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1

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

2

Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial exopolysaccharides are biothickeners that can be added to a wide variety of food products, where they serve as viscosifying, stabilizing, emulsifying or gelling agents. Numerous exopolysaccharides with different composition, size and structure are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria. The heteropolysaccharides from both mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria have received renewed interest recently. Structural analysis combined with rheological studies

Luc De Vuyst; Bart Degeest

1999-01-01

3

Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the ?-1, ?-3, and ?-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes.

Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

4

Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

5

Energy transduction in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discovery of some general principles of energy transduction, lactic acid bacteria have played an important role. In this review, the energy transducing processes of lactic acid bacteria are discussed with the emphasis on the major developments of the past 5 years. This work not only includes the biochemistry of the enzymes and the bioenergetics of the processes, but

Bert Poolman

1993-01-01

6

Proteolytic systems in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria are important as a means of making protein and peptide N available for growth and as part of the curing or maturation processes which give foods their characteristic rheological and organoleptic properties. The proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria are described in relation to their growth and their functions in protein-rich foods. Their

Barry A. Law; Jens Kolstad; Pekka Varmanen; Bert Poolman I; Wil N. Konings

1983-01-01

7

Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

From all bacterial groups, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are probably the group of bacteria that is most associated with human lifestyle. The term LAB mainly refers to the ability of these organisms to convert sugars to lactic acid. The LAB comprise non-sporing, aerotolerant, coccus or rod-shaped, gram-positive, polyphyletic bacteria. The vast majority of the LAB belong to the phylum

M. Stolaki; Vos de W. M; M. Kleerebezem; E. G. Zoetendal

2012-01-01

8

Stress responses in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of bacteria that are traditionally used to produce fermented foods. The industrialization of food bio-transformations increased the economical importance of LAB, as they play a crucial role in the development of the organoleptique and hygienic quality of fermented products. Therefore, the reliability of starter strains in terms of quality and functional properties

Maarten van de Guchte; Pascale Serror; Christian Chervaux; Tamara Smokvina; Stanislav D. Ehrlich; Emmanuelle Maguin

2002-01-01

9

Probiotic Spectra of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their probio-active cellular substances exert many beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract. LAB prevent adherence, establishment, and replication of several enteric mucosal pathogens through several antimicrobial mechanisms. LAB also release various enzymes into the intestinal lumen and exert potential synergistic effects on digestion and alleviate symptoms of intestinal malabsoption. Consumption of LAB fermented dairy products

A. S. Naidu; W. R. Bidlack; R. A. Clemens

1999-01-01

10

The proteotytic systems of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolysis in dairy lactic acid bacteria has been studied in great detail by genetic, biochemical and ultrastructural methods. From these studies the picture emerges that the proteolytic systems of lactococci and lactobacilli are remarkably similar in their components and mode of action. The proteolytic system consists of an extracellularly located serine-proteinase, transport systems specific for di-tripeptides and oligopeptides (> 3

Edmund R. S. Kunji; Igor Mierau; Anja Hagting; Bert Poolman; Wil N. Konings

1996-01-01

11

Lactic acid bacteria in fish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish are continuously exposed to a wide range of microorganisms present in the environment, and the microbiota of fish have been the subject of several reviews. This review evaluates lactic acid bacteria in fish, and focuses on the several investigations that have demonstrated that Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Carnobacterium belong to the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy

Einar Ringø; François-Joël Gatesoupe

1998-01-01

12

Production of Menaquinones by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria were examined for their ability to produce quinone compounds, which may include dietary sources of menaquinones. Isoprenyl quinones in bacterial cells grown in a synthetic medium were extracted and analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (three strains), Lacto- coccus lactis ssp. lactis (two strains), and Leuconostoc lactis were selected as high producers of quinone

Takashi Morishita; Natsuko Tamura; Takashi Makino; Satoshi Kudo

1999-01-01

13

Review: Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, a large number of new bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been identified and characterized. LAB-bacteriocins comprise a heterogeneous group of physicochemically diverse ribosomally-synthesized peptides or proteins showing a narrow or broad antimicrobial activity spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria. Bacteriocins are classified into separate groups such as the lantibiotics (Class I); the small (<10

L. M. Cintas; M. P. Casaus; C. Herranz; I. F. Nes; P. E. Hernández

2001-01-01

14

Pediocin production by recombinant lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of the anti-listerial bacteriocin, pediocin, by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) transformed with the cloning vector pPC418 (Ped+, 9.1 kb) was influenced by composition of media and incubation temperature. Maximum pediocin production, tested against Listeria innocua, by electrotransformants of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis was measured in tryptone\\/lactose\\/yeast extract medium after 24 h growth at 30 °C, while incubation at 40 °C was optimum for

G. A. Somkuti; D. H. Steinberg

2003-01-01

15

Carbohydrate metabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “lactic acid bacteria” is discussed. An overview of the following topics is given: main pathways of homo- and heterofermentation of hexoses, i.e. glycolysis, bifidus pathway, 6-phosphogluconate pathway; uptake and dissimilation of lactose (tagatose pathway); fermentation of pentoses and pentitols; alternative fates of pyruvate, i.e. splitting to formate and acetate, CO2 and acetate or formation of acetoin and diacetyl;

Otto Kandler

1983-01-01

16

Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: Their potentials as food biopreservative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria used in the fermentation of foods are known to produce bacteriocins. In general, bacteriocins are a group of proteinaceous antimicrobial substances that inhibit the growth of closely related bacteria. However, some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibit a relatively broad antimicrobial spectrum and are active against several food?spoilage and health?threatening microorganisms. Many

Wang June Kim

1993-01-01

17

Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that produce lactic acid as their major fermented product. Most of them are normal flora of human being and animals and produce myriad beneficial effects for human beings include, alleviation of lactose intolerance, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, stimulation of immune system, antiallergic effects, antifungal actions, preservation of food, and prevention of colon cancer. This review highlights the potential species of Lactic acid bacteria responsible for producing these effects. It has been concluded that lactic acid bacteria are highly beneficial microorganisms for human beings and are present abundantly in dairy products so their use should be promoted for good human health. PMID:21162695

Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Shirazi, Jafir Hussain; Khan, Ikram Ullah

2011-02-01

18

Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were screened of their ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on MRS agar. Of 28 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria examined, 12 of 16 Lactobacillus strains and 7 of 8 Bifidobacterium strains fermented FOS. Only strains that gave a positive reaction by the agar method reached high cell densities in broth containing FOS.

Handan Kaplan; Robert W. Hutkins

2000-01-01

19

Biogenic amines in wines: role of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines have undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at too high a concentration. Several kinds of food and beverages contain biogenic amines. Lactic acid bacteria can decarboxylate amino acids. Since winemaking involves the growth of lactic acid bacteria for malolactic fermentation, biogenic amines may occur. However, not all bacterial strains carry these activities. In the same wine-producing area, some wines

Aline Lonvaud-Funel

2001-01-01

20

The sourdough microflora: Interactions of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough bread is a traditional product with great potential. This can only be achieved if the interactions between the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that populate the sourdough are understood. The trophic and non-trophic interactions between sourdough lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are reviewed with particular emphasis on the metabolism of the carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds, the production of CO2

M Gobbetti

1998-01-01

21

Purification of bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: problems and pointers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have been widely studied in recent years. However, there are relatively few studies that describe their biochemical structure. This may be due to the many challenges associated with the purification of these antimicrobial peptides. This review focuses on the purification procedures used with bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and conveys some of the problems associated

Verna Carolissen-Mackay; Gottlieb Arendse; John W. Hastings

1997-01-01

22

Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of molecular genetic techniques to determine the relatedness of food-associated lactic acid bacteria has resulted in significant changes in their taxonomic classification. During the 1980s the genus Streptococcus was separated into the three genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus,

Michael E. Stiles; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

1997-01-01

23

Exopolysaccharides from sourdough lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The use of sourdough improves the quality and increases the shelf life of bread. The positive effects are associated with metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation, including organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), and enzymes. EPS formed during sourdough fermentation by glycansucrase activity from sucrose influence the viscoelastic properties of the dough and beneficially affect the texture and shelf life (in particular, starch retrogradation) of bread. Accordingly, EPS have the potential to replace hydrocolloids currently used as bread improvers and meet so the consumer demands for a reduced use of food additives. In this review, the current knowledge about the functional aspects of EPS formation by sourdough LAB especially in baking applications is summarized. PMID:24499068

Galle, Sandra; Arendt, Elke K

2014-01-01

24

High efficiency recombineering in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The ability to efficiently generate targeted point mutations in the chromosome without the need for antibiotics, or other means of selection, is a powerful strategy for genome engineering. Although oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering (ssDNA recombineering) has been utilized in Escherichia coli for over a decade, the successful adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported. Here we describe the development and application of ssDNA recombineering in lactic acid bacteria. Mutations were incorporated in the chromosome of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis without selection at frequencies ranging between 0.4% and 19%. Whole genome sequence analysis showed that ssDNA recombineering is specific and not hypermutagenic. To highlight the utility of ssDNA recombineering we reduced the intrinsic vancomymycin resistance of L. reuteri >100-fold. By creating a single amino acid change in the d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzyme we reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin from >256 to 1.5?µg/ml, well below the clinically relevant minimum inhibitory concentration. Recombineering thus allows high efficiency mutagenesis in lactobacilli and lactococci, and may be used to further enhance beneficial properties and safety of strains used in medicine and industry. We expect that this work will serve as a blueprint for the adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to other Gram-positive bacteria.

van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A.

2012-01-01

25

Bioconversion of oleuropein to hydroxytyrosol by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to study the conversion of oleuropein-a polyphenol present in olives and olive oil by-products-into hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenol with antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The hydrolysis reaction is performed by lactic acid bacteria. Six bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 6907, Lactobacillus paracasei 9192, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis BO, Enterococcus faecium 32, Lactobacillus LAFTI 10) were tested under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The oleuropein degradation and hydroxytyrosol formation were monitored by HPLC. Results showed that oleuropein could be successfully converted into hydroxytyrosol. The most effective strain was Lactobacillus plantarum 6907, with a reaction yield of hydroxytyrosol of about 30 %. Different reaction mechanisms were observed for different microorganisms; a different yield was observed for Lactobacillus paracasei 9192 under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and an intermediate metabolite (oleuropein aglycone) was detected for Lactobacillus paracasei 9192 and Lactobacillus plantarum 6907 only. This study could have significant applications, as this reaction can be used to increase the value of olive oil by-products and/or to improve the taste of unripe olives. PMID:22806118

Santos, M M; Piccirillo, C; Castro, P M L; Kalogerakis, N; Pintado, M E

2012-06-01

26

Profile of anti-lactic acid bacteria compounds during the storage of olives which are not treated with alkali  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the phenolic and oleosidic compounds in the preservation solutions\\u000a of black ripe olives, particularly those with antimicrobial activity and (2) to explain the growth of lactic acid bacteria\\u000a (LAB) in the olive brines. Fruits were put into industrial tanks and preserved in acidified solutions under aerobic or anaerobic\\u000a conditions. Lactic acid

Eduardo Medina; Concepción Romero; Manuel Brenes; Pedro García; Antonio de Castro; Aranzazu García

2008-01-01

27

Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.  

PubMed

Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2012-08-01

28

Treatments Using Hot Water Instead of Lactic Acid Reduce Levels of Aerobic Bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and Reduce the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Preevisceration Beef Carcasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid has become the most commonly used organic acid for treatment of postevisceration beef carcasses. Many processors have also implemented 2% lactic acid washes on preevisceration carcasses. We previously demonstrated that hot water washing and steam vacuuming are effective carcass interventions. Because of the effectiveness of hot water, we compared its use with that of lactic acid as a

JOSEPH M. BOSILEVAC; XIANGWU NOU; GENEVIEVE A. BARKOCY-GALLAGHER; TERRANCE M. ARTHUR; MOHAMMAD KOOHMARAIE

2006-01-01

29

Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet.

2011-01-01

30

Antimutagenic and immuno-stimulatory properties of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistically significant antigenotoxic activity was exerted by six of nine strains of lactic acid bacteria tested (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Staphylococcus carnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, L. rhamnosus, Enterococcus faecium and En. faecalis) against nitrovin and 2-aminofluorene in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA97. The mutagenic activity of both mutagens was substantially decreased by viable bacteria; cells heated to 100°C for 15 min

L. Ebringer; M. Feren?ík; N. Lahitová; L. Ka?áni; D. Michálková

1995-01-01

31

Identification of vancomycin-resistant lactic bacteria isolated from humans.  

PubMed Central

By using cell morphology, arginine dihydrolase, and gas production in de Man, Sharp, Rogosa broth, 122 isolates of vancomycin-resistant lactic bacteria from humans were assigned to five profiles, allowing us to distinguish Pediococcus, homofermentative and heterofermentative Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc species. The absence of L-(+)-lactic acid, as detected spectrophotometrically, was confirmatory for Leuconostoc species. API 50 CHL panels were useful for the identification of Lactobacillus species.

Mackey, T; Lejeune, V; Janssens, M; Wauters, G

1993-01-01

32

Purification of bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: problems and pointers.  

PubMed

Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have been widely studied in recent years. However, there are relatively few studies that describes their biochemical structure. This study may be due to the many challenges associated with the purification of these antimicrobial peptides. This review focuses on the purification procedures used with bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and conveys some of the problems associated with this process as well as some of the lessons learned. An improvement in the efficiency of the purification process should contribute significantly to research at the understanding of the biochemical nature of bacteriocins. PMID:9029252

Carolissen-Mackay, V; Arendse, G; Hastings, J W

1997-01-01

33

Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria: perspectives and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) secrete a polysaccharide polymer. This extracellular polysaccharide, or ‘exopolysaccharide’ (EPS), is economically important because it can impart functional effects to foods and confer beneficial health effects. LAB have a ‘Generally Recognized As Safe’ (GRAS) classification and are likely candidates for the production of functional EPSs. Current challenges are to improve the productivity of EPSs from

Alan D. Welman; Ian S. Maddox

2003-01-01

34

Taxonomy and physiology of probiotic lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current taxonomy of probiotic lactic acid bacteria is reviewed with special focus on the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus. The physiology and taxonomic position of species and strains of these genera were investigated by phenotypic and genomic methods. In total, 176 strains, including the type strains, have been included. Phenotypic methods applied were based on biochemical, enzymatical and physiological

Günter Klein; Alexander Pack; Christine Bonaparte; Gerhard Reuter

1998-01-01

35

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

36

Genetics of the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria is of eminent importance for the rapid growth of these organisms in protein-rich media. The combined action of proteinases and peptidases provides the cell with small peptides and essential amino acids. The amino acids and peptides thus liberated have to be translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane. To that purpose, the cell contains specific

Jan Kok

1990-01-01

37

Glycerol metabolism and bitterness producing lactic acid bacteria in cidermaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lactic acid bacteria were isolated from bitter tasting ciders in which glycerol was partially removed. The degradation of glycerol via glycerol dehydratase pathway was found in 22 out of 67 isolates. The confirmation of glycerol degradation by this pathway was twofold: showing their glycerol dehydratase activity and detecting the presence of the corresponding gene by a PCR method. 1,3-propanediol

G. Garai-Ibabe; I. Ibarburu; I. Berregi; O. Claisse; A. Lonvaud-Funel; A. Irastorza; M. T. Dueñas

2008-01-01

38

Modification of azo dyes by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The ability of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei to modify the azo dye, tartrazine, was recently documented as the result of the investigation on red coloured spoilage in acidified cucumbers. Fourteen other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened for their capability to modify the food colouring tartrazine and other azo dyes of relevance for the textile industry. Methods and

I. M. Pérez-Díaz; R. F. McFeeters

2009-01-01

39

Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications.

2011-01-01

40

Heterologous production of bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been the subject of considerable research and industrial interest due to their potential as food biopreservatives. The development of heterologous expression systems for such antimicrobial compounds may offer a number of advantages over native systems, such as facilitating the control of bacteriocin gene expression or achieving higher

J. M. Rodr??guez; M. I. Mart??nez; N. Horn; H. M. Dodd

2003-01-01

41

Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria: Production, Purification, and Food Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in relation to process factors have been studied in detail through

Luc De Vuyst; Frédéric Leroy

2007-01-01

42

Polyphasic characterization of the lactic acid bacteria in kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacteria of kefir were isolated and characterized using phenotypical, biochemical, and genotypical methods. Polyphasic analyses of results permitted the identification of the microflora to the strain level. The genus Lactobacillus was represented by the species Lb. kefir and Lb. kefiranofaciens. Both subspecies of Lactococcus lactis (lactis and cremoris) were isolated. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris was also found.The

Isabelle Mainville; Normand Robert; Byong Lee; Edward R. Farnworth

2006-01-01

43

Lantibiotics produced by lactic acid bacteria: structure, function and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lantibiotics are a diverse group of heavily modified antimicrobial and\\/or signalling peptides produced by a wide range of bacteria, including a variety of lactic acid bacteria. Based on their diverse structures and mode of action, at least six separate lantibiotic subgroups can be suggested, but all subgroups are characterized by significant post-translational modifications, which include the formation of (ß-methyl)lanthionines, among

Denis Twomey; R. P. Ross; Maire Ryan; Billy Meaney; C. Hill

2002-01-01

44

Selection of tropical lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the quality of maize silage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from silage and assess their effect on the quality of maize silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into aqueous extract obtained from maize to evaluate their production of metabolites and pH reduction. The ability to inhibit the pathogenic and silage-spoilage microorganisms' growth was evaluated. Nine LAB strains that showed the best results were assessed in polyvinyl chloride experimental silos. The inoculation of the LAB strains influenced the concentration of lactic and acetic acids and the diversity of Listeria. The inoculation of silages with Lactobacillus buchneri (UFLA SLM11 and UFLA SLM103 strains) resulted in silages with greater LAB populations and improvements after aerobic exposure. The UFLA SLM11 and SLM103 strains identified as L. buchneri showed to be promising in the treatment of maize silage. PMID:24119815

Santos, A O; Ávila, C L S; Schwan, R F

2013-12-01

45

Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic

Aline Lonvaud-Funel

1999-01-01

46

Isolation, screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria from traditional food fermentation processes and culture collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a search for lactic acid bacteria capable of exo?polysaccharide production or exhibiting antimicrobial or proteolytic activities. About 400 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from traditional fermented foods (sour dough, sausages, table olives, cheese and other dairy products). Together with almost 200 lactic acid bacterial strains obtained from culture collections, these strains were screened for exo?polysaccharide production, bacteriocin

Dick J. C. van den Berg; Annelies Smits; Bruno Pot; Aat M. Ledeboer; Karel Kersters; John M. A. Verbake; C. Theo Verrips

1993-01-01

47

DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations.  

PubMed

Previous studies using traditional biochemical identification methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four species of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis, were the primary microorganisms in these fermentations. In this study, 686 isolates were collected from four commercial fermentations and analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. The results indicate that the species of lactic acid bacteria present in sauerkraut fermentations are more diverse than previously reported and include Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc argentinum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, and Weissella sp. The newly identified species Leuconostoc fallax was also found. Unexpectedly, only two isolates of P. pentosaceus and 15 isolates of L. brevis were recovered during this study. A better understanding of the microbiota may aid in the development of low-salt fermentations, which may have altered microflora and altered sensory characteristics. PMID:17921264

Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Breidt, Fredrick; Lu, Zhongjing; Fleming, Henry P

2007-12-01

48

Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from minced beef meat against some pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we achieved to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from minced beef meat by using de Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS) medium. The influence of antimicrobial activities were obtained by using the agar well diffusion method (Muller Hinton Agar) against some members of gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria involved ( Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas

M. A. H. Al-Allaf; A. M. M. Al-Rawi; A. T. Al-Mola

49

Two-peptide bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are ribosomally produced peptides (usually 30–60 amino acids) that display potent antimicrobial activity against certain other Gram-positive organisms. They function by disruption of the membrane of their targets, mediated in at least some cases by interaction of the peptide with a chiral receptor molecule (e.g., lipid II or sugar PTS proteins). Some bacteriocins are unmodified

Sylvie Garneau; Nathaniel I Martin; John C Vederas

2002-01-01

50

Antagonism between osmophilic lactic Acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of soy sauce.  

