provides phenotypic and molecular analyses of the antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented\\u000a foods in Xi’an, China. LAB strains (n = 84) belonging to 16 species of Lactobacillus (n = 73), and Streptococcus thermophilus (n = 11) were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin,\\u000a and cefsulodin, and intrinsically resistant to nalidixic

Muhammad Nawaz; Juan Wang; Aiping Zhou; Chaofeng Ma; Xiaokang Wu; John E. Moore; B. Cherie Millar; Jiru Xu

2011-01-01

113

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in kefir grains and kefir made from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

  In an investigation of the changes in the microflora along the pathway: kefir grains (A)?kefir made from kefir grains (B)?kefir\\u000a made from kefir as inoculum (C), the following species of lactic acid bacteria (83–90%) of the microbial count in the grains)\\u000a were identified: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum and

E Simova; D Beshkova; A Angelov; Ts Hristozova; G Frengova; Z Spasov

2002-01-01

114

Evaluation of Anti-colitic Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mice by cDNA Microarray Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the anti-colitic effect of lactic acid bacteria by cDNA microarray analysis, a lactic acid bacteria mixture (LM)\\u000a consisting of Lactobacillus brevis HY7401, L. suntoryeus HY7801 and Bifidobacterium longum HY8004 was orally administered to dextran sulfate (DSS)-induced colitic mice and the expression profile of numerous genes\\u000a was assessed. DSS treatment caused colitic outcomes such as inflammation and colon shortening.

Hoyong Lee; Young-Tae Ahn; Jung-Hee Lee; Chul-Sung Huh; Dong-Hyun Kim

2009-01-01

115

Amino acid profiles of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains and kefir starter made from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of cell growth, lactic acid production, amino acid release and consumption by single-strain cultures of lactic acid bacteria (isolated from kefir grains), and by a multiple-strain kefir starter prepared from them, were studied. The change in the levels of free amino acids was followed throughout the kefir process: single-strain kefir bacteria and the kefir starter (Lactococcus lactis C15–1%+Lactobacillus

Emilina Simova; Zhelyasko Simov; Dora Beshkova; Ginka Frengova; Zhechko Dimitrov; Zdravko Spasov

2006-01-01

116

Antibacterial effects of enniatins J(1) and J(3) on pathogenic and lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Enniatins (ENs) are N-methylated cyclohexadepsipeptides, secondary metabolites produced by various species of the genus Fusarium. They are known to act as antifungal, antiyeast and antibacterial and to possess antiinsecticidal and phytotoxic properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time the antibiotic effect of pure fractions of EN J(1) and J(3) on several pathogenic strains and lactic acid bacteria. The ENs J(1) and J(3) were purified from the fermentation extract of Fusarium solani growth on solid medium of wheat kamut, using the technique of the low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) followed by a semipreparative liquid chromatography (LC). The purity and the structure of the isolated compound were confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry study-linear ion trap (ESI-MS-LIT). The use of both chromatographic techniques have permitted to produce and purify 47mg of the En J(1) and 50mg of the EN J(3) with a mean purity of 98% completely characterized with the technique of the ESI-MS-LIT. Microbial bioassay analyses were carried out by incubation in MRSA and TSA for acid lactic and pathogenic bacteria, respectively during 24h at 37°C. None of the tested strains were inhibited by a 1ng dose of EN J(1) and J(3). These compounds were only not effective against Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric. This study highlight ENs J(1) and J(3) could be potentially effective antibacterial agents against several pathogenic and lactic acid bacteria. PMID:21742008

Sebastià, Natividad; Meca, Giuseppe; Soriano, José Miguel; Mañes, Jordi

2011-10-01

117

Biocontainment strategies for live lactic acid bacteria vaccine vectors.  

PubMed

Stability is an important issue when engineering bacteria for use as live vaccine vectors. For the majority of live bacterial vaccines, the antigen-encoding gene is either plasmid located or integrated into the chromosome. Regardless, several safety concerns can be raised for both instances. One concern when using plasmid-encoded antigens is the transfer of antibiotic resistance markers. Alternatively, for chromosomal integrated antigens however, the concern focuses on the spread and possible release of genetically-modified microorganisms (GMM) into the environment, which is problematic. Their recombinant nature calls for a proper bio-containment strategy to be implemented or in place before any realistic attempt at releasing a live bacterial vaccine. No examples of human bacterial vaccines causing problems among animals have been found in the literature but the possibility exists and has to be both tested and evaluated before release of a live bacterial vaccine. The ideal GMM for use in humans should therefore contain the minimal amount of foreign DNA and must not include an antibiotic resistance marker. Furthermore, the possibilities of transgene horizontal transfer must be minimized, and GMM lethality for biocontainment should be achieved in an unconfined environment. PMID:21327129

Lee, Peter

2010-01-01

118

Biocontainment strategies for live lactic acid bacteria vaccine vectors  

PubMed Central

Stability is an important issue when engineering bacteria for use as live vaccine vectors. For the majority of live bacterial vaccines, the antigen-encoding gene is either plasmid located or integrated into the chromosome. Regardless, several safety concerns can be raised for both instances. One concern when using plasmid-encoded antigens is the transfer of antibiotic resistance markers. Alternatively, for chromosomal integrated antigens however, the concern focuses on the spread and possible release of genetically-modified microorganisms (GMM) into the environment, which is problematic. Their recombinant nature calls for a proper bio-containment strategy to be implemented or in place before any realistic attempt at releasing a live bacterial vaccine. No examples of human bacterial vaccines causing problems among animals have been found in the literature but the possibility exists and has to be both tested and evaluated before release of a live bacterial vaccine. The ideal GMM for use in humans should therefore contain the minimal amount of foreign DNA and must not include an antibiotic resistance marker. Furthermore, the possibilities of transgene horizontal transfer must be minimized, and GMM lethality for biocontainment should be achieved in an unconfined environment. PMID:21327129

2010-01-01

119

Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.  

PubMed

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

2014-01-01

120

Anti-diabetic effects of lactic acid bacteria in normal and type 2 diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic effects of lactic acid bacteria were investigated using mice. In Experiment 1, normal ICR mice were loaded with sucrose or starch with or without viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG cells. GG significantly inhibited postprandial blood glucose levels when administered with sucrose or starch. In Experiment 2, KK-Ay mice, a model of genetic type 2 diabetes, were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cells for 6 weeks. Viable GG cells significantly inhibited fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose in a glucose tolerance test and HbA1c. Such effects were not shown by viable L. bulgaricus cells. In Experiment 3, the KK-Ay mice were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or heat-treated GG cells for 3 weeks. The viable GG cells significantly suppressed fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but the heat-treated GG showed no effects. These results demonstrated that GG decreased the postprandial blood glucose in ICR mice, and that the antidiabetic activity of lactic acid bacteria on the KK-Ay mice differed depending on the bacterial strain and whether the bacterium is viable when it arrives in the intestine. In the present study, we conclude that the antidiabetic activity may result from continuous inhibition of the postprandial blood glucose through suppression of glucose absorption from the intestine. These findings indicate that specific strains of lactic acid bacterium can be expected to be beneficial for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22962525

Honda, Kayoko; Moto, Mihoko; Uchida, Naoko; He, Fang; Hashizume, Naotaka

2012-01-01

121

The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine lactic acid bacteria's capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4% and 34.7% of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1. PMID:23998015

Hamidi, Adel; Mirnejad, Reza; Yahaghi, Emad; Behnod, Vahid; Mirhosseini, Ali; Amani, Sajad; Sattari, Sara; Darian, Ebrahim Khodaverdi

2013-01-01

122

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bee Pollen: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133. PMID:24936378

BELHADJ, Hani; HARZALLAH, Daoud; BOUAMRA, Dalila; KHENNOUF, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; GHADBANE, Mouloud

2014-01-01

123

Effect of single or sequential hot water and lactic acid decontamination treatments on the survival and growth of listeria monocytogenes and spoilage microflora during aerobic storage of fresh beef at 4, 10, and 25 degrees C.  

PubMed

The survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage microflora during storage of fresh beef subjected to different decontamination treatments was studied. Fresh beef inoculated with a five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes (5.18 log CFU/cm2) was left untreated (control) or was immersed (30 s) in hot water (HW; 75 degrees C), 2% lactic acid (LA; 55 degrees C), hot water followed by lactic acid (HW-LA), or lactic acid followed by hot water (LA-HW) and then stored aerobically at 4, 10, and 25 degrees C for 25, 17, and 5 days, respectively. Initial populations of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 0.82 (HW), 1.43 (LA), 2.73 (HW-LA), and 2.68 (LA-HW) log CFU/cm2. During storage, the pathogen grew at higher rates in HW than in control samples at all storage temperatures. Acid decontamination treatments (LA. HW-LA, and LA-HW) resulted in a weaker inhibition of L. monocytogenes (P < 0.05) at 25 degrees C than at 4 and 10 degrees C. In general, the order of effectiveness of treatments was HW-LA > LA > LA-HW > HW > control at all storage temperatures tested. In untreated samples, the spoilage microflora was dominated by pseudomonads, while lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeasts remained at lower concentrations during storage. Brochothrix thermosphacta was detected periodically in only a limited number of samples. Although decontamination with HW did not affect the above spoilage microbial profile, acid treatments shifted the predominant microflora in the direction of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria (lactic acid bacteria). Overall, the results of the present study indicate that decontamination with LA and combinations of LA and HW could limit growth of L. monocytogenes and inhibit pseudomonads, which are the main spoilage bacteria of fresh beef stored under aerobic conditions. However, to optimize the efficacy of such treatments, they must be applied in the appropriate sequence and followed by effective temperature control. PMID:15633675

Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Ashton, Laura V; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

2004-12-01

124

Isolation of thermophilic L-lactic acid producing bacteria showing homo-fermentative manner under high aeration condition.  

PubMed

By applying non-sterile open fermentation of food waste, various thermotolerant l-lactic acid-producing bacteria were isolated and identified. The predominant bacterial isolates showing higher accumulation of l-lactic acid belong to 3 groups of Bacillus coagulans, according to their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. B. coagulans strains M21 and M36 produced high amounts of l-lactic acid of high optical purity and lactic acid selectivity in model kitchen refuse medium and glucose-yeast extract-peptone medium. Other thermotolerant isolates resembling to Bacillus humi, B. ruris, B. subtilis, B. niacini and B. soli were also identified. These bacteria produced low amounts of l-lactic acid of more than 99% optical purity. All isolated strains showed the highest growth rate at temperatures around 55-60°C. They showed unique responses to various oxygen supply conditions. The majority of isolates produced l-lactic acid at a low overall oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa); however, acetic acid was produced instead of l-lactic acid at a high KLa. B. coagulans M21 was the only strain that produced high, consistent, and reproducible amounts of optically pure l-lactic acid (>99% optical purity) under high and low KLa conditions in a homo-fermentative manner. PMID:24119530

Tongpim, Saowanit; Meidong, Ratchanu; Poudel, Pramod; Yoshino, Satoshi; Okugawa, Yuki; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Sakai, Kenji

2014-03-01

125

Lactic acid bacteria convert glucosinolates to nitriles efficiently yet differently from enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

Glucosinolates from the genus Brassica can be converted into bioactive compounds known to induce phase II enzymes, which may decrease the risk of cancers. Conversion via hydrolysis is usually by the brassica enzyme myrosinase, which can be inactivated by cooking or storage. We examined the potential of three beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum KW30, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KF147, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, and known myrosinase-producer Enterobacter cloacae to catalyze the conversion of glucosinolates in broccoli extract. Enterobacteriaceae consumed on average 65% glucoiberin and 78% glucoraphanin, transforming them into glucoiberverin and glucoerucin, respectively, and small amounts of iberverin nitrile and erucin nitrile. The lactic acid bacteria did not accumulate reduced glucosinolates, consuming all at 30-33% and transforming these into iberverin nitrile, erucin nitrile, sulforaphane nitrile, and further unidentified metabolites. Adding beneficial bacteria to a glucosinolate-rich diet may increase glucosinolate transformation, thereby increasing host exposure to bioactives. PMID:23461529

Mullaney, Jane A; Kelly, William J; McGhie, Tony K; Ansell, Juliet; Heyes, Julian A

2013-03-27

126

Functional properties of novel protective lactic acid bacteria and application in raw chicken meat against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 635 lactic acid bacteria of food origin were evaluated for their potential application as protective cultures in foods. A stepwise selection method was used to obtain the most appropriate strains for application as protective cultures in chicken meat. Specifically, all strains were examined for antimicrobial activity against various Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

Petros A. Maragkoudakis; Konstantinos C. Mountzouris; Dimitris Psyrras; Silvia Cremonese; Jana Fischer; Mette D. Cantor; Effie Tsakalidou

2009-01-01

127

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and

Zoi Papalexandratou; Gino Vrancken; Katrien De Bruyne; Peter Vandamme; Luc De Vuyst

2011-01-01

128

Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of “Shanxi aged vinegar”, a traditional Chinese vinegar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism’s diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and

Jia Jia Wu; Ying Kun Ma; Fen Fen Zhang; Fu Sheng Chen

129

The use of crude cell extracts of lactic acid bacteria optimized for beta-galactosidase activity to form galactooligosaccharides with lactose, mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine.  

E-print Network

??Several lactic acid bacteria contain ?-galactosidases. Beta galactosidases catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer acceptor sugars onto galactose, producing galactooligosaccharides. The aim of this work was… (more)

Lee, Vivian Shin Yuan

2009-01-01

130

Abundance and salt tolerance of obligately aerobic, phototrophic bacteria in a marine microbial mat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data have been collected on the abundance of obligately aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll- a-containing bacteria in a marine microbial mat on the West Frisian Island of Texel, The Netherlands. Plate counts on media rich in organic matter revealed average numbers of 3 ?10 5·cm -3 sediment in the top 10 mm of the mat; the number of purple non-sulphur bacteria was of the same magnitude. Due to the relatively small dimensions of obligately aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and purple non-sulphur bacteria, compared to those of purple sulphur bacteria, the contributions of either of the two former groups to the biomass of Bchl- a-containing organisms was approximately 3%. The specific Bchl- a-content of the isolated obligately aerobic phototrophs was very low (0.8 to 1.0 ?g·mg -1 protein) compared to that of purple non-sulphur bacteria (16 to 20 ?g·mg -1 protein), and purple sulphur bacteria (27 to 30 ?g·mg -1). As a consequence, the relative contribution to the total Bchl a concentration of the two former groups (0.1% and 2.1%, respectively) was negligible, compared to that of the purple sulphur bacteria (97.8%). Salinities <50 had little effect on growth rate and yield of isolates; at salinities between 50 and 100 the doubling time increased progressively with a concomitant decrease in yield; no growth occurred at salinities > 140.

Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Van Gemerden, Hans

131

Thermotolerance of meat spoilage lactic acid bacteria and their inactivation in vacuum-packaged vienna sausages.  

PubMed

Heat resistance of three meat spoilage lactic acid bacteria was determined in vitro. D-values at 57, 60 and 63 degrees C were 52.9, 39.3 and 32.5 s for Lactobacillus sake, 34.9, 31.3 and 20.2 s for Leuconostoc mesenteroides and 22.5, 15.6 and 14.4 s for Lactobacillus curvatus, respectively. The three lactic acid bacteria were heat sensitive, as one log reductions in numbers were achieved at 57 degrees C in less than 60 s. Z-values could not be accurately determined as D-values did not change by a factor of 10 over the temperature range studied. In-package pasteurization processes were calculated using the highest in vitro D-value and applied to vacuum-packaged vienna sausages. Microbiological shelf life (time for lactic acid bacteria count to reach 5 x 10(6) CFU/g) increased from 7 days for non-pasteurized samples to 67, 99 and 119 days for samples of the three pasteurization treatments at 8 degrees C storage. Enterobacteriaceae were detected at levels of log 4.0 CFU/g in non-pasteurized samples, but were reduced to < log 1.0 CFU/g in pasteurized samples. The incidence of listeriae in non-pasteurized samples was low as only one Listeria innocua strain was isolated. No Listeria spp. were isolated from pasteurized samples. Numbers of Clostridium isolates increased from one in non-pasteurized samples to 25 in pasteurized samples. Increasing incidences of clostridia, and the presence of C. perfringens in pasteurized samples indicated that in-package pasteurization could compromise product safety. PMID:8722187

Franz, C M; von Holy, A

1996-02-01

132

Taxonomic homogeneity of a salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria isolated from shoyu mash.  

PubMed

Forty-seven salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria, which had been isolated from different places and grown in 15% NaCl, were examined to assess their taxonomic heterogeneity. Among the isolates, 42 were isolated from shoyu mash during the acid fermentation phase, 2 were from miso and 3 were from anchovy pickles. All isolates were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus on the basis of DNA relatedness values. We further examined 102 phenotypic characteristics of them. The isolates exhibited differences in only 16, supporting the conclusion obtained from the DNA relatedness analysis. PMID:12833212

Hanagata, Hiroshi; Shida, Osamu; Takagi, Hiroaki

2003-04-01

133

Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Fermented Food  

PubMed Central

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from several traditional fermented foods such as “tempeh”, “tempoyak” and “tapai” were screened for the production of bacteriocin. One strain isolated from “tempeh” gives an inhibitory activity against several LAB. The strain was later identified as Lactobacillus plantarum BS2. Study shows that the inhibitory activity was not caused by hydrogen peroxide, organic acids or bacteriophage. The bacteriocin production was maximum after 10 hours of incubation with an activity of 200 AU/ml. The bacteriocin was found to be sensitive towards trypsin, ?-chymotrypsin, ?-chymotrypsin, ?-amylase and lysozyme. PMID:22973159

Kormin, Salasiah; Rusul, Gulam; Radu, Son; Ling, Foo Hooi

2001-01-01

134

[Antagonistic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from apparently healthy and osteoporotic women].  

PubMed

Antagonistic activity of 74 cultures of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from healthy and osteoporotic women-patients aged 50-79 years, has been studied. It has been shown that the inhibitory effect of the strain studied was independent of the health of women (control group of women or patients with osteoporosis), but had strain specificity. Seventeen most active strains of lactobacilli, which showed the highest inhibitory activity against B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris were selected. Only 6 strains of lactobacillus demonstrated specific antagonistic activity against the test-strains. PMID:23516836

Ohirchuk, K S; Poltavs'ka, O A; Kovalenko, N K

2013-01-01

135

?-Glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria: mechanisms, impact on fermented food and human health.  

PubMed

Through the hydrolysis of plant metabolite glucoconjugates, ?-glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) make a significant contribution to the dietary and sensory attributes of fermented food. Deglucosylation can release attractive flavour compounds from glucosylated precursors and increases the bioavailability of health-promoting plant metabolites as well as that of dietary toxins. This review brings the current literature on LAB ?-glucosidases into context by providing an overview of the nutritional implications of LAB ?-glucosidase activities. Based on biochemical and genomic information, the mechanisms that are currently considered to be critical for the hydrolysis of ?-glucosides by intestinal and food-fermenting LAB will also be reviewed. PMID:24330034

Michlmayr, Herbert; Kneifel, Wolfgang

2014-03-01

136

Identification and characterization of the dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented milk in Mongolia.  

PubMed

Five samples of Airag and 20 of Tarag (both in Mongolia) were collected from scattered households. One hundred strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated and identified from these samples according to phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Eighty-five isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, 15 being classified as coccoid LAB. All isolates belonged to 5 genera and 11 to different species and subspecies. Lactobacillus (Lb.) helveticus was predominant population in Airag samples, Lb. fermentum and Lb. helveticus were the major LAB microflora in Tarag. PMID:20526841

Sun, Z H; Liu, W J; Zhang, J C; Yu, J; Gao, W; Jiri, M; Menghe, B; Sun, T S; Zhang, H P

2010-05-01

137

Practical implications of lactate and pyruvate metabolism by lactic acid bacteria in food and beverage fermentations.  

PubMed

This article reviews the metabolism of pyruvate and lactate by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in food and beverage fermentations with an emphasis on practical implications. First, the formation of pyruvate and lactate from a range of substrates, including carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids, is briefly described. The catabolism of pyruvate and lactate by LAB is then reviewed. This is followed by a discussion of lactate degradation and racemisation by LAB from specific fermented foods and beverages. Finally, the impact of environmental factors and metabolic engineering on pyruvate and lactate metabolism by LAB is evaluated with regard to practical significance. PMID:12706034

Liu, S-Q

2003-06-15

138

Distribution, diversity and ecology of aerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies indicate that carbon monoxide (CO) participates in a broader range of processes than any other single molecule, ranging from subcellular to planetary scales. Despite its toxicity to many organisms, a diverse group of bacteria that span multiple phylogenetic lineages metabolize CO. These bacteria are globally distributed and include pathogens, plant symbionts and biogeochemically important lineages in soils and

Carolyn F. Weber; Gary M. King

2007-01-01

139

Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications.  

PubMed

Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed. PMID:25186038

Perez, Rodney H; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

2014-08-29

140

Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation. PMID:23604535

Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

2013-06-01

141

Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed. PMID:25186038

2014-01-01

142

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (P<0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

143

Competition and coexistence of aerobic ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at low oxygen concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural and man-made ecosystems nitrifying bacteria experience frequent exposure to oxygen-limited conditions and thus\\u000a have to compete for oxygen. In several reactor systems (retentostat, chemostat and sequencing batch reactors) it was possible\\u000a to establish co-cultures of aerobic ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at very low oxygen concentrations (2–8 ?M) provided\\u000a that ammonium was the limiting N compound. When ammonia was in

A. Olav Sliekers; Suzanne C. M. Haaijer; Marit H. Stafsnes; J. Gijs Kuenen; Mike S. M. Jetten

2005-01-01

144

Oxalate degradation by intestinal lactic acid bacteria in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the ability of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) component of canine and feline feces to degrade oxalate in vitro. Oxalate degradation by individual canine-origin LAB was also evaluated. The effects of various prebiotics on in vitro oxalate degradation by selected oxalate-degrading canine LAB was also evaluated. Canine fecal samples reduced oxalate levels by 78 +/- 12.2% (mean +/- S.D.; range: 44-97%, median: 81%). Feline results were similar, with oxalate reduction of 69.7 +/- 16.7% (mean +/- S.D.; range: 40-96%, median: 73%). Thirty-seven lactic acid bacteria were isolated from canine fecal samples. Mean oxalate degradation was 17.7 +/- 16.6% (mean +/- S.D.; range: 0-65%, median: 13%). No oxalate degradation was detected for four (11%) isolates, and 10/37 (27%) degraded less than 10% of oxalate. The effects of lactitol, arabinogalactan, guar gum, gum Arabic, inulin, maltodextrin or a commercial fructooligosaccharide (FOS) product on in vitro oxalate degradation by five canine LAB isolates were highly variable, even within the same bacterial species. Overall, in vitro degradation was significantly greater with guar gum compared to arabinogalactan (P < 0.05), gum Arabic (P < 0.05), and lactitol (P < 0.01). This study suggests that manipulation of the LAB component of the canine and feline gastrointestinal microflora may decrease intestinal oxalate, and correspondingly intestinal oxalate absorption and renal excretion, thus potentially reducing oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:15223120

Weese, J S; Weese, H E; Yuricek, L; Rousseau, J

2004-07-14

145

Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)  

PubMed Central

In the present work, the effects of several lactic acid bacteria on the immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) macrophages have been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Out of six lactic acid bacterial strains tested, only heat-killed Lactococcus lactis significantly increased the turbot head kidney macrophage chemiluminescent (CL) response after 24 h of incubation. Nitric oxide (NO) was also significantly enhanced by this bacterium after 72 h of incubation with either viable (103 and 106 cells/ml) or heat-killed (106 cells/ml) bacteria. Viable Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 cells/ml) was also capable of significantly increasing NO production. Since L. lactis proved to be the strain with more effects on the host immune function, further in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted with this bacterium. The in vitro capacity of L. lactis to adhere to turbot intestinal mucus was positively confirmed. When orally administered, L. lactis significantly increased the macrophage CL response and the serum NO concentration after 7 days of daily administration. The antibacterial effect of the extracellular products from the six LAB strains against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum was also demonstrated in vitro. PMID:12414767

Villamil, L.; Tafalla, C.; Figueras, A.; Novoa, B.

2002-01-01

146

Lactobacillus floricola sp. nov., lactic acid bacteria isolated from mountain flowers.  

PubMed

Five strains (Ryu1-2(T), Gon2-9, Ryu4-3, Nog8-1 and Aza1-1) of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from flowers in mountainous areas in Japan, Oze National Park, Iizuna mountain and the Nikko area. The five isolates were found to share almost identical (99.6-100 % similar) 16S rRNA gene sequences and were therefore deemed to belong to the same species. These isolates exhibited low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known lactic acid bacteria; the closest recognized relatives to strain Ryu1-2(T) were the type strains of Lactobacillus hilgardii (92.8 % similarity), Lactobacillus kefiri (92.7 %), Lactobacillus composti (92.6 %) and Lactobacillus buchneri (92.4 %). Comparative analyses of rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolates did not show significant relationships to other Lactobacillus species. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and homofermentative. The isolates utilized a narrow range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy, including glucose and fructose. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus floricola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ryu1-2(T) (?= NRIC 0774(T) ?= JCM 16512(T) ?= DSM 23037(T)). PMID:20601482

Kawasaki, Shinji; Kurosawa, Kana; Miyazaki, Madoka; Yagi, Chisato; Kitajima, Yoritaka; Tanaka, Shigeta; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Okada, Sanae; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Niimura, Youichi

2011-06-01

147

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria inhabit fructose-rich niches in nature  

PubMed Central

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a special group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which prefer fructose but not glucose as growth substrate. They are found in fructose-rich niches, e.g. flowers, fruits, and fermented foods made from fruits. Quite recently, they were found in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals consuming fructose, which were bumblebees, tropical fruit flies, and Camponotus ants. These suggest that all natural sources that are rich in fructose are possible their habitats. Fructobacillus spp., formerly classified as Leuconostoc spp., are representatives of these microorganisms, and Lactobacillus kunkeei has also been classified as FLAB. They share several unique biochemical characteristics, which have not been found in LAB inhabited in other niches. FLAB grow well on fructose but very poor on glucose. These organisms grow well on glucose only when external electron accepters, e.g. pyruvate or oxygen, are available. LAB have been shown to have specific evolution to adapt to their niches and have several niche-specific characteristics. FLAB must have fructophilic evolution during adaptation to fructose-rich niches. FLAB are unique food-related LAB, suggesting a great potential for future food and feed applications. PMID:23990834

Endo, Akihito

2012-01-01

148

Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Synthesize Antioxidant Peptides during Sourdough Fermentation of Cereal Flours  

PubMed Central

A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used for the sourdough fermentation of various cereal flours with the aim of synthesizing antioxidant peptides. The radical-scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from sourdoughs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chemically acidified doughs. The highest activity was found for whole wheat, spelt, rye, and kamut sourdoughs. Almost the same results were found for the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation. WSE were subjected to reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Thirty-seven fractions were collected and assayed in vitro. The most active fractions were resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Twenty-five peptides of 8 to 57 amino acid residues were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Almost all of the sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. All of the purified fractions showed ex vivo antioxidant activity on mouse fibroblasts artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the capacity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through the proteolysis of native cereal proteins. PMID:22156436

Coda, Rossana; Pinto, Daniela; Gobbetti, Marco

2012-01-01

149

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES OF CERTAIN AEROBIC BACTERIA REPRESENTING HUMAN COLONIC FLORA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed the existence of a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation resulting in high intracolonic levels of toxic and carcinogenic acetaldehyde. This study was aimed at determining the ability of the aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) of aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora to metabolize intracolonically derived acetaldehyde. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km) values for acetaldehyde were determined in crude extracts

T. NOSOVA; K. JOKELAINEN; P. KAIHOVAARA; R. HEINE; H. JOUSIMIES-SOMER; M. SALASPURO

1998-01-01

150

Velvet pad surface sampling of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria: an in vitro laboratory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velvet pads have been evaluated in an experimental, laboratory model, simulating intraoperative sampling of Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. After sampling, the pad was placed in a transport medium and kept in an anaerobic atmosphere, before being shaken and rinsed, followed by anaerobic and aerobic culture. This technique permitted quantitatively high recoveries of the test bacteria. Velvet pad

D Raahave; A Friis-Møller

1982-01-01

151

Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Roseobacter Clade Bacteria from Diverse Marine Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine Roseobacter clade comprises several genera of marine bacteria related to the uncultured SAR83 cluster, the second most abundant marine picoplankton lineage. Cultivated representatives of this clade are physiologically heterogeneous, and only some have the capability for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, a process of potentially great ecological importance in the world's oceans. In an attempt to correlate phylogeny with ecology,

Martin Allgaier; Heike Uphoff; Andreas Felske; Irene Wagner-Dobler

2003-01-01

152

Real-time study of the effect of different stress factors on lactic acid bacteria by electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the fermentation of different food products. During the fermentation processes, lactobacilli are confronted with many inhibitor factors. These factors by themselves or in combination can influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria and their acidification capacity. The subject of our study was to monitor with a newly developed biosensing technique how the

Edina Németh; Nóra Adányi; Anna Halász; Mária Váradi; István Szendr?

2007-01-01

153

Evaluation of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from lightly preserved fish products, as starter cultures for new fish-based food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria suitable for fish fermentation were selected and their capacity as starter cultures in fish raw material was evaluated. Of 23 strains of lactic acid bacteria which were isolated from lightly preserved herring products and identified by the Biolog system mainly as Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc spp., three strains, which grew well at 5–10°C in the presence of food

Alexander Gelman; Vladimir Drabkin; Larisa Glatman

2000-01-01

154

Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms. PMID:22920585

2012-01-01

155

Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.  

PubMed

The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life. PMID:22986212

Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

2012-12-01

156

[Viability and activity of the lactic bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus y Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus) del yogurt en Venezuela].  

PubMed

National and international legislations have agreed that the population of lactic bacteria in yogurt must be viable and not less than 10(6) ufc/g. In Venezuela, during last years, observations indicate that the number of viable cells in some commercial samples show high variations, as low levels. This research attempted to find the origin of this problem in the local industry. For this purpose 105 commercial samples were analyzed during their shelf life and 32 samples of yogurt prepared in the laboratory following the flow diagram of the local industry. The different conditions of freeze dried lactic culture, were also analyzed. These samples were evaluated for viable cell count of lactic bacteria and possible variations of pH and acidity. The absence or low number of lactic bacteria detected in some commercial samples is due to the use of inadequate working cultures that show imbalanced proportions of the two microorganisms, besides a low count below 106 ufc/g. The succesive propagation and storage time of mother culture, and the overacidification of the product, produce subletal injury to the microbial cells of the yogurt starter culture. The data indicate that manufacturing practices significantly affect the survival of the lactic flora. PMID:11510428

Briceño, A G; Martínez, R; García, K

2001-01-01

157

Fate of Chlortetracycline and Tylosin-Resistant Bacteria in an Aerobic Thermophilic Sequencing Batch Reactor Treating Swine Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotics have been added to animal feed for decades. Consequently, food animals and their wastes constitute a reservoir\\u000a of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this work was to characterize the impact of an aerobic thermophilic biotreatment\\u000a on aerobic, antibiotic-resistant bacteria in swine waste. The proportion of tylosin- and chlortetracycline-resistant bacteria\\u000a grown at 25°C, 37°C, and 60°C decreased after treatment, but

Martin R. Chénier; Pierre Juteau

2009-01-01

158

Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary.  

PubMed

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell (3)H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect (3)H-leucine incorporation in light-dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance. PMID:24824666

Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

2014-11-01

159

Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.  

