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1

Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria isolated from forage crops on fermentation characteristics and aerobic deterioration of silage.  

PubMed

Two selected strains, Lactobacillus casei FG 1 and Lactobacillus plantarum FG 10 that were isolated from forage crops were used as additives at 1.0 x 10(5) cfu/g of fresh matter to alfalfa, Italian ryegrass, and sorghum, and their effect on fermentation characteristics and aerobic deterioration of silage was studied. The three silages treated with strains FG 1 or FG 10 were well preserved; had significantly lower pH values, butyric acid, propionic acid, and ammonia N concentrations, gas production, and dry matter losses; and had significantly higher contents of residual water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did the respective control silages. Yeast counts were high in all treated silages and increased rapidly during aerobic exposure. As a result, treated silages spoiled faster upon aerobic exposure than did the respective control silages. Most yeasts isolated from deteriorated silages showed high tolerance to lactic acid but low tolerance to butyric acid, and they were able to grow at low pH conditions and assimilate lactic acid. The results confirmed that L. casei and L. plantarum improved fermentation quality but did not inhibit the growth of silage yeast or aerobic deterioration of the silage. PMID:10194670

Cai, Y; Benno, Y; Ogawa, M; Kumai, S

1999-03-01

2

Effect of NaCl-tolerant lactic acid bacteria and NaCl on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of silage.  

PubMed

NaCl-tolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains LC-10 (Lactobacillus casei) and LP-15 (Lact. plantarum) and NaCl were used as additives to sorghun (Sorghum bicolor). Numbers of LAB were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all the additive-treated silages than in the control silage at an early stage of ensiling. During the fermentation process, addition of NaCl or LAB effectively inhibited the growth of aerobic bacteria and clostridia, but not yeasts. All the additive-treated silages had significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH, ammonia nitrogen content, dry matter loss and gas production but significantly (P < 0.05) higher lactic acid content and residual water soluble carbohydrates compared with the control silage. The improvement in silage quality was in the order: LAB > NaCl > control. Yeast counts were high in all additive-based silages and they increased during the exposure of the silages to air. As a result, these silages suffered aerobic deterioration, whereas the control silage was stable. The results confirmed that the NaCl or LAB improved fermentation quality but did not prevent aerobic deterioration of the silage. PMID:9351210

Cai, Y; Ohmomo, S; Ogawa, M; Kumai, S

1997-09-01

3

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

4

Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the ?-1, ?-3, and ?-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

5

Homopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to heteropolysaccharides of complex structure, lactic bacteria produce a variety of homopolysaccharides containing only either d-fructose or d-glucose. These fructans and glucans have a common feature in being synthesized by extracellular transglycosylases (glycansucrases) using sucrose as glycosyl donor. The energy of the osidic bond of sucrose enables the efficient transfer of a d-fructosyl or d-glucosyl residue via the

Pierre Monsan; Sophie Bozonnet; Cécile Albenne; Gilles Joucla; René-Marc Willemot; Magali Remaud-Siméon

2001-01-01

6

Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacter...

7

Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae. The increased biomass production without further acidification, which are respiration associated traits, are suitable for high-throughput screening as demonstrated by the screening of 8000 Lactococcus lactis insertion mutants. Respiration-negative insertion-mutants were found with noxA, bd-type cytochrome and menaquinol biosynthesis gene-disruptions. Phenotypic screening and in silico genome analysis suggest that respiration can be considered characteristic for certain species. Conclusion We propose that the cyd-genes were present in the common ancestor of lactic acid bacteria, and that multiple gene-loss events best explains the observed distribution of these genes among the species. PMID:19480672

Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

2009-01-01

8

Potentials of Exopolysaccharides from Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in the area of importance of microbes has revealed the immense industrial potential of exopolysaccharides\\u000a and their derivative oligosaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. However, due to lack of adequate technological knowledge,\\u000a the exopolysaccharides have remained largely under exploited. In the present review, the enormous potentials of different\\u000a types of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are described. This also

Seema Patel; Avishek Majumder; Arun Goyal

9

Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V,; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

2006-06-01

10

Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats. PMID:17030793

Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rohksar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Díaz-Muñiz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V.; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

2006-01-01

11

Treatments using hot water instead of lactic acid reduce levels of aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and reduce the prevalence of Escherichia coil O157:H7 on preevisceration beef carcasses.  

PubMed

Lactic acid has become the most commonly used organic acid for treatment of postevisceration beef carcasses. Many processors have also implemented 2% lactic acid washes on preevisceration carcasses. We previously demonstrated that hot water washing and steam vacuuming are effective carcass interventions. Because of the effectiveness of hot water, we compared its use with that of lactic acid as a preevisceration wash in a commercial setting. A commercial hot water carcass wash cabinet applying 74 degrees C (165 degrees F) water for 5.5 s reduced both aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts by 2.7 log CFU/100 cm2 on preevisceration carcasses. A commercial lactic acid spray cabinet that applied 2% L-lactic acid at approximately 42 degrees C (105 to 110 degrees F) to preevisceration carcasses reduced aerobic plate counts by 1.6 log CFU/100 cm2 and Enterobacteriaceae counts by 1.0 log CFU/100 cm2. When the two cabinets were in use sequentially, i.e., hot water followed by lactic acid, aerobic plate counts were reduced by 2.2 log CFU/100 cm2 and Enterobacteriaceae counts were reduced by 2.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Hot water treatments reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence by 81%, and lactic acid treatments reduced E. coli O157:H7 prevalence by 35%, but the two treatments in combination produced a 79% reduction in E. coli O157:H7, a result that was no better than that achieved with hot water alone. These results suggest that hot water would be more beneficial than lactic acid for decontamination of preevisceration beef carcasses. PMID:16924903

Bosilevac, Joseph M; Nou, Xiangwu; Barkocy-Gallagher, Genevieve A; Arthur, Terrance M; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

2006-08-01

12

Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Héctor Rodríguez; José Antonio Curiel; José María Landete; Blanca de las Rivas; Félix López de Felipe; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; José Miguel Mancheño; Rosario Muñoz

2009-01-01

13

Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been explored for their efficiency in attaching hybrid proteins to the cell membrane or cell

Kees Leenhouts; Girbe Buist; Jan Kok

1999-01-01

14

Carbohydrate metabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “lactic acid bacteria” is discussed. An overview of the following topics is given: main pathways of homo- and heterofermentation of hexoses, i.e. glycolysis, bifidus pathway, 6-phosphogluconate pathway; uptake and dissimilation of lactose (tagatose pathway); fermentation of pentoses and pentitols; alternative fates of pyruvate, i.e. splitting to formate and acetate, CO2 and acetate or formation of acetoin and diacetyl;

Otto Kandler

1983-01-01

15

Biosynthesis of bacteriocins in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of new bacteriocins in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been characterized in recent years. Most of the new bacteriocins belong to the class II bacteriocins which are small (30–100 amino acids) heat-stable and commonly not post-translationally modified. While most bacteriocin producers synthesize only one bacteriocin, it has been shown that several LAB produce multiple bacteriocins (2–3 bacteriocins).

Ingolf F. Nes; Dzung Bao Diep; Leiv Sigve Håvarstein; May Bente Brurberg; Vincent Eijsink; Helge Holo

1996-01-01

16

Lactic acid inhibition of the growth of spoilage bacteria and cold tolerant pathogens on pork.  

PubMed

The antibacterial effects of a 3% solution of lactic acid at 55 degrees C were assessed, by examining aerobic bacterial growth on artificially-inoculated pork fat and lean tissue. Discs of fat or lean tissues, each of 10 cm2 surface area, were aseptically excised from pork Longissimus dorsi muscle and inoculated with the cold tolerant pathogens Listeria monocytogenes 4b Scott A no. 3, Yersinia enterocolitica 0:4,32 or Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, or with the wild type spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas fragi or Brochothrix thermosphacta. After inoculation, each meat disc was immersed in water or lactic acid for 15 s and aerobic bacterial growth followed during 15 days of storage at 4 degrees C. P. fragi and B. thermosphacta grew on both fat and lean, but the pathogens grew on fat tissue only and A. hydrophila did not survive on lean. Lactic acid reduced all test bacteria on fat to below detectable levels within 4 days of treatment and no bacteria could be recovered from acid-treated fat surfaces for the remainder of the 15-day storage interval. Bacteria attached to lean were generally more resistant to lactic acid. In some instances the acid was bacteriostatic (P. fragi, L. monocytogenes) while in others the population declined at a greatly reduced rate as compared with a similar population on fat (B. thermosphacta, Y. enterocolitica). A. hydrophila was equally sensitive to lactic acid on lean and fat. Depending upon the tested strain, tissue type and storage time, maximum reductions in the number of bacteria recovered from acid treated pork ranged from 1 to 8 log cycles. The high bactericidal efficacy of lactic acid applied to pork fat was attributable to a low tissue pH, which varied from 3.49 to 4.41 during the 15 days of aerobic storage. PMID:7547145

Greer, G G; Dilts, B D

1995-04-01

17

Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of molecular genetic techniques to determine the relatedness of food-associated lactic acid bacteria has resulted in significant changes in their taxonomic classification. During the 1980s the genus Streptococcus was separated into the three genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus,

Michael E. Stiles; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

1997-01-01

18

Isolation of aerobic bacteria from the placenta.  

PubMed

Cultures for aerobic bacteria were prepared from 353 placentas. Specimens were taken from the chorion after removing the amnion. The specimens were immersed into Stuart transport medium. Microscopic examination of the placenta and cultures from the throat and ear of newborns were also done. The rate of positive bacterial cultures was 16%. Chorioamnionitis was found in 15%. The proportion of chorioamnionitis caused by aerobic bacteria was 44%. The rate of positive bacterial cultures from the placenta in the group of newborns with clinical signs of intrauterine infection was 63%. Bacteria can be present on the chorionic plate without any histological evidence of chorioamnionitis. Bacteriological examination of the placenta is therefore mandatory when amniotic fluid infection is suspected. PMID:6817588

Kovalovszki, L; Villányi, Z; Pataki, I; Veszelowvsky, I; Nagy, Z B

1982-01-01

19

High efficiency recombineering in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The ability to efficiently generate targeted point mutations in the chromosome without the need for antibiotics, or other means of selection, is a powerful strategy for genome engineering. Although oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering (ssDNA recombineering) has been utilized in Escherichia coli for over a decade, the successful adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported. Here we describe the development and application of ssDNA recombineering in lactic acid bacteria. Mutations were incorporated in the chromosome of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis without selection at frequencies ranging between 0.4% and 19%. Whole genome sequence analysis showed that ssDNA recombineering is specific and not hypermutagenic. To highlight the utility of ssDNA recombineering we reduced the intrinsic vancomymycin resistance of L. reuteri >100-fold. By creating a single amino acid change in the d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzyme we reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin from >256 to 1.5?µg/ml, well below the clinically relevant minimum inhibitory concentration. Recombineering thus allows high efficiency mutagenesis in lactobacilli and lactococci, and may be used to further enhance beneficial properties and safety of strains used in medicine and industry. We expect that this work will serve as a blueprint for the adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:22328729

van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A.

2012-01-01

20

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation and Catalase Activity in the Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Some lactic acid bacteria formed detectable H202 and some did not, regardless of their preference or requirement for aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Whether or not H202 was formed depended in some instances on the substrate used as energy source. Two H202-splitting activities were encountered though never in the same organism. One, named pseudo- catalase activity, was insensitive to 0.01

R. Whittenbury

1964-01-01

21

DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies using traditional biochemical methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four lactic acid bacteria species, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were the primary microorganisms in...

22

Comparative analysis of CRISPR loci in lactic acid bacteria genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are hypervariable loci widely distributed in bacteria and archaea, that provide acquired immunity against foreign genetic elements. Here, we investigate the occurrence of CRISPR loci in the genomes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including members of the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla. A total of 102 complete and draft genomes across 11 genera were

Philippe Horvath; Anne-Claire Coûté-Monvoisin; Dennis A. Romero; Patrick Boyaval; Christophe Fremaux; Rodolphe Barrangou

2009-01-01

23

Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

24

Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.  

PubMed

Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

2014-08-29

25

Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30°C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled

Kyung Young Yoon; Edward E. Woodams; Yong D. Hang

2006-01-01

26

Aerobic culture of anaerobic bacteria using antioxidants: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Antioxidants have been shown to help the growth of anaerobic bacteria. We were able to grow six anaerobe species (including Fusobacterium necrophorum and Ruminococcus gravus) and seven aerobic species all aerobically in Schaedler agar tubes and agar plates with high doses of ascorbic acid and/or glutathione. This may deeply change strategies for culturing bacteria. PMID:24820294

La Scola, B; Khelaifia, S; Lagier, J-C; Raoult, D

2014-10-01

27

Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

1998-01-01

28

Short communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation with  

E-print Network

Short communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation January 2009 Keywords: Metagenome Metatranscriptome GPM Kimchi Lactic acid bacteria We constructed genome probing microarrays (GPM) that are specific to 39 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an effort to monitor

Bae, Jin-Woo

29

Surface Binding of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific lactic acid bacterial strains remove toxins from liquid media by physical binding. The stability of the aflatoxin B1 complexes formed with 12 bacterial strains in both viable and nonviable (heat- or acid-treated) forms was assessed by repetitive aqueous extraction. By the fifth extraction, up to 71% of the total aflatoxin B1 remained bound. Nonviable bacteria retained the highest amount

CAROLYN A. HASKARD; HANI S. EL-NEZAMI; PASI E. KANKAANPAA; SEPPO SALMINEN; JORMA T. AHOKAS

2001-01-01

30

Polyphasic characterization of the lactic acid bacteria in kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacteria of kefir were isolated and characterized using phenotypical, biochemical, and genotypical methods. Polyphasic analyses of results permitted the identification of the microflora to the strain level. The genus Lactobacillus was represented by the species Lb. kefir and Lb. kefiranofaciens. Both subspecies of Lactococcus lactis (lactis and cremoris) were isolated. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris was also found.The

Isabelle Mainville; Normand Robert; Byong Lee; Edward R. Farnworth

2006-01-01

31

Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

2011-01-01

32

alpha-Chitinase activity among lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Chitin is a polysaccharide widely distributed in nature. Among 115 strains from 29 species of lactic acid bacteria only strains belonging to Carnobacterium divergens and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum hydrolyzed alpha-chitin. This activity was not affected by temperature (10 degrees C versus 30 degrees C) and in most cases not subject to glucose catabolite repression. PMID:18424038

Leisner, Jørgen J; Vogensen, Finn K; Kollmann, Johannes; Aideh, Bashir; Vandamme, Peter; Vancanneyt, Marc; Ingmer, Hanne

2008-06-01

33

Modelling strategies for the industrial exploitation of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long tradition of use in the food industry, and the number and diversity of their applications has increased considerably over the years. Traditionally, process optimization for these applications involved both strain selection and trial and error. More recently, metabolic engineering has emerged as a discipline that focuses on the rational improvement of industrially useful

Eddy J. Smid; Bas Teusink

2006-01-01

34

Bioconversion of ovine scotta into lactic acid with pure and mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Scotta is the main by-product in the making of ricotta cheese. It is widely produced in southern Europe and particularly in Italy where it represents a serious environmental pollutant due to its high lactose content. With the aim of evaluating whether scotta bioconversion into lactic acid can be considered as an alternative to its disposal, besides providing it with an added value, here the growth, fermentative performances, and lactic acid productions of pure and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were evaluated on ovine scotta-based media, without and with the addition of nutritional supplements. The outcomes indicate that ovine scotta can be utilized for the biotechnological production of lactic acid with yields up to 92%, comparable to those obtained on cheese-whey. Indeed, the addition of nutritional supplements generally improves the fermentative performances of lactic acid bacteria leading to about 2 g l(-1) h(-1) of lactic acid. Moreover, the use of mixed cultures for scotta bioconversion reduces the need for nutritional supplements, with no detrimental effects on the productive parameters compared to pure cultures. Finally, by using L. casei and S. thermophilus in pure and mixed cultures, up to 99% optically pure L: -lactic acid can be obtained. PMID:21739193

Secchi, Nicola; Giunta, Daniela; Pretti, Luca; García, Mónica Ruiz; Roggio, Tonina; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Catzeddu, Pasquale

2012-01-01

35

Lactic Acid Bacteria – Friend or Foe? Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Production of Polysaccharides and Fuel Ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in the production of fermented foods and as probiotics. Alternan is a glucan with a distinctive backbone structure of alternating a-(1,6) and a-(1,3) linkages produced by the LAB Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In recent years, we have developed improved...

36

Manganese, superoxide dismutase, and oxygen tolerance in some lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed Central

A previous study of the aerotolerant bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, which lacks superoxide dismutase (SOD), demonstrated that it possesses a novel substitute for this defensive enzyme. Thus, L. plantarum contains 20 to 25 mM Mn(II),m in a dialyzable form, which is able to scavenge O2- apparently as effectively as do the micromolar levels of SOD present in most other organisms. This report describes a survey of the lactic acid bacteria. The substitution of millimolar levels of Mn(II) for micromolar levels of SOD is a common occurrence in this group of microorganisms, which contained either SOD or high levels of Mn(II), but not both. Two strains were found which had neither high levels of Mn(II) nor SOD, and they were, as was expected, very oxygen intolerant. Lactic acid bacteria containing SOD grew better aerobically than anaerobically, whereas the organisms containing Mn(II) in place of SOD showed aerobic growth which was best, at best, equal to anaerobic growth. Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) increases the rate of O2- production in these organisms. Lactobacillus strains containing high intracellular Mn(II) were more resistant to the oxygen-dependent toxicity of plumbagin than were strains containing lower levels of Mn(II). The results support the conclusion that a high internal level of Mn(II) provides these organisms with an important defence against endogenous O2-. PMID:6263860

Archibald, F S; Fridovich, I

1981-01-01

37

Identification of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional cachaça fermentations  

PubMed Central

During the production of traditional cachaça (alembic´s cachaça), contamination of the fermented must is one of the factors leading to economic losses in the beverage manufacturing industry. The diversity of bacterial populations and the role of these microorganisms during the cachaça production process are still poorly understood in Brazil. In our work, the fermentation process was followed in two distilleries located in the state of Minas Gerais. The objective of this work was to identify the populations of lactic acid bacteria present during cachaça fermentation using physiological and molecular methods. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated in high frequencies during all of the fermentative processes, and Lactobacillus plantarum and L. casei were the most prevalent species. Other lactic acid bacteria were found in minor frequencies, such as L. ferintoshensis, L. fermentum, L. jensenii, L. murinus, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus sp. and Weissella confusa. These bacteria could contribute to the increase of volatile acidity levels or to the production of compounds that could influence the taste and aroma of the beverage. PMID:24031520

Gomes, Fatima C. O.; Silva, Carol L. C.; Vianna, Cristina R.; Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Nunes, Álvaro C.; Franco, Gloria R.; Mourão, Marina M.; Rosa, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

38

Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic

Aline Lonvaud-Funel

1999-01-01

39

Method for the preparation of stabile microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method to produce viable and stabile dry microorganisms for food and agricultural purposes was developed. Spray-dried, freeze-dried or liquid culture concentrates of lactic acid-producing bacteria were mixed with various bulking agents to form a homogeneous wet granulation having a water content of 35–60% (w\\/w). The wet granulation was extruded through a dye onto a spinning plate (350–500 rpm)

H. S. Kim; B. J. Kamara; I. C. Good; G. L. Enders

1988-01-01

40

Ethyl Butanoate Formation by Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of ethyl butanoate by non-growing cells of 22 starter and 49 non-starter dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) varied widely (0.4–310units 100mg-1 dry weight cells) and was both species and strain dependent. Strains of the thermophilic starter Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus produced the highest levels of ethyl butanoate (an average of 156 units 100mg-1 dry weight cells), while strains

S.-Q Liu; R Holland; V. L Crow

1998-01-01

41

Quorum sensing-controlled gene expression in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involves peptides that are directly sensed by membrane-located histidine kinases, after which the signal is transmitted to an intracellular response regulator. This regulator in turn activates transcription of target genes, that commonly include the structural gene for the inducer molecule. The two-component signal-transduction machinery has proven to be indispensable for transcription activation and

Oscar P. Kuipers; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos

1998-01-01

42

The effect of bacteria, enzymes and inulin on fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Ensiling is a conservation method for forage crops. It is based on the fact that anaerobe lactic acid bacteria (LAB) convert watersoluble carbohydrates into organic acids. Therefore, pH decreases and the forage is preserved. The aim of this study was to isolate special kinds of lactic acid bacteria from silage and to study the effect of bacteria, inulin and enzymes as silage additives on the fermentation and aerobic stability of the silage. Materials and Methods The heterofermentative LAB were isolated from corn silages in Broujerd, Iran and biochemically characterized. Acid tolerance was studied by exposure to acidic PBS and growth in bile salt was measured by the spectrophotometric method. Results The results of molecular analysis using 16SrDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to Lactobacillus and Enterococcus genera. To enhance stability in acidic environment and against bile salts, microencapsulation with Alginate and Chitosan was used. The Lactobacillus plantarum strains were used as control. The inoculants (1 × 107 cfu/g) alone or in combination with inulin or in combination with enzymes were added to chopped forages and ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Conclusion Combination of the isolates Lactobacillus and Enterococcus with inulin and enzymes can improve the aerobic stability of corn silage. PMID:23205249

Peymanfar, S; Kermanshahi, RK

2012-01-01

43

Interaction of aerobic soil bacteria with plutonium(VI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the interaction of Pu(VI) with Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588 and Bacillus sphaericus ATCC 14577, representatives of the main aerobic groups of soil bacteria present in the upper soil layers. The accumulation studies have shown that these soil bacteria accumulate high amounts of Pu(VI). The sorption efficiency toward Pu(VI) decreased with increasing biomass concentration due to increased agglomeration of

Petra J. Panak; Heino Nitsche

2000-01-01

44

Development of Mucosal Vaccines Based on Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, sufficient data are available to support the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), notably lactococci and lactobacilli, as delivery vehicles for the development of new mucosal vaccines. These non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria have been safely consumed by humans for centuries in fermented foods. They thus constitute an attractive alternative to the attenuated pathogens (most popular live vectors actually studied) which could recover their pathogenic potential and are thus not totally safe for use in humans. This chapter reviews the current research and advances in the use of LAB as live delivery vectors of proteins of interest for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines. The use of LAB as DNA vaccine vehicles to deliver DNA directly to antigen-presenting cells of the immune system is also discussed.

Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Innocentin, Silvia; Lefèvre, Francois; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Langella, Philippe

45

Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage  

PubMed Central

Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

2014-01-01

46

Comparative Studies of Class IIa Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Four class IIa bacteriocins (pediocin PA-1, enterocin A, sakacin P, and curvacin A) were purified to homogeneity and tested for activity toward a variety of indicator strains. Pediocin PA-1 and enterocin A inhibited more strains and had generally lower MICs than sakacin P and curvacin A. The antagonistic activity of pediocin-PA1 and enterocin A was much more sensitive to reduction of disulfide bonds than the antagonistic activity of sakacin P and curvacin A, suggesting that an extra disulfide bond that is present in the former two may contribute to their high levels of activity. The food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was among the most sensitive indicator strains for all four bacteriocins. Enterocin A was most effective in inhibiting Listeria, having MICs in the range of 0.1 to 1 ng/ml. Sakacin P had the interesting property of being very active toward Listeria but not having concomitant high levels of activity toward lactic acid bacteria. Strains producing class IIa bacteriocins displayed various degrees of resistance toward noncognate class IIa bacteriocins; for the sakacin P producer, it was shown that this resistance is correlated with the expression of immunity genes. It is hypothesized that variation in the presence and/or expression of such immunity genes accounts in part for the remarkably large variation in bacteriocin sensitivity displayed by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:9726871

Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Skeie, Marianne; Middelhoven, P. Hans; Brurberg, May Bente; Nes, Ingolf F.

1998-01-01

47

[Lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature with a high exploitability--a review].  

PubMed

At present, increasing attentions have been paid to lactic acid bacteria because of their probiotic effects. In the nature, there exists a kind of lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature with a long history of use. However, they have not been well studied and developed. Most articles about the lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature focused on meat and fish storage at low temperature, or Kimchi, a kind of fermented vegetable. Many microorganisms studied are Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus species. Nevertheless, a few researches in this field are reported in China. In this paper, we review the living environment, varieties and functions of lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature, to provide an overview for further studies. We also discuss perspectives of further development and utilization of these lactic acid bacteria. PMID:18338590

Yang, Hongyan; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

2008-01-01

48

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process. PMID:21092306

2010-01-01

49

Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-degrading bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NAV2, excretes an emulsifier which is capable of emulsifying the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. This emulsifier is not denatured by phenol. PMID:16347928

Pendrys, John P.

1989-01-01

50

Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria display a relatively simple and well-described metabolism where the sugar source is converted mainly to lactic acid. Here we will shortly describe metabolic engineering strategies on the level of sugar metabolism, that lead to either the efficient re-routing of the lactococcal sugar metabolism to nutritional end-products other than lactic acid such as L-alanine, several low-calorie sugars and

Jeroen Hugenholtz; Wilbert Sybesma; Masja Nierop Groot; Wouter Wisselink; Victor Ladero; Kay Burgess; Douwe van Sinderen; Jean-Christophe Piard; Gerrit Eggink; Eddy J. Smid; Graciela Savoy; Fernando Sesma; Tanja Jansen; Pascal Hols; Michiel Kleerebezem

2002-01-01

51

Lactic Acid Bateria - Friend or Foe? Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Production of Polysaccharides and Fuel Ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in the production of fermented foods and as probiotics. Alternan is a glucan with a distinctive backbone structure of alternating alpha-(1,6) and alpha-(1,3) linkages produced by the LAB Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In recent years, improved strains f...

52

The Benefits of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Yogurt on the Gastrointestinal Function and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The nutritional value of yogurt and Lactic Acid-producing Bacteria (LAB) on the gastrointestinal health and function, have been investigated in this study. Both Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (LAB) species, contribute to the formation of yogurt as a result of anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid in the milk. The present study focuses on the effect of yogurt consumption

Ayman Suliman Mazahreh; Omer Turki Mamdoh Ershidat

2009-01-01

53

Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the effects of several lactic acid bacteria on the immune response of turbot (Scophthal- mus maximus) macrophages have been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Out of six lactic acid bacterial strains tested, only heat-killed Lactococcus lactis significantly increased the turbot head kidney macrophage chemilu- minescent (CL) response after 24 h of incubation. Nitric oxide

L. Villamil; C. Tafalla; A. Figueras; B. Novoa

2002-01-01

54

Immunomodulation of monocytes by probiotic and selected lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, are recognized as common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and have received considerable attention in the last decades due to their postulated health-promoting effects. LAB and probiotic bacteria can modulate the host immune response. However, much is unknown about the mediators and mechanisms responsible for their immunological effect. Here, we present a study using cytokine secretion from the monocytic cell line THP-1 and NF-?B activation in the monocytic cell line U937-3xkB-LUC to elucidate immune stimulating abilities of LAB in vitro. In this study, we investigate both commercially available and potential probiotic LAB strains, and the role of putative surface proteins of L. reuteri using mutants. L. reuteri strains induced the highest cytokine secretion and the highest NF-?B activation, whereas L. plantarum strains and L. rhamnosus GG were low inducers/activators. One of the putative L. reuteri surface proteins, Hmpref0536_10802, appeared to be of importance for the stimulation of THP-1 cells and the activation of NF-?B in U937-3xkB-LUC cells. Live and UV-inactivated preparations resulted in different responses for two of the strains investigated. Our results add to the complexity in the interaction between LAB and human cells and suggest the possible involvement of secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators of LAB. It is likely that it is the sum of bacterial surface proteins and bacterial metabolites and/or secreted proteins that induce cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells and activate NF-?B in U937-3xkB-LUC cells in this study. PMID:25331988

Jensen, Hanne; Drømtorp, Signe Marie; Axelsson, Lars; Grimmer, Stine

2015-03-01

55

Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.  

PubMed

The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed. PMID:25170152

Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

2014-08-29

56

Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

57

Invited Review: Methods for the Screening, Isolation, and Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) is widespread among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), although the physiological role of these molecules has not been clearly established yet. Some EPS confer on LAB a \\

P. Ruas-Madiedo; C. G. de los Reyes-Gavilán

2005-01-01

58

Aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria isolated from Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

The bacterial flora of Psoroptes cuniculi removed from nine naturally infested rabbits was investigated. Mites were collected in sterile glass tubes; half of the mites were surface sterilised, the others were not. All mites were crushed using sterile glass pestles, placed in Buffered Peptone Broth, smeared on to several culture media, by glass rods, and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours, aerobically and/or in 5% CO2. Representative colonies were removed and streaked on to several selective media. Different colour changes of the selective media used, macro and microscopic morphology, ability to grow aerobically, Gram staining, and several biochemical tests evaluated with API test strips, were used for bacterial identification. Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and S. odorifera were the bacteria isolated from surface sterilised mites. PMID:12701376

Perrucci, S; Rossi, G

2002-12-01

59

Food-grade gene expression in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In the 1990s, significant efforts were invested in the research and development of food-grade expression systems in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). At this time, Lactococcus lactis in particular was demonstrated to be an ideal cell factory for the food-grade production of recombinant proteins. Steady progress has since been made in research on LAB, including Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, in the areas of recombinant enzyme production, industrial food fermentation, and gene and metabolic pathway regulation. Over the past decade, this work has also led to new approaches on chromosomal integration vectors and host/vector systems. These newly constructed food-grade gene expression systems were designed with specific attention to self-cloning strategies, food-grade selection markers, plasmid replication and chromosomal gene replacements. In this review, we discuss some well-characterized chromosomal integration and food-grade host/vector systems used in LAB, with a special focus on sustainability, stability and overall safety, and give some attractive examples of protein expression that are based on these systems. PMID:21858927

Peterbauer, Clemens; Maischberger, Thomas; Haltrich, Dietmar

2011-09-01

60

Removal of paralytic shellfish toxins by probiotic lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%-97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%-49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

61

Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

2014-01-01

62

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. PMID:16347053

Schaffner, D W; Beuchat, L R

1986-05-01

63

Removal of 3-methylindole by lactic acid bacteria in vitro  

PubMed Central

3-Methylindole (3MI) is a substance with an unpleasant odor that is found in intact male pigs and is known to negatively affect consumers of pork. The growth of four strains of lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus brevis 1.12 (L. brevis 1.12), L. plantarum 102, L. casei 6103 and L. plantarum ATCC8014] in incubation medium with 3MI was studied. The four strains were tested for their ability to remove 3MI from the medium. The growth of L. brevis 1.12 remained steady as the levels of 3MI increased 3MI from 0.2 to 1.0 ?g/ml. The 3MI removal ability of L. brevis 1.12 was the strongest among the four strains, and the highest removal rate was 65.35±0.3% in 1 ml incubation medium containing 1.0 ?g/ml 3MI for 120 h. Furthermore, the supernatant fluid of the fermentation broth of L. brevis 1.12 had a stronger ability to remove 3MI than cell pellets and cell extracts and the removal rate was 14.4±0.3% in 24 h. Further results indicate that the mode of removal of 3MI was not through the physical binding of cells by L. brevis 1.12. PMID:24137302

MENG, XIAO; HE, ZHI-FEI; LI, HONG-JUN; ZHAO, XIN

2013-01-01

64

Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids.  

PubMed

The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine. PMID:19099460

de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

2009-01-28

65

Phylogenetic Diversity of Aerobic Saprotrophic Bacteria Isolated from the Daqing Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse and active microbial community in the stratal waters of the Daqing oil field (China), which is exploited with the use of water-flooding, was found to contain aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria (including hydrocarbon-oxidizing ones) and anaerobic fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. The aerobic bacteria were most abundant in the near-bottom zones of injection wells. Twenty pure cultures of aerobic saprotrophic

T. N. Nazina; A. A. Grigor'yan; Yan-Fen Xue; D. Sh. Sokolova; E. V. Novikova; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; S. S. Belyaev; M. V. Ivanov

2002-01-01

66

Lactic acid bacteria effective for regulating the growth of contaminant bacteria during the fermentation of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid fermentation of seaweed is a recent topic and quite limited information is available on culture conditions. To\\u000a know the suitable strains for use as a starter culture for seaweed fermentation, 14 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, including\\u000a 11 species, were tested in culture conditions prepared with or without salt. A commercial product of Undaria pinnatifida powder was used

Motoharu Uchida; Masakazu Murata; Fumiyasu Ishikawa

2007-01-01

67

Animal Rennets as Sources of Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions. PMID:24441167

Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L.; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

68

Application of molecular methods for the classification and identification of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the typical lactic acid bacteria (LAB) belong to the Gram-positive bacteria with a low guanine plus cytosine DNA content. The genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus can be traditionally differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological properties but phylogentically they are intermixed. The former genus Streptococcus has been split up into the four genera Enterococcus,

Karl-Heinz Schleifer; Mathias Ehrmann; Claudia Beimfohr; Elke Brockmann; Wolfgang Ludwig; Rudolf Amann

1995-01-01

69

The sourdough microflora. Interactions between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts: metabolism of carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1, L. plantarum DC400, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 and S. exiguus M14 from sourdoughs were studied in a co-culture model system using a synthetic medium. The lack of competition for maltose when S.exiguus M14 was present in co-culture with each of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) enhanced the bacterial cell yield and lactic and acetic

M. Gobbetti; A. Corsetti; J. Rossi

1994-01-01

70

Effect of growth of selected lactic acid bacteria on storage life of beef stored under vacuum and in air.  

PubMed

The effect of growth of different types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the storage life of normal pH beef was determined anaerobically (under vacuum) and aerobically. Four LAB from meat were inoculated separately onto sterile slices of lean beef. Inoculated samples were stored anaerobically at 2 degrees C for 10 weeks or stored aerobically in an oxygen permeable film at 7 degrees C for 10 days, with and without previous storage under vacuum at 2 degrees C. The LAB strains used were Carnobacterium maltaromicus (previously C. piscicola) LV17 and UAL26, Leuconostoc gelidum UAL187-22 and Lactobacillus sake Lb706. Storage life was determined by sensory panel evaluation of colour and odour. Under anaerobic conditions Lb. sake Lb706, inoculated at log 2 CFU/cm2, grew rapidly to reach maximum population within three weeks of storage. L. gelidum UAL187-22 also grew on the meat but at a slower rate. In contrast, growth of C. maltaromicus LV17 and UAL26 was unpredictable, achieving maximum population after 2 to 8 weeks. None of the test strains caused spoilage of the meat within the 10-week storage period under vacuum. When the test organisms were inoculated at an initial level of log 4 CFU/cm2, C. maltaromicus LV17 and UAL26 produced off-odours after 8 weeks of storage under vacuum at 2 degrees C. Under aerobic conditions at 7 degrees C, all four of the strains grew well on the beef samples. C. maltaromicus LV17 and UAL26 and Lb. sake Lb706 all caused off-odours and discoloration. The rate of aerobic deterioration in meat quality was faster with increased time of storage under vacuum. L. gelidum UAL187-22 could be a suitable antagonistic strain with the potential to extend the storage life of beef, stored anaerobically and packaged aerobically for retail sale, without producing undesirable sensory changes. PMID:7577360

Leisner, J J; Greer, G G; Dilts, B D; Stiles, M E

1995-07-01

71

Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into ‘ogi’ of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor. It is also possible that consumption of fermented food enhances conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by activating cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase. PMID:23231860

2012-01-01

72

Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

73

Cancer Preventive Potential of Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria (Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum)  

PubMed Central

The number of death due to cancer has been increasing in Korea. Chemotherapy is known to cause side effects because it damages not only cancerous cells but healthy cells. Recently, attention has focused on food-derived chemopreventive and anti-tumor agents or formulations with fewer side effects. Kimchi, most popular and widely consumed in Korea, contains high levels of lactic acid bacteria and has been shown to possess chemopreventive effects. This review focuses on Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum, the representatives of kimchi lactic acid bacteria, in terms of their abilities to prevent cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which lactic acid bacteria in kimchi prevent carcinogenic processes and improve immune functions. PMID:25574459

Kwak, Shin-Hye; Cho, Young-Mi; Noh, Geon-Min; Om, Ae-Son

2014-01-01

74

Channel-mediated lactic acid transport: a novel function for aquaglyceroporins in bacteria.  

PubMed

MIPs (major intrinsic proteins), also known as aquaporins, are membrane proteins that channel water and/or uncharged solutes across membranes in all kingdoms of life. Considering the enormous number of different bacteria on earth, functional information on bacterial MIPs is scarce. In the present study, six MIPs [glpF1 (glycerol facilitator 1)-glpF6] were identified in the genome of the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that GlpF2, GlpF3 and GlpF4 each facilitated the transmembrane diffusion of water, dihydroxyacetone and glycerol. As several lactic acid bacteria have GlpFs in their lactate racemization operon (GlpF1/F4 phylogenetic group), their ability to transport this organic acid was tested. Both GlpF1 and GlpF4 facilitated the diffusion of D/L-lactic acid. Deletion of glpF1 and/or glpF4 in Lb. plantarum showed that both genes were involved in the racemization of lactic acid and, in addition, the double glpF1 glpF4 mutant showed a growth delay under conditions of mild lactic acid stress. This provides further evidence that GlpFs contribute to lactic acid metabolism in this species. This lactic acid transport capacity was shown to be conserved in the GlpF1/F4 group of Lactobacillales. In conclusion, we have functionally analysed the largest set of bacterial MIPs and demonstrated that the lactic acid membrane permeability of bacteria can be regulated by aquaglyceroporins. PMID:23799297

Bienert, Gerd P; Desguin, Benoît; Chaumont, François; Hols, Pascal

2013-09-15

75

The growth and interaction of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria isolated from Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk in UHT milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine yeast and four lactic acid bacterial strains, previously isolated from Zimbabwean traditionally fermented milk, were inoculated into ultra-high temperature treated (UHT) milk in both single and yeast–lactic acid bacteria co-culture. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains consisted of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis C1, L. lactis subsp. lactis Lc39, L. lactis subsp. lactis Lc261 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp.

Tendekayi H Gadaga; Anthony N Mutukumira; Judith A Narvhus

2001-01-01

76

Molecular typing techniques to characterize the development of a lactic acid bacteria community on vacuum-packaged beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a community of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum-packaged beef was investigated during a 6-week storage trial at 2 °C. The lactic acid bacteria population was monitored by using molecular techniques to identify a random sample of isolates at biweekly intervals during the storage trial. The polymerase chain reaction and a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique were used

Chris K Yost; Frances M Nattress

2002-01-01

77

Production and characterization of bacteriocins produced by thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai local fermented foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocin producing thermotolerant (45 oC) lactic acid bacteria were screened from 21 samples of local fermented foods. Total of 529 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were obtained. However, there were only 121 isolates could be able to inhibit the growth of S. thermophilus TISTR 458, P. acidilactici TISTR 425, P. acidilactici TISTR 783, P. pentosaceus TISTR 955, P. pentosaceus TISTR

Leelavatcharamas Vichai; Arbsuwan Nida; Masao Kishida; Haruhiko Kawasaki

78

The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from fermented maize (kenkey) and their interactions during fermentation.  