PubMed

Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophilic lactic acid bacteria on the growth of osmophilic yeasts was investigated. It was recognized that osmophilic shoyu yeasts such as Saccharomyces rouxii and Torulopsis versatilis were inhibited by a metabolite produced by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria (belonging to Pediococcus halophilus) in brine fermentation of shoyu. The primary inhibitor was considered to be acetic acid, although lactic acid was slightly inhibitory. PMID:16345625

Noda, F; Hayashi, K; Mizunuma, T

1980-09-01

51

In vaginal fluid, bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis can be suppressed with lactic acid but not hydrogen peroxide  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by vaginal lactobacilli is generally believed to protect against bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and strains of lactobacilli that can produce H2O2 are being developed as vaginal probiotics. However, evidence that led to this belief was based in part on non-physiological conditions, antioxidant-free aerobic conditions selected to maximize both production and microbicidal activity of H2O2. Here we used conditions more like those in vivo to compare the effects of physiologically plausible concentrations of H2O2 and lactic acid on a broad range of BV-associated bacteria and vaginal lactobacilli. Methods Anaerobic cultures of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria and four species of vaginal lactobacilli were exposed to H2O2, lactic acid, or acetic acid at pH 7.0 and pH 4.5. After two hours, the remaining viable bacteria were enumerated by growth on agar media plates. The effect of vaginal fluid (VF) on the microbicidal activities of H2O2 and lactic acid was also measured. Results Physiological concentrations of H2O2 (< 100 ?M) failed to inactivate any of the BV-associated bacteria tested, even in the presence of human myeloperoxidase (MPO) that increases the microbicidal activity of H2O2. At 10 mM, H2O2 inactivated all four species of vaginal lactobacilli but only one of seventeen species of BV-associated bacteria. Moreover, the addition of just 1% vaginal fluid (VF) blocked the microbicidal activity of 1 M H2O2. In contrast, lactic acid at physiological concentrations (55-111 mM) and pH (4.5) inactivated all the BV-associated bacteria tested, and had no detectable effect on the vaginal lactobacilli. Also, the addition of 10% VF did not block the microbicidal activity of lactic acid. Conclusions Under optimal, anaerobic growth conditions, physiological concentrations of lactic acid inactivated BV-associated bacteria without affecting vaginal lactobacilli, whereas physiological concentrations of H2O2 produced no detectable inactivation of either BV-associated bacteria or vaginal lactobacilli. Moreover, at very high concentrations, H2O2 was more toxic to vaginal lactobacilli than to BV-associated bacteria. On the basis of these in vitro observations, we conclude that lactic acid, not H2O2, is likely to suppress BV-associated bacteria in vivo.

2011-01-01

52

Production of conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Conjugated fatty acids have attracted much attention as a novel type of biologically beneficial functional lipid. Some isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduce carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, and body fat. Considering the use of CLA for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes, a safe isomer-selective process is required. The introduction of biological reactions for CLA production could be an answer. We screened microbial reactions useful for CLA production, and found several unique reactions in lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria produced CLA from linoleic acid. The produced CLA comprised a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was selected as a potential CLA producer. Using washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a as a catalyst, CLA production from linoleic acid reached 40 mg/ml under the optimized conditions. The CLA-producing reaction was found to consist of two successive reactions, i.e., hydration of linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid and dehydrating isomerization of the hydroxy fatty acid to CLA. On the basis of these results, the transformation of hydroxy fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Lactic acid bacteria transformed ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) to CLA (a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-18:2 and trans-9,trans-11-18:2). Castor oil, which is rich in the triacylglycerol form of ricinoleic acid, was also found to act as a substrate for CLA production by lactic acid bacteria with the aid of lipase-catalyzed triacylglycerol hydrolysis. L. plantarum AKU 1009a produced conjugated trienoic fatty acids from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid. The trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha-linolenic acid were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3) and trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3. Those produced from gamma-linolenic were cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3 and cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3. The conjugated trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid were further saturated by L. plantarum AKU 1009a to trans-10,cis-15-18:2 and cis-6,trans-10-18:2, respectively. PMID:16310724

Ogawa, Jun; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ando, Akinori; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Mihara, Kousuke; Shimizu, Sakayu

2005-10-01

53

Colonization of aerobic biofilms by sulfate?reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans to colonize aerobic heterotrophic or nitrifying biofilms on stainless steel surfaces was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directed to the dissimilatory sulfite reductase and by oxygen microelectrodes. Biofilms of heterotrophic bacteria and of nitrifying bacteria pregrown on steel

Mary E Power; Jan Roelof Van Der Meer; Hauke Harms; Oskar Wanner

2001-01-01

54

Lactic acid bacteria with health claims—interactions and interference with gastrointestinal flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria in foods have a long history of safe use. Members of the genera Lactococcus and Lactobacillus have a ‘generally-recognised-as-safe’ status, whilst members of the genera Streptococcus and Enterococcus and some other genera of lactic acid bacteria contain opportunistic pathogens. New species and more specific strains of probiotic bacteria are constantly being identified. Prior to incorporating new strains

Tiina Mattila-Sandholm; Jaana Mättö; Maria Saarela

1999-01-01

55

Influence of ripening container on the lactic acid bacteria population in Tulum cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of container material (plastic or goat-skin bag) on the\\u000a growth of lactic acid bacteria in Tulum cheese during 9 months of ripening. The lactic acid bacteria in Tulum cheeses were\\u000a periodically counted on MRS and M17 agars throughout ripening. Results showed that the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria\\u000a on

S. Cakmakci; E. Dagdemir; A. A. Hayaloglu; M. Gurses; E. Gundogdu

2008-01-01

56

Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Sour Milk Products Narine, Karine, and Matsun  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria from sour milk products Narine, Karine, and Matsun. The whey of the sour milk products included two major fractions, of sugars and L-lactic acid and its sodium and calcium salts. Antimicrobial activity of Narine, Karine, and Matsun was related to the presence of L-lactic acid and its sodium and calcium salts.

A. O. Martirosyan; Sh. L. Mndzhoyan; L. M. Charyan; L. G. Akopyan; M. N. Nikishchenko

2004-01-01

57

Production, recovery and purification of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are a heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics\\u000a (class I, e.g. nisin), small heat-stable peptides (class II, e.g. pediocin AcH\\/PA1) and large heat-labile proteins (class\\u000a III, e.g. helveticin J). Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable\\u000a microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced

E. Parente; A. Ricciardi

1999-01-01

58

Functional fermented whey-based beverage using lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is employed as functional food ingredient because of its nutritional value and emulsifying properties. However, the major whey protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main cause of milk allergy. The aim of this study was to formulate a fermented whey beverage using selected lactic acid bacteria and WPC35 (WPC containing 35% of proteins) to obtain a fermented product with low lactose and BLG contents and high essential amino acid concentration. Cell viability, lactose consumption, lactic acid production, proteolytic activity, amino acid release and BLG degradation by the selected strains Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804, as single or mixed (SLaB) cultures were evaluated in WPC35 (10%, w/v) incubated at 37 degrees C for 24h. Then, the fermented WPC35 was mixed with peach juice and calcium lactate (2%, w/v) and stored at 10 degrees C for 28 days. During fermentation, single cultures grew 1.7-3.1 log CFU/ml and produced 25.1-95.0 mmol/l of lactic acid as consequence of lactose consumption (14.0-41.8 mmol/l) after 12h fermentation. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 was the most proteolytic strain (626 microg/ml Leu) and released the branched-chain essential amino acids Leu (16 microg/ml), Ile (27 microg/ml) and Val (43 microg/ml). All strains were able to degrade BLG in a range of 41-85% after 12h incubation. The starter culture SLaB grew 3.0 log CFU/ml, showed marked pH reduction, produced 122.0 mmol/l of lactic acid, displayed high proteolytic activity (484 microg/ml Leu) releasing Leu (13 microg/ml), Ile (18 microg/ml) and Val (35 microg/ml), and hydrolyzed 92% of BLG. The addition of calcium lactate to WPC35 maintained the drink pH stable during shelf life; no contamination was detected during this period. After 28 days, a decrease in cell viability of all strains was observed being more pronounced for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and L. acidophilus CRL 636 (2.3 and 1.9 log CFU/ml, respectively). The results showed that WPC fermentation by rationally selected lactic acid bacteria might be used for developing functional beverages with improved characteristics such as reduced BLG content and increased branched-chain essential amino acids. PMID:20483186

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font

2010-06-30

59

Inhibition of citrus fungal pathogens by using lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on pathogenic fungi was evaluated and the metabolites involved in the antifungal effect were characterized. Penicillium digitatum (INTA 1 to INTA 7) and Geotrichum citri-aurantii (INTA 8) isolated from decayed lemon from commercial packinghouses were treated with imazalil and guazatine to obtain strains resistant to these fungicides. The most resistant strains (4 fungal strains) were selected for evaluating the antifungal activity of 33 LAB strains, among which only 8 strains gave positive results. The antifungal activity of these LAB strains was related to the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and phenyllactic acid (PLA). A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the organic acids produced by the LAB cultures. The antifungal activity of lactic acid was directly related to its concentration; however, acetic acid and PLA showed a peak of activity at 52.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively, with inhibition rates similar to those obtained with Serenade((R)) (3.0 ppm) imazalil (50 ppm) and guazatine (50 ppm). Beyond the peak of activity, a reduction in effectiveness of both acetic acid and PLA was observed. Comparing the inhibition rate of the organic acids, PLA was about 66- and 600-fold more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid, respectively. This study presents evidences on the antifungal effect of selected LAB strains and their end products. Studies are currently being undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing postharvest diseases on citrus fruits. PMID:20722936

Gerez, C L; Carbajo, M S; Rollán, G; Torres Leal, G; Font de Valdez, G

2010-08-01

60

Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and petroleum-utilizing bacteria from cow dung and poultry manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, enumeration and identification of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and petroleum-utilizing bacteria as\\u000a well as the degradative potential of petroleum-utilizing bacterial isolates were carried out. The average counts of total\\u000a aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in cow dung and poultry manure were 74.25 × 105 c.f.u. g?1 and 138.75 × 105 c.f.u. g?1 respectively. Acinetobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, and Serratia spp. occurred as aerobic

S. B. Akinde; O. Obire

2008-01-01

61

Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp., and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

2013-01-01

62

Development of Mucosal Vaccines Based on Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, sufficient data are available to support the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), notably lactococci and lactobacilli, as delivery vehicles for the development of new mucosal vaccines. These non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria have been safely consumed by humans for centuries in fermented foods. They thus constitute an attractive alternative to the attenuated pathogens (most popular live vectors actually studied) which could recover their pathogenic potential and are thus not totally safe for use in humans. This chapter reviews the current research and advances in the use of LAB as live delivery vectors of proteins of interest for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines. The use of LAB as DNA vaccine vehicles to deliver DNA directly to antigen-presenting cells of the immune system is also discussed.

Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Innocentin, Silvia; Lefèvre, Francois; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Langella, Philippe

63

Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibitingListeriasp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were further characterized and 43 strains were inhibitory againstListeria monocytogenes. The strains were inhibitory to other Gram-positive (lactic

A. Østergaard; P. K. B. Embarek; C. Wedell-Neergaard; H. H. Huss; L. Gram

1998-01-01

64

Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage  

PubMed Central

Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage.

Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

2014-01-01

65

Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria - walking on crutches is part of their lifestyle  

PubMed Central

A variety of lactic acid bacteria contain rudimentary electron transport chains that can be reconstituted by the addition of heme and menaquinone to the growth medium. These activated electron transport chains lead to higher biomass production and increased robustness, which is beneficial for industrial applications, but a major concern when dealing with pathogenic lactic acid bacteria.

Brooijmans, Rob; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

2009-01-01

66

Lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for the food fermentation industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fermented foods is based on the use of starter cultures, for instance lactic acid bacteria that initiate rapid acidification of the raw material. Recently, new starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria with an industrially important functionality are being developed. The latter can contribute to the microbial safety or offer one or more organoleptic, technological, nutritional, or health

Frédéric Leroy; Luc De Vuyst

2004-01-01

67

Improving the Quality of Fermented Camel Sausage by Controlling Undesirable Microorganisms with Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main objectives of the present work was to study the possibility of preserving ground camel meat by a biological procedure using lactic acid bacteria to encourage an extended shelf-life of fresh meat in hot areas. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from natural fermented foodstuffs were selected for their antimicrobial activity, and used in sausage making from camel meat. Fresh meat purchased

I. KALALOU; M. FAID; T. A. AHAMI

68

Screening of species-specific lactic acid bacteria for veal calves multi-strain probiotic adjuncts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of promising specific species of lactic acid bacteria with potential probiotic characteristics is of particular interest in producing multi species-specific probiotic adjuncts in veal calves rearing. The aim of the present work was to select and evaluate in vitro the functional activity of lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum and Bacillus coagulans strains isolated from veal calves in order to

Barbara Ripamonti; Alessandro Agazzi; Carla Bersani; Paola De Dea; Chiara Pecorini; Silvia Pirani; Raffaella Rebucci; Giovanni Savoini; Simone Stella; Alberta Stenico; Erica Tirloni; Cinzia Domeneghini

2011-01-01

69

Surface Binding of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Specific lactic acid bacterial strains remove toxins from liquid media by physical binding. The stability of the aflatoxin B1 complexes formed with 12 bacterial strains in both viable and nonviable (heat- or acid-treated) forms was assessed by repetitive aqueous extraction. By the fifth extraction, up to 71% of the total aflatoxin B1 remained bound. Nonviable bacteria retained the highest amount of aflatoxin B1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and L. rhamnosus strain LC-705 (DSM 7061) removed aflatoxin B1 from solution most efficiently and were selected for further study. The accessibility of bound aflatoxin B1 to an antibody in an indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay suggests that surface components of these bacteria are involved in binding. Further evidence is the recovery of around 90% of the bound aflatoxin from the bacteria by solvent extraction. Autoclaving and sonication did not release any detectable aflatoxin B1. Variation in temperature (4 to 37°C) and pH (2 to 10) did not have any significant effect on the amount of aflatoxin B1 released. Binding of aflatoxin B1 appears to be predominantly extracellular for viable and heat-treated bacteria. Acid treatment may permit intracellular binding. In all cases, binding is of a reversible nature, but the stability of the complexes formed depends on strain, treatment, and environmental conditions.

Haskard, Carolyn A.; El-Nezami, Hani S.; Kankaanpaa, Pasi E.; Salminen, Seppo; Ahokas, Jorma T.

2001-01-01

70

Genomic reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Genome scale annotation of regulatory interactions and reconstruction of regulatory networks are the crucial problems in bacterial genomics. The Lactobacillales order of bacteria collates various microorganisms having a large economic impact, including both human and animal pathogens and strains used in the food industry. Nonetheless, no systematic genome-wide analysis of transcriptional regulation has been previously made for this taxonomic group. Results A comparative genomics approach was used for reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in 30 selected genomes of lactic acid bacteria. The inferred networks comprise regulons for 102 orthologous transcription factors (TFs), including 47 novel regulons for previously uncharacterized TFs. Numerous differences between regulatory networks of the Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae groups were described on several levels. The two groups are characterized by substantially different sets of TFs encoded in their genomes. Content of the inferred regulons and structure of their cognate TF binding motifs differ for many orthologous TFs between the two groups. Multiple cases of non-orthologous displacements of TFs that control specific metabolic pathways were reported. Conclusions The reconstructed regulatory networks substantially expand the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in lactic acid bacteria. In each of 30 studied genomes the obtained regulatory network contains on average 36 TFs and 250 target genes that are mostly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, metal homeostasis and amino acids biosynthesis. The inferred networks can be used for genetic experiments, functional annotations of genes, metabolic reconstruction and evolutionary analysis. All reconstructed regulons are captured within the Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae collections in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov).

2013-01-01

71

Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage?  

PubMed Central

The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml?1 for two of the three test organisms).

Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Strom, Katrin; Schnurer, Johan

2007-01-01

72

Lactic acid bacteria as adjuvants for sublingual allergy vaccines.  

PubMed

We compared immunomodulatory properties of 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria as well as their capacity to enhance sublingual immunotherapy efficacy in a murine asthma model. Two types of bacterial strains were identified, including: (i) potent inducers of IL-12p70 and IL-10 in dendritic cells, supporting IFN-gamma and IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells such as Lactobacillus helveticus; (ii) pure Th1 inducers such as L. casei. Sublingual administration in ovalbumin-sensitized mice of L. helveticus, but not L. casei, reduced airways hyperresponsiveness, bronchial inflammation and proliferation of specific T cells in cervical lymph nodes. Thus, probiotics acting as a Th1/possibly Treg, but not Th1 adjuvant, potentiate tolerance induction via the sublingual route. PMID:20175969

Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Moussu, Helene; Horiot, Stéphane; Samson, Sandrine; Lombardi, Vincent; Mascarell, Laurent; van de Moer, Ariane; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Moingeon, Philippe

2010-04-01

73

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process.

2010-01-01

74

Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria display a relatively simple and well-described metabolism where the sugar source is converted mainly to lactic acid. Here we will shortly describe metabolic engineering strategies on the level of sugar metabolism, that lead to either the efficient re-routing of the lactococcal sugar metabolism to nutritional end-products other than lactic acid such as L-alanine, several low-calorie sugars and

Jeroen Hugenholtz; Wilbert Sybesma; Masja Nierop Groot; Wouter Wisselink; Victor Ladero; Kay Burgess; Douwe van Sinderen; Jean-Christophe Piard; Gerrit Eggink; Eddy J. Smid; Graciela Savoy; Fernando Sesma; Tanja Jansen; Pascal Hols; Michiel Kleerebezem

2002-01-01

75

Aerobic denitrifying bacteria that produce low levels of nitrous oxide.  

PubMed

Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) instead of dinitrogen (N(2)) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N(2)O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to N(2) at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 micro mol min(-1) unit of optical density at 540 nm(-1) at dissolved oxygen (O(2)) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 micro mol liter(-1), respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N(2) but evolved more than 10-fold more N(2)O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO(3)(-) with concomitant consumption of O(2). These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the beta subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N(2)O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N(2)O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

2003-06-01

76

Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic protein degradation (24% of total protein) took place almost exclusively during the initial 24 h of starvation. Metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as CO(inf2) during aerobic starvation. In contrast, cell biomass decreased by only 2.4% during anaerobic starvation, and metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as organic solutes in the starvation medium. During anaerobic starvation, only the concentration of intracellular low-molecular-weight compounds decreased, whereas no significant changes were measured for cellular protein, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. Strain WP 12 was also capable of a limited anaerobic glucose metabolism in the absence of added electron acceptors. Small amounts of CO(inf2) and organic acids, including acetate, were produced from exogenous glucose under anoxic conditions. Addition of potential anaerobic electron acceptors (fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, or sulfate) to starved cultures of the methanotrophs Methylobacter albus BG8, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and strain WP 12 did not stimulate anaerobic survival. However, anaerobic starvation of these bacteria generally resulted in better survival than did aerobic starvation. The results suggest that methanotrophic bacteria can enter a state of anaerobic dormancy accompanied by a severe attenuation of endogenous metabolism. In this state, maintenance requirements are presumably provided for by fermentation of certain endogenous substrates. In addition, low-level catabolism of exogenous substrates may support long-term anaerobic survival of some methanotrophic bacteria.

Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

1995-01-01

77

The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria revisited: a genomic comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of gram-positive, lactic acid producing Firmicutes. They have been extensively used in food fermentations, including the production of various dairy products. The proteolytic system of LAB converts proteins to peptides and then to amino acids, which is essential for bacterial growth and also contributes significantly to flavor compounds as end-products. Recent developments

Mengjin Liu; Jumamurat R Bayjanov; Bernadet Renckens; Arjen Nauta; Roland J Siezen

2010-01-01

78

Inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum by Bacteriocin-Like Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactococcus kzctis ssp. lactis strains produce Lactic acid bacteria were selected for their inhibitory activity against Clos- tridium tyroburyricwn un&r conditions that eliminate the effects of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Four strains were isolated belonging to the species Lacto- coccus la& ssp. lactis. The sensitivity of the inhibitory substances to pronase and trypsme indicates that they are pro- teins

Dominique Thuault; Emile Beliard; Joëlle Le Guern; Claude-Marcel Bourgeois

1991-01-01

79

Biopreservative activity of lactic acid bacteria on suya produced from poultry meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from poultry meat on the attributes of suya was investigated. Lactobacillus plantarum with the highest frequency of occurrence (90%) produced the highest amount of lactic acid (16.2 g\\/l) and inhibited all the indicator organisms with the exception of Candida albicans and Proteus vulgaris. Consequently, L. plantarum was chosen as the starter culture

I. A. Adesokan; B. B. Odetoyinbo; A. O. Olubamiwa

80

Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the effects of several lactic acid bacteria on the immune response of turbot (Scophthal- mus maximus) macrophages have been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Out of six lactic acid bacterial strains tested, only heat-killed Lactococcus lactis significantly increased the turbot head kidney macrophage chemilu- minescent (CL) response after 24 h of incubation. Nitric oxide

L. Villamil; C. Tafalla; A. Figueras; B. Novoa

2002-01-01

81

Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria of cold ecosystems.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the ecophysiological role and structure-function features of methanotrophic bacteria living in various cold ecosystems. The occurrence of methanotrophs in a majority of psychrosphere sites was verified by direct measurement of their methane-utilizing activity, by electron microscopy and immunofluorescent observations, and analyses of specific signatures in cellular phospholipids and total DNAs extracted from environmental samples. Surprisingly, the phenotypic and genotypic markers of virtually all extant methanotrophs were detected in various cold habitats, such as underground waters, Northern taiga and tundra soils, polar lakes and permafrost sediments. Also, recent findings indicated that even after long-term storage in permafrost, some methanotrophs can oxidize and assimilate methane not only at positive but also at subzero temperatures. Pure cultures of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant methanotrophs were isolated and characterized as new genera and species: Methylobacter psychrophilus, Methylosphaera hansonii, Methylocella palustris, Methylocella silvestris, Methylocella tundrae, Methylocapsa acidiphila and Methylomonas scandinavica. However, our knowledge about their adaptive mechanisms and survival in cold ecosystems remains limited and needs to be established using both traditional and molecular microbiological methods. PMID:16329925

Trotsenko, Yuri A; Khmelenina, Valentina N

2005-06-01

82

Invited Review: Methods for the Screening, Isolation, and Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) is widespread among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), although the physiological role of these molecules has not been clearly established yet. Some EPS confer on LAB a \\

P. Ruas-Madiedo; C. G. de los Reyes-Gavilán

2005-01-01

83

A Comparison of Two Methods Used for Measuring Antagonistic Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: In this research, we have aimed to determine antagonistic effects of various lactic acid bacteria against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria with a comparison of disc diffusion and spot-on-lawn method. In spot-on-lawn method, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was the most sensitive of the tested bacteria, followed by E. coli ATCC 25927 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145. On

Bilge Hilal Cadirci; Sumru Citak

2005-01-01

84

Lactic acid bacteria in an alginate film inhibit Listeria monocytogenes growth on smoked salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial packaging with lactic acid bacteria incorporated into the film matrix is a novel approach for controlling the growth of food-borne pathogens in ready-to-eat food. The overall objective of this study was to assess the effect of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nisin trapped in an alginate matrix, on Listeria monocytogenes growth on vacuum packed cold-smoked salmon.