PubMed

Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. PMID:24888497

Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

2014-10-01

160

Emerging roles of lactic acid bacteria in protection against colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and the fourth most common cancer diagnosed among men and women in the United States. Considering the risk factors of CRC, dietary therapy has become one of the most effective approaches in reducing CRC morbidity and mortality. The use of probiotics is increasing in popularity for both the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. As the most common types of microbes used as probiotics, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are comprised of an ecologically diverse group of microorganisms united by formation of lactic acid as the primary metabolite of sugar metabolism. LAB have been successfully used in managing diarrhea, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease. LAB also demonstrated a host of properties in preventing colorectal cancer development by inhibiting initiation or progression through multiple pathways. In this review, we discuss recent insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms of LAB in CRC prevention including apoptosis, antioxidant DNA damages, immune responses, and epigenetics. The emerging experimental findings from clinical trials as well as the proposed mechanisms of gut microbiota in carcinogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:24976724

Zhong, Li; Zhang, Xufei; Covasa, Mihai

2014-01-01

161

Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Indigenous Fermented Bamboo Products of Arunachal Pradesh in India and Their Functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ekung, eup and hirring are some common indigenous fermented bamboo products of Northeast India. We have isolated, characterized, and identified the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from 44 samples of ekung, eup, and hirring and studied their technological properties. The phenotypic characterizations of LAB isolates were based on physiological, biochemical tests and API kits, and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum,

Buddhiman Tamang; Jyoti P. Tamang

2009-01-01

162

Effects of Fermented Fruits on Growth Performance, Shedding of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactic Acid Bacteria and Plasma Cholesterol in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented fruits (FF), a product of fruits undergo a process of fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of FF as additive on production performance, faecal Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts and plasma cholesterol in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley (4 weeks of age) male rats were assigned

2003-01-01

163

A review of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria used as bioprotective cultures in fresh meat produced in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with meat products are important natural bacteriocin producers. Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antagonistic substances that are important in the control of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The use of LAB as bioprotective cultures to extend the shelf life of fresh meat can improve microbial stability and safety in commercial meat preservation. Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 used as

P. Castellano; C. Belfiore; S. Fadda; G. Vignolo

2008-01-01

164

Isolation, identification and changes in the composition of lactic acid bacteria during the malting of two different barley cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malt has a complex microbial population, which changes as the malting process commences. Little is known about the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in each of the malting phases. In this study, we determined the number of LAB present in the different phases of malting with Clipper and Prisma barley cultivars. The strains were identified to species level by

C. Booysen; L. M. T. Dicks; I. Meijering; A. Ackermann

2002-01-01

165

Screening of lactic acid bacteria for reducing power using a tetrazolium salt reduction method on milk agar.  

PubMed

Reducing activity is a physiological property of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of technological importance. We developed a solid medium with tetrazolium dyes enabling weakly and strongly reducing LAB to be discriminated. It was used to quantify populations in a mixed culture (spreading method) and screen strains (spot method). PMID:23063698

Michelon, Damien; Tachon, Sybille; Ebel, Bruno; De Coninck, Joëlle; Feron, Gilles; Gervais, Patrick; Yvon, Mireille; Cachon, Rémy

2013-02-01

166

Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were

Ilse Scheirlinck; Roel Van der Meulen; Ann Van Schoor; Marc Vancanneyt; Luc De Vuyst; Peter Vandamme; Geert Huys

2007-01-01

167

Horizontal gene transfer amongst probiotic lactic acid bacteria and other intestinal microbiota: what are the possibilities? A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are live cultures, usually lactic acid bacteria, which are ingested to promote a healthy gastrointestinal tract.\\u000a These organisms require certain traits to survive and compete in this niche, but these traits may be transferred to other\\u000a microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Similarly, virulence factors from pathogens may be acquired by probiotic strains.\\u000a Bacteria have developed a plethora of

Carol A. van Reenen; Leon M. T. Dicks

2011-01-01

168

Aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol by soil bacteria.  

PubMed

Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component of aircraft deicing fluids and its extensive use in Northern airports is a source of soil and groundwater contamination. Bacterial consortia able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source were selected from soil samples taken along the runways of Oslo Airport Gardermoen site (Norway). DGGE analysis of enrichment cultures showed that PG-degrading populations were mainly composed by Pseudomonas species, although Bacteroidetes were found, as well. Nineteen bacterial strains, able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source, were isolated and identified as different Pseudomonas species. Maximum specific growth rate of mixed cultures in the absence of nutrient limitation was 0.014 h(-1) at 4 °C. Substrate C:N:P molar ratios calculated on the basis of measured growth yields are in good agreement with the suggested values for biostimulation reported in literature. Therefore, the addition of nutrients is suggested as a suitable technique to sustain PG aerobic degradation at the maximum rate by autochthonous microorganisms of unsaturated soil profile. PMID:23187798

Toscano, Giuseppe; Cavalca, Lucia; Letizia Colarieti, M; Scelza, Rosalia; Scotti, Riccardo; Rao, Maria A; Andreoni, Vincenza; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Greco, Guido

2013-09-01

169

Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on spinach and identification of antimicrobial substances produced by a commercial Lactic Acid Bacteria food safety intervention.  

PubMed

The microbiological safety of fresh produce is of concern for the U.S. food supply. Members of the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have been reported to antagonize pathogens by competing for nutrients and by secretion of substances with antimicrobial activity, including organic acids, peroxides, and antimicrobial polypeptides. The objectives of this research were to: (i) determine the capacity of a commercial LAB food antimicrobial to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on spinach leaf surfaces, and (ii) identify antimicrobial substances produced in vitro by the LAB comprising the food antimicrobial. Pathogens were inoculated on freshly harvested spinach, followed by application of the LAB antimicrobial. Treated spinach was aerobically incubated up to 12 days at 7 °C and surviving pathogens enumerated via selective/differential plating. l-Lactic acid and a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) were detected and quantified from cell-free fermentates obtained from LAB-inoculated liquid microbiological medium. Application of 8.0 log10 CFU/g LAB produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on spinach of 1.6 and 1.9 log10 CFU/g, respectively. It was concluded the LAB antimicrobial inhibited foodborne pathogens on spinach during refrigerated storage, likely the result of the production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. PMID:24290643

Cálix-Lara, Thelma F; Rajendran, Mahitha; Talcott, Stephen T; Smith, Stephen B; Miller, Rhonda K; Castillo, Alejandro; Sturino, Joseph M; Taylor, T Matthew

2014-04-01

170

Antimicrobial susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a cheese environment.  

PubMed

In the production of the Spanish traditional blue-veined Cabrales cheese, lactic acid bacteria strains free of antibiotic resistance that have a transferrable capacity are necessary as components of a specific starter. To select for these bacteria, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12 antibiotics and 2 mixtures (containing beta-lactamase inhibitor and penicillin) were determined by microbroth and agar dilution techniques in 146 strains belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc. The antibiotic-resistance profiles of Lactococcus and Enterococcus species were different from those of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc, but clear genus- or species-associated patterns were not observed. Cefoxitin and metronidazole were not effective against bacteria of these genera. The MICs of beta-lactam antibiotics for lactobacilli and leuconostoc isolates were higher than those for lactococci and enterococci, but no strain was clinically resistant. All lactobacilli and leuconostoc isolates were resistant to high levels of vancomycin, a type of resistance not seen among the tested members of the genera Lactococcus and Enterococcus. The majority of the observed resistance appeared to be either intrinsic or nonspecific, although some strains of Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. were resistant to antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin, or tetracycline. PMID:15782234

Flórez, Ana Belén; Delgado, Susana; Mayo, Baltasar

2005-01-01

171

Characterization of some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different sources (dairy products, fruits, fresh and fermented vegetables, fermented cereals) were screened for antimicrobial activity against other bacteria, including potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria. Six strains have been shown to produce bacteriocins: Lactococcus lactis 19.3, Lactobacillus plantarum 26.1, Enterococcus durans 41.2, isolated from dairy products and Lactobacillus amylolyticus P40 and P50, and Lactobacillus oris P49, isolated from bors. Among the six bacteriocins, there were both heat stable, low molecular mass polypeptides, with a broad inhibitory spectrum, probably belonging to class II bacteriocins, and heat labile, high molecular mass proteins, with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum, most probably belonging to class III bacteriocins. A synergistic effect of some bacteriocins mixtures was observed. We can conclude that fermented foods are still important sources of new functional LAB. Among the six characterized bacteriocins, there might be some novel compounds with interesting features. Moreover, the bacteriocin-producing strains isolated in our study may find applications as protective cultures. PMID:24849010

Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Stancu, Mihaela-Marilena; Pelinescu, Diana; Zamfir, Medana

2014-09-01

172

In vitro screening of probiotic lactic acid bacteria and prebiotic glucooligosaccharides to select effective synbiotics.  

PubMed

Probiotics and prebiotics have been demonstrated to positively modulate the intestinal microflora and could promote host health. Although some studies have been performed on combinations of probiotics and prebiotics, constituting synbiotics, results on the synergistic effects tend to be discordant in the published works. The first aim of our study was to screen some lactic acid bacteria on the basis of probiotic characteristics (resistance to intestinal conditions, inhibition of pathogenic strains). Bifidobacterium was the most resistant genus whereas Lactobacillus farciminis was strongly inhibited. The inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was strain dependent but lactobacilli were the most effective, especially L. farciminis. The second aim of the work was to select glucooligosaccharides for their ability to support the growth of the probiotics tested. We demonstrated the selective fermentability of oligodextran and oligoalternan by probiotic bacteria, especially the bifidobacteria, for shorter degrees of polymerisation and absence of metabolism by pathogenic bacteria. Thus, the observed characteristics confer potential prebiotic properties on these glucooligosaccharides, to be further confirmed in vivo, and suggest some possible applications in synbiotic combinations with the selected probiotics. Furthermore, the distinctive patterns of the different genera suggest a combination of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria with complementary probiotic effects in addition to the prebiotic ones. These associations should be further evaluated for their synbiotic effects through in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:20670686

Grimoud, Julien; Durand, Henri; Courtin, Céline; Monsan, Pierre; Ouarné, Françoise; Theodorou, Vassilia; Roques, Christine

2010-10-01

173

Medical and Personal Care Applications of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequent use of antibiotics has led to a crisis in the antibiotic ­resistance of pathogens associated with humans and animals. Antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant bacterial pathogens have led to the investigation of alternative antimicrobial agents to treat and prevent infections in both humans and animals. Research on antimicrobial peptides, with a special interest on bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, is entering a new era with novel applications other than food preservation. Many scientists are now focusing on the application of these peptides in medicinal and personal care products. However, it is difficult to assess the success of such ventures due to the dearth of information that has been published and the lack of clinical trials.

Dicks, L. M. T.; Heunis, T. D. J.; van Staden, D. A.; Brand, A.; Noll, K. Sutyak; Chikindas, M. L.

174

Development and Evaluation of Genome-Probing Microarrays for Monitoring Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The genome-probing microarray (GPM) was developed for quantitative, high-throughput monitoring of community dynamics in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation through the deposit of 149 microbial genomes as probes on a glass slide. Compared to oligonucleotide microarrays, the specificity of GPM was remarkably increased to a species-specific level. GPM possesses about 10- to 100-fold higher sensitivity (2.5 ng of genomic DNA) than the currently used 50-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. Since signal variation between the different genomes was very low compared to that of cDNA or oligonucleotide-based microarrays, the capacity of global quantification of microbial genomes could also be observed in GPM hybridization. In order to assess the applicability of GPMs, LAB community dynamics were monitored during the fermentation of kimchi, a traditional Korean food. In this work, approximately 100 diverse LAB species could be quantitatively analyzed as actively involved in kimchi fermentation. PMID:16332879

Bae, Jin-Woo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Park, Ja Ryeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Insun; Kim, Hongik; Park, Yong-Ha

2005-01-01

175

[Antioxidant properties of lactic acid bacteria--probiotic and yogurt strains].  

PubMed

Antioxidant properties of 14 strains of lactic acid bacteria were evaluated in vitro using FRAP assay, inhibition of luminol oxidation in Hb-H2O2 system and inhibition of NADPH-Fe2+ induced microsomal lipid peroxidation. All strains demonstrated high reducing properties, but only L. casei spp. (including L. casei 114001) and L. fermentum ME-3 revealed pronounced ability to suppress oxidation of luminol (by 43-65,8%) and microsomal lipid peroxidation (by 57,9-89,5%). Either L. casei 114001 (10(8) CFU suspended in physiological solution) or fermented dairy drink containing equivalent amount of L. casei 114001 were daily administered orally to male Wistar rats. Antioxidant capacity of blood plasma, liver and intestines of animals elevated while MDA content in blood plasma decreased. PMID:19514338

Uskova, M A; Kravchenko, L V

2009-01-01

176

[The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].  

PubMed

The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikha?lova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

2005-01-01

177

The potential of lactic acid bacteria for the production of safe and wholesome food.  

PubMed

By tradition lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in the production of fermented foods. These constitute one quarter of our diet and are characterized by a safe history, certain beneficial health effects, and an extended shelf life when compared with raw materials. The various fermenting substrates are habitats for specific LAB that differ in their metabolic potential. The health effects exerted by LAB are the following: 1. Production of lactic acid and minor amounts of acetic and formic acid. These cause: a drop in pH and thereby growth inhibition of food spoiling or poisoning bacteria; killing of certain pathogens; detoxification by degradation of noxious compounds of plant origin (usually in combination with plant-derived enzymatic activities). 2. Production of antimicrobial compounds (e.g. bacteriocins, H2O2, fatty acids). 3. Probiotic effects as live organisms in food. The wholesomeness of LAB can also be extended to fields outside human nutrition, as they may act as probiotics in animal production or as plant protectives in agriculture and thus contribute to healthy raw materials for food production. Modern concepts or perspectives of the application of LAB include the following: 1. Selection of the best adapted and safely performing LAB strains. 2. Selection of strains with probiotic effects. 3. Selection of strains with health-promoting effects (e.g. production of vitamins or essential amino acids, anti-tumour activity). 4. Selection of strains with food protective activities (inhibiting spoilage or food pathogens). These strains can be added to food or used as starters in food fermentations. They may be found as wild-type organisms or can be obtained by genetic engineering.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8178575

Hammes, W P; Tichaczek, P S

1994-03-01

178

Environmental stress response in wine lactic acid bacteria: beyond Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of bacteria that are traditionally used to produce fermented foods. The industrialization of food transformations has increased the economical importance of LAB, as they play a crucial role in the development of the organoleptic and hygienic quality of fermented products. However, the strains selected for industrial purposes, should tolerate adverse conditions encountered in industrial processes, either during starter handling and storage (freeze-drying, freezing, or spray-drying) or during food processing in which abiotic stresses such as heat, cold, acidity, and high concentration of NaCl or ethanol are common. Wine LAB have to deal with several stresses including an acidic pH, a high alcoholic content, non optimal growth temperatures, and growth-inhibitory compounds such as fatty acids and tannins, originated from yeast and bacteria metabolism. Wine LAB have developed several mechanisms to escape or to tolerate wine conditions. They carry out a malolactic fermentation in this stressful environment. In addition to the regulation of the expression of specific genes, bacteria have evolved adaptive networks to face the challenges of a changing environment and to survive under conditions of stress. The so called Global Regulatory Systems control the simultaneous expression of a large number of genes in response to a variety of environmental stress factors. CIRCE sequences able to bind the HrcA repressor, sigma(B) dependent promoters and CtsR regulatory elements have been observed in several genes identified from wine LAB. Improved knowledge of regulators and a better understanding of LAB stress responses could constitute a basis of comparison with the well known model microorganisms, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Moreover, it can provide an important insight into improving current industrial starter strains. PMID:16809231

Spano, G; Massa, S

2006-01-01

179

Diversity Surveys and Evolutionary Relationships of aoxB Genes in Aerobic Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new primer set was designed to specifically amplify ca. 1,100 bp of aoxB genes encoding the As(III) oxidase catalytic subunit from taxonomically diverse aerobic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria. Comparative analysis of AoxB protein sequences showed variable conservation levels and highlighted the conservation of essential amino acids and structural motifs. AoxB phylogeny of pure strains showed well-discriminated taxonomic groups and was similar

Marianne Quemeneur; Audrey Heinrich-Salmeron; Daniel Muller; Didier Lievremont; Michel Jauzein; Philippe N. Bertin; Francis Garrido; Catherine Joulian

2008-01-01

180

Simplified technique for identification of the aerobic spore-forming bacteria by phenotype.  

PubMed

The use of modern research approaches of genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology has led to progress in bacterial taxonomy. Systematic study of the aerobic spore-forming bacteria has resulted in the realignment of the genus Bacillus into several new genera. In the meantime, the identification process has become more difficult for the non-specialist in Bacillus taxonomy. This paper presents a key for the simplified phenotypic identification of the mesophilic, aerobic, spore-forming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Aneurinibacillus, Geobacillus and Virgibacillus. A total of 81 species were included and 115 morphological and physiological tests were analysed for their discriminative efficiency. This key is practical for rough but quick identification of aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from nature. Such preliminary identification will be helpful for the selection of reference strains and methods for more precise identification using the newest techniques. The reliability of the proposed identification key was tested on 100 cultures from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms. The developed identification key is represented in interactive mode on a website (http://www/imv.kiev.ua/key/). PMID:11491334

Reva, O N; Sorokulova, I B; Smirnov, V V

2001-07-01

181

Absence of host specificity for in vitro adhesion of probiotic lactic acid bacteria to intestinal mucus.  

PubMed

Adhesion of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been reported to be host species specific. Host specificity is regarded as a desirable property for probiotic bacteria and therefore recommended as one of the selection criteria. However, previous studies have indicated that LAB originating from one host adhere well also to the mucus of other species. The aim of the study was to investigate the host specificity of LAB adhesion in human, canine, possum, bird and fish mucus in vitro. An in vitro mucus adhesion model was utilized in this study using immobilized mucus from faeces or intestinal material of these hosts. The results indicate that the adhesion trait was not host specific but rather was characteristic to LAB species. In conclusion, mucus adhesion properties are more dependent on the LAB strain than on the host. This suggests that animal models in probiotic adhesion assays may be more applicable to other species than thought earlier. Positive health effects facilitated by adherent probiotics in humans may also denote the possibility of similar outcome in other species and vice versa. PMID:14637038

Rinkinen, Minna; Westermarck, Elias; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2003-12-01

182

Biotechnology and Pasta-Making: Lactic Acid Bacteria as a New Driver of Innovation  

PubMed Central

Cereals-derived foods represent a key constituent in the diet of many populations. In particular, pasta is consumed in large quantities throughout the world in reason of its nutritive importance, containing significant amounts of complex carbohydrates, proteins, B-vitamins, and iron. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages with high relevance for human and animal health. A wide literature testifies the multifaceted importance of LAB biotechnological applications in cereal-based products. Several studies focused on LAB isolation and characterization in durum wheat environment, in some cases with preliminary experimental applications of LAB in pasta-making. In this paper, using sourdough as a model, we focus on the relevant state-of-art to introduce a LAB-based biotechnological step in industrial pasta-making, a potential world driver of innovation that might represent a cutting-edge advancement in pasta production. PMID:22457660

Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

183

Identification and functional traits of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Ciauscolo salami produced in Central Italy.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Ciauscolo salami produced in Marche Region of Central Italy, and LAB strains belonging to our laboratory collection were examined for their capability to survive at low pH and bile, to adhere to Caco-2 cells, and for antibiotic resistance. LAB from Ciauscolo were identified by ARDRA and RAPD-PCR. Our study showed that all LAB strains had good adaptation to gastric juice and moderate tolerance to bile. The adhesiveness was variable among strains but significantly lower in LAB from food. Antibiotic resistance was broadly spread among food strains, with level of resistance exceeding 15% for all the antibiotics tested. The resistance determinants erm(B) and tet(M) were found in nine strains of food origin (21.4%) while tet(L) in one strain of our collection (5%). Our work suggests that fermented foods are valuable sources of bacterial strains with functional traits of intestinal lactobacilli. These bacteria may be further studied for their use in probiotic applications. PMID:25089780

Federici, Sara; Ciarrocchi, Floriana; Campana, Raffaella; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Blasi, Giuliana; Baffone, Wally

2014-12-01

184

Comparative genomics of lactic acid bacteria reveals a niche-specific gene set  

PubMed Central

Background The recently sequenced genome of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 [1] revealed a dairy organism with significant homology (75% of genes are homologous) to a probiotic bacteria Lb. acidophilus NCFM [2]. This led us to hypothesise that a group of genes could be determined which could define an organism's niche. Results Taking 11 fully sequenced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as our target, (3 dairy LAB, 5 gut LAB and 3 multi-niche LAB), we demonstrated that the presence or absence of certain genes involved in sugar metabolism, the proteolytic system, and restriction modification enzymes were pivotal in suggesting the niche of a strain. We identified 9 niche specific genes, of which 6 are dairy specific and 3 are gut specific. The dairy specific genes identified in Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 were lhv_1161 and lhv_1171, encoding components of the proteolytic system, lhv_1031 lhv_1152, lhv_1978 and lhv_0028 encoding restriction endonuclease genes, while bile salt hydrolase genes lba_0892 and lba_1078, and the sugar metabolism gene lba_1689 from Lb. acidophilus NCFM were identified as gut specific genes. Conclusion Comparative analysis revealed that if an organism had homologs to the dairy specific geneset, it probably came from a dairy environment, whilst if it had homologs to gut specific genes, it was highly likely to be of intestinal origin. We propose that this "barcode" of 9 genes will be a useful initial guide to researchers in the LAB field to indicate an organism's ability to occupy a specific niche. PMID:19265535

2009-01-01

185

GH1-family 6-P-?-glucosidases from human microbiome lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

In lactic acid bacteria and other bacteria, carbohydrate uptake is mostly governed by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs). PTS-dependent translocation through the cell membrane is coupled with phosphorylation of the incoming sugar. After translocation through the bacterial membrane, the ?-glycosidic bond in 6?-­P-­?-glucoside is cleaved, releasing 6-P-?-glucose and the respective aglycon. This reaction is catalyzed by 6-P-?-glucosidases, which belong to two glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH1 and GH4. Here, the high-resolution crystal structures of GH1 6-P-?-glucosidases from Lactobacillus plantarum (LpPbg1) and Streptococcus mutans (SmBgl) and their complexes with ligands are reported. Both enzymes show hydrolytic activity towards 6?-P-?-glucosides. The LpPbg1 structure has been determined in an apo form as well as in a complex with phosphate and a glucose molecule corresponding to the aglycon molecule. The S. mutans homolog contains a sulfate ion in the phosphate-dedicated subcavity. SmBgl was also crystallized in the presence of the reaction product 6-P-?-glucose. For a mutated variant of the S. mutans enzyme (E375Q), the structure of a 6?-P-salicin complex has also been determined. The presence of natural ligands enabled the definition of the structural elements that are responsible for substrate recognition during catalysis. PMID:23519420

Michalska, Karolina; Tan, Kemin; Li, Hui; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2013-01-01

186

Relevance and application of sortase and sortase-dependent proteins in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria found in a vast array of environments including dairy products and the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In both niches, surface proteins play a crucial role in mediating interactions with the surrounding environment. The sortase enzyme is responsible for covalently coupling a subset of sortase-dependent proteins (SDPs) to the cell wall of Gram-positive organisms through recognition of a conserved C-terminal LPXTG motif. Genomic sequencing of LAB and annotation has allowed for the identification of sortase and SDPs. Historically, sortase and SDPs were predominately investigated for their role in mediating pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins in LAB has shed light on their important roles in mediating nutrient acquisition through proteinase P as well as positive probiotic attributes including adhesion, mucus barrier function, and immune signaling. Furthermore, sortase expression signals in LAB have been exploited as a means to develop oral vaccines targeted to the GIT. In this review, we examine the collection of studies which evaluate sortase and SDPs in select species of dairy-associated and health promoting LAB. PMID:23579319

Call, Emma K.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

2013-01-01

187

Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that Staphylococcus aureus may colonize the intestinal tract, especially among hospitalized patients. As Staph. aureus has been found to be associated with certain gastrointestinal diseases, it has become important to study whether this bacterium can colonize the intestinal tract and if so, whether it is possible to prevent colonization. Adhesion is the first step in colonization; this study shows that Staph. aureus adheres to mucus from resected human intestinal tissue. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly commercial probiotics, were able to reduce adhesion and viability of adherent Staph. aureus. In displacement assays the amount of adherent Staph. aureus in human intestinal mucus was reduced 39-44% by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Moreover, adherent Lactobacillus reuteri, Lc. lactis and P. freudenreichii reduced viability of adherent Staph. aureus by 27-36%, depending on the strain, after 2 h incubation. This was probably due to the production of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide and possibly in the case of L. reuteri to the production of reuterin. This study shows for the first time that Staph. aureus can adhere to human intestinal mucus and adherent bacteria can be displaced and killed by certain LAB strains via in situ production of antimicrobial substances. PMID:16735744

Vesterlund, Satu; Karp, Matti; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2006-06-01

188

The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB) on biogenic amines (BA) formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream) IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN) and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05). The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM), dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L) and mackerel (100.84 mg/L) IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L) in sardine IDB. PMID:24294229

Kuley, Esmeray; Ozogul, Fatih; Balikci, Esra; Durmus, Mustafa; Ayas, Deniz

2013-01-01

189

Development and validation of a species-independent functional gene microarray that targets lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

During the last few years, genome-related information has become available for many microorganisms, including important food-related bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important industrially in the production of fermented foods such as dairy products, sausages, sourdoughs, and vegetables. Despite their limited metabolic capacity, LAB contribute considerably to important characteristics of fermented foods, such as flavor and texture. In the present study, a species-independent functional gene microarray was developed that targets 406 genes that play key roles in the production of sugar catabolites, bacteriocins, exopolysaccharides, and aromas, in probiotic and biosafety characteristics, and in the stress response. Also, genes linked to negative traits, such as antibiotic resistance and virulence, are represented. As LAB ecosystems contain a variety of species, there was a more global focus on these specific functional properties. Thus, an algorithm was used to design gene-specific oligonucleotides that preferably hybridize with multiple LAB species, thereby allowing controlled cross-hybridization. For proof of concept, the microarray composed of 2,269 30-mer oligonucleotides focused on LAB species that are prevalent in sourdough ecosystems. Validation hybridizations using DNA and RNA from 18 LAB strains, covering 86% of all the oligonucleotides, showed that there were wide ranges in intensity and high reproducibility between microarrays. PMID:19684161

Weckx, Stefan; Allemeersch, Joke; Van der Meulen, Roel; Vrancken, Gino; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Van Hummelen, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

2009-10-01

190

Psychrotrophic, lactic acid-producing bacteria from anoxic waters in Ace Lake, Antarctica; Carnobacterium funditum sp. nov. and Carnobacterium alterfunditum sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterofermentative, lactic acid-producing, gram-positive, motile bacteria were isolated from the waters of Ace Lake, Antarctica. All strains produced virtually only l(+)lactic acid from d(+)glucose. d(-)ribose was fermented to lactic, acetic, and formic acids, and ethanol. Cell walls contained meso-diaminopimaleic acid. The strains did not grow at 30°C and were psychrotrophic. Whole cells contained 18:1cis 9 as a major component of

P. D. Franzmann; P. Höpfl; N. Weiss; B. J. Tindall

1991-01-01

191

Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited ?-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes to assess their technological performance as novel probiotic starters. PMID:23200662

Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

2013-04-01

192

Growth potential of cottonseed culture media for various clinically significant aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic hydrolysates of various cottonseed flours were prepared with the proteolytic enzymes bromelain, HT-200, Pronase, and trypsin. The growth of various aerobic bacteria of clinical significance in these hydrolysates was compared to that obtained with a standard casein-soybean peptone culture medium, Trypticase soy. The generation times of the majority of bacteria grown in the bromelain cottonseed flour hydrolysate were shorter than that obtained with the standard control broth. A bromelain cottonseed flour hydrolysate agar preparation supported the growth of the bacteria comparably to that of the casein-soybean agar substrate. All the bacterial colonies were larger on the bromelain cottonseed flour hydrolysate blood agar medium than those grown on the control agar. The peptones derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cottonseed flour are sufficient to promote the rapid and luxuriant growth of a wide spectrum of aerobic bacteria without the addition of peptone from other sources. It is suggested that cottonseed flour peptones be utilized as a nutrient source in general-purpose media for the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:1100668

Slifkin, M; Pouchet, G

1975-01-01

193

The use of multiplex PCR reactions to characterize populations of lactic acid bacteria associated with meat spoilage.  

PubMed

A rapid, systematic and reliable approach for identifying lactic acid bacteria associated with meat was developed, allowing for detection of Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lact. sakei and Leuconostoc spp. Polymerase chain reaction primers specific for Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc were created from 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and used in combination with species-specific primers for the 16S/23S rRNA spacer region of Lact. curvatus and Lact. sakei in multiplex PCR reactions. The method was used successfully to characterize lactic acid bacteria isolated from a vacuum-packaged pork loin stored at 2 degrees C. Seventy isolates were selected for identification and 52 were determined to be Lact. sakei, while the remaining 18 isolates were identified as Leuconostoc spp. PMID:10972714

Yost, C K; Nattress, F M

2000-08-01

194

Proteolysis by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Effects on Wheat Flour Protein Fractions and Gliadin Peptides Involved in Human Cereal Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were preliminarily screened for proteolytic activity by using a digest of albumin and globulin polypeptides as a substrate. Based on their hydrolysis profile patterns, Lactobacillus alimentarius 15M, Lactobacillus brevis 14G, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 7A, and Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B were selected and used in sourdough fermentation. A fractionated method of protein extraction and subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis were used

Raffaella Di Cagno; Maria De Angelis; Paola Lavermicocca; Massimo De Vincenzi; Claudio Giovannini; Michele Faccia; Marco Gobbetti

2002-01-01

195

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Escherichia coli ????????????????????????? ISOLATION AND SCREENING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA CAPABLE OF INHIBITING GROWTH OF SOME ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM SWINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and forty-seven strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from some soils, fermented foods, vegetables, fruits, milk and animal products. After cultivation in MRS broth at 37 ?C for 96 hours, each culture supernatant was evaluated its growth inhibitory activity by using a paper disc diffusion method against one strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and nine strains

Mongkhon Punyarat; Narumol Thongwai

196

Microbial Quality and Direct PCR Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonpathogenic Staphylococci from Artisanal Low-Acid Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of six species of lactic acid bacteria and six species of gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from low-acid fermented sausages (fuets and chorizos) was assessed by species-specific PCR. Without enrichment, Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus were detected in 11.8% of the samples, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus were detected in 17.6%. Enriched samples allowed the detection of L. sakei and

T. Aymerich; B. Martin; M. Garriga; M. Hugas

2003-01-01

197

Microbiological Profile of Goat Meat Inoculated with Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultures and Stored at 30°C for 7 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to preserve goat meat at 30°C was evaluated in the present study. Strains\\u000a of Pediococcus pentosaceus GOAT 01 and Lactobacillus plantarum GOAT 012, individually and in combination, were applied as starters on sliced meat samples at 6 log cfu\\/g and stored for\\u000a 7 days at 30°C to simulate ambient temperature in Nigeria. They

Olusegun A. Olaoye; Abiodun A. Onilude; Oyeyemi A. Idowu

2011-01-01

198

Exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria strains from traditional thai fermented foods: isolation, identification and exopolysaccharide characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from various traditional Thai fermented foods were screened for exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. From 104 isolates, two rod-shaped and five coccal-shaped LAB were able to produce EPS from sucrose on solid media. However, only the cocci were capable of producing EPS in liquid media and these were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus. Pediococcus pentosaceus strains AP-1 and

T Smitinont; C Tansakul; S Tanasupawat; S Keeratipibul; L Navarini; M Bosco; P Cescutti

1999-01-01

199

Phylogenetic Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Paddy Rice Silage as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 161 low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria isolated from whole-crop paddy rice silage were classified and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. Based on morphological and biochemical char- acters, these presumptive lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were divided into 10 groups that included members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Weissella. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA

Saïd Ennahar; Yimin Cai; Yasuhito Fujita

2003-01-01

200

Identification of lactic acid bacteria associated with the production of plaa-som, a traditional fermented fish product of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product for which whole fish or fish fillets are fermented with either cooked rice or steamed sticky rice, salt, and garlic. A total of 762 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated during plaa-som fermentation by culture on CaCO3-MRS agar plates. They were screened and grouped by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), giving six

Phikunthong Kopermsub; Sirinda Yunchalard

2010-01-01

201

Capacity of Human Nisin and Pediocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria To Reduce Intestinal Colonization by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated the capacity of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to reduce intes- tinal colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in a mouse model. Lactococcus lactis MM19 and Pediococcus acidilactici MM33 are bacteriocin producers isolated from human feces. The bacteriocin secreted by P. acidilactici is identical to pediocin PA-1\\/AcH, while PCR analysis demonstrated that L. lactis harbors the nisin Z

Mathieu Millette; Gilbert Cornut; Claude Dupont; Francois Shareck; Denis Archambault; Monique Lacroix

2008-01-01

202

Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in different original kefir grains were first assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) by a culture-dependent way, and were further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated that a combined method of cultivation with PCR-DGGE and subsequent DNA sequencing could successfully identify four LAB strains from three kefir grains from Taiwan (named Hsinchu,

Hsi-Chia Chen; Sheng-Yao Wang; Ming-Ju Chen

2008-01-01

203

Phenotypic and molecular identification and clustering of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts from wheat (species Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum) sourdoughs of Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microflora of 25 wheat sourdoughs from the Apulia region, Southern Italy, was characterized. The sourdoughs were mainly produced from Triticum durum wheat. The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts ranged from ca. log7.5 to log9.3 colony forming units (cfu)\\/g and from log5.5 to log8.4 cfu\\/g, respectively. About 38% of the 317 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified

A. Corsetti; P. Lavermicocca; M. Morea; F. Baruzzi; N. Tosti; M. Gobbetti

2001-01-01

204

Oenococcus alcoholitolerans sp. nov., a lactic acid bacteria isolated from cachaça and ethanol fermentation processes.  