PubMed

A total of 241 lactic acid bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus fermentum/reuteri and Lactobacillus brevis from various processing stages of maize dough fermentation were investigated. Results indicated that each processing stage has its own microenvironment with strong antimicrobial activity. About half of the Lact. plantarum and practically all of the Lact. fermentum/reuteri investigated were shown to inhibit other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, explaining the elimination of these organisms during the initial processing stages. Further, widespread microbial interactions amounting to 85% to 18% of all combinations tested were demonstrated amongst lactic acid bacteria within the various processing stages, i.e. raw material, steeping, 0 h and 48 h of fermentation, explaining the microbial succession taking place amongst lactic acid bacteria during fermentation. The antimicrobial effect was explained by the combined effect of acids, compounds sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and other compounds with antimicrobial activity with the acid production being the most important factor. The pattern of antimicrobial factors was not species-specific and the safety and storage stability of fermented maize seem to depend on a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria with different types of antimicrobial characteristics. This means that introduction of pure cultures as starters may impose a risk to the product. PMID:8567490

Olsen, A; Halm, M; Jakobsen, M

1995-11-01

79

Antibacterial Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from an Algerian Dairy Product  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the antibacterial effect of 20 lactic acid bacteria isolates from a traditional cheese was investigated. 6 isolates showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive bacteria. Streptococcus thermophilus T2 strain showed the wide inhibitory spectrum against the Gram positive bacteria. Growth and bacteriocin production profiles showed that the maximal bacteriocin production, by S. thermophilus T2 cells, was measured by the end of the late-log phase (90 AU ml?1) with a bacteriocine production rate of 9.3 (AU ml?1) h?1. In addition, our findings showed that the bacteriocin, produced by S. thermophilus T2, was stable over a wide pH range (4–8); this indicates that such bacteriocin may be useful in acidic as well as nonacidic food. This preliminarily work shows the potential application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to improve safety of traditional fermented food. PMID:20041021

Mezaini, Abdelkader; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Dilmi Bouras, Abdelkader; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Hornez, Jean Pierre

2009-01-01

80

Occurrence of aerobic nitrogen fixing bacteria in wetland and dryland plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently suggested that N2-fixing bacteria other than Azospirillum are present in greater abundance in the roots of wetland rice (2). Using a low concentration of tryptic soy agar, we isolated aerobic heterotrophic bacteria that required low levels of combined nitrogen for nitrogenase activity from wetland rice roots (1). In a liquid medium under batch culture conditions, the bacteria were

Wilfredo L. Barraquio; Iwao Watanabe

1981-01-01

81

The effect of addition of lactic acid bacteria inoculum to wheat and corn silages in Israel  

E-print Network

The effect of addition of lactic acid bacteria inoculum to wheat and corn silages in Israel Zwi, Israel SUMMARY The effect of addition of a commercial Lactobacillus plantarum inoculum to wheat and corn) was studied. The experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions in 1.5 litre jars and with corn

Boyer, Edmond

82

Occurrence of ?-acetolactate decarboxylases among lactic acid bacteria and their utilization for maturation of beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetolactate decarboxylase activity has been detected among three genera, nine species and 263 strains of lactic acid bacteria tested in the course of a screening for acetolactate decarboxylases amenable for use in brewing as maturation aid. Streptococcus diacetylactis strain FD-64-D was found to generate a decarboxylase exhibiting a satisfactory activity and an excellent stability at the pH prevailing in beer

Sven Erik Godtfredsen; Anne Munk Rasmussen; Martin Ottesen; Peer Rafn; Nicolai Peitersen

1984-01-01

83

Reduction of oxaluria after an oral course of lactic acid bacteria at high concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of oxaluria after an oral course of lactic acid bacteria at high concentration.BackgroundHyperoxaluria is a major risk factor for renal stones, and in most cases, it appears to be sustained by increased dietary load or increased intestinal absorption. Previous studies have shown that components of the endogenous digestive microflora, in particular Oxalobacter formigenes, utilize oxalate in the gut, thus

Claudio Campieri; Massimo Campieri; Veronica Bertuzzi; Erwin Swennen; Diego Matteuzzi; Sergio Stefoni; Franco Pirovano; Carla Centi; Salvatore Ulisse; Giuseppe Famularo; Claudio De Simone

2001-01-01

84

Involvement of manganese in conversion of phenylalanine to benzaldehyde by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of amino acids by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is important for the generation of flavor compounds during cheese ripening. We previously described that the conversion of phenylalanine to benzaldehyde in cell extracts of Lactoba- cillus plantarum (14) differs from the pathways described for fungi and for Pseudomonas putida (6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 18). In L. plantarum, the conversion

MASJA N. NIEROP GROOT; Bont de J. A. M

1999-01-01

85

Assessment of antibiotic susceptibility within lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested in 75 unrelated lactic acid bacteria strains of wine origin of the following species: 38 Lactobacillus plantarum, 3 Lactobacillus hilgardii, 2 Lactobacillus paracasei, 1 Lactobacillus sp, 21 Oenococcus oeni, 4 Pediococcus pentosaceus, 2 Pediococcus parvulus, 1 Pediococcus acidilactici, and 3 Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the different antibiotics that inhibited 50% of

Beatriz Rojo-Bezares; Yolanda Sáenz; Patricia Poeta; Myriam Zarazaga; Fernanda Ruiz-Larrea; Carmen Torres

2006-01-01

86

Synthesis of  -Aminobutyric Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Variety of Italian Cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 22 Italian cheese varieties that differ in several technological traits markedly varied from 0.26 to 391 mg kg1. Presumptive lactic acid bacteria were isolated from each cheese variety (total of 440 isolates) and screened for the capacity to synthesize GABA. Only 61 isolates showed this activity and were identified by partial sequencing of

S. Siragusa; M. De Angelis; R. Di Cagno; C. G. Rizzello; R. Coda; M. Gobbetti

2007-01-01

87

Disease-Dependent Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to the Human Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Peter J. Roberts; Jari Ovaska; Eeva Salminen

2003-01-01

88

The role of autolysis of lactic acid bacteria in the ripening of cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of autolysis of lactic acid bacteria in cheese ripening is evident from the literature. However, the mechanisms and the consequences still require investigation. The consequences of autolysis of mesophilic starters in Cheddar cheese are discussed and highlights from current physiological and genetic studies on starter autolysis are presented. The relative merits of measuring starter autolysis in cheese by

V. L. Crow; T. Coolbear; P. K. Gopal; F. G. Martley; L. L. McKay; H. Riepe

1995-01-01

89

The potential of lactic acid bacteria for the production of safe and wholesome food  

Microsoft Academic Search

By tradition lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are in- volved in the production of fermented foods. These con- stitute one quarter of our diet and are characterized by a safe history, certain beneficial health effects, and an ex- tended shelf life when compared with raw materials. The various fermenting substrates are habitats for specific LAB that differ in their metabolic potential.

Walter P. Hammes; Petra S. Tichaczek

1994-01-01

90

The role of lactic acid bacteria in colon cancer prevention: mechanistic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorectal cancer is one of the most important causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. While a myriad of healthful effects have been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria, perhaps the most controversial remains that of anticancer activity. It should be pointed out already at this point that there is no direct experimental evidence for cancer suppression

Kazuhiro Hirayama; Joseph Rafter

1999-01-01

91

Isolation and Identification of Wild Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Yoghurt Preparation from Indigenous Dahi  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria are commonly found in fermented dairy products. Their role in the production of value added products of milk like yoghurt, cheese and butter etc has got great significance. In this study thirty-five samples of dahi were collected randomly from the local markets of Rawalpindi. A total of 69 isolates were identified phenotypically and divide into

Talat Mehmood; Tariq Masud; Syed Ali Abbass; Shabana Maqsud

2009-01-01

92

The synergistic effect of lactic acid bacteria and alkylglycerols on humoral immunity in mice.  

PubMed

Investigations on immune suppression and reconstitution of immune functions dependent on the presence of physiological microflora allow us to conclude that symbiotic microorganisms such as Lactobacillus sp. are essential for adequate activity of the defense system in humans. In addition to their beneficial influence on the intestinal microbial balance, these microorganisms exert a variety of immunomodulatory effects on the host immune system. On the other hand, immunostimulatory animal-derived substances rich in alkylglycerols have been shown to enhance lactic acid bacteria proliferation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on murine humoral response of the combined administration of lyophilized combination of three lactic acid bacteria: L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium bifidum together with alkylglycerol-rich shark liver oil. The lactic acid bacteria mixture induced markedly stronger enhancement of the humoral response than alkylglycerols did. A significant synergistic stimulatory effect of lactic acid bacteria and alkylglycerols was observed in both treatment schedules: post- as well as in preimmunization with sheep red blood cells. However, their concomitant administration exerted stronger immunomodulatory effect than did the alternative route of treatment. PMID:11517854

Chorostowska-Wynimko, J; Krotkiewski, M; Radomska-Le?niewska, D; Sokolnicka, I; Skopi?ska-Rózewska, E

2001-01-01

93

Survival of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Stomach and Adhesion to Intestinal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of four strains of lactic acid bacteria in human gastric juice, in vivo and in vitro, and in buffered saline, pH 1 to 5, has been investigated. The strains studied include two Lactobacillus acidophilus strains, Lactobacillus bul- garicus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. In addition, the adhesion of these strains to freshly collected human and pig small intestinal cells and

P. L. Conway; S. L. Gorbach; B. R. Goldin

1987-01-01

94

Can Immunoregulatory Lactic Acid Bacteria Be Used as Dietary Supplements to Limit Allergies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in gnotobiotic animals have suggested that the intestinal bacterial flora may play an important role in priming the immune system during ontogeny to limit dysfunctional responses, including allergy. Prospective clinical studies have identified a higher incidence of allergy expression in early childhood among children who have low enteric populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria,

M. L. Cross; H. S. Gill

2001-01-01

95

Glucansucrases from lactic acid bacteria which produce water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dextrans and related glucans produced from sucrose by lactic acid bacteria have been studied for many years and are used in numerous commercial applications and products. Most of these glucans are water-soluble, except for a few notable exceptions from cariogenic Streptococcus spp. and a very small ...

96

Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.  

PubMed

The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples. PMID:20819367

Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

2010-08-01

97

Determination of some characteristics coccoid forms of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish kefirs with natural probiotic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a total of 21 coccoid forms of lactic acid bacteria (lactococci) were isolated from Turkish kefir samples. As a result of the identification tests, 21 lactococci isolates were identified as Lactococcus cremoris (11 strains), Lactococcus lactis (4 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (3 strains) and Streptococcus durans (3 strains). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity,

Z. N Yüksekda?; Y Beyatli; B Aslim

2004-01-01

98

Aerobic uranium (VI) bioprecipitation by metal-resistant bacteria isolated from radionuclide-  

E-print Network

Aerobic uranium (VI) bioprecipitation by metal-resistant bacteria isolated from radionuclide uranium [U(VI)] mediated by the intrinsic phosphatase acti- vities of naturally occurring bacteria such as uranium (U), technetium (Tc) and other toxic metals [e.g. cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr

Skolnick, Jeff

99

Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

2013-01-01

100

Amino acid profiles of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains and kefir starter made from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of cell growth, lactic acid production, amino acid release and consumption by single-strain cultures of lactic acid bacteria (isolated from kefir grains), and by a multiple-strain kefir starter prepared from them, were studied. The change in the levels of free amino acids was followed throughout the kefir process: single-strain kefir bacteria and the kefir starter (Lactococcus lactis C15–1%+Lactobacillus

Emilina Simova; Zhelyasko Simov; Dora Beshkova; Ginka Frengova; Zhechko Dimitrov; Zdravko Spasov

2006-01-01

101

Properties of Crude Ethylester-forming Enzyme Preparations from Some Lactic Acid and Psychrotrophic Bacteria1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ester-forming enzyme preparations were obtained from 48 h cultures of Streptococcus diacetilactis ATCC 15346, S. lactis ML3, Lactobacillus No. 81 and two strains of psychrotrophie bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas (Strains No, 50 and 53). Optimum pH's of the enzyme prep- arations of LactobaciIlus No. 81 and two strains of the lactic streptococci for the production of ethylbutyrate and

A. Hosono; J. A. Elliott

1974-01-01

102

Use of the alr gene as a food-grade selection marker in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum contain a single alr gene, encoding an alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1), which catalyzes the interconversion of D-alanine and L-alanine. The alr genes of these lactic acid bacteria were investigated for their application as food-grade selection markers in a heterologous complementation approach. Since isogenic mutants of both species carrying an alr deletion (alr) showed auxotrophy

Peter A. Bron; Marcos G. Benchimol; Jolanda Lambert; Emmanuelle Palumbo; Marie Deghorain; Jean Delcour; Vos de W. M; Michiel Kleerebezem; Pascal Hols

2002-01-01

103

Anti-allergic effect of Petasites japonicus fermented with lactic acid bacteria in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petasites japonicus (PJ, family Asteraceae) was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Bifidobacterium breve (BB) or Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), and its allergic effect was investigated. LAB-fermented PJs more potently inhibited IgE–antigen-stimulated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells than non-fermented PJ, with BB-fermented PJ more potent than LA-fermented PJ. Fermented PJ more potently inhibited TNF-? and IL-4 cytokine expression and transcription factor NF-?B

Eun-Ah Bae; Hien-Trung Trinh; Yun-Ah Jang; Hyung-Kwon Yun; Seong-Sig Hong; Dong-Hyun Kim

2009-01-01

104

Stability of cyclopropane and conjugated linoleic acids during fatty acid quantification in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven methods commonly used for fatty acid analysis of microgrganisms and foods were compared to establish the best for the\\u000a analysis of lyophilized lactic acid bacteria. One of these methods involves fat extraction followed by methylation of fatty\\u000a acids, while the other methods use a direct methylation of the samples, under different operating conditions (e.g., reaction\\u000a temperature and time, reagents,

Fabiola Dionisi; Pierre-Alain Golay; Marina Elli; Laurent B. Fay

1999-01-01

105

Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and\\/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy

Hyang Mi An; Eun Hye Baek; Seok Jang; Do Kyung Lee; Mi Jin Kim; Jung Rae Kim; Kang Oh Lee; Jong Gi Park; Nam Joo Ha

2010-01-01

106

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in kefir grains and kefir made from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

  In an investigation of the changes in the microflora along the pathway: kefir grains (A)?kefir made from kefir grains (B)?kefir\\u000a made from kefir as inoculum (C), the following species of lactic acid bacteria (83–90%) of the microbial count in the grains)\\u000a were identified: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum and

E Simova; D Beshkova; A Angelov; Ts Hristozova; G Frengova; Z Spasov

2002-01-01

107

Interaction between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sour-dough using a rheofermentometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheofermentometer assays were used to characterize the leavening of sour-doughs produced using species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, alone or in combination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 produced the most CO2 and ethanol whereas S. exiguus M14 and Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 contributed poorly to leavening and gave sour-doughs without porosity. In comparison with that seen in sour-dough produced

M. Gobbetti; A. Corsetti; J. Rossi

1995-01-01

108

Interactions Among Lactic Acid Starter and Probiotic Bacteria Used for Fermented Dairy Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria were investigatedto establish adequate combi- nations of strains to manufacture probiotic dairy prod- ucts. For this aim, a total of 48 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgari- cus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lac- tobacilluscasei,andBifidobacteriumspp.(eightofeach) were used. The detection of bacterial interactions was carried out using the well-diffusion agar assay, and

C. G. Vinderola; P. Mocchiutti; J. A. Reinheimer

2002-01-01

109

Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria Using the Concept of Substantial Equivalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of food-grade microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the most promising methods for delivering\\u000a health promoting compounds. Since it is not always possible to obtain strains that have the ability to produce specific compounds\\u000a naturally or that produce them in sufficient quantities to obtain physiological responses, genetic modifications can be performed\\u000a to improve their

Jean Guy LeBlanc; Douwe Van Sinderen; Jeroen Hugenholtz; Jean-Christophe Piard; Fernando Sesma; Graciela Savoy de Giori

2010-01-01

110

Genotypic identification of some lactic acid bacteria by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and investigation of their potential usage as starter culture combinations in Beyaz cheese manufacture.  

PubMed

In this study, 2 different starter culture combinations were prepared for cheesemaking. Starter culture combinations were formed from 8 strains of lactic acid bacteria. They were identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (2 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum (5 strains), and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1 strain) by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The effects of these combinations on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of Beyaz cheeses were investigated. These cheeses were compared with Beyaz cheeses that were produced with a commercial starter culture containing Lc. lactis ssp. lactis and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris as control. All cheeses were ripened in brine at 4 degrees C for 90 d. Dry matter, fat in dry matter, titratable acidity, pH, salt in dry matter, total N, water-soluble N, and ripening index were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE patterns of cheeses showed that alpha(S)-casein and beta-casein degraded slightly during the ripening period. Lactic acid bacteria, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast, molds, and coliforms were also counted. All analyses were repeated twice during d 7, 30, 60, and 90. The starter culture combinations were found to be significantly different from the control group in pH, salt content, and lactobacilli, lactococci, and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts, whereas the cheeses were similar in fat, dry matter content, and coliform, yeast, and mold counts. The sensory analysis of cheeses indicated that textural properties of control cheeses presented somewhat lower scores than those of the test groups. The panelists preferred the tastes of treatment cheeses, whereas cheeses with starter culture combinations and control cheeses had similar scores for appearance and flavor. These results indicated that both starter culture combinations are suitable for Beyaz cheese production. PMID:20059897

Karahan, A G; Ba?yi?it Kiliç, G; Kart, A; Sanlidere Alo?lu, H; Oner, Z; Aydemir, S; Erku?, O; Harsa, S

2010-01-01

111

Studying the Life Cycle of Aerobic Endospore-forming Bacteria in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Members of the genus Bacillus are commonly isolated from soils, with members of the Bacillus cereus group being prevalent. Our knowledge of the ecology of B. cereus and other aerobic spore-forming bacteria in soil is far from complete. We have developed an in terra approach to study soil-associated aerobes, using filter-sterilized soil extracted soluble organic matter (SESOM). B. cereus is

Volker S. Brözel; Yun Luo; Sebastien Vilain

112

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bee Pollen: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133. PMID:24936378

BELHADJ, Hani; HARZALLAH, Daoud; BOUAMRA, Dalila; KHENNOUF, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; GHADBANE, Mouloud

2014-01-01

113

Comparison of Dry Medium Culture Plates for Mesophilic Aerobic Bacteria in Milk, Ice Cream, Ham, and Codfish Fillet Products  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products. PMID:24551829

Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

2013-01-01

114

Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.  

PubMed

This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products. PMID:24551829

Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

2013-12-01

115

Developments in the Taxonomy of Aerobic, Endospore-forming Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Bacillus holds an important place in the history of bacteriology. With observations upon Bacillus subtilis and its spores Cohn discredited the theory of spontaneous generation, and with his demonstration of the life history of B. anthracis in 1876 Robert Koch proved the germ theory of disease and founded medical bacteriology. Later, Bacillus became defined as a genus of aerobic, endospore-forming

Niall A. Logan; Gillian Halket

116

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize–sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as

J. K. Mugula; J. A. Narvhus; T. Sørhaug

2003-01-01

117

A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods  

PubMed Central

l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

118

The function of lactic acid bacteria and brine solutions on biogenic amine formation by foodborne pathogens in trout fillets.  

PubMed

The influences of lactic acid bacteria and brine solutions on the biogenic amine formation by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila and Salmonella paratyphi A in fermented trout fillets were investigated. Fish fillets were divided into four groups, group 1 without any lactic acid bacteria inoculation, group 2 and group 3 with different salt concentration inoculated with lactic acid bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and group 4 inoculated with lactic acid bacteria and food-borne pathogens without a salt solution. The histamine content in trout fillets in group 4 was found to be more than 10mg/100g, while the other groups contained less than 7.5mg/100g. The highest tyramine production was found for group 1 and group 3, ranging from 3 to 18mg/100g. Lactic acid bacteria did not seem to play an important role on biogenic amine production by food borne pathogens, while adding brine solution on fillets has inhibitory effects on some of the biogenic amines. PMID:25212358

Kuley, Esmeray; Ozogul, Fatih; Ozogul, Yesim; Akyol, Ismail

2011-12-01

119

Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH4-oxidizing bacteria  

E-print Network

Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH4-oxidizing bacteria Alexis S Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136, USA d Center for Isotope Geochemistry 2005; accepted in revised form 5 December 2005 Abstract Carbon isotope fractionation factors reported

Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

120

Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Roseobacter Clade Bacteria from Diverse Marine Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine Roseobacter clade comprises several genera of marine bacteria related to the uncultured SAR83 cluster, the second most abundant marine picoplankton lineage. Cultivated representatives of this clade are physiologically heterogeneous, and only some have the capability for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, a process of potentially great ecological importance in the world's oceans. In an attempt to correlate phylogeny with ecology,

Martin Allgaier; Heike Uphoff; Andreas Felske; Irene Wagner-Dobler

2003-01-01

121

Time-dependent changes in viable numbers and activities of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in subsurface samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vadose and saturated zone sediment cores from depths to 212 m were obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in south-central Washington by cable tool drilling, and volcanic ashfall tuff samples were obtained from tunnels 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. Numbers of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria

J. K. Fredrickson; S. W. Li; F. J. Brockman; D. L. Haldeman; P. S. Amy; D. L. Balkwill

1995-01-01

122

[The microflora of sourdough. XVIII. The protein degrading capabilities of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough].  

PubMed

Acidification of the dough by the use of sourdough or acidifiers is necessary not only for good baking quality of rye flour but it is also very important for development of the typical sensory characteristics of rye bread. We confirmed that the lactic acid bacteria of sour dough are proteolytic. Proteolytic effects are observed in the increase of the amino acid content during fermentation. A marked increase was found in the content of leucine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, glutamine, arginine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and serine. Lactobacillus plantarum showed a higher proteolytic activity than L. brevis ssp. lindneri or L. fructivorans. PMID:6380132

Spicher, G; Nierle, W

1984-05-01

123

Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of industrially important compounds  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review. PMID:24688663

Papagianni, Maria

2012-01-01

124

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.  

PubMed

Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L. monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone, which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The applied methodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy products where inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25086348

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

2014-10-01

125

Effect of initial glucose concentration and inoculation level of lactic acid bacteria in shrimp waste ensilation.  

PubMed

Fermentation conditions and microorganisms were determined, based on acid production, glucose concentration as carbohydrate source. Inoculation levels to obtain a stable shrimp waste silage were also determined. Shrimp waste ensilation was an efficient method of preservation, allowing the recovery of chitin and another added-value products such as pigments, proteins and enzymes. From the various lactic acid bacteria tested, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus sp. (B2) were the best lactic acid producers, although small quantities of acetic acid were detected in samples inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus. Therefore B2 was chosen for the analysis of glucose consumption as well as for the determination of optimum inoculation levels. The best results were obtained at 10% (w/w wet basis) and 5% (v/w wet basis) respectively. Presence of starters and initial glucose concentration were critical factors in the fermentation of shrimp waste. High initial glucose and starter concentrations reduced the time and increased the amount of lactic acid produced. The fermentation pattern changed during ensilation from hetero to homofermentative. Shrimp waste ensilation prevented the growth of spoilage microorganisms keeping their microbial counts steady and pH values within the acid region. PMID:11240204

Shirai, K; Guerrero, I; Huerta, S; Saucedo, G; Castillo, A; Obdulia Gonzalez, R; Hall, G M.

2001-03-01

126

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (P<0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

127

Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed. PMID:25186038

2014-01-01

128

Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Synthesize Antioxidant Peptides during Sourdough Fermentation of Cereal Flours  

PubMed Central

A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used for the sourdough fermentation of various cereal flours with the aim of synthesizing antioxidant peptides. The radical-scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from sourdoughs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chemically acidified doughs. The highest activity was found for whole wheat, spelt, rye, and kamut sourdoughs. Almost the same results were found for the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation. WSE were subjected to reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Thirty-seven fractions were collected and assayed in vitro. The most active fractions were resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Twenty-five peptides of 8 to 57 amino acid residues were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Almost all of the sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. All of the purified fractions showed ex vivo antioxidant activity on mouse fibroblasts artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the capacity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through the proteolysis of native cereal proteins. PMID:22156436

Coda, Rossana; Pinto, Daniela; Gobbetti, Marco

2012-01-01

129

Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)  

PubMed Central

In the present work, the effects of several lactic acid bacteria on the immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) macrophages have been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Out of six lactic acid bacterial strains tested, only heat-killed Lactococcus lactis significantly increased the turbot head kidney macrophage chemiluminescent (CL) response after 24 h of incubation. Nitric oxide (NO) was also significantly enhanced by this bacterium after 72 h of incubation with either viable (103 and 106 cells/ml) or heat-killed (106 cells/ml) bacteria. Viable Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 cells/ml) was also capable of significantly increasing NO production. Since L. lactis proved to be the strain with more effects on the host immune function, further in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted with this bacterium. The in vitro capacity of L. lactis to adhere to turbot intestinal mucus was positively confirmed. When orally administered, L. lactis significantly increased the macrophage CL response and the serum NO concentration after 7 days of daily administration. The antibacterial effect of the extracellular products from the six LAB strains against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum was also demonstrated in vitro. PMID:12414767

Villamil, L.; Tafalla, C.; Figueras, A.; Novoa, B.

2002-01-01

130

Prediction of acid lactic-bacteria growth in turkey ham processed by high hydrostatic pressure  

PubMed Central

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been investigated and industrially applied to extend shelf life of meat-based products. Traditional ham packaged under microaerophilic conditions may sometimes present high lactic acid bacteria population during refrigerated storage, which limits shelf life due to development of unpleasant odor and greenish and sticky appearance. This study aimed at evaluating the shelf life of turkey ham pressurized at 400 MPa for 15 min and stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C, in comparison to the non pressurized product. The lactic acid bacteria population up to 107 CFU/g of product was set as the criteria to determine the limiting shelf life According to such parameter the pressurized sample achieved a commercial viability within 75 days when stored at 4 °C while the control lasted only 45 days. Predictive microbiology using Gompertz and Baranyi and Roberts models fitted well both for the pressurized and control samples. The results indicated that the high hydrostatic pressure treatment greatly increased the turkey ham commercial viability in comparison to the usual length, by slowing down the growth of microorganisms in the product. PMID:24159279

Mathias, S.P.; Rosenthal, A.; Gaspar, A.; Aragão, G.M.F.; Slongo-Marcusi, A.

2013-01-01

131

Rapid identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from home-made fermented milk in Tibet.  

PubMed

Fermented milk is a very delicious and nutritional food distributed in the international markets. Rapid preliminary identification of lactic acid bacteria to the species level is an important issue for the fermentation industry. One hundred seventy-one strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from twenty-nine kurut samples and fifteen traditional fermented mongolian cattle milk (FMCM) samples in Tibet, China. All of the strains were isolated and divided into bacilli or cocci by phenotype, and then differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using a set of restriction enzymes, AluI, HaeIII, BsmaI, TspRI and HinfI. Restriction pattern analyses indicated that the lactobacilli could be clearly identified at the species level and the LAB cocci at the genera level by the five restriction enzymes. Further studies on 16S rDNA sequences of representative and undefined strains showed that the combination of RFLP analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplifying 16S rDNA and 16S rDNA sequence analysis is rapid, easy to perform, and effective for large-scale preliminary identification of LAB. PMID:19590145

Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiachao; Sun, Tiansong; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

2009-06-01

132

Biodiversity of exopolysaccharides produced from sucrose by sourdough lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The distribution and diversity of natural exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced from sucrose by thirty heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria strains from French traditional sourdoughs was investigated. The EPS production was found to be related to glucansucrase and fructansucrase extracellular activities. Depending on the strain, soluble and/or cell-associated glycansucrases were secreted. Structural characterization of the polymers by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy analysis further demonstrated a high diversity of EPS structures. Notably, we detected strains that synthesize glucans showing amazing variations in the amount of alpha-(1-->2), alpha-(1-->3) and alpha-(1-->6) linkages. The representation of Leuconostoc strains which produce putative alternan polymers and alpha-(1-->2) branched polymers was particularly high. The existence of glucan- and fructansucrase encoding genes was also confirmed by PCR detection. Sourdough was thus demonstrated to be a very attractive biotope for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria producing novel polymers which could find interesting applications such as texturing agent or prebiotics. PMID:19848387

Bounaix, Marie-Sophie; Gabriel, Valérie; Morel, Sandrine; Robert, Hervé; Rabier, Philippe; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Gabriel, Bruno; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine

2009-11-25

133

Evolution of Yeasts and Lactic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Bordeaux Wines  

PubMed Central

The levels of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that naturally developed during the vinification of two red and two white Bordeaux wines were quantitatively examined. Yeasts of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, and Metschnikowia occurred at low levels in freshly extracted grape musts but died off as soon as fermentation commenced. Kloeckera apiculata (Hanseniaspora uvarum), Torulopsis stellata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dominant yeasts in musts, proliferated to conduct alcoholic fermentation. K. apiculata and eventually T. stellata died off as fermentation progressed, leaving S. cerevisiae as the dominant yeast until the termination of fermentation by the addition of sulfur dioxide. At least two different strains of S. cerevisiae were involved in the fermentation of one of the red wines. Low levels of lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus cerevisiae, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus spp.) were present in grape musts but died off during alcoholic fermentation. The malolactic fermentation developed in both red wines soon after alcoholic fermentation and correlated with the vigorous growth of at least three different strains of Leuconostoc oenos. PMID:16346661

Fleet, G. H.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

1984-01-01

134

[The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].  

PubMed

The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikha?lova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

2005-01-01

135

Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms. PMID:22920585

2012-01-01

136

Phylogenetic analysis of antimicrobial lactic acid bacteria from farmed seabass Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the prevention or reduction of fish diseases is receiving increasing attention. In the present study, 47 LAB strains were isolated from farmed seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) and were phenotypically and phylogenetically analysed by 16S rDNA and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Their antimicrobial effect was tested in vitro against a wide variety of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Most of the strains isolated were enterococci belonging to the following species: Enterococcus faecium (59%), Enterococcus faecalis (21%), Enterococcus sanguinicola (4 strains), Enterococcus mundtii (1 strain), Enterococcus pseudoavium (1 strain), and Lactococcus lactis (1 strain). An Aerococcus viridans strain was also isolated. The survey of their antimicrobial susceptibility showed that all isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and exhibited resistance to between 4 and 10 other antibiotics relevant for therapy in human and animal medicine. Different patterns of resistance were noted for skin and intestines isolates. More than 69% (32 strains) of the isolates inhibited the growth of the majority of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria tested, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum, and Carnobacterium sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bioactive enterococcal species isolated from seabass that could potentially inhibit the undesirable bacteria found in food systems. PMID:22439634

Bourouni, Ouissal Chahad; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Mraouna, Radhia; Abedellatif, Boudabous; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

2012-04-01

137

Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (?17%) producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s) of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials. PMID:23443163

Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Pepelassi, Eudoxie; Papaioannou, William; Georgalaki, Marina; Maragkoudakis, Petros A.; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

138

Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with glutamic, lactic, and/or fumaric acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter spp. are major causes of human foodborne illnesses, and the pathogen is widely associated with live poultry and processed poultry products. These bacteria are classified as obligate microaerophiles and are generally cultured under atmospheres with reduced oxygen and elevated carbon dio...

139

Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.  

PubMed

Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. PMID:24888497

Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

2014-10-01

140

Role of Cryoprotectants on the Viability and Functional Properties of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria during Freeze Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of different cryoprotectants on acid\\/bile tolerance, ?-galactosidase activity, and cholesterol assimilation properties of freeze dried Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus salivarius were evaluated. The retention of probiotic properties and viability of the above three cultures freeze dried with lactose, skimmed milk, and maltodextrin were found to be significant (P ? 0.05). In another approach, lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Kanchi Bhasker Praveen Kumar Reddy; Sharda Prasad Awasthi; Arenahalli Ningegowda Madhu; Siddalingaiya Gurudutt Prapulla

2009-01-01

141

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, ewe and goat dairy artisanal farmhouses  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria collected from artisanal farmhouses were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic methods including biochemical assays, ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were performed. This approach provides accuracy for identification, and helps to avoid the loss of natural biodiversity including potentially valuable strains. PMID:24294232

Reginensi, Stella M.; González, Marcela J.; Bermúdez, Jorge

2013-01-01

142

Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans and Host Defense against Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to develop a convenient model to investigate the senescence of host defenses and the influence of food and nutrition. A small soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, was grown for 3 days from hatching on a lawn of Escherichia coli OP50 as the normal food source, and subsequently some of the nematodes were fed lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The

Takanori Ikeda; Chikako Yasui; Kaori Hoshino; Kentaro Arikawa; Yoshikazu Nishikawa

2007-01-01

143

Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

144

Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the ability of selected dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from liquid media. Both Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LBGG) and L. rhamnosus strain LC-705 (LC705) can significantly (P>0.05) remove AFB1 when compared with that by other strains of either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Removal of AFB1 by LBGG and

H. El-Nezami; P. Kankaanpaa; S. Salminen; J. Ahokas

1998-01-01

145

Interaction between cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in the degradation of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated on crude oil with the aim to test whether their presence and activity might support the growth of cyanobacteria in oil-polluted microbial mats and whether the cyanobacterial exudates might play a role in stimulating their degradative activities. The strains were phylogenetically related to known oil-degrading species from the genera Marinobacter, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas. Three

Raeid M. M. Abed

2010-01-01

146

GC-MS structural characterization of fatty acids from marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FA composition of 12 strains of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria belonging to the genera Erythrobacter, Roseobacter, and Citromicrobium was investigated. GC-MS analyses of different types of derivatives were performed to determine the structures of the main\\u000a FA present in these organisms. All the analyzed strains contained the relatively rare 11-methyloctadec-12-enoic acid, and\\u000a three contained 12-methyl-octadec-11-enoic acid, which has

J.-F. Rontani; S. Christodoulou; M. Koblizek

2005-01-01

147

Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of Mn²?.  

PubMed

Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

2014-11-01

148

Emerging roles of lactic acid bacteria in protection against colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and the fourth most common cancer diagnosed among men and women in the United States. Considering the risk factors of CRC, dietary therapy has become one of the most effective approaches in reducing CRC morbidity and mortality. The use of probiotics is increasing in popularity for both the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. As the most common types of microbes used as probiotics, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are comprised of an ecologically diverse group of microorganisms united by formation of lactic acid as the primary metabolite of sugar metabolism. LAB have been successfully used in managing diarrhea, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease. LAB also demonstrated a host of properties in preventing colorectal cancer development by inhibiting initiation or progression through multiple pathways. In this review, we discuss recent insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms of LAB in CRC prevention including apoptosis, antioxidant DNA damages, immune responses, and epigenetics. The emerging experimental findings from clinical trials as well as the proposed mechanisms of gut microbiota in carcinogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:24976724

Zhong, Li; Zhang, Xufei; Covasa, Mihai

2014-01-01

149

Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

150

Isolation and characterization of aerobic thermophilic bacteria from the savusavu hot springs in fiji.  

PubMed

The relative isolation and unique physical properties of the Savusavu Hot Springs in Fiji may yield unique thermophiles. This study was conducted to determine the presence of aerobic thermophilic bacteria in these hot springs. A total of 104 thermophilic bacterial isolates were characterized and using Thermus and Bacillus strains as controls, 58% of the isolates were identified as Anoxybacillus flavithermus, 19% as Geobacillus stearothermophilus/Bacillus licheniformis, 10% as Thermus sp. TG153 and 10% as Thermus sp. TG206. Four isolates were unique in their molecular patterns suggesting there may be novel bacteria in the Savusavu hot springs. PMID:21558730

Narayan, Vinay V; Hatha, Mohamed A; Morgan, Hugh W; Rao, Dhana

2008-01-01

151

Murata [eds.], Aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. Japan Scientific IMHOFF, J. F. 1992. Taxonomy, phyologeny, and general ecology of  

E-print Network

­2495. , C. L. VAN DOVER, R. A. NIEDERMAN, AND P. G. FAL- KOWSKI. 2000. Bacterial photosynthesis in surface. Distribution of aerobic bacteria which contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 43

Vincent, Warwick F.

152

Simplified technique for identification of the aerobic spore-forming bacteria by phenotype.  

PubMed

The use of modern research approaches of genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology has led to progress in bacterial taxonomy. Systematic study of the aerobic spore-forming bacteria has resulted in the realignment of the genus Bacillus into several new genera. In the meantime, the identification process has become more difficult for the non-specialist in Bacillus taxonomy. This paper presents a key for the simplified phenotypic identification of the mesophilic, aerobic, spore-forming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Aneurinibacillus, Geobacillus and Virgibacillus. A total of 81 species were included and 115 morphological and physiological tests were analysed for their discriminative efficiency. This key is practical for rough but quick identification of aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from nature. Such preliminary identification will be helpful for the selection of reference strains and methods for more precise identification using the newest techniques. The reliability of the proposed identification key was tested on 100 cultures from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms. The developed identification key is represented in interactive mode on a website (http://www/imv.kiev.ua/key/). PMID:11491334

Reva, O N; Sorokulova, I B; Smirnov, V V

2001-07-01

153

Production of bacteriocin-like substances by lactic acid bacteria isolated from regional ovine cheese  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from ovine milk and cheeses manufactured in the South Region of Brazil. Among 112 bacterial isolates investigated, 59 were chosen through a screening for LAB. Among these 59 strains of LAB, 21% showed antimicrobial, proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Based on this screening, Lactobacillus plantarum LCN 17 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCN 43 were selected and tested for the production of bacteriocin-like substances (BLS). The BLS produced by both isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, whereas that produced by L. plantarum LCN 17 presented higher stability to different temperature, pH and enzyme treatments. These strains present potential for production of BLS, and for use as starter cultures. PMID:24031581

Nespolo, Cássia Regina; Brandelli, Adriano

2010-01-01

154

Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi Against Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

More than 120 isolates of lactic acid bacteria obtained from Kimchi was screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. Approximately 10% of the isolates showed inhibitory activity and only 4.16% (five isolates) exhibited strong activity against the indicator fungus A. fumigatus. The five isolates showed a wide rang of antifungal activity against A. flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium commune, and Rhizopus oryzae. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus cruvatus, L. lactis subsp. lactis, L. casei, L. pentosus, and L. sakei. The effect of Lactobacillus on mycelial growth and fungal biomass as well as its ability to produce toxic compounds were determined. The results indicate that the three species, Lactobacillus casei, L. lactis subsp. lactis, and L. pentosus, are active against A. fumigatus. PMID:24049503

2005-01-01

155

Interaction between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sour-dough using a rheofermentometer.  

PubMed

Rheofermentometer assays were used to characterize the leavening of sour-doughs produced using species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, alone or in combination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 produced the most CO2 and ethanol whereas S. exiguus M14 and Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 contributed poorly to leavening and gave sour-doughs without porosity. In comparison with that seen in sour-dough produced with yeast alone, yeast fermentation with heterofermentative LAB present was faster whereas that with homofermentative LAB (L. plantarum DC400, L. farciminis CF3) present was slower and produced more CO2. Combining L. brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 with S. cerevisiae 141 decreased bacterial cell numbers and souring activity. However, addition of fructose to the sour-dough overcame these problems as well as activating S. cerevisiae 141. PMID:24415009

Gobbetti, M; Corsetti, A; Rossi, J

1995-11-01

156

Development and Evaluation of Genome-Probing Microarrays for Monitoring Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The genome-probing microarray (GPM) was developed for quantitative, high-throughput monitoring of community dynamics in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation through the deposit of 149 microbial genomes as probes on a glass slide. Compared to oligonucleotide microarrays, the specificity of GPM was remarkably increased to a species-specific level. GPM possesses about 10- to 100-fold higher sensitivity (2.5 ng of genomic DNA) than the currently used 50-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. Since signal variation between the different genomes was very low compared to that of cDNA or oligonucleotide-based microarrays, the capacity of global quantification of microbial genomes could also be observed in GPM hybridization. In order to assess the applicability of GPMs, LAB community dynamics were monitored during the fermentation of kimchi, a traditional Korean food. In this work, approximately 100 diverse LAB species could be quantitatively analyzed as actively involved in kimchi fermentation. PMID:16332879

Bae, Jin-Woo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Park, Ja Ryeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Insun; Kim, Hongik; Park, Yong-Ha

2005-01-01

157

Evaluation of the probiotic characteristics of newly isolated lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented vegetables, sour dough, milk products, sheep and human excreta. The newly isolated cultures were evaluated for a number of probiotic characteristics like bile salt resistance, salt tolerance in general, survival in low pH, hydrophobicity of the cell surface, resistance to low phenol concentration, antimicrobial activity and susceptibility pattern against vancomycin and erythromycin. The selected cultures were further screened for their ability to produce the nutraceticals such as folic acid and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Two potent isolates, CB2 (from cabbage) and SD2 (from sour dough) were found to produce both extracellular and intracellular folate. One of the isolates from yogurt (MC-1) and the one from whey (W3) produced significant amount of EPS with a maximum production of 8.79 +/- 0.05 g/l by MC-1. PMID:18592412

Aswathy, Ravindran Girija; Ismail, Bindhumol; John, Rojan Pappy; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

2008-12-01

158

Recombinant lactic acid bacteria as delivery vectors of heterologous antigens: the future of vaccination?  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are good candidates for the development of new oral vaccines and are attractive alternatives to attenuated pathogens. This review focuses on the use of wild-type and recombinant lactococci and lactobacilli with emphasis on their molecular design, immunomodulation and treatment of bacterial infections. The majority of studies related to recombinant LABs have focused on Lactococcus lactis, however, molecular tools have been successfully used for Lactobacillus spp. research. Recombinant lactobacilli and lactococci have several health benefits, such as immunomodulation, restoration of the microbiota, synthesis of antimicrobial substances and inhibition of virulence factors. In addition, protective immune responses that are well tolerated are induced by the expression of heterologous antigens from recombinant probiotics. PMID:25245573

Trombert, A

2014-09-22

159

Medical and Personal Care Applications of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequent use of antibiotics has led to a crisis in the antibiotic ­resistance of pathogens associated with humans and animals. Antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant bacterial pathogens have led to the investigation of alternative antimicrobial agents to treat and prevent infections in both humans and animals. Research on antimicrobial peptides, with a special interest on bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, is entering a new era with novel applications other than food preservation. Many scientists are now focusing on the application of these peptides in medicinal and personal care products. However, it is difficult to assess the success of such ventures due to the dearth of information that has been published and the lack of clinical trials.