Aníbal Concha-Meyer; Renate Schöbitz; Carmen Brito; Ricardo Fuentes

2011-01-01

85

Family Spirosomaceae: gram-negative ring-forming aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The bacteria having a unique ring-like morphology first isolated from nasal mucus by Weibel in 1887 were classified as a new genus Spirosoma by Migula in 1894. However, because these bacteria were not completely described for taxonomic purposes and their cultures were no longer available, the genus was deleted from the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th edition, 1948. Orskov (1928) created a new genus "Microcyclus" (a name that has been found to be illegitimate and replaced with Ancylobacter by Raj 1983) to describe these nonmotile vibroid bacteria that occasionally formed ring-like structures. Several similar isolates found in many countries during the last 60 years were readily identified with this genus on the basis of the characteristic morphology alone. For the first time, these fascinating bacteria were extensively reviewed by Raj in 1977 and again in 1981. However, during the last decade, the systematics of these microcyclus bacteria has been reexamined and redefined. It has been shown that these Gram-negative ring-forming aerobic bacteria constitute a heterogeneous group of five genera: Ancylobacter, Cyclobacterium, Flectobacillus, Runella, and Spirosoma; the last four genera have been grouped into a family Spirosomaceace (reviving the old discarded name originally proposed by Migula 1894), thus separating them from the genus Ancylobacter which remains unaffiliated with any family yet (Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. I, 9th ed., 1984). Also, this article reviews the recent studies reported on the ecology, morphogenesis, metabolism, and physiology of the picturesque bacteria. PMID:2248690

Raj, H D; Maloy, S R

1990-01-01

86

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

1986-05-01

87

Lactic acid bacteria and their effect on the immune system.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are present in the intestine of most animals. The beneficial role played by these microorganisms in the humans and other animals, including the effect on the immune system, has been extensively reported. They are present in many foods and are frequently used as probiotics to improve some biological functions in the host. The activation of the systemic and secretory immune response by LAB requires many complex interactions among the different constituents of the intestinal ecosystem (microflora, epithelial cells and immune cells). Through different mechanisms they send signals to activate immune cells. Thus the knowledge of the normal intestinal microflora, the contribution of LAB and their role in the numerous functions in the digestive tract as well as the functioning of the mucosal immune system form the basis for the study and selection of a probiotic strain with immunostimulatory properties. In the selection of LAB by their immunostimulatory capacity it helps to know not only the effect which they have on the mucosal immune system, but the specific use to which these oral vaccine vectors are being put. Although there are reports of the protection of animals and humans against diseases such as microbial infections and cancer, more work remains to be done on the factors affecting the design of oral vaccine vectors and the use of LAB for therapeutic purposes. The basic knowledge of LAB immunostimulation and the criteria for selection of LAB by their immunostimulatory capacity, will be extensively discussed and appraised in this review. PMID:11709854

Perdigón, G; Fuller, R; Raya, R

2001-03-01

88

Canine intestinal lactic acid bacteria agglutinated with concanavalin A.  

PubMed

Twenty-six out of 46 representative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that we isolated from 36 dogs in a previous study were agglutinated by concanavalin A (ConA) at a concentration of 0.1563 mg/ml, while isolates did not agglutinate without the addition of ConA. Amongst the isolates, L. reuteri, L. mucosae, and E. canintestini agglutinated strongly, while L. gallinarum, L. kitasatonis, L. acidophilus, L. saerimneri, B. animalis ssp. animalis, P. acidilactici, and E. hirae did not agglutinate. ConA-agglutination of LAB was specifically inhibited by D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose at a concentration of 1.563 mg/ml. Among the sugars, ConA-agglutination was strongly inhibited by D-mannose, while the inhibition level by D-glucose and D-galactose were lower than that of D-mannose. ConA- agglutination of all the LAB isolates was inhibited by D-mannose, except for L. reuteri (one species) and L. mucosae (two species). ConA-agglutination of Bifidobacterium spp. was inhibited by only D-mannose. Based on our results, ConA-agglutination of LAB seems to be strain-specific, but not species-specific. PMID:17213708

Kim, So-Young; Ogawa, Yasuki; Adachi, Yoshikazu

2006-12-01

89

Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo.

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

2014-01-01

90

Mucosal vaccination and therapy with genetically modified lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vehicles that overcome the problem of delivering functional proteins to the mucosal tissues. By the intranasal route, both live and killed LAB vaccine strains have been shown to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses that afford protection against infectious challenges. To be effective via oral administration, frequent dosing over several weeks is required but new targeting and adjuvant strategies have clearly demonstrated the potential to increase the immunogenicity and protective immunity of LAB vaccines. Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis has been shown to induce antigen-specific oral tolerance (OT) to secreted recombinant antigens. LAB delivery is more efficient at inducing OT than the purified antigen, thus avoiding the need for purification of large quantities of antigen. This approach holds promise for new therapeutic interventions in allergies and antigen-induced autoimmune diseases. Several clinical and research reports demonstrate considerable progress in the application of genetically modified L. lactis for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New medical targets are on the horizon, and the approval by several health authorities and biosafety committees of a containment system for a genetically modified L. lactis that secretes Il-10 should pave the way for new LAB delivery applications in the future. PMID:22129390

Wells, Jerry

2011-01-01

91

Amino acid catabolic pathways of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a diverse group of Gram positive obligately fermentative microorganisms which include both beneficial and pathogenic strains. LAB generally have complex nutritional requirements and therefore they are usually associated with nutrient-rich environments such as animal bodies, plants and foodstuffs. Amino acids represent an important resource for LAB and their utilization serves a number of physiological roles such as intracellular pH control, generation of metabolic energy or redox power, and resistance to stress. As a consequence, the regulation of amino acid catabolism involves a wide set of both general and specific regulators and shows significant differences among LAB. Moreover, due to their fermentative metabolism, LAB amino acid catabolic pathways in some cases differ significantly from those described in best studied prokaryotic model organisms such as Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis. Thus, LAB amino acid catabolism constitutes an interesting case for the study of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, LAB are involved in the production of a great variety of fermented products so that the products of amino acid catabolism are also relevant for the safety and the quality of fermented products. PMID:16893752

Fernández, María; Zúñiga, Manuel

2006-01-01

92

Removal of paralytic shellfish toxins by probiotic lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%-97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%-49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

93

Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria of kefir grains.  

PubMed

A Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1 strain with high exopolysaccharide activity was selected from among 40 strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains. By associating the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1 strain with Streptococcus thermophilus T15, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C15, Lactobacillus helveticus MP12, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae A13, a kefir starter was formed. The associated cultivation of the lactobacteria and yeast had a positive effect on the exopolysaccharide activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1. The maximum exopolysaccharide concentration of the starter culture exceeded the one by the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HP1 monoculture by approximately 1.7 times, and the time needed to reach the maximum concentration (824.3 mg exopolysacharides/l) was shortened by 6 h. The monomer composition of the exopolysaccharides from the kefir starter culture was represented by glucose and galactose in a 1.0:0.94 ratio, which proves that the polymer synthesized is kefiran. PMID:12440716

Frengova, Ginka I; Simova, Emilina D; Beshkova, Dora M; Simov, Zhelyasko I

2002-01-01

94

Effect of lactic acid bacteria on growth of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Cultures of lactic acid bacteria, mostly from foods, were tested for their effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Trypticase Soy Broth (BBL). Some of the effectors, e.g., Streptococcus faecalis, S. faecium, Lactobacillus lactis, L. brevis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, stimulated growth of S. aureus during early hours of growth, especially at higher temperatures of incubation, but most cultures were inhibitory, and some (S. faecium and L. mesenteroides) were even killing by the time of attainment of the maximal phase of growth of the Staphylococcus. Low-temperature meat lactobacilli and Leuconostoc dextranicum inhibited S. aureus at 10, 15, 20, and 25 C throughout its growth. Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens inhibited at these temperatures and at 30 and 37 C, as well. When the ratio of effectors to staphylococci in the inoculum was 100:1, the three enterococci, the meat Lactobacillus, and L. dextranicum prevented the attainment of 5 x 10(6) staphylococci per milliliter at 15 C, and all but the meat Lactobacillus did so at 22 C. A ratio of 1:1 accomplished similar results at 15 C, except that S. aureus was only delayed for 12 hr by S. faecalis. A ratio of 1:100 usually was ineffective. In general, the more effector bacteria there were in the inoculum, the greater was the overall inhibition (or stimulation) of S. aureus. Inhibition was most effective at 10 or 15 C, less so at 20 or 25 C, and least at 30 or 37 C, whereas stimulation during early growth was greater at the higher temperatures. Results with different strains of the effectors and with two strains of S. aureus were similar, for the most part. PMID:4959983

Kao, C T; Frazier, W C

1966-03-01

95

Vaginal lactic acid bacteria in the mare: evaluation of the probiotic potential of native Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important members of the human vaginal microbiota and their presence is considered beneficial.\\u000a However, little is known about native vaginal bacteria in other animal species such as the horse. The aim of this work was\\u000a to quantify the vaginal lactic acid bacteria and lactobacilli of mares and to establish if selected equine vaginal lactic\\u000a acid

Martín Fraga; Karen Perelmuter; Luis Delucchi; Esther Cidade; Pablo Zunino

2008-01-01

96

Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into ‘ogi’ of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor. It is also possible that consumption of fermented food enhances conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by activating cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase.

2012-01-01

97

Evaluation of Cathra system for identifying gram negative aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Cathra system is a commercial multipoint inoculation method for the identification of aerobic Gram negative bacteria. The system uses a replicator technique in which 21 different agar media can be inoculated simultaneously with 36 organisms. Identifications are made by use of a special computer database. The performance of this system was compared with that of the API 20E for the identification of 372 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and 133 miscellaneous Gram negative bacteria. For enterobacteria, the Cathra system was in 97% agreement with API 20E at species level and 98% at genus level. For miscellaneous Gram negative strains the two systems were in 59% agreement at species level and 77% at genus level. The Cathra system is suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories, especially those with a heavy workload and a wish to use break-point sensitivity testing. The identification database for miscellaneous Gram negative organisms, however, needs to be expanded.

Ling, J M; Zhang, L C; Hui, Y W; French, G L

1990-01-01

98

Antimicrobial susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a cheese environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of the Spanish traditional blue-veined Cabrales cheese, lactic acid bacteria strains free of antibiotic resistance that have a transferrable capacity are necessary as components of a specific starter. To select for these bacteria, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12 antibiotics and 2 mixtures (containing ?-lactamase inhibitor and penicillin) were determined by microbroth and agar dilution techniques

Ana Belén Flórez; Susana Delgado; Baltasar Mayo

2005-01-01

99

Potential of phenolic compounds for controlling lactic acid bacteria growth in wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria are important in enology since they undergo the malolactic fermentation, a process which main effect is the reduction of wine acidity and is almost indispensable in red wine-making. However, if this process is not well controlled during the elaboration of wine, alterations in wine quality due to bacteria metabolic activity can happen. Polyphenols are wine natural components

A. García-Ruiz; B. Bartolomé; A. J. Martínez-Rodríguez; E. Pueyo; P. J. Martín-Álvarez; M. V. Moreno-Arribas

2008-01-01

100

Strong Synergy between a Eukaryotic Antimicrobial Peptide and Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect obtained upon combining the prokaryotic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; more commonly referred to as bacteriocins) pediocin PA-1, sakacin P, and curvacin A (all produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)) with the eukaryotic AMP pleurocidin (from fish) has been investigated. The three LAB AMPs alone were active against gram-positive Listeria ivanovii bacteria at nanomolar concentrations, whereas they were inactive

Torben Luders; Gunn Alice Birkemo; Gunnar Fimland; Jon Nissen-Meyer; Ingolf F. Nes

2003-01-01

101

Comparative investigation of different methods of storage of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken to elucidate how different methods of storage (immersing in mineral oil, lyophilization, and subculturing)\\u000a of lactic acid bacteria belonging to the generaLactobacillus andLactococcus affect their viability, antibiotic activity, and ability to accumulate organic acids. Storage of the lactic acid bacteriumLactococcus lactis subsp.lactis by immersion in mineral oil proved to be ineffective. Lyophilization allowed the survival of

L. G. Stoyanova; Z. A. Arkad’eva

2000-01-01

102

Lactic acid bacteria in Hamei and Marcha of North East India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamei and Marcha are mixed dough inocula used as starters for preparation of various indigenous alcoholic beverages in Manipur and Sikkim\\u000a in India, respectively. These starters are traditionally prepared from rice with wild herbs and spices. Samples of Hamei and Marcha, collected from Manipur and Sikkim, respectively, were analysed for lactic acid bacterial composition. The population of\\u000a lactic acid bacteria

J. P. Tamang; S. Dewan; B. Tamang; A. Rai; U. Schillinger; W. H. Holzapfel

2007-01-01

103

Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and Botrytis cinerea. The antagonistic activity of 496 LAB strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except P. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. The 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibition of P. expansum infection in wounds of Golden Delicious apples. Four strains (TC97, AC318, TM319, and FF441) reduced the fungal rot diameter of the apples by 20%; only Weissella cibaria strain TM128 decreased infection levels by 50%. Cell-free supernatants of selected antagonistic bacteria were studied to determine the nature of the antimicrobial compounds produced. Organic acids were the preferred mediators of inhibition but hydrogen peroxide was also detected when strains BC48, TM128, PM141 and FF441 were tested against E. carotovora. While previous reports of antifungal activity by LAB are scarce, our results support the potential of LAB as biocontrol agents against postharvest rot. PMID:19204894

Trias, Rosalia; Bañeras, Lluís; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

2008-12-01

104

[Reversion of antibiotic-sensitivity of lactic acid bacteria in grafted cultures of lymphoblastoid human cells].  

PubMed

The reversion of the antibiotic sensitivity of lactic acid bacteria: Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum have been studied. The phenomenon of the reversion has been fists studied in lactic acid bacteria of different taxonomic groups at their interactions with lymphoblastoid human cells. It is shown that resistance of lactobacteria to antibiotics can change depending on the terms of cultivation, genus and strain specificity. Most often the reversion of antibiotic sensitivity was observed with respect to fuzidin (26%) and cefepim (23%), most rarely--with respect to cephazolin, erithromicin, cefamandol, tobramicin and oxacillin. PMID:17243366

Rybalko, S L; Liaskovski?, T M; Podgorski?, V S; Garmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

2006-01-01

105

Phenotypic and technological diversity of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci isolated from traditionally fermented sausages in Southern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of spontaneously fermented sausages made by two medium-sized enterprises (MSE) located in southern Greece have been studied. A total of 300 lactic acid bacteria and 300 staphylococcal strains have been isolated and identified by their physiological characteristics. Lactobacillus plantarum strains were found to dominate the lactic acid bacteria microbiota in most of the cases with

Eleftherios H. Drosinos; Spiros Paramithiotis; George Kolovos; Ioannis Tsikouras; Ioannis Metaxopoulos

2007-01-01

106

Antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria isolated from the same meat small-scale facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 87 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (36 Lactobacillus sakei, 22 Enterococcus faecium, 16 Lactococcus garvieae, 11 Vagococcus carniphilus and 2 Enterococcus sp.) isolated from a small-scale facility producing traditional dry sausages were screened for antagonistic activity against other LAB and some spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, also isolated from the same processing facility, except Listeria innocua (in lieu of

Salim Ammor; Grégoire Tauveron; Eric Dufour; Isabelle Chevallier

2006-01-01

107

End products and fermentation balances for lactic streptococci grown aerobically on low concentrations of glucose.  

PubMed Central

Maximum acetate produced aerobically by Streptococcus diacetilactis and Streptococcus cremoris was 14% of 1 to 7 mumol of glucose/ml in a partially defined medium that contained lipoic acid. Y (glucose) values were 35.3 (S. diacetilactis) and 31.4 (S. cremoris) with low concentrations (1 to 7 mumol/ml) of glucose in the medium and 21 (S. diacetilactis) with higher concentrations (6 to 15 mumol/ml). Y (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) values for the bacteria, determined by taking into account the end products produced, were 15.6 and 13.9 for S. diacetilactis and S. cremoris, respectively, in the partially defined medium containing 1 to 7 mumol of glucose/ml and higher (21.5 and 18.9, respectively) in a complex medium that contained 2 mumol of glucose/ml. Addition of citrate in addition to glucose did not result in higher molar growth yields.

Brown, W V; Collins, E B

1977-01-01

108

Antibacterial Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from an Algerian Dairy Product  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the antibacterial effect of 20 lactic acid bacteria isolates from a traditional cheese was investigated. 6 isolates showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive bacteria. Streptococcus thermophilus T2 strain showed the wide inhibitory spectrum against the Gram positive bacteria. Growth and bacteriocin production profiles showed that the maximal bacteriocin production, by S. thermophilus T2 cells, was measured by the end of the late-log phase (90 AU ml?1) with a bacteriocine production rate of 9.3 (AU ml?1) h?1. In addition, our findings showed that the bacteriocin, produced by S. thermophilus T2, was stable over a wide pH range (4–8); this indicates that such bacteriocin may be useful in acidic as well as nonacidic food. This preliminarily work shows the potential application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to improve safety of traditional fermented food.

Mezaini, Abdelkader; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Dilmi Bouras, Abdelkader; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Hornez, Jean Pierre

2009-01-01

109

Protective Effect of Adonitol on Lactic Acid Bacteria Subjected to Freeze-Drying  

PubMed Central

The protective effects of glycerol, adonitol, and four other related polyhydric alcohols on lactic acid bacteria subjected to freeze-drying were examined. The presence of adonitol in the suspending medium markedly protected the viabilities of the 12 stains tested. Dulcitol, mannitol, m-inositol, and sorbitol were found to provide little or no protection.

de Valdez, Graciela F.; de Giori, Graciela S.; de Ruiz Holgado, Aida A. P.; Oliver, Guillermo

1983-01-01

110

Effect of the rehydration medium on the recovery of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Sixteen cultures of lactic acid bacteria were freeze-dried in 10% nonfat skim milk plus 0.75 M adonitol and rehydrated by using different rehydration media. Marked variations in their capacity to repair cellular damage after freeze-drying were observed among the species and strains under consideration.

de Valdez, G F; de Giori, G S; de Ruiz Holgado, A P; Oliver, G

1985-01-01

111

Probiotic properties of lactic-acid bacteria: plenty of scope for fundamental R & D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic products are marketed widely throughout the world. This is especially true of yogurts that contain strains of lactic-acid bacteria of intestinal origin. Consumption of these products is aimed at promoting the wellbeing of the consumer by impacting on the collection of microorganisms that normally inhabit the intestinal tract. The development of scientifically valid probiotics requires more detailed knowledge of

Gerald W Tannock

1997-01-01

112

Antibiotic Resistances of Starter and Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibiotic resistances of 45 lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Strepto- coccus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc were investigated. The objective was to determine antibiotic resistances and to verify these at the genetic level, as is currently suggested by the European \\

Anja S. Hummel; Christian Hertel; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel; Charles M. A. P. Franz

2007-01-01

113

Distinct gut-derived lactic acid bacteria elicit divergent dendritic cell-mediated NK cell responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract where they continuously regulate the immune system. NK cells are potently activated by dendritic cells (DCs) matured by inflammatory stimuli, and NK cells are present in the gut epithelium and in mesenteric lymph nodes, but it is not known how NK-DC interactions are affected by the predominantly non-pathogenic LAB. We

Lisbeth N. Fink; Louise H. Zeuthen; Hanne R. Christensen; Barbara Morandi; H. Frokiaer; Guido Ferlazzo

2007-01-01

114

Survival of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Stomach and Adhesion to Intestinal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of four strains of lactic acid bacteria in human gastric juice, in vivo and in vitro, and in buffered saline, pH 1 to 5, has been investigated. The strains studied include two Lactobacillus acidophilus strains, Lactobacillus bul- garicus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. In addition, the adhesion of these strains to freshly collected human and pig small intestinal cells and

P. L. Conway; S. L. Gorbach; B. R. Goldin

1987-01-01

115

Enhanced Mucosal Delivery of Antigen with Cell Wall Mutants of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to deliver heterologous antigens to the immune system and to induce protective immunity has been best demonstrated by using the C subunit of tetanus toxin (TTFC) as a model antigen. Two types of LAB carriers have mainly been used, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, which differ substantially in their abilities to resist

Corinne Grangette; Heide Muller-Alouf; Pascal Hols; Denise Goudercourt; Jean Delcour; Mireille Turneer; Annick Mercenier

2004-01-01

116

Molecular Characterization of Intrinsic and Acquired Antibiotic Resistance in Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 6 different antibiotics (chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin) were determined for 143 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria using the Etest. Different MICs were found for different species and strains. Based on the distribution of these MIC values, most of the strains were either susceptible or intrinsically resistant to these antibiotics.