PubMed

Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cachaça and alcohol fermentation vats in Brazil were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belong to the genus Oenococcus and should be distinguished from their closest neighbours. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity against the type strains of the other two species of the genus was below 94.76 % (Oenococcus kitaharae) and 94.62 % (Oenococcus oeni). The phylogeny based on pheS gene sequences also confirmed the position of the new taxon. DNA-DNA hybridizations based on in silico genome-to-genome comparison, Average Amino Acid Identity, Average Nucleotide Identity and Karlin genomic signature confirmed the novelty of the taxon. Distinctive phenotypic characteristics are the ability to metabolise sucrose but not trehalose. The name Oenococcus alcoholitolerans sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon, with the type strain UFRJ-M7.2.18(T) ( = CBAS474(T) = LMG27599(T)). In addition, we have determined a draft genome sequence of the type strain. PMID:25315101

Badotti, Fernanda; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Tonon, Luciane A Chimetto; de Lucena, Brígida T Luckwu; Gomes, Fátima de Cássia O; Kruger, Ricardo; Thompson, Cristiane C; de Morais, Marcos Antonio; Rosa, Carlos A; Thompson, Fabiano L

2014-12-01

205

The effect of marination on lactic acid bacteria communities in raw broiler fillet strips  

PubMed Central

Marination with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of marination, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The communities were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the marinated fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that marination changed the community composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. Marination increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO2 production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO2 in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in marinated meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with marinated and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685

Nieminen, T. T.; Valitalo, H.; Sade, E.; Paloranta, A.; Koskinen, K.; Bjorkroth, J.

2012-01-01

206

Lactic acid bacteria in marinades used for modified atmosphere packaged broiler chicken meat products.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in some marinades commonly used in Finland for modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat products were enumerated and identified to determine whether the marinades contained LAB species that cause meat spoilage. The concentrations of LAB in 51 marinade samples ranged from less than 100 to 8.0 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Seventeen of the samples produced LAB growth only after enrichment, and in five samples no growth was detected either by direct culturing or enrichment. Eighty-eight randomly selected isolates, 51 from the enumerated plates and 37 from enriched samples, were identified using a database of 16S and 23S rRNA gene HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of over 300 type and references LAB strains as operational taxonomic units in numerical analyses. The predominating LAB in the enumerated samples was Lactobacillus plantarum (25 of 51 isolates). Eleven isolates were identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and nine were Lactobacillus parabuchneri. None of these species are considered specific spoilage LAB in marinated modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat products nor have they been reported to dominate in unspoiled late-shelf-life products. These results indicate that even though marinades may contain high numbers of LAB, they are not necessarily sources of specific meat spoilage LAB. Therefore, risks associated with meat quality are not predicted by quantitative enumeration of LAB in marinades. PMID:17388074

Lundström, Hanna-Saara; Björkroth, Johanna

2007-03-01

207

Production of 2-butanol through meso-2,3-butanediol consumption in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

2-Butanol has been an issue of industries in many areas, for example, biofuel production (as an advanced alternate fuel), fermented beverages, and food (as taste-altering component). Thus, its source of production, the biological pathway, and the enzymes involved are of high interest. In this study, 42 different isolates of lactic acid bacteria from nine different species were screened for their capability to consume meso-2,3-butanediol and produce 2-butanol. Lactobacillus brevis was the only species that showed any production of 2-butanol. Five of ten tested isolates of L. brevis were able to convert meso-2,3-butanediol to 2-butanol in a synthetic medium (SM2). However, none of them showed the same capability in a complex medium such as MRS indicating that the ability to produce 2-butanol is subject to some kind of repression mechanism. Furthermore, by evaluating the performance of the enzymes required to convert meso-2,3-butanediol to 2-butanol, that is, the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and the diol dehydratase, it was shown that the latter needed the presence of a substrate to be expressed. PMID:25175699

Ghiaci, Payam; Lameiras, Francisca; Norbeck, Joakim; Larsson, Christer

2014-11-01

208

Esterase activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from malolactic fermentation of red wines.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine the esterase activity of 243 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from wines of different red grape varieties, belonging to the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus. p-Nitrophenyl octanoate was used as substrate. All strains presented esterase activity in the first screening, but only those showing higher activity were used in subsequent studies to determine the cellular location of this activity, the influence of pH, temperature and the presence of ethanol and the substrate specificity. For the thirteen selected strains, the highest activity was observed in the intracellular fraction. Responses to pH, temperature and ethanol were strain-dependent, but for all the strains, a marked decrease in activity in presence of ethanol was observed. When the influence of pH and ethanol acting together was studied at 25 °C and 37 °C, temperature-dependent differences were not observed for any of the strains except for Oen6. In the substrate specificity assay, the majority of strains of all genera displayed a trend to more readily hydrolyse ester substrates from C8 and longer. PMID:23558198

Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

2013-05-15

209

Correlation between in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory properties of lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation between the in vitro immune profile of probiotic strains and their ability to prevent experimental colitis in mice. METHODS: in vitro immunomodulation was assessed by measuring interleukin (IL)-12p70, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interferon ? (IFN?) release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after 24 h stimulation with 13 live bacterial strains. A murine model of acute TNBS-colitis was next used to evaluate the prophylactic protective capacity of the same set of strains. RESULTS: A strain-specific in vivo protection was observed. The strains displaying an in vitro capacity to induce higher levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and lower levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-12, offered the best protection in the in vivo colitis model. In contrast, strains leading to a low IL-10/IL-12 cytokine ratio could not significantly attenuate colitis symptoms. CONCLUSION: These results show that we could predict the in vivo protective capacity of the studied lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based on the cytokine profile we established in vitro. The PBMC-based assay we used may thus serve as a useful primary indicator to narrow down the number of candidate strains to be tested in murine models for their anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:17226902

Foligne, Benoit; Nutten, Sophie; Grangette, Corinne; Dennin, Veronique; Goudercourt, Denise; Poiret, Sabine; Dewulf, Joelle; Brassart, Dominique; Mercenier, Annick; Pot, Bruno

2007-01-01

210

Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria in douchi from Yunnan Province, China*  

PubMed Central

This research was aimed at isolating and identifying the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional Chinese salt-fermented soybean food, douchi, from Yunnan, China. The predominant LAB present were isolated and identified by conventional culture-dependent methods combined with molecular biological methods. Two hundred and sixty isolates were obtained from thirty kinds of traditional fermented douchi from six cities and counties in Yunnan, and those strains were divided into twelve groups by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and analysis, 56 representative strains were identified as belonging to 6 genera and 14 species: Lactobacillus (4 spp.), Weissella (3 spp.), Pediococcus (2 spp.), Staphylococcus (2 spp.), Enterococcus (1 sp.), and Bacillus (2 spp.). The results show that douchi contains a large natural population of LAB of diverse composition from which some strains could be selected as starters for functional fermented foods. This is the first study on the original douchi from Yunnan, and the results suggest that it may be a useful source for the isolation of LAB. This study has also laid a foundation for further research on developing functional douchi products. PMID:22467371

Liu, Chen-jian; Gong, Fu-ming; Li, Xiao-ran; Li, Hai-yan; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Feng, Yue; Nagano, Hiroko

2012-01-01

211

Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Italian ryegrass silage.  

PubMed

Twenty-three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from three cultivars (Akiaoba, Nagahahikari and Tachiwase) of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were precisely characterized by a combination of phenotypic tests, genotypic 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and rapid PCR-based analyses, focusing on their useful phenotypes for silage preparation as inoculants. We successfully identified both at the species and subspecies levels: phenotypically novel Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. carnosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Pediococcus parvulus. This is the first report to elucidate the presence of Lactobacillus coryniformis ssp. torquens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum in Italian ryegrass silages. Physiological and biochemical tests revealed that phenotypic characteristics are different among the different strains of the same species and subspecies, and that the isolates show unique and diverse phenotypes related to fermentation factors, such as available carbohydrates, optimal growth pH and temperature. These results suggest that, for various well-preserved silage preparations, the isolates may be useful in producing novel inoculants corresponding to their optimally climatic and ecological niches. PMID:22339691

Tohno, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hisami; Nomura, Masaru; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Cai, Yimin

2012-02-01

212

Broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.  

PubMed

A large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould Penicillium expansum. In excess of 500 LAB isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against P. expansum, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing of 94 broad spectrum isolates revealed that the majority of antifungal producers were strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. The remaining population was composed of Weissella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceous isolates. Characterization of six selected broad-spectrum antifungal LAB isolates revealed that antifungal activity is maximal at a temperature of 30 °C, a pH of 4.0 and is stable across a variety of salt concentrations. The antifungal compound(s) was shown to be neither proteinaceous nor volatile in nature. P. pentosaceous 54 was shown to have protective properties against P. expansum spoilage when applied in pear, plum and grape models, therefore representing an excellent candidate for food-related applications. PMID:23160868

Crowley, Sarah; Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

2013-07-01

213

Interaction of Aeromonas Strains with Lactic Acid Bacteria via Caco-2 Cells  

PubMed Central

The genus Aeromonas includes some species that have now been identified as human pathogens of significant medical importance. We investigated the ability of 13 selected Aeromonas strains belonging to nine species isolated from clinical cases (n = 5), environmental waters (n = 5), and fish (n = 3) to adhere to and translocate Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB), i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve. Aeromonas isolates were also assessed for their cytotoxicity, the presence of virulence genes, and hemolysin production. Among the clinical isolates, one strain of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii and two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila carried cytotoxin (act), heat-labile toxin (alt), hemolysin (hlyA), and aerolysin (aerA) genes, were cytotoxic to Vero cells, produced hemolysin, and showed higher adherence to Caco-2 cells. In contrast, this was seen in only one environmental strain, a strain of A. veronii biovar sobria. When Aeromonas strains were coinoculated with LAB onto Caco-2 cells, their level of adhesion was reduced. However, their rate of translocation in the presence of LAB increased and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher among fish strains. We suggest that either the interaction between Aeromonas and LAB strains could have a detrimental effect on the Caco-2 cells, allowing the Aeromonas to translocate more readily, or the presence of the LAB stimulated the Aeromonas strains to produce more toxins and/or increase their translocation rate. PMID:24242240

Hatje, E.; Neuman, C.

2014-01-01

214

The investigation of probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products, and to estimate the probiotic potential of the isolated strains. We collected 66 samples of the traditional Mongolian dairy products tarag (n = 45), airag (n = 7), aaruul (n = 8), byasulag (n = 1) and eezgii (n = 5), from which 543 LAB strains were isolated and identified based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. The predominant species of those products were Lactobacillus (L.) delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, L. helveticus, L. fermentum, L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. However, we could not detect any LAB strains from eezgii. All LAB isolates were screened for tolerance to low pH and to bile acid, gas production from glucose, and adherence to Caco-2 cells. In vitro, we found 10 strains possess probiotic properties, and almost identified them as L. plantarum or L. paracasei subspecies, based on 16S ribosomal DNA and carbohydrate fermentation pattern. These strains were differentiated from each other individually by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Additionally, it was notable that 6/10 strains were isolated from camel milk tarag from the Dornogovi province. PMID:21794017

Takeda, Shiro; Yamasaki, Keiko; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yukiharu; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Dashnyam, Bumbein; Ahhmed, Abdulatef M; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

2011-08-01

215

The effect of marination on lactic acid bacteria communities in raw broiler fillet strips.  

PubMed

Marination with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of marination, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The communities were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the marinated fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that marination changed the community composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. Marination increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO(2) production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO(2) in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in marinated meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with marinated and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685

Nieminen, T T; Välitalo, H; Säde, E; Paloranta, A; Koskinen, K; Björkroth, J

2012-01-01

216

Interaction of Aeromonas strains with lactic acid bacteria via Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The genus Aeromonas includes some species that have now been identified as human pathogens of significant medical importance. We investigated the ability of 13 selected Aeromonas strains belonging to nine species isolated from clinical cases (n = 5), environmental waters (n = 5), and fish (n = 3) to adhere to and translocate Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB), i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve. Aeromonas isolates were also assessed for their cytotoxicity, the presence of virulence genes, and hemolysin production. Among the clinical isolates, one strain of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii and two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila carried cytotoxin (act), heat-labile toxin (alt), hemolysin (hlyA), and aerolysin (aerA) genes, were cytotoxic to Vero cells, produced hemolysin, and showed higher adherence to Caco-2 cells. In contrast, this was seen in only one environmental strain, a strain of A. veronii biovar sobria. When Aeromonas strains were coinoculated with LAB onto Caco-2 cells, their level of adhesion was reduced. However, their rate of translocation in the presence of LAB increased and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher among fish strains. We suggest that either the interaction between Aeromonas and LAB strains could have a detrimental effect on the Caco-2 cells, allowing the Aeromonas to translocate more readily, or the presence of the LAB stimulated the Aeromonas strains to produce more toxins and/or increase their translocation rate. PMID:24242240

Hatje, E; Neuman, C; Katouli, M

2014-01-01

217

Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria isolated from some pharmaceutical and dairy products.  

PubMed

A total of 244 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from 180 dairy and pharmaceutical products that were collected from different areas in Minia governorate, Egypt. LAB were identified phenotypically on basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Lactobacillus isolates were further confirmed using PCR-based assay. By combination of phenotypic with molecular identification Lactobacillus spp. were found to be the dominant genus (138, 76.7%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (65, 36.1%) and Lactococcus spp. (27, 15%). Some contaminant organisms such as (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., mould and yeast) were isolated from the collected dairy samples but pharmaceutical products were free of such contaminants. Susceptibility of LAB isolates to antibiotics representing all major classes was tested by agar dilution method. Generally, LAB were highly susceptible to Beta-lactams except penicillin. Lactobacilli were resistant to vancomycin, however lactococci and streptococci proved to be very susceptible. Most strains were susceptible to tetracycline and showed a wide range of streptomycin MICs. The MICs of erythromycin and clindamycin for most of the LAB were within the normal range of susceptibility. Sixteen Lactobacillus, 8 Lactococcus and 8 Streptococcus isolates including all tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant strains were tested for the presence of tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant genes [tet(M) and/or erm(B)]. PCR assays shows that some resistant strains harbor tet(M) and/or erm(B) resistance genes. PMID:24948910

Gad, Gamal Fadl M; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Farag, Zeinab Shawky H

2014-01-01

218

Molecular characterization of native isolates of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and yeasts for beneficial attributes.  

PubMed

In a changing scenario of food habits being associated with wellness factors through the concepts of probiotics and prebiotics, an attempt has been made to characterize on molecular basis, the desirable benefits associated with natural isolates of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, and yeasts. From a diverse range of foods and related samples, based on conventional microbiological protocols, three well-characterized natural isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5422, Bifidobacterium adolescentis MTCC 5423 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 5421 were selected. The cultures of L. plantarum and B. adolescentis showed positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with oligonucleotide primers targeting genus-specific 16 S rRNA for Lactobacillus and fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase for Bifidobacterium. Similarly, species-specific positive amplification in PCR was observed with primers of phytase (acid phosphatase) in S. cerevisiae and alpha-D: -galactosidase and bile salt hydrolase in L. plantarum and B. adolescentis. The cultures of L. plantarum and B. adolescentis exhibited a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against selected foodborne pathogenic bacterial species and tolerance to acid and bile. Gene sequence of respective PCR-amplified products confirmed the genetic identity of the isolated cultures as L. plantarum and B. adolescentis showing 99% homology with the documented sequence of established gene bank. PMID:19407995

Roopashri, Arekal N; Varadaraj, Mandyam C

2009-07-01

219

Changes in satiety hormone concentrations and feed intake in rats in response to lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

A negative energy balance can be accomplished by reducing the caloric intake which results in an increased feeling of hunger. This physiological state is regulated by secretion of satiety hormones. The secretion of these hormones can be influenced by ingestion of e.g. fat. Fat, dairy beverage and synbiotic mixture have been found to have satiety-inducing effects in humans and rats. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the change of satiety hormone concentration in rats in response to feeding of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria. Two studies were conducted with Wistar rats randomly allocated into groups receiving Lactobacillus fermented (2 L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus) milk. A single isocaloric oral dose with the test item or control was given to the rats. Blood samples were taken after dosing with the test product and the satiety hormones were measured. For the test groups, significant changes could be detected in PYY concentrations after 60 min, although some groups had a significant lower feed intake. In conclusion, some probiotic Lactobacillus strains may modify satiety hormones production. However, more studies are needed to evaluate their potential of prolonging satiety. PMID:23850967

Forssten, Sofia D; Korczy?ska, Marta Z; Zwijsen, Renate M L; Noordman, Wouter H; Madetoja, Mari; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2013-12-01

220

Evidence of Two Functionally Distinct Ornithine Decarboxylation Systems in Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are low-molecular-weight organic bases whose presence in food can result in health problems. The biosynthesis of biogenic amines in fermented foods mostly proceeds through amino acid decarboxylation carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but not all systems leading to biogenic amine production by LAB have been thoroughly characterized. Here, putative ornithine decarboxylation pathways consisting of a putative ornithine decarboxylase and an amino acid transporter were identified in LAB by strain collection screening and database searches. The decarboxylases were produced in heterologous hosts and purified and characterized in vitro, whereas transporters were heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis and functionally characterized in vivo. Amino acid decarboxylation by whole cells of the original hosts was determined as well. We concluded that two distinct types of ornithine decarboxylation systems exist in LAB. One is composed of an ornithine decarboxylase coupled to an ornithine/putrescine transmembrane exchanger. Their combined activities results in the extracellular release of putrescine. This typical amino acid decarboxylation system is present in only a few LAB strains and may contribute to metabolic energy production and/or pH homeostasis. The second system is widespread among LAB. It is composed of a decarboxylase active on ornithine and l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) and a transporter that mediates unidirectional transport of ornithine into the cytoplasm. Diamines that result from this second system are retained within the cytosol. PMID:22247134

Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Lolkema, Juke S.

2012-01-01

221

Ester synthesis in an aqueous environment by Streptococcus thermophilus and other dairy lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 and 19 other dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to synthesize esters was investigated in an aqueous environment. These LAB were able to synthesize esters from alcohols and glycerides via a transferase reaction (alcoholysis) in which fatty acyl groups from glycerides were transferred to alcohols. S. thermophilus ST1 was active on tributyrin and on di- or monoglycerides of up to C10 with ethanol as the acyl acceptor. This strain was also active on a diglyceride of C6 and monoglyceride of C8 with 2-phenyl ethanol as the acyl acceptor. Alcoholysis occurred preferentially over hydrolysis. S. thermophilus ST1 had an apparent K(m) value of 250 mM for ethanol and an apparent K(m) value of 1.3 mM for tributyrin, measured against whole cells. Around 80% of both the transferase activity and the esterase activity were detected in the cell-free extract (CFE) of strain ST1. Both activities in the CFEs of five LAB tested were, to a similar degree, enhanced slightly by growth in the presence of ethanol and tributyrin. Using tributyrin and ethanol as substrates, the transferase activities ranged over 0.006-1.37 units/mg cell dry weight among the LAB tested and were both species- and strain-dependent. PMID:12819958

Liu, S-Q; Holland, R; Crow, V L

2003-11-01

222

Structure-function relationships of glucansucrase and fructansucrase enzymes from lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) employ sucrase-type enzymes to convert sucrose into homopolysaccharides consisting of either glucosyl units (glucans) or fructosyl units (fructans). The enzymes involved are labeled glucansucrases (GS) and fructansucrases (FS), respectively. The available molecular, biochemical, and structural information on sucrase genes and enzymes from various LAB and their fructan and alpha-glucan products is reviewed. The GS and FS enzymes are both glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the same substrate (sucrose) and catalyze (retaining) transglycosylation reactions that result in polysaccharide formation, but they possess completely different protein structures. GS enzymes (family GH70) are large multidomain proteins that occur exclusively in LAB. Their catalytic domain displays clear secondary-structure similarity with alpha-amylase enzymes (family GH13), with a predicted permuted (beta/alpha)(8) barrel structure for which detailed structural and mechanistic information is available. Emphasis now is on identification of residues and regions important for GS enzyme activity and product specificity (synthesis of alpha-glucans differing in glycosidic linkage type, degree and type of branching, glucan molecular mass, and solubility). FS enzymes (family GH68) occur in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and synthesize beta-fructan polymers with either beta-(2-->6) (inulin) or beta-(2-->1) (levan) glycosidic bonds. Recently, the first high-resolution three-dimensional structures have become available for FS (levansucrase) proteins, revealing a rare five-bladed beta-propeller structure with a deep, negatively charged central pocket. Although these structures have provided detailed mechanistic insights, the structural features in FS enzymes dictating the synthesis of either beta-(2-->6) or beta-(2-->1) linkages, degree and type of branching, and fructan molecular mass remain to be identified. PMID:16524921

van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Kralj, Slavko; Ozimek, Lukasz K; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; van Geel-Schutten, Ineke G H

2006-03-01

223

Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheeses and yogurts.  

PubMed

The biopreservation of foods using bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated directly from foods is an innovative approach. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteriocinogenic LAB from various cheeses and yogurts and evaluate their antimicrobial effects on selected spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in vitro as well as on a food commodity.LAB were isolated using MRS and M17 media. The agar diffusion bioassay was used to screen for bacteriocin or bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) producing LAB using Lactobacillus sakei and Listeria innocua as indicator organisms. Out of 138 LAB isolates, 28 were found to inhibit these bacteria and were identified as strains of Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Eight isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity at 5°C and 20°C against L. innocua, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides using the agar diffusion bioassay, and also against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia frucitcola using the microdilution plate method. The effect of selected LAB strains on L. innocua inoculated onto fresh-cut onions was also investigated.Twenty percent of our isolates produced BLS inhibiting the growth of L. innocua and/or Lact. sakei. Organic acids and/or H2O2 produced by LAB and not the BLS had strong antimicrobial effects on all microorganisms tested with the exception of E. coli. Ent. faecium, Strep. thermophilus and Lact. casei effectively inhibited the growth of natural microflora and L. innocua inoculated onto fresh-cut onions. Bacteriocinogenic LAB present in cheeses and yogurts may have potential to be used as biopreservatives in foods. PMID:22963659

Yang, En; Fan, Lihua; Jiang, Yueming; Doucette, Craig; Fillmore, Sherry

2012-01-01

224

Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheeses and yogurts  

PubMed Central

The biopreservation of foods using bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated directly from foods is an innovative approach. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteriocinogenic LAB from various cheeses and yogurts and evaluate their antimicrobial effects on selected spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in vitro as well as on a food commodity. LAB were isolated using MRS and M17 media. The agar diffusion bioassay was used to screen for bacteriocin or bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) producing LAB using Lactobacillus sakei and Listeria innocua as indicator organisms. Out of 138 LAB isolates, 28 were found to inhibit these bacteria and were identified as strains of Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Eight isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity at 5°C and 20°C against L. innocua, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides using the agar diffusion bioassay, and also against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia frucitcola using the microdilution plate method. The effect of selected LAB strains on L. innocua inoculated onto fresh-cut onions was also investigated. Twenty percent of our isolates produced BLS inhibiting the growth of L. innocua and/or Lact. sakei. Organic acids and/or H2O2 produced by LAB and not the BLS had strong antimicrobial effects on all microorganisms tested with the exception of E. coli. Ent. faecium, Strep. thermophilus and Lact. casei effectively inhibited the growth of natural microflora and L. innocua inoculated onto fresh-cut onions. Bacteriocinogenic LAB present in cheeses and yogurts may have potential to be used as biopreservatives in foods. PMID:22963659

2012-01-01

225

Effect of radiation dose on the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from mice  

SciTech Connect

The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9, or 10 Gy /sup 60/Co radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The number of mice that were culture positive and the number of isolates in one site increased with increasing dose. Bacteria were recovered in mice killed at various times after radiation, in 3 of 100 mice exposed to 7 Gy, in 13 of 100 irradiated with 8 Gy, in 23 of 90 exposed to 9 Gy, and in 34 of 87 irradiated with 10 Gy. The predominant organisms recovered were Escherichia coli, anerobic Gram-positive cocci, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides spp. Escherichia coli and anaerobes were more often isolated in animals exposed to 10 Gy, while S. aureus was more often recovered in those irradiated with 9 Gy. These data demonstrate a relationship between the dose of radiation and the rate of infection due to entire aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Reprints.

Brook, I.; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J.

1986-01-01

226

[Use of real-time PCR for quantitative assessment of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in dairy products].  

PubMed

Composition of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in raw milk and home-made milk products has been analyzed using real-time PCR (quantitative PCR) with genus-specific primers to Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Bacteria belonging to these genera have been revealed in all samples analyzed (milk, sour cream, cottage cheese). It has been shown that the representatives of Enterococcus and Lactobacillus genera dominated in the samples analyzed (10(3)-10(7) genome equivalent/ml (mg)). The largest number of these microorganisms (10(7) genome equivalent/mg) has been detected in cottage cheese. PMID:22545439

Zelenaia, L B; Kovalenko, N K; Oblap, R V; Hovak, N B; Golubets, R A

2012-01-01

227

Phylogenetic and Kinetic Diversity of Aerobic Vinyl Chloride-Assimilating Bacteria from Contaminated Sites  

PubMed Central

Aerobic bacteria that grow on vinyl chloride (VC) have been isolated previously, but their diversity and distribution are largely unknown. It is also unclear whether such bacteria contribute to the natural attenuation of VC at chlorinated-ethene-contaminated sites. We detected aerobic VC biodegradation in 23 of 37 microcosms and enrichments inoculated with samples from various sites. Twelve different bacteria (11 Mycobacterium strains and 1 Nocardioides strain) capable of growth on VC as the sole carbon source were isolated, and 5 representative strains were examined further. All the isolates grew on ethene in addition to VC and contained VC-inducible ethene monooxygenase activity. The Mycobacterium strains (JS60, JS61, JS616, and JS617) all had similar growth yields (5.4 to 6.6 g of protein/mol), maximum specific growth rates (0.17 to 0.23 day?1), and maximum specific substrate utilization rates (9 to 16 nmol/min/mg of protein) with VC. The Nocardioides strain (JS614) had a higher growth yield (10.3 g of protein/mol), growth rate (0.71 day?1), and substrate utilization rate (43 nmol/min/mg of protein) with VC but was much more sensitive to VC starvation. Half-velocity constant (Ks) values for VC were between 0.5 and 3.2 ?M, while Ks values for oxygen ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 mg/liter. Our results indicate that aerobic VC-degrading microorganisms (predominantly Mycobacterium strains) are widely distributed at sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and are likely to be responsible for the natural attenuation of VC. PMID:12450841

Coleman, Nicholas V.; Mattes, Timothy E.; Gossett, James M.; Spain, Jim C.

2002-01-01

228

Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI. PMID:21569932

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

2011-08-01

229

Influence of Different Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria on Microbiota and Metabolism of Rats with Dysbiosis  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are often used for prevention and treatment of dysbiosis. However, the action of various strains of LAB on metabolism and digestion under these conditions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of probiotic LAB on metabolism, digestion and microbiota in animals with dysbiosis. After administration of ampicillin and metronidazole male Wistar rats, were fed products containing Enterococcus faecium L3 (E.f.), Lactobacillus fermentum Z (L.f.) or milk (control 1). Animals in control group 2 were fed milk, after water instead of antibiotics. Dyspeptic symptoms disappeared after administration of probiotic compared with control 1. At the end of the experiment, an increase in the content of enterococci and lactobacilli in the proximal part of the small intestine was found in the animals treated with E.f. and L.f., respectively. After the introduction of probiotic enterococci, the quantity of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the intestines of rats increased, and the content of Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli decreased in comparison with the control group 1 and the group fed lactobacilli. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase was greater in blood serum of rats with dysbiosis receiving milk and lactobacilli. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity increased in the epithelium and chyme in the jejunum of the animals treated with L. f. and in the chyme only in the animals treated with E. f. Thus, the specific effects of different strains of probiotic LAB on the microbiota, and on metabolism and digestion of various nutrients were demonstrated. PMID:24936361

ERMOLENKO, Elena; GROMOVA, Ludmila; BORSCHEV, Yuri; VOEIKOVA, Anna; KARASEVA, Alena; ERMOLENKO, Konstantin; GRUZDKOV, Andrei; SUVOROV, Alexander

2013-01-01

230

Adherent properties and macrophage activation ability of 3 strains of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) must possess probiotic properties in order to be beneficial to humans and animals. The adherent properties, the acid and bile tolerance as well as the macrophage activation ability of isolated LAB strains were investigated in this study. The adhesion was analyzed following heat, acid, trypsin, and sodium periodate treatments. Production of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by RAW 264.7 macrophages was also measured after stimulation with heat-killed LAB strains. The viable strains of Lactobacillus fermentum AF7, L. acidophilus GG5, and L. plantarum BB9 were able to tightly adhere to the intestinal Caco-2 cells. In addition, the GG5 strain was not affected by heating, acid, trypsin, or sodium periodate treatment. However, the adhesion of strains AF7 and BB9 was reduced significantly by heating and trypsin treatment. This result suggested the GG5 and AF7 or BB9 strains had different cell-surface adherent factors. TNF-? production by the RAW 264.7 macrophages was induced significantly following stimulation with heat-killed LAB at 10(8) CFU/mL in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, macrophage activity was similar whether the treatment consisted of live probiotics, or probiotics treated with heat, acid, or trypsin. However, the activity was reduced after treating with sonication. These in vitro results showed that the LAB studied possess probiotic characteristics, such as acid or bile tolerance, adherent capability, and immune activation, and may suggest that these LAB strains retain their probiotic activity as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21535686

Lin, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chi-Rei; Fang, Tony J; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Kai-Li; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Huang, Shi-Ying; Hseu, You-Cheng

2011-01-01

231

Anti-listerial inhibitory lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial cold smoked salmon.  