Dicks, L. M. T.; Heunis, T. D. J.; van Staden, D. A.; Brand, A.; Noll, K. Sutyak; Chikindas, M. L.

160

Halotolerance and survival kinetics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from jalapeño pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fermentation.  

PubMed

The microbiota associated with spontaneous fermentation of vegetables in a saline substrate may represent an important group of bacteria in the food industry. In this work, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, and Leuconostoc citreum were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In addition, entophytic bacteria such as Pantoea eucalypti, Pantoea anthophila, Enterobacter cowanii, and Enterobacter asburiae were detected, but they were irrelevant for the fermentation process and were inhibited after 12 h of fermentation when the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.9. Moreover, 2 species of yeast were isolated and identified as Hanseniaspora pseudoguilliermondii and Kodamaea ohmeri by their partial 26S rRNA gene sequence. The growth of LAB was evaluated at different sodium chloride contents. L. citreum was the most halotolerant species followed by L. plantarum and W. cibaria with a concentration index to obtain a 50% population reduction (IC(50)) of 7.2%, 6.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. Furthermore, the growth of LAB and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated in the presence of the main phenylpropanoids from chilli peppers such as p-coumaric and ferulic acid. It was determined that LAB can grow in both acids at 4 mM, unlike E. coli O157:H7, whose growth is inhibited in the presence of these acids. PMID:25039289

González-Quijano, Génesis Karendash; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia; de Jesús Perea-Flores, María; Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

2014-08-01

161

Characterization of some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different sources (dairy products, fruits, fresh and fermented vegetables, fermented cereals) were screened for antimicrobial activity against other bacteria, including potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria. Six strains have been shown to produce bacteriocins: Lactococcus lactis 19.3, Lactobacillus plantarum 26.1, Enterococcus durans 41.2, isolated from dairy products and Lactobacillus amylolyticus P40 and P50, and Lactobacillus oris P49, isolated from bors. Among the six bacteriocins, there were both heat stable, low molecular mass polypeptides, with a broad inhibitory spectrum, probably belonging to class II bacteriocins, and heat labile, high molecular mass proteins, with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum, most probably belonging to class III bacteriocins. A synergistic effect of some bacteriocins mixtures was observed. We can conclude that fermented foods are still important sources of new functional LAB. Among the six characterized bacteriocins, there might be some novel compounds with interesting features. Moreover, the bacteriocin-producing strains isolated in our study may find applications as protective cultures. PMID:24849010

Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Stancu, Mihaela-Marilena; Pelinescu, Diana; Zamfir, Medana

2014-09-01

162

Biodegradation of nonlignocellulosic substances I: system for complete decomposition of garbage using sawdust and aerobic soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for effective garbage decomposition using sawdust and aerobic soil bacteria was examined. The machinery used in this\\u000a process, the garbage automatic decomposer-extinguisher (GADS), is composed of a container with an automatic mechanical mixer\\u000a and a drain for liquid formed by the decomposition of garbage. The aerobic soil bacteria, cultivated in sawdust, degrades\\u000a garbage within the container. The GADE

Minoru Terazawa; Sakae Horisawa; Yutaka Tamai; Kenzo Yamashita

1999-01-01

163

Proteolytic and other hydrolytic enzyme activities in non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) isolated from cheddar cheese manufactured in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The populations of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) in a selection of 15 good-quality UK-manufactured Cheddar cheeses that had been matured for 6–9 months ranged from 105 to 107 bacteria g-1. Fifteen different species of lactic acid bacteria were identified using commercially-available identification systems. The species isolated most frequently were Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lb. plantarum; 10 other species

Alan G. Williams; Jean M. Banks

1997-01-01

164

[Aniline removal by aerobic granules and high-efficiency aniline-degrading bacteria].  

PubMed

Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated with aniline as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. This system could effectively degrade aniline as high as 6 000 mg/L. Two aniline-degrading strains which were named as adx1 and adx3, were isolated and purified from the aerobic granular sludge. The degradation characteristics of these two bacteria were different. The strain adxl possessed a relatively higher degradation rate of aniline, while the strain adx3 could stand up to a higher concentration of aniline than the strain adx1. The degrading process of these two strains followed the Haldane kinetic model. The maximum aniline biodegradation rates of adx1 and adx3 were up to 0.924 g/(g x h) and 0.645 g/(g x h), respectively. The maximum specific growth rates were as high as 0.487 g/(g x h) and 0.440 g/(g x h), respectively. Identification by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis showed that adx1 and adx3 were Pseudomonas sp. and Achromobacter sp., which was consistent with the identification by the bands 1 and 4 in the PCR-DGGE profile of the aerobic aniline-degrading granules. Therefore, it could be proposed that the strains adx1 and adx3 were one of the main functional microorganisms inhabited in the aerobic granules. PMID:20063750

Xiang, Zheng-Xin; Zhang, Li-Li; Chen, Jian-Meng

2009-11-01

165

Evaluation of culture media for selective enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides-mupirocin lithium salt (TOS-MUP) and MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin (MRS-CC) agars, along with several other culture media, for selectively enumerating bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species commonly used to make fermented milks. Pure culture suspensions of a total of 13 dairy bacteria strains, belonging to eight species and five genera, were tested for growth capability under various incubation conditions. TOS-MUP agar was successfully used for the selective enumeration of both Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and B. breve M-16 V. MRS-CC agar showed relatively good selectivity for Lactobacillus acidophilus, however, it also promoted the growth of Lb. casei strains. For this reason, MRS-CC agar can only be used as a selective medium for the enumeration of Lb. acidophilus if Lb. casei is not present in a product at levels similar to or exceeding those of Lb. acidophilus. Unlike bifidobacteria and coccus-shaped LAB, all the lactobacilli strains involved in this work were found to grow well in MRS pH 5.4 agar incubated under anaerobiosis at 37 °C for 72 h. Therefore, this method proved to be particularly suitable for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus spp. PMID:25477939

Süle, Judit; Kõrösi, Tímea; Hucker, Attila; Varga, László

2014-01-01

166

Use of selected lactic acid bacteria in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is among the major pathogenic bacteria that cause chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is related to the development of gastric cancer. Several chemicals, including antibiotics, have been used to eradicate H. pylori; however, they do not always curb the infection. Ten representative type strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened for antagonism toward H. pylori via inhibition of urease activity. Strains inhibiting the binding of H. pylori to human gastric cell line cells and suppressing H. pylori-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production were also screened. Of these, Pediococcus pentosaseus (SL4), which inhibited the adhesion of H. pylori to MKN-45 gastric cancer cells, Bifidobacterium longum (BG7), with urease inhibiting activity, and Lactococcus lactis (SL3), and Enterococcus faecalis (SL5), which suppressed H. pylori-induced IL-8 production within MKN-45 and AGS cells, were selected. In mouse model, these LAB stains in combination significantly suppressed IL-8 levels in serum. Gastric pH also recovered to normal values after the administration of these LAB. These stains effectively suppressed H. pylori viability, although not to the extent of antibiotic treatment. When used as probiotics, LAB may help decrease the occurrence of gastritis and reduce the risk of H. pylori infection without, inducing side effects. PMID:25277407

Kim, Jin-Eung; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

2014-11-01

167

Comparative genomics of lactic acid bacteria reveals a niche-specific gene set  

PubMed Central

Background The recently sequenced genome of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 [1] revealed a dairy organism with significant homology (75% of genes are homologous) to a probiotic bacteria Lb. acidophilus NCFM [2]. This led us to hypothesise that a group of genes could be determined which could define an organism's niche. Results Taking 11 fully sequenced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as our target, (3 dairy LAB, 5 gut LAB and 3 multi-niche LAB), we demonstrated that the presence or absence of certain genes involved in sugar metabolism, the proteolytic system, and restriction modification enzymes were pivotal in suggesting the niche of a strain. We identified 9 niche specific genes, of which 6 are dairy specific and 3 are gut specific. The dairy specific genes identified in Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 were lhv_1161 and lhv_1171, encoding components of the proteolytic system, lhv_1031 lhv_1152, lhv_1978 and lhv_0028 encoding restriction endonuclease genes, while bile salt hydrolase genes lba_0892 and lba_1078, and the sugar metabolism gene lba_1689 from Lb. acidophilus NCFM were identified as gut specific genes. Conclusion Comparative analysis revealed that if an organism had homologs to the dairy specific geneset, it probably came from a dairy environment, whilst if it had homologs to gut specific genes, it was highly likely to be of intestinal origin. We propose that this "barcode" of 9 genes will be a useful initial guide to researchers in the LAB field to indicate an organism's ability to occupy a specific niche. PMID:19265535

2009-01-01

168

The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB) on biogenic amines (BA) formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream) IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN) and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05). The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM), dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L) and mackerel (100.84 mg/L) IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L) in sardine IDB. PMID:24294229

Küley, Esmeray; Özogul, Fatih; Balikçi, Esra; Durmus, Mustafa; Ayas, Deniz

2013-01-01

169

Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-negative Pathogens, Produced and Delivered by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

We present results of tests with recombinant Lactococcus lactis that produce and secrete heterologous antimicrobial peptides with activity against Gram-negative pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In an initial screening, the activities of numerous candidate antimicrobial peptides, made by solid state synthesis, were assessed against several indicator pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains. Peptides A3APO and Alyteserin were selected as top performers based on high antimicrobial activity against the pathogens tested and on significantly lower antimicrobial activity against L. lactis. Expression cassettes containing the signal peptide of the protein Usp45 fused to the codon optimized sequence of mature A3APO and Alyteserin were cloned under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter nisA and transformed into L. lactis IL1403. The resulting recombinant strains were induced to express and secrete both peptides. A3APO- and Alyteserin-containing supernatants from these recombinant L. lactis inhibited the growth of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella by up to 20-fold, while maintaining the host’s viability. This system may serve as a model for the production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides by lactic acid bacteria to target Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria populations. PMID:23808914

Volzing, Katherine; Borrero, Juan; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

2014-01-01

170

GH1-family 6-P-?-glucosidases from human microbiome lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In lactic acid bacteria and other bacteria, carbohydrate uptake is mostly governed by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs). PTS-dependent translocation through the cell membrane is coupled with phosphorylation of the incoming sugar. After translocation through the bacterial membrane, the ?-glycosidic bond in 6'-P-?-glucoside is cleaved, releasing 6-P-?-glucose and the respective aglycon. This reaction is catalyzed by 6-P-?-glucosidases, which belong to two glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH1 and GH4. Here, the high-resolution crystal structures of GH1 6-P-?-glucosidases from Lactobacillus plantarum (LpPbg1) and Streptococcus mutans (SmBgl) and their complexes with ligands are reported. Both enzymes show hydrolytic activity towards 6'-P-?-glucosides. The LpPbg1 structure has been determined in an apo form as well as in a complex with phosphate and a glucose molecule corresponding to the aglycon molecule. The S. mutans homolog contains a sulfate ion in the phosphate-dedicated subcavity. SmBgl was also crystallized in the presence of the reaction product 6-P-?-glucose. For a mutated variant of the S. mutans enzyme (E375Q), the structure of a 6'-P-salicin complex has also been determined. The presence of natural ligands enabled the definition of the structural elements that are responsible for substrate recognition during catalysis. PMID:23519420

Michalska, Karolina; Tan, Kemin; Li, Hui; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2013-03-01

171

Relevance and application of sortase and sortase-dependent proteins in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria found in a vast array of environments including dairy products and the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In both niches, surface proteins play a crucial role in mediating interactions with the surrounding environment. The sortase enzyme is responsible for covalently coupling a subset of sortase-dependent proteins (SDPs) to the cell wall of Gram-positive organisms through recognition of a conserved C-terminal LPXTG motif. Genomic sequencing of LAB and annotation has allowed for the identification of sortase and SDPs. Historically, sortase and SDPs were predominately investigated for their role in mediating pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins in LAB has shed light on their important roles in mediating nutrient acquisition through proteinase P as well as positive probiotic attributes including adhesion, mucus barrier function, and immune signaling. Furthermore, sortase expression signals in LAB have been exploited as a means to develop oral vaccines targeted to the GIT. In this review, we examine the collection of studies which evaluate sortase and SDPs in select species of dairy-associated and health promoting LAB. PMID:23579319

Call, Emma K.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

2013-01-01

172

Biotechnology and Pasta-Making: Lactic Acid Bacteria as a New Driver of Innovation  

PubMed Central

Cereals-derived foods represent a key constituent in the diet of many populations. In particular, pasta is consumed in large quantities throughout the world in reason of its nutritive importance, containing significant amounts of complex carbohydrates, proteins, B-vitamins, and iron. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages with high relevance for human and animal health. A wide literature testifies the multifaceted importance of LAB biotechnological applications in cereal-based products. Several studies focused on LAB isolation and characterization in durum wheat environment, in some cases with preliminary experimental applications of LAB in pasta-making. In this paper, using sourdough as a model, we focus on the relevant state-of-art to introduce a LAB-based biotechnological step in industrial pasta-making, a potential world driver of innovation that might represent a cutting-edge advancement in pasta production. PMID:22457660

Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

173

Diversity Surveys and Evolutionary Relationships of aoxB Genes in Aerobic Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacteria? †  

PubMed Central

A new primer set was designed to specifically amplify ca. 1,100 bp of aoxB genes encoding the As(III) oxidase catalytic subunit from taxonomically diverse aerobic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria. Comparative analysis of AoxB protein sequences showed variable conservation levels and highlighted the conservation of essential amino acids and structural motifs. AoxB phylogeny of pure strains showed well-discriminated taxonomic groups and was similar to 16S rRNA phylogeny. Alphaproteobacteria-, Betaproteobacteria-, and Gammaproteobacteria-related sequences were retrieved from environmental surveys, demonstrating their prevalence in mesophilic As-contaminated soils. Our study underlines the usefulness of the aoxB gene as a functional marker of aerobic As(III) oxidizers. PMID:18502920

Quéméneur, Marianne; Heinrich-Salmeron, Audrey; Muller, Daniel; Lièvremont, Didier; Jauzein, Michel; Bertin, Philippe N.; Garrido, Francis; Joulian, Catherine

2008-01-01

174

Influence of bovine lactoferrin on the growth of selected probiotic bacteria under aerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural glycoprotein, and it shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, reports on the influences of bLf on probiotic bacteria have been mixed. We examined the effects of apo-bLf (between 0.25 and 128 mg/mL) on both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of probiotics. We found that bLf had similar effects on the growth of probiotics under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and that it actively and significantly (at concentrations of >0.25 mg/mL) retarded the growth rate of Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521), B. longum (ATCC 15707), B. lactis (BCRC 17394), B. infantis (ATCC 15697), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), and L. coryniformis (ATCC 25602) in a dose-dependent manner. Otherwise, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 128 or >128 mg/mL against B. bifidum, B. longum, B. lactis, L. reuteri, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). With regard to MICs, bLf showed at least four-fold lower inhibitory effect on probiotics than on pathogens. Intriguingly, bLf (>0.25 mg/mL) significantly enhanced the growth of Rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) and L. acidophilus (BCRC 14065) by approximately 40-200 %, during their late periods of growth. Supernatants produced from aerobic but not anaerobic cultures of L. acidophilus reduced the growth of Escherichia coli by about 20 %. Thus, bLf displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of most probiotic strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. An antibacterial supernatant prepared from the aerobic cultures may have significant practical use. PMID:24916115

Chen, Po-Wen; Ku, Yu-We; Chu, Fang-Yi

2014-10-01

175

A model to assess lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidase activities in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese during ripening.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate in which phases of ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidases present in cheese extract could be involved in release of free amino acids and to better understand the behavior of these enzymes in physical-chemical conditions that are far from their optimum. In particular, we evaluated 6 different substrates to reproduce broad-specificity aminopeptidase N, broad-specificity aminopeptidase C, glutamyl aminopeptidase A, peptidase with high specificity for leucine and alanine, proline iminopeptidase, and X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activities releasing different N-terminal amino acids. The effects of pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature on the enzyme activities of amino acid beta-naphthylamide (betaNA)-substrates were determined by modulating the variables in 19 different runs of an experimental design, which allowed the building of mathematical models able to assess the effect on aminopeptidases activities over a range of values, obtained with bibliographic data, covering different environmental conditions in different zones of the cheese wheel at different aging times. The aminopeptidases tested in this work were present in cell-free Parmigiano Reggiano cheese extract after a 17-mo ripening and were active when tested in model system. The modeling approach shows that to highlight the individual and interactive effects of chemical-physical variables on enzyme activities, it is helpful to determine the true potential of an amino-peptidase in cheese. Our results evidenced that the 6 different lactic acid bacteria peptidases participate in cheese proteolysis and are induced or inhibited by the cheese production parameters that, in turn, depend on the cheese dimension. Generally, temperature and pH exerted the more relevant effects on the enzymatic activities, and in many cases, a relevant interactive effect of these variables was observed. Increasing salt concentration slowed down broad-specificity amino-peptidase C, glutamyl aminopeptidase A, proline iminopeptidase, and peptidase with high specificity for leucine and alanine. Interestingly, this variable did not affect broad-specificity aminopeptidase N and positively affected X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The models elaborated varying pH, temperatures, and salt concentration and were a useful, low cost, and fast tool to understand the role of the main peptidases in the different phases of cheese ripening in relation to the major environmental factors influencing enzyme activity. PMID:18946116

Gatti, M; De Dea Lindner, J; Gardini, F; Mucchetti, G; Bevacqua, D; Fornasari, M E; Neviani, E

2008-11-01

176

Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to Abiotrophia\\/Granulicatella. RESULTS: As lactobacilli are known for notorious resistance to probe penetration, probe-specific assay protocols were experimentally

Beatrice Quevedo; Elin Giertsen; Vincent Zijnge; Helga Lüthi-Schaller; Bernhard Guggenheim; Thomas Thurnheer; Rudolf Gmür

2011-01-01

177

Phylogenetic Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Paddy Rice Silage as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 161 low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria isolated from whole-crop paddy rice silage were classified and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. Based on morphological and biochemical char- acters, these presumptive lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were divided into 10 groups that included members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Weissella. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA

Saïd Ennahar; Yimin Cai; Yasuhito Fujita

2003-01-01

178

Proteolysis by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Effects on Wheat Flour Protein Fractions and Gliadin Peptides Involved in Human Cereal Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were preliminarily screened for proteolytic activity by using a digest of albumin and globulin polypeptides as a substrate. Based on their hydrolysis profile patterns, Lactobacillus alimentarius 15M, Lactobacillus brevis 14G, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 7A, and Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B were selected and used in sourdough fermentation. A fractionated method of protein extraction and subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis were used

Raffaella Di Cagno; Maria De Angelis; Paola Lavermicocca; Massimo De Vincenzi; Claudio Giovannini; Michele Faccia; Marco Gobbetti

2002-01-01

179

Microbial Quality and Direct PCR Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonpathogenic Staphylococci from Artisanal Low-Acid Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of six species of lactic acid bacteria and six species of gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from low-acid fermented sausages (fuets and chorizos) was assessed by species-specific PCR. Without enrichment, Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus were detected in 11.8% of the samples, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus were detected in 17.6%. Enriched samples allowed the detection of L. sakei and

T. Aymerich; B. Martin; M. Garriga; M. Hugas

2003-01-01

180

Use of a starter culture of lactic acid bacteria in plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish prepared from freshwater fish and various ingredients. In this study, two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from natural plaa-som fermentation were used as starter cultures: Lactobacillus plantarum IFRPD P15 and Lactobacillus reuteri IFRPD P17. These strains were used as a mixed starter culture for plaa-som using an air-drying method (laminar airflow) with

Pramuan Saithong; Wanchai Panthavee; Malai Boonyaratanakornkit; Chomdao Sikkhamondhol

2010-01-01

181

Screening of lactic acid bacteria from Indonesia reveals glucansucrase and fructansucrase genes in two different Weissella confusa strains from soya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homopolysaccharide (glucan and fructan) synthesis from sucrose by sucrase enzymes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been well studied in the genera Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. This study aimed to identify and characterize genes encoding glucansucrase\\/glucosyltransferase (GTF) and fructansucrases\\/fructosyltransferase (FTF) enzymes from genomic DNA of ‘rare’ Indonesian exopolysaccharide-producing LAB. From a total of 63 exopolysaccharide-producing LAB isolates obtained from foods,

Amarila Malik; Maksum Radji; Slavko Kralj; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

2009-01-01

182

Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in different original kefir grains were first assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) by a culture-dependent way, and were further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated that a combined method of cultivation with PCR-DGGE and subsequent DNA sequencing could successfully identify four LAB strains from three kefir grains from Taiwan (named Hsinchu,

Hsi-Chia Chen; Sheng-Yao Wang; Ming-Ju Chen

2008-01-01

183

Identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria isolated from Algerian raw goat's milk and evaluation of their technological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-eight strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Algerian raw goat's milk were identified and technologically characterized. Five genera were found: Lactobacillus (50.63%), Lactococcus (25.94%), Streptococcus (14.56%), Leuconostoc (7.59%) and Pediococcus (1.26%). The predominant species were Lactococcus lactis (32 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (23 strains), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (19 strains), Lb. helveticus (16 strains) and Lb. plantarum (14 strains).Approximately

A. Badis; D. Guetarni; B. Moussa-Boudjemâa; D. E. Henni; M. E. Tornadijo; M. Kihal

2004-01-01

184

Microcultures of lactic acid bacteria: characterization and selection of strains, optimization of nutrients and gallic acid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from coffee pulp silages were characterized according to both growth\\u000a and gallic acid (GA) consumption. Prussian blue method was adapted to 96-well microplates to quantify GA in LAB microcultures.\\u000a Normalized data of growth and GA consumption were used to characterize strains into four phenotypes. A number of 5 LAB strains\\u000a showed more than

Oswaldo Guzmán-López; Octavio Loera; José Luis Parada; Alberto Castillo-Morales; Cándida Martínez-Ramírez; Christopher Augur; Isabelle Gaime-Perraud; Gerardo Saucedo-Castañeda

2009-01-01

185

Exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria strains from traditional thai fermented foods: isolation, identification and exopolysaccharide characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from various traditional Thai fermented foods were screened for exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. From 104 isolates, two rod-shaped and five coccal-shaped LAB were able to produce EPS from sucrose on solid media. However, only the cocci were capable of producing EPS in liquid media and these were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus. Pediococcus pentosaceus strains AP-1 and

T Smitinont; C Tansakul; S Tanasupawat; S Keeratipibul; L Navarini; M Bosco; P Cescutti

1999-01-01

186

Diversity and function of aerobic culturable bacteria in the intestine of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota.  

PubMed

Sea cucumbers play an important role in nutrient cycling of marine ecosystems by consuming sediments and moving sand, thus occupying a similar niche to earthworms in terrestrial ecosystems. However, our understanding of microbial diversity and functions associated with sea cucumbers is meager. Here, we isolated 141 bacterial strains under aerobic conditions using various media from the intestine of Holothuria leucospilota, a common sea cucumber in Japanese warm waters. By partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates, the isolates were tentatively affiliated with 55 described species. Among them, 23 species were common between 2 individuals of H. leucospilota. High diversity was observed in the genera Bacillus and Vibrio, which are often found in marine sediments, marine animals and other various environments. Most isolates showed various polysaccharide degradation activities and were able to grow under or were tolerant of anaerobic condition. We suggest that these aerobically isolated bacteria can play a role in digestion of detritus in aerobic and/or anaerobic regions of the intestine. PMID:23337580

Zhang, Xiaochi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Nogi, Yuichi; Taniyama, Shigeto; Arakawa, Osamu; Inoue, Tetsushi; Kudo, Toshiaki

2012-01-01

187

Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm2 were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS) from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100°C for 10 min) and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0). These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products. PMID:24031232

Oliveira, Roseane B. P.; de L. Oliveira, Afonso; Glória, M. Beatriz A.

2008-01-01

188

Microbiological characterization of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese: analysis of its indigenous lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the bacterial populations involved in the production of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese (Italian Maritime Alps, northwest Italy) in order to collect preliminary knowledge on indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 21 samples of Raschera PDO cheese, collected from six dairy farms located in the production area, were submitted to microbiological analysis. LAB were randomly isolated from M17 agar, MRS agar and KAA plates and identified by combining PCR 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer analysis, species-specific primers and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolates was investigated by RAPD-PCR. LAB microflora showed the highest count values among all microbial groups targeted. They reached counts of 10(9) colony forming unit (cfu)/g in cheese samples after 3 days of salting and 15 days of ripening. Yeast population also showed considerable count values, while enterococci and coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) did not overcome 10(7)cfu/g. L. lactis subsp. lactis was the species most frequently isolated from Raschera PDO samples at all different production stages while in aged cheeses Lactobacillus paracasei was frequently isolated. RAPD-PCR highlighted that isolates of L. lactis subsp. lactis isolated from Raschera PDO were highly homogeneous. PMID:18206782

Dolci, Paola; Alessandria, Valentina; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca

2008-04-01

189

Monitoring psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria contamination in a ready-to-eat vegetable salad production environment.  

PubMed

A study monitoring lactic acid bacteria contamination was conducted in a company producing fresh, minimally processed, packaged and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads (stored at 4°C) in order to investigate the reason for high psychrotrophic LAB levels in the products at the end of shelf-life. Initially, high microbial counts exceeding the established psychrotrophic thresholds (>10(7)-10(8)CFU/g) and spoilage manifestations before the end of the shelf-life (7days) occurred in products containing an assortment of sliced and diced vegetables, but within a one year period these spoilage defects became prevalent in the entire processing plant. Environmental sampling and microbiological analyses of the raw materials and final products throughout the manufacturing process highlighted the presence of high numbers of Leuconostoc spp. in halved and unseeded, fresh sweet bell peppers provided by the supplier. A combination of two DNA fingerprinting techniques facilitated the assessment of the species diversity of LAB present in the processing environment along with the critical point of their introduction in the production facility. Probably through air mediation and surface adhesion, mainly members of the strictly psychrotrophic species Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum subsp. gelidum were responsible for the cross-contamination of every vegetable handled within the plant. PMID:24927398

Pothakos, Vasileios; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Devlieghere, Frank

2014-08-18

190

Structural and rheological characterisation of heteropolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria in wheat and sorghum sourdough.  

PubMed

Hydrocolloids improve the volume, texture, and shelf life of bread. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation can replace hydrocolloids. It was the aim of this study to determine whether heteropolysaccharides (HePS) synthesized intracellularly from sugar nucleotides by glycosyltransferases are produced in wheat and gluten-free sorghum sourdough at effective levels. The HePS-producing strains Lactobacillus casei FUA3185, L. casei FUA3186, and Lactobacillus buchneri FUA3154 were used; Weissella cibaria 10M producing no EPS in the absence of sucrose served as control strain. Cell suspensions of L. buchneri in MRS showed the highest viscosity at low shear rate. Glycosyltransferase genes responsible of HePS formation in LAB were expressed in sorghum and wheat sourdough. However, only HePS produced by L. buchneri influenced the rheological properties of sorghum sourdoughs but not of wheat sourdoughs. Sorghum sourdough fermented with L. buchneri exhibited a low |G*| compared to the control, indicating a decrease in resistance to deformation. An increase in tan ? indicated decreased elasticity. The use of LAB producing HePS expands the diversity of EPS and increases the variety of cultures for use in baking. PMID:21356463

Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke K; Gänzle, Michael G

2011-05-01

191

Lactic acid bacteria fermentation of human milk oligosaccharide components, human milk oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Human milk contains about 7% lactose and 1% human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) consisting of lactose with linked fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid. In infant formula, galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) are added to replace HMOs. This study investigated the ability of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Streptococcus thermophilus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, to digest HMO components, defined HMOs, and GOSs. All strains grew on lactose and glucose. N-acetylglucosamine utilization varied between strains and was maximal in L. plantarum; fucose utilization was low or absent in all strains. Both hetero- and homofermentative LAB utilized N-acetylglucosamine via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum were the most versatile in hydrolysing pNP analogues and the only strains releasing mono- and disaccharides from defined HMOs. Whole cells of all six LAB hydrolysed oNP-galactoside and pNP-galactoside indicating ?-galactosidase activity. High ?-galactosidase activity of L. reuteri, L. fermentum, S. thermophilus and L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris whole cells correlated to lactose and GOS hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of lactose and GOSs by heterologously expressed ?-galactosidases confirmed that LAB ?-galactosidases are involved in GOS digestion. In summary, the strains of LAB used were not capable of utilizing complex HMOs but metabolized HMO components and GOSs. PMID:21175746

Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

2011-02-01

192

Symbionts as major modulators of insect health: lactic acid bacteria and honeybees.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial host-associated members of the microbiota of humans and animals. Yet LAB-associations of invertebrates have been poorly characterized and their functions remain obscure. Here we show that honeybees possess an abundant, diverse and ancient LAB microbiota in their honey crop with beneficial effects for bee health, defending them against microbial threats. Our studies of LAB in all extant honeybee species plus related apid bees reveal one of the largest collections of novel species from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ever discovered within a single insect and suggest a long (>80 mya) history of association. Bee associated microbiotas highlight Lactobacillus kunkeei as the dominant LAB member. Those showing potent antimicrobial properties are acquired by callow honey bee workers from nestmates and maintained within the crop in biofilms, though beekeeping management practices can negatively impact this microbiota. Prophylactic practices that enhance LAB, or supplementary feeding of LAB, may serve in integrated approaches to sustainable pollinator service provision. We anticipate this microbiota will become central to studies on honeybee health, including colony collapse disorder, and act as an exemplar case of insect-microbe symbiosis. PMID:22427985

Vásquez, Alejandra; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Paxton, Robert J; Flaberg, Emilie; Szekely, Laszlo; Olofsson, Tobias C

2012-01-01

193

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk.  

PubMed

Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

2014-11-01

194

Production of 2-butanol through meso-2,3-butanediol consumption in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

2-Butanol has been an issue of industries in many areas, for example, biofuel production (as an advanced alternate fuel), fermented beverages, and food (as taste-altering component). Thus, its source of production, the biological pathway, and the enzymes involved are of high interest. In this study, 42 different isolates of lactic acid bacteria from nine different species were screened for their capability to consume meso-2,3-butanediol and produce 2-butanol. Lactobacillus brevis was the only species that showed any production of 2-butanol. Five of ten tested isolates of L. brevis were able to convert meso-2,3-butanediol to 2-butanol in a synthetic medium (SM2). However, none of them showed the same capability in a complex medium such as MRS indicating that the ability to produce 2-butanol is subject to some kind of repression mechanism. Furthermore, by evaluating the performance of the enzymes required to convert meso-2,3-butanediol to 2-butanol, that is, the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and the diol dehydratase, it was shown that the latter needed the presence of a substrate to be expressed. PMID:25175699

Ghiaci, Payam; Lameiras, Francisca; Norbeck, Joakim; Larsson, Christer

2014-11-01

195

The use of lactic Acid bacteria as a probiotic in Swine diets.  

PubMed

As the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and the possibility of antibiotic residues in animal products attract increasing attention, the interest in the use of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics has been growing. Recent research with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pigs suggests that LAB provide a potential alternative to antibiotic strategies. LAB include Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium spp, Bacillus spp, and some other microbes. LAB can adjust the intestinal environment, inhibit or kill pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract and improve the microbial balance in the intestine, as well as regulate intestinal mucosal immunity and maintain intestinal barrier function, thereby benefiting the health of pigs. The related mechanisms for these effects of LAB may include producing microbicidal substances with effects against gastrointestinal pathogens and other harmful microbes, competing with pathogens for binding sites on the intestinal epithelial cell surface and mucin as well as stimulating the immune system. In this review, the characteristics of LAB and their probiotic effects in newborn piglets, weaned piglets, growing pigs and sows are documented. PMID:25633489

Yang, Fengjuan; Hou, Chengli; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

2015-01-01

196

A survey of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from Serbian artisanal dairy product kajmak.  

PubMed

Kajmak is an artisanal Serbian dairy product made by fermentation of milk fat. Overall, 374 bacterial isolates were collected from six kajmak samples of different ages produced in the households located in distinct regions of Serbia. In order to identify lactic acid bacteria present in chosen samples of kajmak, total 349 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates were analyzed. The recognition of isolates was performed by phenotypic characterization followed by molecular identification using (GTG)(5)-PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Enterococcus faecium were the most frequently isolated species from kajmak samples. In contrast, leuconostocs and enterococci were found in BGMK3 and BGMK1 kajmak respectively, only after using enrichment technique for isolation suggesting they are present in low numbers in these kajmaks. Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis and Lactococcus garvieae were also found in those samples but in lower proportion. Results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. paracasei and Lb. kefiri were the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species in analyzed kajmaks. PMID:18775578

Jokovic, Natasa; Nikolic, Milica; Begovic, Jelena; Jovcic, Branko; Savic, Dragisa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

2008-10-31

197

Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented materials.  

PubMed

We evaluated the potential application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented feeds and foods for use as probiotics against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) in vitro. We also assessed the ability of LAB to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in vivo. Screening of the 208 LAB isolated from fermented feeds and foods revealed that nine strains inhibited the in vitro growth of P. larvae. The LAB strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus sp., Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus sp. These strains were screened for their abilities of immune activation in honeybees by real-time RT-PCR using antimicrobial peptide genes as markers. After oral administration of several of the screened LAB to larvae and adults, the transcription levels of antimicrobial peptide genes, such as abaecin, defensin and hymenoptaecin, were found to increase significantly. These findings suggested that selected LAB stimulate the innate immune response in honeybees, which may be useful for preventing bacterial diseases in honeybees. This is the first report to characterize the probiotic effects of LAB isolated from fermented feeds and foods in honeybees. PMID:23000777

Yoshiyama, Mikio; Wu, Meihua; Sugimura, Yuya; Takaya, Noriko; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Suzuki, Chise

2013-01-01

198

Evidence of Two Functionally Distinct Ornithine Decarboxylation Systems in Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are low-molecular-weight organic bases whose presence in food can result in health problems. The biosynthesis of biogenic amines in fermented foods mostly proceeds through amino acid decarboxylation carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but not all systems leading to biogenic amine production by LAB have been thoroughly characterized. Here, putative ornithine decarboxylation pathways consisting of a putative ornithine decarboxylase and an amino acid transporter were identified in LAB by strain collection screening and database searches. The decarboxylases were produced in heterologous hosts and purified and characterized in vitro, whereas transporters were heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis and functionally characterized in vivo. Amino acid decarboxylation by whole cells of the original hosts was determined as well. We concluded that two distinct types of ornithine decarboxylation systems exist in LAB. One is composed of an ornithine decarboxylase coupled to an ornithine/putrescine transmembrane exchanger. Their combined activities results in the extracellular release of putrescine. This typical amino acid decarboxylation system is present in only a few LAB strains and may contribute to metabolic energy production and/or pH homeostasis. The second system is widespread among LAB. It is composed of a decarboxylase active on ornithine and l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) and a transporter that mediates unidirectional transport of ornithine into the cytoplasm. Diamines that result from this second system are retained within the cytosol. PMID:22247134

Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Lolkema, Juke S.

2012-01-01

199

Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. PMID:23617813

Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

2013-07-01

200

Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria in douchi from Yunnan Province, China*  

PubMed Central

This research was aimed at isolating and identifying the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional Chinese salt-fermented soybean food, douchi, from Yunnan, China. The predominant LAB present were isolated and identified by conventional culture-dependent methods combined with molecular biological methods. Two hundred and sixty isolates were obtained from thirty kinds of traditional fermented douchi from six cities and counties in Yunnan, and those strains were divided into twelve groups by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and analysis, 56 representative strains were identified as belonging to 6 genera and 14 species: Lactobacillus (4 spp.), Weissella (3 spp.), Pediococcus (2 spp.), Staphylococcus (2 spp.), Enterococcus (1 sp.), and Bacillus (2 spp.). The results show that douchi contains a large natural population of LAB of diverse composition from which some strains could be selected as starters for functional fermented foods. This is the first study on the original douchi from Yunnan, and the results suggest that it may be a useful source for the isolation of LAB. This study has also laid a foundation for further research on developing functional douchi products. PMID:22467371

Liu, Chen-jian; Gong, Fu-ming; Li, Xiao-ran; Li, Hai-yan; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Feng, Yue; Nagano, Hiroko

2012-01-01

201

Symbionts as Major Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial host-associated members of the microbiota of humans and animals. Yet LAB-associations of invertebrates have been poorly characterized and their functions remain obscure. Here we show that honeybees possess an abundant, diverse and ancient LAB microbiota in their honey crop with beneficial effects for bee health, defending them against microbial threats. Our studies of LAB in all extant honeybee species plus related apid bees reveal one of the largest collections of novel species from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ever discovered within a single insect and suggest a long (>80 mya) history of association. Bee associated microbiotas highlight Lactobacillus kunkeei as the dominant LAB member. Those showing potent antimicrobial properties are acquired by callow honey bee workers from nestmates and maintained within the crop in biofilms, though beekeeping management practices can negatively impact this microbiota. Prophylactic practices that enhance LAB, or supplementary feeding of LAB, may serve in integrated approaches to sustainable pollinator service provision. We anticipate this microbiota will become central to studies on honeybee health, including colony collapse disorder, and act as an exemplar case of insect-microbe symbiosis. PMID:22427985

Vásquez, Alejandra; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Paxton, Robert J.; Flaberg, Emilie; Szekely, Laszlo

2012-01-01

202

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation of a traditional Chinese fish product, Chouguiyu (stinky mandarinfish).  

PubMed

Chouguiyu, or stinky mandarinfish, is a traditional Chinese fermented fish product made of mandarinfish by spontaneous fermentation at the anaerobic condition with low-salt concentration. In order to get a primary understanding of the microbial community presenting in the Chouguiyu fermentation, 61 cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from various fermentation period were isolated using MRS agar plates and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing analysis. Eight distinct bacterial species belonging to 6 genera were identified in total. Among them, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant species (63%) during the fermentation, which exhibited great variety in phenotypic tests but unique genotypic characters. Meanwhile, the other LAB species including Lactococcus (Lc.) garvieae, Lc. lactis, Lc. raffinolactis, Vagococcus sp., Enterococcus hermanniensis, Macrococcus caseolyticus as well as Streptococcus parauberis were also recovered from the different fermentation periods, especially at the initial point of the fermentation. This seems to be the 1st report investigating the LAB composition involved in Chouguiyu fermentation and the data obtained in this study may be valuable for selecting starter culture for Chouguiyu industrial-scale production. PMID:24245896

Dai, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Wu, Jiajia; Zhao, Qiaoling

2013-11-01

203

Control of spoilage fungi by protective lactic acid bacteria displaying probiotic properties.  