Mohammed Salim Ammor; Ana Belén Flórez; Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán; Henk J. M. Aarts; Abelardo Margolles; Baltasar Mayo

2008-01-01

117

Growth of lactic acid bacteria and Rhizopus oligosporus during barley tempeh fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zygomycete Rhizopus oligosporus is traditionally used to ferment soybean tempeh, but it is also possible to ferment other legumes and cereals to tempeh. The traditional soybean tempeh harbours a multitude of microorganisms with potentially beneficial or detrimental effects on quality. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have positive effects on the safety of soybean tempeh, but the effects of LAB on

Xin Mei Feng; Anders R. B. Eriksson; Johan Schnürer

2005-01-01

118

Comparative genomics of enzymes in flavor-forming pathways from amino acids in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used as starter or nonstarter cultures in the dairy industry for over a thousand years. They play an essential role in flavor formation during the fermentation of dairy products. Several metabolic routes can lead to the formation of flavor compounds when LAB are growing in milk. One of the main precursors for flavor

Mengjin Liu; Arjen Nauta; Christof Francke; Roland J. Siezen

2008-01-01

119

Bioprotection of Golden Delicious apples and Iceberg lettuce against foodborne bacterial pathogens by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fresh vegetables and fruit and its ability to inhibit the growth of foodborne human pathogens (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) was tested using the agar spot assay. Eighteen isolates showed a strong antagonistic capacity and were further characterised and identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and API 50CH. Most

Rosalia Trias; Lluís Bañeras; Esther Badosa; Emilio Montesinos

2008-01-01

120

Improved screening procedure for biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved screening plate method for the detection of amino acid decarboxylase-positive microorganisms (especially lactic acid bacteria) was developed. The suitability and detection level of the designed medium were quantitatively evaluated by confirmation of amine-forming capacity using an HPLC procedure. The potential to produce the biogenic amines (BA) tyramine, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine, was investigated in a wide number of

Sara Bover-Cid; Wilhelm Heinrich Holzapfel

1999-01-01

121

Mixed Culture Pre-Ferments of Lactic and Propionic Acid Bacteria for Baking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main aim of the present work was to develop an optimal lactic and propionic acid bacteria mixed culture pre-ferment with naturally fermented propionic acid in a sufficient quantity to prevent bread molding. For this purpose controlled formation of lac...

P. Javanainen

1993-01-01

122

Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for improvements in food safety and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for centuries in the fermentation of a variety of dairy products. The preservative ability of LAB in foods is attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites including organic acids and bacteriocins. Bacteriocins generally exert their anti-microbial action by interfering with the cell wall or the membrane of target organisms, either by inhibiting cell

L O’Sullivan; R. P Ross; C Hill

2002-01-01

123

The potential of lactic acid bacteria for the production of safe and wholesome food  

Microsoft Academic Search

By tradition lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are in- volved in the production of fermented foods. These con- stitute one quarter of our diet and are characterized by a safe history, certain beneficial health effects, and an ex- tended shelf life when compared with raw materials. The various fermenting substrates are habitats for specific LAB that differ in their metabolic potential.

Walter P. Hammes; Petra S. Tichaczek

1994-01-01

124

Identification of lactic acid bacteria using FTIR spectroscopy and cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and cluster analysis were applied to differentiate and identify lactic acid bacteria of different Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus strains at the genus level, and Lactobacillus strains at the species level. A previously developed method for measuring FTIR spectra and a strategy for their analysis were used for selecting FTIR spectra of examined strains, and

Bart?omiej Dziuba; Andrzej Babuchowski; Dorota Na??cz; Marta Niklewicz

2007-01-01

125

Lactic acid bacteria as antigen delivery vehicles for oral immunization purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vaccination programmes in which large numbers of subjects are involved, the oral route of administration is more convenient as compared to the more frequently used parenteral route. This is particularly relevant when vaccines are to be applied in less industrialized countries. Lactic acid bacteria in general and strains of Lactobacillus in particular have a variety of properties which make

Peter H Pouwels; Rob J Leer; Michael Shaw; Marie-Joan Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer; Frans D Tielen; Egbert Smit; Beatriz Martinez; Jan Jore; Patricia L Conway

1998-01-01

126

Tyramine degradation and tyramine\\/histamine production by lactic acid bacteria and Kocuria strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 53 strains of lactic acid bacteria and Kocuria, screened for production or degradation of biogenic amines, 29 Kocuria varians and four strains of Enterococcusfaecalisproduced tyramine and, at lower concentrations, histamine. In contrast, Lactobacillus strains that did not possess amino acid decarboxylase activity degraded tyramine. The greatest tyramine oxidase activity was present in the strains L. casei CRL705 (98% degradation)

S. Fadda; G. Vignolo; G. Oliver

2001-01-01

127

Relationships Among Lactic Acid Bacteria Demonstrated with Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate Dehydrogenase as an Evolutionary Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antisera prepared against the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases of Streptococcus faecalis, Pediococcus damnosus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to measure relationships among the lactic acid bacteria by immuno- chemical techniques. Our results confirmed the results of earlier phylogenetic studies carried out with anti-fructose diphosphate aldolase sera. We present new data in the form of dendrograms, which, for the first time, include heterofermenta-

JACK LONDON; NINA M. CHACE

128

Isolation, Characterization, and Influence of Native, Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacteria on Cheddar Cheese Quality1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether adventitious nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) might affect cheese flavor and quality, we studied a population of NSLAB present in 30 premium quality Cheddar cheeses (3-mo ripened) pro- duced at a commercial facility in the United States. DNA fingerprinting analysis with a sensitive strategy for arbi- trary priming polymerase chain reaction showed that 75 isolates corresponded to

P. A. Swearingen; D. J. O'Sullivan; J. J. Warthesen

2001-01-01

129

Class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: Antibacterial activity and food preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, a variety of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, or bacteriocins, produced by lactic acid bacteria have been identified and characterized. As a result of these studies, insight has been gained into various fundamental aspects of biology and biochemistry such as bacteriocin processing and secretion, mechanisms of cell immunity, and structure-function relationships. In parallel, there has been a

Saïd Ennahar; Kenji Sonomoto; Ayaaki Ishizaki

1999-01-01

130

The survival of silage inoculant lactic acid bacteria in rumen fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Z. G. W E I N B E R G , R. E. M U C K A N D P. J. W E I M E R. 2003. Aims: To determine whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in inoculants for silage can survive in rumen fluid (RF), and to identify those that survive best. Methods and Results: Twelve commercial

Z. G. Weinberg; R. E. Muck; P. J. Weimer

2003-01-01

131

Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Gut in Normal and Disordered States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gut flora is a complex and finely balanced ecosystem which plays an important protective role in humans. Although relatively stable, its composition may be altered in various disease states and by the administration of antimicrobial agents. Preparations containing viable lactic acid bacteria of human origin appear to have value in restoring normal microbial function and alleviating symptoms in

Seppo Salminen; Margaret Deighton

1992-01-01

132

Screening of isolated lactic acid bacteria as potential beneficial strains for fermented liquid pig feed production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the selection of potential probiotic strains for producing fermented liquid feed (FLF) for pigs is presented. One hundred and forty six strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from ileal digesta of piglets, cecal digesta of slaughter pigs and FLF from a preliminary trial at our laboratory. The strains were identified with repetitive-element PCR and partial 16S

J. A. M. Missotten; J. Goris; J. Michiels; E. Van Coillie; L. Herman; S. De Smet; N. A. Dierick; M. Heyndrickx

2009-01-01

133

Enzymatic activity of lactic acid bacteria (with antimicrobial properties) isolated from a traditional Spanish cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from a traditional Spanish cheese (Genestoso cheese) were evaluated for their enzymatic activities (acidifying and proteolytic abilities and carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, caseinolytic and esterase activities), in order to select indigenous strains of technical interest for the manufacture of cheese. These strains were selected on the basis of their antimicrobial activity relative to

Leticia González; Noelia Sacristán; Ricardo Arenas; José M. Fresno; M. Eugenia Tornadijo

2010-01-01

134

Potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from specific natural niches in food production and preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been isolated from traditionally homemade cheeses collected from specific ecological localities across Serbia and Montenegro. Genetic and biochemical analysis of this LAB revealed that they produce bacteriocins, proteinases and exopolysaccharides. LAB produces a variety of antimicrobial substances with potential importance for food fermentation and preservation. Apart from the metabolic end products, some

Ljubisa Topisirovic; Milan Kojic; Djordje Fira; Natasa Golic; Ivana Strahinic; Jelena Lozo

2006-01-01

135

Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Antimicrobial Properties Against Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk Products at  

Microsoft Academic Search

and characterization of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with potential for the production of antimicrobial factors is essential to produce health promoting, microbiologically and chemically safe natural food products. Curd and cottage cheese are the traditional fermented food products, produced by natural fermentation using different utensils along with time honoured technology adapted to the local environment. For the present study

Priyanka Singh; Alka Prakash

136

SCREENING AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA PRODUCING ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS FROM PIG GASTROINTESTINAL TRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 87 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 15 samples of pig gastrointestinal tract. Antimicrobial activities of all isolates grown under oxygen-restricted conditions to eliminate the effect of hydrogen peroxide were tested against 5 pathogenic bacterial strains using agar well diffusion technique. Seventeen isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one indicator strain tested. Among the 17 isolates,

Nongpanga Khunajakr; Aporn Wongwicharn; Duangtip Moonmangmee; Sukon Tantipaiboonvut

2008-01-01

137

Assessment of antibiotic susceptibility within lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested in 75 unrelated lactic acid bacteria strains of wine origin of the following species: 38 Lactobacillus plantarum, 3 Lactobacillus hilgardii, 2 Lactobacillus paracasei, 1 Lactobacillus sp, 21 Oenococcus oeni, 4 Pediococcus pentosaceus, 2 Pediococcus parvulus, 1 Pediococcus acidilactici, and 3 Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the different antibiotics that inhibited 50% of

Beatriz Rojo-Bezares; Yolanda Sáenz; Patricia Poeta; Myriam Zarazaga; Fernanda Ruiz-Larrea; Carmen Torres

2006-01-01

138

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria by broth microdilution method and Etest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied two methods of broth microdilution and Etest for measuring minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria for 15 antimicrobial agents to compare the feasibility, reproducibility, and equivalence of the two methods. Both methods were originally described by the European projects PROSAFE and ACE-ART. In 84% combinations of strains and antimicrobial agents MIC differences between the

Akira Kushiro; Christian Chervaux; Stephanie Cools-Portier; Audrey Perony; Sophie Legrain-Raspaud; David Obis; Masaharu Onoue; Ariane van de Moer

2009-01-01

139

Effect of grape polyphenols on lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria growth: Resistance and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food polyphenols are able to selectively modify the growth of susceptible micro-organisms. This study describes the effect of a flavan-3-ol enriched grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth of several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria and the ability of the resistant strains to metabolize these compounds. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus vaginalis strains showed a remarkable

Raquel Tabasco; Fernando Sánchez-Patán; María Monagas; Begoña Bartolomé; M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas; Carmen Peláez; Teresa Requena

2011-01-01

140

Bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on milk fermentations  

PubMed Central

Every biotechnology process that relies on the use of bacteria to make a product or to overproduce a molecule may, at some time, struggle with the presence of virulent phages. For example, phages are the primary cause of fermentation failure in the milk transformation industry. This review focuses on the recent scientific advances in the field of lactic acid bacteria phage research. Three specific topics, namely, the sources of contamination, the detection methods and the control procedures will be discussed.

2011-01-01

141

Batch fermentations on synthetic mixed sugar and starch medium with amylolytic lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The green crop drying industry in Denmark uses Italian rye grass, clover, and alfalfa as raw materials for the production of green pellets. The green crop drying industry solves its energy economical problems by heating and pressing of the green crop before drying. The produced sidestream is called brown juice. Brown juice was shown to be an excellent medium for lactic acid fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the utilisation of brown juice in the production of polylactic acid, where wheat starch would be added to increase the lactic acid yield and, thus, the feasibility of the process. A number of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria have been identified, and in this work, six different strains were tested for their ability to produce alpha-amylase and to utilise all sugars with high lactic acid yield in a medium with a complex composition of free sugars (brown juice) and starch. Lactobacillus plantarum A6 was the only strain that showed both a good lactic acid production and utilisation of starch in this medium. The growth rate of this strain was approximately 0.4 h(-1) and the lactic acid yield was 0.7. PMID:17109171

Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Guyot, Jean Pierre; Kiel, Pauli

2007-03-01

142

Improved stability of aerobic granules by selecting slow-growing nitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the feasibility of improving the stability of aerobic granules through selecting slow-growing nitrifying bacteria. For this purpose, four sequencing batch reactors were operated at different substrate N\\/COD ratios ranging from 5\\/100 to 30\\/100. Results showed that aerobic granules formed in all four reactors, and aerobic granulation was a gradual process evolving from the dispersed seed sludge to

Yu Liu; Shu-Fang Yang; Joo-Hwa Tay

2004-01-01

143

Distribution of Heterotrophic and Nitrifying Bacteria within the Aerobic-Media Trickling Filter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distribution and densities of the heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria within the aerobic-media trickling filter (AMTF) were evaluated for response to changing detention times and nitrogen loadings. Comparison of the total mean densities obtained during ...

G. W. Gillespie

1977-01-01

144

Determination of some characteristics coccoid forms of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish kefirs with natural probiotic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a total of 21 coccoid forms of lactic acid bacteria (lactococci) were isolated from Turkish kefir samples. As a result of the identification tests, 21 lactococci isolates were identified as Lactococcus cremoris (11 strains), Lactococcus lactis (4 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (3 strains) and Streptococcus durans (3 strains). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity,

Z. N Yüksekda?; Y Beyatli; B Aslim

2004-01-01

145

Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The induction of a mucosal immune response is not easy due to the development of oral tolerance, but under some conditions, bacteria can activate this immune system. Antigens administered orally can interact with M cells of Peyer's patches or bind to the epithelial cells. We have demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria are able to induce specific secretory immunity, and others will enhance the gut inflammatory immune response. The aim of this work was to establish the reason for these different behaviors and to define possible mechanisms involved in the interaction of lactic acid bacteria at the intestinal level. We studied IgA+ and IgM+ B cells comparatively in bronchus and intestine and CD4+ T cells and IgA anti-lactic acid bacteria antibodies in the intestinal fluid, induced by oral administration of Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. The increase in the IgA+ B cells in the bronchus means that these lactic acid bacteria were able to induce the IgA cycle by interaction with M cells from Peyer's patches or intestinal epithelial cells. The IgM+ cells increased when the stimulus did not induce the switch from IgM+ to IgA+. The increase in the CD4+ cells suggests interaction of Peyer's patches and enhancement of the B- and T-cell migration. The anti-lactic acid bacteria antibody is related to the processing and presentation of the microorganisms to the immune cells. We demonstrated that Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were able to interact with Peyer's patch cells and showed an increase in IgA-, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific for the stimulating strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus induced gut mucosal activation by interaction with the epithelial cells without increase in the immune cells associated with the bronchus. Although Lb. rhamnosus and Strep. salivarius ssp. thermophilus interact with epithelial cells, they also induced an immune response against their epitopes. Lactococcus lactis and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus induced an increase of IgA+ cells entering the IgA cycle but not CD4+ cells; thus, these bacteria would have been bound to epithelial cells that activated B lymphocytes without processing and presenting of their epitopes. We did not determine specific antibodies against Lc. lactis or Lb. bulgaricus. PMID:10386296

Perdigón, G; Vintiñi, E; Alvarez, S; Medina, M; Medici, M

1999-06-01

146

Inhibition of food-borne bacterial pathogens by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat.  

PubMed Central

Ten strains of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from retail cuts of meat. These 10 strains along with 11 other bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were tested for inhibitory activity against psychotrophic pathogens, including four strains of Listeria monocytogenes, two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibition due to acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lytic bacteriophage were excluded. The proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory substance was confirmed by demonstration of its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes. Eight of the meat isolates had inhibitory activity against all four L. monocytogenes strains. Bacteriocin activity against L. monocytogenes was found in all of the strains obtained from other sources. Activity against A. hydrophila and S. aureus was also common. Images

Lewus, C B; Kaiser, A; Montville, T J

1991-01-01

147

Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

2013-01-01

148

Amino acid profiles of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains and kefir starter made from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of cell growth, lactic acid production, amino acid release and consumption by single-strain cultures of lactic acid bacteria (isolated from kefir grains), and by a multiple-strain kefir starter prepared from them, were studied. The change in the levels of free amino acids was followed throughout the kefir process: single-strain kefir bacteria and the kefir starter (Lactococcus lactis C15–1%+Lactobacillus

Emilina Simova; Zhelyasko Simov; Dora Beshkova; Ginka Frengova; Zhechko Dimitrov; Zdravko Spasov

2006-01-01

149

Transformation of isoflavone phytoestrogens during the fermentation of soymilk with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, soymilk is fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus BCRC 14085, Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 14079) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis BCRC 14633, B. longum B6) individually, and in combination. The change in the content of various isoflavones (aglycones, glucoside, acetyl- and malonyl-glucosides) and the ?-glucosidase activity in soymilk during fermentation is investigated.It is observed that fermented soymilk

Hsiang-Lin Chien; Hui-Yu Huang; Cheng-Chun Chou

2006-01-01

150

Interaction between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sour-dough using a rheofermentometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheofermentometer assays were used to characterize the leavening of sour-doughs produced using species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, alone or in combination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 produced the most CO2 and ethanol whereas S. exiguus M14 and Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 contributed poorly to leavening and gave sour-doughs without porosity. In comparison with that seen in sour-dough produced

M. Gobbetti; A. Corsetti; J. Rossi

1995-01-01

151

Production of class II bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria; an example of biological warfare and communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fight competing Gram-positive microorganisms by secreting anti-microbial peptides called bacteriocins.\\u000a Peptide bacteriocins are usually divided into lantibiotics (class I) and non-lantibiotics (class II), the latter being the\\u000a main topic of this review. During the past decade many of these bacteriocins have been isolated and characterized, and elements\\u000a of the genetic mechanisms behind bacteriocin production have been

Vincent G. H. Eijsink; Lars Axelsson; Dzung B. Diep; Leiv S. Håvarstein; Helge Holo; Ingolf F. Nes

2002-01-01

152

Ability of intestinal lactic bacteria to bind or\\/and metabolise phenol and p-cresol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal microflora can contribute to colon cancer by the production of substances playing a role in carcinogenesis. Metabolites\\u000a of protein fermentation in the colon, such as ammonia, H2S, indole, phenol, skatole are toxic. Lactic bacteria existing in the colon may exert an anti-carcinogenic action, but the\\u000a mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study the ability of intestin|al lactobacilli to

Adriana Nowak; Zdzislawa Libudzisz

2007-01-01

153

[Volatile oil of Anethum Graveolens L. as an inhibitor of yeast and lactic acid bacteria].  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of 25 volatile oils from aerial parts and seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) of different geographical origin towards yeast Saccharomyces vini and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacterium buchneri was measured by serial dilutions. Volatile oils from mature seeds and green parts of the plants harvested at late vegetation phases showed the highest activity. The geographical origin of plants influenced insignificantly the antimicrobial activity of volatile oil. PMID:1208405

Shcherbanovsky, L R; Kapelev, I G

1975-01-01

154

Modeling lactic acid bacteria growth in vacuum-packaged cooked meat emulsions stored at three temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three storage temperatures on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in cooked meat emulsions packaged in low oxygen permeability film was investigated. Bacterial counts at 0°C, 8°C and 15°C were fitted to the Gompertz equation and the maximum specific growth rate (?) was obtained as derived parameter, this value being maximal at 15°C (1.16 days?1). Arrhenius

Mar??a Elisa Cayré; Graciela Vignolo; Oscar Garro

2003-01-01

155

FTIR-based polyphasic identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Greek Graviera cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a combination of phenotypic, physical (Fourier Transformed Infra-Red [FTIR] spectroscopy) and molecular (RFLP and SSCP analysis of 16S rRNA genes) methods to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) flora present in traditional Greek Graviera cheese after five weeks of ripening. A total of 300 isolates collected from high dilution plates of TSAYE (incubated at 30 °C), M-17 (22 °C)

John Samelis; Anne Bleicher; Céline Delbès-Paus; Athanasia Kakouri; Klaus Neuhaus; Marie-Christine Montel

2011-01-01

156

Viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented soymilk after drying, subsequent rehydration and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a probiotic dietary adjunct, soymilk fermented with various combinations of lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium infantis) was subjected to freeze-drying and spray-drying. Survival of the starter organisms during the drying process, subsequent rehydration at different temperatures and during a 4-month period of storage under different storage conditions was examined.After

Yi-Chieh Wang; Roch-Chui Yu; Cheng-Chun Chou

2004-01-01

157

Characterization and in vitro probiotic evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from idli batter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Indian traditional fermented food, idli batter, was used as a source for isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 15 LAB strains were isolated on the\\u000a basis of their Gram nature and catalase activity. Of these, one lactobacilli strain and one lactococci strain which showed\\u000a antimicrobial activity were identified using biochemical characterization, sugar utilization and molecular sequencing.