PubMed

The natural microflora of cold-smoked fish at the end of shelf-life are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some of these display a capacity to inhibit spoilage as well as several strains of pathogenic micro-organisms, e.g. Listeria monocytogenes which is isolated frequently from cold-smoked salmon (CSS). Eight batches of sliced vacuum-packed CSS from Norway, Scotland and Spain were collected at retail. Packs were stored at 5 degrees C and examined for chemical and microbiological characteristics, at purchase date and at expiration date. pH, water activity and salt content were similar to available data on lightly preserved fish products. There was a consistent pattern in the development of the microflora on CSS; the initial level of LAB was low on freshly produced CSS (10(2) cfu g(-1)); however, storage in vacuum packaging at refrigeration temperature was elective for LAB. At the end of the stated shelf-life these micro-organisms, represented mainly by Lactobacillus spp., attained ca.10(7) cfu g(-1) while Enterobacteriaceae counts were consistently lower (10(5) cfu g(-1)), which indicates the ability of LAB to grow and compete with few carbohydrates available and in the presence of moderate salt concentrations. L. monocytogenes was not found in any sample. Forty-one percent of LAB strains isolated exhibited inhibitory capacity against Listeria innocua, in a plate assay. A majority of the inhibitory effects were non-bacteriocinogenic, but nevertheless were very competitive cultures which may provide an additional hurdle for improved preservation by natural means. PMID:16943030

Tomé, Elisabetta; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A

2006-06-01

232

Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient  

PubMed Central

Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg?1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682. PMID:9925588

Leisner, J?rgen J.; Pot, Bruno; Christensen, Henrik; Rusul, Gulam; Olsen, John E.; Wee, Bee Wah; Muhamad, Kharidah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.

1999-01-01

233

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

PubMed Central

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik

2013-01-01

234

Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination. PMID:23296912

Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

2013-05-01

235

Diverse Arrangement of Photosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC). In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. Conclusions/Significance Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria. PMID:21949847

Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Koblizek, Michal; Boldareva, Ekaterina N.; Yurkov, Vladimir; Yan, Shi; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-01-01

236

Control of tyramine and histamine accumulation by lactic acid bacteria using bacteriocin forming lactococci.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the competitive effects of three bacteriocin producing strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis against two aminobiogenic lactic acid bacteria, i.e. the tyramine producing strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 and the histamine producing strain Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60, inoculated at different initial concentrations (from 2 to 6logcfu/ml). The results showed that the three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were able to produce bacteriocins: in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 and EG46 produced, respectively, nisin Z and lacticin 481, while for the strains CG27 the bacteriocin has not been yet identified, even if its peptidic nature has been demonstrated. The co-culture of E. faecalis EF37 in combination with lactococci significantly reduced the growth potential of this aminobiogenic strain, both in terms of growth rate and maximum cell concentration, depending on the initial inoculum level of E. faecalis. Tyramine accumulation was strongly reduced when E. faecalis EF37 was inoculated at 2logcfu/ml and, to a lesser extent, at 3logcfu/ml, as a result of a lower cell load of the aminobiogenic strain. All the lactococci were more efficient in inhibiting streptococci in comparison with E. faecalis EF37; in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 induced the death of S. thermophilus PRI60 and allowed the detection of histamine traces only at higher streptococci inoculum levels (5-6logcfu/ml). The other two lactococcal strains did not show a lethal action against S. thermophilus PRI60, but were able to reduce its growth extent and histamine accumulation, even if L. lactis subsp. lactis EG46 was less effective when the initial streptococci concentration was 5 and 6logcfu/ml. This preliminary study has clarified some aspects regarding the ratio between bacteriocinogenic strains and aminobiogenic strains with respect to the possibility to accumulate BA and has also showed that different bacteriocins can have different effects on BA production on the same strain. This knowledge is essentially aimed to use bacteriocinogenic lactococci as a predictable strategy against aminobiogenic bacteria present in cheese or other fermented foods. PMID:25173915

Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Felis, Giovanna; Torriani, Sandra; Gardini, Fausto

2014-11-01

237

Cultivable microbiota of Lithobates catesbeianus and advances in the selection of lactic acid bacteria as biological control agents in raniculture.  

PubMed

The cultivable microbiota of skin and cloaca of captive Lithobates catesbeianus includes microorganisms generally accepted as beneficial and potentially pathogenic bacteria. In order to select a group of potentially probiotic bacteria, 136 isolates were evaluated for their surface properties and production of antagonistic metabolites. Then, 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, L. garvieae and Enterococcus gallinarum. Studies of compatibility indicate that all the strains could be included in a multi-strain probiotic, with the exception of Ent. gallinarum CRL 1826 which inhibited LAB species through a bacteriocin-like metabolite. These results contribute to the design of a probiotic product to improve the sanitary status of bullfrogs in intensive culture systems, to avoid the use of antibiotics and thus to reduce production costs. It could also be an alternative to prevent infectious diseases during the ex situ breeding of amphibian species under threat of extinction. PMID:22695175

Mendoza, Gabriela Montel; Pasteris, Sergio E; Ale, Cesar E; Otero, María C; Bühler, Marta I; Nader-Macías, María E Fátima

2012-12-01

238

Effect of temperature on chitin and astaxanthin recoveries from shrimp waste using lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chitin and astaxanthin recoveries by lactic acid fermentation of shrimp wastes (Litopenaeus sp) were conducted in bed-column reactors at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C. The response surface methodology showed that the fermentations carried out in the 27–36°C temperature range with lactic acid above 0.319mmol\\/g resulted in the highest demineralization. The maximal deproteinizations were attained from 30

Neith Pacheco; Mónica Garnica-González; Jessica Y. Ramírez-Hernández; Belem Flores-Albino; Miquel Gimeno; Eduardo Bárzana; Keiko Shirai

2009-01-01

239

Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. PMID:25261518

Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

2014-12-15

240

Summer community structure of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the western Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are found in a range of aquatic and terrestrial environments, potentially playing unique roles in biogeochemical cycles. Although known to occur in the Arctic Ocean, their ecology and the factors that govern their community structure and distribution in this extreme environment are poorly understood. Here, we examined summer AAP abundance and diversity in the North East Pacific and the Arctic Ocean with emphasis on the southern Beaufort Sea. AAP bacteria comprised up to 10 and 14% of the prokaryotic community in the bottom nepheloid layer and surface waters of the Mackenzie plume, respectively. However, relative AAP abundances were low in offshore waters. Environmental pufM clone libraries revealed that AAP bacteria in the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes dominated in offshore and in river-influenced surface waters, respectively. The most frequent AAP group was a new uncultivated betaproteobacterial clade whose abundance decreased along the salinity gradient of the Mackenzie plume even though its photosynthetic genes were actively expressed in offshore waters. Our data indicate that AAP bacterial assemblages represented a mixture of freshwater and marine taxa mostly restricted to the Arctic Ocean and highlight the substantial influence of riverine inputs on their distribution in coastal environments. PMID:23560623

Boeuf, Dominique; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L; Lebaron, Philippe; Jeanthon, Christian

2013-09-01

241

Characterisation of aerobically grown non-spore-forming bacteria from paper mill pulps containing recycled fibres.  

PubMed

A total of 179 non-spore-forming bacteria aerobically growing on Nutrient Agar, Plate Count Agar or in specific enrichment conditions for salmonella, campylobacteria, listeria, yersinia or staphylococci, were isolated from 16 untreated paper mill pulps. After phenotypical screening the isolates were characterised by automated ribotyping and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. They could be divided into seven taxonomical classes representing 63 taxa (species): actinobacteria (11 species), bacilli (7), flavobacteria (3) alphaproteobacteria (10), betaproteobacteria (5), gammaproteobacteria (25) and sphingobacteria (2). Most of the gammaproteobacteria were enterobacteria, mainly species of the genera Enterobacter (7 species, 7 samples/3 mills) and Klebsiella (5 species, 6 samples/3 mills). Other commonly occurring bacteria were most closely related to Microbacterium barkeri (7 samples/3 mills), Cloacibacterium normanense (6 samples/2 mills), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis (5 samples/2 mills) and Sphingobacterium composti (5 samples/1 mill). Sporadic isolates of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus warneri were detected, from which only L. monocytogenes is considered to be a food pathogen. No isolates of the genera Campylobacter, Salmonella or Yersinia were detected. The detected bacteria may be harmful in process control, but the load of food pathogens with recycled fibres to paper machines is insignificant. Faecal contamination of the pulp samples was not indicated. PMID:18820960

Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Skyttä, Eija

2009-01-01

242

Increase of antimicrobial resistance of faecal aerobic gram-negative bacteria in a geriatric hospital.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance of faecal aerobic Gram-negative bacteria to eight different antimicrobials was determined by a velvet replica-plating method in 1988 and 1933. Faecal samples were taken from 131 geriatric inpatients in the Turku City Hospital with a hospitalization of more than 7 days. From 1987 to 1992 the use of first and second generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin increased from 3.32 defined daily doses (DDD) per bed to 24.25 DDD/bed and from 0.63 DDD/Bed to 28.11 DDD/bed, respectively. A statistically significant increase was observed in the frequency of samples resistant (with >= 1% of resistant colonies) to cefuroxime (p = 0.0004) and ceftazidime (p = 0.037) in patients who received antimicrobial therapy and to ampicillin (p = 0.046) in patients who had not received antimicrobial therapy. In addition, despite the decreased use of sulphonamides and trimethoprim (from 17.11 DDD/bed to 5.54 DDD/bed) no significant changes in the frequency of resistant faecal samples were observed. Use of ciprofloxacin has been found to cure resistance plasmids from bacteria in vitro. However, despite the increased use of ciprofloxacin, no decrease in faecal bacteria resistant to any of the other antimicrobials (i.e. trimethoprim) studied was observed. PMID:8670551

Leistevuo, T; Osterblad, M; Toivonen, P; Kuistila, M; Huovinen, S; Heikkilä, E; Kahra, A; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P

1996-05-01

243

Phytic acid degrading lactic acid bacteria in tef-injera fermentation.  

PubMed

Ethiopian injera, a soft pancake, baked from fermented batter, is preferentially prepared from tef (Eragrostis tef) flour. The phytic acid (PA) content of tef is high and is only partly degraded during the fermentation step. PA chelates with iron and zinc in the human digestive tract and strongly inhibits their absorption. With the aim to formulate a starter culture that would substantially degrade PA during injera preparation, we assessed the potential of microorganisms isolated from Ethiopian household-tef fermentations to degrade PA. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were found to be among the dominating microorganisms. Seventy-six isolates from thirteen different tef fermentations were analyzed for phytase activity and thirteen different isolates of seven different species were detected to be positive in a phytase screening assay. In 20-mL model tef fermentations, out of these thirteen isolates, the use of Lactobacillus (L.) buchneri strain MF58 and Pediococcus pentosaceus strain MF35 resulted in lowest PA contents in the fermented tef of 41% and 42%, respectively of its initial content. In comparison 59% of PA remained when spontaneously fermented. Full scale tef fermentation (0.6L) and injera production using L. buchneri MF58 as culture additive decreased PA in cooked injera from 1.05 to 0.34±0.02 g/100 g, representing a degradation of 68% compared to 42% in injera from non-inoculated traditional fermentation. The visual appearance of the pancakes was similar. The final molar ratios of PA to iron of 4 and to zinc of 12 achieved with L. buchneri MF58 were decreased by ca. 50% compared to the traditional fermentation. In conclusion, selected LAB strains in tef fermentations can degrade PA, with L. buchneri MF58 displaying the highest PA degrading potential. The 68% PA degradation achieved by the application of L. buchneri MF58 would be expected to improve human zinc absorption from tef-injera, but further PA degradation is probably necessary if iron absorption has to be increased. PMID:25180667

Fischer, Maren M; Egli, Ines M; Aeberli, Isabelle; Hurrell, Richard F; Meile, Leo

2014-11-01

244

Growth and Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during and after Malolactic Fermentation of Wines at Different pH  

PubMed Central

Commercially produced red wines were adjusted to pH 3.0, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7, or 4.0 and examined during and after malolactic fermentation for growth of lactic acid bacteria and changes in the concentrations of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and acetaldehyde. With one exception, Leuconostoc oenos conducted the malolactic fermentation in all wines and was the only species to occur in wines at pH below 3.5. Malolactic fermentation by L. oenos was accompanied by degradation of malic, citric, and fumaric acids and production of lactic and acetic acids. The concentrations of arginine, histidine, and acetaldehyde also decreased at this stage, but the behavior of hexose and pentose sugars was complicated by other factors. Pediococcus parvulus conducted the malolactic fermentation in one wine containing 72 mg of total sulfur dioxide per liter. Fumaric and citric acids were not degraded during this malolactic fermentation, but hexose sugars were metabolized. P. parvulus and species of Lactobacillus grew after malolactic fermentation in wines with pH adjusted above 3.5. This growth was accompanied by the utilization of wine sugars and production of lactic and acetic acids. PMID:16347015

Davis, C. R.; Wibowo, D. J.; Lee, T. H.; Fleet, G. H.

1986-01-01

245

Impact of an Aerobic Thermophilic Sequencing Batch Reactor on Antibiotic-Resistant Anaerobic Bacteria in Swine Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of antibiotics to animal feed has contributed to the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in concentrated\\u000a animal feeding operations. The aim of this work was to characterize the impact of an aerobic thermophilic biotreatment on\\u000a anaerobic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in swine waste. Despite 162- to 6,166-fold reduction in antibiotic-resistant populations\\u000a enumerated in the swine waste at 25°C and 37°C, resistant

Martin R. Chénier; Pierre Juteau

2009-01-01

246

Analyses of spatial distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activity in aerobic wastewater biofilms  

SciTech Connect

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2}{minus}, NH{sub 2}{sup +}, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the toxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations. The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 {micro}m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S{degree}) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms, which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-11-01

247

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

PubMed Central

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel network functioning as an oxygen?nitrogen mixer generates differential oxygen concentration. By controlling the relative flow rate of the oxygen and nitrogen input gases, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in proximal microchannels filled with culture media are precisely regulated by molecular diffusion. Sensors consisting of an oxygen-sensitive dye embedded in the fluid channels permit dynamic fluorescence-based monitoring of the DO concentration using low-cost light-emitting diodes. To demonstrate the general utility of the platform for both aerobic and anaerobic culture, three bacteria with differential oxygen requirements (E. coli, A. viscosus, and F. nucleatum), as well as a model mammalian cell line (murine embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3)), were cultured. Growth characteristics of the selected species were analyzed as a function of eight discrete DO concentrations, ranging from 0 ppm (anaerobic) to 42 ppm (fully saturated). PMID:19601655

2009-01-01

248

Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria attenuate the proinflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a physiological response to infections and tissue injury; however, abnormal immune responses can give rise to chronic inflammation and contribute to disease progression. Various dietary components, including probiotic lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics, have the potential to modulate intestinal inflammatory responses. One factor in particular, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL-8), is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate modulation of the inflammatory host response induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in the presence of selected probiotics and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from human sources, dairy products, and farm animals. IL-8 gene expression and protein production in HT-29 cells were evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Pre-incubation of HT-29 cells with Lactobacillus kefir IM002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis FRP 61, Bifidobacterium longum FRP 68 and FRP 69, Bifidobacterium breve FRP 334, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IM080 significantly inhibited IL-8 secretion induced by Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. Co-culture of selected probiotics and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 reduced IL-8 production, while potential probiotics and LAB had no effect on IL-8 secretion in HT-29 cells preincubated with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 prior to adding probiotics. Lactobacillus kefir IM002 supernatant also significantly reduced IL-8 production. In conclusion, our study suggests that probiotic bifidobacteria and LAB modulate cytokine induction and possess anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effectiveness is strain dependent. PMID:23391223

Carey, Christine M; Kostrzynska, Magdalena

2013-01-01

249

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.  

PubMed

A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures. PMID:24290655

Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

2014-04-01

250

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

251

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

252

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and citric acid) by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, mannitol, and/or acetic acid. Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the predominating bacterial species of the fermentations as revealed through (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of isolates and PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of DNA directly extracted from fermentation samples. Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Also, three novel LAB species were found. This study emphasized the possible participation of Enterobacteriaceae in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Tatumella ptyseos and Tatumella citrea were the prevailing enterobacterial species in the beginning of the fermentations as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-PCR-DGGE. Finally, it turned out that control over a restricted bacterial species diversity during fermentation through an ideal post-harvest handling of the cocoa beans will allow the production of high-quality cocoa and chocolates produced thereof, independent of the fermentation method or farm. PMID:21839382

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Vrancken, Gino; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-10-01

253

Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana.  

PubMed

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as "Weissella ghanaensis," was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter ghanaensis" (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-03-01

254

Numerical taxonomy of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria from prepacked meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four strains of lactic acid bateria isolated from refrigerated, prepacked meat and meat products were together with 59 reference strains of Brochothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus phenotypically classfied, using 96 unit characters. Data were examined using Simple Matching (SSM) or Jaccard coefficient (SJ), and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages. Twenty-three clusters with two or more members were

Elisabeth Borch; Göran Molin

1988-01-01

255

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with the gut of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus).  

PubMed Central

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the intestinal tracts of swans and geese were isolated and characterized as part of a larger study of the microbiological effects of migratory waterfowl on water quality. A total of 356 isolates were identified by using rapid identification methods and classified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population of bacteria was recovered from the waterfowl, and representative strains could be classified into 21 phena. The majority of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria found in the gut of the waterfowl were species of Enterobacteriaceae. Streptococcus. Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Unfortunately, the birds that were examined did not harbor significant numbers of any waterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus, it may not be possible to assess microbiological impact of migratory waterfowl by using and "indicator" species since avian fecal pollution could not be distinguished from animal and human fecal pollution. PMID:518085

Damare, J M; Hussong, D; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

1979-01-01

256

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with the gut of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus).  

PubMed

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the intestinal tracts of swans and geese were isolated and characterized as part of a larger study of the microbiological effects of migratory waterfowl on water quality. A total of 356 isolates were identified by using rapid identification methods and classified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population of bacteria was recovered from the waterfowl, and representative strains could be classified into 21 phena. The majority of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria found in the gut of the waterfowl were species of Enterobacteriaceae. Streptococcus. Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Unfortunately, the birds that were examined did not harbor significant numbers of any waterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus, it may not be possible to assess microbiological impact of migratory waterfowl by using and "indicator" species since avian fecal pollution could not be distinguished from animal and human fecal pollution. PMID:518085

Damaré, J M; Hussong, D; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

1979-08-01

257

Rapid high-throughput assessment of aerobic bacteria in complex samples by fluorescence-based oxygen respirometry.  

PubMed

A simple method has been developed for the analysis of aerobic bacteria in complex samples such as broth and food homogenates. It employs commercial phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes to monitor oxygen consumption of samples containing bacteria using standard microtiter plates and fluorescence plate readers. As bacteria grow in aqueous medium, at certain points they begin to deplete dissolved oxygen, which is seen as an increase in probe fluorescence above baseline signal. The time required to reach threshold signal is used to either enumerate bacteria based on a predetermined calibration or to assess the effects of various effectors on the growth of test bacteria by comparison with an untreated control. This method allows for the sensitive (down to a single cell), rapid (0.5 to 12 h) enumeration of aerobic bacteria without the need to conduct lengthy (48 to 72 h) and tedious colony counts on agar plates. It also allows for screening a wide range of chemical and environmental samples for their toxicity. These assays have been validated with different bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, with the enumeration of total viable counts in broth and industrial food samples (packaged ham, chicken, and mince meat), and comparison with established agar plating and optical-density-at-600-nm assays has been given. PMID:16461677

O'Mahony, Fiach C; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

2006-02-01

258

Analyses of Spatial Distributions of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activity in Aerobic Wastewater Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O2, H2S, NO2?, NO3?, NH4+, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 109 to 1010 cells per cm3 of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 ?m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S0) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 ?m), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate. PMID:10543829

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-01-01

259

Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and food production for human thus rely on local Martian resources. A tree growing subsystem will also give an interesting feature to Martian agriculture. In addition to producing excess oxygen, trees’ rigid body will provide structural material, which can be used for habitat construction. The combination of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting, plant cultivation, and tree growing with utilizing in-situ natural local resources available on Mars can provide important elements which can enable space agriculture on Mars.

Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

260

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants. PMID:19913685

Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

2010-02-01

261

Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen and feces of dairy cows fed total mixed ration silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.  

PubMed

The survival of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the gut of dairy cows was evaluated by examining the LAB communities of silage and gut contents. Samples were collected at 2 different research institutes (Mie and Okayama) that offered total mixed ration (TMR) silage throughout the year. Silage and feces were sampled in August, October, and November at the Mie institute, whereas silage, rumen fluid, and feces were sampled in June and August at the Okayama institute. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Lactobacillus-specific primers was performed to detect LAB species in the samples. The selected bands were purified for species identification and the band patterns were used for principal component analysis. Lactic acid was the predominant fermentation product in all the TMR silages analyzed, and the lactic acid level tended to be constant regardless of the sampling time and region. A total of 14 LAB species were detected in the TMR silage samples, of which 5 (Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus suebicus, and Lactobacillus plantarum) were detected in the dairy cow feces. Most of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for the feces samples were also detected in the rumen fluid, suggesting that any elimination of silage LAB occurred in the rumen and not in the postruminal gut segments. The principal component analysis indicated that the LAB communities in the silage, rumen fluid, and feces were separately grouped; hence, the survival of silage LAB in the cow rumen and lower gut was deemed difficult. It was concluded that, although the gut LAB community is robust and not easily affected by the silage conditions, several LAB species can inhabit both silage and feces, which suggests the potential of using silage as a vehicle for conveying probiotics. PMID:24996273

Han, H; Ogata, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Nagao, S; Nishino, N

2014-09-01

262

Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic Acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of mn(2+).  

PubMed

Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

2014-11-01

263

VIABILITY AND ACTIVIVITY OF THE LACTIC BACTERIA (Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus) OF YOGURT MADE IN VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international legislations have agreed that the population of lactic bacteria in yogurt must be viable and not less than 10 ufc\\/g. In Venezuela, during last years, observations indicate that the number of viable cells in some commercial samples show high variations, as low levels. This research attempted to find the origin of this problem in the local industry.

Ana Graciela Briceño; Raúl Martínez; Karely García

264

Induction of systemic and mucosal immune response and decrease in Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization by nasal inoculation of mice with recombinant lactic acid bacteria expressing pneumococcal surface antigen A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal epithelia constitute the first barriers to be overcome by pathogens during infection. The induction of protective IgA in this location is important for the prevention of infection and can be achieved through different mucosal immunization strategies. Lactic acid bacteria have been tested in the last few years as live vectors for the delivery of antigens at mucosal sites, with

Maria Leonor Sarno Oliveira; Ana Paula Mattos Arêas; Ivana Barros Campos; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Perez-Martínez; Eliane Namie Miyaji; Luciana Cezar Cerqueira Leite; Karina Araújo Aires; Paulo Lee Ho

2006-01-01

265

Effect of storage temperature and gas permeability of packaging film on the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked meat emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gas permeability of packaging film on the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked meat emulsions stored at 0, 8 and 151C was investigated. The estimated parameters from Gompertz equation for the assayed temperature-oxygen permeability combinations showed LAB development to be significantly greater than those of B. thermosphacta. The influence of the two sources

O. Garroa; C. Fernandez

266

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Greek dry-fermented sausage in respect of their technological and probiotic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 147 lactic acid bacteria was isolated from two types of naturally fermented dry sausages at four different stages of the ripening process studied in order to select the most suitable strains according to their technological characteristics including probiotic properties and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens. Identification of the isolates revealed that 90% were lactobacilli, 4% enterococci, 3%

E. Papamanoli; N. Tzanetakis; E. Litopoulou-Tzanetaki; P. Kotzekidou

2003-01-01

267

Effect of storage temperature and gas permeability of packaging film on the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked meat emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gas permeability of packaging film on the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked meat emulsions stored at 0, 8 and 15°C was investigated. The estimated parameters from Gompertz equation for the assayed temperature–oxygen permeability combinations showed LAB development to be significantly greater than those of B. thermosphacta. The influence of the two sources

M. E. Cayré; O. Garro; G. Vignolo

2005-01-01

268

Comparison of mathematical models of lactic acid bacteria growth in vacuum-packaged raw beef stored at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The lactic acid bacteria grown in vacuum-packaged raw beef under 7, 10, 15, and 20?°C has been studied in this paper. Four primary models, the modified Gompertz, logistic, Baranyi, and Huang model were used for data fitting. Statistical criteria such as the bias factor and accuracy factor, mean square error, Akaike's information criterion, and the residual distribution were used for comparing the models. The result showed that all of the 4 models can fit the data well and they were not significantly different in the performance. They were equally capable of describing bacterial growth, but the growth rate and lag time estimated from the modified Gompertz model were a little higher than other models. The estimate for the lag time was not accurate as the growth rate. PMID:23560997

Li, M Y; Sun, X M; Zhao, G M; Huang, X Q; Zhang, J W; Tian, W; Zhang, Q H

2013-04-01

269

Vaginal lactic acid bacteria in healthy and ill bitches and evaluation of in vitro probiotic activity of selected isolates.  

PubMed

The concentrations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 42 vaginal samples from healthy and ill bitches were determined. Eight isolates belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus were selected and identified and their in vitro antimicrobial activity against canine pathogens and their ability to adhere to canine vaginal epithelial cells were determined. There was no correlation between the concentrations of vaginal LAB and clinical status, body temperature, vaginal pH, or age. Although the animals were either well or suffering from various illnesses, LAB were found in almost every sample, and the selected isolates showed promising probiotic-related features. These findings are significant for the design of strategies for the modulation of vaginal microbiota by vaginal LAB isolates. PMID:19119367

Delucchi, Luis; Fraga, Martín; Perelmuter, Karen; Cidade, Esther; Zunino, Pablo

2008-10-01

270

The Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Milk Products on Carrageenan-induced Tail Thrombosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean milk products (FS-LAB) inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of FS-LAB against thrombosis has yet to be investigated. In this study, FS-LAB were administered subcutaneously into the tails of rats, with the subsequent intravenous administration of ?-carrageenan 12 hr after the initial injection. In general, administration of ?-carrageenan induces thrombosis. The length of the infarcted tail regions was significantly shorter in the rats administered a single-fold or double-fold concentration of the FS-LAB solution compared with the region in control rats. Therefore, FS-LAB exhibited significant antithrombotic effects. Our study is the first to characterize the properties of FS-LAB and, by testing their efficacy on an in vivo rat model of thrombosis, demonstrate the potency of their antithrombotic effect. PMID:24936368

KAMIYA, Seitaro; OGASAWARA, Masayoshi; ARAKAWA, Masayuki; HAGIMORI, Masayori

2013-01-01

271

Establishment and development of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria microbiota in breast-milk and the infant gut.  

PubMed

The initial establishment of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria in the newborn and the role of breast-milk as a source of these microorganisms are not yet well understood. The establishment of these microorganisms during the first 3 months of life in 20 vaginally delivered breast-fed full-term infants, and the presence of viable Bifidobacterium in the corresponding breast-milk samples was evaluated. In 1 day-old newborns Enterococcus and Streptococcus were the microorganisms most frequently isolated, from 10 days of age until 3 months bifidobacteria become the predominant group. In breast-milk, Streptococcus was the genus most frequently isolated and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were also obtained. Breast-milk contains viable lactobacilli and bifidobacteria that might contribute to the initial establishment of the microbiota in the newborn. PMID:20176122

Solís, G; de Los Reyes-Gavilan, C G; Fernández, N; Margolles, A; Gueimonde, M

2010-06-01

272

Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must  

PubMed Central

Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

Munoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

2014-01-01

273

Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.  

PubMed

Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively. PMID:22265314

Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

2012-05-01

274

Production of Wax Esters during Aerobic Growth of Marine Bacteria on Isoprenoid Compounds  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the production of isoprenoid wax esters during the aerobic degradation of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and phytol by four bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain PHY9, Pseudomonas nautica [IP85/617], Marinobacter sp. strain CAB [DSMZ 11874], and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus [ATCC 49840]) isolated from the marine environment. Different pathways are proposed to explain the formation of these compounds. In the case of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, these esters result from the condensation of some acidic and alcoholic metabolites produced during the biodegradation, while phytol constitutes the alcohol moiety of most of the esters produced during growth on this isoprenoid alcohol. The amount of these esters formed increased considerably in N-limited cultures, in which the ammonium concentration corresponds to conditions often found in marine sediments. This suggests that the bacterial formation of isoprenoid wax esters might be favored in such environments. Although conflicting evidence exists regarding the stability of these esters in sediments, it seems likely that, under some conditions, bacterial esterification can enhance the preservation potential of labile compounds such as phytol. PMID:9872783

Rontani, Jean-Francois; Bonin, Patricia C.; Volkman, John K.

1999-01-01

275

Multilocus enzyme analysis in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria using gel electrophoresis-nitrocellulose blotting.  

PubMed

An optimized multilocus enzyme electrophoresis method, which involves polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis followed by electrophoretic transfers on nitrocellulose sheets, was developed for the analysis of enzyme polymorphism in several aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca, Clostridium bifermentans and C. sordellii, and Prevotella bivia. Serial electrophoretic transfers (during 5-15 min each) from a single polyacrylamide gel could be achieved for most enzymes studied, and allowed an increased definition of enzyme bands on nitrocellulose as compared to migration gels. Four enzymes, which could not be blotted in such conditions, could still be stained in gels after blotting. Thus, the method allowed the combined analysis of several enzymes after a single gel electrophoresis separation. The analysis of enzyme polymorphism in the various species studied raised the interest of polymorphic loci such as esterase or glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase for epidemiologic studies. The method characterized a genetic diversity of enzyme loci of S. pneumoniae higher than previously reported, and is thus convenient for the analysis of genetic relationships between related isolates. Since the present method reduces the tediousness of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and requires experimental conditions that are not specific for the bacterial population studied, it may be proposed for rapid population genetics analysis of a wide variety of bacteria. PMID:10754243

Combe, M; Lemeland, J; Pestel-Caron, M; Pons, J

2000-04-15

276

Evaluation of a facile method of template DNA preparation for PCR-based detection and typing of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The objective of our investigation was to develop a convenient and reliable method of generating template DNA for routine PCR-based detection and typing of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Template DNA extracted from Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc using a combination of urea, SDS and NaOH yielded amplicons of expected size in PCR with genus-specific primers. Apart from LAB, the proposed method could also be adopted to generate PCR-compatible template DNA from a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. DNA template prepared by the proposed method from various standard strains of Lactobacillus sp. also generated discriminating fingerprints with BOXA1R primer in rep-PCR. A significant finding of the investigation was that a comparable banding profile of LAB strains was obtained in rep-PCR using template DNA prepared by urea-SDS-NaOH method and a commercially available DNA isolation kit. This was further evidenced by high dice coefficient values obtained in the range of 81.8-96.7 when cluster analysis was performed by UPGAMA method. The application potential of this DNA extraction method for PCR-based direct detection of LAB in fermented food samples such as dahi, idli batter and salt-fermented cucumber was validated by detecting specific amplicons of LAB genera in the fermented samples. The applicability of the proposed template DNA extraction method was further substantiated when 29 bacteriocinogenic LAB strains (Bac+) previously detected in salt-fermented cucumber by PCR [Singh, A.K., Ramesh, A., 2008. Succession of dominant and antagonistic lactic acid bacteria in fermented cucumber: Insights from a PCR-based approach. Food. Microbiol. 25, 278-287] generated differentiating fingerprints in BOX element based rep-PCR and formed clusters with reference LAB strains. PMID:19465247

Singh, Atul Kumar; Ramesh, Aiyagari

2009-08-01

277

Species-specific FISH analysis of cecal microflora in rats administered with lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We investigated the effects of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cells in rats using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting 16S rRNA to identify the cecal microbial community. We designed a novel species-specific 16S\\u000a rDNA probe to detect Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lrham454). Subtractive technique using the LAC722 probe (Sakai et al. 2004\\u000a Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering\\u000a 98, 48) under different hybridization stringency

Kenji Sakai; Kazutoshi Oue; Miki Umeki; Masatsugu Mori; Mari Kuribayashi; Satoshi Mochizuki

2006-01-01

278

Comparative In Vitro Activities of Torezolid (DA-7157) against Clinical Isolates of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in South Korea ?  