PubMed

Thirty-six lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus were isolated, and the spectrum of antifungal activity was verified against Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 42109), Aspergillus niger (KACC 42589), Fusarium moniliforme (KACC 08141), Penicillium chrysogenum (NII 08137), and the yeast Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). Three isolates, identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (TG2), Lactobacillus casei (DY2), and Lactococcus (BSN) were selected further, and their antifungal compounds were identified by ESI-MS and HPLC analysis as a range of carboxylic acids along with some unidentified, higher molecular weight compounds. An attempt to check out the shelf life extension of wheat bread without fungal spoilage was performed by fermenting the dough with the Lactococcus isolate. Apart from growth in low pH and tolerance to bile salts, probiotic potential of these three isolates was further substantiated by in vitro screening methods that include transit tolerance to the conditions in the upper human gastrointestinal tract and bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines. PMID:24532445

Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Priya, Sulochana; Devendra, Leena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

2014-04-01

204

Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria isolated from some pharmaceutical and dairy products  

PubMed Central

A total of 244 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from 180 dairy and pharmaceutical products that were collected from different areas in Minia governorate, Egypt. LAB were identified phenotypically on basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Lactobacillus isolates were further confirmed using PCR-based assay. By combination of phenotypic with molecular identification Lactobacillus spp. were found to be the dominant genus (138, 76.7%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (65, 36.1%) and Lactococcus spp. (27, 15%). Some contaminant organisms such as (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., mould and yeast) were isolated from the collected dairy samples but pharmaceutical products were free of such contaminants. Susceptibility of LAB isolates to antibiotics representing all major classes was tested by agar dilution method. Generally, LAB were highly susceptible to Beta-lactams except penicillin. Lactobacilli were resistant to vancomycin, however lactococci and streptococci proved to be very susceptible. Most strains were susceptible to tetracycline and showed a wide range of streptomycin MICs. The MICs of erythromycin and clindamycin for most of the LAB were within the normal range of susceptibility. Sixteen Lactobacillus, 8 Lactococcus and 8 Streptococcus isolates including all tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant strains were tested for the presence of tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant genes [tet(M) and/or erm(B)]. PCR assays shows that some resistant strains harbor tet(M) and/or erm(B) resistance genes. PMID:24948910

Gad, Gamal Fadl M.; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Farag, Zeinab Shawky H.

2014-01-01

205

In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a significant threat to public health. Although broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is the primary treatment option for CDI, its use has evident limitations. Probiotics have been proved to be effective in the treatment of CDI and are a promising therapeutic option for CDI. In this study, 4 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR5), Lactococcuslactis (SL3), Bifidobacterium breve (BR3), and Bifidobacterium lactis (BL3) were evaluated for their anti-C. difficile activity. Co-culture incubation of C. difficile (106 and 1010 CFU/ml) with each strain of LAB indicated that SL3 possessed the highest antimicrobial activity over a 24-hr period. The cell-free supernatants of the 4 LAB strains exhibited MIC50 values between 0.424 mg/ml (SL3) and 1.318 (BR3) mg/ml. These results may provide a basis for alternative therapies for the treatment of C. difficile-associated gut disorders. PMID:24278635

Lee, Joong-Su; Chung, Myung-Jun; Seo, Jae-Gu

2013-01-01

206

Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we investigated the catabolic pathways used by these bacteria. In the three lactic acid bacterial species, amino acid catabolism was initiated by a transamination step, which requires the presence of an ?-keto acid such as ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) as the amino group acceptor, and produced ?-keto acids. Only S. thermophilus exhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which produces ?-KG from glutamate, and consequently only S. thermophilus was capable of catabolizing amino acids in the reaction medium without ?-KG addition. In the presence of ?-KG, lactobacilli produced much more varied aroma compounds such as acids, aldehydes, and alcohols than S. thermophilus, which mainly produced ?-keto acids and a small amount of hydroxy acids and acids. L. helveticus mainly produced acids from phenylalanine and leucine, while L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis produced larger amounts of alcohols and/or aldehydes. Formation of aldehydes, alcohols, and acids from ?-keto acids by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis mainly results from the action of an ?-keto acid decarboxylase, which produces aldehydes that are then oxidized or reduced to acids or alcohols. In contrast, the enzyme involved in the ?-keto acid conversion to acids in L. helveticus and S. thermophilus is an ?-keto acid dehydrogenase that produces acyl coenzymes A. PMID:15240255

Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

2004-01-01

207

Gassericin A: a circular bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus gasseri.  

PubMed

During the recent years extensive efforts have been made to find out bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) active against various food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, and superior stabilities against heat treatments and pH variations. Bacteriocins isolated from LAB have been grouped into four classes. Circular bacteriocins which were earlier grouped among the four groups of bacteriocins, have recently been proposed to be classified into a different class, making it class V bacteriocins. Circular bacteriocins are special molecules, whose precursors must be post translationally modified to join the N to C termini with a head-to-tail peptide bond. Cyclization appears to make them less susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, high temperature and pH, and, therefore, provides enhanced stability as compared to linear bacteriocins. The advantages of circularization are also reflected by the fact that a significant number of macrocyclic natural products have found pharmaceutical applications. Circular bacteriocins were unknown two decades ago, and even to date, only a few circular bacteriocins from a diverse group of Gram positive organisms have been reported. The first example of a circular bacteriocin was enterocin AS-48, produced by Enterococcus faecalis AS-48. Gassereccin A, produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, Reutericin 6 produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Circularin A, produced by Clostridium beijerinickii ATCC 25,752, are further examples of this group of antimicrobial peptides. In the present scenario, Gassericin A can be an important tool in the food preservation owing to its properties of high pH and temperature tolerance and the fact that it is produced by LAB L. gasseri, whose many strains are proven probiotic. PMID:23712477

Pandey, Neha; Malik, R K; Kaushik, J K; Singroha, Garima

2013-11-01

208

Disinfectant and antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the food industry.  

PubMed

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as disinfectant in medical and food environments. There is a growing concern about the increasing incidence of disinfectant-resistant microorganisms from food. Disinfectant-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may survive disinfection and cause spoilage problems. Moreover, resistant LAB may potentially act as a reservoir for resistance genes. A total number of 320 LAB from food industry and meat were screened for resistance to the QAC benzalkonium chloride (BC). Out of 320 strains, five strains (1.5%) were considered to be resistant and 56 (17.5%) were tolerant to BC. The resistant strains were isolated from food processing equipment after disinfection. The resistant, tolerant, and some sensitive control bacteria were examined for susceptibility to 18 different antibiotics, disinfectants, and dyes using disc agar diffusion test and microdilution method. Little systematic cross-resistance between BC and any of the antimicrobial agents tested were detected except for gentamycin and chlorhexidine. A BC-tolerant strain was much easier to adapt to higher levels of BC as compared to a BC-sensitive strain. No known gram-positive QAC resistance genes (qacA/B, qacC, qacG, and qacH) were detected in the BC-resistant strains. Identification to species level of the BC-resistant isolates was carried out by comparative analysis of 16S-rDNA sequencing. In conclusion, resistance to BC is not frequent in LAB isolated from food and food environments. Resistance may occur after exposure to BC. The BC resistant isolates showed no cross-resistance with other antimicrobial compounds, except for gentamycin and chlorhexidine. Nevertheless, BC-resistant LAB may be isolated after disinfection and may contribute to the dissemination of resistance. PMID:11310806

Sidhu, M S; Langsrud, S; Holck, A

2001-01-01

209

In Vitro Study of Potentially Probiotic lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated From Traditional Dairy Products  

PubMed Central

Background: Probiotic microorganisms are selected based on their long history of use as well as their lack of side effects. Nowadays, the consumption of probiotic products is growing intensively in developing countries. Researchers who work in the food industry and research centers pay more attention to the identification of new probiotic bacteria with better performance characteristics as well as investigation of their performance because these findings can be very effective in promoting sale and consumption of these products. Objectives: Hence, this study was performed following these objectives: isolating indigenous lactic acid bacteria from traditional dairy products in Markazi Province, screening strains with probiotic characteristics, identifying strains and performing microbial collection of probiotic strains with indigenous potential. Materials and Methods: In this study, the samples were screened from traditional dairy products, such as fresh yogurt, curd, Tarhana and Ghareghoroot of Markazi Province villages. Samples were enriched in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth, and different strains were isolated and purified from this culture on MRS agar medium. Isolated strains were investigated by microscopic observations, considering the following factors: catalase capability, resistance to acid and bile, bile salt hydrolysis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Results: Nineteen Gram-positive and catalase-negative strains belonging to the Lactobacillus genus were isolated from the above-mentioned diary samples. Seven strains were resistant to acid and bile in which acid resistance was between 21.08% and 122.33% and bile resistance was between 94.08% and 152.93%, respectively. All isolated strains were susceptible to different antibiotics and a small percentage had the ability to hydrolyze Sodium Taurocholate. Conclusions: There are many of different species of Lactobacillus probiotics in traditional dairy products of the Markazi province, based on the findings of this study. It is recommended for researchers to isolate these strains and investigate their probiotic characteristics in order to reproduce them for use in food production as well as for medical treatment. PMID:25371793

Niazi Amraii, Hooshang; Abtahi, Hamid; Jafari, Parvaneh; Mohajerani, Hamid Reza; Fakhroleslam, Mohammad Reza; Akbari, Neda

2014-01-01

210

Structure-Function Relationships of Glucansucrase and Fructansucrase Enzymes from Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) employ sucrase-type enzymes to convert sucrose into homopolysaccharides consisting of either glucosyl units (glucans) or fructosyl units (fructans). The enzymes involved are labeled glucansucrases (GS) and fructansucrases (FS), respectively. The available molecular, biochemical, and structural information on sucrase genes and enzymes from various LAB and their fructan and ?-glucan products is reviewed. The GS?and FS enzymes are both glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the same substrate (sucrose) and catalyze (retaining) transglycosylation reactions that result in polysaccharide formation, but they possess completely different protein structures. GS enzymes (family GH70) are large multidomain proteins that occur exclusively in LAB. Their catalytic domain displays clear secondary-structure similarity with ?-amylase enzymes (family GH13), with a predicted permuted (?/?)8 barrel structure for which detailed structural and mechanistic information is available. Emphasis now is on identification of residues and regions important for GS enzyme activity and product specificity (synthesis of ?-glucans differing in glycosidic linkage type, degree and type of branching, glucan molecular mass, and solubility). FS enzymes (family GH68) occur in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and synthesize ?-fructan polymers with either ?-(2?6) (inulin) or ?-(2?1) (levan) glycosidic bonds. Recently, the first high-resolution three-dimensional structures have become available for FS (levansucrase) proteins, revealing a rare five-bladed ?-propeller structure with a deep, negatively charged central pocket. Although these structures have provided detailed mechanistic insights, the structural features in FS enzymes dictating the synthesis of either ?-(2?6) or ?-(2?1) linkages, degree and type of branching, and fructan molecular mass remain to be identified. PMID:16524921

van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Kralj, Slavko; Ozimek, Lukasz K.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; van Geel-Schutten, Ineke G. H.

2006-01-01

211

Structure-function relationships of glucansucrase and fructansucrase enzymes from lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) employ sucrase-type enzymes to convert sucrose into homopolysaccharides consisting of either glucosyl units (glucans) or fructosyl units (fructans). The enzymes involved are labeled glucansucrases (GS) and fructansucrases (FS), respectively. The available molecular, biochemical, and structural information on sucrase genes and enzymes from various LAB and their fructan and alpha-glucan products is reviewed. The GS and FS enzymes are both glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the same substrate (sucrose) and catalyze (retaining) transglycosylation reactions that result in polysaccharide formation, but they possess completely different protein structures. GS enzymes (family GH70) are large multidomain proteins that occur exclusively in LAB. Their catalytic domain displays clear secondary-structure similarity with alpha-amylase enzymes (family GH13), with a predicted permuted (beta/alpha)(8) barrel structure for which detailed structural and mechanistic information is available. Emphasis now is on identification of residues and regions important for GS enzyme activity and product specificity (synthesis of alpha-glucans differing in glycosidic linkage type, degree and type of branching, glucan molecular mass, and solubility). FS enzymes (family GH68) occur in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and synthesize beta-fructan polymers with either beta-(2-->6) (inulin) or beta-(2-->1) (levan) glycosidic bonds. Recently, the first high-resolution three-dimensional structures have become available for FS (levansucrase) proteins, revealing a rare five-bladed beta-propeller structure with a deep, negatively charged central pocket. Although these structures have provided detailed mechanistic insights, the structural features in FS enzymes dictating the synthesis of either beta-(2-->6) or beta-(2-->1) linkages, degree and type of branching, and fructan molecular mass remain to be identified. PMID:16524921

van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Kralj, Slavko; Ozimek, Lukasz K; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; van Geel-Schutten, Ineke G H

2006-03-01

212

Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing

Sai-Cheong Lee; Shie-Shian Huang; Chao-Wei Lee; Ning Lee; Wen-Bin Shieh; LK Siu

2007-01-01

213

Diverse Arrangement of Photosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC). In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. Conclusions/Significance Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria. PMID:21949847

Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Koblížek, Michal; Boldareva, Ekaterina N.; Yurkov, Vladimir; Yan, Shi; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-01-01

214

Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG)5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5) and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64?mg/L whereas some W. confusa and Lb. plantarum strains had a MIC value of 16?mg/L and 32?mg/L respectively. No ?-haemolytic activity was observed, however, ?-haemolytic activity was observed in 27% (9) of the strains comprising Lb. salivarius (6), W. confusa (2) and Lb. delbrueckii (1) isolates. Conclusions The resistance to kanamycin and vancomycin is probably an intrinsic feature since similar observations were reported in the literature for LAB. Low prevalence of pathogenicity indicator traits were observed among the isolates especially with the presence of poor haemolytic activities and they could therefore be considered as interesting candidates for selection of starter cultures or probiotics for different applications. PMID:22594449

2012-01-01

215

Suppression of growth of putrefactive and food poisoning bacteria by lactic acid fermentation of kitchen waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to produce lactic acid, from kitchen waste, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to store waste for some days in the system of kitchen waste collection and transportation through disposers and pipes. The changes of counts of viable cells in kitchen waste during storage were observed. In spite of seasonal variations, lactic

Q Wang; K Yamabe; J Narita; M Morishita; Y Ohsumi; K Kusano; Y Shirai; H. I Ogawa

2001-01-01

216

Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient  

PubMed Central

Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg?1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682. PMID:9925588

Leisner, Jørgen J.; Pot, Bruno; Christensen, Henrik; Rusul, Gulam; Olsen, John E.; Wee, Bee Wah; Muhamad, Kharidah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.

1999-01-01

217

Synthesis of ?-Aminobutyric Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Variety of Italian Cheeses?  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 22 Italian cheese varieties that differ in several technological traits markedly varied from 0.26 to 391 mg kg?1. Presumptive lactic acid bacteria were isolated from each cheese variety (total of 440 isolates) and screened for the capacity to synthesize GABA. Only 61 isolates showed this activity and were identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twelve species were found. Lactobacillus paracasei PF6, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus PR1, Lactococcus lactis PU1, Lactobacillus plantarum C48, and Lactobacillus brevis PM17 were the best GABA-producing strains during fermentation of reconstituted skimmed milk. Except for L. plantarum C48, all these strains were isolated from cheeses with the highest concentrations of GABA. A core fragment of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) DNA was isolated from L. paracasei PF6, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus PR1, L. lactis PU1, and L. plantarum C48 by using primers based on two highly conserved regions of GAD. A PCR product of ca. 540 bp was found for all the strains. The amino acid sequences deduced from nucleotide sequence analysis showed 98, 99, 90, and 85% identity to GadB of L. plantarum WCFS1 for L. paracasei PF6, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus PR1, L. lactis PU1, and L. plantarum C48, respectively. Except for L. lactis PU1, the three lactobacillus strains survived and synthesized GABA under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The findings of this study provide a potential basis for exploiting selected cheese-related lactobacilli to develop health-promoting dairy products enriched in GABA. PMID:17890341

Siragusa, S.; De Angelis, M.; Di Cagno, R.; Rizzello, C. G.; Coda, R.; Gobbetti, M.

2007-01-01

218

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from Hussuwa, a traditional African fermented sorghum food.  

PubMed

The diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with Hussuwa fermentation, a Sudanese fermented sorghum food, was studied using a polyphasic taxonomical approach. Predominant strains could be well characterised based on a combination of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods such as ARDRA, rep-PCR and RAPD-PCR, as well as 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representative strains. Thus, the majority (128 of 220, 58.3%) of strains exhibited phenotypic properties typical of heterofermentative lactobacilli and of these, 100 strains were characterised more closely using the genotyping methods. The majority (97/100) strains could be characterised as Lactobacillus fermentum strains. Seventy-two of 220 strains (32.7%) showed phenotypic properties that are characteristic of pediococci. Of 41 selected strains investigated by genotyping techniques, 38 (92.7%) could be characterised as Pediococcus acidilactici strains, while three (7.3%) could be characterised as Pediococcus pentosaceus strains. The Hussuwa fermentation thus appears to be dominated by L. fermentum strains and P. acidilactici strains. For this reason, we selected representative and predominant strains as potential starter cultures for Hussuwa fermentation. These strains, L. fermentum strains BFE 2442 and BFE 2282 and P. acidilactici strain BFE 2300, were shown on the basis of RAPD-PCR fingerprinting to predominate in a model fermentation when used as starter cultures inoculated at 1 x 10(6) CFU/g and to lower the pH of the fermentation to below pH 4.0 within 48 h. These cultures should be studied for further development as starter preparations in pilot scale studies in actual field fermentations. PMID:20630317

Yousif, Nuha M K; Huch, Melanie; Schuster, Tobias; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Dirar, Hamid A; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

2010-09-01

219

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

PubMed Central

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik

2013-01-01

220

Diversity of lactic Acid bacteria isolated from brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

The water buffalo mozzarella cheese is a typical Italian cheese which has been introduced in the thriving Brazilian market in the last 10 y, with good acceptance by its consumers. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the technological and sensory quality of mozzarella cheese. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the diversity of the autochthones viable LAB isolated from water buffalo mozzarella cheese under storage. Samples were collected in 3 independent trials in a dairy industry located in the southeast region of Brazil, on the 28th day of storage, at 4 ºC. The LAB were characterized by Gram staining, catalase test, capacity to assimilate citrate, and production of CO2 from glucose. The diversity of LAB was evaluated by RAPD-PCR (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and by Vitek 2 system. Twenty LAB strains were isolated and clustered into 12 different clusters, and identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus helveticus. Enterococcus species were dominant and citrate-positive. Only the strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. fermentum produced CO2 from glucose and were citrate-positive, while L. casei was only citrate positive. This is the first report which elucidates the LAB diversity involved in Brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese. Furthermore, the results show that despite the absence of natural whey cultures as starters in production, the LAB species identified are the ones typically found in mozzarella cheese. PMID:25597646

Silva, Luana Faria; Casella, Tiago; Gomes, Elisangela Soares; Nogueira, Mara Correa Lelles; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Penna, Ana Lúcia Barretto

2015-02-01

221

Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination. PMID:23296912

Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

2013-05-01

222

Diversity in growth and protein degradation by dairy relevant lactic acid bacteria species in reconstituted whey.  

PubMed

The high nutritional value of whey makes it an interesting substrate for the development of fermented foods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth and proteolytic activity of sixty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria in whey to further formulate a starter culture for the development of fermented whey-based beverages. Fermentations were performed at 37 °C for 24 h in 10 and 16% (w/v) reconstituted whey powder. Cultivable populations, pH, and proteolytic activity (o-phthaldialdehyde test) were determined at 6 and 24 h incubation. Hydrolysis of whey proteins was analysed by Tricine SDS-PAGE. A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to evaluate the behaviour of strains. Forty-six percent of the strains grew between 1 and 2 ?log CFU/ml while 19% grew less than 0·9 ?log CFU/ml in both reconstituted whey solutions. Regarding the proteolytic activity, most of the lactobacilli released amino acids and small peptides during the first 6 h incubation while streptococci consumed the amino acids initially present in whey to sustain growth. Whey proteins were degraded by the studied strains although to different extents. Special attention was paid to the main allergenic whey protein, ?-lactoglobulin, which was degraded the most by Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656. The strain variability observed and the PCA applied in this study allowed selecting appropriate strains able to improve the nutritional characteristics (through amino group release and protein degradation) and storage (decrease in pH) of whey. PMID:22559062

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Bru, Elena; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda

2012-05-01

223

Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows  

PubMed Central

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as antioxidant nutraceutical vectors. PMID:22919677

Pessione, Enrica

2012-01-01

224

Characterisation of aerobically grown non-spore-forming bacteria from paper mill pulps containing recycled fibres.  

PubMed

A total of 179 non-spore-forming bacteria aerobically growing on Nutrient Agar, Plate Count Agar or in specific enrichment conditions for salmonella, campylobacteria, listeria, yersinia or staphylococci, were isolated from 16 untreated paper mill pulps. After phenotypical screening the isolates were characterised by automated ribotyping and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. They could be divided into seven taxonomical classes representing 63 taxa (species): actinobacteria (11 species), bacilli (7), flavobacteria (3) alphaproteobacteria (10), betaproteobacteria (5), gammaproteobacteria (25) and sphingobacteria (2). Most of the gammaproteobacteria were enterobacteria, mainly species of the genera Enterobacter (7 species, 7 samples/3 mills) and Klebsiella (5 species, 6 samples/3 mills). Other commonly occurring bacteria were most closely related to Microbacterium barkeri (7 samples/3 mills), Cloacibacterium normanense (6 samples/2 mills), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis (5 samples/2 mills) and Sphingobacterium composti (5 samples/1 mill). Sporadic isolates of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus warneri were detected, from which only L. monocytogenes is considered to be a food pathogen. No isolates of the genera Campylobacter, Salmonella or Yersinia were detected. The detected bacteria may be harmful in process control, but the load of food pathogens with recycled fibres to paper machines is insignificant. Faecal contamination of the pulp samples was not indicated. PMID:18820960

Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Skyttä, Eija

2009-01-01

225

Aerobic and anaerobic de-epoxydation of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol by bacteria originating from agricultural soil.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty soil samples collected from different crop fields in southern Ontario, Canada were screened to obtain microorganisms capable of transforming deoxynivalenol (DON) to de-epoxy DON (dE-DON). Microbial DON to dE-DON transformation (i.e. de-epoxydation) was monitored by using liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-mass spectrometry (LC-UV-MS). The effects of growth substrates, temperature, pH, incubation time and aerobic versus anaerobic conditions on the ability of the microbes to de-epoxydize DON were evaluated. A mixed microbial culture from one composite soil sample showed 100% DON to dE-DON biotransformation in mineral salts broth (MSB) after 144 h of incubation. Treatments of the culture with selective antibiotics followed an elevated temperature (50°C) for 1.5 h considerably reduced the microbial diversity. Partial 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of the bacteria in the enriched culture indicated the presence of at least six bacterial genera, namely Serratia, Clostridium, Citrobacter, Enterococcus, Stenotrophomonas and Streptomyces. The enriched culture completely de-epoxydized DON after 60 h of incubation. Bacterial de-epoxydation of DON occurred at pH 6.0-7.5, and a wide array of temperatures (12-40°C). The culture showed rapid de-epoxydation activity under aerobic conditions compared to anaerobic conditions. This is the first report on microbial DON to dE-DON transformation under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. The culture could be used to detoxify DON contaminated feed and might be a potential source for gene(s) for DON de-epoxydation. PMID:22806774

Islam, Rafiqul; Zhou, Ting; Young, J Christopher; Goodwin, Paul H; Pauls, K Peter

2012-01-01

226

Dynamic and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria communities during sludge granulation in an anaerobic–aerobic sequencing batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure dynamic of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community and the distribution of AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in granular sludge from an anaerobic–aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were investigated. A combination of process studies, molecular biotechniques and microscale techniques were employed to identify and characterize these organisms. The AOB community structure in granules was substantially different from that of the

Zhang Bin; Chen Zhe; Qiu Zhigang; Jin Min; Chen Zhiqiang; Chen Zhaoli; Li Junwen; Wang Xuan; Wang Jingfeng

2011-01-01

227

Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

2014-11-22

228

Phytic acid degrading lactic acid bacteria in tef-injera fermentation.  

PubMed

Ethiopian injera, a soft pancake, baked from fermented batter, is preferentially prepared from tef (Eragrostis tef) flour. The phytic acid (PA) content of tef is high and is only partly degraded during the fermentation step. PA chelates with iron and zinc in the human digestive tract and strongly inhibits their absorption. With the aim to formulate a starter culture that would substantially degrade PA during injera preparation, we assessed the potential of microorganisms isolated from Ethiopian household-tef fermentations to degrade PA. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were found to be among the dominating microorganisms. Seventy-six isolates from thirteen different tef fermentations were analyzed for phytase activity and thirteen different isolates of seven different species were detected to be positive in a phytase screening assay. In 20-mL model tef fermentations, out of these thirteen isolates, the use of Lactobacillus (L.) buchneri strain MF58 and Pediococcus pentosaceus strain MF35 resulted in lowest PA contents in the fermented tef of 41% and 42%, respectively of its initial content. In comparison 59% of PA remained when spontaneously fermented. Full scale tef fermentation (0.6L) and injera production using L. buchneri MF58 as culture additive decreased PA in cooked injera from 1.05 to 0.34±0.02 g/100 g, representing a degradation of 68% compared to 42% in injera from non-inoculated traditional fermentation. The visual appearance of the pancakes was similar. The final molar ratios of PA to iron of 4 and to zinc of 12 achieved with L. buchneri MF58 were decreased by ca. 50% compared to the traditional fermentation. In conclusion, selected LAB strains in tef fermentations can degrade PA, with L. buchneri MF58 displaying the highest PA degrading potential. The 68% PA degradation achieved by the application of L. buchneri MF58 would be expected to improve human zinc absorption from tef-injera, but further PA degradation is probably necessary if iron absorption has to be increased. PMID:25180667

Fischer, Maren M; Egli, Ines M; Aeberli, Isabelle; Hurrell, Richard F; Meile, Leo

2014-11-01

229

Potential of wine-associated lactic acid bacteria to degrade biogenic amines.  

PubMed

Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented foods have been proven to degrade biogenic amines through the production of amine oxidase enzymes. Since little is known about this in relation to wine micro-organisms, this work examined the ability of LAB strains (n=85) isolated from wines and other related enological sources, as well as commercial malolactic starter cultures (n=3) and type strains (n=2), to degrade histamine, tyramine and putrescine. The biogenic amine-degrading ability of the strains was evaluated by RP-HPLC in culture media and wine malolactic fermentation laboratory experiments. Although at different extent, 25% of the LAB isolates were able to degrade histamine, 18% tyramine and 18% putrescine, whereas none of the commercial malolactic starter cultures or type strains were able to degrade any of the tested amines. The greatest biogenic amine-degrading ability was exhibited by 9 strains belonging to the Lactobacillus and Pediococcus groups, and most of them were able to simultaneously degrade at least two of the three studied biogenic amines. Further experiments with one of the strains that showed high biogenic amine-degrading ability (L. casei IFI-CA 52) revealed that cell-free extracts maintained this ability in comparison to the cell suspensions at pH 4.6, indicating that amine-degrading enzymes were effectively extracted from the cells and their action was optimal in the degradation of biogenic amines. In addition, it was confirmed that wine components such as ethanol (12%) and polyphenols (75 mg/L), and wine additives such as SO(2) (30 mg/L), reduced the histamine-degrading ability of L. casei IFI-CA 52 at pH 4.6 by 80%, 85% and 11%, respectively, in cell suspensions, whereas the reduction was 91%, 67% and 50%, respectively, in cell-free extracts. In spite of this adverse influence of the wine matrix, our results proved the potential of wine-associated LAB as a promising strategy to reduce biogenic amines in wine. PMID:21641669

García-Ruiz, Almudena; González-Rompinelli, Eva M; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

2011-08-01

230

Analyses of Spatial Distributions of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activity in Aerobic Wastewater Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O2, H2S, NO2?, NO3?, NH4+, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 109 to 1010 cells per cm3 of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 ?m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S0) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 ?m), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate. PMID:10543829

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-01-01

231

In Situ Production of Exopolysaccharides during Sourdough Fermentation by Cereal and Intestinal Isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

EPS formed by lactobacilli in situ during sourdough fermentation may replace hydrocolloids currently used as texturizing, antistaling, or prebiotic additives in bread production. In this study, a screening of >100 strains of cereal-associated and intestinal lactic acid bacteria was performed for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose. Fifteen strains produced fructan, and four strains produced glucan. It was remarkable that formation of glucan and fructan was most frequently found in intestinal isolates and strains of the species Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus pontis, and Lactobacillus frumenti from type II sourdoughs. By the use of PCR primers derived from conserved amino acid sequences of bacterial levansucrase genes, it was shown that 6 of the 15 fructan-producing lactobacilli and none of 20 glucan producers or EPS-negative strains carried a levansucrase gene. In sourdough fermentations, it was determined whether those strains producing EPS in MRS medium modified as described by Stolz et al. (37) and containing 100 g of sucrose liter?1 as the sole source of carbon also produce the same EPS from sucrose during sourdough fermentation in the presence of 12% sucrose. For all six EPS-producing strains evaluated in sourdough fermentations, in situ production of EPS at levels ranging from 0.5 to 2 g/kg of flour was demonstrated. Production of EPS from sucrose is a metabolic activity that is widespread among sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the use of these organisms in bread production may allow the replacement of additives. PMID:12571016

Tieking, Markus; Korakli, Maher; Ehrmann, Matthias A.; Gänzle, Michael G.; Vogel, Rudi F.

2003-01-01

232

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

233

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

PubMed Central

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

234

Isolation of optically targeted single bacteria by application of fluidic force microscopy to aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs from the phyllosphere.  

PubMed

In their natural environment, bacteria often behave differently than they do under laboratory conditions. To gain insight into the physiology of bacteria in situ, dedicated approaches are required to monitor their adaptations and specific behaviors under environmental conditions. Optical microscopy is crucial for the observation of fundamental characteristics of bacteria, such as cell shape, size, and marker gene expression. Here, fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) was exploited to isolate optically selected bacteria for subsequent identification and characterization. In this study, bacteriochlorophyll-producing bacteria, which can be visualized due to their characteristic fluorescence in the infrared range, were isolated from leaf washes. Bacterial communities from the phyllosphere were investigated because they harbor genes indicative of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Our data show that different species of Methylobacterium express their photosystem in planta, and they show a distinct pattern of bacteriochlorophyll production under laboratory conditions that is dependent on supplied carbon sources. PMID:23770907

Stiefel, Philipp; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A

2013-08-01

235

Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and “Acetobacter ghanaensis” (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-01-01

236

Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and food production for human thus rely on local Martian resources. A tree growing subsystem will also give an interesting feature to Martian agriculture. In addition to producing excess oxygen, trees’ rigid body will provide structural material, which can be used for habitat construction. The combination of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting, plant cultivation, and tree growing with utilizing in-situ natural local resources available on Mars can provide important elements which can enable space agriculture on Mars.

Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

237

Numerical taxonomy of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria from prepacked meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four strains of lactic acid bateria isolated from refrigerated, prepacked meat and meat products were together with 59 reference strains of Brochothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus phenotypically classfied, using 96 unit characters. Data were examined using Simple Matching (SSM) or Jaccard coefficient (SJ), and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages. Twenty-three clusters with two or more members were

Elisabeth Borch; Göran Molin

1988-01-01

238

Production of Wax Esters during Aerobic Growth of Marine Bacteria on Isoprenoid Compounds  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the production of isoprenoid wax esters during the aerobic degradation of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and phytol by four bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain PHY9, Pseudomonas nautica [IP85/617], Marinobacter sp. strain CAB [DSMZ 11874], and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus [ATCC 49840]) isolated from the marine environment. Different pathways are proposed to explain the formation of these compounds. In the case of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, these esters result from the condensation of some acidic and alcoholic metabolites produced during the biodegradation, while phytol constitutes the alcohol moiety of most of the esters produced during growth on this isoprenoid alcohol. The amount of these esters formed increased considerably in N-limited cultures, in which the ammonium concentration corresponds to conditions often found in marine sediments. This suggests that the bacterial formation of isoprenoid wax esters might be favored in such environments. Although conflicting evidence exists regarding the stability of these esters in sediments, it seems likely that, under some conditions, bacterial esterification can enhance the preservation potential of labile compounds such as phytol. PMID:9872783

Rontani, Jean-Francois; Bonin, Patricia C.; Volkman, John K.

1999-01-01

239

In Vitro Activities of Membrane-Active Peptides against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four peptides, cecropin P1, magainin II, indolicidin, and ranalexin, were evaluated against 202 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria by a microbroth dilution method. The gram- negative isolates were more susceptible to cecropin P1. Ranalexin was the most active compound against the gram-positive strains. The bactericidal activity of each peptide was equivalent to, or 1 dilution above, the

A. GIACOMETTI; O. CIRIONI; G. GREGANTI; M. QUARTA; G. SCALISE

1998-01-01

240

Immobilized growing lactic acid bacteria with ? -carrageenan — locust bean gum gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A cell entrapment process using ?-carrageenan — locust bean gum gel is presented. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and S. lactis were immobilized in small gel beads (0.5–1.0 mm and 1.0–2.0 mm diameter) and fermentations in bench bioreactors were conducted. Viability of entrapped cells, lactose utilization, lactic acid production and cell release rates were measured during fermentation. The procedure was

Pascal Audet; Céline Paquin; Christophe Lacroix

1988-01-01

241

Evaluation of the effect of malt, wheat and barley extracts on the viability of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria under acidic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of cereal extracts, used as delivery vehicles for potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), on the acid tolerance of the cells was evaluated under conditions that simulate the gastric tract. More specifically, the effect of malt, barley and wheat extracts on the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri during exposure for 4

D Charalampopoulos; S. S Pandiella; C Webb

2003-01-01

242

Characterization of starch-hydrolyzing lactic acid bacteria isolated from a fermented fish and rice food, “burong isda”, and its amylolytic enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine strains of lactic acid bacteria that hydrolyze starch were isolated from burong isda, an indigenous fermented food made from fish and rice in the Philippines. Conventional taxonomic and DNA-DNA reassociation studies indicated that all these isolates belong to Lactobacillus plantarum. Each of these isolates harbored more than ten plasmid species with molecular sizes of 2 to 60 kb. The

Minerva Olympia; Hajime Fukuda; Hisayo Ono; Yoshinobu Kaneko; Mitsuo Takano

1995-01-01

243

Effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL) was assayed for antifungal activities against Rosellinia necatrix, Helicobasidium mompa, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium graminicola and Pyricularia oryzae. FHL completely inhibited the growth of R. necatrix, H. mompa, P. graminicola and P. oryzae, and reduced the growth of F. oxysporum by 35%. When the seeds of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), Asparagus

Shinsuke Kuwaki; Iichiro Ohhira; Masumi Takahata; Atsuko Hirota; Yoshiyuki Murata; Mikiro Tada

2004-01-01

244

Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fry given diets supplemented with fish protein hydrolysate and lactic acid bacteria during a challenge trial with Aeromonas salmonicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon fry were reared ad libitum on a commercial fish feed supplemented with 10% cod muscle protein (A), 10% hydrolyzed cod muscle protein (B) or 10% of a hydrolysate based culture of lactic acid bacteria isolated from salmon intestines. The fry grew well, and equally so, on each of the three diets (specific growth rate, 2.5% day?1). Very low

Asbjørn Gildberg; Audny Johansen; Jarl Bøgwald

1995-01-01

245

Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen and feces of dairy cows fed total mixed ration silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.  

PubMed

The survival of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the gut of dairy cows was evaluated by examining the LAB communities of silage and gut contents. Samples were collected at 2 different research institutes (Mie and Okayama) that offered total mixed ration (TMR) silage throughout the year. Silage and feces were sampled in August, October, and November at the Mie institute, whereas silage, rumen fluid, and feces were sampled in June and August at the Okayama institute. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Lactobacillus-specific primers was performed to detect LAB species in the samples. The selected bands were purified for species identification and the band patterns were used for principal component analysis. Lactic acid was the predominant fermentation product in all the TMR silages analyzed, and the lactic acid level tended to be constant regardless of the sampling time and region. A total of 14 LAB species were detected in the TMR silage samples, of which 5 (Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus suebicus, and Lactobacillus plantarum) were detected in the dairy cow feces. Most of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for the feces samples were also detected in the rumen fluid, suggesting that any elimination of silage LAB occurred in the rumen and not in the postruminal gut segments. The principal component analysis indicated that the LAB communities in the silage, rumen fluid, and feces were separately grouped; hence, the survival of silage LAB in the cow rumen and lower gut was deemed difficult. It was concluded that, although the gut LAB community is robust and not easily affected by the silage conditions, several LAB species can inhabit both silage and feces, which suggests the potential of using silage as a vehicle for conveying probiotics. PMID:24996273

Han, H; Ogata, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Nagao, S; Nishino, N

2014-09-01

246

Characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria associated with industrial dairy processing environments and product spoilage.  

PubMed

Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production. Minimally processed foods and products with extended shelf life, such as milk products, are at special risk for contamination and subsequent product damages, but information about origin and food quality related properties of highly heat-resistant spore-formers is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity, heat resistance, and food quality and safety affecting characteristics of aerobic spore-formers in the dairy sector. Thus, a comprehensive panel of strains (n=467), which originated from dairy processing environments, raw materials and processed foods, was compiled. The set included isolates associated with recent food spoilage cases and product damages as well as isolates not linked to product spoilage. Identification of the isolates by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular methods revealed a large biodiversity of spore-formers, especially among the spoilage associated isolates. These could be assigned to 43 species, representing 11 genera, with Bacillus cereus s.l. and Bacillus licheniformis being predominant. A screening for isolates forming thermoresistant spores (TRS, surviving 100°C, 20 min) showed that about one third of the tested spore-formers was heat-resistant, with Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus being the prevalent species. Strains producing highly thermoresistant spores (HTRS, surviving 125°C, 30 min) were found among mesophilic as well as among thermophilic species. B. subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were dominating the group of mesophilic HTRS, while Bacillus smithii and Geobacillus pallidus were dominating the group of thermophilic HTRS. Analysis of spoilage-related enzymes of the TRS isolates showed that mesophilic strains, belonging to the B. subtilis and B. cereus groups, were strongly proteolytic, whereas thermophilic strains displayed generally a low enzymatic activity and thus spoilage potential. Cytotoxicity was only detected in B. cereus, suggesting that the risk of food poisoning by aerobic, thermoresistant spore-formers outside of the B. cereus group is rather low. PMID:23973839

Lücking, Genia; Stoeckel, Marina; Atamer, Zeynep; Hinrichs, Jörg; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

2013-09-01

247

Production potency of folate, vitamin B(12), and thiamine by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Japanese pickles.  

PubMed

We investigated the extracellular production of folate, vitamin B(12), and thiamine in cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from nukazuke, a traditional Japanese pickle, and the relationships between the vitamin production and such properties of LAB as tolerance to salts, ethanol, etc. Among the 180 isolates of LAB, two strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) sakei and a strain of Lb. plantarum extracellularly produced high levels of folate (about 100 µg/L). A strain of Lb. coryniformis and one of Lb. plantarum produced about 2 µg/L of vitamin B(12), although the level was not high. No isolates produced a high level of thiamine. The type cultures of LBA (53 strains) did not show any higher production of these vitamins. Some isolates showed tolerance to high concentrations of salts and alcohol, and low initial pH. No significant relationships between folate or vitamin B(12) productions and these properties of LAB were apparent. PMID:23132566

Masuda, Misako; Ide, Mariko; Utsumi, Haruka; Niiro, Tae; Shimamura, Yuko; Murata, Masatsune

2012-01-01

248

Diversity and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Olive Trees and Desert Truffles of Tunisia  

PubMed Central

A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota. PMID:24151598

Najjari, Afef; Turki, Yousra; Jaballah, Sana; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Hadda

2013-01-01

249

Diversity and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of olive trees and desert truffles of Tunisia.  

PubMed

A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota. PMID:24151598

Fhoula, Imene; Najjari, Afef; Turki, Yousra; Jaballah, Sana; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Hadda

2013-01-01

250

Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must  

PubMed Central

Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

Muñoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

2014-01-01

251

Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.  