Bharti K. Iyer; Rekha S. Singhal; Laxmi Ananthanarayan

158

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND YEAST STRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and three yeast strains isolated from a traditional Bulgarian cereal-based fermented beverage were assessed for potential probiotic properties. Acid and bile resistance, antipathogenic activity and antibiotic resistance of the strains were evaluated. Tolerance to low pH values (2.0–3.0) and high bile concentrations (0.2–2.0%) of the LAB and yeast strains varied, but all strains kept viable

Velitchka Gotcheva; Eli Hristozova; Tsonka Hristozova; Mingruo Guo; Zlatka Roshkova; Angel Angelov

2002-01-01

159

Review article Quorum sensing-controlled gene expression in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involves peptides that are directly sensed by membrane-located histidine kinases, after which the signal is transmitted to an intracellular response regulator. This regulator in turn activates transcription of target genes, that commonly include the structural gene for the inducer molecule. The two-component signal-transduction machinery has proven to be indispensable for transcription activation and

Oscar P. Kuipers; Pascalle G. G. A. de Ruyter; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos

160

Antimicrobial Peptides of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Mode of Action, Genetics and Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is given of the main classes of bacteriocins, produced by lactic acid bacteria: I. lantibiotics II. small heat-stable\\u000a non-lanthionine containing membrane-active peptides and III. large heat-labile proteins. First, their mode of action is detailed,\\u000a with emphasis on pore formation in the cytoplasmatic membrane. Subsequently, the molecular genetics of several classes of\\u000a bacteriocins are described in detail, with special

E. Sablon; B. Contreras; E. Vandamme

161

Antimicrobial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Burkina Faso Fermented Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Eight strains of lactic acid bacteria producing,bacteriocin were,isolated from,Burkina Faso fermented milk samples. These strains were identified to species: Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. meseteroides, Lactococcus. Isolated bacteriocin exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis103907 CIP, Bacillus cereus 13569 LMG,Staphylococcus aureusATCC 25293,Escherichia coli105182 CIP using the agar drop diffusion test. The inhibition diameters obtained wi th bacteriocin are

2004-01-01

162

Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg21 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison

JØRGEN J. LEISNER; BRUNO POT; HENRIK CHRISTENSEN; GULAM RUSUL; JOHN E. OLSEN; BEE WAH WEE; KHARIDAH MUHAMAD; HASANAH M. GHAZALI

1999-01-01

163

ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS AND EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDES PRODUCED BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: STRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Antimicrobial compounds ,and exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced ,by dairy ,lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were studied. These compounds were separated and purified, and their structures were investigated. The activity of the antimicrobial compounds,and the rheological properties of the EPSs were also studied. Thirteen Lactobacillusand five Pediococcusstrai ns were shown to produce,a low-molecular- mass antimicrobial compound, which was separated and purified by

ZHENNAI YANG

2000-01-01

164

Pediocin PA1, a Wide-Spectrum Bacteriocin from Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Helen Dodd, Food Safety Science Division, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney NR4 7UA, Norwich, United Kingdom Pediocin PA-1 is a broad-spectrum lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin that shows a particularly strong activity against Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen of special concern among the food industries. This antimicrobial peptide is the most extensively studied class IIa (or

Juan M. Rodríguez; María I. Martínez; Jan Kok

2002-01-01

165

Regulation of antimicrobial peptide production by autoinducer-mediated quorum sensing in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lactic acid bacteria produce peptides with antimicrobial activity. During the last few years, cell–cell communication has emerged as the key regulatory mechanism that controls the production of many of these antimicrobial peptides via a regulatory strategy denominated quorum sensing. Quorum sensing allows population-wide synchronised production of antimicrobial peptides as a function of cell density. The cell–cell communication phenomenon required

Luis E. N. Quadri

2002-01-01

166

Screening of lactic acid bacteria for antimicrobial properties from mayonnaise-based products and raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from both mayonnaise-based products and raw materials used to manufacture them\\u000a was tested for antimicrobial activity. Out of 144 strains (97 lactobacilli, 23 lactococci and 24 enterococci) only three supernatants\\u000a of Enterococcus spp. strains (EN3, EN14 and EN15) exhibited activity against lactobacilli and lactococci. The supernatant of the strain EN3\\u000a exclusively inhibited the

Kate?ina Ku?erová; Jana Chumchalová; Kamila Míková; Šárka Cupáková; Renáta Karpíšková; Linda Ho

2007-01-01

167

Screening lactic acid bacteria from swine origins for multistrain probiotics based on in vitro functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria originated from swine feces and intestines were selected for potential probiotics based on their bile-salt resistance, low pH tolerance, potential adhesion to epithelial cells and especially functional properties, including production of antimicrobial substances, bile-salt hydrolase (BSH) and amylolytic activity. Results showed 7 isolates with antimicrobial activity, 5 with BSH activity and 3 with amylolytic activity were preliminarily

Xiao-Hua Guo; Jong-Man Kim; Hyang-Mi Nam; Shin-Young Park; Jae-Myung Kim

2010-01-01

168

Conjugated linoleic acid production from linoleic acid by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

After screening 14 genera of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was selected as a potential strain for CLA production from linoleic acid. Washed cells of L. plantarum with high levels of CLA production were obtained by cultivation in a nutrient medium with 0.06% (wt\\/vol) linoleic acid (cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid). Under the optimal reaction conditions with the free form of

Shigenobu Kishino; Jun Ogawa; Yoriko Omura; Kenji Matsumura; Sakayu Shimizu

2002-01-01

169

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in kefir grains and kefir made from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

  In an investigation of the changes in the microflora along the pathway: kefir grains (A)?kefir made from kefir grains (B)?kefir\\u000a made from kefir as inoculum (C), the following species of lactic acid bacteria (83–90%) of the microbial count in the grains)\\u000a were identified: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum and

E Simova; D Beshkova; A Angelov; Ts Hristozova; G Frengova; Z Spasov

2002-01-01

170

Enzymatic hydrolysates from food wastewater as a source of peptones for lactic acid bacteria productions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse group of peptones obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of wastewater from the industrial processing of octopus showed their effectiveness to promote the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the production of bacteriocins. The highest nisin formation by Lactococcus lactis was reached using peptones from papain hydrolysis for 24h (enzyme concentration: 1.25mg papain\\/g protein). On the other hand, the

José Antonio Vázquez; Miguel Anxo Murado

2008-01-01

171

Occurrence of Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes in Arginine Catabolism by Wine Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

l-Arginine, an amino acid found in significant quantities in grape juice and wine, is known to be catabolized by some wine lactic acid bacteria. The correlation between the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and the ability to catabolize arginine was examined in this study. The activities of the three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes, arginine deiminase, ornithine transcarbamylase, and carbamate kinase, were measured in cell extracts of 35 strains of wine lactic acid bacteria. These enzymes were present in all heterofermentative lactobacilli and most leuconostocs but were absent in all the homofermentative lactobacilli and pediococci examined. There was a good correlation among arginine degradation, formation of ammonia and citrulline, and the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes. Urea was not detected during arginine degradation, suggesting that the catabolism of arginine did not proceed via the arginase-catalyzed reaction, as has been suggested in some earlier studies. Detection of ammonia with Nessler's reagent was shown to be a simple, rapid test to assess the ability of wine lactic acid bacteria to degrade arginine, although in media containing relatively high concentrations (>0.5%) of fructose, ammonia formation is inhibited.

Liu, S.; Pritchard, G. G.; Hardman, M. J.; Pilone, G. J.

1995-01-01

172

Modified alginate and chitosan for lactic acid bacteria immobilization.  

PubMed

Beads with enhanced-stability acid media, which were based on alginate and chitosan functionalized by succinylation (increasing the anionic charges able to retain protons) or by acylation (improving matrix hydrophobicity), were developed for immobilization of bacterial cells. Beads (3 mm diameter) formed by ionotropic gelation with CaCl(2) presented good mechanical characteristics. After 30 min incubation of viable free Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5), we noticed that the level of viable bacteria was undetectable. Bacterial immobilization in native-alginate-based beads generated a viable-cell count of 22-26%, whereas, when entrapped in succinylated alginate and chitosan beads, the percentage of viable cells was of 60 and 66%, respectively. Best viability (87%) was found for bacteria immobilized in N -palmitoylaminoethyl alginate, which affords a high protective effect, probably due to long alkyl pendants that improve the beads' hydrophobicity, limiting hydration in the acidic environment. PMID:15154848

Le-Tien, Canh; Millette, Mathieu; Mateescu, Mircea-Alexandru; Lacroix, Monique

2004-06-01

173

Sulfate reducing and methane producing bacteria in aerobic wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection of aerobic biofilm reactors and activated sludge plants were investigated for the presence of methane producing bacteria (MPB) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Detection tests showed that acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic MPB as well as lactate, acetate and propionate oxidizing SRB were present in all reactor types investigated, except in an activated sludge reactor aerated with pure oxygen. Methane

P. N. Lens; M.-P. De Poorter; C. C. Cronenberg; W. H. Verstraete

1995-01-01

174

A combination of two lactic acid bacteria improves the hydrolysis of gliadin during wheat dough fermentation.  

PubMed

The evaluation of gliadin hydrolysis during dough fermentation by using two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 775 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CRL 792, as pooled cell suspension (LAB) or cell free extract (CFE) was undertaken. The CFE pool produced a greater (121%) increase in amino acid concentration than the LAB pool (70-80%). These results were correlated with the decrease (76,100 and 64,300 ppm) in the gliadin concentration of doughs supplemented with CFE and LAB, respectively, compared to control doughs. The use of LAB peptidases seemed to be a viable technologic alternative to reduce the gliadin concentration in wheat dough without using living bacteria as starter. PMID:22986210

Gerez, Carla Luciana; Dallagnol, Andrea; Rollán, Graciela; Font de Valdez, Graciela

2012-12-01

175

Culture-independent analysis of lactic acid bacteria diversity associated with mezcal fermentation.  

PubMed

Mezcal is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the distillation of fermented juices of cooked Agave spp. plant stalks (agave must), and each region in Mexico with denomination of origin uses defined Agave species to prepare mezcal with unique organoleptic characteristics. During fermentation to produce mezcal in the state of Tamaulipas, not only alcohol-producing yeasts are involved, but also a lactic acid bacterial community that has not been characterized yet. In order to address this lack of knowledge on this traditional Mexican beverage, we performed a DGGE-16S rRNA analysis of the lactic acid bacterial diversity and metabolite accumulation during the fermentation of a typical agave must that is rustically produced in San Carlos County (Tamaulipas, Mexico). The analysis of metabolite production indicated a short but important malolactic fermentation stage not previously described for mezcal. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed a distinctive lactic acid bacterial community composed mainly of Pediococcus parvulus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus composti, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Some atypical genera such as Weissella and Bacillus were also found in the residual must. Our results suggest that the lactic acid bacteria could strongly be implicated in the organoleptic attributes of this traditional Mexican distilled beverage. PMID:20383505

Narváez-Zapata, J A; Rojas-Herrera, R A; Rodríguez-Luna, I C; Larralde-Corona, C P

2010-11-01

176

Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.  

PubMed

The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain. PMID:19376463

Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

2009-06-01

177

Anti-diabetic effects of lactic acid bacteria in normal and type 2 diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic effects of lactic acid bacteria were investigated using mice. In Experiment 1, normal ICR mice were loaded with sucrose or starch with or without viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG cells. GG significantly inhibited postprandial blood glucose levels when administered with sucrose or starch. In Experiment 2, KK-Ay mice, a model of genetic type 2 diabetes, were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cells for 6 weeks. Viable GG cells significantly inhibited fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose in a glucose tolerance test and HbA1c. Such effects were not shown by viable L. bulgaricus cells. In Experiment 3, the KK-Ay mice were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or heat-treated GG cells for 3 weeks. The viable GG cells significantly suppressed fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but the heat-treated GG showed no effects. These results demonstrated that GG decreased the postprandial blood glucose in ICR mice, and that the antidiabetic activity of lactic acid bacteria on the KK-Ay mice differed depending on the bacterial strain and whether the bacterium is viable when it arrives in the intestine. In the present study, we conclude that the antidiabetic activity may result from continuous inhibition of the postprandial blood glucose through suppression of glucose absorption from the intestine. These findings indicate that specific strains of lactic acid bacterium can be expected to be beneficial for the management of type 2 diabetes.

Honda, Kayoko; Moto, Mihoko; Uchida, Naoko; He, Fang; Hashizume, Naotaka

2012-01-01

178

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Artisanal Italian goat cheese.  

PubMed

The lactic acid bacteria community in traditional goat cheese produced in three dairies in Valsesia (Piemonte, Italy) was studied at different steps of the manufacturing process. These cheeses were produced from raw milk without starter bacteria, and no protocol was followed during the manufacturing process. Three hundred thirty-two isolates were characterized and grouped by results of both morphophysiological tests and random amplification of polymorphic DNA plus PCR analysis. Bacteria were identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Lactococci were the dominant lactic acid bacteria in raw milk. Their initial numbers ranged from 5 to 7 log CFU ml(-1). Their levels increased during manufacturing and decreased during ripening. The growth trend for enterococci was comparable to that of lactococci, although enterococci counts were lower. Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus garviae, and Enterococcus faecalis were the most frequently isolated species during goat cheese manufacturing, whereas the highest numbers of Enterococcus (E. faecium, E. durans, E. gilvus, and E. casseliflavus) were isolated with the greatest frequency from ripened cheese samples. Occasionally, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc lactis, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum also were isolated. PMID:20377953

Colombo, E; Franzetti, L; Frusca, M; Scarpellini, M

2010-04-01

179

The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine lactic acid bacteria's capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4% and 34.7% of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1.

Hamidi, Adel; Mirnejad, Reza; Yahaghi, Emad; Behnod, Vahid; Mirhosseini, Ali; Amani, Sajad; Sattari, Sara; Darian, Ebrahim Khodaverdi

2013-01-01

180

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bee Pollen: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133.

BELHADJ, Hani; HARZALLAH, Daoud; BOUAMRA, Dalila; KHENNOUF, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; GHADBANE, Mouloud

2014-01-01

181

Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation  

PubMed Central

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

2014-01-01

182

Aerobic bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii and Cytomegalovirus as agents of severe pneumonia in small infants.  

PubMed

The authors studied 58 infants hospitalized for pneumonia in a semi-intensive care unit. Age ranged from 1 complete to 6 incomplete months. The infants were sent from another hospital in 20 cases and from home in a further 38. Pulmonary involvement, which was alveolar in 46 cases and interstitial in 12, was bilateral in 31 children. The investigation was carried out prospectively on the etiological agents associated with respiratory infection to look for evidence of aerobic bacteria (blood cultures), Chlamydia trachomatis and Cytomegalovirus (serology), and Pneumocystis carinii (direct microscopy of tracheal aspirated material). The following infectious agents were diagnosed in 21 children (36.2%): Aerobic bacteria (8), Chlamydia trachomatis (5), Pneumocystis carinii (3), Cytomegalovirus (3), Cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia trachomatis (1), Aerobic bacteria and Cytomegalovirus (1). Seven cases of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Cytomegalovirus were diagnosed out of the 12 cases with pulmonary interstitial involvement. PMID:8762633

Ejzenberg, B; Melles, H; Melles, C; Dias, R; Baldacci, E R; Okay, Y

1996-01-01

183

Complete decomposition of biological waste sludge by thermophilic aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional activated sludge (AS) process is an economical and effective biooxidation process although a large amount of excess sludge is necessarily generated. We have developed a new zero- discharge AS process, in which no excess sludge is generated. It was formed by combining the conventional AS process with thermophilic aerobic sludge digester in which excess sludge is solubilized by thermophilic

Y. Sakai; T. Aoyagi; N. Shiota; A. Akashi; S. Hasegawa

2000-01-01

184

Production of human tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 is induced by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the role of cytokines in interactions between lactic acid bacteria and the immune system, we measured production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-10 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after stimulation with live or glutaraldehyde-fixed bacteria. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, and, in some cases, IL-10 was induced in amounts even greater than those obtained with lipopolysaccharide as a stimulant. Our results suggest that lactic acid bacteria can stimulate nonspecific immunity.

Miettinen, M; Vuopio-Varkila, J; Varkila, K

1996-01-01

185

Production of human tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 is induced by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of cytokines in interactions between lactic acid bacteria and the immune system, we measured production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-10 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after stimulation with live or glutaraldehyde-fixed bacteria. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, and, in some cases, IL-10 was induced in amounts even greater than those obtained with lipopolysaccharide as a stimulant. Our results suggest that lactic acid bacteria can stimulate nonspecific immunity. PMID:8945595

Miettinen, M; Vuopio-Varkila, J; Varkila, K

1996-12-01

186

Functional properties of novel protective lactic acid bacteria and application in raw chicken meat against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 635 lactic acid bacteria of food origin were evaluated for their potential application as protective cultures in foods. A stepwise selection method was used to obtain the most appropriate strains for application as protective cultures in chicken meat. Specifically, all strains were examined for antimicrobial activity against various Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

Petros A. Maragkoudakis; Konstantinos C. Mountzouris; Dimitris Psyrras; Silvia Cremonese; Jana Fischer; Mette D. Cantor; Effie Tsakalidou

2009-01-01

187

Influence of compounds associated with fermented dairy products on the growth of lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of 24 strains of lactic acid starter bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus lactis) and 24 strains of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bifidobacteria) in liquid media containing different substances was assessed. The substances used were salts (NaCl and KCl); sugars (sucrose and lactose); sweeteners (acesulfame and aspartame); aroma

C. G Vinderola; G. A Costa; S Regenhardt; J. A Reinheimer

2002-01-01

188

Screening of species-specific lactic acid bacteria for veal calves multi-strain probiotic adjuncts.  

PubMed

The selection of promising specific species of lactic acid bacteria with potential probiotic characteristics is of particular interest in producing multi species-specific probiotic adjuncts in veal calves rearing. The aim of the present work was to select and evaluate in vitro the functional activity of lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum and Bacillus coagulans strains isolated from veal calves in order to assess their potential use as multi species-specific probiotics for veal calves. For this purpose, bacterial strains isolated from faeces collected from 40 healthy 50-day-calves, were identified by RiboPrinter and 16s rRNA gene sequence. The most frequent strains belonged to the species B. longum, Streptococcus bovis, Lactobacillus animalis and Streptococcus macedonicus. Among these, 7 strains were chosen for testing their probiotic characteristics in vitro. Three strains, namely L. animalis SB310, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SB137 and B. coagulans SB117 showed varying individual but promising capabilities to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, to adhere, to produce antimicrobial compounds. These three selected species-specific bacteria demonstrated in vitro, both singularly and mixed, the functional properties needed for their use as potential probiotics in veal calves. PMID:21619939

Ripamonti, Barbara; Agazzi, Alessandro; Bersani, Carla; De Dea, Paola; Pecorini, Chiara; Pirani, Silvia; Rebucci, Raffaella; Savoini, Giovanni; Stella, Simone; Stenico, Alberta; Tirloni, Erica; Domeneghini, Cinzia

2011-06-01

189

A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods  

PubMed Central

l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound.

Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

190

Identification and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Commercial Probiotic Culture  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to describe the identification and characterization (physiological properties) of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB 18 and 48) present in a commercial probiotic culture, FloraMax®-B11. Isolates were characterized morphologically, and identified biochemically. In addition, the MIDI System ID, the Biolog ID System, and 16S rRNA sequence analyses for identification of LAB 18 and LAB 48 strains were used to compare the identification results. Tolerance and resistance to acidic pH, high osmotic concentration of NaCl, and bile salts were tested in broth medium. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria and susceptibility to antibiotics were also tested. The results obtained in this study showed tolerance of LAB 18 and LAB 48 to pH 3.0, 6.5% NaCl and a high bile salt concentration (0.6%). Both strains evaluated showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Escherichia coli (O157:H7), and Campylobacter jejuni. These are important characteristics of lactic acid bacteria that should be evaluated when selecting strains to be used as probiotics. Antimicrobial activity of these effective isolates may contribute to efficacy, possibly by direct antimicrobial activity in vivo.