PubMed Central

Resistance of Gram-positive pathogens to first-line antimicrobial agents has been increasing in many parts of the world. We compared the in vitro activities of torezolid with those of other antimicrobial agents, including linezolid, against clinical isolates of major aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Torezolid had an MIC90 of ?0.5 ?g/ml for the Gram-positive bacterial isolates tested and was more potent than either linezolid or vancomycin. PMID:20837761

Yum, Jong Hwa; Choi, Sung Hak; Yong, Dongeun; Chong, Yunsop; Im, Weon Bin; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Kyungwon

2010-01-01

279

Fate of chlortetracycline- and tylosin-resistant bacteria in an aerobic thermophilic sequencing batch reactor treating swine waste.  

PubMed

Antibiotics have been added to animal feed for decades. Consequently, food animals and their wastes constitute a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this work was to characterize the impact of an aerobic thermophilic biotreatment on aerobic, antibiotic-resistant bacteria in swine waste. The proportion of tylosin- and chlortetracycline-resistant bacteria grown at 25 degrees C, 37 degrees C, and 60 degrees C decreased after treatment, but they were still abundant (10(2) to 10(8) most probable number ml(-1)) in the treated swine waste. The presence of 14 genes conferring resistance to tylosin and chlortetracycline was assessed by polymerase chain reaction in bacterial populations grown at 25 degrees C, 37 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, with or without antibiotics. In 22 cases, genes were detected before but not after treatment. The overall gene diversity was wider before [tet(BLMOSY), erm(AB)] than after [tet(LMOS), erm(B)] treatment. Analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments generally showed a reduction of the bacterial diversity, except for total populations grown at 60 degrees C and for tylosin-resistant populations grown at 37 degrees C. The latter were further investigated by cloning and sequencing their 16S rDNA. Phylotypes found before treatment were all closely related to Enterococcus hirae, whereas six different phylotypes, related to Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Pusillimonas, were found after treatment. This work demonstrated that the aerobic thermophilic biotreatment cannot be considered as a means for preventing the dissemination of aerobic antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes to the environment. However, since pathogens do not survive the biotreatment, the effluent does not represent an immediate threat to animal or human health. PMID:19125305

Chénier, Martin R; Juteau, Pierre

2009-07-01

280

Interaction of biomass of aerobic bacteria and fungi with Pu(IV) at low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the change of Pu oxidation states due to interaction with aerobic bacteria and fungi\\u000a at low pH under laboratory conditions. Microorganisms were isolated from samples collected from the low-level radioactive\\u000a waste repository within the confines of Ignalina NPP. Abilities of the fungi (Absidia spinosa var spinosa Lendn. and Paecilomyces lilacinus Thom Samson)

R. Druteikien?; B. Lukšien?; D. Pe?iulyt?; D. Baltr?nas

2010-01-01

281

Identification of lactic acid bacteria involved in the spoilage of pasteurized "foie gras" products.  

PubMed

The spoiling microflora of a re-packaged French "foie gras" product was studied. A total of 54 isolates, originating from two different factories, were identified using phenotypical and molecular methods (partial 16S rDNA sequencing). Weissella viridescens was the main species detected in the products from factory 1 (64% of the isolates). These products had a low lactic acid concentration and were considered as non-spoiled. The microflora of factory 2 was dominated mainly by the genus Lactobacillus (95% of the isolates), and the high lactic acid concentration of these products was linked with a strong spoilage. Among the 30 Lactobacillus strains, three species were predominant: Lactobacillus sakei (nine isolates), Lactobacillus coryniformis (eight isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (five isolates). Challenge tests were performed to confirm the involvement of the Lactobacillus strains in the spoilage of the product. Sterile "foie gras" samples were inoculated with 14 LAB strains from the collection. The most acidifying strains belonged to the species L. sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum and L. paraplantarum. This confirmed the role of the strains from the Lactobacillus genus as the main spoilers of "foie gras" products and will be useful to design new quality protocols and extend the shelf-life of these products. PMID:20416816

Matamoros, S; André, S; Hue, I; Prévost, H; Pilet, M F

2010-07-01

282

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

PubMed

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

283

Antibacterial Activity of Hen Egg White Lysozyme Modified by Heat and Enzymatic Treatments against Oenological Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of heat-denatured and hydrolyzed hen egg white lysozyme against oenological lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria was investigated. The lysozyme was denatured by heating, and native and heat-denatured lysozymes were hydrolyzed by pepsin. The lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus of heat-denatured lysozyme decreased with the temperature of the heat treatment, whereas the hydrolyzed lysozyme had no enzymatic activity. Heat-denatured and hydrolyzed lysozyme preparations showed antimicrobial activity against acetic acid bacteria. Lysozyme heated at 90°C exerted potent activity against Acetobacter aceti CIAL-106 and Gluconobacter oxydans CIAL-107 with concentrations required to obtain 50% inhibition of growth (IC50) of 0.089 and 0.013 mg/ml, respectively. This preparation also demonstrated activity against Lactobacillus casei CIAL-52 and Oenococcus oeni CIAL-91 (IC50, 1.37 and 0.45 mg/ml, respectively). The two hydrolysates from native and heat-denatured lysozyme were active against O. oeni CIAL-96 (IC50, 2.77 and 0.3 mg/ml, respectively). The results obtained suggest that thermal and enzymatic treatments increase the antibacterial spectrum of hen egg white lysozyme in relation to oenological microorganisms. PMID:25285490

Carrillo, W; García-Ruiz, A; Recio, I; Moreno-Arribas, M V

2014-10-01

284

Biodiversity and characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in surimi seafood products.  

PubMed

The microbial quality and safety of surimi seafood products was assessed by studying the prevalence and biodiversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria at the beginning and end of shelf life in 100 surimi samples. Low levels of total flora and sporulated flora were numerated at the beginning of storage, however, residual spores were detected in the majority of samples during storage. Furthermore, for 34 samples, total flora counts>10(4) CFU/g were observed at the end of shelf life which could lead to non-compliance with good practice recommendations or product spoilage. In total, 460 strains were isolated, fingerprinted by M13-PCR and grouped into 98 different clusters. Representative strains were then identified at the species level via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, dominant species belonged to Bacillus simplex, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis; while B. simplex, B. subtilis as well as Sporosarcina aquimarina were clearly the dominant species found in samples with higher total flora counts. Amylolytic and proteolytic activities were very frequent amongst tested strains (80 and 92.5%, respectively). Heat resistance parameters of 4 strains in a surimi-based medium were determined. B. simplex and B. subtilis strains were the most heat resistant (?(96 °C)= 27.6 and 23.3 min and z(T)=8.6 and 7.9, respectively) which can explain their dominance in surimi samples exhibiting higher microbial counts. The heat resistance data obtained can now be used to model thermal destruction of strains using predictive microbiology tools (Sym'Previus). PMID:21315981

Coton, M; Denis, C; Cadot, P; Coton, E

2011-04-01

285

Citric AcidMetabolism inHetero- andHomofermentative Lactic AcidBacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

cultures withcitric acidresulted inacetoin production. Destruction ofaccumulated acetoin appeared tocoincide withthe disappearance ofcitrate. Allhomofermentative bacteria produced more acetoin anddiacetyl inthepresenceofcitrate thaninitsabsence. Citrate utilization was begunimmediately bythestreptococci butwas delayed until atleast themiddle oftheexponential phaseinthecaseofthelactobacilli. Therequirement ofcitrate fortheproduction ofdiacetyl andacetoin iswellrecognized in certain species oflactic acidbacteria, especially Streptococcus lactis var.diacetylactis andLeu- conostoc cremoris (citrovorum) (13, 14), butthe relationship hasnotbeenstudied indetail for other

D. F. DRINAN; S. TOBIN; T. M. COGAN

1976-01-01

286

Effects of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria applied as a freeze-dried or fresh culture on the fermentation of alfalfa silage.  

PubMed

Alfalfa (approximately 31% DM) was untreated or treated with a silage inoculant containing the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum L-54, and L. plantarum Aber F1. The inoculant was added at a normal and a high dose as a freeze-dried powder that had been mixed with water just prior to application, or it was grown with nutrients the day before and added as a fresh culture. The actual application rate of lactic acid bacteria was 1.19 x 10(5) for the normal dose, 4.30 x 10(5) for the high dose, and 5.10 x 10(5) for the fresh culture. All inoculated silages showed a faster increase in the rate of lactic acid production and a decrease in the drop in pH over the first 24 h of ensiling compared with untreated silage. The effect was greatest for silage treated with the fresh culture and was supported by the fact that this treatment had numbers of lactic acid bacteria that increased faster than in other treatments. Inoculation also generally resulted in a fermentation profile that was more homolactic (more lactic acid and less acetic acid, ethanol, and NH(3)-N) than for untreated silage, but the effect was greatest for the fresh culture. Inoculation did not affect in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestion or the concentrations of neutral detergent fiber or total N in silages. The recovery of dry matter was greater in silage that was treated with a high level of the freeze-dried culture or with the fresh culture when compared with the untreated control. This study showed that application of a silage inoculant as a freeze-dried culture or as a fresh culture resulted in alfalfa silage with a more homolactic fermentation profile. The effect was greatest from addition of the fresh culture. PMID:18024762

Kizilsimsek, M; Schmidt, R J; Kung, L

2007-12-01

287

Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of fructo-oligosaccharides. These data support the use of immature wheat grain flour, and exopolysaccaride-producing lactic acid bacteria in formulating functional prebiotic baked goods whose nutritional value can be suitably improved. PMID:23584774

Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

2013-06-01

288

Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Traditional Jeotgal Product in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventeen lactic acid bacterial strains (LAB) were isolated using MRS agar medium from Jeotgal, a Korean fermented food, purchased at the Jukdo market of Pohang. To identify the strains isolated, they were tested by examining their cell morphologies, gram-staining, catalase activity, arginine hydrolase activity, D-L lactate form and carbohydrate fermentation. According to the phenotypic characteristics, three strains were tent atively identified as Lactobacillus spp., ten were Enterococcus spp. (or Streptococcus spp., or Pediococcus spp.) and the rest were Leuconostoc spp. (or Weissella spp.). Five strains among 17 were chosen by preliminary bacteriocin activity test. Four bacterial strains which inhibited both indicator microorganisms were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results are as follows; Leuconostoc mesenteroides (HK 4), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (HK 5), Leuconostoc mesenteroides(HK 11), Streptococcus salivarius(HK 8). In order to check LAB which are showing a high survival rate in gut, we investigated three strains inhibiting both indicator microorganisms in artificial gastric acid and bile juice -all except HK8. The three strains mentioned above grew in extreme low acid conditions.

Cho, Gyu Sung; Do, Hyung Ki

2006-06-01

289

Relationship between lactic acid concentration and bacterial spoilage in ground beef.  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid concentration correlated with organoleptic spoilage of refrigerated, coarsely ground beef stored in casings with low oxygen permeability. The samples were assayed over time for lactic acid concentration, total aerobic plate count, percentage of gram-positive organisms, and pH. Lactic acid increased in all samples, as did the bacterial counts and percentage of gram-positive organisms in the total microflora, the latter representing an increase in the lactic acid-producing bacteria. pH was found to decrease in all samples, with the smallest decrease in pH being observed in the meat sample which maintained the lowest proportion of gram-positive organisms. With samples evaluated by a sensory panel, lactic acid levels were found to correlate inversely with odor acceptability. PMID:6639035

Nassos, P S; King, A D; Stafford, A E

1983-01-01

290

Determinative factors of competitive advantage between aerobic bacteria for niches at the air-liquid interface.  

PubMed

We focused on bacterial interspecies relationships at the air-liquid interface where the formation of pellicles by aerobes was observed. Although an obligate aerobe (Brevibacillus sp. M1-5) was initially dominant in the pellicle population, a facultative aerobe (Pseudoxanthomonas sp. M1-3) emerged and the viability of M1-5 rapidly decreased due to severe competition for oxygen. Supplementation of the medium with carbohydrates allowed the two species to coexist at the air-liquid interface. These results indicate that the population dynamics within pellicles are primarily governed by oxygen utilization which was affected by a combination of carbon sources. PMID:21576889

Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Haruta, Shin; Kato, Souichiro; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2010-01-01

291

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

E-print Network

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

Lam, Raymond H. W.

292

Development of oligonucleotide primers from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic sequences for identifying different dairy and probiotic lactic acid bacteria by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer regions between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of different dairy and probiotic lactic acid bacteria were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with conserved primers and the nucleotide sequences of these spacer regions were determined. Amplification\\/oligonucleotide primer pairs were designed for Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus and Streptococcus thermophilus based on the

Anu Tilsala-Timisjärvi; Tapani Alatossava

1997-01-01

293

Application of Native Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) for Fermentative Recovery of Lipids and Proteins from Fish Processing Wastes: Bioactivities of Fermentation Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation using native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was evaluated for its effectiveness in recovering lipids and proteins simultaneously from freshwater fish visceral waste (FVW). Five different LAB isolated from fish processing waste were employed in a fermentation process that involved 10% (w\\/w) glucose, 2% (w\\/w) NaCl, and 10% (v\\/w) LAB. Cultures evaluated included four native isolates (Pediococcus acidilactici NCIM5368, Enterococcus

Amit Kumar Rai; R. Jini; H. C. Swapna; N. M. Sachindra; N. Bhaskar; V. Baskaran

2011-01-01

294

Molecular diversity of Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria in the human intestine as determined by specific amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lactobacillus group-specific PCR primer, S-G-Lab-0677-a-A-17, was developed to selectively amplify 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from lactobacilli and related lactic acid bacteria, including members of the genera Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Weissella. Amplicons generated by PCR from a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) tract samples, including those originating from feces and cecum, resulted predominantly in Lactobacillus-like sequences, of which ca. 28 ere

G. H. J. Heilig; Erwin G. Zoetendal; Elaine E. Vaughan; Philippe Marteau; Antoon D. L. Akkermans; Vos de W. M

2002-01-01

295

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50-CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic

Christine Paludan-Müller; Hans Henrik Huss; Lone Gram

1999-01-01

296

Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH 4-oxidizing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon isotope fractionation factors reported for aerobic bacterial oxidation of CH 4(?) range from 1.003 to 1.039. In a series of experiments designed to monitor changes in the carbon isotopic fractionation of CH 4 by Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria, we found that the magnitude of fractionation was largely due to the first oxidation step catalyzed by methane monooxygenase (MMO). The most important factor that modulates the (?) is the fraction of the total CH 4 oxidized per unit time, which strongly correlates to the cell density of the growth cultures under constant flow conditions. At cell densities of less than 0.1 g/L, fractionation factors greater than 1.03 were observed, whereas at cell densities greater than 0.5 g/L the fractionation factors decreased to as low as 1.002. At low cell densities, low concentrations of MMO limit the amount of CH 4 oxidized, while at higher cell densities, the overall rates of CH 4 oxidation increase sufficiently that diffusion of CH 4 from the gaseous to dissolved state and into the cells is likely the rate-determining step. Thus, the residual CH 4 is more fractionated at low cell densities, when only a small fraction of the total CH 4 has been oxidized, than at high cell densities, when up to 40% of the influent CH 4 has been utilized. Therefore, since Rayleigh distillation behavior is not observed, ? 13C values of the residual CH 4 cannot be used to infer the amount oxidized in either laboratory or field-studies. The measured (?) was the same for both Type I and Type II methanotrophs expressing particulate or soluble MMO. However, large differences in the ? 13C values of biomass produced by the two types of methanotrophs were observed. Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (Type II) produced biomass with ? 13C values about 15‰ higher than the dissimilated CO 2, whereas Methylomonas methanica (Type I) produced biomass with ? 13C values only about 6‰ higher than the CO 2. These effects were independent of the magnitude of the initial carbon isotope fractionation caused by MMO and were relatively constant despite changing ratios of assimilatory to dissimilatory carbon transformation by the organisms. This suggests that the difference in biomass carbon isotopes is primarily due to differences in the fractionation effect at the formaldehyde branch point in the metabolic pathway, rather than assimilation of CO 2 by Type II methanotrophs.

Templeton, Alexis S.; Chu, Kung-Hui; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Conrad, Mark E.

2006-04-01

297

Functional properties of novel protective lactic acid bacteria and application in raw chicken meat against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis.  

PubMed

In this study 635 lactic acid bacteria of food origin were evaluated for their potential application as protective cultures in foods. A stepwise selection method was used to obtain the most appropriate strains for application as protective cultures in chicken meat. Specifically, all strains were examined for antimicrobial activity against various Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Strains exhibiting anti-bacterial activity were subsequently examined for survival in simulated food processing and gastrointestinal tract conditions, such as high temperatures, low pH, starvation and the presence of NaCl and bile salts. Selected strains where then examined for basic safety properties such as antibiotic resistance and haemolytic potential, while their antimicrobial activity was further investigated by PCR screening for possession of known bacteriocin genes. Two chosen strains were then applied on raw chicken meat to evaluate their protective ability against two common food pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis, but also to identify potential spoilage effects by the application of the protective cultures on the food matrix. Antimicrobial activity in vitro was evident against Gram positive indicators, mainly Listeria and Brochothrix spp., while no antibacterial activity was obtained against any of the Gram negative bacteria tested. The antimicrobial activity was of a proteinaceous nature while strains with anti-listerial activity were found to possess one or more bacteriocin genes, mainly enterocins. Strains generally exhibited sensitivity to pH 2.0, but good survival at 45 degrees C, in the presence of bile salts and NaCl as well as during starvation, while variable survival rates were obtained at 55 degrees C. None of the strains was found to be haemolytic while variable antibiotic resistance profiles were obtained. Finally, when the selected strains Enterococcus faecium PCD71 and Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC179 were applied as protective cultures in chicken meat against L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis respectively, a significantly reduced growth of these pathogenic bacteria was observed. In addition, these two strains did not appear to have any detrimental effect on biochemical parameters related to spoilage of the chicken meat. PMID:19249112

Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Psyrras, Dimitris; Cremonese, Silvia; Fischer, Jana; Cantor, Mette D; Tsakalidou, Effie

2009-04-15

298

Assessment of the sequential simulated gastrointestinal tolerance of lactic acid bacteria from kefir grains by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The tolerance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kefir grains to gastrointestinal tract conditions was evaluated in vitro. The effects of pH values and bile salts on the viability of LAB were investigated. The results demonstrated that pH value showed a significant effect on the viability. The viable counts exhibited a reduction of 1.5 to 2 log cycles in 0.3% to 0.5% bile salts after 4 h. The viability of LAB exposure to sequential simulated gastric and intestinal juices was assessed by response surface model (RSM). RSM indicated that the gastric pH and gastric contact time significantly affected the viability (P < 0.05), while the effect of intestinal contact time was not significant. Moreover, RSM revealed the interactions of pH and gastric contact time, and of pH and intestinal contact time. The LAB cells, temporarily damaged by the low pH of gastric juice (pH < 2), could recover in the intestinal juice; and the longer the intestinal contact time, the higher the viability of LAB. RSM proved to be a useful and accurate method to predict the viability of LAB under certain laboratory conditions by the model validation. This study indicated that LAB from kefir grains exhibited excellent tolerance to sequential simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, and that kefiran possessed a significant protective effect on LAB in hostile environments. PMID:19723219

Zhou, Tong; Li, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Ji, Bao-Ping; Chen, Gang; Ren, Ya-Li

2009-08-01

299

Screening of lactic acid bacteria from Indonesia reveals glucansucrase and fructansucrase genes in two different Weissella confusa strains from soya.  

PubMed

Homopolysaccharide (glucan and fructan) synthesis from sucrose by sucrase enzymes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been well studied in the genera Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. This study aimed to identify and characterize genes encoding glucansucrase/glucosyltransferase (GTF) and fructansucrases/fructosyltransferase (FTF) enzymes from genomic DNA of 'rare' Indonesian exopolysaccharide-producing LAB. From a total of 63 exopolysaccharide-producing LAB isolates obtained from foods, beverages and environmental samples, 18 isolates showing the most slimy and mucoid colony morphologies on sucrose were chosen for further study. By comparing bacterial growth on De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS)-sucrose with that on MRS-raffinose, and using the results of a previous PCR screening study with degenerate primer pairs targeting the conserved catalytic domain of GTFs, various strains were identified as producers of fructan (13), of glucan only (five) or as potential producers of both glucan and fructan (nine). Here, we report the characteristics of three gtf genes and one ftf gene obtained from Weissella confusa strains MBF8-1 and MBF8-2. Strain MBF8-1 harbored two putative gtf genes with high sequence similarity to GTFB of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 and GTF180 of L. reuteri 180, respectively. Strain MBF8-2 possessed single gtf and ftf genes with high sequence similarity to GTFKg3 of Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and DSRWC of Weissella cibaria, and FTF levansucrase of L. reuteri 121, respectively. PMID:19758326

Malik, Amarila; Radji, Maksum; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2009-11-01

300

Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in different original kefir grains were first assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) by a culture-dependent way, and were further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated that a combined method of cultivation with PCR-DGGE and subsequent DNA sequencing could successfully identify four LAB strains from three kefir grains from Taiwan (named Hsinchu, Mongolia and Ilan). Lactobacillus kefiri accounted, in the three kefir grains, for at least half of the isolated colonies while Lb. kefiranofaciens was the second most frequently isolated species. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was less frequently found but still in the three kefir grains conversely to Lactococcus lactis which based on culture-dependent isolation was only found in two of the kefir grains. It was interesting to find that all three kefir grains contain similar LAB species. Furthermore, the DGGE as a culture-independent method was also applied to detect the LAB strains. Results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens was found in all three kefir grains, whereas Lb. kefiri was only observed in Hsinchu kefir grain and Lc. lactis was found in both Mongolia and Ilan samples. Two additional strains, Pseudomonas spp. and E. coli, were also detected in kefir grains. PMID:18355674

Chen, Hsi-Chia; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Ming-Ju

2008-05-01

301

Modulation of peanut-induced allergic immune responses by oral lactic acid bacteria-based vaccines in mice.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy (PNA) has becoming a non-negligible health concern worldwide. Thus far, allergen-specific immunotherapy aimed at inducing mucosal tolerance has widely been regarded as a major management strategy for PNA. The safety profiles and the intrinsic probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) render them attractive delivery vehicles for mucosal vaccines. In the present study, we exploited genetically modified Lactococcus lactis to produce peanut allergen Ara h 2 via different protein-targeting systems and their immunomodulatory potency for allergic immune responses in mice were investigated. By comparison with the strain expressing the cytoplasmic form of Ara h 2 (LL1), the strains expressing the secreted and anchored forms of Ara h 2 (LL2 and LL3) were more potent in redirecting a Th2-polarized to a non-allergic Th1 immune responses. Induction of SIgA and regulatory T cells were also observed at the local levels by orally administration of recombinant L. lactis. Our results indicate that allergen-producing L. lactis strains modulated allergic immune responses and may be developed as promising mucosal vaccines for managing allergic diseases. PMID:24770368

Ren, Chengcheng; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Wang, Gang; Ai, Chunqing; Hu, Mengsha; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Chen, Yongquan; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

2014-07-01

302

Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

2012-01-01

303

Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from mixed pasture of timothy and orchardgrass, and its badly preserved silage.  

PubMed

In order to understand the relationship between lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species and silage fermentation, a total of 65 LAB strains isolated from mixed pasture of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), and its badly preserved silages were subjected to phenotypic and genetic analysis. According to these analyses, the isolates were divided into 13 groups, including Enterococcus gallinarum, Lactobacillus acidipiscis, L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis, L. coryniformis subsp. torquens, L. curvatus, L. paraplantarum, L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, L. sakei subsp. carnosus, Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella hellenica, Weissella paramesenteroides and Carnobacterium divergens. This is the first report to document that C. divergens, L. acidipiscis, L. sakei subsp. carnosus, L. garvieae, phenotypically novel L. lactis subsp. cremoris, E. gallinarum and W. hellenica are present in vegetative forage crops. L. plantarum group strains were most frequently isolated from the badly preserved silages. Some isolates showed a wide range of growth preferences for carbohydrate utilization, optimal growth pH and temperature in vitro, indicating that they have a high growth potential. These results are useful in understanding the diversity of LAB associated with decayed silage of timothy and orchardgrass. PMID:22515692

Tohno, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hisami; Nomura, Masaru; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Cai, Yimin

2012-04-01

304

Survival of silage lactic acid bacteria in the goat gastrointestinal tract as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Aims:? To determine the survival rate of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. Methods and Results:? Wilted Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage (containing 1·9?×?10(6) ?CFU LAB?g(-1) ) was fed ad libitum to three goats equipped with rumen cannulae. Silage was given alone or with concentrates at a 1?:?1 ratio on a dry matter basis. Rumen fluid was then obtained 2, 4 and 8?h after the morning feeding. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed to compare LAB communities in silage, rumen fluid and faeces. The LAB detected in the wilted silage included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus murinus and Lactobacillus sakei. Bands indicative of Lact.?murinus were detected in either the rumen fluid or faeces, whereas the bands indicative of Lact.?plantarum, Lact.?brevis and Lact.?sakei were not. Although the rumen fluid LAB counts and volatile fatty acid concentrations were higher in goats fed silage plus concentrates compared with those fed silage alone, the LAB communities themselves remained unaffected. Sampling times and goat-to-goat variations did not affect the LAB communities found in the rumen fluid. Conclusion:? LAB communities found in the gut are not remarkably affected by the consumption of silage LAB, even when the silage is accompanied by concentrates that facilitate gut fermentation. Significance and Impact of the Study:? Although silage can improve probiotic function, it may be difficult for silage LAB to survive the digestive process in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22925065

Han, H; Takase, S; Nishino, N

2012-08-25

305

Impact of lactic Acid bacteria on dendritic cells from allergic patients in an experimental model of intestinal epithelium.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram positive nonpathogenic commensal organisms present in human gastrointestinal tract. In vivo, LAB are separated from antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC) by the intestinal epithelial barrier. In this study, the impact of one LAB strain (Lactobacillus casei ATCC393) on human monocyte-derived DC from allergic and healthy donors was assessed by using a polarized epithelium model. Confocal and flow cytometer analyses showed that immature DC efficiently captured FITC-labelled L. casei through the epithelial layer. After interaction with L. casei, DC acquired a partial maturation status (i.e., CD86 and CD54 increase) and increased their interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 production. Interestingly, after activation by L. casei in the presence of experimental epithelium, DC from allergic patients instructed autologous naïve CD4(+) T cells to produce more interferon-gamma than without the epithelium. Thus by modulating human DC reactivity, LAB and intestinal epithelium might modify T cell immune response and regulate the development of allergic reaction. PMID:17497025

Ratajczak, Céline; Duez, Catherine; Grangette, Corinne; Pochard, Pierre; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

2007-01-01

306

Impact of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Dendritic Cells from Allergic Patients in an Experimental Model of Intestinal Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram positive nonpathogenic commensal organisms present in human gastrointestinal tract. In vivo, LAB are separated from antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC) by the intestinal epithelial barrier. In this study, the impact of one LAB strain (Lactobacillus casei ATCC393) on human monocyte-derived DC from allergic and healthy donors was assessed by using a polarized epithelium model. Confocal and flow cytometer analyses showed that immature DC efficiently captured FITC-labelled L. casei through the epithelial layer. After interaction with L. casei, DC acquired a partial maturation status (i.e., CD86 and CD54 increase) and increased their interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 production. Interestingly, after activation by L. casei in the presence of experimental epithelium, DC from allergic patients instructed autologous naïve CD4+ T cells to produce more interferon-? than without the epithelium. Thus by modulating human DC reactivity, LAB and intestinal epithelium might modify T cell immune response and regulate the development of allergic reaction. PMID:17497025

Ratajczak, Celine; Duez, Catherine; Grangette, Corinne; Pochard, Pierre; Tonnel, Andre-Bernard; Pestel, Joel

2007-01-01

307

DGGE and real-time PCR analysis of lactic acid bacteria in bacterial communities of the phyllosphere of lettuce.  

PubMed

Food associated indigenous microbial communities exert antagonistic effects on pathogens and may routinely deliver health relevant microorganisms to the GI tract. By using molecular, culture independent methods including PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA-coding regions and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) as well as BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting, microbial communities on lettuce were analyzed in samples from fields, from supermarkets and soil. Amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences (57.7%) could be assigned to species previously reported as typical for the phyllosphere including Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas flavescens, Moraxella spp., and Mycobacterium spp. 71.8% of the sequences obtained represented so far undescribed taxa. Principal component analysis of BIOLOG metabolic profiles indicated a seasonal variation in the lettuce phyllosphere microbial community structure. Various lactic acid bacteria were detected including several Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species in particular on lettuce from organic farming. By RT-PCR lactobacilli were found with a range of abundances from 1x10(4 )to 1x10(5 )copies/g lettuce. Considering the importance of salad in many diets lettuce may contribute to a constant supply with LAB. PMID:18398868

Zwielehner, Jutta; Handschur, Michael; Michaelsen, Astrid; Irez, Selen; Demel, Michael; Denner, Ewald B M; Haslberger, Alexander G

2008-05-01

308

Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

2014-01-01

309

Taxonomy of lactic acid bacteria associated with vacuum-packaged processed meat spoilage by multivariate analysis of cellular fatty acids.  

PubMed

The taxonomy of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum-packaged processed meats is problematic, and atypical members of the leuconostocs and the Lactobacillus sake / curvatus group are often encountered. In order to resolve this problem the cellular fatty acid (CFA) content of 61 isolates from vacuum-packaged vienna sausages and 18 reference strains was determined by gas chromatography. The relationship between strains was derived by principal component analysis of data. The CFA profiles were highly reproducible. Although no relationships could be derived using only one or two differentiating CFAs, plots of the first two principal components based on only the six most variable CFAs allowed grouping of strains. The two genera (Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus) could not be clearly separated when analysed together, but differentiation of species within each of the genera was achieved when they were analysed independently. Examination of plots for the reference strains confirmed previously established relationships between these strains. From the plot of the Lactobacillus sake / Lactobacillus curvatus component of the study it was found that most atypical Lactobacillus sake / curvatus strains were closely related to the typical Lactobacillus sake isolates and reference strain, while the Lactobacillus curvatus strains formed an independent grouping. A small cluster of atypical strains, however, indicated that this relationship may not be true for all these strains. Among the leuconostocs only isolates of Leuconostoc mesenteroides could be clearly differentiated. PMID:8751093

Dykes, G A; Cloete, T E; von Holy, A

1995-11-01

310

Microbial Quality and Direct PCR Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonpathogenic Staphylococci from Artisanal Low-Acid Sausages  

PubMed Central

Detection of six species of lactic acid bacteria and six species of gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from low-acid fermented sausages (fuets and chorizos) was assessed by species-specific PCR. Without enrichment, Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus were detected in 11.8% of the samples, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus were detected in 17.6%. Enriched samples allowed the detection of L. sakei and S. xylosus in all of the samples (100%) and of Enterococcus faecium in 11.8% of the sausages. The percentages of L. curvatus, L. plantarum, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis varied depending on the sausage type. L. curvatus was detected in 80% of fuets and in 57% of chorizos. L. plantarum was found in 50% of fuets and 100% of chorizos. S. epidermidis was detected in only 11.8% of fuets, and S. carnosus was detected in only 5.9% of chorizos. Lactococcus lactis, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus simulans were not detected in any sausage type. From a microbiological point of view, 70.6% of the samples could be considered of high quality, as they had low counts of Enterobacteriaceae and did not contain any of the food-borne pathogens assayed. PMID:12902246

Aymerich, T.; Martin, B.; Garriga, M.; Hugas, M.