PubMed

The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP. Enzyme activities were higher in LFP at 0 h, but at 72 h, the enzyme activities were higher in NFP. Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h). PMID:25493196

Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Ostlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

2014-11-01

252

Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends  

PubMed Central

The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP. Enzyme activities were higher in LFP at 0 h, but at 72 h, the enzyme activities were higher in NFP. Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h). PMID:25493196

Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Østlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

2014-01-01

253

Methylophilus flavus sp. nov. and Methylophilus luteus sp. nov., aerobic, methylotrophic bacteria associated with plants.  

PubMed

Novel yellow, obligately methylotrophic and restricted facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, respectively designated strains Ship(T) and Mim(T), with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C(1) assimilation are described. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, asporogenous, non-motile rods that multiply by binary fission, were mesophilic and neutrophilic and synthesized indole-3-acetic acid and exopolysaccharide. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C(16?:?0) and C(16?:?1). The major ubiquinone was Q-8. The predominant phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol; diphosphatidylglycerol was absent. The two strains lacked ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. They assimilated ammonium via the glutamate cycle enzymes glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase. The DNA G+C contents of strains Ship(T) and Mim(T) were 50.7 and 54.5 mol% (T(m)), respectively. The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between these strains was very high (99.8?%) but they shared a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (44?%). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with the type strains of recognized species of the genus Methylophilus (31-36?%), strains Ship(T) and Mim(T) are considered to represent novel species of the genus Methylophilus, for which the names Methylophilus flavus sp. nov. (type strain Ship(T) =DSM 23073(T) =VKM B-2547(T) =CCUG 58411(T)) and Methylophilus luteus sp. nov. (type strain Mim(T) =DSM 22949(T) =VKM B-2548(T) =CCUG 58412(T)) are proposed. PMID:20023062

Gogleva, Anna A; Kaparullina, Elena N; Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A

2010-11-01

254

Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter spp. are major causes of human foodborne illnesses, and the pathogen is widely associated with live and processed poultry. These bacteria are classified as microaerophiles and are generally cultured under atmospheres with reduced oxygen and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Altho...

255

History, Current Knowledge, and Future Directions on Bacteriocin Research in Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All organisms, both eukaryotic organisms and bacteria, are able to produce ribosomally antimicrobial peptides. In bacteria, such compounds are referred to as bacteriocins. The history of bacteriocins goes back to the early 1920s. One has experienced many disappointments in the efforts how to put these compounds into practical use despite being one of the most promising groups of antimicrobial agents to fight bacterial pathogens. However, today, we see new possibilities how to take advantage of such peptides for the benefit of man and animals. Bacteriocin production has become an important property of probiotic bacteria, and targeted use of bacteriocins to fight certain pathogens may have a future.

Nes, Ingolf F.

256

Ecofriendly control of potato late blight causative agent and the potential role of lactic acid bacteria: a review.  

PubMed

In times of increasing societal pressure to reduce the application of pesticides on crops, demands for environmentally friendly replacements have intensified. In the case of late blight, a devastating potato plant disease, the historically most widely known plant destroyer has been the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. To date, the most important strategy for control of this pathogen has been the frequent application of fungicides. Due to the aforementioned necessity to move away from traditional chemical treatments, many studies have focused on finding alternative ecofriendly biocontrol systems. In general, due to the different modes of actions (i.e. antagonistic effects or induction of plant defence mechanisms), the use of microorganisms as biological control agents has a definite potential. Amongst them, several species of lactic acid bacteria have been recognised as producers of bioactive metabolites which are functional against a broad spectrum of undesirable microorganisms, such as fungi, oomycetes and other bacteria. Thus, they may represent an interesting tool for the development of novel concepts in pest management. This review describes the present situation of late blight disease and summarises current literature regarding the biocontrol of the phytopathogen P. infestans using antagonistic microorganisms. PMID:22864968

Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Guo, Jiahui; Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K

2012-10-01

257

Identification of a novel enzymatic activity from lactic acid bacteria able to degrade biogenic amines in wine.  

PubMed

The main objectives of this study were the search for enzymatic activities responsible for biogenic amine (BA) degradation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from wine, their identification, and the evaluation of their applicability for reducing BAs in wine. Fifty-three percent of the 76 LAB cell extracts showed activity against a mixture of histamine, tyramine, and putrescine when analyzed in-gel. The quantification of the degrading ability for each individual amine was tested in a synthetic medium and wine. Most of the bacteria analyzed were able to degrade the three amines in both conditions. The highest percentages of degradation in wine were those of putrescine: up to 41% diminution in 1 week. Enzymes responsible for amine degradation were isolated and purified from Lactobacillus plantarum J16 and Pediococcus acidilactici CECT 5930 strains and were identified as multicopper oxidases. This is the first report of an efficient BA reduction in wine by LAB. Furthermore, the identity of the enzymes involved has been revealed. PMID:23515835

Callejón, S; Sendra, R; Ferrer, S; Pardo, I

2014-01-01

258

Growth control of Listeria innocua 2030c on vacuum-packaged cold-smoked salmon by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Five bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB): Enterococcus faecium ET05, Lactobacillus curvatus ET06, L. curvatus ET30, L. deldrueckii ET32 and Pediococcus acidilactici ET34, selected by their capacity for growth and producing inhibition in vitro at high salt-on-water content, low temperature and anaerobic atmosphere, conditions simulating cold-smoked fish, were inoculated onto salmon fillets, in co-culture with Listeria innocua 2030c, and cold-smoked processed (dry salted for 6 h; drying for 6 h; smoke for 2 h). The finished product was then packed under vacuum and stored at 5 degrees C. Enumeration of LAB and L. innocua was performed during storage. Results showed that strain E. faecium ET05 was the best biopreservative candidate for controlling L. innocua growth in vacuum-packaged cold-smoked salmon (CSS) processed under the salting/drying/smoking parameters referred above. L. curvatus ET30 and L. delbrueckii ET32 also showed a good biopreservation potential for CSS although they were less effective than the former. L. curvatus ET06 and P. acidilactici ET34 showed a bacteriostatic mode of action against the target bacteria in vitro as well as when inoculated into the salmon fillets. This study describes a potential application of five different LAB in the biopreservation of Listeria in CSS. PMID:18068846

Tomé, Elisabetta; Gibbs, Paul A; Teixeira, Paula C

2008-02-10

259

Isolation, screening and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented food.  

PubMed

100 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented foods (yoghurt, milk cream, sour dough and milk) were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty six strains producing a nisin-like bacteriocin were selected. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum, although one showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested, this strain was determined as Lactococcus lactis. The influence of several parameters on the fermentative production of nisin by Lactococcus lactis was studied. Production of nisin was optimal at 30 degrees C and in the pH range 5.5-6.3. The effect of different sulphur and nitrogen sources on Lactococcus lactis growth and nisin production was studied. Magnesium sulfate and manganese sulfate were found to be the best sulphur sources while triammonium citrate was the best inorganic nitrogen source and meat extract, peptone and yeast extract were the best organic nitrogen source for nisin production. PMID:10772154

El-Shafei, H A; Abd-El-Sabour, H; Ibrahim, N; Mostafa, Y A

2000-03-01

260

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

E-print Network

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

Lam, Raymond H. W.

261

Properties of different lactic acid bacteria isolated from Apis mellifera L. bee-gut.  

PubMed

Eight strains belonging to Lactobacillus spp. and five to Enterococcus spp. were isolated from the gut of worker Apis mellifera L. bees. Studies based on 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that AJ5, IG9, A15 and CRL1647 strains had a 99% identity with Lactobacillus johnsonii, while SM21 showed a 99% similarity with Enterococcus faecium. L. johnsonii CRL1647, AJ5 and IG9 were high lactic acid producers (values were between 177 and 275 mM), and in vitro they inhibited different human food-borne pathogens and Paenibacillus larvae, the American foulbrood agent. This bacterium was the most sensitive to the lactic acid effect being inhibited by 44 mM of this metabolite. L. johnsonii CRL1647, AJ5 and IG9 also presented important surface properties. These cells showed between 77% and 93% of auto-aggregation. The preliminary study of the chemical nature of the aggregating factors revealed that the molecules involved in the surface of each L. johnsonii strain were quite complex; and something of a peptidic nature was mainly involved. E. faecium SM21 produced bacteriocin-like compounds with anti-Listeria effects. Furthermore, a band close to 6.0-7.5 kDA was detected by SDS-PAGE studies, and the entA, B and P structural genes were amplified by PCR reactions. For the first time, bee-gut associated L. johnsonii and E. faecium strains have been isolated, identified, cultivated and some of their functional properties reported. PMID:20116222

Carina Audisio, M; Torres, María J; Sabaté, Daniela C; Ibarguren, Carolina; Apella, María C

2011-01-20

262

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

PubMed

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

263

Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH 4-oxidizing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon isotope fractionation factors reported for aerobic bacterial oxidation of CH 4(?) range from 1.003 to 1.039. In a series of experiments designed to monitor changes in the carbon isotopic fractionation of CH 4 by Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria, we found that the magnitude of fractionation was largely due to the first oxidation step catalyzed by methane monooxygenase (MMO). The most important factor that modulates the (?) is the fraction of the total CH 4 oxidized per unit time, which strongly correlates to the cell density of the growth cultures under constant flow conditions. At cell densities of less than 0.1 g/L, fractionation factors greater than 1.03 were observed, whereas at cell densities greater than 0.5 g/L the fractionation factors decreased to as low as 1.002. At low cell densities, low concentrations of MMO limit the amount of CH 4 oxidized, while at higher cell densities, the overall rates of CH 4 oxidation increase sufficiently that diffusion of CH 4 from the gaseous to dissolved state and into the cells is likely the rate-determining step. Thus, the residual CH 4 is more fractionated at low cell densities, when only a small fraction of the total CH 4 has been oxidized, than at high cell densities, when up to 40% of the influent CH 4 has been utilized. Therefore, since Rayleigh distillation behavior is not observed, ? 13C values of the residual CH 4 cannot be used to infer the amount oxidized in either laboratory or field-studies. The measured (?) was the same for both Type I and Type II methanotrophs expressing particulate or soluble MMO. However, large differences in the ? 13C values of biomass produced by the two types of methanotrophs were observed. Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (Type II) produced biomass with ? 13C values about 15‰ higher than the dissimilated CO 2, whereas Methylomonas methanica (Type I) produced biomass with ? 13C values only about 6‰ higher than the CO 2. These effects were independent of the magnitude of the initial carbon isotope fractionation caused by MMO and were relatively constant despite changing ratios of assimilatory to dissimilatory carbon transformation by the organisms. This suggests that the difference in biomass carbon isotopes is primarily due to differences in the fractionation effect at the formaldehyde branch point in the metabolic pathway, rather than assimilation of CO 2 by Type II methanotrophs.

Templeton, Alexis S.; Chu, Kung-Hui; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Conrad, Mark E.

2006-04-01

264

Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of fructo-oligosaccharides. These data support the use of immature wheat grain flour, and exopolysaccaride-producing lactic acid bacteria in formulating functional prebiotic baked goods whose nutritional value can be suitably improved. PMID:23584774

Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

2013-06-01

265

Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of fructo-oligosaccharides. These data support the use of immature wheat grain flour, and exopolysaccaride-producing lactic acid bacteria in formulating functional prebiotic baked goods whose nutritional value can be suitably improved. PMID:23584774

Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

2013-01-01

266

Nitric Oxide (NO) and Lactic Acid Bacteria-Contributions to Health, Food Quality, and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide producer bacteria on food quality, safety, and human health care high lighted. NO, which was previously recognized as a toxic gas, has attracted attention in the last two decades due to its vital role in many physiological processes of animals and plants. Particularly, it is important to note

Aynur Gül Karahan; M. Lütfü Çakmakçi; Buket Cicioglu-Aridogan; Arzu Kart-Gündogdu

2005-01-01

267

Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30?mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20?mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39?mg kg?1), plant P uptake (0.78?P pot?1), and plant biomass (33.26?mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10?cfu g?1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

2013-01-01

268

Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Traditional Jeotgal Product in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventeen lactic acid bacterial strains (LAB) were isolated using MRS agar medium from Jeotgal, a Korean fermented food, purchased at the Jukdo market of Pohang. To identify the strains isolated, they were tested by examining their cell morphologies, gram-staining, catalase activity, arginine hydrolase activity, D-L lactate form and carbohydrate fermentation. According to the phenotypic characteristics, three strains were tent atively identified as Lactobacillus spp., ten were Enterococcus spp. (or Streptococcus spp., or Pediococcus spp.) and the rest were Leuconostoc spp. (or Weissella spp.). Five strains among 17 were chosen by preliminary bacteriocin activity test. Four bacterial strains which inhibited both indicator microorganisms were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results are as follows; Leuconostoc mesenteroides (HK 4), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (HK 5), Leuconostoc mesenteroides(HK 11), Streptococcus salivarius(HK 8). In order to check LAB which are showing a high survival rate in gut, we investigated three strains inhibiting both indicator microorganisms in artificial gastric acid and bile juice -all except HK8. The three strains mentioned above grew in extreme low acid conditions.

Cho, Gyu Sung; Do, Hyung Ki

2006-06-01

269

Evidence for propagation of aerobic bacteria in particles suspended in gaseous atmospheres. [Terrestrial microorganism contamination of Jupiter atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One factor involved in the possibility that airborne microbes might contaminate the Jovian atmosphere is whether microbes have the capacity to propagate in air. Prior to these studies, the evidence was that the airborne state was lethal to microbes. An aerosol of aerobic bacteria was mixed with another containing C-14-glucose, and the presence of C-14-CO2 was subsequently detected, which indicates that the airborne cells were metabolically active. In the same type of experiment, it was shown that thymidine was incorporated into the acid-insoluble fraction of samples, indicating the formation of DNA. It was also shown, both by an increase in the numbers of viable cells and a parallel increase in particle numbers, that at least two new generations of cells could occur. Evidence for propagation of anaerobic bacteria has so far been negative.

Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.; Straat, P.

1977-01-01

270

Dietary Supplementation with Lactic Acid Bacteria Attenuates the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC\\/Nga Mice in a Strain-Dependent Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dietary supplementation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a potential approach to the prevention and manipulation of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the influence of different bacterial strains and their immunomodulating capacities is still largely unknown. Methods: AD-like skin lesions were induced by sensitization to and repeated challenges with picrylchloride in the Th2-skewed NC\\/Nga mouse strain.

Hideyuki Wakabayashi; Chie Nariai; Fumiyo Takemura; Wakako Nakao; Daisuke Fujiwara

2008-01-01

271

Arginine Catabolism by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Purification and Characterization of the Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytoplasmic extracts of 70 strains of the most frequently isolated sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened initially for arginine deiminase (ADI), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), and carbamate kinase (CK) activities, which comprise the ADI (or arginine dihydrolase) pathway. Only obligately heterofermentative strains such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1; Lactobacillus brevis AM1, AM8, and 10A; Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B; and Lactobacillus fructivorans DD3

Maria De Angelis; Liberato Mariotti; Jone Rossi; Maurizio Servili; Patrick F. Fox; Graciela Rollan; Marco Gobbetti

2002-01-01

272

Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host’s mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019)

J. S. Zhou; P. K. Gopal; H. S. Gill

2001-01-01

273

Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria  

E-print Network

-oxidizing bacteria Karen L. Casciotti *,1 , Bess B. Ward Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton) are climatically important trace gases that are produced by both nitrifying and den- itrifying bacteria-oxidizing bacteria, including Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus species (i.e., both b- and c-Proteobacterial ammonia

Ward, Bess

274

Characterization and determination of origin of lactic acid bacteria from a sorghum-based fermented weaning food by analysis of soluble proteins and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting.  

PubMed

The group that includes the lactic acid bacteria is one of the most diverse groups of bacteria known, and these organisms have been characterized extensively by using different techniques. In this study, 180 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from sorghum powder (44 strains) and from corresponding fermented (93 strains) and cooked fermented (43 strains) porridge samples that were prepared in 15 households were characterized by using biochemical and physiological methods, as well as by analyzing the electrophoretic profiles of total soluble proteins. A total of 58 of the 180 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains, 47 were Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, 25 were Lactobacillus sake-Lactobacillus curvatus strains, 17 were Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, 13 were Pediococcus acidilactici strains, and 7 were Lactococcus lactis strains. L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides strains were the dominant strains during the fermentation process and were recovered from 87 and 73% of the households, respectively. The potential origins of these groups of lactic acid bacteria were assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprint analysis. PMID:10698775

Kunene, N F; Geornaras, I; von Holy, A; Hastings, J W

2000-03-01

275

Characterization and Determination of Origin of Lactic Acid Bacteria from a Sorghum-Based Fermented Weaning Food by Analysis of Soluble Proteins and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

The group that includes the lactic acid bacteria is one of the most diverse groups of bacteria known, and these organisms have been characterized extensively by using different techniques. In this study, 180 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from sorghum powder (44 strains) and from corresponding fermented (93 strains) and cooked fermented (43 strains) porridge samples that were prepared in 15 households were characterized by using biochemical and physiological methods, as well as by analyzing the electrophoretic profiles of total soluble proteins. A total of 58 of the 180 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains, 47 were Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, 25 were Lactobacillus sake-Lactobacillus curvatus strains, 17 were Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, 13 were Pediococcus acidilactici strains, and 7 were Lactococcus lactis strains. L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides strains were the dominant strains during the fermentation process and were recovered from 87 and 73% of the households, respectively. The potential origins of these groups of lactic acid bacteria were assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprint analysis. PMID:10698775

Kunene, Nokuthula F.; Geornaras, Ifigenia; von Holy, Alexander; Hastings, John W.

2000-01-01

276

Biogenic amine synthesis in high quality Tempranillo wines. Relationship with lactic acid bacteria and vinification conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to toxicological and economical concerns, there is considerable interest in establishing which enological practices promote\\u000a biogenic amine accumulation in wines. Effects of SO2 and lysozyme, malolactic fermentation (MLF) management and ageing have been studied. The type of bacteria performing MLF\\u000a and ageing proved to be the main factors influencing biogenic amine content of wine, specifically Tempranillo from Somontano\\u000a appellation

Lucía Polo; Sergi Ferrer; Almudena Peña-Gallego; Purificación Hernández-Orte; Isabel Pardo

2011-01-01

277

Development of a Chemically Defined Medium to Assay the Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

E-print Network

isoflavone, genistin and genistein, which have high estrogenic activities and decrease the inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. As such, the catabolism of phytoestrogenic compounds by intestinal microorganisms may act to co-regulate the bioactivity... microorganisms, including some intestinal bacteria such as lactobacilli (Choi et al., 1999) and bifidobacteria (Jeon and Hwang, 2002) are known to encode ?-glycoside hydrolase activity. In addition, ?-glycoside hydrolase activity is needed to liberate...

Kim, Inhye

2014-04-16

278

Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

2014-01-01

279

Immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria beneficially regulate immune response triggered by poly(I:C) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the functional expression of TLR3 in various gastrointestinal tissues from adult swine and shows that TLR3 is expressed preferentially in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), CD172a+CD11R1high and CD4+ cells from ileal Peyer's patches. We characterized the inflammatory immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in a clonal porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells) and in PIE-immune cell co-cultures, and demonstrated that these systems are valuable tools to study in vitro the immune response triggered by TLR3 on IEC and the interaction between IEC and immune cells. In addition, we selected an immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria strain, Lactobacillus casei MEP221106, able to beneficially regulate the anti-viral immune response triggered by poly(I:C) stimulation in PIE cells. Moreover, we deepened our understanding of the possible mechanisms of immunobiotic action by demonstrating that L. casei MEP221106 modulates the interaction between IEC and immune cells during the generation of a TLR3-mediated immune response. PMID:22046952

2011-01-01

280

Occurrence of non-lactic acid bacteria populations involved in protein hydrolysis of cold-stored high moisture Mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse non-lactic acid bacteria populations (NLABPs) and evaluate their role in proteolysis of cold-stored high moisture (HM) Mozzarella cheese. NLABPs reached values close to 8 log cfu mL?¹ after seven days of cold storage. Sequencing of 16 rDNA and rpoB genes and molecular biotyping allowed to identify 66 bacterial strains belonging to 25 species from 15 genera, mainly represented by Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Rahnella. Fifteen strains showed proteolytic activity values higher than 1000.00 ?g Gly mL?¹ after 24 h of growth in skimmed milk. Moreover, as shown by Urea-PAGE, 11 proteolytic strains caused partial or total disappearance of at least one of the caseins. Their proteolytic behaviour was assessed even when they grew inside the governing liquid together with HM Mozzarella cheese at 4 °C for 12 days. This is the first report that throws light on the complexity of NLABPs in HM Mozzarella cheese, demonstrating that some strains caused the partial hydrolysis of ?, ?, and ? caseins on its outer surface where a concomitant wrinkling and successive exfoliation became visible without significant changes in texture characteristics. PMID:22265281

Baruzzi, Federico; Lagonigro, Rosanna; Quintieri, Laura; Morea, Maria; Caputo, Leonardo

2012-05-01

281

Antagonistic lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk and identification of a novel nisin variant Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

Background The raw goat milk microbiota is considered a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that can be exploited as an alternative for use as biopreservatives in foods. The constant demand for such alternative tools justifies studies that investigate the antimicrobial potential of such strains. Results The obtained data identified a predominance of Lactococcus and Enterococcus strains in raw goat milk microbiota with antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Enzymatic assays confirmed the bacteriocinogenic nature of the antimicrobial substances produced by the isolated strains, and PCR reactions detected a variety of bacteriocin-related genes in their genomes. Rep-PCR identified broad genetic variability among the Enterococcus isolates, and close relations between the Lactococcus strains. The sequencing of PCR products from nis-positive Lactococcus allowed the identification of a predicted nisin variant not previously described and possessing a wide inhibitory spectrum. Conclusions Raw goat milk was confirmed as a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic LAB strains, having identified Lactococcus isolates possessing variations in their genomes that suggest the production of a nisin variant not yet described and with potential for use as biopreservatives in food due to its broad spectrum of action. PMID:24521354

2014-01-01

282

Exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria strains from traditional Thai fermented foods: isolation, identification and exopolysaccharide characterization.  

PubMed

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from various traditional Thai fermented foods were screened for exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. From 104 isolates, two rod-shaped and five coccal-shaped LAB were able to produce EPS from sucrose on solid media. However, only the cocci were capable of producing EPS in liquid media and these were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus. Pediococcus pentosaceus strains AP-1 and AP-3 produced EPS in high yield. In liquid media containing sucrose as carbon source, the amount of EPS produced by AP-1 and AP-3 strains was 6.0 and 2.5 g/L, respectively. The isolated and purified EPSs were chemically characterized. On the basis of sugar composition, methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, both the EPSs were shown to belong to the same dextran class. In particular, both EPSs differed from linear dextran by branching through 3,6-di-Osubstituted alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues. The EPS from P. pentosaceus AP-3 was characterized by a relatively higher degree of branching and by a higher molecular weight than that from P. pentosaceus AP-1. PMID:10574086

Smitinont, T; Tansakul, C; Tanasupawat, S; Keeratipibul, S; Navarini, L; Bosco, M; Cescutti, P

1999-10-15

283

Use of superoxide dismutase and catalase producing lactic acid bacteria in TNBS induced Crohn's disease in mice.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species are involved in various aspects of intestinal inflammation and tumor development. Decreasing their levels using antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) could therefore be useful in the prevention of certain diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ideal candidates to deliver these enzymes in the gut. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of CAT or SOD producing LAB were evaluated using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced Crohn's disease murine model. Engineered Lactobacillus casei BL23 strains producing either CAT or SOD, or the native strain were given to mice before and after intrarectal administration of TNBS. Animal survival, live weight, intestinal morphology and histology, enzymatic activities, microbial translocation to the liver and cytokines released in the intestinal fluid were evaluated. The mice that received CAT or SOD-producing LAB showed a faster recovery of initial weight loss, increased enzymatic activities in the gut and lesser extent of intestinal inflammation compared to animals that received the wild-type strain or those that did not receive bacterial supplementation. Our findings suggest that genetically engineered LAB that produce antioxidant enzymes could be used to prevent or decrease the severity of certain intestinal pathologies. PMID:21167883

LeBlanc, Jean Guy; del Carmen, Silvina; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Sesma, Fernando; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Watterlot, Laurie; Perdigon, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

2011-02-10

284

Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from mixed pasture of timothy and orchardgrass, and its badly preserved silage.  

PubMed

In order to understand the relationship between lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species and silage fermentation, a total of 65 LAB strains isolated from mixed pasture of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), and its badly preserved silages were subjected to phenotypic and genetic analysis. According to these analyses, the isolates were divided into 13 groups, including Enterococcus gallinarum, Lactobacillus acidipiscis, L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis, L. coryniformis subsp. torquens, L. curvatus, L. paraplantarum, L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, L. sakei subsp. carnosus, Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella hellenica, Weissella paramesenteroides and Carnobacterium divergens. This is the first report to document that C. divergens, L. acidipiscis, L. sakei subsp. carnosus, L. garvieae, phenotypically novel L. lactis subsp. cremoris, E. gallinarum and W. hellenica are present in vegetative forage crops. L. plantarum group strains were most frequently isolated from the badly preserved silages. Some isolates showed a wide range of growth preferences for carbohydrate utilization, optimal growth pH and temperature in vitro, indicating that they have a high growth potential. These results are useful in understanding the diversity of LAB associated with decayed silage of timothy and orchardgrass. PMID:22515692

Tohno, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hisami; Nomura, Masaru; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Cai, Yimin

2012-04-01

285

Enhancement of the immune response against Salmonella infection of mice by heat-killed multispecies combinations of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has advantages over live LAB in that it has a long shelf-life and is therefore easy to store and transport. From four LAB strains selected by immunomodulatory activity and adherent properties, we prepared the heat-killed multispecies combination of LAB (MLAB) and the cell walls from MLAB under two conditions (100 °C for 30 min and 121 °C for 15 min). Different effects on the adherent properties of these four LAB strains were observed, depending on the heating conditions. With mouse macrophage cells, the two heat-killed MLABs (HMLABs) showed significantly higher induction activities on the production of interleukin 12 (IL-12) than their individual strains did. Heat-killed MLABs and cell-wall preparations were able to reduce the Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 and mouse macrophage cells. Feeding mice with HMLAB could inhibit the Salmonella invasion of mice significantly. For these mice, the expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-? and IL-6, in mouse serum was reduced while that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, i.e. IL-10, was enhanced. The HMLABs developed in this study showed higher protective effect against Salmonella invasion either of Caco-2 cells or of mice, relative to the heat-killed lactobacilli, which consisted of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains selected at random. In conclusion, the HMLABs were potentially useful for the protection of mice against Salmonella infection and the induced inflammation. PMID:24000228

Chen, Chih-Yuan; Tsen, Hau-Yang; Lin, Chun-Li; Lin, Chien-Ku; Chuang, Li-Tsen; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Chiang, Yu-Cheng

2013-11-01

286

Screening of lactic acid bacteria from Indonesia reveals glucansucrase and fructansucrase genes in two different Weissella confusa strains from soya.  

PubMed

Homopolysaccharide (glucan and fructan) synthesis from sucrose by sucrase enzymes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been well studied in the genera Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. This study aimed to identify and characterize genes encoding glucansucrase/glucosyltransferase (GTF) and fructansucrases/fructosyltransferase (FTF) enzymes from genomic DNA of 'rare' Indonesian exopolysaccharide-producing LAB. From a total of 63 exopolysaccharide-producing LAB isolates obtained from foods, beverages and environmental samples, 18 isolates showing the most slimy and mucoid colony morphologies on sucrose were chosen for further study. By comparing bacterial growth on De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS)-sucrose with that on MRS-raffinose, and using the results of a previous PCR screening study with degenerate primer pairs targeting the conserved catalytic domain of GTFs, various strains were identified as producers of fructan (13), of glucan only (five) or as potential producers of both glucan and fructan (nine). Here, we report the characteristics of three gtf genes and one ftf gene obtained from Weissella confusa strains MBF8-1 and MBF8-2. Strain MBF8-1 harbored two putative gtf genes with high sequence similarity to GTFB of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 and GTF180 of L. reuteri 180, respectively. Strain MBF8-2 possessed single gtf and ftf genes with high sequence similarity to GTFKg3 of Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and DSRWC of Weissella cibaria, and FTF levansucrase of L. reuteri 121, respectively. PMID:19758326

Malik, Amarila; Radji, Maksum; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2009-11-01

287

[The microflora of sourdough. XIX. The effect of temperature and dough yield on the proteolytic effect of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough].  

PubMed

During fermentation of sour dough the flour proteins are degraded. The proteolysis depends not only on lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis ssp. lindneri, L. fructivorans) but also on the conditions of fermentation of the sour dough. An increase of temperatures between 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C causes an increase in the amino acid content. The water content of the dough (T.A. 150/T.A. 210) influences the proteolytic activity of the bacteria to a lesser degree. PMID:6385532

Spicher, G; Nierle, W

1984-07-01

288

Dispersal of Aerobic Endospore-forming Bacteria from Soil and Agricultural Activities to Food and Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For specific aerobic endospore-formers, the soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of what is sometimes a long\\u000a series of events or processes in the agro-food chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety\\u000a and\\/or quality. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus is the most important pathogen or spoilage organism that, through the faecal

Marc Heyndrickx

289

Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria populations in Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese samples submitted to environmental conditions prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract: evaluation by means of a polyphasic approach.  

PubMed

The survival of the autochthonous microflora, of samples collected during Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese manufacturing, was evaluated along the passage through a model mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract. The aim was the selection of lactic acid bacteria potentially able to arrive alive and metabolically active to the colon. The dynamics of lactic microbiota, throughout simulated digestion of cheese samples, were evaluated by means of an approach PCR-DGGE-based. Dominant species after cheese digestion could be related to the Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei groups. Sixty-three strains, which survived to simulated gastro-intestinal transit, were further evaluated for technological features and tolerance to human digestion in several experimental conditions, according to routinely used protocols. Bacterial survival appeared to be, more than strain-specific, strongly affected by experimental conditions, i.e. some strains showed an acceptable survival when resuspended in skim milk but not in ewe milk and vice versa. Nevertheless according to data, one gram of fresh Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese may convey to human colon about the same amount of viable LAB of a probiotic drink. Although it cannot be assumed that lactobacilli introduced with Pecorino have beneficial effects on the host, the healthy impact of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria of naturally fermented food has a broad consensus in the current literature. PMID:24742995

Ricciardi, Annamaria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Succi, Mariantonietta; Aponte, Maria

2014-06-01

290

Microbial and Physiological Characterization of Weakly Amylolytic but Fast-Growing Lactic Acid Bacteria: a Functional Role in Supporting Microbial Diversity in Pozol, a Mexican Fermented Maize Beverage  

PubMed Central

Pozol is an acid beverage obtained from the natural fermentation of nixtamal (heat- and alkali-treated maize) dough. The concentration of mono- and disaccharides from maize is reduced during nixtamalization, so that starch is the main carbohydrate available for lactic acid fermentation. In order to provide some basis to understand the role of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) in this fermented food, their diversity and physiological characteristics were determined. Forty amylolytic strains were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Four different biotypes were distinguished via ribotyping; Streptococcus bovis strains were found to be predominant. Streptococcus macedonicus, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus sulfureus strains were also identified. S. bovis strain 25124 showed extremely low amylase yield relative to biomass (139 U g [cell dry weight]?1) and specific rate of amylase production (130.7 U g [cell dry weight]?1 h?1). In contrast, it showed a high specific growth rate (0.94 h?1) and an efficient energy conversion yield to bacterial cell biomass (0.31 g of biomass g of substrate?1). These would confer on the strain a competitive advantage and are the possible reasons for its dominance. Transient accumulation of maltooligosaccharides during fermentation could presumably serve as energy sources for nonamylolytic species in pozol fermentation. This would explain the observed diversity and the dominance of nonamylolytic lactic acid bacteria at the end of fermentation. These results are the first step to understanding the importance of ALAB during pozol fermentation. PMID:12902217

Díaz-Ruiz, G.; Guyot, J. P.; Ruiz-Teran, F.; Morlon-Guyot, J.; Wacher, C.

2003-01-01

291

Comparison of Growth Rates of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria and Other Bacterioplankton Groups in Coastal Mediterranean Waters?  

PubMed Central

Growth is one of the basic attributes of any living organism. Surprisingly, the growth rates of marine bacterioplankton are only poorly known. Current data suggest that marine bacteria grow relatively slowly, having generation times of several days. However, some bacterial groups, such as the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, have been shown to grow much faster. Two manipulation experiments, in which grazing, viruses, and resource competition were reduced, were conducted in the coastal Mediterranean Sea (Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory). The growth rates of AAP bacteria and of several important phylogenetic groups (the Bacteroidetes, the alphaproteobacterial groups Roseobacter and SAR11, and the Gammaproteobacteria group and its subgroups the Alteromonadaceae and the NOR5/OM60 clade) were calculated from changes in cell numbers in the manipulation treatments. In addition, we examined the role that top-down (mortality due to grazers and viruses) and bottom-up (resource availability) factors play in determining the growth rates of these groups. Manipulations resulted in an increase of the growth rates of all groups studied, but its extent differed largely among the individual treatments and among the different groups. Interestingly, higher growth rates were found for the AAP bacteria (up to 3.71 day?1) and for the Alteromonadaceae (up to 5.44 day?1), in spite of the fact that these bacterial groups represented only a very low percentage of the total prokaryotic community. In contrast, the SAR11 clade, which was the most abundant group, was the slower grower in all treatments. Our results show that, in general, the least abundant groups exhibited the highest rates, whereas the most abundant groups were those growing more slowly, indicating that some minor groups, such the AAP bacteria, very likely contribute much more to the recycling of organic matter in the ocean than what their abundances alone would predict. PMID:21724878

Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M.; Sebastián, Marta; Hojerová, Eva; Koblížek, Michal

2011-01-01

292

Potential preventive role of lactic acid bacteria against Aflatoxin M1 immunotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Abstract Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a mycotoxin produced by numerous Aspergillus species in pre- or post-harvest cereals and milk. Exposure to AFM1 imparts potent economic losses in the livestock industry. Toxicologically, it also causes severe immune system problems. The aims of this study were to evaluate a new AFM1-binding/degrading microorganism for biologic detoxification, to examine its ability to degrade AFM1 in liquid medium, and to evaluate its potential for in vivo preventative effects against AFM1-induced immunotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice. Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 (LP) isolated from Tunisian artisanal butter was found to display significant binding ability to AFM1 in PBS (93%) within 24?h of incubation. Further, the LP was able to tolerate gastric acidity, bile salts, and adhere efficiently to Caco-3 cells in vitro. The in vivo study used Balb/c mice that received either vehicle (control), LP only (at 1?×?10(9?)CFU/L, ?1?mg/kg bw), AFM1 (100?mg/kg bw), or AFM1?+?LP daily for 15 days (by gavage); two other groups received a single dose of colchicine (4?mg/kg) or mitomycin C (1?mg/kg) as positive controls for induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations, respectively. The results showed that, compared to in control mice, AFM1 treatment led to significantly decreased body weight gains, and caused cytotoxic/genotoxic effects as indicated by increases in frequencies of polychromatic erythrocytes, as well as those with micronucleation (PCEMN) and chromosomal aberrations, among bone marrow cells. The concurrent administration of LP with AFM1 strongly reduced the adverse effects of AFM1 on each parameter. Mice receiving AFM1?+?LP co-treatment displayed no significant differences in the assayed parameters as compared to the control mice. By itself, the bacteria caused no adverse effects. Based on the data, it is concluded that the test bacteria could potentially be beneficial in the detoxification of AFM1-contaminated foods and feeds for humans and animals. PMID:24738739

Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Jebali, Rania; Haous, Zohra; Oueslati, Ridha

2015-04-01

293

Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96 degrees C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10(4) rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm(2) on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

2003-04-01

294

Selection of functional lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel.).  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to find safe and suitable starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler), also known as garlic chives or Oriental garlic. This traditional herb has several functional properties and a strong flavour; its leaves are used as food material. Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from well-fermented leek kimchi. Controlled fermentation of the leek leaves was conducted with 2 strains (Weissella confusa LK4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LK8), selected as potential starter cultures on the basis of their safety properties, and on the pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and viable cell numbers [colony forming units (CFUml(-1))] achieved during the fermentation. Microbial dynamics was also followed during fermentation by using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) on DNA level. To analyse bioactive compounds such as thiols and allicin (diallyl thiosulfinates), the total flavonoid and polyphenolic contents were determined by colorimetric methods. Functional properties were assessed on the basis of anti-oxidative capacities by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). W. confusa LK4 rapidly increased during the first stage of leek fermentation, and was mainly responsible for accelerated fermentation during the early period in contrast to L. plantarum LK8, a stronger acid producer during the later stages of fermentation. After 48 h fermentation, leeks fermented with W. confusa LK4 showed the highest radical scavenging effects and reducing ability. The detectable amount of allicin of fermented leeks decreased relative to the change in pH, whereas the concentration of thiols significantly increased. Total flavonoid and poly-phenolic contents changed during fermentation and showed correlation with anti-oxidant effects. We therefore suggest the suitability of W. confusa LK4 as a potential starter culture for fermentation of leeks. PMID:25279760

Yang, Jaesik; Ji, Yosep; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Park, Soyoung; Yeo, Soyoung; Shin, Hyunkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

2014-11-17

295

Fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria from sourdough and assessment of the isolates for industrial potential.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antimicrobial activity and high exopolysaccharide (EPS) production ability isolated from sourdough were studied for their fermentation characteristics as potential new starter cultures. The values of pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts were 4.06+/-0.009-4.50+/- 0.015, 0.787+/-0.020%-1.172+/-0.018%, and 8.78+/-0.08-8.98+/- 0.06 log CFU/ml, respectively. In order to select probiotics with a high survival rate in the gut, isolates were tested to assess resistance against the artificial gastric acid and bile juice. Viable LAB counts were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the acidity. At pH 2.0, the total declines in the initial bacterial counts were 4.52+/-0.07 log for S. thermophilus St-Body-1, >7.98+/-0.03 log for E. flavescens DU-10, >7.95+/-0.05 log for E. faecium DU-12, and 3.15+/- 0.06 log for L. amylovorus DU-21. Among the strains, L. amylovorus DU-21 was the only strain that had bile tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. In order to improve EPS production by L. amylovorus DU- 21, the influence of carbon source was studied. When glucose was used as a carbon source, EPS production dramatically increased to 17.19+/-0.28 g/l (p<0.05). The maximum cell growth (10.012+/-0.012 log CFU/ml) and EPS production (18.71+/-0.19 g/l) were achieved when 15 g/ l of glucose was employed as the carbon source. PMID:18667855

Jung, Seung Won; Kim, Wang June; Lee, Kwang Geun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Noh, Wan Seob

2008-07-01

296

Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds\\/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A

Harry Hariharan; Vanessa Matthew; Jacqueline Fountain; Alicia Snell; Devin Doherty; Brittany King; Eran Shemer; Simone Oliveira; Ravindra N. Sharma

2011-01-01

297

In vitro study of beneficial properties and safety of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Portuguese fermented meat products.  