MENCONI, Anita; KALLAPURA, Gopala; LATORRE, Juan D.; MORGAN, Marion J.; PUMFORD, Neil R.; HARGIS, Billy M.; TELLEZ, Guillermo

2014-01-01

191

GrowthInhibition ofStreptococcus mutansbyCellular Extracts of HumanIntestinal Lactic AcidBacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theinvitro growth ofStreptococcus mutanswas completely inhibited bywater-soluble extracts fromcells of various intestinal lactic acidbacteria identified asStreptococcus faecium, Streptococcus equinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, andLactobacillus salivarius. Thegrowthinhibition was dependent on theconcentrations ofthe extracts. Incontrast, theextracts didnotinhibit thegrowthofthemajorindigenous intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolated fromhumans.Theselactic acidbacteria were notacutely toxic inmice. Inhibition ofthegrowth ofStreptococcus mutans, which hasbeenconsidered amajorpathogen ofdental caries, is thought tobeoneofthemostimportant factors inpreventing dental

KAZUOKI ISHIHARA; HIROKO MIYAKAWA; ATSUKO HASEGAWA; YASUO KAWAI

1985-01-01

192

Comparison of Dry Medium Culture Plates for Mesophilic Aerobic Bacteria in Milk, Ice Cream, Ham, and Codfish Fillet Products  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

2013-01-01

193

Distribution, diversity and ecology of aerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies indicate that carbon monoxide (CO) participates in a broader range of processes than any other single molecule, ranging from subcellular to planetary scales. Despite its toxicity to many organisms, a diverse group of bacteria that span multiple phylogenetic lineages metabolize CO. These bacteria are globally distributed and include pathogens, plant symbionts and biogeochemically important lineages in soils and

Carolyn F. Weber; Gary M. King

2007-01-01

194

?-Glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria: mechanisms, impact on fermented food and human health.  

PubMed

Through the hydrolysis of plant metabolite glucoconjugates, ?-glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) make a significant contribution to the dietary and sensory attributes of fermented food. Deglucosylation can release attractive flavour compounds from glucosylated precursors and increases the bioavailability of health-promoting plant metabolites as well as that of dietary toxins. This review brings the current literature on LAB ?-glucosidases into context by providing an overview of the nutritional implications of LAB ?-glucosidase activities. Based on biochemical and genomic information, the mechanisms that are currently considered to be critical for the hydrolysis of ?-glucosides by intestinal and food-fermenting LAB will also be reviewed. PMID:24330034

Michlmayr, Herbert; Kneifel, Wolfgang

2014-03-01

195

Production of ?-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of ?-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

196

[Antagonistic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from apparently healthy and osteoporotic women].  

PubMed

Antagonistic activity of 74 cultures of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from healthy and osteoporotic women-patients aged 50-79 years, has been studied. It has been shown that the inhibitory effect of the strain studied was independent of the health of women (control group of women or patients with osteoporosis), but had strain specificity. Seventeen most active strains of lactobacilli, which showed the highest inhibitory activity against B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris were selected. Only 6 strains of lactobacillus demonstrated specific antagonistic activity against the test-strains. PMID:23516836

Ohirchuk, K S; Poltavs'ka, O A; Kovalenko, N K

2013-01-01

197

The passage of lactic acid bacteria from silage into rumen fluid, in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Inoculated silages sometimes improve cattle performance, possibly because of probiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) silage inoculants. The cause of improved animal performance following feeding with inoculated silage is unclear. One issue in studying this phenomenon is to find out whether LAB pass from silage into the rumen fluid and survive in it. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether LAB from inoculated and uninoculated silages pass into the rumen fluid in vitro. Wheat and corn silages, uninoculated or inoculated with 1 of 10 commercial silage inoculant LAB, were prepared in glass jars. After ensiling, a 2.5-g silage sample was added to 25 mL of heat-sterilized or strained rumen fluid together with 5 g/L glucose, and incubated for 48 h at 39 degrees C. Analysis of the incubated rumen fluid included pH measurement, enumeration of LAB, and determination of lactic acid and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The pH of the rumen fluid decreased during incubation; both heat-sterilized and strained rumen fluid contained large numbers of LAB. The heat-sterilized rumen fluid contained lactic acid in addition to VFA, whereas the strained rumen fluid contained only VFA. The results indicate that LAB pass from silage samples into the rumen fluid in vitro and survive there. Their interactions with rumen microorganisms should be studied further to understand how some silage inoculant LAB exhibit probiotic effects in dairy cattle. PMID:15377617

Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Gamburg, M

2004-10-01

198

Iron Isotope Fractionation by Aerobic Bacteria; A Useful Biosignature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present new information gleaned from cultures of Fe oxidizing bacteria and consider isotopic fractionation effects. This information may prove useful in understanding Fe as a biosignature in the natural environment.

Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Nelson, B. K.; Edwards, K. J.; Staley, J. T.; Murray, J. W.

2010-04-01

199

PCB-degrading potential of aerobic bacteria enriched from marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to study catabolic potential of marine sediment bacteria in aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Marine sediment samples were collected at urban areas of the Croatian Adriatic coast, and microcosm enrichment experiments were performed in seawater mineral salts (SMS) medium with the addition of biphenyl as the only carbon source. After two to

Ana Begonja Kolar; Dubravka Hršak; Sanja Fingler; Helena ?etkovi?; Ines Petri?; Nikolina Udikovi? Koli?

2007-01-01

200

Effect of Radiation Dose on the Recovery of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria from Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9. or 10 Gy CO60 radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The num...

I. Brook R. I. Walker T. J. MacVittie

1986-01-01

201

Concentrations of butyric acid bacteria spores in silage and relationships with aerobic deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination and growth of spores of butyric acid bacteria (BAB) may cause severe defects in semihard cheeses. Silage is the main source of BAB spores in cheese milk. The objectives of the study were to deter- mine the significance of grass silages and corn silages assourcesofBABsporesandtoinvestigatetherelation- ships between high concentrations of BAB spores in corn silage and aerobic deterioration. In

M. M. M. Vissers; F. Driehuis; M. C. Te Giffel; P. De Jong; J. M. G. Lankveld

2007-01-01

202

Biotechnology and Pasta-Making: Lactic Acid Bacteria as a New Driver of Innovation  

PubMed Central

Cereals-derived foods represent a key constituent in the diet of many populations. In particular, pasta is consumed in large quantities throughout the world in reason of its nutritive importance, containing significant amounts of complex carbohydrates, proteins, B-vitamins, and iron. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages with high relevance for human and animal health. A wide literature testifies the multifaceted importance of LAB biotechnological applications in cereal-based products. Several studies focused on LAB isolation and characterization in durum wheat environment, in some cases with preliminary experimental applications of LAB in pasta-making. In this paper, using sourdough as a model, we focus on the relevant state-of-art to introduce a LAB-based biotechnological step in industrial pasta-making, a potential world driver of innovation that might represent a cutting-edge advancement in pasta production.

Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

203

Interaction of lactic acid bacteria with metal ions: opportunities for improving food safety and quality.  

PubMed

Certain species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as well as other microorganisms, can bind metal ions to their cells surface or transport and store them inside the cell. Due to this fact, over the past few years interactions of metal ions with LAB have been intensively investigated in order to develop the usage of these bacteria in new biotechnology processes in addition to their health and probiotic aspects. Preliminary studies in model aqueous solutions yielded LAB with high absorption potential for toxic and essential metal ions, which can be used for improving food safety and quality. This paper provides an overview of results obtained by LAB application in toxic metal ions removing from drinking water, food and human body, as well as production of functional foods and nutraceutics. The biosorption abilities of LAB towards metal ions are emphasized. The binding mechanisms, as well as the parameters influencing the passive and active uptake are analyzed. PMID:22806724

Mrv?i?, Jasna; Stanzer, Damir; Soli?, Ema; Stehlik-Tomas, Vesna

2012-09-01

204

Anti-diabetic effects of lactic acid bacteria in normal and type 2 diabetic mice.  

PubMed

The antidiabetic effects of lactic acid bacteria were investigated using mice. In Experiment 1, normal ICR mice were loaded with sucrose or starch with or without viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG cells. GG significantly inhibited postprandial blood glucose levels when administered with sucrose or starch. In Experiment 2, KK-A(y) mice, a model of genetic type 2 diabetes, were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cells for 6 weeks. Viable GG cells significantly inhibited fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose in a glucose tolerance test and HbA1c. Such effects were not shown by viable L. bulgaricus cells. In Experiment 3, the KK-A(y) mice were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or heat-treated GG cells for 3 weeks. The viable GG cells significantly suppressed fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but the heat-treated GG showed no effects. These results demonstrated that GG decreased the postprandial blood glucose in ICR mice, and that the antidiabetic activity of lactic acid bacteria on the KK-A(y) mice differed depending on the bacterial strain and whether the bacterium is viable when it arrives in the intestine. In the present study, we conclude that the antidiabetic activity may result from continuous inhibition of the postprandial blood glucose through suppression of glucose absorption from the intestine. These findings indicate that specific strains of lactic acid bacterium can be expected to be beneficial for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22962525

Honda, Kayoko; Moto, Mihoko; Uchida, Naoko; He, Fang; Hashizume, Naotaka

2012-09-01

205

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria inhabit fructose-rich niches in nature  

PubMed Central

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a special group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which prefer fructose but not glucose as growth substrate. They are found in fructose-rich niches, e.g. flowers, fruits, and fermented foods made from fruits. Quite recently, they were found in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals consuming fructose, which were bumblebees, tropical fruit flies, and Camponotus ants. These suggest that all natural sources that are rich in fructose are possible their habitats. Fructobacillus spp., formerly classified as Leuconostoc spp., are representatives of these microorganisms, and Lactobacillus kunkeei has also been classified as FLAB. They share several unique biochemical characteristics, which have not been found in LAB inhabited in other niches. FLAB grow well on fructose but very poor on glucose. These organisms grow well on glucose only when external electron accepters, e.g. pyruvate or oxygen, are available. LAB have been shown to have specific evolution to adapt to their niches and have several niche-specific characteristics. FLAB must have fructophilic evolution during adaptation to fructose-rich niches. FLAB are unique food-related LAB, suggesting a great potential for future food and feed applications.

Endo, Akihito

2012-01-01

206

Oxalate-degrading capacities of lactic acid bacteria in canine feces.  

PubMed

In this study, lactic acid bacteria in canine feces were isolated and identified, and their oxalate-degrading capacities were evaluated. The oxalate-degrading capacities were determined for 24 of 47 (51.06%) lactic acid bacteria isolates. Of these, 8 isolates [Leuconostoc mesenteroides (RL75), Lactococcus garvieae (CD2), Lactococcus subsp. lactis (CS21), Enterococcus faecium (CL71 and CL72), and Enterococcus faecalis (CD14, CS62, and CD12)] degraded more than 5% of the oxalate present, while the others degraded less than 5% of the oxalate in vitro. Isolates that degraded more than 5% of the oxalate present were selected for further examination. The oxalate-degrading capacities of individual isolates, a mixture of Enterococcus, a mixture of Lactococcus, and a mixture of the eight isolates were evaluated in media containing different concentrations of glucose (sufficient, insufficient, or no glucose). In comparison with the control medium, all of the individual isolates and mixtures of isolates could degrade oxalate in all three groups (P<0.05). In most cases, the isolates growing in medium with 20 g/L of glucose had higher oxalate-degrading capacities than those growing in medium with 2.5 g/L of glucose or no glucose. The mixture of all isolates showed higher oxalate-degrading capacity than the individual isolates and other mixtures. The oxalate-degrading capacities of the isolates were isolate dependent. PMID:21641129

Ren, Zhihua; Pan, Cuiling; Jiang, Luyan; Wu, Cong; Liu, Yongwang; Zhong, Zhijun; Ran, Linwu; Ren, Fei; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Yangguang; Zhu, Yongxing; Huang, Kehe

2011-09-28

207

Antimicrobial interactions of microbial species involved in the fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima with particular reference to the inhibitory effect of lactic acid bacteria on enteric pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus species and yeasts are involved in the fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima. Microbial interactions within and between these groups of microorganisms were investigated in addition to the survival of five enteric pathogens inoculated into agbelima under various conditions. Nine out of 10 cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated at the end of agbelima fermentation showed

Ebenezer Siaw Mante; Esther Sakyi-Dawson; Wisdom Kofi Amoa-Awua

2003-01-01

208

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentations during the production of sour cassava starch in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sour cassava starch is a traditional fermented food used in the preparation of fried foods and baked goods such as traditional cheese breads in Brazil. Thirty samples of sour cassava starch were collected from two factories in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Bacillus cereus and faecal coliforms. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolates were identified by biochemical tests, and the identities were confirmed by molecular methods. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were the prevalent lactic acid bacteria in product from both factories, at numbers between 6.0 and 9.0 log cfu g(-)(1). Lactobacillus perolans and Lactobacillus brevis were minor fractions of the population. Galactomyces geothricum and Issatchenkia sp. were the prevalent yeasts at numbers of 5.0 log cfu g(-)(1). A species similar to Candida ethanolica was frequently isolated from one factory. Mesophilic bacteria and amylolytic microorganisms were recovered in high numbers at all stages of the fermentation. B. cereus was found at low numbers in product at both factories. The spontaneous fermentations associated with the production of sour cassava starch involve a few species of lactic acid bacteria at high numbers and a variety of yeasts at relatively low numbers. PMID:16153731

Lacerda, Inayara C A; Miranda, Rose L; Borelli, Beatriz M; Nunes, Alvaro C; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2005-11-25

209

Interactions of the cell-wall glycopolymers of lactic acid bacteria with their bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram positive bacteria widely used in the production of fermented food in particular cheese and yoghurts. Bacteriophage infections during fermentation processes have been for many years a major industrial concern and have stimulated numerous research efforts. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of bacteriophage interactions with their host bacteria is required for the development of efficient strategies to fight against infections. The bacterial cell wall plays key roles in these interactions. First, bacteriophages must adsorb at the bacterial surface through specific interactions with receptors that are cell wall components. At next step, phages must overcome the barrier constituted by cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) to inject DNA inside bacterial cell. Also at the end of the infection cycle, phages synthesize endolysins able to hydrolyze PG and lyse bacterial cells to release phage progeny. In the last decade, concomitant development of genomics and structural analysis of cell wall components allowed considerable advances in the knowledge of their structure and function in several model LAB. Here, we describe the present knowledge on the structure of the cell wall glycopolymers of the best characterized LAB emphasizing their structural variations and we present the available data regarding their role in bacteria-phage specific interactions at the different steps of the infection cycle. PMID:24904550

Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2014-01-01

210

Interactions of the cell-wall glycopolymers of lactic acid bacteria with their bacteriophages  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram positive bacteria widely used in the production of fermented food in particular cheese and yoghurts. Bacteriophage infections during fermentation processes have been for many years a major industrial concern and have stimulated numerous research efforts. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of bacteriophage interactions with their host bacteria is required for the development of efficient strategies to fight against infections. The bacterial cell wall plays key roles in these interactions. First, bacteriophages must adsorb at the bacterial surface through specific interactions with receptors that are cell wall components. At next step, phages must overcome the barrier constituted by cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) to inject DNA inside bacterial cell. Also at the end of the infection cycle, phages synthesize endolysins able to hydrolyze PG and lyse bacterial cells to release phage progeny. In the last decade, concomitant development of genomics and structural analysis of cell wall components allowed considerable advances in the knowledge of their structure and function in several model LAB. Here, we describe the present knowledge on the structure of the cell wall glycopolymers of the best characterized LAB emphasizing their structural variations and we present the available data regarding their role in bacteria-phage specific interactions at the different steps of the infection cycle.

Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

2014-01-01

211

Phylogenetic analysis of antimicrobial lactic acid bacteria from farmed seabass Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the prevention or reduction of fish diseases is receiving increasing attention. In the present study, 47 LAB strains were isolated from farmed seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) and were phenotypically and phylogenetically analysed by 16S rDNA and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Their antimicrobial effect was tested in vitro against a wide variety of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Most of the strains isolated were enterococci belonging to the following species: Enterococcus faecium (59%), Enterococcus faecalis (21%), Enterococcus sanguinicola (4 strains), Enterococcus mundtii (1 strain), Enterococcus pseudoavium (1 strain), and Lactococcus lactis (1 strain). An Aerococcus viridans strain was also isolated. The survey of their antimicrobial susceptibility showed that all isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and exhibited resistance to between 4 and 10 other antibiotics relevant for therapy in human and animal medicine. Different patterns of resistance were noted for skin and intestines isolates. More than 69% (32 strains) of the isolates inhibited the growth of the majority of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria tested, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum, and Carnobacterium sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bioactive enterococcal species isolated from seabass that could potentially inhibit the undesirable bacteria found in food systems. PMID:22439634

Bourouni, Ouissal Chahad; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Mraouna, Radhia; Abedellatif, Boudabous; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

2012-04-01

212

Dietary hyperoxaluria is not reduced by treatment with lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary hyperoxaluria either based on increased intestinal absorption of oxalate (enteric), or high oxalate intake (dietary), is a major risk factor of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Oxalate-degrading bacteria might have beneficial effects on urinary oxalate excretion resulting from decreased intestinal oxalate concentration and absorption. Methods Twenty healthy subjects were studied initially while consuming a diet normal in oxalate. Study participants were then placed on a controlled oxalate-rich diet for a period of 6 weeks. Starting with week 2 of the oxalate-rich diet, participants received 2.6 g/day of a lactic acid bacteria preparation for 5 weeks. Finally, subjects were examined 4 weeks after treatment while consuming again a normal-oxalate diet. Participants provided weekly 24-hour urine specimens. Analyses of blood samples were performed before and at the end of treatment. Results Urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly from 0.354?±?0.097 at baseline to 0.542?±?0.163 mmol/24 h under the oxalate-rich diet and remained elevated until the end of treatment, as did relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Plasma oxalate concentration was significantly higher after 5 weeks of treatment compared to baseline. Four weeks after treatment, urinary oxalate excretion and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate fell to reach initial values. Conclusions Persistent dietary hyperoxaluria and increased plasma oxalate concentration can already be induced in healthy subjects without disorders of oxalate metabolism. The study preparation neither reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor plasma oxalate concentration. The preparation may be altered to select for lactic acid bacteria strains with the highest oxalate-degrading activity.

2013-01-01

213

Antimicrobial activity of an Amazon medicinal plant (Chancapiedra) (Phyllanthus niruri L.) against Helicobacter pylori and lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The potential of water extracts of the Amazon medicinal plant Chancapiedra (Phyllanthus niruri L.) from Ecuador and Peru for antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori and different strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. H. pylori was inhibited by both water extracts in a dose dependent manner, whereas lactic acid bacterial growth was not affected. Both extracts contained ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and exhibited high free radical scavenging linked-antioxidant activities (89%). However, gallic acid was detected only in the Ecuadorian extract. Preliminary studies on the mode of action of Chancapiedra against H. pylori revealed that inhibition may not involve proline dehydrogenase-based oxidative phosphorylation inhibition associated with simple mono-phenolics and could involve ellagitannins or other non-phenolic compounds through a yet unknown mechanism. This study provides evidence about the potential of Chancapiedra for H. pylori inhibition without affecting beneficial lactic acid bacteria. PMID:22034238

Ranilla, Lena Gálvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

2012-06-01

214

Testing for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria allows no prediction of contamination with potentially pathogenic bacteria in the output water of dental chair units  

PubMed Central

Background: Currently, to our knowledge, quality of output water of dental chair units is not covered by specific regulations in the European Union, and national recommendations are heterogeneous. In Germany, water used in dental chair units must follow drinking water quality. In the United States of America, testing for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria is recommended. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the counts of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria correlate with the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella spp. or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: 71 samples were collected from 26 dental chair units with integrated disinfection device and 31 samples from 15 outlets of the water distribution pipework within the department were examined. Samples were tested for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria at 35°C and 22°C using different culture media and for Legionella spp. and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were typed with monoclonal antibodies and representative samples of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were typed by sequence based typing. Results: Our results showed a correlation between different agars for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria but no correlation for the count of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and the presence of Legionella spp. or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Testing for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in output water or water distribution pipework within the departments alone is without any value for predicting whether the water is contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria like Legionella spp. or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bristela, Margit; Skolka, Astrid; Schmid-Schwap, Martina; Piehslinger, Eva; Indra, Alexander; Wewalka, Gunther; Stauffer, Fritz

2012-01-01

215

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, ewe and goat dairy artisanal farmhouses  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria collected from artisanal farmhouses were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic methods including biochemical assays, ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were performed. This approach provides accuracy for identification, and helps to avoid the loss of natural biodiversity including potentially valuable strains.