2003-01-01

311

Lactic acid bacteria ecology of three traditional fermented sausages produced in the North of Italy as determined by molecular methods.  

PubMed

In this study the bacterial biodiversity during the maturation process of three traditional sausages produced in the North of Italy (Salame bergamasco, Salame cremonese and Salame mantovano) was investigated by using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Eleven plants, in the three provinces considered here, were selected because starter cultures were never used in the production. The bacterial ecology, as determined by plate counts, was dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), with minor contribution of coagulase negative cocci and yeasts. After molecular identification of 486 LAB strains, the species more frequently isolated were Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus. This evidence was also confirmed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). All the samples analyzed were characterized by the constant presence of L. sakei and L. curvatus bands. A richer biodiversity was only detected at the beginning of maturation. The results obtained by the molecular characterization of the L. sakei and L. curvatus and by the cluster analysis of the DGGE profiles highlighted a plant-specific population, rather than a geographic characterization of the products, underlining how the environmental and processing conditions are able to select specific microbiota responsible for the main transformations during the fermentation and ripening of the sausages. PMID:20416781

Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Urso, Rosalinda; Cantoni, Carlo; Comi, Giuseppe

2009-05-01

312

Inventory of non starter lactic acid bacteria from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as assessed by a culture dependent multiphasic approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate microbial species diversity and strain complexity of the cultivable non starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) occurring in 31 ripened Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheeses. Dereplication of 127 lactobacilli isolates by (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting yielded a total of 51 genotypes. Phylogenetic relatedness of all the genotypes with known Lactobacillus species was determined by a novel combined amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (16S-ARDRA), species-specific PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The species Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei comprise the largest portions of the cultivable NSLAB community in PR cheese, with an inter-individual diversity ranging from one to four dominant genotypes per sample. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus harbinensis and Lactobacillus fermentum species were also detected at low frequency. The data showed differences in cultivable NSLAB population, with an overall decrease in diversity and complexity from early to advanced stages of ripening. Finally the de-replicated collection of genotypes resulting from this work is the bases for further functional screening. PMID:22626626

Solieri, Lisa; Bianchi, Aldo; Giudici, Paolo

2012-06-01

313

Lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal dry sausages: characterization of antibacterial compounds and study of the factors affecting bacteriocin production.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from north-eastern region of Chaco, Argentina. Among 141 isolates, 27 showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua, Staphyloccus aureus or Brochothrix spp. One isolate, identified as Lb. curvatus/sakei, produced bacteriocin like substances (BLIS). These BLIS were heat stable, effective after refrigerated storage and freeze/thaw cycles and even active against pathogens when produced under refrigeration at 3% NaCl concentration. The influence of several factors on production of BLIS was assessed in MRS broth added with: EDTA, ascorbic acid, KCl, potassium sorbate, sodium citrate, 3 and 6% NaCl, Tween 20 or Brij 35. These additives showed different effects towards the effectiveness of the bacteriocin produced by Lb. sakei/curvatus against L. innocua and S. aureus. Conditions that provided high cell density favored high bacteriocin production. BLIS production by this LAB strain was greatly influenced by NaCl concentration and the presence of surfactants. PMID:21131135

Castro, M P; Palavecino, N Z; Herman, C; Garro, O A; Campos, C A

2011-04-01

314

Isolation and identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria in traditional yak milk products of Gansu Province in China.  

PubMed

Various traditional fermented yak milk and raw milk foods could be considered as an abundant resource for obtaining novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with unique properties. Eighty-eight samples of yak milk products were collected from Gansu Province in China. Three hundred and nineteen strains of LAB isolated from these samples were identified by phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology. Among the isolates, one hundred and sixty-four isolates (51.41% of the total) were classified under Lactobacilli, and one hundred and fifty-five (48.59%) belonged to cocci. All the isolates were classified to six genera (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella) and twenty-one species. Lactobacillus helveticus (87 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (49 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (39 strains), Lactobacillus casei (31 strains) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (19 strains) were considered as the predominant populations in the yak milk products. The results showed that there were abundant genus and species LAB existing in yak milk products in Gansu Province in China. The obtained LAB pure cultures may be a valuable source for further starter selection. PMID:22688240

Bao, QiuHua; Liu, WenJun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Weihong; Qing, ManJun; Chen, Xia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Wenyi; Qiao, Jianmin; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

2012-01-01

315

Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from "Alheira", a traditional fermented sausage produced in Portugal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "Alheira", a fermented sausage produced in Portugal. LAB were identified to genus and species level by phenotypic characteristics, using genus or species-specific primers and sequencing of the gene encoding 16S rRNA. Two-hundred and eighty-three isolates were grouped into 14 species. Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from all sausages and Enterococcusfaecalis from most of the samples. Low numbers of Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Weissella cibaria, Weissella viridescens and Enterococcus faecium were recorded. The genetic heterogeneity of L. plantarum and E. faecalis strains were determined by numerical analysis of DNA banding patterns obtained by RAPD-PCR. Strains of L. plantarum and E. faecalis were different from different producers. This study forms the basis from which starter cultures could be selected for production of "Alheira". PMID:20416703

Albano, Helena; van Reenen, Carol A; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Cruz, Diana; Fraga, Luisa; Hogg, Tim; Dicks, Leon M T; Teixeira, Paula

2009-07-01

316

Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.  

PubMed

A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

2012-01-01

317

Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.  

PubMed

A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough. PMID:17675431

Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

2007-10-01

318

Enhancement of the immune response against Salmonella infection of mice by heat-killed multispecies combinations of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has advantages over live LAB in that it has a long shelf-life and is therefore easy to store and transport. From four LAB strains selected by immunomodulatory activity and adherent properties, we prepared the heat-killed multispecies combination of LAB (MLAB) and the cell walls from MLAB under two conditions (100 °C for 30 min and 121 °C for 15 min). Different effects on the adherent properties of these four LAB strains were observed, depending on the heating conditions. With mouse macrophage cells, the two heat-killed MLABs (HMLABs) showed significantly higher induction activities on the production of interleukin 12 (IL-12) than their individual strains did. Heat-killed MLABs and cell-wall preparations were able to reduce the Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 and mouse macrophage cells. Feeding mice with HMLAB could inhibit the Salmonella invasion of mice significantly. For these mice, the expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-? and IL-6, in mouse serum was reduced while that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, i.e. IL-10, was enhanced. The HMLABs developed in this study showed higher protective effect against Salmonella invasion either of Caco-2 cells or of mice, relative to the heat-killed lactobacilli, which consisted of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains selected at random. In conclusion, the HMLABs were potentially useful for the protection of mice against Salmonella infection and the induced inflammation. PMID:24000228

Chen, Chih-Yuan; Tsen, Hau-Yang; Lin, Chun-Li; Lin, Chien-Ku; Chuang, Li-Tsen; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Chiang, Yu-Cheng

2013-11-01

319

Spherical Lactic Acid Bacteria Activate Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Immunomodulatory Function via TLR9-Dependent Crosstalk with Myeloid Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are a specialized sensor of viral and bacterial nucleic acids and a major producer of IFN-? that promotes host defense by priming both innate and acquired immune responses. Although synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, pathogenic bacteria and viruses activate pDC, there is limited investigation of non-pathogenic microbiota that are in wide industrial dietary use, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we screened for LAB strains, which induce pDC activation and IFN-? production using murine bone marrow (BM)-derived Flt-3L induced dendritic cell culture. Microbial strains with such activity on pDC were absent in a diversity of bacillary strains, but were observed in certain spherical species (Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Pediococcus), which was correlated with their capacity for uptake by pDC. Detailed study of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 and JCM20101 revealed that the major type I and type III interferons were induced (IFN-?, -?, and ?). IFN-? induction was TLR9 and MyD88-dependent; a slight impairment was also observed in TLR4-/- cells. While these responses occurred with purified pDC, IFN-? production was synergistic upon co-culture with myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), an interaction that required direct mDC-pDC contact. L. lactis strains also stimulated expression of immunoregulatory receptors on pDC (ICOS-L and PD-L1), and accordingly augmented pDC induction of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg compared to the Lactobacillus strain. Oral administration of L. lactis JCM5805 induced significant activation of pDC resident in the intestinal draining mesenteric lymph nodes, but not in a remote lymphoid site (spleen). Taken together, certain non-pathogenic spherical LAB in wide dietary use has potent and diverse immunomodulatory effects on pDC potentially relevant to anti-viral immunity and chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:22505996

Jounai, Kenta; Ikado, Kumiko; Sugimura, Tetsu; Ano, Yasuhisa; Braun, Jonathan; Fujiwara, Daisuke

2012-01-01

320

Aerobic bacterial flora of oral and nasal fluids of canines with reference to bacteria associated with bites.  

PubMed Central

Oral and nasal fluids of 50 dogs were examined to determine the prevalence of aerobic bacteria frequently associated with animal bite wounds. The most frequently isolated microorganisms included: IIj, EF-4, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, group D streptococci, Corynebacterium sp., Enterobacteria, Neisseria sp., Moraxella sp., and Bacillus sp. Other species and genera were infrequently recovered and may represent transient flora. The high incidence of IIj, EF-4, P. multocida, and S. aureus, all known human pathogens, suggests that they should be considered as probably contaminants in bite wounds. Images PMID:632349

Bailie, W E; Stowe, E C; Schmitt, A M

1978-01-01

321

Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.  

PubMed

For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7?×?10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying. PMID:24584512

Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

2014-06-01

322

Evidence for propagation of aerobic bacteria in particles suspended in gaseous atmospheres. [Terrestrial microorganism contamination of Jupiter atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One factor involved in the possibility that airborne microbes might contaminate the Jovian atmosphere is whether microbes have the capacity to propagate in air. Prior to these studies, the evidence was that the airborne state was lethal to microbes. An aerosol of aerobic bacteria was mixed with another containing C-14-glucose, and the presence of C-14-CO2 was subsequently detected, which indicates that the airborne cells were metabolically active. In the same type of experiment, it was shown that thymidine was incorporated into the acid-insoluble fraction of samples, indicating the formation of DNA. It was also shown, both by an increase in the numbers of viable cells and a parallel increase in particle numbers, that at least two new generations of cells could occur. Evidence for propagation of anaerobic bacteria has so far been negative.

Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.; Straat, P.

1977-01-01

323

Intra- and interlaboratory performances of two commercial antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bifidobacteria and nonenterococcal lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In a small-scale harmonization study involving nine laboratories in eight European countries, the intra- and interlaboratory performances of two commercially available systems, i.e., the VetMIC microplate system and Etest, for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nonenterococcal lactic acid bacteria (NELAB) and bifidobacteria were analyzed. In addition, one laboratory also performed standard broth microdilution as a reference method. MICs of tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, clindamycin, and streptomycin for the type strains of 25 species of NELAB and bifidobacteria and MICs of vancomycin for a selection of relevant taxa were determined. The previously described lactic acid bacterium susceptibility test medium (LSM) and related mixed-medium formulations, all including Iso-Sensitest broth as a basic component, were used as test media. The overall agreement of median MIC ranges +/- 1 log(2) dilution determined by the VetMIC and Etest methods with the median MICs determined by the reference method was very good for tetracycline, ampicillin, and streptomycin (92.3 to 100%) but low for erythromycin (19.5 to 30.7%) and clindamycin (50.0 to 80.8%). There was a consensus among the participating laboratories that VetMIC was preferred over Etest because of its lower cost, better growth support, and more uniform criteria for MIC end point reading. With the range for acceptable intralaboratory reproducibility being defined as the median MIC +/- 1 log(2) dilution, VetMIC results (with 69.2% of all data sets in the acceptable range) were shown to display greater reproducibility than Etest results (with 58.8% of all data sets in the acceptable range). Also at the interlaboratory level, the proportion of MIC values obtained with VetMIC that belonged to the complete agreement category (60.0%) was higher than the proportion of such values obtained with Etest (47.0%), which indicates a higher degree of interlaboratory reproducibility for the former method. Apart from some agent-specific effects, the majority of VetMIC and Etest replicate data sets were situated within a 1- to 2-log(2) dilution range, suggesting that the two methods can be considered to be equivalent for recognizing resistance phenotypes. This multicenter study has further validated the standard use of LSM and related mixed-medium formulations with commercially available systems and formed the basis for the ongoing development of the ISO 10932/IDF 223 standard for susceptibility testing of NELAB and bifidobacteria. PMID:20385863

Huys, Geert; D'Haene, Klaas; Cnockaert, Margo; Tosi, Lorenzo; Danielsen, Morten; Flórez, Ana Belén; Mättö, Jaana; Axelsson, Lars; Korhonen, Jenni; Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Egervärn, Maria; Giacomini, Mauro; Vandamme, Peter

2010-06-01

324

Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria  

E-print Network

-oxidizing bacteria Karen L. Casciotti *,1 , Bess B. Ward Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton) are climatically important trace gases that are produced by both nitrifying and den- itrifying bacteria-oxidizing bacteria, including Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus species (i.e., both b- and c-Proteobacterial ammonia

Ward, Bess

325

Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a), the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 52 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94%) was affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the discrepancies between culture-based and molecular methods, this study highlights the existing gaps in the understanding of the AAP bacteria ecology, especially in the Mediterranean Sea and likely globally.

Jeanthon, C.; Boeuf, D.; Dahan, O.; Le Gall, F.; Garczarek, L.; Bendif, E. M.; Lehours, A.-C.

2011-05-01

326

Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a), the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 54 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94 %) was affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the discrepancies between culture-based and molecular methods, this study highlights the existing gaps in the understanding of the AAP bacteria ecology, especially in the Mediterranean Sea and likely globally.

Jeanthon, C.; Boeuf, D.; Dahan, O.; Le Gall, F.; Garczarek, L.; Bendif, E. M.; Lehours, A.-C.

2011-07-01

327

Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria from geothermal environments in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago, with the proposal of Bacillus fumarioli sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from soils taken from active fumaroles on Mount Rittmann and Mount Melbourne in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and from active and inactive fumaroles on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. The Mt Rittmann and Mt Melbourne soils yielded a dominant, moderately thermophilic and acidophilic, aerobic endospore- former growing at pH 5<5 and 50SC, and further strains

N. A. Logan; L. Lebbe; B. Hoste; J. Goris; G. Forsyth; M. Heyndrickx; B. L. Murray; N. Syme; D. D. Wynn-Williams; P. De Vos

328

Effectiveness of a polyamide film releasing lactic acid on the growth of E. coli O157:H7, Enterobacteriaceae and Total Aerobic Count on vacuum-packed beef.  

PubMed

The suitability of a polyamide 6 monolayer film containing lactic acid for use as an antimicrobial package for fresh beef cuts was studied. The release of lactic acid in an aqueous environment was immediate (within 1h) and was from approx. 55 ?g lactic acid/cm(2) film at 0-8°C to approx. 67 ?g lactic acid/cm(2) film at 12-20°C. Beef was contaminated with an Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolate with known minimum inhibitory concentration against lactic acid (0.09% v/v), then wrapped with the lactic-acid polyamide film and vacuum packaged. During storage at 12°C, the numbers of E. coli were 1 log unit lower than that of a control (untreated polyamide film) and decreased by an additional 1 log during storage for 14 days. PMID:23739266

Smulders, F J M; Paulsen, P; Vali, S; Wanda, S

2013-10-01

329

Acquisition of Fe from Various Natural Organic Matter Isolates by Aerobic Pseudomonad Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient to most microorganisms. Aerobic microorganisms exhibit various strategies for acquiring Fe at near-neutral pH conditions, where Fe oxyhydroxides are insoluble. Although much research has focused on microbial acquisition of Fe from minerals, little is known about Fe acquisition from natural organic matter (NOM). Yet, in surface waters, soils and shallow sediments, Fe is often

Katherine C. Young; Patricia A. Maurice; Larry E. Hersman

2006-01-01

330

Efficiency of a Transport Medium for the Recovery of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria from Applicator Swabs  

PubMed Central

The survival of four aerobic and four anaerobic pathogens was evaluated quantitatively on cotton swabs and calcium alginate swabs stored in dry tubes as compared with swabs stored in Amies Transport Medium without charcoal. Survival of the pathogens was markedly improved when stored in Amies Transport Medium, although there was considerable loss of viability after a few hours of storage. PMID:4626907

Barry, A. L.; Fay, G. D.; Sauer, R. L.

1972-01-01

331

Fingerprint of lactic acid bacteria population in beef carpaccio is influenced by storage process and seasonal changes.  

PubMed

We have investigated the population structure of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for several beef carpaccio available on the market with the purpose of comparing the effect of storage process (modified-atmosphere packaging and vacuum-packaging) and of seasonal changes on this microbial population. Out of 60 samples we have characterised 214 isolates accounting for 10 LAB species and 35 isolates accounting for 11 non-LAB species. Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc carnosum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the most prevailing LAB species with a frequency of identification within 66%, 62% and 52% of the samples respectively. These 3 species were also characterised by a phenotypic intra-species diversity of isolates based on colony morphology. We showed that the prevalence was increased 1.5 fold for L. sakei and L. mesenteroides during the summer sampling in comparison to the spring or the fall sampling suggesting an environmental origin of these two species. Seasonal variations were also observed for the prevalence of Lactobacillus fuchuensis and L. carnosum in spring (2- and 1.5-fold increase, respectively) and of Brochothrix thermosphacta in fall (6-fold increase). Finally, we demonstrated that the growth potential after the sell-by-date was favourable of 1.25 log(10) cfu g(-1) to Leuconostoc spp. in modified-atmosphere packaging and of 1.38 log(10) cfu g(-1) to Lactobacillus spp. in vacuum-packaging. In conclusion, we show that important and unsuspected traits in bacterial population dynamics can be unravelled by large sampling strategies. We discuss about the need to take this assessment into account for further studies on bacterial ecosystems of meat. PMID:22202872

Lucquin, Isabelle; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie; Chaillou, Stéphane

2012-04-01

332

Field validation of predictive models for the growth of lactic acid bacteria in acidic cheese-based Greek appetizers.  

PubMed

A microbial model was developed for spoilage of two acidic Greek appetizers, namely, tyrosalata (TS) and tyrokafteri (TK), with pH values of 4.34 to 4.50 and 4.22 to 4.38, respectively. The specific spoilage organisms of these products were lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which dominated during storage, while yeasts, whenever present, remained at low levels (1 to 2 log CFU/g). Correlations of LAB populations with changes in pH and sensory characteristics indicated that the spoilage level of LAB ranged from 8.1 to 8.6 log CFU/g for both products. TK showed a relatively higher microbial stability than did TS. The growth of LAB was modeled with the Baranyi model, while their maximum specific growth rates were further modeled as a function of temperature with square-root model and Arrhenius equations for each appetizer. The validation of the model was performed under nonisothermal conditions in the laboratory and in a field validation trial with temperature logging during distribution of individual packages in the chill supply chain, including transportation from the plant to the distribution center, retail display, and household refrigerators. Models for both appetizers showed satisfactory agreement with data, with a slight tendency of overprediction of LAB in TS. The field validation process also confirmed the higher stability of TK over TS. The developed models may serve as a useful tool for monitoring the microbiological quality of such complex products and manage their distribution. Furthermore, depending on the seasonal variation of chill chain conditions, reassessment of shelf life may be performed. PMID:19205470

Manios, Stavros G; Skiadaresis, Argyris G; Karavasilis, Kostas; Drosinos, Eleftherios H; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

2009-01-01

333

Isolation and molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria from poultry and swine meat products.  

PubMed

The transfer via the food chain from animals to humans of microbes that are resistant to antimicrobial agents is of increasing concern. To determine the contributions of nonpathogenic microflora to the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes in the food chain, 123 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 29 samples of raw and processed pork and chicken meat products that had previously tested positive for one or more AR genes that encode clinically relevant ARs: tet(M), tet(O), tet(K), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), aac (6')-Ie aph (2")-Ia, mecA, and blaZ. All of the isolates were initially tested for their AR gene profiles by PCR. The 59 isolates carrying a tet, erm, or blaZ gene were taken through molecular identification, analyzed by determination of the MIC, and subjected to genetic fingerprinting. Lactococcus garvieae was the predominant species (28 isolates), followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (11 isolates) and L. salivarius (6 isolates), whereas Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus johnsonii, L. reuteri, L. crispatus, and L. brevis were identified at lower frequencies. The tet(M) and erm(B) genes were the most frequently detected. Assessment of multiple resistances in 18 tet positive (tet+) isolates revealed that tet(M) plus erm(B) and tet(K) plus erm(B) were the most frequent AR gene patterns. Partial sequencing of the tet(M) open reading frame of three selected strains showed high sequence similarities (> 99%) with tet(M) genes previously found in human pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Neisseria meningitidis). Southern hybridization with plasmid profiles revealed these strains contained tet(M)-carrying plasmids. PMID:17388042

Aquilanti, Lucia; Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Silvestri, Gloria; Vignaroli, Carla; Clementi, Francesca

2007-03-01

334

Comparative study of the inhibitory effects of wine polyphenols on the growth of enological lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

This paper reports a comparative study of the inhibitory potential of 18 phenolic compounds, including hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acids, phenolic alcohols and other related compounds, stilbenes, flavan-3-ols and flavonols, on different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of the species Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from wine. In general, flavonols and stilbenes showed the greatest inhibitory effects (lowest IC?? values) on the growth of the strains tested (0.160-0.854 for flavonols and 0.307-0.855 g/L for stilbenes). Hydroxycinnamic acids (IC?? > 0.470 g/L) and hydroxybenzoic acids and esters (IC?? >1 g/L) exhibited medium inhibitory effect, and phenolic alcohols (IC?? > 2 g/L) and flavanol-3-ols (negligible effect) showed the lowest effect on the growth of the LAB strains studied. In comparison to the antimicrobial additives used in winemaking, IC?? values of most phenolic compounds were higher than those of potassium metabisulphite for O. oeni strains (e.g., around 4-fold higher for quercetin than for potassium metabisulphite), but lower for L. hilgardii and P. pentosaceus strains (e.g., around 2-fold lower for quercetin). Lysozyme IC?? values were negligible for L. hilgardii and P. pentosaceus, and were higher than those corresponding to most of the phenolic compounds tested for O. oeni strains, indicating that lysozyme was less toxic for LAB than the phenolic compounds in wine. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed damage of the cell membrane integrity as a consequence of the incubation with antimicrobial agents. These results contribute to the understanding of the inhibitory action of wine phenolics on the progress of malolactic fermentation, and also to the development of new alternatives to the use of sulphites in enology. PMID:21295882

García-Ruiz, Almudena; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Bartolomé, Begoña

2011-02-28

335

Taxonomic and molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in nunu, a Ghanaian fermented milk product.  

PubMed

Produced from raw unpasteurized milk, nunu is a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product made in Ghana and other parts of West Africa. Despite the importance of nunu in the diet of many Africans, there is currently only limited information available on the microorganisms associated with nunu processing. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the process and as a first step towards developing starter cultures with desired technological properties for nunu production, a microbiological characterization of nunu processing in three different towns in the Upper East region of Ghana, namely Bolgatanga, Paga and Navrongo, was carried out. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts associated with nunu processing were isolated and identified using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods including morphological and carbohydrate fermentation tests, (GTG)5-based rep-PCR, multiplex PCR, and 16S and 26S rRNA gene sequencing. The LAB counts during nunu processing increased from 4.5 ± 0.4 log cfu/ml at 0 h to 8.7 ± 1.8 log cfu/ml at 24 h of fermentation while yeasts counts increased from 2.8 ± 1.2 log cfu/ml at 0 h to 5.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/ml by the end of fermentation. Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant LAB throughout the fermentations with Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides playing prominent roles during the first 6-8 h of fermentation as well. Less frequently isolated LAB included Lactobacillus helveticus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus italicus, Weissella confusa and a putatively novel Lactococcus spp. The yeasts involved were identified as Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, Galactomyces geotrichum, Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae being the dominant yeast species. PMID:23541194

Akabanda, Fortune; Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Glover, Richard L K; Nielsen, Dennis S; Jespersen, Lene

2013-06-01

336

The potential of dairy lactic acid bacteria to metabolise amino acids via non-transaminating reactions and endogenous transamination.  

PubMed

The metabolism of amino acids by 22 starter and 49 non-starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied in a system consisting of amino acids and non-growing cells without added amino acceptors such as alpha-ketoglutarate. There were significant inter- and intra-species differences in the metabolism of amino acids. Some amino acids such as alanine, arginine, aspartate, serine and branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were utilised, whereas other amino acids such as glycine, ornithine and citrulline were produced. Alanine and aspartate were utilised by some LAB and accumulated during the incubation of other LAB. Arginine was degraded not only by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (the lactococcal subspecies known to catabolise arginine), but also by pediococci, heterofermentative lactobacilli (Lactobacillus brevis and Lb. fermentum) and some unidentified homofermentative lactobacilli. Serine was utilised predominantly by homofermentative Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum. Of the LAB studied, Lb. brevis and Lb. fermentum were the most metabolically active, utilising alanine, arginine, aspartate, glutamate and branched-chain amino acids. Leuconostocs were the least metabolically active, showing little potential to metabolise amino acids. The formation of ammonia and acetate from amino acid metabolism varied both between species and between strains within species. These findings suggest that the potential of LAB for amino acid metabolism via non-transaminating reactions and endogenous transamination will impact both on the physiology of LAB and on cheese ripening, especially when transamination is rate-limiting in the absence of an exogenous amino acceptor such as alpha-ketoglutarate. PMID:12915037

Liu, S-Q; Holland, R; Crow, V L

2003-09-15

337

Screening of lactic acid bacteria for their potential as microbial cell factories for bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks  

PubMed Central

Background The use of fossil carbon sources for fuels and petrochemicals has serious impacts on our environment and is unable to meet the demand in the future. A promising and sustainable alternative is to substitute fossil carbon sources with microbial cell factories converting lignocellulosic biomass into desirable value added products. However, such bioprocesses require availability of suitable and efficient microbial biocatalysts, capable of utilizing C5 sugars and tolerant to inhibitory compounds generated during pretreatment of biomass. In this study, the performance of a collection of lactic acid bacteria was evaluated regarding their properties with respect to the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. The strains were examined for their ability to utilize xylose and arabinose as well as their resistance towards common inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass (furan derivatives, phenolic compounds, weak acids). Results Among 296 tested Lactobacillus and Pediococcus strains, 3?L. pentosus, 1 P. acidilactici and 1 P. pentosaceus isolates were found to be both capable of utilizing xylose and arabinose and highly resistant to the key inhibitors from chemically pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. When tested in broth with commonly found combinations of inhibitors, the selected strains showed merely 4%, 1% and 37% drop in growth rates for sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw and soft wood representatives, respectively, as compared to Escherichia coli MG1655 showing decreased growth rates by 36%, 21% and 90%, respectively, under the same conditions. Conclusion The study showed that some strains of Lactobacilli and Pediococci have the potential to be used as production platforms for value-added products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Selected Lactobacilli and Pediococci strains were able to tolerate the key inhibitors in higher concentrations compared to E.coli; in addition, as these isolates were also capable of fermenting xylose and arabinose, they constitute good candidates for efficient lignocellulosic feedstock bioconversions. PMID:24997803

2014-01-01

338

Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans and Host Defense against Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis?  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to develop a convenient model to investigate the senescence of host defenses and the influence of food and nutrition. A small soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, was grown for 3 days from hatching on a lawn of Escherichia coli OP50 as the normal food source, and subsequently some of the nematodes were fed lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The life spans of worms fed LAB were significantly longer than the life spans of those fed OP50. To investigate the effect of age on host defenses, 3- to 7-day-old worms fed OP50 were transferred onto a lawn of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis for infection. The nematodes died over the course of several days, and the accumulation of salmonella in the intestinal lumen suggested that the worms were infected. The 7-day-old worms showed a higher death rate during the 5 days after infection than nematodes infected at the age of 3 days; no clear difference was observed when the worms were exposed to OP50. We then investigated whether the LAB could exert probiotic effects on the worms' host defenses and improve life span. Seven-day-old nematodes fed LAB from the age of 3 days were more resistant to salmonella than worms fed OP50 until they were infected with salmonella. This study clearly showed that LAB can enhance the host defense of C. elegans and prolong life span. The nematode appears to be an appropriate model for screening useful probiotic strains or dietetic antiaging substances. PMID:17704266

Ikeda, Takanori; Yasui, Chikako; Hoshino, Kaori; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

2007-01-01

339

Degradation of anaerobic reductive dechlorinationproducts of Aroclor 1242 by four aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the aerobic degradation of eight PCB congeners which comprise from 70 to 85% of the anaerobic dechlorination products from Aroclor 1242, including2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, 2,2'-, 2,4'-, 2,2',4-, and2,4,4'-chlorobiphenyl (CB), and the biodegradation of their mixtures designed to simulate anaerobic dechlorination profiles M and C. StrainsComamonas testosteroni VP44 and Rhodococcus erythreus NY05 preferentially oxidizeda para-substituted ring, while Rhodococcus

Olga V. Maltseva; Tamara V. Tsoi; John F. Quensen; Masao Fukuda; James M. Tiedje

1999-01-01

340

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with granulated activated carbon (GAC) as a delivery system was determined in 2 L laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD, USA. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 to <2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, nonbioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only a 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both nonindigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective and environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment. PMID:23463900

Payne, Rayford B; Fagervold, Sonja K; May, Harold D; Sowers, Kevin R

2013-04-16

341

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial PCBs is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with GAC as a delivery system was determined in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 mg/kg to less than 2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, non-bioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia, or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both non-indigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment. PMID:23463900

Payne, Rayford B.; Fagervold, Sonja K.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

342

Coexistence of aerobic chemotrophic and anaerobic phototrophic sulfur bacteria under oxygen limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic chemotrophic sulfur bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus T5 and the anaerobic phototrophic sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina M1 were co-cultured in continuously illuminated chemostats at a dilution rate of 0.05 h?1. Sulfide was the only externally supplied electron donor, and oxygen and carbon dioxide served as electron acceptor and carbon source, respectively. Steady states were obtained with oxygen supplies ranging from

Frank P. van den Ende; Anniet M. Laverman; Hans van Gemerden

1996-01-01

343

Inhibitory potential of tea polyphenolics and influence of extraction time against Helicobacter pylori and lack of inhibition of beneficial lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Tea polyphenolics such as catechins are known to have the potential to inhibit many bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori has been identified as an etiologic agent in the development of gastric ulcer, peptic ulcer, gastritis, and many other stomach-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of 9 tea extracts--3 different brands representing 4 different processed types (white, green, oolong, and black)--on the inhibition of H. pylori. Extraction times of 2 and 5 minutes were compared. Most 5-minute extracts showed H. pylori inhibition, whereas 2-minute extracts only of Choice darjeeling black and Tazo white showed inhibition. No recovery was observed after the addition of 0.5 and 5 mM proline, indicating that tea polyphenols do not inhibit H. pylori by inhibition of proline oxidation via proline dehydrogenase. Extracts that showed inhibition were further evaluated for their effect on beneficial lactic acid bacteria. None of the samples showed inhibition, suggesting that tea might be able to inhibit H. pylori without affecting the beneficial lactic acid bacteria. High-performance liquid chromatography indicated the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, caffeine, and tea catechins (including catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin) in all the tea samples. Our study indicates that tea can be potentially used as a low-cost dietary support to combat H. pylori-linked gastric diseases without affecting the beneficial intestinal bacteria. PMID:21663484