PubMed

Many lactic acid bacteria produce bacteriocins with a rather broad spectrum of inhibition, which could offer potential applications in food preservation. Bacteriocin production by starter cultures may bring advantage to these strains in competitive interactions with pathogenic bacteria from the food matrix. The objective of this study was to determine the safety of beneficial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum ST202Ch and ST216Ch, Enterococcus faecium ST211Ch, and Lactobacillus sakei ST22Ch, ST153Ch and ST154Ch) previously isolated from fermented meat products and characterised as bacteriocin producers. Auto-aggregation was strain-specific, and values of 28.97, 27.86 and 28.56% were recorded for L. sakei ST22Ch, ST153Ch and ST154Ch, respectively, 16.95 and 14.58% for L. plantarum ST202Ch and ST216Ch, respectively, and 12.77% for E. faecium ST211Ch. Various degrees of co-aggregation between 28.85 and 44.76% for Listeria monocytogenes 211 and 409, and between 23.60 to 34.96% for E. faecium ATCC 19443 were observed. According to the results of the diffusion method, the studied strains demonstrated susceptibility to penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid, imipenem, linezolid, and tetracycline. In addition, the susceptibility of the six strains to various non-antibiotic commercial drugs was examined. Production of ?-galactosidase by L. sakei ST22Ch, ST153Ch and ST154Ch, L. plantarum ST202Ch and ST216Ch, and E. faecium ST211Ch was confirmed by employing sterile filter paper discs impregnated with o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranose. A statistically significant (P<0.001) inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by bacteriocins produced by L. plantarum ST202Ch (38.3%) and ST216Ch (48.6%), L. sakei ST153Ch (16.2%) and ST154Ch (16.1%), and E. faecium ST211Ch (21.7%) was observed. As determined by the polymerase chain reaction, the tested strains showed a low virulence gene profile. PMID:24463204

Todorov, S D; Franco, B D G M; Wiid, I J

2014-09-01

298

Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms.  

PubMed

Bacterial contamination of raw milk can originate from different sources: air, milking equipment, feed, soil, faeces and grass. It is hypothesized that differences in feeding and housing strategies of cows may influence the microbial quality of milk. This assumption was investigated through comparison of the aerobic spore-forming flora in milk from organic and conventional dairy farms. Laboratory pasteurized milk samples from five conventional and five organic dairy farms, sampled in late summer/autumn and in winter, were plated on a standard medium and two differential media, one screening for phospholipolytic and the other for proteolytic activity of bacteria. Almost 930 isolates were obtained of which 898 could be screened via fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Representative isolates were further analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)(5)-PCR. The majority of aerobic spore-formers in milk belonged to the genus Bacillus and showed at least 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus subtilis and with type strains of species belonging to the Bacillus cereus group. About 7% of all isolates may belong to possibly new spore-forming taxa. Although the overall diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in milk from organic vs. conventional dairy farms was highly similar, some differences between both were observed: (i) a relatively higher number of thermotolerant organisms in milk from conventional dairy farms compared to organic farms (41.2% vs. 25.9%), and (ii) a relatively higher number of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic (81.3%) and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus in milk from conventional (85.7%) dairy farms. One of these differences, the higher occurrence of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic dairy farms, may be linked to differences in housing strategy between the two types of dairy farming. However, no plausible clarification was found for the relatively higher number of thermotolerant organisms and the higher occurrence of U. thermosphaericus in milk from conventional dairy farms. Possibly this is due to differences in feeding strategy but no decisive indications were found to support this assumption. PMID:18406093

Coorevits, An; De Jonghe, Valerie; Vandroemme, Joachim; Reekmans, Rieka; Heyrman, Jeroen; Messens, Winy; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

2008-06-01

299

Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

300

Occurrence and activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in aerobic activated sludge systems.  

PubMed

In the sewage or wastewater treatment plant, biological sulphate reduction can occur spontaneously or be applied beneficially for its treatment. The results of this study can be applied to control SRB in the sewage and WWTP. Therefore, population diversity analyses of SRB for nine activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Netherlands and the effect of long-term (months) oxygen exposures on the SRB activity were carried out. T-RFLP and clone sequencing analyses of winter and summer samples revealed that (1) all WWTP have a similar SRB population, (2) there is no seasonal impact (10-20 °C) on the SRB population present in the WWTP and (3) Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio intestinalis were the most common and dominant SRB species observed in these samples, and origin from the sewage. Short term activity tests demonstrated that SRB were not active in the aerobic WWTP, but while flushed with N2-gas SRB became slightly active after 3 h. In a laboratory reactor at a dissolved oxygen concentration of <2 %, sulphate reduction occurred and 89 % COD removal was achieved. SRB grew in granules, in order to protect themselves for oxygen exposures. SRB are naturally present in aerobic WWTP, which is due to the formation of granules. PMID:25649202

van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

2015-03-01

301

Colonization by aerobic bacteria in karst: Laboratory and in situ experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential for bacterial colonization of different substrates in karst aquifers and the nature of the colonizing bacteria. Laboratory batch experiments were performed using limestone and PVC as substrates, a natural bacterial isolate and a known laboratory strain (Escherichia coli [E. coli]) as inocula, and karst ground water and a synthetic formula as growth media. In parallel, fragments of limestone and granite were submerged in boreholes penetrating two karst aquifers for more than one year; the boreholes are periodically contaminated by enteric bacteria from waste water. Once a month, rock samples were removed and the colonizing bacteria quantified and identified. The batch experiments demonstrated that the natural isolate and E. coli both readily colonized limestone surfaces using karst ground water as the growth medium. In contrast, bacterial colonization of both the limestone and granite substrates, when submerged in the karst, was less intense. More than 300 bacterial strains were isolated over the period sampled, but no temporal pattern in colonization was seen as far as strain, and colonization by E. coli was notably absent, although strains of Salmonella and Citrobacter were each observed once. Samples suspended in boreholes penetrating highly fractured zones were less densely colonized than those in the borehole penetrating a less fractured zone. The results suggest that contamination of karst aquifers by enteric bacteria is unlikely to be persistent. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the high flow velocities found in karst conduits, and of predation of colonizing bacteria by autochthonous zooplankton.

Personne, J.-C.; Poty, F.; Mahler, B.J.; Drogue, C.

2004-01-01

302

Inhibitory potential of tea polyphenolics and influence of extraction time against Helicobacter pylori and lack of inhibition of beneficial lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Tea polyphenolics such as catechins are known to have the potential to inhibit many bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori has been identified as an etiologic agent in the development of gastric ulcer, peptic ulcer, gastritis, and many other stomach-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of 9 tea extracts--3 different brands representing 4 different processed types (white, green, oolong, and black)--on the inhibition of H. pylori. Extraction times of 2 and 5 minutes were compared. Most 5-minute extracts showed H. pylori inhibition, whereas 2-minute extracts only of Choice darjeeling black and Tazo white showed inhibition. No recovery was observed after the addition of 0.5 and 5 mM proline, indicating that tea polyphenols do not inhibit H. pylori by inhibition of proline oxidation via proline dehydrogenase. Extracts that showed inhibition were further evaluated for their effect on beneficial lactic acid bacteria. None of the samples showed inhibition, suggesting that tea might be able to inhibit H. pylori without affecting the beneficial lactic acid bacteria. High-performance liquid chromatography indicated the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, caffeine, and tea catechins (including catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin) in all the tea samples. Our study indicates that tea can be potentially used as a low-cost dietary support to combat H. pylori-linked gastric diseases without affecting the beneficial intestinal bacteria. PMID:21663484

Ankolekar, Chandrakant; Johnson, David; Pinto, Marcia da Silva; Johnson, Kevin; Labbe, Ronald; Shetty, Kalidas

2011-11-01

303

Mosapride citrate improves nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with increased fecal lactic acid bacteria and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 level in a rodent model.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence have suggested a role of gut microbiota in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH subjects reportedly showed a prolonged orocecal transit time coexistent with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. We considered the possibility that enhanced gastrointestinal motility would influence gut microbiota and thus investigated the effects of the gastroprokinetic agent mosapride citrate (MC) on gut microbiota and the development of NASH using a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-fed rodent model. Mice were divided into three groups, given the normal chow diet (NCD), the MCD diet, or the MCD diet containing 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of MC (MCD plus MC) for 6 wk. NASH development was evaluated based on hepatic histochemical findings, serum parameters and various mRNA and/or protein expression levels. MC treatment suppressed MCD diet-induced NASH development, with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide and increased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations. Calculation of the relative abundance of each strain based on gut microbiota analyses indicated lactic acid bacteria specifically, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, in feces to be decreased in the MCD, compared with the NCD group. Interestingly, the reduction in lactic acid bacteria in the MCD diet group was reversed in the MCD plus MC group. In addition, colon inflammation observed in the MCD diet group was reduced in the MCD plus MC group. Therefore, MC showed a protective effect against MCD diet-induced NASH development in our rodent model, with possible involvements of increased fecal lactic acid bacteria, protection against colon inflammation and elevated plasma GLP-1. PMID:25428903

Okubo, Hirofumi; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Fujishiro, Midori; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Ohno, Haruya; Yoneda, Masayasu; Kamata, Hideaki; Shinjo, Takanori; Iwashita, Misaki; Nishimura, Fusanori; Asano, Tomoichiro

2015-01-15

304

Identification of glutaminase-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Nham, a traditional Thai fermented food and characterisation of glutaminase activity of isolated Weissella cibaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five glutaminase-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Nham, a Thai fermented pork sausage.Weisella cibaria (MSS1, MSS2, MSS3, and MBP5) and Leuconostoc citreum (MHV2) were identified by carbohydrate metabolism tests and 16S rDNA\\u000a sequence -based phylogenetic analysis. Of these, W. cibaria MSS2 had the highest glutaminase activity (0.0085 U\\/mg) among\\u000a them. The specific activity of glutaminase (0.024 U\\/mg) was obtained

Jaruwan Thongsanit; Masahiro Tanikawa; Shigekazu Yano; Takashi Tpachiki; Mamoru WAKAYAMA

2009-01-01

305

Lipid composition and vertical distribution of bacteria in aerobic sediments of the Venezuela Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Box cores of surface (0 to 30-cm) sediments from carbonate, hemipelagic, and turbidite sediment types of the deep (3493 to 5039-m) Venezuelan Basin were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the vertical distribution of bacteria, lipids, lipid phosphate, and grain size. The polar lipid fraction was isolated chromatographically and quantified by flame-ionization detection using the Iatroscan TH-10 analyzer. Total bacterial abundance was measured by epifluorescence microscopy in sediments (0 to 20-cm) from the carbonate and turbidite sediments. In all three sediment types investigated, both total and polar lipid concentrations decreased with increasing depth in the sediment. The highest total and polar lipid concentrations were at the sediment-water interface (0 to 2-cm) of hemipelagic sediments (62.0 and 25.7 ?g g -1 dry sediment, respectively) followed by the carbonate and turbidite sediments. A similar decline in lipid phosphate was also observed. Bacterial abundance was > 5 × 10 8 bacteria (per gram dry sediment) at the sediment surface in both sediments examined and over 1 × 10 7 bacteria 20 cm below the sediment-water interface. Polar lipid and lipid phosphate concentrations did not appear to correlate with estimates of bacterial biomass, even in regions where bacteria were apparently the only organisms present.

Harvey, H. Rodger; Richardson, Michael D.; Patton, John S.

1984-04-01

306

Distribution of aerobic bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi in deep subsurface sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of microorganisms in deep subsurface profiles was determined at three sites at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Acridine orange direct counts (AODC) of bacteria were highest in surface soil samples and declined to the 10 to 10 per gram range in the subsurface, but then did not decline further with depth. In the subsurface, AODC values

J. L. Sinclair; W. C. Ghiorse

1989-01-01

307

Contribution of Aerobic Photoheterotrophic Bacteria to the Carbon Cycle in the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of bacteriochlorophyll a, the numbers of infrared fluorescent cells, and the variable fluorescence signal at 880 nanometers wave- length, all indicate that photosynthetically competent anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are abundant in the upper open ocean and comprise at least 11% of the total microbial community. These organisms are facultative photohetero- trophs, metabolizing organic carbon when available, but are

Zbigniew S. Kolber; F. Gerald Plumley; Andrew S. Lang; J. Thomas Beatty; Robert E. Blankenship; Cindy L. VanDover; Costantino Vetriani; Michal Koblizek; Christopher Rathgeber; Paul G. Falkowski

2001-01-01

308

Population of aerobic heterotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with wetland and dryland rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing activity and populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with two varieties of rice grown in dryland and wetland conditions were measured at various growth stages during the dry season. Acetylene reduction activities were measured both in the field and for the hydroponically grown rice, which was transferred from the field to water culture 1 day before assay. The activities measured

W. L. Barraquio; M. R. De Guzman; M. Barrion; I. Watanahe

1982-01-01

309

Effect of selected monoterpenes on methane oxidation, denitrification, and aerobic metabolism by bacteria in pure culture.  

PubMed

Selected monoterpenes inhibited methane oxidation by methanotrophs (Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylobacter luteus), denitrification by environmental isolates, and aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophic pure cultures. Inhibition occurred to various extents and was transient. Complete inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b with 1.1 mM (-)-alpha-pinene lasted for more than 2 days with a culture of optical density of 0.05 before activity resumed. Inhibition was greater under conditions under which particulate methane monooxygenase was expressed. No apparent consumption or conversion of monoterpenes by methanotrophs was detected by gas chromatography, and the reason that transient inhibition occurs is not clear. Aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophs was much less sensitive than methanotrophy was; Escherichia coli (optical density, 0.01), for example, was not affected by up to 7.3 mM (-)-alpha-pinene. The degree of inhibition was monoterpene and species dependent. Denitrification by isolates from a polluted sediment was not inhibited by 3.7 mM (-)-alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene, or beta-myrcene, whereas 50 to 100% inhibition was observed for isolates from a temperate swamp soil. The inhibitory effect of monoterpenes on methane oxidation was greatest with unsaturated, cyclic hydrocarbon forms [e.g., (-)-alpha-pinene, (S)-(-)-limonene, (R)-(+)-limonene, and gamma-terpinene]. Lower levels of inhibition occurred with oxide and alcohol derivatives [(R)-(+)-limonene oxide, alpha-pinene oxide, linalool, alpha-terpineol] and a noncyclic hydrocarbon (beta-myrcene). Isomers of pinene inhibited activity to different extents. Given their natural sources, monoterpenes may be significant factors affecting bacterial activities in nature. PMID:9464387

Amaral, J A; Ekins, A; Richards, S R; Knowles, R

1998-02-01

310

Phenotypic and genotypic identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional pickles of the Çubuk region in Turkey.  

PubMed

A total of 152 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from pickles produced in the Ankara-Çubuk region. These isolates were clustered into eight groups on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics including cell morphology, CO2 production from glucose, growth at 10 and 45 °C, growth in 6.5 % NaCl, and growth at pH 9.6. API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation test, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein profile analysis were also performed for precise identification of the isolates at the species level. Molecular identification revealed that the most prevalent LAB species involved in pickle fermentation were Pediococcus ethanolidurans (46 isolates, 30.3 %), Lactobacillus brevis (37 isolates, 24.3 %), Lactobacillus plantarum (37 isolates, 24.3 %), and Lactobacillus buchneri (15 isolates, 9.9 %). Other LAB were found in minor frequencies such as Pediococcus parvulus (8 isolates, 5.3 %), Lactobacillus namurensis (6 isolates, 3.9 %), Lactobacillus diolivorans (1 isolate, 0.7 %), Lactobacillus parabrevis (1 isolate, 0.7 %), and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1 isolate, 0.7 %). When results of phenotypic and genotypic identification methods were compared, differences in the species distribution of LAB associated with pickles were defined between the API and the 16S rRNA sequencing. The API 50 CHL test coincided with the 16S rRNA results in 71 out of the 152 tested isolates, indicating that API gave unreliable identification results. A clear correlation could not be found between the results of whole-cell SDS profiles and 16S rRNA sequencing. Therefore, molecular characterization by 16S rRNA sequencing was considered to be the most reliable method for identifying isolates. The results presented in this work provide insight in to the LAB population associated with traditional Çubuk pickles and constitute a LAB strain resource for further studies involving the development of starter cultures. PMID:25404550

Ba?der Elmac?, Simel; Tokatl?, Mehmet; Dursun, Derya; Ozçelik, Filiz; Sanl?baba, P?nar

2014-11-18

311

Natural populations of lactic acid bacteria associated with silage fermentation as determined by phenotype, 16S ribosomal RNA and recA gene analysis.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty-six strains isolated from corn (Zea mays L.), forage paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silages prepared on dairy farms were screened, of which 110 isolates were considered to be lactic acid bacteria (LAB) according to their Gram-positive and catalase-negative characteristics and, mainly, the lactic acid metabolic products. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) based on the following properties: morphological and biochemical characteristics, ?-aminobutyric acid production capacity, and 16S rRNA gene sequences. They were identified as Weissella cibaria (36.4%), Weissella confusa (9.1%), Leuconostoc citreum (5.3%), Leuconostoc lactis (4.9%), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (8.0%), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (4.5%), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (4.5%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (27.3%). W. cibaria and W. confusa were mainly present in corn silages, and L. plantarum was dominant on sorghum and forage paddy rice silages, while L. pseudomesenteroides, L. plantarum and L. paraplantarum were the dominant species in alfalfa silage. The corn, sorghum and forage paddy rice silages were well preserved with lower pH values and ammonia-N concentrations, but had higher lactic acid content, while the alfalfa silage had relatively poor quality with higher pH values and ammonia-N concentrations, and lower lactic acid content. The present study confirmed the diversity of LAB species inhabiting silages. It showed that the differing natural populations of LAB on these silages might influence fermentation quality. These results will enable future research on the relationship between LAB species and silage fermentation quality, and will enhance the screening of appropriate inoculants aimed at improving such quality. PMID:21282025

Pang, Huili; Qin, Guangyong; Tan, Zhongfang; Li, Zongwei; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin

2011-05-01

312

Aerobic Bacteria Cultured fromtheMouthoftheAmerican Opossum(Didelphis virginiana) withReference to  

Microsoft Academic Search

uri. Otherisolates included Neisseria spp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citro- bacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Eikenella corrodens, Fla- vobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Oerskovia spp., Pseu- domonas spp.(not Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Bacillus spp., andCorynebacterium spp.Alphastreptococci wereabun- dantincultures fromallanimals. Bacillus spp.fromsix opossums exhibited moderate growth. Little growth ofE. coli wasdetected infive ofsevensubjects. Theremaining bacteria wereeachpresent inonlyoneortwoanimals exhibiting little growth. Eikenella corrodens (twoanimals)

Bacteria Associated; WILLIAMC. DALSEY

1990-01-01

313

Aerobic degradation of a mixture of azo dyes in a packed bed reactor having bacteria-coated laterite pebbles.  

PubMed

A microbial consortium capable of aerobic degradation of a mixture of azo dyes consisting of two isolated strains (RRL,TVM) and one known strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 1194) was immobilized on laterite stones. The amount of bacterial biomass attached to the laterite stones was 8.64 g per 100 g of the stone on a dry weight basis. The packed bed reactor was filled with these stones and had a total capacity of 850 mL and a void volume of 210 mL. The feed consisted of an equal mixture of seven azo dyes both in water as well as in a simulated textile effluent, at a pH of 9.0 and a salinity of 900 mg/L. The dye concentrations of influent were 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL. The residence time was varied between 0.78 and 6.23 h. It was found that at the lowest residence time 23.55, 45.73, and 79.95 microg of dye was degraded per hour at an initial dye concentration of 25, 50, and 100 microg, respectively. The pH was reduced from 9.0 to 7.0. Simulated textile effluent containing 50 microg/mL dye was degraded by 61.7%. Analysis of degradation products by TLC and HPLC showed that the dye mixture was degraded to nontoxic smaller molecules. The bacteria-coated pebbles were stable, there was no washout even after 2 months, and the reactor was found to be suitable for the aerobic degradation of azo dyes. PMID:12675610

Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Abraham, T Emilia

2003-01-01

314

Evaluation of an optical microbiological method for rapidly estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork.  

PubMed

The BioSys optical methods for estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork were evaluated. Ground pork samples were analyzed immediately, after temperature abuse at 25 degrees C for various periods of time, or after temperature abuse and dilution by mixing with pork that was prepared by grinding whole muscles that had the outer portion excised using a sterile scalpel. Each ground pork sample was tested using standard methods such as aerobic plate counts (APC), violet red bile (VRB) agar plate counts (coliforms), and three-tube most probable numbers (MPN--E. coli). Each sample was tested using the BioSys for total viable counts (TVC) by placing 2 ml of ground pork homogenate (25 g into 225 ml of sterile 1% buffered peptone water) into 8 ml of nutrient medium containing brom-cresol purple in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. Coliforms were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of coliform medium (CM) in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. E. coli were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of double-strength CM with 2% dextrose in a test vial and monitoring at 42 degrees C. The correlation coefficients for the regression lines comparing APC to BioSys TVC detection times (DT), VRB to BioSys coliform DT, and MPN to BioSys E. coli DT were -0.95, -0.94, and -0.93, and the line equations were logl0 CFU/ml = 8.94 - 0.40(DT), log10 CFU/ml = 8.77 - 0.43(DT), and log10 CFU/ml = 8.96 - 0.81(DT), respectively. These methods may allow pork producers to monitor equipment surfaces and products in less than 16 h and obtain microbiological results prior to shipment. PMID:11347998

Russell, S M

2001-05-01

315

Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Fish and the Fish Farm Environment, Established by Amplified rRNA Gene Restriction Analysis?  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria have become a major source of concern for aquaculture in recent decades. In addition to true pathogenic species of worldwide significance, such as Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae, several species have been reported to produce occasional fish mortalities in limited geographic areas, and many unidentifiable or ill-defined isolates are regularly isolated from fish or fish products. To clarify the nature and prevalence of different fish-associated bacteria belonging to the lactic acid bacterium group, a collection of 57 isolates of different origins was studied and compared with a set of 22 type strains, using amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA). Twelve distinct clusters were delineated on the basis of ARDRA profiles and were confirmed by sequencing of sodA and 16S rRNA genes. These clusters included the following: Lactococcus raffinolactis, L. garvieae, Lactococcus l., S. iniae, S. dysgalactiae, S. parauberis, S. agalactiae, Carnobacterium spp., the Enterococcus “faecium” group, a heterogeneous Enterococcus-like cluster comprising indiscernible representatives of Vagococcus fluvialis or the recently recognized V. carniphilus, V. salmoninarum, and Aerococcus spp. Interestingly, the L. lactis and L. raffinolactis clusters appeared to include many commensals of fish, so opportunistic infections caused by these species cannot be disregarded. The significance for fish populations and fish food processing of three or four genetic clusters of uncertain or complex definition, namely, Aerococcus and Enterococcus clusters, should be established more accurately. PMID:17337536

Michel, Christian; Pelletier, Claire; Boussaha, Mekki; Douet, Diane-Gaëlle; Lautraite, Armand; Tailliez, Patrick

2007-01-01

316

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with fish and the fish farm environment, established by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria have become a major source of concern for aquaculture in recent decades. In addition to true pathogenic species of worldwide significance, such as Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae, several species have been reported to produce occasional fish mortalities in limited geographic areas, and many unidentifiable or ill-defined isolates are regularly isolated from fish or fish products. To clarify the nature and prevalence of different fish-associated bacteria belonging to the lactic acid bacterium group, a collection of 57 isolates of different origins was studied and compared with a set of 22 type strains, using amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA). Twelve distinct clusters were delineated on the basis of ARDRA profiles and were confirmed by sequencing of sodA and 16S rRNA genes. These clusters included the following: Lactococcus raffinolactis, L. garvieae, Lactococcus l., S. iniae, S. dysgalactiae, S. parauberis, S. agalactiae, Carnobacterium spp., the Enterococcus "faecium" group, a heterogeneous Enterococcus-like cluster comprising indiscernible representatives of Vagococcus fluvialis or the recently recognized V. carniphilus, V. salmoninarum, and Aerococcus spp. Interestingly, the L. lactis and L. raffinolactis clusters appeared to include many commensals of fish, so opportunistic infections caused by these species cannot be disregarded. The significance for fish populations and fish food processing of three or four genetic clusters of uncertain or complex definition, namely, Aerococcus and Enterococcus clusters, should be established more accurately. PMID:17337536

Michel, Christian; Pelletier, Claire; Boussaha, Mekki; Douet, Diane-Gaëlle; Lautraite, Armand; Tailliez, Patrick

2007-05-01

317

Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.  

PubMed

Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions. PMID:25084651

Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

2014-12-01

318

Population Changes in Enteric Bacteria and Other Microorganisms During Aerobic Thermophilic Windrow Composting1  

PubMed Central

Composting of wastes from swine feeding operations was studied. The effects of the frequency of turning the wastes and addition of straw to improve the physical structure were studied to determine the most effective technique to rapidly increase the temperature and, consequently, destroy coliforms and Salmonella. Four different treatments were studied; the results showed that, with addition of 5% (wt/wt) straw and mechanical turning of the compost 20 times per week, the temperature reached 60 C within 3 days and enteric bacteria were destroyed within 14 days. Images PMID:4203338

Savage, Jacob; Chase, Theodore; Macmillan, James D.

1973-01-01

319

Formation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria and Its Relationship to Carbon Source and Light Availability?  

PubMed Central

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are unique players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Cellular carbon storage is an important mechanism regulating the nutrition status of AAPB but is not yet well understood. In this paper, six AAPB species (Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114, Roseobacter litoralis OCh 149, Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12T, Labrenzia alexandrii DFL 11T, and Erythrobacter longus DSMZ 6997) were examined, and all of them demonstrated the ability to form the carbon polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in the cell. The PHA in Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447 was identified as poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) according to evidence from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations. Carbon sources turned out to be critical for PHA production in AAPB. Among the eight media tested with Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, sodium acetate, giving a PHA production rate of 72%, was the most productive carbon source, followed by glucose, with a 68% PHA production rate. Such PHA production rates are among the highest recorded for all bacteria. The C/N ratio of substrates was verified by the experiments as another key factor in PHA production. In the case of R. denitrificans OCh 114, PHA was not detected when the organism was cultured at C/N ratios of <2 but became apparent at C/N ratios of >3. Light is also important for the formation of PHA in AAPB. In the case of Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, up to a one-quarter increase in PHB production was observed when the culture underwent growth in a light-dark cycle compared to growth completely in the dark. PMID:21908634

Xiao, Na; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-01-01

320

Enzyme activities of aerobic lignocellulolytic bacteria isolated from wet tropical forest soils.  

PubMed

Lignocellulolytic bacteria have promised to be a fruitful source of new enzymes for next-generation lignocellulosic biofuel production. Puerto Rican tropical forest soils were targeted because the resident microbes decompose biomass quickly and to near-completion. Isolates were initially screened based on growth on cellulose or lignin in minimal media. 75 Isolates were further tested for the following lignocellulolytic enzyme activities: phenol oxidase, peroxidase, ?-d-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-xylopyranosidase, chitinase, CMCase, and xylanase. Cellulose-derived isolates possessed elevated ?-d-glucosidase, CMCase, and cellobiohydrolase activity but depressed phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity, while the contrary was true of lignin isolates, suggesting that these bacteria are specialized to subsist on cellulose or lignin. Cellobiohydrolase and phenol oxidase activity rates could classify lignin and cellulose isolates with 61% accuracy, which demonstrates the utility of model degradation assays. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates belonged to phyla dominant in the Puerto Rican soils, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, suggesting that many dominant taxa are capable of the rapid lignocellulose degradation characteristic of these soils. The isolated genera Aquitalea, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Gordonia, and Paenibacillus represent rarely or never before studied lignolytic or cellulolytic species and were undetected by metagenomic analysis of the soils. The study revealed a relationship between phylogeny and lignocellulose-degrading potential, supported by Kruskal-Wallis statistics which showed that enzyme activities of cultivated phyla and genera were different enough to be considered representatives of distinct populations. This can better inform future experiments and enzyme discovery efforts. PMID:24238986

Woo, Hannah L; Hazen, Terry C; Simmons, Blake A; DeAngelis, Kristen M

2014-02-01

321

Effect of gamma Irradiation on the Microflora of Freshwater Fish: II. Generic Identification of Aerobic Bacteria from Yellow Perch Fillets.  

PubMed

Studies on the generic identification of bacteria isolated from nonirradiated and irradiated (0.3 and 0.6 Mrad) yellow perch fillets during the course of microbial spoilage have been conducted. After the enumeration and tabulation of macrocolonies on petri dish cultures obtained from fillets, isolates were examined and keyed out essentially according to modified morphological and biochemical protocols of Shewan. Identification was further confirmed through reference to Bergey's Manual. Data obtained from each isolate were coded and recorded on IBM cards to facilitate identification. Total aerobic microbial plate counts obtained from nonirradiated perch before storage ranged from 10 to 10 microorganisms per gram of fish. Organisms isolated from these fillets, in order of decreasing number, consisted of Achromobacter, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Brevibacterium, Micrococcus, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Sarcina, Microbacterium, Corynebacterium, yeasts, Lactobacillus, Vibrio, Aeromonas, and a few Proteus and Escherichia cells. During storage and as spoilage progressed, the flora shifted and the pseudomonads became predominant. Irradiation of fillets to 0.3 and 0.6 Mrad reduced the aforementioned flora to the Achromobacter-Alcaligenes group, which constituted the residual flora throughout fillet storage. PMID:16349702

Kazanas, N

1966-11-01

322

Microbiologically influenced corrosion of 304 stainless steel by aerobic Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 bacteria: AFM and XPS study.  

PubMed

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steel 304 by a marine aerobic Pseudomonas bacterium in a seawater-based medium was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM was used to observe in situ the proliferation of a sessile Pseudomonas cell by binary fission. The development of a biofilm on the coupon surface and the extent of corrosion damage beneath the biofilm after various exposure times were also characterized by AFM. Results showed that the biofilm formed on the coupon surface increased in thickness and heterogeneity with time, and thus resulting in the occurrence of extensive micro-pitting corrosion; whilst the depth of pits increased linearly with time. The XPS results confirmed that the colonization of Pseudomonas bacteria on the coupon surface induced subtle changes in the alloy elemental composition in the outermost layer of surface films. The most significant feature resulting from microbial colonization on the coupon surface was the depletion of iron (Fe) and the enrichment of chromium (Cr) content as compared to a control coupon exposed to the sterile medium, and the enrichment of Cr increased with time. These compositional changes in the main alloying elements may be correlated with the occurrence of extensive micropitting corrosion on the surface. PMID:17582747

Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O

2007-09-01

323

Aerobic uranium (VI) bioprecipitation by metal-resistant bacteria isolated from radionuclide- and metal-contaminated subsurface soils.  

PubMed

In this study, the immobilization of toxic uranium [U(VI)] mediated by the intrinsic phosphatase activities of naturally occurring bacteria isolated from contaminated subsurface soils was examined. The phosphatase phenotypes of strains belonging to the genera, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella, previously isolated from subsurface soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC), were determined. The ORFRC represents a unique, extreme environment consisting of highly acidic soils with co-occurring heavy metals, radionuclides and high nitrate concentrations. Isolates exhibiting phosphatase-positive phenotypes indicative of constitutive phosphatase activity were subsequently tested in U(VI) bioprecipitation assays. When aerobically grown in synthetic groundwater (pH 5.5) amended with 10 mM glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), phosphatase-positive Bacillus and Rahnella spp. strains Y9-2 and Y9602 liberated sufficient phosphate to precipitate 73% and 95% of total soluble U added as 200 microM uranyl acetate respectively. In contrast, an Arthrobacter sp. X34 exhibiting a phosphatase-negative phenotype did not liberate phosphate from G3P or promote U(VI) precipitation. This study provides the first evidence of U(VI) precipitation via the phosphatase activity of naturally occurring Bacillus and Rahnella spp. isolated from the acidic subsurface at the DOE ORFRC. PMID:17991039

Martinez, Robert J; Beazley, Melanie J; Taillefert, Martial; Arakaki, Adrian K; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Sobecky, Patricia A

2007-12-01

324

Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden  

PubMed Central

Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gram-negative (58%) bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130) showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2–8 mM) when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92) tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB) broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6–17.8 mM), the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate. PMID:24159321

Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A.K.

2013-01-01

325

The determination of the real nano-scale sizes of bacteria in chernozem during microbial succession by means of hatching of a soil in aerobic and anaerobic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M.A. Gorbacheva,L.M. Polyanskaya The Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow,119991,Russia In recent years there's been particular attention paid to the smallest life's forms- bacteria which size can be measured in nanometer. These are the forms of bacteria with diameter of 5-200 nm. Theoretical calculations based on the content of the minimum number of DNA, enzyme, lipids in and ribosome in cells indicates impossibility of existence of a living cells within diameter less than 300 nm. It is theoretically possible for a living cell to exist within possible diameter of approximately 140 nm. Using a fluorescence microscope there's been indicated in a number of samples from lakes, rivers, soil, snow and rain water that 200 nm is the smallest diameter of a living cell. Supposingly, such a small size of bacteria in soil is determined by natural conditions which limit their development by nutritious substances and stress-factors. Rejuvenescence of nanobacteria under unfavourable natural conditions and stress-factors is studied in laboratory environment. The object of the current study has become the samples of typical arable chernozem of the Central Chernozem State Biosphere Reserve in Kursk. The detailed morphological description of the soil profile and its basic analytical characteristics are widely represented in scientific publications. The soil is characterized by a high carbon content which makes up 3,96% ,3,8% , and 2,9% for the upper layers of the A horizon, and 0,79% for the layer of the B horizon. A microbial succession was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by means of experiments with microcosms in upper A horizons and B horizon of a chernozem. The final aim is to identify the cells size of bacteria in aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions in chernozem during the microbial succession, by dampening and application of chitin by means of «cascade filtration» method. The study of the microcosms is important for understanding natural mechanisms in soil and will be useful for the development of new soil models in laboratory. Thus, by means of «cascade filtration» method there've been made some results on true size, quantity and biomass of bacteria. Development of a bacteria in various soil horizons and their layers in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and calculations of biomass of bacteria in upper layer horizon A and lower layer horizon B have also become the subjects of the studies. It was identified that the quantity of bacteria in aerobic conditions increase during the microbial succession while bacteria sized 230 and 380 nm were dominating. In anaerobic conditions the process of connecting cells sized 170 nm and bacteria is observed. Biomass of bacteria is higher in anaerobic conditions in upper layer horizon A because of elevated variety of bacteria. In horizon B in anaerobic conditions it is of maximum because of anaerobic situation in situ. Thus, distribution of bacteria's size depends on aeration of soil. That helps to acknowledge the receipt of theory of a great number of researchers about that fact that the size of bacteria in the soil in anaerobic conditions decrease under stress-factors. This work touches upon such a poorly investigated subject as nanobacteria in the soil. But this knowledge plays a significant role in land reclamation oil-cut and prognostication pollution of the soil by pathogenic bacteria.

Gorbacheva, M.

2012-04-01

326

Halolactibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Halolactibacillus miurensis sp. nov., halophilic and alkaliphilic marine lactic acid bacteria constituting a phylogenetic lineage in Bacillus rRNA group 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven novel strains of marine-inhabiting lactic acid bacteria that were isolated from living and decaying marine organisms collected from a temperate area of Japan are described. The isolates were motile with peritrichous flagella and non-sporulating. They lacked catalase, quinones and cytochromes. Fermentation products from glucose were lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Lactate yield as percentage conversion from glucose was affected

Morio Ishikawa; Kazuyuki Nakajima; Yuko Itamiya; Sayumi Furukawa; Yasushi Yamamoto; Kazuhide Yamasato

2005-01-01

327

Effect of fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria, in process combinations, on characteristics of rice\\/soybean slurries: A new method for preparing high energy density complementary foods for young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) in new methods to prepare high energy density complementary foods for young children was investigated. Using gelatinised slurry, composed of a mixture of rice with soybean, fermentation kinetics by the ALAB Lactobacillus plantarum A6, and chemical and rheological changes were studied at different dry matter (DM) contents. At high DM content (23%),

Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen; Gérard Loiseau; Christèle Icard-Vernière; Isabelle Rochette; Serge Trèche; Jean-Pierre Guyot

2007-01-01

328

Sequencing of variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene for identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the intestinal microbiota of healthy salmonids.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Thirteen LAB strains were isolated from the intestinal microbiota of healthy salmonids. A approximately 500-bp region of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified and following this, a portion of the amplicon (272-bp) including the V1 and V2 variable regions was sequenced. The sequence containing both the V1 and V2 region provided strong evidence for the identification of LAB. The LAB strains were identified as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The method described was found to be a very simple, rapid, specific, and low-cost tool for the identification of unknown strains of LAB. PMID:17239438

Balcázar, José Luis; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Vendrell, Daniel; Gironés, Olivia; Muzquiz, José Luis

2007-03-01

329

The Use of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry, Ribotyping and Phenotypic Tests to Identify Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Cereal Foods in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein analysis, automated ribotyping, and phenotypic tests (e.g., cell morphology, gas production from glucose, growth and acid production on homofermemtative-heterofermentative differential (HHD) agar medium, sugar fermentation patterns) were used to identify 23 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented cereal foods available in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Pediococcus acidilactici (56.5%), Lactobacillus fermentum (30.4%), L. salivarius (4.3%), P. pentosaceus (4.3%) and L. plantarum subsp. plantarum (4.3%) were the species and subspecies identified. Protein based identification was confirmed by automated ribotyping for selected isolates and was similar to that provided by the phenotypic characterization. MALDI-TOF MS protein analysis provided a high level of discrimination among the isolates and could be used for the rapid screening of LAB starter cultures. PMID:25279017

Soro-Yao, Amenan A; Schumann, Peter; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi M; Pukall, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

330

The influence of the cell free solution of lactic acid bacteria on tyramine production by food borne-pathogens in tyrosine decarboxylase broth.  

PubMed

The function of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on tyramine and other biogenic amine production by different food borne-pathogens (FBPs) was investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth (TDB) using HPLC. Cell free solutions were prepared from four LAB strains. Two different concentrations which were 50% (5 ml CFS+5 ml medium/1:1) and 25% (2.5 ml CFS+7.5 ml medium/1:3) CFS and the control without CFS were prepared. Both concentration of CFS of Streptococcus thermophilus and 50% CFS of Pediococcus acidophilus inhibited tyramine production up to 98% by Salmonella paratyphi A. Tyramine production by Escherichia coli was also inhibited by 50% CFS of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and 25% CFS of Leuconostoc lactis. subsp. cremoris. The inhibitor effect of 50% CFS of P. acidophilus was the highest on tyramine production (55%) by Listeria monocytogenes, following Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (20%) whilst 25% CFS of Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis showed stimulator effects (160%). The stimulation effects of 50% CFS of S. thermophilus and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis were more than 70% by Staphylococcus aureus comparing to the control. CFS of LAB strains showed statistically inhibitor effect since lactic acid inhibited microbial growth, decreased pH quickly and reduced the formation of AMN and BAs. Consequently, in order to avoid the formation of high concentrations of biogenic amines in fermented food by bacteria, it is advisable to use CFS for food and food products. PMID:25465993

Toy, Nurten; Özogul, Fatih; Özogul, Yesim

2015-04-15

331

Production of biogenic amines by lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria isolated from fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept under refrigeration.  