Reginensi, Stella M.; Gonzalez, Marcela J.; Bermudez, Jorge

2013-01-01

216

Selenium from Se-enriched lactic acid bacteria as a new Se source for growing-finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The goal of the trial was to determine the efficacy of Se from Se-enriched lactic acid bacteria in accumulation of Se in the muscle tissue and to evaluate its effect on meat quality in finisher pigs. In group I (n = 12) the feed was supplemented with inorganic sodium selenite, in group II (n = 12) with Se from Se-lactic acid bacteria, in group III (n = 12) with Se from Se-enriched yeast and pigs in group IV (n = 11) were fed non-supplemented basal diet. The experimental feed mixtures were supplemented with 0.3 mg Se per kg and were fed for a period of 3 month before slaughter. The use of Se from Se-enriched lactic acid bacteria resulted in comparable accumulation of Se in the muscle tissue as with sodium selenite, and in lower accumulation in comparison with Se from Se-enriched yeast. We did not find any differences in parameters of meat quality among experimental groups. It is concluded that Se from Se-enriched lactic acid bacteria has a comparable accumulation in the muscle tissue as sodium selenite and it does not negatively influence the meat quality. PMID:19886257

Svoboda, M; Saláková, A; Fajt, Z; Ficek, R; Buchtová, H; Drábek, J

2009-01-01

217

A review of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria used as bioprotective cultures in fresh meat produced in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with meat products are important natural bacteriocin producers. Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antagonistic substances that are important in the control of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The use of LAB as bioprotective cultures to extend the shelf life of fresh meat can improve microbial stability and safety in commercial meat preservation. Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 used as

P. Castellano; C. Belfiore; S. Fadda; G. Vignolo

2008-01-01

218

Effect of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds on Activity of Lactic Acid Starter Bacteria in Milk and Cheese1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased application of quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) for dairy sanitation purposes has stimulated interest in the effect of various con- centrations of these compounds on the growth of lactic acid bacteria in milk. The problem is important from the standpoint of attempts to prevent souring of milk or to reduce bacterial counts prior to delivery to the dairy plant.

D. D. Miller; P. R. Elliker

1951-01-01

219

Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the

M. Kostinek; I. Specht; V. A. Edward; C. Pinto; M. Egounlety; C. Sossa; S. Mbugua; C. Dortu; P. Thonart; L. Taljaard; M. Mengu; C. M. A. P. Franz; W. H. Holzapfel

2007-01-01

220

Production of four potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria and their evaluation as feed additives for weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to study the production and evaluation of potentially probiotic additives containing both live lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 539, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei CECT 4043 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 410) and antimicrobial metabolites with could be used as a replacement for antibiotics in weanling pig diets. The gastrointestinal

Nelson Pérez Guerra; Paula Fajardo Bernárdez; Jesús Méndez; Pilar Cachaldora; Lorenzo Pastrana Castro

2007-01-01

221

Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Armada cheese (a Spanish goats’ milk cheese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one lactic acid bacteria isolated from Armada cheese and previously selected in accordance with their technological properties, were screened for antimicrobial activity one against another. Four strains showed inhibitory activity against 14 strains when tested by well diffusion assay after the effects of organic acid and hydrogen peroxide were eliminated. Extracts of the strains did not show inhibitory activity after

M. A. Herreros; H. Sandoval; L. González; J. M. Castro; J. M. Fresno; M. E. Tornadijo

2005-01-01

222

Selection of wild lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Egyptian dairy products according to production and technological criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 755 wild lactic acid bacteria (LAB), belonging to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Streptcoccus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus isolated from Egyptian raw milk and its products were screened and selected according to their production and technological properties. Many strains showed high yield of biomass in fermentation and some strains were resistant to lyophilization conditions. Most strains showed a good separation

E. H. E Ayad; S Nashat; N El-Sadek; H Metwaly; M El-Soda

2004-01-01

223

Analysis and practical implementation of a model for combined growth and metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to the traditional application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter cultures for food fermentations, the use of LAB as protective cultures against microbial pathogens and spoilage organisms in other food production processes gains more and more interest. The inhibitory effect of LAB is mainly accomplished through formation of antimicrobial metabolites. In this paper, the model of Nicola?? et

Karen M. Vereecken; Jan F. Van Impe

2002-01-01

224

Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Genestoso cheese throughout ripening and study of their antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of 395 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Genestoso cheese throughout manufacture and ripening. These were: Lactobacillus (137 strains), Lactococcus (125 strains), Leuconostoc (58 strains) and Enterococcus (75 strains). After the extract had been neutralized and treated with catalase to exclude the action of hydrogen peroxide, 13 lactococci,

L. González; H. Sandoval; N. Sacristán; J. M. Castro; J. M. Fresno; M. E. Tornadijo

2007-01-01

225

Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Indigenous Fermented Bamboo Products of Arunachal Pradesh in India and Their Functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ekung, eup and hirring are some common indigenous fermented bamboo products of Northeast India. We have isolated, characterized, and identified the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from 44 samples of ekung, eup, and hirring and studied their technological properties. The phenotypic characterizations of LAB isolates were based on physiological, biochemical tests and API kits, and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum,

Buddhiman Tamang; Jyoti P. Tamang

2009-01-01

226

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau ( Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and\\/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The

Loveness K. Nyanga; Martinus J. R. Nout; Tendekayi H. Gadaga; Bart Theelen; Teun Boekhout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2007-01-01

227

Role of anaerobic flora in the translocation of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed Central

It is thought that the normal enteric microflora acts not only to prevent intestinal colonization but also to prevent subsequent systemic dissemination of ingested, potentially pathogenic bacteria. To determine the relative roles of specific components of the intestinal bacterial flora in bacterial translocation out of the gut, mice were given various antimicrobial agents to selectively eliminate specific groups of intestinal bacteria. The cecal flora and the translocating bacteria in mesenteric lymph nodes were monitored both before and after oral inoculation with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli C25. Orally administered streptomycin selectively eliminated cecal facultative gram-negative bacilli, orally administered bacitracin-streptomycin eliminated all cecal bacterial species except low numbers of aerobic sporeformers, and parenterally administered metronidazole selectively eliminated cecal anaerobic bacteria. Compared with control mice, only metronidazole-treated mice had significantly increased rates of dissemination of intestinal bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes, indicating that the exclusive absence of anaerobic bacteria facilitated the translocation of the intestinal facultative bacteria. In a parallel experiment with streptomycin-resistant E. coli C25 as a marker, parallel results were obtained. Metronidazole increased the translocation of the marker strain and the indigenous strains of intestinal bacteria. Thus, anaerobes appeared to play a key role in confining indigenous bacteria to the gut. However, intestinal colonization and translocation of E. coli C25 occurred most readily after bacitracin-streptomycin treatment, suggesting that in addition to anaerobic bacteria, other bacterial groups may play a role in limiting the intestinal colonization and extraintestinal dissemination of E. coli C25.

Wells, C L; Maddaus, M A; Reynolds, C M; Jechorek, R P; Simmons, R L

1987-01-01

228

Broad and complex antifungal activity among environmental isolates of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

More than 1200 isolates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different environments were screened for antifungal activity in a dual-culture agar plate assay. Approximately 10% of the isolates showed inhibitory activity and 4% showed strong activity against the indicator mould Aspergillus fumigatus. The antifungal spectra for 37 isolates with strong activity and five isolates with low or no activity were determined. Several of the strains showed strong inhibitory activity against the moulds A. fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Penicillium commune and Fusarium sporotrichioides, and also against the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Penicillium roqueforti and the yeasts Pichia anomala and Kluyveromyces marxianus were not inhibited. Several isolates showed reduced antifungal activity after storage and handling. The majority of the fungal inhibitory isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus coryniformis. Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus were also frequently identified among the active isolates. The degree of fungal inhibition was not only related to production of lactic or acetic acid. In addition, antifungal cyclic dipeptides were identified after HPLC separation and several other active fractions were found suggesting a highly complex nature of the antifungal activity. PMID:12594034

Magnusson, Jesper; Ström, Katrin; Roos, Stefan; Sjögren, Jörgen; Schnürer, Johan

2003-02-14

229

Emerging roles of lactic acid bacteria in protection against colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and the fourth most common cancer diagnosed among men and women in the United States. Considering the risk factors of CRC, dietary therapy has become one of the most effective approaches in reducing CRC morbidity and mortality. The use of probiotics is increasing in popularity for both the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. As the most common types of microbes used as probiotics, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are comprised of an ecologically diverse group of microorganisms united by formation of lactic acid as the primary metabolite of sugar metabolism. LAB have been successfully used in managing diarrhea, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease. LAB also demonstrated a host of properties in preventing colorectal cancer development by inhibiting initiation or progression through multiple pathways. In this review, we discuss recent insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms of LAB in CRC prevention including apoptosis, antioxidant DNA damages, immune responses, and epigenetics. The emerging experimental findings from clinical trials as well as the proposed mechanisms of gut microbiota in carcinogenesis will also be briefly discussed.

Zhong, Li; Zhang, Xufei; Covasa, Mihai

2014-01-01

230

Lactic acid bacteria in Hamei and Marcha of North East India.  

PubMed

Hamei and Marcha are mixed dough inocula used as starters for preparation of various indigenous alcoholic beverages in Manipur and Sikkim in India, respectively. These starters are traditionally prepared from rice with wild herbs and spices. Samples of Hamei and Marcha, collected from Manipur and Sikkim, respectively, were analysed for lactic acid bacterial composition. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was 6.9 and 7.1 Log cfu/g in Hamei and Marcha, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characters, LAB strains isolated from Hamei and Marcha were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. Technological properties of LAB such as antimicrobial properties, effect on acidification, ability to produce biogenic amines and ethanol, degree of hydrophobicity and enzymatic activities were also performed. Pediococcus pentosaceus HS: B1, isolated from Hamei, was found to produce bacteriocin. None of the strains produced biogenic amines. LAB strains showed a strong acidifying ability and they also produced a wide spectrum of enzymes. PMID:23100653

Tamang, J P; Dewan, S; Tamang, B; Rai, A; Schillinger, U; Holzapfel, W H

2007-06-01

231

Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis genes and operons in uncultured bacteria in the Delaware River.  

PubMed

Photosynthesis genes and operons of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic (AAP) bacteria have been examined in a variety of marine habitats, but genomic information about freshwater AAP bacteria is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine photosynthesis genes of AAP bacteria in the Delaware River. In a fosmid library, we found two clones bearing photosynthesis gene clusters with unique gene content and organization. Both clones contained 37 open reading frames, with most of those genes encoding known AAP bacterial proteins. The genes in one fosmid were most closely related to those of AAP bacteria in the Rhodobacter genus. The genes of the other clone were related to those of freshwater beta-proteobacteria. Both clones contained the acsF gene, which is required for aerobic bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, suggesting that these bacteria are not anaerobes. The beta-proteobacterial fosmid has the puf operon B-A-L-M-C and is the first example of an uncultured bacterium with this operon structure. The alpha-3-proteobacterial fosmid has a rare gene order (Q-B-A-L-M-X), previously observed only in the Rhodobacter genus. Phylogenetic analyses of photosynthesis genes revealed a possible freshwater cluster of AAP beta-proteobacteria. The data from both Delaware River clones suggest there are groups of freshwater or estuarine AAP bacteria distinct from those found in marine environments. PMID:16309388

Waidner, Lisa A; Kirchman, David L

2005-12-01

232

Mucosal targeting of therapeutic molecules using genetically modified lactic acid bacteria: an update.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent a heterogeneous group of microorganisms naturally present in many foods and those have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vectors. Moreover, some specific strains of LAB exert beneficial properties (known as probiotic effect) on both human and animal health. Although probiotic effects are strain-specific traits, it is theoretically possible, using genetic engineering techniques, to design strains that can exert a variety of beneficial properties. During the two past decades, a large variety of therapeutic molecules has been successfully expressed in LAB, and although this field has been largely reviewed in recent years, approximately 20 new publications appear each year. Thus, the aim of this minireview is not to extensively assess the entire literature but to update progress made within the last 2 years regarding the use of the model LAB Lactococcus lactis and certain species of lactobacilli as live recombinant vectors for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines. PMID:23600579

LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Aubry, Camille; Cortes-Perez, Naima G; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Langella, Philippe; Azevedo, Vasco; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Miyoshi, Anderson; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

2013-07-01

233

[Adhesion of various species of lactic acid bacteria depending on the AB0 system blood group].  

PubMed

The influence of the AB0 blood groups on adhesion of different lactic acid bacteria species was studied. From twelve investigated strains of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus species, difference between adhesion average index on erythrocytes of various blood groups was found in two strains. The average adhesion index of the strain E. faecium K-50 in A (II) blood group erythrocytes was higher (AAI = 4.91 +/- 0.26) than in B (III) blood group erythrocytes (AAI = 4.17 +/- 0.33). The strain L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 4n has displayed a higher adhesive activity in A (II) blood group erythrocytes (AAI = 4.36 +/- 0.13) in comparison with AB (III) blood group erythrocytes (AAI = 3.61 +/- 0.75). PMID:17388121

Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

2006-01-01

234

Cyclic dipeptides from lactic acid bacteria inhibit proliferation of the influenza A virus.  

PubMed

We isolated Lactobacillus plantarum LBP-K10 from the traditional Korean fermented food kimchi. When organic acids were removed, the culture filtrate of this isolate showed high antiviral activity (measured using a plaque-forming assay) against the influenza A (H3N2) virus. Two fractions that were active against influenza A virus were purified from the culture filtrate using a C18 column with high-performance liquid chromatography. These active fractions were crystallized and identified to be the cyclic dipeptides cis-cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; this identification was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. These cyclic dipeptides were identified in the culture filtrate of other lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Weissella spp., and Lactococcus lactis. PMID:24385362

Kwak, Min-Kyu; Liu, Rui; Kwon, Jun-Oh; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kim, Andrew HyoungJin; Kang, Sa-Ouk

2013-12-01

235

Evaluation of the probiotic characteristics of newly isolated lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented vegetables, sour dough, milk products, sheep and human excreta. The newly isolated cultures were evaluated for a number of probiotic characteristics like bile salt resistance, salt tolerance in general, survival in low pH, hydrophobicity of the cell surface, resistance to low phenol concentration, antimicrobial activity and susceptibility pattern against vancomycin and erythromycin. The selected cultures were further screened for their ability to produce the nutraceticals such as folic acid and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Two potent isolates, CB2 (from cabbage) and SD2 (from sour dough) were found to produce both extracellular and intracellular folate. One of the isolates from yogurt (MC-1) and the one from whey (W3) produced significant amount of EPS with a maximum production of 8.79 +/- 0.05 g/l by MC-1. PMID:18592412

Aswathy, Ravindran Girija; Ismail, Bindhumol; John, Rojan Pappy; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

2008-12-01

236

Isolation and characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ripe mulberries in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ripe mulberries collected in Taiwan. Ripe mulberry samples were collected at five mulberry farms, located in different counties of Taiwan. Eighty-eight acid-producing cultures were isolated from these samples, and isolates were divided into classes first by phenotype, then into groups by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of four bacterial groups (A to D). Weissella cibaria was the most abundant type of LAB distributed in four mulberry farms, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in the remaining farm. Ten W. cibaria and one Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolate produced bacteriocins against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157T. These results suggest that various LAB are distributed in ripe mulberries and W. cibaria was the most abundant LAB found in this study.

Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-01-01

237

In vitro testing of commercial and potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of selected commercial and potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria using common in vitro screening assays such as transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines and effect on epithelial barrier function. The selected bacteria include strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Viable counts after simulated gastric transit tolerance showed that L. reuteri strains and P. pentosaceus tolerate gastric juice well, with no reduction of viability, whereas L. pentosus, L. farciminis and L. sakei strains lost viability over 180min. All strains tested tolerate the simulated small intestinal juice well. The bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cells revealed major species and strain differences. Overall, L. plantarum MF1298 and three L. reuteri strains had a significant higher adhesion capacity compared to the other strains tested. All strains, both living and UV-inactivated, had little effect on the epithelial barrier function. However, living L. reuteri strains revealed a tendency to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) from 6 to 24h. This work demonstrates the diversity of 18 potential probiotic bacteria, with major species and strain specific effects in the in vitro screening assays applied. Overall, L. reuteri strains reveal some interesting characteristics compared to the other strains investigated. PMID:22177712

Jensen, Hanne; Grimmer, Stine; Naterstad, Kristine; Axelsson, Lars

2012-02-01

238

Screening lactic acid bacteria from swine origins for multistrain probiotics based on in vitro functional properties.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria originated from swine feces and intestines were selected for potential probiotics based on their bile-salt resistance, low pH tolerance, potential adhesion to epithelial cells and especially functional properties, including production of antimicrobial substances, bile-salt hydrolase (BSH) and amylolytic activity. Results showed 7 isolates with antimicrobial activity, 5 with BSH activity and 3 with amylolytic activity were preliminarily selected from 485 lactic acid bacteria based on their highest potential with functional properties in vitro. The 15 isolates were further assayed on the essential characteristics as potential probiotics. All isolates were fully tolerant to 0.3% bile salts and 11 of them were able to resist pH 3 for 3 h without loss of viable cells. The eleven isolates were then evaluated on their adhesion capability. Wide variation in the hydrophobic character and specific adhesion efficiency was observed and three isolates G1-1, G22-2 and G8-5, with respective antimicrobial, BSH and amylolytic activities were finally selected. In addition, the three isolates were compatible in the coexistence assay. Isolate G1-1 was identified as Lactobacillus salivarius by API system and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both G8-5 and G22-2 showed the closest homology to Lactobacillus reuteri according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99%). From the study, the three Lactobacilli strains were shown to share the functional properties necessary for probiotics use in animal additives. Their compatibility with respective in vitro activities was expected to show enhanced in vivo efficacy after combination for multistrain probiotics use. PMID:20304081

Guo, Xiao-Hua; Kim, Jong-Man; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Jae-Myung

2010-08-01

239

Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH 4-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon isotope fractionation factors reported for aerobic bacterial oxidation of CH4(?CH4–CO2) range from 1.003 to 1.039. In a series of experiments designed to monitor changes in the carbon isotopic fractionation of CH4 by Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria, we found that the magnitude of fractionation was largely due to the first oxidation step catalyzed by methane monooxygenase (MMO).

Alexis S. Templeton; Kung-Hui Chu; Lisa Alvarez-Cohen; Mark E. Conrad

2006-01-01

240

Characteristics of aerobic granules rich in autotrophic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic granules with high carbon- and ammonia-oxidizing activities were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor. The granule size slowly increased with the operating time and the mean diameter reached 0.85mm after 120 days of operation. Most of the ammonia was converted to nitrite and less nitrate was generated. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased significantly in the formation of matured

Xian-Yang Shi; Han-Qing Yu; Yu-Jiao Sun; Xia Huang

2009-01-01

241

Anaerobic decolorization bacteria for the treatment of azo dye in a sequential anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing wastewater is harmful to both marine organisms and human beings. This study focused on the treatment of wastewater containing an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) combined with an aerobic membrane bioreactor (aerobic MBR). In addition the anaerobic RB5 degrading bacteria were isolated and their individual performance were tested separately. Nearly

Sheng-Jie You; Jun-Yu Teng

2009-01-01

242

Anaerobic and aerobic skin bacteria before and after skin-disinfection with chlorhexidine: an experimental study in volunteers.  

PubMed Central

The amount, composition, and localization of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in the normal skin before and after disinfection were the subject of a volunteer study. The superficial bacterial flora were sampled by velvet pad imprints, and the deep flora were determined from whole skin biopsies. Only one anaerobic species, Propionebacterium acnes, was encountered even though other and more strict anaerobic bacteria could have been grown with the anaerobic technique employed. Staphylococcus albus dominated among the aerobic superficial bacteria, while diphtheroids, Micrococcus spp., and lactobacilli occurred sporadically. The deep aerobic bacteria were present in a significantly greater amount than the anaerobic. A two-step cleansing/disinfection procedure was evaluated in vivo in volunteers as well as in surgical patients, and aqueous cetrimide/chlorhexidine (Savlon) followed by chlorhexidine in alcohol (Hibitane) almost eradicated both the superficial and deep anaerobic and aerobic skin flora.

Nielsen, M L; Raahave, D; Stage, J G; Justesen, T

1975-01-01

243

Psychrotrophic, lactic acid-producing bacteria from anoxic waters in Ace Lake, Antarctica; Carnobacterium funditum sp. nov. and Carnobacterium alterfunditum sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterofermentative, lactic acid-producing, gram-positive, motile bacteria were isolated from the waters of Ace Lake, Antarctica. All strains produced virtually only l(+)lactic acid from d(+)glucose. d(-)ribose was fermented to lactic, acetic, and formic acids, and ethanol. Cell walls contained meso-diaminopimaleic acid. The strains did not grow at 30°C and were psychrotrophic. Whole cells contained 18:1cis 9 as a major component of

P. D. Franzmann; P. Höpfl; N. Weiss; B. J. Tindall

1991-01-01

244

High Abundances of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria in the South Pacific Ocean?  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the abundance, distribution, and ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, particularly in oligotrophic environments, which represent 60% of the ocean. We investigated the abundance of AAP bacteria across the South Pacific Ocean, including the center of the gyre, the most oligotrophic water body of the world ocean. AAP bacteria, Prochlorococcus, and total prokaryotic abundances, as well as bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and divinyl-chlorophyll a concentrations, were measured at several depths in the photic zone along a gradient of oligotrophic conditions. The abundances of AAP bacteria and Prochlorococcus were high, together accounting for up to 58% of the total prokaryotic community. The abundance of AAP bacteria alone was up to 1.94 × 105 cells ml?1 and as high as 24% of the overall community. These measurements were consistent with the high BChl a concentrations (up to 3.32 × 10?3 ?g liter?1) found at all stations. However, the BChl a content per AAP bacterial cell was low, suggesting that AAP bacteria are mostly heterotrophic organisms. Interestingly, the biovolume and therefore biomass of AAP bacteria was on average twofold higher than that of other prokaryotic cells. This study demonstrates that AAP bacteria can be abundant in various oligotrophic conditions, including the most oligotrophic regime of the world ocean, and can account for a large part of the bacterioplanktonic carbon stock.