Ankolekar, Chandrakant; Johnson, David; Pinto, Marcia da Silva; Johnson, Kevin; Labbe, Ronald; Shetty, Kalidas

2011-11-01

344

Aerobic andFacultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with theGutofCanadaGeese(Branta canadensis) andWhistling Swans(Cygnus columbianus columbianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic andfacultatively anaerobic bacteria fromtheintestinal tracts ofswans andgeesewereisolated andcharacterized aspartofa larger studyofthe microbiological effects ofmigratory waterfowl onwaterquality. A total of356 isolates wereidentified byusing rapididentification methodsandclassified by using numerical taxonomy. A diverse population ofbacteria wasrecovered from thewaterfowl, andrepresentative strains couldbeclassified into21phena. The majority oftheaerobic, heterotrophic bacteria foundinthegutofthewaterfowl werespecies ofEnterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, andBacillus. Unfortunately, thebirds thatwereexamined didnotharborsignificant numbers ofanywaterfowl-specific bacterial species. Thus,itmaynotbepossible

J. M. DAMARE; R. M. WEINER; R. R. COLWELL

1979-01-01

345

Changes in the size and composition of intracellular pools of nonesterified coenzyme A and coenzyme A thioesters in aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular levels of three coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species, i.e., nonesterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA, in a variety of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were analyzed by the acyl-CoA cycling method developed by us. It was demonstrated that there was an intrinsic difference between aerobes and facultative anaerobes in the changes in the size and composition of CoA pools. The CoA pools in the aerobic bacteria hardly changed and were significantly smaller than those of the facultatively anaerobic bacteria. On the other hand, in the facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the size and composition of the CoA pool drastically changed within minutes in response to the carbon and energy source provided. Acetyl-CoA was the major component of the CoA pool in the facultative anaerobes grown on sufficient glucose, although CoASH was dominant in the aerobes. Therefore, the acetyl-CoA/CoASH ratios in facultatively anaerobic bacteria were 10 times higher than those in aerobic bacteria. In Escherichia coli K-12 cells, the addition of reagents to inhibit the respiratory system led to a rapid decrease in the amount of acetyl-CoA with a concomitant increase in the amount of CoASH, whereas the addition of cerulenin, a specific inhibitor of fatty acid synthase, triggered the intracellular accumulation of malonyl-CoA. The acylation and deacylation of the three CoA molecular species coordinated with the energy-yielding systems and the restriction of the fatty acid-synthesizing system of cells. These data suggest that neither the accumulation of acetyl-CoA nor that of malonyl-CoA exerts negative feedback on pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, respectively. PMID:9023936

Chohnan, S; Furukawa, H; Fujio, T; Nishihara, H; Takamura, Y

1997-01-01

346

Abundance, Depth Distribution, and Composition of Aerobic Bacteriochlorophyll a-Producing Bacteria in Four Basins of the Central Baltic Sea? †  

PubMed Central

The abundance, vertical distribution, and diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) were studied at four basins of the Baltic Sea. AAP were enumerated by infrared epifluorescence microscopy, and their diversity was analyzed by using pufM gene clone libraries. In addition, numbers of CFU containing the pufM gene were determined, and representative strains were isolated. Both approaches indicated that AAP reached maximal abundance in the euphotic zone. Maximal AAP abundance was 2.5 × 105 cells ml?1 (11% of total prokaryotes) or 1.0 × 103 CFU ml?1 (9 to 10% of total CFU). Environmental pufM clone sequences were grouped into 11 operational taxonomic units phylogenetically related to cultivated members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. In spite of varying pufM compositions, five clones were present in all libraries. Of these, Jannaschia-related clones were always found in relative abundances representing 25 to 30% of the total AAP clones. The abundances of the other clones varied. Clones potentially affiliated with typical freshwater Betaproteobacteria sequences were present at three Baltic Sea stations, whereas clones grouping with Loktanella represented 40% of the total cell numbers in the Gotland Basin. For three alphaproteobacterial clones, probable pufM phylogenetic relationships were supported by 16S rRNA gene analyses of Baltic AAP isolates, which showed nearly identical pufM sequences. Our data indicate that the studied AAP assemblages represented a mixture of marine and freshwater taxa, thus characterizing the Baltic Sea as a “melting pot” of abundant, polyphyletic aerobic photoheterotrophic bacteria. PMID:18502937

Salka, Ivette; Moulisova, Vladimira; Koblizek, Michal; Jost, Gunter; Jurgens, Klaus; Labrenz, Matthias

2008-01-01

347

Inhibition of the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood of honeybees, by selected strains of aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from apiarian sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease of honeybee larvae, occurs throughout the world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. The potential as biocontrol agents of antagonic aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from honey samples and other apiarian sources were evaluated. Each isolate was screened against one strain of Paenibacillus larvae (ATCC 9545) by

Adriana M. Alippi; Francisco J. Reynaldi

2006-01-01

348

In vivo application and dynamics of lactic acid bacteria for the four-season production of Vastedda-like cheese.  

PubMed

Twelve lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously selected in vitro (Gaglio et al., 2014), were evaluated in situ for their potential to act as starter cultures for the continuous four-season production of Vastedda-like cheese, made with raw ewes' milk. The strains belonged to Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Streptococcus thermophilus. LAB were first inoculated in multiple-strain combinations on the basis of their optimal growth temperatures in three process conditions which differed for milk treatment and medium for strain development: process 1, growth of strains in the optimal synthetic media and pasteurised milk; process 2, growth of strains in whey based medium (WBM) and pasteurised milk; and process 3, growth of strains in WBM and raw milk. The strains that acidified the curds in short time, as shown by a pH drop, were all mesophilic and were then tested in a single inoculum through process 3. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis applied to the colonies isolated from the highest dilutions of samples confirmed the dominance of the added strains after curd acidification, stretching and storage. After 15days of refrigerated storage, the decrease in pH values showed an activity of the mesophilic strains at low temperatures, but only Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris PON153, Ln. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides PON259 and PON559 increased their number during the 15days at 7°C. A sensory evaluation indicated that the cheeses obtained by applying protocol 3 and by inoculation with lactococci are the most similar to the protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheese and received the best scores by the judges. Thus, the experimental cheeses obtained with raw milk and inoculated with single and multiple combinations of lactococci were subjected to the analysis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) carried out by a headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique coupled with gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). The dominance of lactococci over thermophilic LAB of raw milk was verified during summer production and, based on the combination of VOC profiles and sensory evaluation of the final cheeses, the multi-strain Lactococcus culture resulted in the most suitable starter preparation for the full-year production of Vastedda-like cheese. PMID:24598514

Gaglio, Raimondo; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cruciata, Margherita; Miraglia, Viviana; Corona, Onofrio; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Portolano, Baldassare; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

2014-05-01

349

Proteolysis by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Effects on Wheat Flour Protein Fractions and Gliadin Peptides Involved in Human Cereal Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were preliminarily screened for proteolytic activity by using a digest of albumin and globulin polypeptides as a substrate. Based on their hydrolysis profile patterns, Lactobacillus alimentarius 15M, Lactobacillus brevis 14G, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 7A, and Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B were selected and used in sourdough fermentation. A fractionated method of protein extraction and subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis were used to estimate proteolysis in sourdoughs. Compared to a chemically acidified (pH 4.4) dough, 37 to 42 polypeptides, distributed over a wide range of pIs and molecular masses, were hydrolyzed by L. alimentarius 15M, L. brevis 14G, and L. sanfranciscensis 7A. Albumin, globulin, and gliadin fractions were hydrolyzed, while glutenins were not degraded. The concentrations of free amino acids, especially proline and glutamic and aspartic acids, also increased in sourdoughs. Compared to the chemically acidified dough, proteolysis by lactobacilli positively influenced the softening of the dough during fermentation, as determined by rheological analyses. Enzyme preparations of the selected lactobacilli which contained proteinase or peptidase enzymes showed hydrolysis of the 31-43 fragment of A-gliadin, a toxic peptide for celiac patients. A toxic peptic-tryptic (PT) digest of gliadins was used for in vitro agglutination tests on K 562 (S) subclone cells of human myelagenous leukemia origin. The lowest concentration of PT digest that agglutinated 100% of the total cells was 0.218 g/liter. Hydrolysis of the PT digest by proteolytic enzymes of L. alimentarius 15M and L. brevis 14G completely prevented agglutination of the K 562 (S) cells by the PT digest at a concentration of 0.875 g/liter. Considerable inhibitory effects by other strains and at higher concentrations of the PT digest were also found. The mixture of peptides produced by enzyme preparations of selected lactobacilli showed a decreased agglutination of K 562 (S) cells with respect to the whole 31-43 fragment of A-gliadin. PMID:11823200

Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Lavermicocca, Paola; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; Faccia, Michele; Gobbetti, Marco

2002-01-01

350

Contribution of Aerobic Photoheterotrophic Bacteria to the Carbon Cycle in the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of bacteriochlorophyll a, the numbers of infrared fluorescent cells, and the variable fluorescence signal at 880 nanometers wave- length, all indicate that photosynthetically competent anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are abundant in the upper open ocean and comprise at least 11% of the total microbial community. These organisms are facultative photohetero- trophs, metabolizing organic carbon when available, but are

Zbigniew S. Kolber; F. Gerald Plumley; Andrew S. Lang; J. Thomas Beatty; Robert E. Blankenship; Cindy L. VanDover; Costantino Vetriani; Michal Koblizek; Christopher Rathgeber; Paul G. Falkowski

2001-01-01

351

Monitoring Methanotrophic Bacteria in Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors with PCR and a Catabolic Gene Probe  

PubMed Central

We attempted to mimic in small upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors the metabolic association found in nature between methanogens and methanotrophs. UASB bioreactors were inoculated with pure cultures of methanotrophs, and the bioreactors were operated by using continuous low-level oxygenation in order to favor growth and/or survival of methanotrophs. Unlike the reactors in other similar studies, the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors which we used were operated synchronously, not sequentially. Here, emphasis was placed on monitoring various methanotrophic populations by using classical methods and also a PCR amplification assay based on the mmoX gene fragment of the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). The following results were obtained: (i) under the conditions used, Methylosinus sporium appeared to survive better than Methylosinus trichosporium; (ii) the PCR method which we used could detect as few as about 2,000 sMMO gene-containing methanotrophs per g (wet weight) of granular sludge; (iii) inoculation of the bioreactors with pure cultures of methanotrophs contributed greatly to increases in the sMMO-containing population (although the sMMO-containing population decreased gradually with time, at the end of an experiment it was always at least 2 logs larger than the initial population before inoculation); (iv) in general, there was a good correlation between populations with the sMMO gene and populations that exhibited sMMO activity; and (v) inoculation with sMMO-positive cultures helped increase significantly the proportion of sMMO-positive methanotrophs in reactors, even after several weeks of operation under various regimes. At some point, anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors like those described here might be used for biodegradation of various chlorinated pollutants. PMID:9925557

Miguez, Carlos B.; Shen, Chun F.; Bourque, Denis; Guiot, Serge R.; Groleau, Denis

1999-01-01

352

16S ribosomal DNA analysis and characterization of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional Tibetan Qula cheese made from yak milk.  

PubMed

Twenty strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from six traditional Tibetan Qula cheese made from yak which were collected from northwest China, including Tibet, Qinghai and Gansu province. These isolates were subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. All isolates were Gram-positive and catalase-negative cocci that produced gas from glucose and formed D(-) isomer of lactate. Most isolates were able to grow in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth at pH values 3.0-9.0 and in 6.5% NaCl (w/v). According to analytical profile index 50 carbohydrates (API 50 CH) fermentation patterns of amygdalin and arabinose, these isolates were divided into three groups (A to C). On the basis of the phylogenetic trees of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence, the strains in all groups were placed in the cluster making up the genus Leuconostoc, which showed that all strains should belong to Leuconostoc species. Strains in Group A and Group B exhibited similarity of 16S rDNA sequence of over 99% to Leuconostoc mesenteroides, indicating that they each comprised a single species. Strains in group C were assigned to the Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and their 16S rDNA sequence showed a similarity of over 99%. This study demonstrated that Leuconostoc was the dominant member among lactic acid bacteria in Qula cheese. PMID:21108692

Tan, Zhongfang; Pang, Huili; Duan, Yuheng; Qin, Guangyong; Cai, Yimin

2010-12-01

353

Importance of unattached bacteria and bacteria attached to sediment in determining potentials for degradation of xenobiotic organic contaminants in an aerobic aquifer.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial abundance, distribution, and degradation potential (in terms of degradation versus lack of degradation) for four xenobiotic compounds in an aerobic aquifer sediment have been examined in laboratory and field experiments. The xenobiotic compounds studied were benzene, toluene, o-xylene, and naphthalene (all at concentrations of approximately 120 micrograms/liter). The aerobic degradation experiments ran for approximately 90 days at 10 degrees C, which corresponded to the groundwater temperature. At the end of the experiment, the major part of the microbial biomass, quantified as acridine orange direct counts, was attached to the groundwater sediment (18 x 10(6) to 25 x 10(6) cells per g [dry weight], and only a minor part was unattached in the groundwater (0.6 x 10(6) to 5.5 x 10(6) cells per ml). Experiments involving aquifer sediment suspensions showed identical degradation potentials in the laboratory and in the field. However, laboratory experiments involving only groundwater (excluding aquifer sediment) showed less degradation potential than in situ experiments involving only groundwater, indicating that the manipulation or approach of the laboratory experiments could affect the determination of the degradation potentials. No differences were observed between the groundwater-only and the sediment compartments in the in situ experiments in the ability to degrade the compounds, but the maximum degradation rates were substantially lower in the groundwater-only compartment. Preparations used in laboratory experiments for studying the degradation potential for xenobiotic organic contaminants should contain sediment to obtain the highest numbers of bacteria as well as the broadest and most stable degradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1444415

Holm, P E; Nielsen, P H; Albrechtsen, H J; Christensen, T H

1992-01-01

354

Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.  

PubMed

It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection. PMID:23805543

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

2013-06-01

355

Mechanisms regulating the reduction of selenite by aerobic gram (+) and ({minus}) bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Toxic species of selenium are pollutants found in agricultural and oil refinery wastestreams. Selenium contamination is particularly problematic in areas that have seleniferous subsurface geology, such as the central valley of California. The authors are developed a bacterial treatment system to mitigate selenium-contaminated wastestreams using Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, as model gram (+) and ({minus}) soil bacteria. They have found that, during growth, both organisms reduce selenite, a major soluble toxic species, to red elemental selenium--an insoluble product generally regarded as nontoxic. In both cases, reduction depended on growth substrate and was effected by an inducible system that effectively removed selenite at concentrations typical of polluted sites--i.e., 50 to 300 {micro}g/L. The bacteria studied differed in one respect: when grown in medium supplemented with nitrate or sulfate, the ability of P. fluorescens to remediate selenite was enhanced, whereas that of B. subtilis was unchanged. Current efforts are being directed toward understanding the biochemical mechanism(s) of detoxification and determining whether bacteria occurring in polluted environments such as soils and sludge systems are capable of selenite remediation.

Garbisu, C.; Ishii, Takahisa; Yee, B.C.; Carlson, D.E.; Buchanan, B.B.; Leighton, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, N.R. [California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Yee, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Div. of Earth Sciences

1995-12-31

356

Formation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria and Its Relationship to Carbon Source and Light Availability?  

PubMed Central

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are unique players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Cellular carbon storage is an important mechanism regulating the nutrition status of AAPB but is not yet well understood. In this paper, six AAPB species (Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114, Roseobacter litoralis OCh 149, Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12T, Labrenzia alexandrii DFL 11T, and Erythrobacter longus DSMZ 6997) were examined, and all of them demonstrated the ability to form the carbon polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in the cell. The PHA in Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447 was identified as poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) according to evidence from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations. Carbon sources turned out to be critical for PHA production in AAPB. Among the eight media tested with Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, sodium acetate, giving a PHA production rate of 72%, was the most productive carbon source, followed by glucose, with a 68% PHA production rate. Such PHA production rates are among the highest recorded for all bacteria. The C/N ratio of substrates was verified by the experiments as another key factor in PHA production. In the case of R. denitrificans OCh 114, PHA was not detected when the organism was cultured at C/N ratios of <2 but became apparent at C/N ratios of >3. Light is also important for the formation of PHA in AAPB. In the case of Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, up to a one-quarter increase in PHB production was observed when the culture underwent growth in a light-dark cycle compared to growth completely in the dark. PMID:21908634

Xiao, Na; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-01-01

357

Enzyme activities of aerobic lignocellulolytic bacteria isolated from wet tropical forest soils.  

PubMed

Lignocellulolytic bacteria have promised to be a fruitful source of new enzymes for next-generation lignocellulosic biofuel production. Puerto Rican tropical forest soils were targeted because the resident microbes decompose biomass quickly and to near-completion. Isolates were initially screened based on growth on cellulose or lignin in minimal media. 75 Isolates were further tested for the following lignocellulolytic enzyme activities: phenol oxidase, peroxidase, ?-d-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-xylopyranosidase, chitinase, CMCase, and xylanase. Cellulose-derived isolates possessed elevated ?-d-glucosidase, CMCase, and cellobiohydrolase activity but depressed phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity, while the contrary was true of lignin isolates, suggesting that these bacteria are specialized to subsist on cellulose or lignin. Cellobiohydrolase and phenol oxidase activity rates could classify lignin and cellulose isolates with 61% accuracy, which demonstrates the utility of model degradation assays. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates belonged to phyla dominant in the Puerto Rican soils, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, suggesting that many dominant taxa are capable of the rapid lignocellulose degradation characteristic of these soils. The isolated genera Aquitalea, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Gordonia, and Paenibacillus represent rarely or never before studied lignolytic or cellulolytic species and were undetected by metagenomic analysis of the soils. The study revealed a relationship between phylogeny and lignocellulose-degrading potential, supported by Kruskal-Wallis statistics which showed that enzyme activities of cultivated phyla and genera were different enough to be considered representatives of distinct populations. This can better inform future experiments and enzyme discovery efforts. PMID:24238986

Woo, Hannah L; Hazen, Terry C; Simmons, Blake A; DeAngelis, Kristen M

2014-02-01

358

Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encom- passing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (dena- turing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic

Nicholas Camu; Tom De Winter; Kristof Verbrugghe; Ilse Cleenwerck; Peter Vandamme; Jemmy S. Takrama; Marc Vancanneyt; Luc De Vuyst

2007-01-01

359

Aminopeptidase activity by spoilage bacteria and its relationship to microbial load and sensory attributes of poultry legs during aerobic cold storage.  

PubMed

The shelf life of poultry legs stored aerobically and the possible role of the aminopeptidase activity of gram-negative bacteria (p-nitroaniline test) as a predictor of poultry spoilage were evaluated on the basis of microbiological and sensory parameters. Chicken legs (n = 30) obtained immediately after evisceration in a local poultry processing plant were kept under aerobic refrigeration (4 +/- 1 degrees C) for 7 days. Microbiological (counts of aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophs) and sensory (odor, color, and general acceptability on a hedonic scale of 1 to 9) parameters and aminopeptidase activity (absorbance at 390 nm [A(390)]) determinations were performed after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of storage. Aerobic plate counts of 7 log CFU/g and a score of 6 for general acceptability were used as indicators of the end point of shelf life. Strong correlations (r > or = 0.76; P < 0.001) were obtained between bacterial counts, hedonic scores, and A(390) values. Samples were judged as unacceptable (shelf-life end point) after 2 and 4 days on the basis of sensory and microbiological analyses, respectively. A(390) values of 0.52 and 0.89 (corresponding to p-nitroaniline concentrations of 6.25 and 10.7 microg/ml, respectively) are proposed as the upper limits for acceptability on the basis of sensory and microbiological determinations, respectively. However, these recommendations are based on a small set of samples, and their general application is yet to be verified. PMID:20132678

Guevara-Franco, José Alfredo; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

2010-02-01

360

Diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in paddy soil and their response to elevated atmospheric CO2  

PubMed Central

Summary Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAnPB) are recognized as an important group driving the global carbon cycling. However, the diversity of AAnPB in terrestrial environment remains largely unknown as well as their responses to the elevated atmospheric CO2. By using culture?independent techniques, the diversity of AAnPB in paddy soil and the changes in response to the rising atmospheric CO2 were investigated within China FACE (Free?air CO2 enrichment) platform. There was a phylogenetically diverse AAnPB community with large population size residing in paddy soil. The community structure of AAnPB in bulk and rhizospheric soils stayed almost identical, while the population size was higher in rhizospheric [2.0–2.5?×?108 copy number of pufM genes g?1 dry weight soil (d.w.s.)] than that in bulk (0.7–0.8?×?108?g?1?d.w.s.) soils. Elevated atmospheric CO2 appeared to significantly stimulate AAnPB abundance (up to 1.4–1.5?×?108?g?1?d.w.s.) and result in a higher AAnPB percentage in total bacterial community (from 0.5% up to 1.5%) in bulk soil, whereas no significant effect was observed in rhizospheric soil. Our results would extend the functional ecotypes of AAnPB and indicate that environmental changes associated with the rising atmospheric CO2 might affect AAnPB community in paddy soil. PMID:21255374

Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Mao, Tingting; Zhu, Jianguo

2011-01-01

361

Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden  

PubMed Central

Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gram-negative (58%) bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130) showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2–8 mM) when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92) tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB) broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6–17.8 mM), the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate. PMID:24159321

Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A.K.

2013-01-01

362

Proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria strains and fungal biota for potential use as starter cultures in dry-cured ham.  

PubMed

During the processing of dry-cured meat products, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins undergo proteolysis, which has a marked effect on product flavor. Microbial proteolytic activity is due to the action of mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to a lesser extent micrococci. The proteolytic capacity of molds in various meat products is of interest to meat processors in the Mediterranean area. Eleven LAB and mold strains from different commercial origins were tested for proteolytic activity against pork myosin, with a view to possible use of these strains as starter cultures for Iberian dry-cured ham. Proteolytic activity was tested by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The LAB strains with the highest proteolytic activity were Lactobacillus plantarum (L115), Pediococcus pentosaceus (Saga P TM), and Lactobacillus acidophilus (FARGO 606 TM). The best fungal candidate was Penicillium nalgiovense LEM 50I followed by Penicillium digitatum, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:21549056

Toledano, A; Jordano, R; López, C; Medina, L M

2011-05-01

363

Psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria used to improve the safety and quality of vacuum-packaged cooked and peeled tropical shrimp and cold-smoked salmon.  

PubMed

Previously isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from seafood products have been investigated for their capacity to increase the sensory shelf life of vacuum-packaged shrimp and cold-smoked salmon and to inhibit the growth of three pathogenic bacteria. Two different manufactured batches of cooked, peeled, and vacuum-packaged shrimp were inoculated with seven LAB strains separately at an initial level of 5 log CFU g-t, and the spoilage was estimated by sensory analysis after 7 and 28 days of storage at 8 degrees C. Two Leuconostoc gelidum strains greatly extended the shelf life of both batches, two Lactococcus piscium strains had a moderate effect, two bacteria were spoilers (Lactobacillus fuchuensis and Carnobacterium alterfunditum), and the last one (another Leuconostoc gelidum strain) showed highly variable results depending on the batch considered. The four strains showing the best results (two Leuconostoc gelidum and two Lactococcus piscium strains) were selected for the same experiment in cold-smoked salmon. In this product, Lactococcus piscium strains showed better inhibiting capacities, improving the sensory quality significantly at 14 and 28 days of storage. Finally, the inhibiting capacities of two strains (one Leuconostoc gelidum strain and one Lactococcus piscium strain) were tested against three pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio cholerae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) by challenge tests in shrimp. LAB and pathogenic bacteria were coinoculated in vacuum-packaged shrimp and enumerated during 5 weeks. Lactococcus piscium strain EU2241 was able to reduce significantly the number of Listeria monocytogenes and S. aureus organisms in the product by 2 log throughout the study for Listeria monocytogenes and up to 4 weeks for S. aureus. PMID:19350982

Matamoros, S; Leroi, F; Cardinal, M; Gigout, F; Kasbi Chadli, F; Cornet, J; Prévost, H; Pilett, M F

2009-02-01

364

Production of biogenic amines by lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria isolated from fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept under refrigeration.  

PubMed

The occurrence of in vitro amino acid activity in bacterial strains associated with fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept in refrigeration was studied. The presence of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and by the presence of the corresponding decarboxylase genes by PCR. From the 93 lactic acid bacteria and 100 enterobacteria strains analysed, the decarboxylase medium underestimates the number of biogenic amine-producer strains. 28% of the lactic acid bacteria produced tyramine and presented the tdc gene. All the tyramine-producer strains were molecularly identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Differences on the relative abundance of C. divergens were observed among the different packaging atmospheres assayed. After 28 days of storage, the presence of argon seems to inhibit C. divergens growth, while packing under vacuum seems to favour it. Among enterobacteria, putrescine was the amine more frequently produced (87%), followed by cadaverine (85%); agmatine and tyramine were only produced by 13 and 1%, respectively, of the strains analysed. Packing under vacuum or in an atmosphere containing nitrogen seems to inhibit the growth of enterobacteria which produce simultaneously putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine. Contrarily, over-wrapping or packing in an atmosphere containing argon seems to favour the growth of agmatine producer-enterobacteria. The production of putrescine and cadaverine was associated with the presence of the corresponding amino acid decarboxylase genes. The biogenic amine-producer strains were included in a wide range of enterobacterial species, including Kluyvera intermedia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia kristensenii, Serratia grimesii, Serratia ficaria, Yersinia rodhei, Providencia vermicola and Obesumbacterium proteus. PMID:21316866

Curiel, J A; Ruiz-Capillas, C; de Las Rivas, B; Carrascosa, A V; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Muñoz, R

2011-07-01

365

Strains and species of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milks (yogurts): effect on in vivo lactose digestion14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose in yogurt with live bacteria is better tolerated than lactose in other dairy foods, partly because of the activity of microbial fl-galactosidase (f3-gal), which digests lactose in vivo. To evaluate the ability of different strains and species oflactic acid bacteria to digest lactose in vivo, yogurts (containing mixtures ofstrains ofStreptococcus salivarius subsp therm ophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus)

Margaret C Martini; Eric C Lerebours; Wei-Jin Lin; Susan K Harlander; Nabil M Berrada; Jean M Antoine; Dennis A Savaiano

366

Isolation of Bacillus sp. strains capable of decomposing alkali lignin and their application in combination with lactic acid bacteria for enhancing cellulase performance.  

PubMed

Effective biological pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was investigated. Two alkali lignin-degrading bacteria were isolated from forest soils in Japan and named CS-1 and CS-2. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that CS-1 and CS-2 were Bacillus sp. Strains CS-1 and CS-2 displayed alkali lignin degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.05-2.0 g L(-1), at least 61% alkali lignin could be degraded within 48 h. High laccase activities were observed in crude enzyme extracts from the isolated strains. This result indicated that alkali lignin degradation was correlated with laccase activities. Judging from the net yields of sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis, the most effective pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was a two-step processing procedure (pretreatment using Bacillus sp. CS-1 followed by lactic acid bacteria) at 68.6%. These results suggest that the two-step pretreatment procedure is effective at accelerating cellulase performance. PMID:24316485

Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Dubok; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Shintaro

2014-01-01

367

Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana.  

PubMed

The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

Camu, Nicholas; González, Angel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Addo, Solomon K; De Vuyst, Luc

2008-01-01

368

Selection of lactic acid bacteria from fermented plant beverages to use as inoculants for improving the quality of the finished product.  

PubMed

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from fermented plant beverages were selected based on their antibacterial actions against potential food borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PSSCMI 0004, Escherichia coli PSSCMI 0001, Salmonella typhimurium PSSCMI 0034 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus VP 4). Antibacterial activities were measured using an agar spot method. The Lactobacillus plantarum W90A strain isolated from a wild forest noni (Morinda coreia Ham) beverage was used as an inoculant. Three different inoculation procedures were conducted with the fruit of wild forest noni fermentations to establish which one was the best for controlling the numbers of yeast in the finished product. A 5% inoculum of L. plantarum W90A (LAB set), initial cell density 8.6 log cfu mL(-1), produced a better product and inhibitory properties against the test organisms, particularly E. coli PSSCMI 0001 than one with no inoculum or with a 5% inoculum from a previous natural fermented product. An LAB inoculum resulted in a reduced total bacterial count and no yeast throughout fermentation period (90 days). The lower yeast resulted in a reduction of the ethanol content to 2.9 g L(-1) compared to 12.2 g L(-1) inthe culture with no inoculum. The highest acidity (1.3-1.4%) with the same pH (3.3) was observed in both sets of inoculated fermentations, whereas the uninoculated set gave a pH value of 3.7 (1.2% acidity). PMID:19260331

Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan

2008-11-15

369

Extracting phylogenetic information from whole-genome sequencing projects: the lactic acid bacteria as a test case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of an ever increasing number of complete genome sequences of diverse prokaryotic taxa has led to the introduction of novel approaches to infer phylogenetic relationships among bacteria. In the present study the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and nine housekeeping genes were compared with the fraction of shared putative orthologous protein- encoding genes, conservation of gene order,

Tom Coenye; Peter Vandamme

2003-01-01

370

Concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria released to the air of a dental operation area before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines.  

PubMed

Bacteriological air sampling was conducted at 25 dental units during restorative treatment sessions before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) with hydrogen peroxide. Air samples for determining the concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were collected with the portable Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (RCS Plus) in the dental operation area close to patient's mouth. Large concentrations of airborne bacteria in the range of 0.35-40.08 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 1.63 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)) were recorded before DUWL disinfection. After disinfection, the concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.05), ranging from 0.51-3.82 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 0.9 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Streptococci were most numerous among airborne bacteria before DUWL disinfection, forming 79.23 % of total isolates. The remaining isolates were staphylococci/micrococci (15.7 % ), corynebacteria (2.3 % ), endospore-forming bacilli (1.45 % ), Gram-negative bacteria (1.31 % ), and actinomycetes (0.01 % ). After DUWL disinfection, a significant decrease in the numbers of streptococci (p<0.05) and Gram-negative bacteria (p<0.01) was noted, while the numbers of other types of bacteria were unaffected. Altogether, 50 species or genera of bacteria were identified in the examined air samples before and after DUWL disinfection. Of these, 36 species or genera are considered potentially pathogenic, as a potential cause of infection, allergic disease or intoxication. In conclusion, the high pollution of dental operation area with bacteria indicates a need for use of preventive measures protecting dental staff and patients, such as DUWL disinfection that proved efficient in decrease of exposure in the present study. PMID:19061267

Szyma?ska, Jolanta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2008-12-01

371

Isolation and Characterization of Acid-Tolerant, Thermophilic Bacteria for Effective Fermentation of Biomass-Derived Sugars to Lactic Acid  

PubMed Central

Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals by the appropriate microbes. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases that are required for depolymerization of cellulose to fermentable sugars and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial microbes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity, leading to a higher-than-required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial strains that grew and fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to l(+)-lactic acid at 50°C and pH 5.0, conditions that are also optimal for fungal cellulase activity. Xylose was metabolized by these new isolates through the pentose-phosphate pathway. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, [13C]lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products from [13C]xylose. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans, although the B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. These new B. coagulans isolates have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource, for the production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:16672461

Patel, Milind A.; Ou, Mark S.; Harbrucker, Roberta; Aldrich, Henry C.; Buszko, Marian L.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

2006-01-01

372

Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla–Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite

R. Echevarria; J. Bautista-Gallego; F. N. Arroyo-López; A. Garrido-Fernández

2010-01-01

373

Plasmid p256 from Lactobacillus plantarum represents a new type of replicon in lactic acid bacteria, and contains a toxin-antitoxin-like plasmid maintenance system.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum NC7 harbours a single 7.2 kb plasmid called p256. This report describes the complete nucleotide sequence and annotation of p256, as well as the identification of the minimal replicon of the plasmid. Based on sequence features in the unusually small (0.7 kb) minimal replicon, and the absence of a gene for a replication-relevant protein, p256 seems to represent a hitherto unknown type of theta replicon in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), with a relatively low copy-number. In addition, a putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) locus was identified. Experiments with variants of p256 indicated that the TA system was involved in plasmid maintenance. Furthermore, controlled expression of the TA genes stabilized vectors derived from the p256 replicon. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a TA locus with a demonstrated plasmid maintenance function has been identified in LAB. Transformation of several LAB with plasmids derived from p256 indicated that it has a narrow host range. Several effective expression vectors based on the p256 replicon have been constructed. PMID:15699191

Sørvig, Elisabeth; Skaugen, Morten; Naterstad, Kristine; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Axelsson, Lars

2005-02-01

374

Screening of surface properties and antagonistic substances production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from the mammary gland of healthy and mastitic cows.  