PubMed

The occurrence of in vitro amino acid activity in bacterial strains associated with fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept in refrigeration was studied. The presence of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and by the presence of the corresponding decarboxylase genes by PCR. From the 93 lactic acid bacteria and 100 enterobacteria strains analysed, the decarboxylase medium underestimates the number of biogenic amine-producer strains. 28% of the lactic acid bacteria produced tyramine and presented the tdc gene. All the tyramine-producer strains were molecularly identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Differences on the relative abundance of C. divergens were observed among the different packaging atmospheres assayed. After 28 days of storage, the presence of argon seems to inhibit C. divergens growth, while packing under vacuum seems to favour it. Among enterobacteria, putrescine was the amine more frequently produced (87%), followed by cadaverine (85%); agmatine and tyramine were only produced by 13 and 1%, respectively, of the strains analysed. Packing under vacuum or in an atmosphere containing nitrogen seems to inhibit the growth of enterobacteria which produce simultaneously putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine. Contrarily, over-wrapping or packing in an atmosphere containing argon seems to favour the growth of agmatine producer-enterobacteria. The production of putrescine and cadaverine was associated with the presence of the corresponding amino acid decarboxylase genes. The biogenic amine-producer strains were included in a wide range of enterobacterial species, including Kluyvera intermedia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia kristensenii, Serratia grimesii, Serratia ficaria, Yersinia rodhei, Providencia vermicola and Obesumbacterium proteus. PMID:21316866

Curiel, J A; Ruiz-Capillas, C; de Las Rivas, B; Carrascosa, A V; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Muñoz, R

2011-07-01

332

LAB-Secretome: a genome-scale comparative analysis of the predicted extracellular and surface-associated proteins of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background In Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), the extracellular and surface-associated proteins can be involved in processes such as cell wall metabolism, degradation and uptake of nutrients, communication and binding to substrates or hosts. A genome-scale comparative study of these proteins (secretomes) can provide vast information towards the understanding of the molecular evolution, diversity, function and adaptation of LAB to their specific environmental niches. Results We have performed an extensive prediction and comparison of the secretomes from 26 sequenced LAB genomes. A new approach to detect homolog clusters of secretome proteins (LaCOGs) was designed by integrating protein subcellular location prediction and homology clustering methods. The initial clusters were further adjusted semi-manually based on multiple sequence alignments, domain compositions, pseudogene analysis and biological function of the proteins. Ubiquitous protein families were identified, as well as species-specific, strain-specific, and niche-specific LaCOGs. Comparative analysis of protein subfamilies has shown that the distribution and functional specificity of LaCOGs could be used to explain many niche-specific phenotypes. A comprehensive and user-friendly database LAB-Secretome was constructed to store, visualize and update the extracellular proteins and LaCOGs http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/lab_secretome/. This database will be updated regularly when new bacterial genomes become available. Conclusions The LAB-Secretome database could be used to understand the evolution and adaptation of lactic acid bacteria to their environmental niches, to improve protein functional annotation and to serve as basis for targeted experimental studies. PMID:21092245

2010-01-01

333

Microbial Lactic Acid Production from Renewable Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lactic acid is widely used in the food, chemical, textile, and pharmaceutical industries. New applications of lactic acid\\u000a for the manufacture of biodegradable polymers have increased the demand for it. Lactic acid can be produced from cheese whey\\u000a and starchy and lignocellulosic biomass via microbial fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or fungi. Pure sugar and\\u000a cheese whey can be

Yebo Li; Fengjie Cui

334

The effects of wilting and storage temperatures on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage.  

PubMed

In order to clarify the ensiling characteristics of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Swartz), the effects of wilting (no wilting, light wilting and heavy wilting) and storage temperatures (10°C, 20°C, 30°C and 40°C) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage were investigated. Wilting had no significant influence on the contents of crude protein, ether extract and acid detergent fiber, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria, aerobic bacteria, yeasts and mold (P > 0.05). Heavy wilted material, wilted for 12 h, had higher neutral detergent fiber content and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content than unwilted and light wilted materials (P < 0.05). Wilting and storage temperatures had significant effects on pH value, acetic acid, butyric acid and NH(3) -N contents of stylo silage (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Wilting tended to reduce acetic acid and NH(3) -N contents and improve the fermentation quality of stylo silage. In all the silages, no wilting silage ensiled at 30°C had the highest butyric acid content (P < 0.05). High temperature of 40°C markedly restricted the growth of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria in silage, irrespective of wilting. The wilted silage or silage stored at low temperature had poor aerobic stability. PMID:21794013

Liu, Qinghua; Zhang, Jianguo; Shi, Shangli; Sun, Qizhong

2011-08-01

335

Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol. PMID:21803901

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

336

Phenotypic identification and technological attributes of native lactic acid bacteria present in fermented bamboo shoot products from North-East India.  

PubMed

Fermented bamboo shoots such as Soibum, Soidon, Eup, Hirring, Hecche and Ekung etc. are non-salted acidic products obtained by natural fermentation predominantly with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we have characterized 11-representative LAB that includes, Lactobacillus sp. (n?=?2), Lactobacillus plantarum (n?=?3), and one each of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc sp. and Lactobacillus xylosus. Subsequently, these cultures were studied for their technological and functional properties. Different isolates exhibited variation in their activities. L. brevis showed maximum phytic acid degradation ability (19.33 U ml (-1) ). L. xylosus had highest protease activity (64.2 nmol/ml) and also exhibited lipolytic activity. In addition, degree of cell hydrophobicity among these cultures ranged between 12.5 and 93.48 % with L. plantarum (SM2) showing highest degree of activity. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most common species found in the product studied. Results indicated that most of the LABs showed putative probiotic as well as antagonistic properties against the selected pathogenic bacteria. Characteristic aroma, flavour and texture in the fermented bamboo shoot products could be attributed to presence of these new LAB isolates. PMID:25477695

Sonar, Nitin R; Halami, Prakash M

2014-12-01

337

Antifungal activity of strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a semolina ecosystem against Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus niger and Endomyces fibuliger contaminating bakery products.  

PubMed

Thirty samples of Italian durum wheat semolina and whole durum wheat semolina, generally used for the production of Southern Italy's traditional breads, were subjected to microbiological analysis in order to explore their lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity and to find strains with antifungal activity. A total of 125 presumptive LAB isolates (Gram-positive and catalase-negative) were characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, leading to the identification of the following species: Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus rossiae and Lactobacillus plantarum. The REP-PCR results delineated 17 different patterns whose cluster analysis clearly differentiated W. cibaria from W. confusa isolates. Seventeen strains, each characterized by a different REP-PCR pattern, were screened for their antifungal properties. They were grown in a flour-based medium, comparable to a real food system, and the resulting fermentation products (FPs) were tested against fungal species generally contaminating bakery products, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti and Endomyces fibuliger. The results of the study indicated a strong inhibitory activity - comparable to that obtained with the common preservative calcium propionate (0.3% w/v) - of ten LAB strains against the most widespread contaminant of bakery products, P. roqueforti. The screening also highlighted the unexplored antifungal activity of L. citreum, L. rossiae and W. cibaria (1 strain), which inhibited all fungal strains to the same or a higher extent compared with calcium propionate. The fermentation products of these three strains were characterized by low pH values, and a high content of lactic and acetic acids. PMID:19243908

Valerio, Francesca; Favilla, Mara; De Bellis, Palmira; Sisto, Angelo; de Candia, Silvia; Lavermicocca, Paola

2009-09-01

338

Association of mutation patterns in GyrA and ParC genes with quinolone resistance levels in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The quinolone resistance of 19 lactic acid bacterial strains belonging to the genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus isolated from the natural fermented koumiss and yoghurt were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the quinolone resistance levels and to explore the association of the resistance with the mutation patterns in gyrA and parC genes, as is currently recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee in Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food for probiotic lactic acid bacteria drug resistance in 2001. The Oxford Cup method and double-tube dilution method were used to determine the quinolone resistance levels of the isolated strains. Generally, all of the 19 strains showed resistance towards norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin when the Oxford cup method was used, whereas the incidence was lower (to norfloxacin 89.5% and to ciprofloxacin 68.4%) when minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints (CLSI M100-S23) were tested. Furthermore, gene sequencing was conducted on gyrA and parC of topoisomerase II of these isolated strains. The genetic basis for quinolone resistance may be closely related to mutations in gyrA genes as there were 10 mutation sites in amino-acid sequences encoded by gyrA genes in 10 quinolone resistance strains and 14 mutation sites in Enterococcus durans HZ28, whereas no typical mutations were detected in parC genes.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 10 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.113. PMID:25204345

Li, Shaoying; Li, Zhen; Wei, Wan; Ma, Chunyan; Song, Xiaomin; Li, Shufen; He, Wenying; Tian, Jianjun; Huo, Xiaoyan

2014-09-10

339

ISOLATIONS OF AEROBIC BACTERIA FROM WILD DESERT BIGHORN SHEEP (OVIS CANADENSIS NELSON! AND 0. C. MEX!CANA) IN ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal, pharyngeal, cervical and vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 74 desert bighorn sheep for the purpose of investigating the normal aerobic bacterial flora of wild sheep. A total of 281 isolates was obtained and identified by standard microbiologic tests. One hundred seven of these isolates were gram positive and included Bacillus sp. (36%.), Staphylococcus epiderrnidis (8%), S. aureus (4%),

M. M. Marshall; J. Glenn Songer; C. J. Chilelli

340

Screening for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Campylobacter jejuni in in vitro simulations of the broiler chicken caecal environment.  

PubMed

Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., specifically Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, are the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in developed countries. Consumption of improperly prepared poultry products and cross contamination are among the main causes of human campylobacteriosis. The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains capable of inhibiting C. jejuni growth in initial in vitro trials ('spot-on-lawn' method), as well as in batch fermentation studies mimicking the broiler caecal environment. These experiments served as an indication for using these strains to decrease the capability of Campylobacter to colonise and grow in the chicken caeca during primary production, with the aim of reducing the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. A total of 1,150 LAB strains were screened for anti-Campylobacter activity. Six strains were selected: members of the species Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. After treatment with catalase, proteinase K and a-chymotrypsin, anti-Campylobacter activity of cell-free culture supernatant fluid (CSF) for all six strains was retained, which indicated that activity was probably not exerted by bacteriocin production. Based on the activity found in CSF, the compounds produced by the selected strains are secreted and do not require presence of live bacterial producer cells for activity. During initial in vitro fermentation experiments, the E. faecalis strain exhibited the highest inhibitory activity for C. jejuni and was selected for further fermentation experiments. In these experiments we tested for therapeutic or protective effects of the E. faecalis strain against C. jejuni MB 4185 infection under simulated broiler caecal growth conditions. The best inhibition results were obtained when E. faecalis was inoculated before the C. jejuni strain, lowering C. jejuni counts at least one log compared to a positive control. This effect was already observed 6 h after C. jejuni inoculation. PMID:23234730

Robyn, J; Rasschaert, G; Messens, W; Pasmans, F; Heyndrickx, M

2012-12-01

341

Isolation and Characterization of Acid-Tolerant, Thermophilic Bacteria for Effective Fermentation of Biomass-Derived Sugars to Lactic Acid  

PubMed Central

Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals by the appropriate microbes. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases that are required for depolymerization of cellulose to fermentable sugars and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial microbes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity, leading to a higher-than-required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial strains that grew and fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to l(+)-lactic acid at 50°C and pH 5.0, conditions that are also optimal for fungal cellulase activity. Xylose was metabolized by these new isolates through the pentose-phosphate pathway. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, [13C]lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products from [13C]xylose. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans, although the B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. These new B. coagulans isolates have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource, for the production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:16672461

Patel, Milind A.; Ou, Mark S.; Harbrucker, Roberta; Aldrich, Henry C.; Buszko, Marian L.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

2006-01-01

342

Characterization of pC7 from Lactobacillus paraplantarum C7 derived from Kimchi and development of lactic acid bacteria--Escherichia coli shuttle vector.  

PubMed

A cryptic plasmid pC7 was characterized, which was isolated from Lactobacillus paraplantarum C7 derived from Kimchi, a traditional korean vegetable food. The plasmid pC7 is a circular molecule of 2,134 base-pairs in length with a G + C content of 38.5%. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of an open reading frame encoding a putative 317 amino acids protein homologous to replication proteins RepA. Furthermore, a putative double and a single-strand origin were identified. Together with features of nucleotide sequences, the detection of single-stranded intermediate DNA in Lb. paraplantarum demonstrated that pC7 replicates via a rolling circle mechanism. A cloning vector for lactic acid bacteria was developed on the basis of the pC7 replicon, into which were inserted an erythromycin resistance gene as a marker, multiple cloning sites, and Escherichia coli ColE1 replication origin. E. coli and several species of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc can be transformed with the resultant vector. Therefore, pC7 derivatives may be useful LAB-E. coli shuttle vectors, which are essential in engineering important strains in food fermentation. PMID:15336486

Park, Woo Jung; Lee, Kwan Hoon; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyong Joo; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Chang, Hae Choon; Chung, Dae Kyun

2004-09-01

343

Lactic acid bacteria and natural antimicrobials to improve the safety and shelf-life of minimally processed sliced apples and lamb's lettuce.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of food-borne disease associated with the consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have increased dramatically over the last few years. Traditional chemical sanitizers are unable to completely eradicate or kill the microorganisms on fresh produce. These conditions have stimulated research to alternative methods for increasing food safety. The use of protective cultures, particularly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has been proposed for minimally processed products. However, the application of bioprotective cultures has been limited at the industrial level. From this perspective, the main aims of this study were to select LAB from minimally processed fruits and vegetables to be used as biocontrol agents and then to evaluate the effects of the selected strains, alone or in combination with natural antimicrobials (2-(E)-hexenal/hexanal, 2-(E)-hexenal/citral for apples and thyme for lamb's lettuce), on the shelf-life and safety characteristics of minimally processed apples and lamb's lettuce. The results indicated that applying the Lactobacillus plantarum strains CIT3 and V7B3 to apples and lettuce, respectively, increased both the safety and shelf-life. Moreover, combining the selected strains with natural antimicrobials produced a further increase in the shelf-life of these products without detrimental effects on the organoleptic qualities. PMID:25583340

Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

2015-05-01

344

Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods?  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

345

Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24?h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48?h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24?h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lin, Pei-Pei; Hsieh, You-Miin; Zhang, Zi-yi; Wu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chun-Chih

2014-01-01

346

Phages of lactic acid bacteria: The role of genetics in understanding phage-host interactions and their co-evolutionary processes  

SciTech Connect

Dairy fermentations are among the oldest food processing applications, aimed at preservation and shelf-life extension through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures, in particular strains of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. Traditionally this was performed by continuous passaging of undefined cultures from a finished fermentation to initiate the next fermentation. More recently, consumer demands on consistent and desired flavours and textures of dairy products have led to a more defined approach to such processes. Dairy (starter) companies have responded to the need to define the nature and complexity of the starter culture mixes, and dairy fermentations are now frequently based on defined starter cultures of low complexity, where each starter component imparts specific technological properties that are desirable to the product. Both mixed and defined starter culture approaches create the perfect environment for the proliferation of (bacterio)phages capable of infecting these LAB. The repeated use of the same starter cultures in a single plant, coupled to the drive towards higher and consistent production levels, increases the risk and negative impact of phage infection. In this review we will discuss recent advances in tracking the adaptation of phages to the dairy industry, the advances in understanding LAB phage-host interactions, including evolutionary and genomic aspects.

Mahony, Jennifer, E-mail: j.mahony@ucc.ie [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland)] [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Ainsworth, Stuart; Stockdale, Stephen [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland)] [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Sinderen, Douwe van, E-mail: d.vansinderen@ucc.ie [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland)

2012-12-20

347

Genetic screening of functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in a fermented pearl millet slurry and in the metagenome of fermented starchy foods.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

2011-12-01

348

Incorporation of nisI-mediated nisin immunity improves vector-based nisin-controlled gene expression in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used successfully to express a wide variety of recombinant proteins, ranging from flavor-active proteins to antibiotic peptides and oral vaccines. The nisin-controlled expression (NICE) system is the most prevalent of the systems for production of heterologous proteins in LAB. Previous optimization of the NICE system has revealed a strong limit on the concentration of the inducer nisin that can be tolerated by the culture of host cells. In this work, the nisin immunity gene, nisI, has been inserted into the recently reported pMSP3535H2 vector that contains the complete NICE system on a high-copy Escherichia coli-LAB shuttle vector. Fed-batch fermentation data show that Lactococcus lactis IL1403 cells transformed with the new vector, pMSP3535H3, tolerate a 5-fold increase in the concentration of the inducer nisin, and, at this elevated concentration, produce a 1.8-fold increased level of green fluorescent protein (GFP), a model recombinant protein. Therefore, the incorporation of nisI in the pMSP3535H3 NICE system described here unveils new ranges of induction parameters to be studied in the course of optimizing recombinant protein expression in LAB. PMID:19141301

Oddone, Gian M; Mills, David A; Block, David E

2009-05-01

349

Inactivation of exopolysaccharide and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde-producing lactic acid bacteria in apple juice and apple cider by enterocin AS-48.  

PubMed

The bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested against exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus dioliovorans and Pediococcus parvulus as well as two 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA)-producing Lb. collinoides strains causing apple cider spoilage. In fresh-made apple juice, a bacteriocin concentration of 2.5 microg/ml reduced the LAB viable cell counts below detection levels during the course of incubation at 10 and 22 degrees C for most strains tested, except for Lb. collinoides 5 and Lb. dioliovorans 29. These two strains were significantly inhibited at 10 degrees C by 5 microg/ml AS-48 or completely inactivated at 22 degrees C. In a commercial Basque apple cider, the added bacteriocin (2.5 microg/ml for Lb. collinoides strains 9 and 10, and 5 microg/ml for the rest of strains) completely inactivated all LAB strains tested during storage at 10 as well as 22 degrees C. In the commercial Asturian apple cider tested the LAB strains showed a poor capacity for survival, but the added bacteriocin was equally effective in reducing the numbers of survivors. When a cocktail of the five LAB strains was tested in commercial Basque apple cider, viable cell counts were reduced below detection levels after 2 days for a bacteriocin concentration of 12.5 microg/ml regardless of storage temperature. Comparison of RAPD-PCR profiles revealed that strain Lb. dioliovorans 29 was always the predominant survivor detected in bacteriocin-treated samples. PMID:18164531

Martínez-Viedma, Pilar; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

2008-03-01

350

Potentially probiotic and bioprotective lactic acid bacteria starter cultures antagonise the Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to HT29 colonocyte-like cells.  

PubMed

The capability of five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to counteract the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to the epithelial intestinal cell line HT29 was studied. The highest adhesion ability to HT29 was achieved by the intestinal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, followed by the meat-derived strains Lactobacillus sakei CTC494 and Enterococcus faecium CTC8005. Surprisingly, the meat strains showed significantly better adhesion to HT29 than two faecal isolates of Lactobacillus casei and even significantly higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. Additionally, the anti-listerial, bacteriocin-producer starter culture L. sakei CTC494 was able to significantly reduce the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to HT29 in experiments of exclusion, competition and inhibition. The performance was better than the faecal isolate L. rhamnosus CTC1679. Our results reinforce the fact that the ability of LAB to interact with a host epithelium model, as well as to antagonise with foodborne pathogens, is a strain-specific characteristic. Additionally, it is underlined that this trait is not dependent on the origin of the bacterium, since some food LAB behave better than intestinal ones. Therefore, the search for novel strains in food niches is a suitable approach to find those with potential health benefits. These strains are likely pre-adapted to the food environment, which would make their inclusion in the formulation of probiotic foods more feasible. PMID:25488261

Garriga, M; Rubio, R; Aymerich, T; Ruas-Madiedo, P

2014-12-01

351

Screening and Characterization of Purine Nucleoside Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Chinese Sauerkraut and Evaluation of the Serum Uric Acid Lowering Effect in Hyperuricemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99%) to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A (P<0.05). The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment (P<0.05). Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential as a probiotic in the prevention of hyperuricemia in the normal population. PMID:25184445

Mei, Lu; Yuan, Lin; Xie, Ao; Yuan, Jieli

2014-01-01

352

Se (IV) triggers faster Te (IV) reduction by soil isolates of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria: formation of extracellular SeTe nanospheres.  

PubMed

BackgroundSelenium and Tellurium have many common chemical properties as both belong to group 16 of the periodic table. High toxicities of Se and Te oxyanions cause environmental problems in contaminated soils and waters. Three strains (C4, C6 and C7) of selenite reducing and nanoparticle forming aerobic bacteria which were isolated from agricultural soils of India containing high concentrations of Se were investigated after 3.5 months of freeze-storage for their resistance against the toxic oxyanion tellurite and its reduction to non toxic elemental form Te0 as well as nanoparticles formation.ResultsStrains C4, C6 and C7 reduced tellurite at maximum reduction rates of 2.3, 1.5 and 2.1 mg Te (IV)/L/d, respectively and produced extracellular Te0 nanospheres as revealed from SEM-EDX analysis. Production of extracellular Te nanospheres has been described seldom. Further, concurrent reduction of both selenite and tellurite by bacteria was examined as these toxic oxyanions are often present together in natural environments, mine tailings or wastewater from copper refining. Interestingly, bioreduction of 100 mg/L selenite in shake flasks was not much affected by the presence of 10 mg/L tellurite but tellurite reduction rate increased 13 fold with selenite in the medium. The concurrent reduction of these oxyanions resulted in rarely described bioformation of extracellular nanoparticles composed of both Se and Te, reported first time for aerobically growing heterotrophic non-halophilic bacterial cultures. Duganella violacienigra, the closely related strain to C4 was also found to be resistant to oxyanions of Se and Te.ConclusionsSelenite reducing heterotrophic non-halophilic aerobic bacteria revived from 3.5 months freeze storage could successfully reduce toxic tellurite to non toxic elemental form and produced extracellular nanospheres during detoxification. Presence of relatively less toxic selenite in the medium triggers bioreduction of more toxic tellurite leading to formation of extracellular SeTe nanospheres which are sought by solar and optical recording media industry because of their excellent photovoltaic and optical properties. The bacterial cultures investigated in this study could be exploited commercially to remediate not only selenite and tellurite-contaminated soil and water but also for green synthesis of extracellular Se, Te and Se¿+¿Te nanospheres. PMID:25425453

Bajaj, Mini; Winter, Josef

2014-11-26

353

Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5°C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ? 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ? 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This study presents relevant information on physicochemical, sensory, and microbial properties of probiotic yogurts and fermented milks, which could guide the dairy industry in developing new probiotic products. PMID:24745665

Mani-López, E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

2014-05-01

354

Iodide accumulation by aerobic bacteria isolated from subsurface sediments of a 129I-contaminated aquifer at the Savannah River site, South Carolina.  

PubMed

(129)I is of major concern because of its mobility in the environment, excessive inventory, toxicity (it accumulates in the thyroid), and long half-life (?16 million years). The aim of this study was to determine if bacteria from a (129)I-contaminated oxic aquifer at the F area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, SC, could accumulate iodide at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 ?M I(-)). Iodide accumulation capability was found in 3 out of 136 aerobic bacterial strains isolated from the F area that were closely related to Streptomyces/Kitasatospora spp., Bacillus mycoides, and Ralstonia/Cupriavidus spp. Two previously described iodide-accumulating marine strains, a Flexibacter aggregans strain and an Arenibacter troitsensis strain, accumulated 2 to 50% total iodide (0.1 ?M), whereas the F-area strains accumulated just 0.2 to 2.0%. Iodide accumulation by FA-30 was stimulated by the addition of H(2)O(2), was not inhibited by chloride ions (27 mM), did not exhibit substrate saturation kinetics with regard to I(-) concentration (up to 10 ?M I(-)), and increased at pH values of <6. Overall, the data indicate that I(-) accumulation likely results from electrophilic substitution of cellular organic molecules. This study demonstrates that readily culturable, aerobic bacteria of the F-area aquifer do not accumulate significant amounts of iodide; however, this mechanism may contribute to the long-term fate and transport of (129)I and to the biogeochemical cycling of iodine over geologic time. PMID:21278282

Li, Hsiu-Ping; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Jones, Whitney L; Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Schwehr, Kathy A; Santschi, Peter H; Kaplan, Daniel I; Yeager, Chris M

2011-03-01

355

Iodide Accumulation by Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Subsurface Sediments of a 129I-Contaminated Aquifer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina ?  

PubMed Central

129I is of major concern because of its mobility in the environment, excessive inventory, toxicity (it accumulates in the thyroid), and long half-life (?16 million years). The aim of this study was to determine if bacteria from a 129I-contaminated oxic aquifer at the F area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, SC, could accumulate iodide at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 ?M I?). Iodide accumulation capability was found in 3 out of 136 aerobic bacterial strains isolated from the F area that were closely related to Streptomyces/Kitasatospora spp., Bacillus mycoides, and Ralstonia/Cupriavidus spp. Two previously described iodide-accumulating marine strains, a Flexibacter aggregans strain and an Arenibacter troitsensis strain, accumulated 2 to 50% total iodide (0.1 ?M), whereas the F-area strains accumulated just 0.2 to 2.0%. Iodide accumulation by FA-30 was stimulated by the addition of H2O2, was not inhibited by chloride ions (27 mM), did not exhibit substrate saturation kinetics with regard to I? concentration (up to 10 ?M I?), and increased at pH values of <6. Overall, the data indicate that I? accumulation likely results from electrophilic substitution of cellular organic molecules. This study demonstrates that readily culturable, aerobic bacteria of the F-area aquifer do not accumulate significant amounts of iodide; however, this mechanism may contribute to the long-term fate and transport of 129I and to the biogeochemical cycling of iodine over geologic time. PMID:21278282

Li, Hsiu-Ping; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Jones, Whitney L.; Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Schwehr, Kathy A.; Santschi, Peter H.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris M.

2011-01-01

356

Multicenter Evaluation of the Vitek MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Gram-Positive Aerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is gaining momentum as a tool for bacterial identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Compared with conventional methods, this technology can more readily and conveniently identify a wide range of organisms. Here, we report the findings from a multicenter study to evaluate the Vitek MS v2.0 system (bioMérieux, Inc.) for the identification of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 1,146 unique isolates, representing 13 genera and 42 species, were analyzed, and results were compared to those obtained by nucleic acid sequence-based identification as the reference method. For 1,063 of 1,146 isolates (92.8%), the Vitek MS provided a single identification that was accurate to the species level. For an additional 31 isolates (2.7%), multiple possible identifications were provided, all correct at the genus level. Mixed-genus or single-choice incorrect identifications were provided for 18 isolates (1.6%). Although no identification was obtained for 33 isolates (2.9%), there was no specific bacterial species for which the Vitek MS consistently failed to provide identification. In a subset of 463 isolates representing commonly encountered important pathogens, 95% were accurately identified to the species level and there were no misidentifications. Also, in all but one instance, the Vitek MS correctly differentiated Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci. The findings demonstrate that the Vitek MS system is highly accurate for the identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23658261

Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Bythrow, Maureen; Garner, Omai B.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Jennemann, Rebecca; Lewinski, Michael A.; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A. Brian; Procop, Gary W.; Richter, Sandra S.; Sercia, Linda; Westblade, Lars F.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Branda, John A.

2013-01-01

357

Effect of milk protein glycation and gastrointestinal digestion on the growth of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In this paper, ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) and sodium caseinate (SC) have been glycated via Maillard reaction with galactose and lactose and, subsequently, the effect of glycoconjugates hydrolyzed under simulated gastrointestinal digestion on the growth of pure culture of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium has been investigated. Glycopeptides were added to the growth media as the sole carbon source. None of the bacterial strains was able to grow in hydrolysates of native and control heated ?-Lg and SC. However, glycopeptides were fermented, in different degree, by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and hardly any effect was detected on the growth of Streptococcus. Digested ?-Lg glycoconjugates showed a strain-dependent effect whereas growth profiles of bacteria when hydrolysates of SC glycoconjugates were used as substrates were very similar, regardless of the strain. A general preference towards peptides from ?-Lg/SC glycated with galactose, particularly at the state of the reaction in which the highest content in the Amadori compound tagatosyl-lysine is present, was observed. SC glycoconjugates were quickly fermented by some strains, promoting their growth in a greater extent than ?-Lg complexes or even glucose. Therefore, from the results obtained in this work it can be concluded that conjugation of both milk proteins with galactose and lactose via the Maillard reaction could be an efficient method to obtain novel food ingredients with a potential prebiotic character. PMID:22225833

Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Ávila, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Requena, Teresa; Villamiel, Mar

2012-02-15

358

Characterization of Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria from Italian Ewe Cheeses Based on Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Cell Wall Protein Analyses  

PubMed Central

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were isolated from 12 Italian ewe cheeses representing six different types of cheese, which in several cases were produced by different manufacturers. A total of 400 presumptive Lactobacillus isolates were obtained, and 123 isolates and 10 type strains were subjected to phenotypic, genetic, and cell wall protein characterization analyses. Phenotypically, the cheese isolates included 32% Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, 15% L. brevis isolates, 12% L. paracasei subsp. paracasei isolates, 9% L. curvatus isolates, 6% L. fermentum isolates, 6% L. casei subsp. casei isolates, 5% L. pentosus isolates, 3% L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum isolates, and 1% L. rhamnosus isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates were not phenotypically identified. Although a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis based on three primers and clustering by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) was useful for partially differentiating the 10 type strains, it did not provide a species-specific DNA band or a combination of bands which permitted complete separation of all the species considered. In contrast, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis cell wall protein profiles clustered by UPGMA were species specific and resolved the NSLAB. The only exceptions were isolates phenotypically identified as L. plantarum and L. pentosus or as L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, which were grouped together. Based on protein profiles, Italian ewe cheeses frequently contained four different species and 3 to 16 strains. In general, the cheeses produced from raw ewe milk contained a larger number of more diverse strains than the cheeses produced from pasteurized milk. The same cheese produced in different factories contained different species, as well as strains that belonged to the same species but grouped in different RAPD clusters. PMID:11319075

De Angelis, M.; Corsetti, A.; Tosti, N.; Rossi, J.; Corbo, M. R.; Gobbetti, M.

2001-01-01

359

Role of broiler carcasses and processing plant air in contamination of modified-atmosphere-packaged broiler products with psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Some psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are specific meat spoilage organisms in modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), cold-stored meat products. To determine if incoming broilers or the production plant environment is a source of spoilage LAB, a total of 86, 122, and 447 LAB isolates from broiler carcasses, production plant air, and MAP broiler products, respectively, were characterized using a library of HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the 16 and 23S rRNA genes as operational taxonomic units in numerical analyses. Six hundred thirteen LAB isolates from the total of 655 clustered in 29 groups considered to be species specific. Sixty-four percent of product isolates clustered either with Carnobacterium divergens or with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum type strains. The third major product-associated cluster (17% of isolates) was formed by unknown LAB. Representative strains from these three clusters were analyzed for the phylogeny of their 16S rRNA genes. This analysis verified that the two largest RFLP clusters consisted of carnobacteria and showed that the unknown LAB group consisted of Lactococcus spp. No product-associated LAB were detected in broiler carcasses sampled at the beginning of slaughter, whereas carnobacteria and lactococci, along with some other specific meat spoilage LAB, were recovered from processing plant air at many sites. This study reveals that incoming broiler chickens are not major sources of psychrotrophic spoilage LAB, whereas the detection of these organisms from the air of the processing environment highlights the role of processing facilities as sources of LAB contamination. PMID:17142357

Vihavainen, Elina; Lundström, Hanna-Saara; Susiluoto, Tuija; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, K Johanna

2007-02-01

360

Role of Broiler Carcasses and Processing Plant Air in Contamination of Modified-Atmosphere-Packaged Broiler Products with Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Some psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are specific meat spoilage organisms in modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), cold-stored meat products. To determine if incoming broilers or the production plant environment is a source of spoilage LAB, a total of 86, 122, and 447 LAB isolates from broiler carcasses, production plant air, and MAP broiler products, respectively, were characterized using a library of HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the 16 and 23S rRNA genes as operational taxonomic units in numerical analyses. Six hundred thirteen LAB isolates from the total of 655 clustered in 29 groups considered to be species specific. Sixty-four percent of product isolates clustered either with Carnobacterium divergens or with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum type strains. The third major product-associated cluster (17% of isolates) was formed by unknown LAB. Representative strains from these three clusters were analyzed for the phylogeny of their 16S rRNA genes. This analysis verified that the two largest RFLP clusters consisted of carnobacteria and showed that the unknown LAB group consisted of Lactococcus spp. No product-associated LAB were detected in broiler carcasses sampled at the beginning of slaughter, whereas carnobacteria and lactococci, along with some other specific meat spoilage LAB, were recovered from processing plant air at many sites. This study reveals that incoming broiler chickens are not major sources of psychrotrophic spoilage LAB, whereas the detection of these organisms from the air of the processing environment highlights the role of processing facilities as sources of LAB contamination. PMID:17142357

Vihavainen, Elina; Lundström, Hanna-Saara; Susiluoto, Tuija; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, K. Johanna

2007-01-01

361

INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

362

Comparison of two transport systems available in Japan (TERUMO kenkiporter II and BBL Port-A-Cul) for maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The kenkiporter II (KP II) transport system is commonly used in many hospitals in Japan for transporting bacterial specimens to microbiology laboratories. Recently, the BBL Port-A-Cul (PAC) fluid vial became available. However, no reports thus far have compared the effectiveness of these two transport systems. We chose 4 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria as well as 8 anaerobic organisms, and prepared three strains of each bacterium in culture media for placement into PAC and KP II containers. We compared the effectiveness of each transport system for preserving each organism at 6, 24, and 48 h after inoculation at room temperature. Thirty-six strains out of 12 bacteria were used in this study. The PAC system yielded better recovery in quantity of organisms than the KP II system at 6, 24 and 48 h. More strains were significantly recovered with the PAC system than with the KP II at 24 h (36/36 vs. 23/36, P < 0.001) and 48 h (30/36 vs. 12/36, P < 0.001). The PAC system was better in the recovery of viable organisms counted at 24 and 48 h after inoculation compared with the KP II system. The PAC system may be recommended for the transfer of bacterial specimens in clinical settings. PMID:24462420

Fujimoto, Daichi; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Sakizono, Kenji; Kotani, Yoko; Miki, Kanji; Naito, Takuya; Niki, Marie; Miyamoto, Junko; Tamai, Koji; Nagata, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Tachikawa, Ryo; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

2014-01-01

363

Dai nippon printing co., ltd, Medi-Ca AC for enumeration of aerobic bacteria. Performance tested method 041302.  

PubMed

A ready-made dry medium method for aerobic count, the MediCa AC method, was compared to the AOAC Official Method 966.23, Microbiological Methods, for seven different heat-processed meat matrixes: cooked roast beef, Chinese barbecued pork (barbecued pork seasoned with honey-based sauce), bacon, cooked ham, frankfurter (made from beef and pork), and boiled and cooked pork sausage. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for each matrix fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for five matrixes. These results demonstrate that the Medi-Ca AC method is a reasonable alternative to the AOAC 966.23 method for cooked meat products. PMID:25051632

Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kiso, Shoichi; Kinoshita, Mai; Okita, Yurie; Kazama, Keisuke; Saito, Rui

2014-01-01

364

Utilization of sprout?damaged wheat as raw material for sour dough pre?ferments with mixed cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of sprout?damaged wheat flour in pre?fermentation for sour dough bread?baking increased lactic acid formation and titratable acidity several fold in comparison to the use of baker's wheat flour, and also resulted in a lactic acid to acetic acid molar ratio acceptable for sour dough bread. Further, enzymic treatment of the sprout?damaged wheat flour with malted grain flour appared

P. Javanainen

1993-01-01

365

Effect of Time and Sand Abrasion on Recovery of Aerobic Bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Coliforms from Broiler Carcasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of rinse time and a sand abrasion on bacteria from whole broiler carcass rinses (WCR). Twelve eviscerated broiler carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant prior to chilling. Six carcasses were rinsed in 400 mL of 2.0% buffered pe...

366

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) farming.  

PubMed

Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) is an important commercial marine flatfish. Its production may be affected by bacterial diseases that cause severe economical losses, mainly tenacibaculosis and vibriosis, provoked by Tenacibaculum maritimum and Vibrio splendidus, respectively. An alternative or complementary strategy to chemotherapy and vaccination for the control of these diseases is the use of probiotics. In this work, we report the in vitro and in vivo potential of eight lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from fish, seafood and fish products intended for human consumption, as turbot probiotics. Seven out of the eight LAB exerted direct antimicrobial activity against, at least, four strains of T. maritimum and V. splendidus. All LAB survived in seawater at 18 °C for 7 days, and withstood exposure to pH 3.0 and 10% (v/v) turbot bile; however, they differed in cell surface hydrophobicity (8.2-21.7%) and in their ability to adhere to turbot skin (1.2-21.7%) and intestinal (0.7-2.1%) mucus. Most of the tested strains inhibited the binding of turbot pathogens to the mucus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris SMM69 and Weissella cibaria P71 were selected based on their strong antimicrobial activity against T. maritimum and V. splendidus, good probiotic properties, and different adhesion ability to skin mucus and capacity to inhibit the adhesion of turbot pathogens to mucus. These two LAB strains were harmless when administered by bath to turbot larvae and juveniles; moreover, real-time PCR on the transcription levels of the immunity-related genes encoding IL-1?, TNF-?, lysozyme, C3, MHC-I? and MHC-II? in five organs (head-kidney, spleen, liver, intestine and skin) revealed the ability of these LAB to stimulate their expression in turbot juveniles, especially the non-specific immunity associated genes in mucosal tissues. Based on our results, Lc. cremoris SMM69 and W. cibaria P71 may be considered as suitable probiotic candidates for turbot farming. PMID:25451001

Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Magadán, Susana; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Santos, Ysabel; Cintas, Luis M

2014-12-01

367

Pyrosequencing vs. culture-dependent approaches to analyze lactic acid bacteria associated to chicha, a traditional maize-based fermented beverage from Northwestern Argentina.  

PubMed

The diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with chicha, a traditional maize-based fermented alcoholic beverage from Northwestern Argentina, was analyzed using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Samples corresponding to 10 production steps were obtained from two local producers at Maimará (chicha M) and Tumbaya (chicha T). Whereas by culture-dependent approach a few number of species (Lactobacillus plantarum and Weissella viridescens in chicha M, and Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides in chicha T) were identified, a higher quantitative distribution of taxa was found in both beverages by pyrosequencing. The relative abundance of OTUs was higher in chicha M than in chicha T; six LAB genera were common for chicha M and T: Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus while Pediococcus only was detected in chicha M. Among the 46 identified LAB species, those of Lactobacillus were dominant in both chicha samples, exhibiting the highest diversity, whereas Enterococcus and Leuconostoc were recorded as the second dominant genera in chicha T and M, respectively. Identification at species level showed the predominance of Lb. plantarum, Lactobacillus rossiae, Leuconostoc lactis and W. viridescens in chicha M while Enterococcus hirae, E. faecium, Lc. mesenteroides and Weissella confusa predominated in chicha T samples. In parallel, when presumptive LAB isolates (chicha M: 146; chicha T: 246) recovered from the same samples were identified by ISR-PCR and RAPD-PCR profiles, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, most of them were assigned to the Leuconostoc genus (Lc. mesenteroides and Lc. lactis) in chicha M, Lactobacillus, Weissella and Enterococcus being also present. In contrast, chicha T exhibited the presence of Enterococcus and Leuconostoc, E. faecium being the most representative species. Massive sequencing approach was applied for the first time to study the diversity and evolution of microbial communities during chicha manufacture. Although differences in the LAB species profile between the two geographically different chicha productions were observed by culturing, a larger number for predominant LAB species as well as other minorities were revealed by pyrosequencing. The fine molecular inventory achieved by pyrosequencing provided more precise information on LAB population composition than culture-dependent analysis processes. PMID:25584777

Elizaquível, Patricia; Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Yépez, Alba; Aristimuño, Cecilia; Jiménez, Eugenia; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Vignolo, Graciela; Aznar, Rosa

2015-04-01

368

Arginine Catabolism by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Purification and Characterization of the Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic extracts of 70 strains of the most frequently isolated sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened initially for arginine deiminase (ADI), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), and carbamate kinase (CK) activities, which comprise the ADI (or arginine dihydrolase) pathway. Only obligately heterofermentative strains such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1; Lactobacillus brevis AM1, AM8, and 10A; Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B; and Lactobacillus fructivorans DD3 and DA106 showed all three enzyme activities. Lactobacillus plantarum B14 did not show CK activity. L. sanfranciscensis CB1 showed the highest activities, and the three enzymes were purified from this microorganism to homogeneity by several chromatographic steps. ADI, OTC, and CK had apparent molecular masses of ca. 46, 39, and 37 kDa, respectively, and the pIs were in the range of 5.07 to 5.2. The OTCs, CKs, and especially ADIs were well adapted to pH (acidic, pH 3.5 to 4.5) and temperature (30 to 37°C) conditions which are usually found during sourdough fermentation. Internal peptide sequences of the three enzymes had the highest level of homology with ADI, OTC, and CK of Lactobacillus sakei. L. sanfranciscensis CB1 expressed the ADI pathway either on MAM broth containing 17 mM arginine or during sourdough fermentation with 1 to 43 mM added arginine. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that ADI, OTC, and CK were induced by factors of ca. 10, 4, and 2 in the whole-cell extract of cells grown in MAM broth containing 17 mM arginine compared to cells cultivated without arginine. Arginine catabolism in L. sanfranciscensis CB1 depended on the presence of a carbon source and arginine; glucose at up to ca. 54 mM did not exert an inhibitory effect, and the pH was not relevant for induction. The pH of sourdoughs fermented by L. sanfranciscensis CB1 was dependent on the amount of arginine added to the dough. A low supply of arginine (6 mM) during sourdough fermentation by L. sanfranciscensis CB1 enhanced cell growth, cell survival during storage at 7°C, and tolerance to acid environmental stress and favored the production of ornithine, which is an important precursor of crust aroma compounds. PMID:12450844

De Angelis, Maria; Mariotti, Liberato; Rossi, Jone; Servili, Maurizio; Fox, Patrick F.; Rollán, Graciela; Gobbetti, Marco

2002-01-01

369

Aerobic Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Aquifer Bacteria from Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites  

PubMed Central

The potential for aerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation was investigated with microcosms containing aquifer sediment and groundwater from four MTBE-contaminated sites characterized by oxygen-limited in situ conditions. MTBE depletion was observed for sediments from two sites (e.g., 4.5 mg/liter degraded in 15 days after a 4-day lag period), whereas no consumption of MTBE was observed for sediments from the other sites after 75 days. For sediments in which MTBE was consumed, 43 to 54% of added [U-14C]MTBE was mineralized to 14CO2. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these sediments indicated the enrichment of species closely related to a known MTBE-degrading bacterium, strain PM1. At only one site, the presence of water-soluble gasoline components significantly inhibited MTBE degradation and led to a more pronounced accumulation of the metabolite tert-butyl alcohol. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of oxygen and water-soluble gasoline components on in situ MTBE degradation will vary from site to site and that phylogenetic analysis may be a promising predictor of MTBE biodegradation potential. PMID:11722940

Kane, S. R.; Beller, H. R.; Legler, T. C.; Koester, C. J.; Pinkart, H. C.; Halden, R. U.; Happel, A. M.

2001-01-01

370

Enrichment and characterization of a bacteria consortium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at low temperature.  

PubMed

Nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants is usually severely inhibited under cold temperature. The present study proposes bioaugmentation using psychrotolerant heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification consortium to enhance nitrogen removal at low temperature. A functional consortium has been successfully enriched by stepped increase in DO concentration. Using this consortium, the specific removal rates of ammonia and nitrate at 10 °C reached as high as 3.1 mg N/(gSSh) and 9.6 mg N/(gSSh), respectively. PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis both indicated a significant reduction in bacterial diversity during enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly full-length 16S rRNA genes showed that Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and particularly Bacteroidetes declined while Gammaproteobacteria (all clustered into Pseudomonas sp.) and Betaproteobacteria (mainly Rhodoferax ferrireducens) became dominant in the enriched consortium. It is likely that Pseudomonas spp. played a major role in nitrification and denitrification, while R. ferrireducens and its relatives utilized nitrate as both electron acceptor and nitrogen source. PMID:23131636

Yao, Shuo; Ni, Jinren; Chen, Qian; Borthwick, Alistair G L

2013-01-01

371

Low Probability of Initiating nirS Transcription Explains Observed Gas Kinetics and Growth of Bacteria Switching from Aerobic Respiration to Denitrification  

PubMed Central

In response to impending anoxic conditions, denitrifying bacteria sustain respiratory metabolism by producing enzymes for reducing nitrogen oxyanions/-oxides (NOx) to N2 (denitrification). Since denitrifying bacteria are non-fermentative, the initial production of denitrification proteome depends on energy from aerobic respiration. Thus, if a cell fails to synthesise a minimum of denitrification proteome before O2 is completely exhausted, it will be unable to produce it later due to energy-limitation. Such entrapment in anoxia is recently claimed to be a major phenomenon in batch cultures of the model organism Paracoccus denitrificans on the basis of measured e?-flow rates to O2 and NOx. Here we constructed a dynamic model and explicitly simulated actual kinetics of recruitment of the cells to denitrification to directly and more accurately estimate the recruited fraction (). Transcription of nirS is pivotal for denitrification, for it triggers a cascade of events leading to the synthesis of a full-fledged denitrification proteome. The model is based on the hypothesis that nirS has a low probability (, h?1) of initial transcription, but once initiated, the transcription is greatly enhanced through positive feedback by NO, resulting in the recruitment of the transcribing cell to denitrification. We assume that the recruitment is initiated as [O2] falls below a critical threshold and terminates (assuming energy-limitation) as [O2] exhausts. With ?=?0.005 h?1, the model robustly simulates observed denitrification kinetics for a range of culture conditions. The resulting (fraction of the cells recruited to denitrification) falls within 0.038–0.161. In contrast, if the recruitment of the entire population is assumed, the simulated denitrification kinetics deviate grossly from those observed. The phenomenon can be understood as a ‘bet-hedging strategy’: switching to denitrification is a gain if anoxic spell lasts long but is a waste of energy if anoxia turns out to be a ‘false alarm’. PMID:25375393

Hassan, Junaid; Bergaust, Linda L.; Wheat, I. David; Bakken, Lars R.

2014-01-01

372

New aerobic ammonium-dependent obligately oxalotrophic bacteria: description of Ammoniphilus oxalaticus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Ammoniphilus oxalivorans gen. nov., sp. nov.  

PubMed

The genus Ammoniphilus is proposed for aerobic endospore-forming Gram-variable rod-shaped bacteria, which are ammonium-dependent, obligately oxalotrophic and haloalkalitolerant, oxidase- and catalase-positive, mesophilic and motile by peritrichous flagella. Cell wall contained two electron-dense layers. The external layer consists of a chain of electron-dense granules morphologically resembling the cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. Two species are described, Ammoniphilus oxalaticus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Ammoniphilus oxalivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strains of these species are strains RAOx-1 (= DSM 11538) and RAOx-FS (= DSM 11537), respectively. Ammoniphilus strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of sorrel (Rumex acetosa) and from decaying wood. The strains require a high concentration of ammonium ions and use oxalate as the sole organic source of carbon and energy for growth; no growth factors were required. Growth occurred at pH 6.8-9.5. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 28-30 degrees C and 8.0-8.5. All strains grew in a saturated solution of ammonium oxalate, and tolerated 3% NaCl. Whole-cell hydrolysates contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and glucose. The menaquinone of the strains was MK 7, and the major cellular fatty acids were 12-methyl tetradecanoic, cis-hexadec-9-enoic and hexadecanoic acids. The G + C content of the DNA was 45-46 mol% for A. oxalaticus and 42 mol% for A. oxalivorans. The almost complete 16S rDNA sequence of three strains of the two species of Ammoniphilus shows that the genus falls into the radiation of the Clostridium-Bacillus subphylum of Gram-positive bacteria. The closest phylogenetic neighbour of Ammoniphilus is Oxalophagus oxalicus. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains RAOx-1 and RAOx-FS was 39.7%. PMID:9542085

Zaitsev, G M; Tsitko, I V; Rainey, F A; Trotsenko, Y A; Uotila, J S; Stackebrandt, E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

1998-01-01

373

Low probability of initiating nirS transcription explains observed gas kinetics and growth of bacteria switching from aerobic respiration to denitrification.  

PubMed

In response to impending anoxic conditions, denitrifying bacteria sustain respiratory metabolism by producing enzymes for reducing nitrogen oxyanions/-oxides (NOx) to N2 (denitrification). Since denitrifying bacteria are non-fermentative, the initial production of denitrification proteome depends on energy from aerobic respiration. Thus, if a cell fails to synthesise a minimum of denitrification proteome before O2 is completely exhausted, it will be unable to produce it later due to energy-limitation. Such entrapment in anoxia is recently claimed to be a major phenomenon in batch cultures of the model organism Paracoccus denitrificans on the basis of measured e(-)-flow rates to O2 and NOx. Here we constructed a dynamic model and explicitly simulated actual kinetics of recruitment of the cells to denitrification to directly and more accurately estimate the recruited fraction (Fden). Transcription of nirS is pivotal for denitrification, for it triggers a cascade of events leading to the synthesis of a full-fledged denitrification proteome. The model is based on the hypothesis that nirS has a low probability (rden, h(-1)) of initial transcription, but once initiated, the transcription is greatly enhanced through positive feedback by NO, resulting in the recruitment of the transcribing cell to denitrification. We assume that the recruitment is initiated as [O2] falls below a critical threshold and terminates (assuming energy-limitation) as [O2] exhausts. With rden?=?0.005 h(-1), the model robustly simulates observed denitrification kinetics for a range of culture conditions. The resulting Fden (fraction of the cells recruited to denitrification) falls within 0.038-0.161. In contrast, if the recruitment of the entire population is assumed, the simulated denitrification kinetics deviate grossly from those observed. The phenomenon can be understood as a 'bet-hedging strategy': switching to denitrification is a gain if anoxic spell lasts long but is a waste of energy if anoxia turns out to be a 'false alarm'. PMID:25375393

Hassan, Junaid; Bergaust, Linda L; Wheat, I David; Bakken, Lars R

2014-11-01

374

Cell wall component and mycotoxin moieties involved in the binding of fumonisin B1 and B2 by lactic acid bacteria  

E-print Network

Cell wall component and mycotoxin moieties involved in the binding of fumonisin B1 and B2 by lactic mycotoxin group produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are common contaminants 2002). These mycotoxins are the causal agent of two well described diseases in domestic animals: equine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Aerobic Metabolism 1 AEROBIC RESPIRATION  

E-print Network

Aerobic Metabolism 1 AEROBIC RESPIRATION 1 Review; In the last set of notes we learned some of the basic types of reactions involved in cellular work and energy conservation. Recall that we focused on it aerobic respiration. In these notes we will consider the specific processes that use O2 plus high

Prestwich, Ken

376

Aerobic stability and in vitro fiber digestibility of microbially inoculated corn and sorghum silages.  

PubMed

Silage deteriorates readily when exposed to air, resulting in DM losses. Inoculation of silage with lactic acid bacteria may aid fermentation, but effects on aerobic stability are unclear. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of commercial bacterial inoculants on aerobic stability and in vitro fiber digestibility of silage. Corn (Zea mays L.; Exp. 1) or sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench; Exp. 2) forage (30% DM) was inoculated (1.1 x 10(5) colony forming units/g of fresh forage) with lactic acid bacteria (Pioneer brand 1174 on corn, Pioneer brand 1129 on sorghum) or bacterial inoculant plus an antifungal agent (potassium sorbate at .5 mg/g of fresh forage) and ensiled in 19-L microsilos. Corn was ensiled for 40 or 186 d and sorghum was ensiled for 30 or 160 d (five microsilos per treatment per ensiling time combination). Silages were exposed to air for 7 to 9 d after opening, and temperature was monitored daily. Water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, NDF, ADF, and in vitro digestibility of NDF and ADF were determined before and after ensiling and on exposed silages. Inoculation reduced (P < .05) silage pH in both corn and sorghum but did not prevent aerobic deterioration of the silages. Temperatures during aerobic exposure of silages did not differ (P > .05) between uninoculated and inoculated silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect (P > .05) concentrations or digestibility of NDF in corn; however, NDF and ADF concentration and in vitro digestibility of NDF increased (P < .05) with time of ensiling in sorghum silage, and in vitro ADF digestibility increased (P < .05) with time of ensiling in corn silage. PMID:8382675

Sanderson, M A

1993-02-01

377

Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2? reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of lactic acid, had a specific growth rate of 0.25 h?1 in anaerobic batch cultures containing lactic acid but only 0.16 h?1 in identical aerobic cultures. Measurements of aerobic cultures of S. cerevisiae showed that the addition of lactic acid to the growth medium resulted in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reduce the accumulation of lactic acid-induced ROS, cytosolic catalase (CTT1) was overexpressed by replacing the native promoter with the strong constitutive TPI1 promoter. Increased activity of catalase was confirmed and later correlated with decreased levels of ROS and increased specific growth rates in the presence of high lactic acid concentrations. The increased fitness of this genetically modified strain demonstrates the successful attenuation of additional stress that is derived from aerobic metabolism and may provide the basis for enhanced (micro)aerobic production of organic acids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19251894

Abbott, Derek A.; Suir, Erwin; Duong, Giang-Huong; de Hulster, Erik; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

2009-01-01

378

Corn silage management: effects of maturity, inoculation, and mechanical processing on pack density and aerobic stability.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of inoculation, maturity, and mechanical processing of corn silage on aerobic stability and pack density. Corn silage was stored in 20-L mini silos for the three aerobic stability experiments. Corn silage was stored in 80-L mini silos for the three pack-density experiments. The wet pack density of corn silage tended to decrease as maturity advanced in all of the pack-density experiments, and processed corn silage had a greater wet pack density compared with unprocessed corn silage in two of the three 20-L mini silo experiments. Aerobic stability, measured as the number of hours to reach 1.7 degrees C above ambient, was greater for processed corn silage in two of the three 20-L mini silo experiments, and was greater for inoculated corn silage across the three 20-L mini silo experiments. Inoculation of corn silage with lactic acid producing bacteria tended to improve aerobic stability of corn silage more than maturity and mechanical processing. PMID:11913704

Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K; Linder, D

2002-02-01

379

Growth parameters of escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella and listeria monocytogenes and aerobic mesophilic bacteria of apple cider amended with nisin-EDTA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of nisin (0 or 300 IU), Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA, 20 mM) and (nisin 300 IU+ EDTA 20 mM) on growth parameters; including lag period (LP) and growth rate (GR) of Escherichia coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in the presence or absence of aerobic mesophilic bac...

380

Spoilage potential of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and Lactococcus piscium, on sweet bell pepper (SBP) simulation medium under different gas compositions.  

PubMed

Sweet bell peppers are a significant constituent of retail, chilled-stored and packaged food products like fresh salads, marinades and ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Previously, through general screening of the Belgian market and by means of source tracking analysis in a plant manufacturing minimally processed, vegetable salads the susceptibility of fresh-cut sweet bell peppers to lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination was substantiated. The determination of the metabolic profiles of Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and Lactococcus piscium, two major psychrotrophic, spoilage-related LAB species, on sweet bell pepper (SBP) simulation medium under different packaging conditions - 1.) vacuum: 100% N2, 2.) air: 21% O2, 79% N2, 3.) MAP1: 30% CO2, 70% N2 and 4.) MAP2: 50% O2, 50% CO2 - facilitated a better understanding of the spoilage potential of these microbes as well as the presumptive contribution of O2 in the spectrum of produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with poor organoleptic properties of food products. Generally, none of the applied gas compositions inhibited the growth of the 4 L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum isolates, however the presence of O2 resulted in buttery off-odors by inducing primarily the accumulation of diacetyl and pungent "vinegar" smell due to acetic acid. The 3 tested isolates of L. piscium varied greatly among their growth dynamics and inhibition at MAP2. They exhibited either weak spoilage profile or very offensive metabolism confirming significant intraspecies diversity. PMID:24690877

Pothakos, Vasileios; Nyambi, Clarice; Zhang, Bao-Yu; Papastergiadis, Antonios; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

2014-05-16

381

Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

High ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. PMID:25497828

Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

2015-02-01

382

Utilisation of galacto-oligosaccharides as selective substrates for growth by lactic acid bacteria including Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two probiotic strains of bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20 were tested for their ability to utilise and grow on galacto-oligosaccharides present in a commercial hydrolysed lactose milk powder. The results clearly demonstrated that B. lactis DR10 preferentially utilises tri- and tetra-saccharides whereas Lb. rhamnosus DR20 prefers sugars with a lower degree of polymerisation, i.e., disaccharides and monosaccharides.

Pramod K Gopal; Patrick A Sullivan; John B Smart

2001-01-01

383

ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Possibilities and Challenges of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Lactic Cultures in Dairy Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) from lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of polysaccharides exhibiting vari- ous functional properties. Two forms of EPS are pro- duced by lactic acid bacteria: capsular and unattached. Capsular EPS does not cause ropiness nor does produc- tion of unattached EPS ensure ropiness. The functions of EPS in dairy productsare not completely understood. This is for 2

A. N. Hassan

2008-01-01

384

Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Purulent Clinical Specimens Maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of anaerobic bacteria from exposure to oxygen during the transport of clinical specimens to the laboratory is crucial for the survival of these organisms. Because the use of swabs may encourage collection of superficial specimens that represent colonizing bacteria instead of the etiologic agents found deeper in the infected tissues, aspirates have always been preferable to swab systems for

DIANE M. CITRON; YUMI A. WARREN; MARIE K. HUDSPETH; ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN

2000-01-01

385

Effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in combination with lactic acid bacteria on intestinal oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion in mouse.  

PubMed

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue injuries. The present study investigates the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of a dietary supplement of bilberry, either alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum RESO56, L. plantarum HEAL19, or Pediococcus acidilactici JAM046, in an I/R-induced model for oxidative stress in mice. A bilberry diet without addition of bacteria significantly decreased both lipid peroxidation (p = 0.001) and mucosal injury in the ileum. Of 14 anthocyanins identified in bilberry, anthocyanin arabinosides were the most resistant to absorption and microbial degradation in the intestines. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside seemed to be mostly absorbed in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, while malvidin-3-galactoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-galactoside, and petunidin-3-galactoside seemed to be digested by the microbiota in the cecum. Bilberry strongly influenced the composition of the cecal microbiota. In conclusion, a food supplement of bilberry protected small intestine against oxidative stress and inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:23488931

Jakesevic, Maja; Xu, Jie; Aaby, Kjersti; Jeppsson, Bengt; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

2013-04-10

386

Comparison of the BACTEC MYCO/F Lytic bottle to the isolator tube, BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/bottle, and BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle and comparison of the BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/bottle to the Isolator tube for recovery of bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi from blood.  

PubMed

The BACTEC MYCO/F Lytic blood culture bottle (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.) is designed to optimize the recovery of fungi and mycobacteria; however, this bottle also supports the growth of most aerobic bacteria. We compared the MYCO/F Lytic bottle with two other BACTEC bottles and the Isolator system for the recovery of bacteria as well as fungi and mycobacteria from blood. A total of 6,108 blood culture sets were inoculated with blood obtained from adult patients. Twenty-five to 28 ml of blood collected by a phlebotomy team for each blood culture set was randomly distributed into each of four blood culture receptacles: the Isolator tube (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and three BACTEC bottles: the MYCO/F Lytic bottle, the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle, and the BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle. The sediment from the Isolator tube was inoculated onto chocolate agar (CA), brain heart infusion agar (BHI), and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and into a BACTEC 13A bottle. Incubation durations were as follows: MYCO/F Lytic bottle, 42 days; Plus Aerobic/F bottle, 5 days; Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle, 5 days; sediment from Isolator tube on CA, 3 days; sediment from Isolator tube on BHI, 30 days; sediment from Isolator tube on SDA, 30 days; and sediment from Isolator tube in a BACTEC 13A bottle, 42 days. Two isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered from the Isolator tube only. Three isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were recovered: two isolates from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle only and one isolate from the Isolator tube (whose sediment was inoculated into the BACTEC 13A bottle) only. Two isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were recovered: one from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle only and the other from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle and the Isolator tube (whose sediment was inoculated into the BACTEC 13A bottle). For potential pathogens overall, there was a statistical difference in recovery that favored the Isolator system over the MYCO/F Lytic bottle (P = 0.0015), including statistically significant differences for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0001) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P = 0.0313). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two blood culture systems when detection of bloodstream infection was considered. The time to detection for all potential pathogens combined was less for the MYCO/F Lytic bottle than for the Isolator system (P = 0.0004). Overall, the potential pathogen recovery was greater for the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle than for either the Isolator system (P = 0.0003) or the MYCO/F Lytic bottle (P = 0.0001). However, the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle did not recover M. tuberculosis, H. capsulatum, or C. neoformans isolates. The combination of the Isolator system and MYCO/F Lytic bottle may be useful as a selective blood culture method to optimize the recovery of fungi and mycobacteria from blood. Compared with the manual Isolator system, the MYCO/F Lytic system has the advantage of less preanalytic processing and continuous automated monitoring of bottles for growth by the BACTEC 9240 instrument. PMID:11724848

Vetter, E; Torgerson, C; Feuker, A; Hughes, J; Harmsen, S; Schleck, C; Horstmeier, C; Roberts, G; Cockerill, F

2001-12-01

387

Antibacterial action of essential oils of Artemisia as an ecological factor. I. Antibacterial action of the volatile oils of Artemisia tridentata and Artemisia nova on aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial response to increasing amounts of the volatile oils varies significantly according to species of bacteria tested. Among the four species examined, Escherichia coli was the most resistant to the oils, followed by Neisseria sicca, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The oils of Artemisia tridentata seem to have the same degree of antibacterial action as oils obtained from A. nova. PMID:4963443

Nagy, J G; Tengerdy, R P

1967-07-01

388

Effect of sand and shaking duration on the recovery of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from prechill broiler whole carcass rinsates.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of added sand and shaking duration on the recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses using the whole carcass rinse (WCR) method. In each of 4 replications, 12 eviscerated broiler carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant prior to ...

389

[Metformin- related lactic acidosis].  

PubMed

Lactic acidosis metformin-related is a potentially fatal complication. Reviews show a stable prevalence of this phenomenon, but nephrological experience is required since it is frequently involved in therapeutic management. Here we report the cases of two old patients with severe lactic acidosis and acute renal failure treated with hemodiafiltration. PMID:25504165

Manes, Massimo; Pellu, Valentina; Caputo, Donatella; Molino, Andrea; Paternoster, Giuseppe; Gabrielli, Danila; Nebiolo, Pier Eugenio

2014-01-01

390

A molecular comparison of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 16S rDNA clones derived from a deep subsurface sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture-based techniques have traditionally been the primary tools utilized for studying the microbiology of terrestrial subsurface environments. Recently, nucleic acid-based methods have been employed to further characterize the microbial diversity in subsurface sediments and rocks, but the results have not been related to individual bacteria cultivated from the same environment. Restriction fragment length profiles of 16S rRNA genes derived from

Darrell P Chandler; Shu-Mei Li; Christina M Spadoni; Gwendolyn R Drake; David L Balkwill; Jim K Fredrickson; Fred J Brockman

1997-01-01

391

Effect of chlorine, sodium chloride, trisodium phosphate, and ultraviolet radiation on the reduction of Yersinia enterocolitica and mesophilic aerobic bacteria from eggshell surface.  

PubMed

Eggshell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh hen eggs and their products. In this work, the effects of 100 mg/liter free chlorine (chl), 3% sodium chloride (NaCl), 1, 5, and 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP) in wash solutions, and UVR (ultraviolet radiation; 4.573 microW/cm2) were studied at different times on uninoculated and Yersinia enterocolitica-inoculated eggs. On uninoculated eggs, the best results were obtained with 100 mg/liter chlorine and UV exposure for >25 min, with reductions of 1.28 and 1.60 log cycles, respectively, compared to the average bacterial count (4.55 log CFU/egg) on the control (untreated eggs). On Y. enterocolitica-inoculated eggs, highest reductions of the average bacterial count (7.35 log CFU/egg) were obtained with 5 and 12% TSP and 100 mg/liter chl. The decrease obtained with 12% TSP (3.74-log reduction) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained with the remaining treatments. Y. enterocolitica was more resistant to UVR than the eggshell natural mesophilic aerobic microflora, except when low inoculum (4.39 log CFU/egg) was assayed. Changes in eggshell microstructure were measured by the blue lake staining method. The presence of Yersinia and Salmonella in eggshell natural flora was also investigated. PMID:11601717

Favier, G L; Escudero, M E; de Guzman, A M

2001-10-01

392

Applicability of pectate-entrapped Lactobacillus casei cells for l (+) lactic acid production from whey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid is a versatile organic acid, which finds major application in the food, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries.\\u000a Microbial fermentation has the advantage that by choosing a strain of lactic acid bacteria producing only one of the isomers,\\u000a an optically pure product can be obtained. The production of l(+) lactic acid is of significant importance from nutritional viewpoint and finds

P. S. Panesar; J. F. Kennedy; C. J. Knill; M. R. Kosseva

2007-01-01

393

[Analysis of microbial community structure in lactic acid fermentation from kitchen waste].  

PubMed

In this study, PCR-DGGE was used to analyze the microbial community structure in lactic acid fermentation from kitchen waste. The results showed that with Lactobacillus amylophilus inoculation, both the microbial diversity and lactic acid production in the open fermentation system were higher than those in the sterilized fermentation system. These results indicated that the microbial diversity and the lactic acid production have great correlation in the kitchen waste fermentation system. Through analyzing the sequence of some DNA bands excised from the DGGE gel, it showed that in addition to the inoculation of Lactobacillus amylophilus there were some indigenous lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and indigenous hydrolytic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas sp.. These indigenous bacteria can help to promote lactic acid production. PCR-DGGE is feasible for analyzing the dynamic changes of microbial community structure in kitchen waste with complicated composition. PMID:23243886

Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qun-Hui; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Qiu, Tian-Lei; Li, Huan

2012-09-01

394

Enumeration of Free-Living Aerobic N2-Fixing H2-Oxidizing Bacteria by Using a Heterotrophic Semisolid Medium and Most-Probable-Number Technique  

PubMed Central

A heterotrophic semisolid medium was used with two sensitive assay methods, C2H2 reduction and O2-dependent tritium uptake, to determine nitrogenase and hydrogenase activities, respectively. Organisms known to be positive for both activities showed hydrogenase activity in both the presence and absence of 1% C2H2, and thus, it was possible to test a single culture for both activities. Hydrogen uptake activity was detected for the first time in N2-fixing strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri. The method was then applied to the most-probable-number method of counting N2-fixing and H2-oxidizing bacteria in some natural systems. The numbers of H2-oxidizing diazotrophs were considerably higher in soil surrounding nodules of white beans than they were in the other systems tested. This observation is consistent with reports that the rhizosphere may be an important ecological niche for H2 transformation. PMID:16347643

Barraquio, Wilfredo L.; Dumont, Ann; Knowles, Roger

1988-01-01

395

Isolation, Characterization, and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential of Aerobic Bacteria from Marine Macrofaunal Burrow Sediments and Description of Lutibacterium anuloederans gen. nov., sp. nov., and Cycloclasticus spirillensus sp. nov.†  

PubMed Central

Two new polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria have been isolated from burrow wall sediments of benthic macrofauna by using enrichments on phenanthrene. Strain LC8 (from a polychaete) and strain M4-6 (from a mollusc) are aerobic and gram negative and require sodium chloride (>1%) for growth. Both strains can use 2- and 3-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as their sole carbon and energy sources, but they are nutritionally versatile. Physiological and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequences suggest that strain M4-6 belongs to the genus Cycloclasticus and represents a new species, Cycloclasticus spirillensus sp. nov. Strain LC8 appears to represent a new genus and species, Lutibacterium anuloederans gen. nov., sp. nov., within the Sphingomonadaceae. However, when inoculated into sediment slurries with or without exogenous phenanthrene, only L. anuloederans appeared to sustain a significant phenanthrene uptake potential throughout a 35-day incubation. In addition, only L. anuloederans appeared to enhance phenanthrene degradation in heavily contaminated sediment from Little Mystic Cove, Boston Harbor, Boston, Mass. PMID:11722910

Chung, W. K.; King, G. M.

2001-01-01

396

Changes in SAM 2 expression affect lactic acid tolerance and lactic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe great interest in the production of highly pure lactic acid enantiomers comes from the application of polylactic acid (PLA) for the production of biodegradable plastics. Yeasts can be considered as alternative cell factories to lactic acid bacteria for lactic acid production, despite not being natural producers, since they can better tolerate acidic environments. We have previously described metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing high amounts of L-lactic acid (>60 g/L) at low pH. The high product concentration represents the major limiting step of the process, mainly because of its toxic effects. Therefore, our goal was the identification of novel targets for strain improvement possibly involved in the yeast response to lactic acid stress.ResultsThe enzyme S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase catalyses the only known reaction leading to the biosynthesis of SAM, an important cellular cofactor. SAM is involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and hence in membrane remodelling during acid stress. Since only the enzyme isoform 2 seems to be responsive to membrane related signals (e.g. myo-inositol), Sam2p was tagged with GFP to analyse its abundance and cellular localization under different stress conditions. Western blot analyses showed that lactic acid exposure correlates with an increase in protein levels. The SAM2 gene was then overexpressed and deleted in laboratory strains. Remarkably, in the BY4741 strain its deletion conferred higher resistance to lactic acid, while its overexpression was detrimental. Therefore, SAM2 was deleted in a strain previously engineered and evolved for industrial lactic acid production and tolerance, resulting in higher production.ConclusionsHere we demonstrated that the modulation of SAM2 can have different outcomes, from clear effects to no significant phenotypic responses, upon lactic acid stress in different genetic backgrounds, and that at least in one genetic background SAM2 deletion led to an industrially relevant increase in lactic acid production. Further work is needed to elucidate the molecular basis of these observations, which underline once more that strain robustness relies on complex cellular mechanisms, involving regulatory genes and proteins. Our data confirm cofactor engineering as an important tool for cell factory improvement. PMID:25359316

Dato, Laura; Berterame, Nadia; Ricci, Maria; Paganoni, Paola; Palmieri, Luigi; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

2014-10-30

397

Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

Coyne, P.; Smith, G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1995-08-15

398

Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2 corn silage inoculation strategies (homofermentative vs. heterofermentative inoculation) under field conditions and to monitor responses in silage variables over the feeding season from January to August. Thirty-nine commercial dairy farms participated in the study. Farms were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control (nonactive carrier; Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark), Lactisil (inoculation with 1 x 10(5)Lactobacillus pentosus and 2.5 x 10(4)Pediococcus pentosaceus per gram of fresh matter; Chr. Hansen A/S), and Lalsil Fresh (inoculation with 3 x 10(5)Lactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 per gram of fresh matter; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Blagnac, France). Inoculation with Lactisil had no effects on fermentation variables and aerobic stability. On the contrary, inoculation with Lalsil Fresh doubled the aerobic stability: 37, 38, and 80+/-8h for control, Lactisil, and Lalsil Fresh, respectively. The effect of Lalsil Fresh on aerobic stability tended to differ between sampling times, indicating a reduced difference between treatments in samples collected in April. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased silage pH and contents of acetic acid, propionic acid, propanol, propyl acetate, 2-butanol, propylene glycol, ammonia, and free AA. The contents and ratios of DL-lactic acid, L-lactic acid relative to DL-lactic acid, free glucose, and DL-lactic acid relative to acetic acid decreased with Lalsil Fresh inoculation. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased the silage counts of total lactic acid bacteria and reduced yeast counts. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were detected in all silages at all collections, but the contents were not affected by ensiling time or by inoculation treatment. The effect of inoculation treatments on milk production was assessed by collecting test-day results from the involved farms and comparing the actual milk production with predicted milk production within farm based on test-day results from 2007 and 2008. The average milk production of lactating cows at test days during the study (January to September 2009) was 30.7+/-0.5 kg of energy-corrected milk/d. Milk production was 104.6+/-0.7% of the predicted yield and did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, the present study showed that homofermentative inoculants might not compete efficiently or might not deviate sufficiently from the epiphytic flora on whole-crop corn to affect fermentation in standard qualities of corn silage. Heterofermentative inoculation increased aerobic stability and numerous fermentation variables. None of the treatments affected milk production, and more-stable corn silage seemed to have a similar production value as compared with less-stable homofermented silage. Heterofermented silage can be evaluated for its properties to limit aerobic silage deterioration in the feed chain. PMID:20655446

Kristensen, N B; Sloth, K H; Højberg, O; Spliid, N H; Jensen, C; Thøgersen, R

2010-08-01

399

Evaluation system for an experimental study of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (H9N2) infection in specific pathogen free chickens using lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum KFCC11389P  

Microsoft Academic Search

In low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, the effects of prophylactic oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum KFCC11389P on immunity, viral loads and levels of nitric oxide and interferon-? in splenocytes from specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were investigated. For in vitro screening of the antiviral effect, haemagglutination activities of four different lactic acid bacterial strains by direct contact with virus were

Heeson Chon; Byungryul Choi; Gajin Jeong; Inpil Mo

2008-01-01

400

TREATMENTS USING HOT WATER INSTEAD OF LACTIC ACID REDUCE LEVELS OF AEROBIC BACTERIA AND ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AND REDUCE THE PREVALENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 ON PREEVISCERATION BEEF CARCASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of whole carcass spray washing as a means of decontaminating beef carcasses has continually improved over time. Washing has evolved from use of ambient temperature washes, to use of warm water washes, to use of antimicrobials, hot water, and steam. We have previously demonstrated that...

401

Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25°C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB

S. Y. Yang; K. S. Ji; Y. H. Baik; W. S. Kwak; T. A. McCaskey

2006-01-01

402

Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

2002-01-01

403

A third-generation esterase inoculant alters fermentation pattern and improves aerobic stability of barley silage and the efficiency of body weight gain of growing feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of a mixed bacterial inoculant possessing ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity on silage fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and growth performance of growing feedlot steers. Whole-crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) forage (35% DM) was chopped and ensiled without a silage inoculant (UN) or with a mixed bacterial culture containing 1.0 × 10(11) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri LN4017 that produces FAE, 2.0 × 10(10) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum LP7109, and 1.0 × 10(10) cfu/g of Lactobacillus casei LC3200 at a combined rate of 1.3 × 10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage (IN) in mini and Ag-Bag (Ag-Bag Int. Ltd., Warrenton, OR) silos. Silages from the mini silos were assessed for the effect of inoculation on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability, whereas silages from Ag-Bags were used to formulate 2 barley silage-based total mixed rations (UN and IN) that were fed to growing feedlot steers for 112 d. The IN silage exhibited a homolactic fermentation during the first 7 d of ensiling as reflected by an increased (P ? 0.02) lactic acid concentration and an accelerated rate (P < 0.01) of pH decline. Thereafter, fermentation of IN silage became more heterolactic, resulting in greater concentrations of acetic acid (P < 0.01) and pH (P < 0.01) but less (P < 0.01) lactic acid than UN silage. Inoculation did not affect DM losses (P = 0.52) from mini silos. The IN silage remained stable during 21 d, but temperature and yeasts counts in the UN silage increased after 5 d of aerobic exposure. Growing steers fed the IN silage diet had superior (P = 0.03) feed conversion efficiency compared with those fed UN silage. Inoculation of whole-crop barley silage with a mixed culture of homolactic lactic acid-producing bacteria and FAE-producing L. buchneri at ensiling changed fermentation from a homolactic to a heterolactic form during ensiling and improved aerobic stability of the silage and efficiency of BW gain of growing feedlot steers. PMID:22147468

Addah, W; Baah, J; Okine, E K; McAllister, T A

2012-05-01

404

Type B lactic acidosis secondary to thiamine deficiency in a child with malignancy.  

PubMed

Type B lactic acidosis is an underrecognized clinical entity that must be distinguished from type A (hypoxic) lactic acidosis. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with medulloblastoma who presented with lactic acidosis in the setting of septic shock. His hyperlactatemia persisted to high levels even after his hemodynamic status improved. After administration of intravenous thiamine, his lactate level rapidly normalized and remained stable. It was determined that his total parenteral nutrition was deficient in vitamins due to a national shortage. Because thiamine is an important cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, he was unable to use glucose through aerobic metabolism pathways. We briefly review type A versus type B lactic acidosis in this case report. PMID:25548327

Shah, Sareen; Wald, Eric

2015-01-01

405

The influence of treatment with dual purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass.  

PubMed

This study determined the effectiveness of an inoculant (BB), molasses, or a mixture of either BB and molasses (BBM) or BB and fibrolytic enzymes (BBE) for improving the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass. A 6-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved in quadruplicate mini silos alone or after treatment application. The inoculant contained a mixture of P. pentosaceus 12455, 1 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, L. buchneri 40788, 4 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, and xylanase; BBE contained similar bacteria and enzymes as BB, but greater enzyme activities. Chemical composition was quantified after 2, 4, 7, 30, and 60 d of ensiling. Microbial composition and aerobic stability were measured after 60 d of ensiling, at which point the pH of additive-treated silages was consistently lower and DM recovery was higher than in untreated silages. The BB, BBM, and molasses-treated silages had less ammonia N than untreated silages, and BB, BBM, and BBE-treated silages had less residual water-soluble carbohydrates than untreated silages. All silages had high acetic acid (47.5 g/kg DM) and low lactic acid (1.7 g/kg DM) concentrations. However, untreated and BBE-treated silages had more butyric acid and ammonia N, suggesting that a clostridial fermentation had occurred. These butyric forages were more aerobically stable (27 d) but less desirable for feeding than those ensiled with BB or molasses, which were stable for 6.9 d. In conclusion, BB and molasses treatments improved the digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass and produced higher quality silages that were stable for 6.9 d. Mixing BB with molasses or the inoculant tested was not more beneficial than BB or molasses alone. PMID:15377619

Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Salawu, M B; Dean, D B; Staples, C R

2004-10-01

406

Regulation of intracellular H + balance in Zymomonas mobilis 113 during the shift from anaerobic to aerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energetics, enzyme activities and end-product synthesis of Zymomonas mobilis 113 in continuous culture were studied after the shift from an anaerobic to an aerobic environment. Aeration diminished ethanol yield and lactic acid concentration, but increased glucose consumption rate and production of acetic acid. After the shift to aerobic conditions reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H]-oxidase activity was stimulated. Washed

Lolita M. Pankova; Juris E. Shvinka; Martin J. Beker

1988-01-01

407

Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for  

E-print Network

Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for double-glycine-motif- containing peptides Secreted-positive bacteria, the double-glycine (GG) motif plays a key role in many peptide secretion systems involved Microbiology Comment #12;peptides and class II bacteriocins, produced by streptococci and lactic acid bacteria

408

Critical role for lactate dehydrogenase A in aerobic glycolysis that sustains pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells possess both highly proliferative and angiogenic capacities, yet it is unclear how these cells sustain the metabolic requirements essential for such growth. Rapidly proliferating cells rely on aerobic glycolysis to sustain growth, which is characterized by glucose consumption, glucose fermentation to lactate, and lactic acidosis, all in the presence of sufficient oxygen concentrations. Lactate dehydrogenase A converts pyruvate to lactate necessary to sustain rapid flux through glycolysis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells express lactate dehydrogenase A necessary to utilize aerobic glycolysis and support their growth. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) growth curves were conducted over a 7-day period. PMVECs consumed glucose, converted glucose into lactate, and acidified the media. Restricting extracellular glucose abolished the lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth, as did replacing glucose with galactose. In contrast, slow-growing pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) minimally consumed glucose and did not develop a lactic acidosis throughout the growth curve. Oxygen consumption was twofold higher in PAECs than in PMVECs, yet total cellular ATP concentrations were twofold higher in PMVECs. Glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A were all upregulated in PMVECs compared with their macrovascular counterparts. Inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase A activity and expression prevented lactic acidosis and reduced PMVEC growth. Thus PMVECs utilize aerobic glycolysis to sustain their rapid growth rates, which is dependent on lactate dehydrogenase A. PMID:20675437

Parra-Bonilla, Glenda; Alvarez, Diego F.; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr; Alexeyev, Mikhail

2010-01-01

409

Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P < 0.001) were found for changes in plasma glucose during and after exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

2013-01-01

410

Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.  

PubMed

In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 ?mol min?¹ ml?¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field. PMID:23892419

Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

2013-10-01

411

Comparative analysis of microbial community of novel lactic acid fermentation inoculated with different undefined mixed cultures.  

PubMed

Three undefined mixed cultures (activated sludge) from different municipal wastewater treatment plants were used as seeds in a novel lactic acid fermentation process fed with potato peel waste (PPW). Anaerobic sequencing batch fermenters were run under identical conditions to produce predominantly lactic acid. Illumina sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the three seeds and fermenters. Results showed that the structure of microbial communities of three seeds were different. All three fermentation products had unique community structures that were dominated (>96%) by species of the genus Lactobacillus, while members of this genus constituted <0.1% in seeds. The species of Lactobacillus sp. differed among the three fermentations. Results of this study suggest the structure of microbial communities in lactic acid fermentation of PPW with undefined mixed cultures were robust and resilient, which provided engineering prospects for the microbial utilization of carbohydrate wastes to produce lactic acid. PMID:25545096

Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

2015-03-01

412

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by aerobic biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the corrosion rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of corrosion inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced

Shobhana Chongdar; G. Gunasekaran; Pradeep Kumar

2005-01-01

413