PubMed

Bovine mastitis (BM) is a costly disease in dairy cattle production. The prevention and treatment of mastitis is performed by applying antimicrobial products that negatively affect milk quality. In the last years, the use of probiotic microorganisms to prevent infections in humans and animals has being aggressively studied. Samples from teat canal and milk (foremilk and stripping) were taken from healthy and mastitic mammary quarters. A screening of the surface properties and antagonistic substances production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the mammary gland was performed to select potential probiotic strains to prevent mastitis. Somatic cell count, physico-chemical and microbiological studies were carried out. Pre-selected microorganisms were genetically identified. Compared with stripping milk, foremilk showed lower levels of fat and higher levels of pH, density, microorganism numbers, lower percentage of strains with mean and high hydrophobicity and mean autoaggregation and higher number of strains able to produce hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. The other parameters analyzed were not statistically significant. One hundred and two LAB strains were isolated. Most of them had low degrees of hydrophobicity and autoaggregation. No correlation between these properties was found. Antagonistic metabolites were mainly produced by strains isolated from healthy quarters. Most of the pre-selected strains were identified as Streptococcus bovis and Weissella paramesenteroides. Three bacteriocin-producers were found and their products partially characterized. The results of this work are the basis for the further design of a specie-specific probiotic product able to prevent BM. PMID:19041199

Espeche, Maria Carolina; Otero, Maria Claudia; Sesma, Fernando; Nader-Macias, Maria Elena Fatima

2009-03-30

375

The relative efficacy of different strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria in the reduction of populations of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in the livers and spleens of mice.  

PubMed

Multispecies probiotics have been reported to be more effective than monostrain probiotics in health promoting for the host. In this study, 12 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were selected based on the level of induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Their adherence to Caco-2 cells and inhibitory effects on Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 cells were compared. Strains with different probiotic properties were then combined and BALB/c mice were fed with LAB strains for 63 days; then the mice were challenged with Salmonella on day 64. For Salmonella-unchallenged mice that received a multistrain combination of LAB strains that have greater TNF-? production in macrophages, greater adherence and inhibit Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 cells to a greater extent, their peritoneal macrophages had greater phagocytic activity. For Salmonella-challenged mice, a significant reduction of Salmonella cells in the livers and spleens of the mice was observed 8 days post challenge. The addition of 12% skim milk powder together with LAB strain combinations significantly enhanced the reduction of Salmonella cells in the mice livers and spleens. In conclusion, we have shown that LAB strain combinations with particular probiotic properties when fed to mice can inhibit Salmonella invasion of the liver and spleen. PMID:21635568

Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Liang, Hsin-Wen; Yu, Bi; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Hwang, Chin-Fa; Chen, Ming-Hui; Tsen, Hau-Yang

2011-10-01

376

Effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants.  

PubMed

The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL) was assayed for antifungal activities against Rosellinia necatrix, Helicobasidium mompa, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium graminicola and Pyricularia oryzae. FHL completely inhibited the growth of R. necatrix, H. mompa, P. graminicola and P. oryzae, and reduced the growth of F. oxysporum by 35%. When the seeds of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), Brassica campestris L. (komatsuna), Oryza sativa L. (rice), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach), Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (tall fescue), and Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (tomato) were put on plates containing 0.69 mg/ml FHL, their germination rates did not decrease. The root elongation of A. officinalis, B. campestris, O. sativa, and L. esculentum seedlings was suppressed on plates containing 6.92 mg/ml FHL, but the root elongation of M. sativa was not suppressed on the 6.92 mg/ml FHL plate. When FHL was diluted to less than 1.73 mg/ml, the diluted FHL solution did not suppress the germination of B. campestris seeds, but it suppressed the root elongation of B. campestris seedlings. An FHL concentration higher than 0.35 mg/ml hastened the growth of seedlings of B. campestris in the presence of a chemical fertilizer but delayed the growth of these seedlings in the absence of the chemical fertilizer, suggesting that inorganic elements could affect the efficiency of FHL. PMID:16233688

Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Ohhira, Iichiro; Takahata, Masumi; Hirota, Atsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro

2004-01-01

377

Biodiversity and growth dynamics of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal PDO Ossau-Iraty cheeses made from raw ewe's milk with different starters.  

PubMed

The biodiversity and growth dynamics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in farm-house Ossau-Iraty cheeses were investigated from vat milk to 180 days of ripening in six independent batches made from six raw ewe's milks using five typical cheese-making methods. Commercial starter S1 was used for three batches, starter S1 combined with S2 for one batch and no starter for two batches. Up to ten LAB species from five genera and up to two strains per species were identified per milk; up to eleven species from five genera and up to three strains per species were identified per cheese. Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus paracasei, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were detected in all cheeses. Lactococci reached the highest counts irrespective of the milk and starter used. Lactococci and enterococci increased during manufacture, and mesophilic lactobacilli increased during ripening. Strain and species numbers, the percentage of isolates originating from the raw milk, maximum counts of each genus/species and time for reaching them, all varied according to whether or not a starter was used and the composition of the starter. The genotypes of strains within species varied according to the raw milk used. This generated distinct LAB microbiotas throughout manufacture and ripening that will certainly impact on the characteristics of the ripened cheeses. PMID:22029916

Feutry, Fabienne; Oneca, María; Berthier, Françoise; Torre, Paloma

2012-02-01

378

Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods?  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christele; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

379

Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.  

PubMed

The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed. PMID:19239979

Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

2009-04-15

380

Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

Zbrun, María V.; Soto, Lorena P.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Marti, Luis E.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

2012-01-01

381

Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5°C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ? 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ? 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This study presents relevant information on physicochemical, sensory, and microbial properties of probiotic yogurts and fermented milks, which could guide the dairy industry in developing new probiotic products. PMID:24745665

Mani-López, E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

2014-05-01

382

Physicochemical alterations enhance the ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to remove aflatoxin from contaminated media.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC-705, previously shown to effectively bind to aflatoxin B1, were subjected to various chemical and physical treatments to examine the effects of these treatments on the binding affinity of these strains toward aflatoxin B1. Treatment of bacterial pellets of both strains with hydrochloric acid significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the binding ability to bind aflatoxin B1 was also observed when the bacterial pellets were subjected to heat treatment by either autoclaving or boiling at 100 degrees C in a water bath, put the impact of these two treatments was not as effective as the acid treatment. Ethanol, UV radiation, sonication, alkaline, or pH treatments either had not effect or reduced the binding ability of the bacteria. PMID:9709211

el-Nezami, H; Kankaanpää, P; Salminen, S; Ahokas, J

1998-04-01

383

Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial contamination of raw milk can originate from different sources: air, milking equipment, feed, soil, faeces and grass. It is hypothesized that differences in feeding and housing strategies of cows may influence the microbial quality of milk. This assumption was investigated through comparison of the aerobic spore-forming flora in milk from organic and conventional dairy farms. Laboratory pasteurized milk samples

An Coorevits; Valerie De Jonghe; Joachim Vandroemme; Rieka Reekmans; Jeroen Heyrman; Winy Messens; Paul De Vos; Marc Heyndrickx

2008-01-01

384

ISOLATIONS OF AEROBIC BACTERIA FROM WILD DESERT BIGHORN SHEEP (OVIS CANADENSIS NELSON! AND 0. C. MEX!CANA) IN ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal, pharyngeal, cervical and vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 74 desert bighorn sheep for the purpose of investigating the normal aerobic bacterial flora of wild sheep. A total of 281 isolates was obtained and identified by standard microbiologic tests. One hundred seven of these isolates were gram positive and included Bacillus sp. (36%.), Staphylococcus epiderrnidis (8%), S. aureus (4%),

M. M. Marshall; J. Glenn Songer; C. J. Chilelli

385

Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria from surfacewater and groundwater of Rautahat District, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a serious Environmental Health Management issue of drinking water sources especially in Terai region of Nepal. Many studies have reported that due to natural abundance of arsenic in the environment, various bacteria have developed different resistance mechanisms for arsenic compound. In this study, the culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria indigenous to surfacewater as well as groundwater

S. Shakya; B. Pradhan; L. Smith; J. Shrestha; S. Tuladhar

386

Intravaginal administration of lactic acid bacteria modulated the incidence of purulent vaginal discharges, plasma haptoglobin concentrations, and milk production in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This investigation studied the effects of intravaginal administration of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the incidence of purulent vaginal discharges (PVD), plasma haptoglobin concentrations, and milk production in dairy cows. A total of 82 pregnant primiparous and multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Half of the cows received intravaginally 1mL of LAB at 10(10)-10(12)cfu/mL and the other half 1mL of reconstituted skim milk (i.e., carrier) (controls). Administration of LAB was conducted once per wk during 2 and 1wk before the expected day of calving and at 1, 2, 3, and 4wk postpartum. Data demonstrated that intravaginal administration of LAB decreased the occurrence of PVD at 3wk postpartum (P<0.05). Concentrations of plasma haptoglobin, an acute phase protein often associated with uterine infections, was lower in cows treated with the LAB mixture at 2wk (P<0.001) and 3wk (P<0.05) postpartum. Treatment with LAB did not improve overall pregnancy rate, but the treated multiparous cows produced more milk than their control counterparts (P<0.05), whereas no difference was observed in primiparous cows regarding milk yield (P>0.05). Overall, this is the first study demonstrating that intravaginal LAB administration lowers the incidence of PVD and enhances milk production in dairy cows. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effects of LAB on reproductive performance in a larger cohort of cows. PMID:24612560

Ametaj, B N; Iqbal, S; Selami, F; Odhiambo, J F; Wang, Y; Gänzle, M G; Dunn, S M; Zebeli, Q

2014-04-01

387

Role of Broiler Carcasses and Processing Plant Air in Contamination of Modified-Atmosphere-Packaged Broiler Products with Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Some psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are specific meat spoilage organisms in modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), cold-stored meat products. To determine if incoming broilers or the production plant environment is a source of spoilage LAB, a total of 86, 122, and 447 LAB isolates from broiler carcasses, production plant air, and MAP broiler products, respectively, were characterized using a library of HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the 16 and 23S rRNA genes as operational taxonomic units in numerical analyses. Six hundred thirteen LAB isolates from the total of 655 clustered in 29 groups considered to be species specific. Sixty-four percent of product isolates clustered either with Carnobacterium divergens or with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum type strains. The third major product-associated cluster (17% of isolates) was formed by unknown LAB. Representative strains from these three clusters were analyzed for the phylogeny of their 16S rRNA genes. This analysis verified that the two largest RFLP clusters consisted of carnobacteria and showed that the unknown LAB group consisted of Lactococcus spp. No product-associated LAB were detected in broiler carcasses sampled at the beginning of slaughter, whereas carnobacteria and lactococci, along with some other specific meat spoilage LAB, were recovered from processing plant air at many sites. This study reveals that incoming broiler chickens are not major sources of psychrotrophic spoilage LAB, whereas the detection of these organisms from the air of the processing environment highlights the role of processing facilities as sources of LAB contamination. PMID:17142357

Vihavainen, Elina; Lundstrom, Hanna-Saara; Susiluoto, Tuija; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Bjorkroth, K. Johanna

2007-01-01

388

Role of lactic acid bacteria as a biosanitizer to prevent attachment of Listeria monocytogenes F6900 on deli slicer contact surfaces.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the attachment of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and their combination in a cocktail, to stainless steel coupons from a deli slicer, and their ability to inhibit the attachment of Listeria monocytogenes. In a previous study, three LAB strains, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus amylovorus, and Lactobacillus animalis, were isolated from ready-to-eat meat and exhibited antilisterial effect. In the study reported here, hydrophobicity tests were determined according to the method of microbial adhesion to solvent. The attachment of the cells was evaluated on stainless steel coupons from deli slicers. Extracellular carbohydrates were determined with a colorimetric method. Based on these tests, L. animalis exhibited the greatest hydrophobicity (26.3%), and its adherence increased sharply from 24 to 72 h, whereas L. amylovorus yielded the lowest hydrophobicity (3.86%) and was weakly adherent. Although P. acidilactici had moderate hydrophobicity (10.1%), it adhered strongly. The attached LAB strains produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total carbohydrates than their planktonic counterparts did, which is an important characteristic for attachment. Three conditions were simulated to evaluate the ability of the LAB cocktail (10(8) CFU/ml) to competitively exclude L. monocytogenes (10(3) CFU/ml) on the surface of the coupons. The coupons were pretreated with the LAB cocktail for 24 h prior to the addition of L. monocytogenes, simultaneously treated with the LAB cocktail and L. monocytogenes, or pretreated with L. monocytogenes 24 h prior to the addition of the LAB cocktail. The LAB cocktail was able to reduce the attachment L. monocytogenes significantly (P < 0.05). The LAB cocktail indicated potential attachment on stainless steel and bacteriostatic activity toward L. monocytogenes attached on stainless steel, which indicates a possible role for LAB as a biosanitizer in the food industry. PMID:22856566

Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Koo, Ok Kyung; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

2012-08-01

389

Assessment of antimicrobial resistance transfer between lactic acid bacteria and potential foodborne pathogens using in vitro methods and mating in a food matrix.  

PubMed

The transferability of antimicrobial resistance from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to potential pathogenic strains was studied using in vitro methods and mating in a food matrix. Five LAB donors containing either erythromycin or tetracycline resistance markers on transferable elements were conjugally mated with LAB (Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis) and pathogenic strains (Listeria spp., Salmonella ssp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli). In vitro transfer experiments were carried out with the donors and recipients using both the filter and plate mating methods. The food matrix consisted of fermented whole milk (fermented with the LAB donors) with the pathogenic recipients added as contaminants during the production process. All transconjugants were confirmed by phenotypic and molecular methods. Erythromycin resistance transfer from LAB strains to Listeria spp. was observed using both in vitro mating methods at high transfer frequencies of up to 5.1 x 10(-4) transconjugants per recipient. Also, high frequency transfer (ranging from 2.7 x 10(-8) up to 1.1 x 10(-3) transconjugants per recipient) of both erythromycin and tetracycline-resistance was observed between LAB species using in vitro methods. No resistance transfer was observed to Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli. The only conjugal transfer observed in the fermented milk matrix was for tetracycline resistance between two LAB strains (at a transfer frequency of 2.6 x 10(-7) transconjugants per recipients). This study demonstrates the transfer of antimicrobial resistance from LAB to Listeria spp. using in vitro methods and also the transfer of resistance between LAB species in a food matrix. It highlights the involvement of LAB as a potential source of resistance determinants that may be disseminated between LAB and pathogenic strains including Listeria spp. Furthermore, it indicates that food matrices such as fermented milks may provide a suitable environment to support gene exchange. PMID:19799525

Toomey, Niamh; Monaghan, Aine; Fanning, Séamus; Bolton, Declan J

2009-10-01

390

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50-CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric, homofermentative lactobacillus species, dominated by Lb. plantarum/pentosus, was found during fermentation. In total, 9% of the strains fermented starch and 19% fermented garlic, the two main carbohydrate components in som-fak. The ability to ferment garlic was paralleled by a capacity to ferment inulin. An increased percentage of garlic fermenting strains was found during fermentation of som-fak, from 8% at day 1 to 40% at day 5. No starch fermenting strains were isolated during fermentation. Three mixed LAB cultures, composed of either starch fermenting Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, or garlic fermenting Lb. plantarum and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated into laboratory prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic, pH was above 4.8 after three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The starch fermenting LAB were unable to ferment som-fak and sensory spoilage occurred after three days. Fermentation with the combined mix of starch and garlic fermenting strains led to production of 2.5% acid and a decrease in pH to 4.5 in two days. The fermentation was slightly slower with the garlic fermenting strains alone. This is the first report describing the role of garlic as carbohydrate source for LAB in fermented fish products. PMID:10100902

Paludan-Müller, C; Huss, H H; Gram, L

1999-02-18

391

Application' and validation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for controlled leek fermentations and their influence on the antioxidant properties of leek.  

PubMed

Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is one of Belgium's most important outdoor vegetables, mainly cultivated for its white shaft. Fermentation of leek offers opportunities in view of biomass valorization and product diversification. This study deals with the implementation and validation of starter cultures to perform controlled leek fermentations and to ensure a high quality of the end-products. Therefore, a thorough study of the fermentation microbiology and the influence of three starter culture strains (Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788, Lactobacillus sakei IMDO 1358, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IMDO 1347) on the metabolite kinetics of leek fermentation and antioxidant properties of leek was performed. Overall, the application of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures resulted in a fast prevalence of the species involved, coupled to an accelerated acidification. Of the three starter cultures tested, the mixed starter culture of L. plantarum IMDO 788 and L. mesenteroides IMDO 1347 was most promising, as its application resulted in fermented leek of good microbiological quality and in a more extensive carbohydrate consumption, whereby diverse end-metabolites were produced. However, high residual fructose concentrations allowed yeast outgrowth, resulting in increased ethanol and glycerol concentrations, and indicated the lack of a prevailing strictly heterofermentative LAB species. The antioxidant capacity of fermented leek samples, as measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, increased when starter cultures were used, whereas with regard to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, only leek fermented with L. sakei IMDO 1358 scored higher than spontaneously fermented leek. The total phenolic content was not influenced by the use of starter cultures, while the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides content decreased strongly. A preliminary sensory analysis revealed that the spontaneously fermented leek and the one obtained with the mixed starter culture were preferred by consumers, emphasizing again the importance of microbial successions in vegetable fermentations. PMID:23728429

Wouters, D; Bernaert, N; Anno, N; Van Droogenbroeck, B; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; De Vuyst, L

2013-07-15

392

Proteins of novel lactic acid bacteria from Apis mellifera mellifera: an insight into the production of known extra-cellular proteins during microbial stress  

PubMed Central

Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been considered a beneficial bacterial group, found as part of the microbiota of diverse hosts, including humans and various animals. However, the mechanisms of how hosts and LAB interact are still poorly understood. Previous work demonstrates that 13 species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium from the honey crop in bees function symbiotically with the honeybee. They protect each other, their hosts, and the surrounding environment against severe bee pathogens, bacteria, and yeasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that these LAB under stress, i.e. in their natural niche in the honey crop, are likely to produce bioactive substances with antimicrobial activity. Results The genomic analysis of the LAB demonstrated varying genome sizes ranging from 1.5 to 2.2 mega-base pairs (Mbps) which points out a clear difference within the protein gene content, as well as specialized functions in the honeybee microbiota and their adaptation to their host. We demonstrate a clear variation between the secreted proteins of the symbiotic LAB when subjected to microbial stressors. We have identified that 10 of the 13 LAB produced extra-cellular proteins of known or unknown function in which some are arranged in interesting putative operons that may be involved in antimicrobial action, host interaction, or biofilm formation. The most common known extra-cellular proteins secreted were enzymes, DNA chaperones, S-layer proteins, bacteriocins, and lysozymes. A new bacteriocin may have been identified in one of the LAB symbionts while many proteins with unknown functions were produced which must be investigated further. Conclusions The 13 LAB symbionts likely play different roles in their natural environment defending their niche and their host and participating in the honeybee’s food production. These roles are partly played through producing extracellular proteins on exposure to microbial stressors widely found in natural occurring flowers. Many of these secreted proteins may have a putative antimicrobial function. In the future, understanding these processes in this complicated environment may lead to novel applications of honey crop LAB proteins. PMID:24148670

2013-01-01

393

Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic methods for the microbiological monitoring of chilled packaged meat during storage.  

PubMed

Aerobic and anaerobic plate counts were compared for routine monitoring of the microflora, dominated by lactic acid bacteria, developing on vacuum- and carbon dioxide-packaged raw meat during chilled storage. No statistical differences were observed between aerobic and anaerobic enumerations, made on plate count and blood agar plates, of the microflora developing on beef striploins packaged under vacuum or carbon dioxide during 14 weeks' storage at 0 degree C. With both techniques the spoilage microflora development differed between the two packaging regimes. The results indicate that there is no necessity for aerobic plate counts to be replaced by anaerobic plate counts in the routine microbiological examination of the spoilage microflora developing on chilled meats packaged under anoxic modified atmospheres. PMID:9134773

Bell, R G; Penney, N; Moorhead, S M

1997-04-01

394

Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

Beaudin, Paula; And Others

1978-01-01

395

Comparative In Vitro Activities of LFF571 against Clostridium difficile and 630 Other Intestinal Strains of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of LFF571, a novel analog of GE2270A that inhibits bacterial growth by binding with high affinity for protein synthesis elongation factor Tu, fidaxomicin, and 10 other antimicrobial agents were determined against 50 strains of Clostridium difficile and 630 other anaerobic and aerobic organisms of intestinal origin. LFF571 possesses potent activity against C. difficile and most other Gram-positive anaerobes (MIC90, ?0.25 ?g/ml), with the exception of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The MIC90s for aerobes, including enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus (as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, and other streptococci were 0.06, 0.125, 2, and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. Comparatively, fidaxomicin showed variable activity against Gram-positive organisms: MIC90s against C. difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Bifidobacterium spp. were 0.5, ?0.015, and 0.125 ?g/ml, respectively, but >32 ?g/ml against Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium innocuum. MIC90 for S. pyogenes and other streptococci was 16 and >32 ?g/ml, respectively. LFF571 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes. PMID:22290948

Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2012-01-01

396

Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2{Delta} reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of

Derek A. Abbott; Erwin Suir; Giang-Huong Duong; Erik de Hulster; Jack T. Pronk; Antonius J. A. van Maris

2009-01-01

397

Alkalibacterium thalassium sp. nov., Alkalibacterium pelagium sp. nov., Alkalibacterium putridalgicola sp. nov. and Alkalibacterium kapii sp. nov., slightly halophilic and alkaliphilic marine lactic acid bacteria isolated from marine organisms and salted foods collected in Japan and Thailand.  

PubMed

We describe 10 new strains of marine lactic acid bacteria isolated from decaying marine algae, decaying seagrass, raw fish, salted fish and salted and fermented shrimp paste ('ka-pi') collected from a temperate area of Japan and Thailand. The isolates are Gram-positive and non-sporulating. They have motility with peritrichous flagella depending on the strains. They lack catalase and quinones. Under anaerobic conditions, lactate yields were 64-93 % of the glucose consumed; residual products were formate, acetate and ethanol with a molar ratio of approximately 2 : 1 : 1. The pH of the fermentation medium markedly affected the product composition; at higher pH, the yield of lactate decreased (15-48 % at pH 9.0) and yields of other products increased, retaining the molar ratio. Under aerobic conditions, acetate and lactate were produced from carbohydrates and related compounds. The isolates were slightly halophilic, highly halotolerant and alkaliphilic. The optimum NaCl concentration for growth ranged between 0.5 and 4.0 % (w/v), depending on the strain, with a growth range of between 0 and 17-21 % (11 % for one isolate). The optimum pH for growth ranged between 8.0 and 9.5, with a growth range of 6.0-11.0, depending on the strains. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates occupied three phylogenetic positions within the genus Alkalibacterium, showing 97.1-99.8 % similarity to Alkalibacterium indicireducens. DNA-DNA hybridization values (<46 %) among the 10 isolates and phylogenetically related taxa resulted in the identification of four genomic species (designated groups GS1-GS4). The G+C contents of the DNA were 41.7 mol% (group GS1), 42.2 mol% (group GS2), 41.0-43.0 mol% (group GS3) and 38.4-39.4 mol% (group GS4). The cell-wall peptidoglycan was type A4beta, Orn-d-Asp, for three genomic species (groups GS1, GS2 and GS3), and type A4beta, Orn-d-Glu, for the remaining species (group GS4). The major components of cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega9c and C(18 : 1)omega9c (oleic acid). On the bases of phenotypic characteristics, genetic distinctiveness and phylogenetic affiliations, the four genomic species, groups GS1, GS2, GS3 and GS4, were classified as four novel species within the genus Alkalibacterium, for which the names Alkalibacterium thalassium sp. nov., Alkalibacterium pelagium sp. nov., Alkalibacterium putridalgicola sp. nov. and Alkalibacterium kapii sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The respective type strains are T117-1-2(T) (=DSM 19181(T)=NBRC 103241(T)=NRIC 0718(T)), T143-1-1(T) (=DSM 19183(T)=NBRC 103242(T)=NRIC 0719(T)), T129-2-1(T) (=DSM 19182(T)=NBRC 103243(T)=NRIC 0720(T)) and T22-1-2(T) (=DSM 19180(T)=NBRC 103247(T)=NRIC 0724(T)). PMID:19406822

Ishikawa, Morio; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Nakajima, Kazuyuki; Kanamori, Hajime; Ishizaki, Shihomi; Kodama, Kayo; Okamoto-Kainuma, Akiko; Koizumi, Yukimichi; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Yamasato, Kazuhide

2009-05-01

398

A real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of 2-branched (1,3)-beta-D-glucan producing lactic acid bacteria in cider.  

PubMed

Ropiness in natural cider is a relatively frequent alteration, mainly found after bottling, leading to consumer rejection. It is derived from the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by some lactic acid bacteria most of which synthesize a 2-branched (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and belong to the genera Pediococcus, Lactobacillus and Oenococcus. This polysaccharide synthesis is controlled by a single transmembrane glycosyltransferase (GTF). In this work, a method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and targeting the gtf gene was developed for detection and quantification of these bacteria in cider. The newly designed primers GTF3/GTF4 delimit a 151bp fragment within the 417bp amplicon previously designed for conventional PCR. The inclusivity and exclusivity of the qPCR assay were assessed with 33 cider isolates belonging to genus Lactobacillus, Oenoccocus and Pedioccocus, together with reference strains of 16 species and five genera including beta-glucan, alpha-glucan and heteropolysaccharide (HePS) producing strains and non-EPS producers. The qPCR assay, followed by the melting curve analysis, confirmed the generation of a single PCR product from the beta-glucan producers with a T(m) of 74.28+/-0.08 and C(T) values (10ng DNA) ranging between 8.46 and 16.88 (average 12.67+/-3.5). Some EPS(-) LAB strains rendered C(T) values ranging from 28.04 to 37.75 but they were significantly higher (P(C(T)<28.54)=0.05) than those of the beta-glucan producers. The assay showed a wide quantification range of 5 log units using calibrated cell suspensions of Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 and Oenococcus oeni I4. The linearity was extended over 7 log orders when calibration curves were obtained from DNA. The detection limit for beta-glucan producing LAB in artificially contaminated cider was about 3x10(2)CFU per ml. The newly developed qPCR assay was successfully applied to monitor the cidermaking process, in 13 tanks from two cider factories, revealing a decrease in C(T) values derived from an increase in beta-glucan producing LAB populations. In addition, 8 naturally spoiled bottled cider were tested for the quantification of these organisms using the five standard curves constructed: P. parvulus 2.6 genomic DNA and gtf amplicon (417bp), calibrated cell suspensions of Pediococcus parvulus 2.6, Lactobacillus diolivorans G77 and Oenococcus oeni I4 and results were compared to LAB total counts on MRS. Levels obtained from the different approaches were within a log range and showed no significant differences. Therefore, the amplicon-derived standard curve is proposed for the routine estimation of gtf(+)populations in cider. PMID:20696488

Ibarburu, Idoia; Aznar, Rosa; Elizaquível, Patricia; García-Quintáns, Nieves; López, Paloma; Munduate, Arantza; Irastorza, Ana; Dueñas, María Teresa

2010-09-30

399

Correlation between surface and air counts of particles carrying aerobic bacteria in operating rooms with turbulent ventilation: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne contamination with bacteria-carrying particles (cfu\\/m3) and their sedimentation rate (cfu\\/m2\\/h) was compared in an operating room (OR) equipped with two turbulent ventilation systems. One was a thermally based system with inlet of cool clean air at the floor level and evacuation of the air at the ceiling by convection (17 air changes\\/h). The other was a conventional plenum pressure

B. Friberg; S. Friberg; L. G. Burman

1999-01-01

400

Diversity and Function of Chloroflexus-Like Bacteria in a Hypersaline Microbial Mat: Phylogenetic Characterization and Impact on Aerobic Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 31 October 2006\\/Accepted 11 April 2007 We studied the diversity of Chloroflexus-like bacteria (CLB) in a hypersaline phototrophic microbial mat and assayed their near-infrared (NIR) light-dependent oxygen respiration rates. PCR with primers that were reported to specifically target the 16S rRNA gene from members of the phylum Chloroflexi resulted in the recovery of 49 sequences and 16 phylotypes (sequences

Ami Bachar; Enoma Omoregie; Rutger de Wit; Henk M. Jonkers

2007-01-01

401

Central Role of Dynamic Tidal Biofilms Dominated by Aerobic Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Diatoms in the Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Coastal Mudflats  

PubMed Central

Mudflats and salt marshes are habitats at the interface of aquatic and terrestrial systems that provide valuable services to ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to determine how catastrophic incidents, such as oil spills, influence the microbial communities in sediment that are pivotal to the function of the ecosystem and to identify the oil-degrading microbes that mitigate damage to the ecosystem. In this study, an oil spill was simulated by use of a tidal chamber containing intact diatom-dominated sediment cores from a temperate mudflat. Changes in the composition of bacteria and diatoms from both the sediment and tidal biofilms that had detached from the sediment surface were monitored as a function of hydrocarbon removal. The hydrocarbon concentration in the upper 1.5 cm of sediments decreased by 78% over 21 days, with at least 60% being attributed to biodegradation. Most phylotypes were minimally perturbed by the addition of oil, but at day 21, there was a 10-fold increase in the amount of cyanobacteria in the oiled sediment. Throughout the experiment, phylotypes associated with the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cycloclasticus) and alkanes (Alcanivorax, Oleibacter, and Oceanospirillales strain ME113), substantively increased in oiled mesocosms, collectively representing 2% of the pyrosequences in the oiled sediments at day 21. Tidal biofilms from oiled cores at day 22, however, consisted mostly of phylotypes related to Alcanivorax borkumensis (49% of clones), Oceanospirillales strain ME113 (11% of clones), and diatoms (14% of clones). Thus, aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation is most likely to be the main mechanism of attenuation of crude oil in the early weeks of an oil spill, with tidal biofilms representing zones of high hydrocarbon-degrading activity. PMID:22407688

Coulon, Frederic; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Fahy, Anne; Paisse, Sandrine; Goni-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; Acuna Alvarez, Laura; McKew, Boyd A.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Duran, Robert

2012-01-01