Lami, Raphael; Cottrell, Matthew T.; Ras, Josephine; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Claustre, Herve; Kirchman, David L.; Lebaron, Philippe

2007-01-01

245

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria attached to particles in turbid waters of the Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries.  

PubMed

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are photoheterotrophs that, if abundant, may be biogeochemically important in the oceans. We used epifluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine the abundance of these bacteria by enumerating cells with bacteriochlorophyll a (bChl a) and the light-reaction center gene pufM, respectively. In the surface waters of the Delaware estuary, AAP bacteria were abundant, comprising up to 34% of prokaryotes, although the percentage varied greatly with location and season. On average, AAP bacteria made up 12% of the community as measured by microscopy and 17% by qPCR. In the surface waters of the Chesapeake, AAP bacteria were less abundant, averaging 6% of prokaryotes. AAP bacterial abundance was significantly correlated with light attenuation (r=0.50) and ammonium (r=0.42) and nitrate (r=0.71) concentrations. Often, bChl a-containing bacteria were mostly attached to particles (31 to 94% of total AAP bacteria), while usually 20% or less of total prokaryotes were associated with particles. Of the cells containing pufM, up to 87% were associated with particles, but the overall average of particle-attached cells was 15%. These data suggest that AAP bacteria are particularly competitive in these two estuaries, in part due to attachment to particles. PMID:17468276

Waidner, Lisa A; Kirchman, David L

2007-06-01

246

The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB) on biogenic amines (BA) formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream) IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN) and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05). The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM), dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L) and mackerel (100.84 mg/L) IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L) in sardine IDB.

Kuley, Esmeray; Ozogul, Fatih; Balikci, Esra; Durmus, Mustafa; Ayas, Deniz

2013-01-01

247

Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Waste Waters of Vegetable-Processing Plants  

PubMed Central

Waters used in washing, blanching, cooling, and conveying vegetables during processing for freezing were filtered, sterilized, and inoculated with Streptococcus faecalis, S. lactis, or Lactobacillus plantarum. The contents of total nitrogen and total solids were determined, and ninhydrin tests and Benedict's tests for reducing sugars were performed. Substances positive to the ninyhydrin tests and also capable of supporting the growth of the bacteria to high levels of population were found in waters used to blanch cut green beans, but not in the cooling or conveying waters. They were found only in waters following slicing of blanched whole beans. They were also present in waters used in processing purple hull peas at all stages, but only in the waters used to blanch and cool lima beans. The substances were present in waters used to wash and blanch squash, but only in the waters used to blanch greens; they were not found in the cooling waters during the handling of either vegetable. No waters used in the processing of okra yielded a positive ninhydrin test, nor did they support the growth of the lactic acid bacteria.

Mundt, J. Orvin; Larsen, Sandra A.; McCarty, I. E.

1966-01-01

248

The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB) on biogenic amines (BA) formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream) IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN) and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05). The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM), dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L) and mackerel (100.84 mg/L) IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L) in sardine IDB. PMID:24294229

Küley, Esmeray; Özogul, Fatih; Balikçi, Esra; Durmus, Mustafa; Ayas, Deniz

2013-01-01

249

Development and validation of a species-independent functional gene microarray that targets lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

During the last few years, genome-related information has become available for many microorganisms, including important food-related bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important industrially in the production of fermented foods such as dairy products, sausages, sourdoughs, and vegetables. Despite their limited metabolic capacity, LAB contribute considerably to important characteristics of fermented foods, such as flavor and texture. In the present study, a species-independent functional gene microarray was developed that targets 406 genes that play key roles in the production of sugar catabolites, bacteriocins, exopolysaccharides, and aromas, in probiotic and biosafety characteristics, and in the stress response. Also, genes linked to negative traits, such as antibiotic resistance and virulence, are represented. As LAB ecosystems contain a variety of species, there was a more global focus on these specific functional properties. Thus, an algorithm was used to design gene-specific oligonucleotides that preferably hybridize with multiple LAB species, thereby allowing controlled cross-hybridization. For proof of concept, the microarray composed of 2,269 30-mer oligonucleotides focused on LAB species that are prevalent in sourdough ecosystems. Validation hybridizations using DNA and RNA from 18 LAB strains, covering 86% of all the oligonucleotides, showed that there were wide ranges in intensity and high reproducibility between microarrays. PMID:19684161

Weckx, Stefan; Allemeersch, Joke; Van der Meulen, Roel; Vrancken, Gino; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Van Hummelen, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

2009-10-01

250

From physiology to systems metabolic engineering for the production of biochemicals by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a functionally related group of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria known essentially for their roles in bioprocessing of foods and animal feeds. Due to extensive industrial use and enormous economical value, LAB have been intensively studied and a large body of comprehensive data on their metabolism and genetics was generated throughout the years. This knowledge has been instrumental in the implementation of successful applications in the food industry, such as the selection of robust starter cultures with desired phenotypic traits. The advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput experimentation combined with powerful computational tools currently allows for a systems level understanding of these food industry workhorses. The technological developments in the last decade have provided the foundation for the use of LAB in applications beyond the classic food fermentations. Here we discuss recent metabolic engineering strategies to improve particular cellular traits of LAB and to design LAB cell factories for the bioproduction of added value chemicals. PMID:23567148

Gaspar, Paula; Carvalho, Ana L; Vinga, Susana; Santos, Helena; Neves, Ana Rute

2013-11-01

251

GH1-family 6-P-?-glucosidases from human microbiome lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

In lactic acid bacteria and other bacteria, carbohydrate uptake is mostly governed by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs). PTS-dependent translocation through the cell membrane is coupled with phosphorylation of the incoming sugar. After translocation through the bacterial membrane, the ?-glycosidic bond in 6?-­P-­?-glucoside is cleaved, releasing 6-P-?-glucose and the respective aglycon. This reaction is catalyzed by 6-P-?-glucosidases, which belong to two glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH1 and GH4. Here, the high-resolution crystal structures of GH1 6-P-?-glucosidases from Lactobacillus plantarum (LpPbg1) and Streptococcus mutans (SmBgl) and their complexes with ligands are reported. Both enzymes show hydrolytic activity towards 6?-P-?-glucosides. The LpPbg1 structure has been determined in an apo form as well as in a complex with phosphate and a glucose molecule corresponding to the aglycon molecule. The S. mutans homolog contains a sulfate ion in the phosphate-dedicated subcavity. SmBgl was also crystallized in the presence of the reaction product 6-P-?-glucose. For a mutated variant of the S. mutans enzyme (E375Q), the structure of a 6?-P-salicin complex has also been determined. The presence of natural ligands enabled the definition of the structural elements that are responsible for substrate recognition during catalysis.

Michalska, Karolina; Tan, Kemin; Li, Hui; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2013-01-01

252

The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria revisited: a genomic comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of gram-positive, lactic acid producing Firmicutes. They have been extensively used in food fermentations, including the production of various dairy products. The proteolytic system of LAB converts proteins to peptides and then to amino acids, which is essential for bacterial growth and also contributes significantly to flavor compounds as end-products. Recent developments in high-throughput genome sequencing and comparative genomics hybridization arrays provide us with opportunities to explore the diversity of the proteolytic system in various LAB strains. Results We performed a genome-wide comparative genomics analysis of proteolytic system components, including cell-wall bound proteinase, peptide transporters and peptidases, in 22 sequenced LAB strains. The peptidase families PepP/PepQ/PepM, PepD and PepI/PepR/PepL are described as examples of our in silico approach to refine the distinction of subfamilies with different enzymatic activities. Comparison of protein 3D structures of proline peptidases PepI/PepR/PepL and esterase A allowed identification of a conserved core structure, which was then used to improve phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation within this protein superfamily. The diversity of proteolytic system components in 39 Lactococcus lactis strains was explored using pangenome comparative genome hybridization analysis. Variations were observed in the proteinase PrtP and its maturation protein PrtM, in one of the Opp transport systems and in several peptidases between strains from different Lactococcus subspecies or from different origin. Conclusions The improved functional annotation of the proteolytic system components provides an excellent framework for future experimental validations of predicted enzymatic activities. The genome sequence data can be coupled to other "omics" data e.g. transcriptomics and metabolomics for prediction of proteolytic and flavor-forming potential of LAB strains. Such an integrated approach can be used to tune the strain selection process in food fermentations.

2010-01-01

253

Antimutagenicity and binding of lactic acid bacteria from a Chinese cheese to mutagenic pyrolyzates.  

PubMed

The microbiological characteristics of Nai Ge Da, a traditional cheese in China, was investigated. The lactic acid bacteria species were identified as Streptococcus cremoris, Streptococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Streptococcus faecalis, and Leuconostoc paramesenteroides, Leuconostoc dextranicum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Streptococcus cremoris, and Leuconostoc paramesenteroides were the dominant strains. The antimutagenicities and binding of strains of S. cremoris and S. lactic ssp. diacetylactis to mutagenic pyrolyzates was investigated. The lyophilized cells of strains showed the highest inhibitory effect on the 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-[5H]pyrido[4,3-b] indol (Trp-P-1) and 3-amino-1-methyl-[5H]pyrido[4,3-b] indol (Trp-P-2), but many strains had no significant inhibition against 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d] imidazole (Glu-P-1). The Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were effectively bound to all bacterial cells, but binding of Glu-P-1 to cells was not effective. Among the strains tested, S. cremoris C-25 not only indicated highest binding to Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2, but it also it had a 25.36% binding ability with Glu-P-1. When all strains were autoclaved for 15 min at 120 degrees C, binding ability to mutagens was reduced by 3 to 19%. The decrease of binding ability of S. cremoris C-25 was much less, being only 2%. After heating at 80 degrees C for 3 h, the binding ability of all strains to mutagenic pyrolyzates was not much different from those of parent viable cells. PMID:1980923

Zhang, X B; Ohta, Y; Hosono, A

1990-10-01

254

Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria grown in supplemented carob syrup.  

PubMed

Detailed kinetic and physiological characterisation of eight mannitol-producing lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc citreum ATCC 49370, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris ATCC19254, L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum ATCC 19255, L. ficulneum NRRL B-23447, L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, L. lactis ATCC 19256, Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL 3692 and Lb. reuteri DSM 20016, was performed using a carob-based culture medium, to evaluate their different metabolic capabilities. Cultures were thoroughly followed for 30 h to evaluate consumption of sugars, as well as production of biomass and metabolites. All strains produced mannitol at high yields (>0.70 g mannitol/g fructose) and volumetric productivities (>1.31 g/l h), and consumed fructose and glucose simultaneously, but fructose assimilation rate was always higher. The results obtained enable the studied strains to be divided mainly into two groups: one for which glucose assimilation rates were below 0.78 g/l h (strains ATCC 49370, ATCC 19256 and ATCC 19254) and the other for which they ranged between 1.41 and 1.89 g/l h (strains NRRL B-3692, NRRL B-2041, NRRL B-23447 and DSM 20016). These groups also exhibited different mannitol production rates and yields, being higher for the strains with faster glucose assimilation. Besides mannitol, all strains also produced lactic acid and acetic acid. The best performance was obtained for L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, with maximum volumetric productivity of 2.36 g/l h and the highest yield, stoichiometric conversion of fructose to mannitol. PMID:20820868

Carvalheiro, Florbela; Moniz, Patrícia; Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, M Paula; Gírio, Francisco M

2011-01-01

255

Whey fermentation by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria: evolution of carbohydrates and protein content.  

PubMed

Whey, a by-product of the cheese industry usually disposed as waste, is a source of biological and functional valuable proteins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potentiality of three lactic acid bacteria strains to design a starter culture for developing functional whey-based drinks. Fermentations were performed at 37 and 42 degrees C for 24h in reconstituted whey powder (RW). Carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids concentrations during fermentation were evaluated by RP-HPLC. Proteolytic activity was measured by the o-phthaldialdehyde test and hydrolysis of whey proteins was analyzed by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The studied strains grew well (2-3log cfu/ml) independently of the temperature used. Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804 consumed 12% of the initial lactose concentration and produced the highest amount of lactic acid (45 mmol/l) at 24h. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 was the most proteolytic (91 microg Leu/ml) strain and released the branched chain amino acids Leu and Val. In contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 and S. thermophilus CRL 804 consumed most of the amino acids present in whey. The studied strains were able to degrade the major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin being degraded in a greater extent (2.2-3.4-fold) than beta-lactoglobulin. Two starter cultures were evaluated for their metabolic and proteolytic activities in RW. Both cultures acidified and reduced the lactose content in whey in a greater extent than the strains alone. The amino acid release was higher (86 microg/ml) for the starter SLb (strains CRL 804+CRL 454) than for SLa (strains CRL 804+CRL 636, 37 microg/ml). Regarding alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin degradation, no differences were observed as compared to the values obtained with the single cultures. The starter culture SLb showed high potential to be used for developing fermented whey-based beverages. PMID:18355669

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

2008-05-01

256

Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria and in situ amylase expression during traditional fermentation of cereal foods.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in traditional fermented foods consumed in different countries. Study of their taxonomic structure and diversity is necessary for starter culture selection, improved safety and nutritional enhancement. To achieve these objectives, microbial genomic typing methods were used to study genetic differences of autochthonous bacteria and their distribution in two traditional African fermented cereal foods. A total of 85 predominant bacterial species were isolated from ogi and kunu-zaki obtained from Northern and Southern geographical region of Nigeria. They were identified using combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on rpoA, pheS and atpA genes as well as M13-PCR gel fingerprints. The results showed that Lactobacillus fermentum was the most frequently isolated species in ogi (71.4%) and kunu-zaki (84.5%). Other species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Non lactic acid bacteria isolated from these foods were species belonging to the Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis of the M13-PCR fingerprints for LAB strains showed clonal diversity among strains of the same species. In vitro and in situ expression of amylase gene during fermentation by amylolytic L. plantarum ULAG11 was detected, indicating the potential usefulness of such species for development of starter cultures and for controlled fermentation processes. PMID:22608231

Oguntoyinbo, Folarin Anthony; Narbad, Arjan

2012-09-01

257

Production of potentially probiotic beverages using single and mixed cereal substrates fermented with lactic acid bacteria cultures.  

PubMed

In the present work, single and mixed cereal substrates were fermented with lactic acid bacteria to study and compare the effect of the media formulation on fermentation parameters. Three cereal flours namely malt, barley and barley mixed with malt (barley-malt) were selected and fermented with two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIMB 8826) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCIMB 8821). The effect of the single and mixed cereal flour suspensions on the fermentation of these two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied at an incubation temperature of 30 °C for 28 h. It was found that the LAB growth was enhanced in media containing malt and significant amounts of lactic acid were produced (0.5-3.5 g/L). A cell concentration between 7.9 and 8.5 Log?? CFU/mL and a pH below 4.0 was achieved within 6 h of fermentation. Though the cell populations in the mixed culture fermentations of mixed substrates were similar to the ones obtained with single cereal flours, significant differences in the production of lactic acid were observed. These results suggest that the functional and organoleptic properties of these cereal-based probiotic drinks could be considerably modified through changes in the substrate or inocula composition. PMID:22265307

Rathore, Sorbhi; Salmerón, Ivan; Pandiella, Severino S

2012-05-01

258

Viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented soymilk after drying, subsequent rehydration and storage.  

PubMed

To develop a probiotic dietary adjunct, soymilk fermented with various combinations of lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium infantis) was subjected to freeze-drying and spray-drying. Survival of the starter organisms during the drying process, subsequent rehydration at different temperatures and during a 4-month period of storage under different storage conditions was examined. After freeze-drying, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria exhibited a survival percent of 46.2-75.1% and 43.2-51.9%, respectively, higher than that noted after spray-drying. Regardless of the drying condition, S. thermophilus showed a higher percentage of survival than L. acidophilus, while B. longum survived better than B. infantis. Further study with soymilk fermented with S. thermophilus and B. longum revealed that the freeze-dried and spray-dried fermented soymilk rehydrated at 35-50 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively, was optimum for the recovery of the starter organisms. Both S. thermophilus and B. longum survived better in the freeze-dried than the spray-dried fermented soymilk during storage. A higher percent of survival was also noted for both the starter organisms when the dried fermented soymilk was stored at 4 degrees C than 25 degrees C. Holding the dried fermented soymilk in the laminated pouch enabled S. thermophilus and B. longum to exhibit a higher percentage of survival than in the deoxidant- and desiccant-containing glass or polyester (PET) bottle. Among all the packaging materials and storage temperatures tested, starter organisms were most stable in the dried fermented soymilk held in laminated pouch and stored at 4 degrees C. Under this storage condition, S. thermophilus and B. longum showed a survival percentage of 51.1% and 68.8%, respectively, in the freeze-dried fermented soymilk after 4 months of storage. Meanwhile, S. thermophilus and B. infantis in the spray-dried fermented soymilk showed a survival percent of 29.5% and 57.7%, respectively. PMID:15135959

Wang, Yi-Chieh; Yu, Roch-Chui; Chou, Cheng-Chun

2004-06-01

259

Identification of lactic acid bacteria and Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci isolated from naturally fermented sausage (sucuk).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to identify lactic acid bacteria and Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci isolated from Turkish dry fermented sausage (sucuk) produced by 7 different manufacturers without using starter culture. A total of 129 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified phenotypically. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species (45.7%) followed by L. curvatus (10.9%) and L. fermentum (9.3%). Pediococcus isolates were identified as P. pentosaceus and P. acidilactici. All the isolates of gram-positive and catalase-positive cocci (123 isolates) were classified as Staphylococcus except for 1 isolate assigned to Kocuria rosea. The species isolated most often were S. xylosus (41.5%) and S. saprophyticus (28.5%). Four isolates were identified as S. equorum (3.3%), 1 isolate was assigned to S. carnosus (0.8%). PMID:19019118

Kaban, G; Kaya, M

2008-10-01

260

Elucidation of the Taxonomic Status of Industrial Strains of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria by Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both phenotypic characteristics and results of PCR tests for the presence of species-specific genes indicate that a number of strains of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria previously considered as belonging to Streptococcus thermophilus are actually closely related to enterococci. In the present study, partial (over 500 nucleotides) sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 12 strains of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria used

S. G. Botina; A. M. Lysenko; V. V. Sukhodolets

2005-01-01

261

Determination of total aerobic and indicator bacteria on some raw eaten vegetables from wholesalers in Ankara, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of some raw eaten salad vegetables obtained from wholesalers in Ankara, Turkey. A total of 180 samples including lettuces, cos lettuce, iceberg lettuce, parsley, dill and carrots were analyzed for total aerobic bacteria, total coliform bacteria and E. coli between January 2004 and April 2004. Compact Dry media (Nissui

Hasan Aycicek; Utku Oguz; Koray Karci

2006-01-01

262

Proteolysis by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Effects on Wheat Flour Protein Fractions and Gliadin Peptides Involved in Human Cereal Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were preliminarily screened for proteolytic activity by using a digest of albumin and globulin polypeptides as a substrate. Based on their hydrolysis profile patterns, Lactobacillus alimentarius 15M, Lactobacillus brevis 14G, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 7A, and Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B were selected and used in sourdough fermentation. A fractionated method of protein extraction and subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis were used

Raffaella Di Cagno; Maria De Angelis; Paola Lavermicocca; Massimo De Vincenzi; Claudio Giovannini; Michele Faccia; Marco Gobbetti

2002-01-01

263

Antimould activity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria: identification of a mixture of organic acids produced by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria, cultivated in wheat flour hydrolysate, produced antimould compounds. The antimould activity\\u000a varied greatly among the strains and was mainly detected within obligately heterofermentative Lactobacillus spp. Among these, Lb. sanfrancisco CB1 had the largest spectrum. It inhibited moulds related to bread spoilage such as Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monilia. A mixture of acetic, caproic, formic, propionic, butyric

A. Corsetti; M. Gobbetti; J. Rossi; P. Damiani

1998-01-01

264

Effect of Drying Medium on Residual Moisture Content and Viability of Freeze-Dried Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The effect of various substances on the relationship between residual moisture content and the viability of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria has been studied. Compounds such as polymers, which display considerable ability in displacing water, showed no protective action during freeze-drying. Adonitol, on the other hand, produced the smallest change in water content at various times during drying and allowed the highest rate of survival.

de Valdez, Graciela F.; de Giori, Graciela S.; de Ruiz Holgado, Aida P.; Oliver, Guillermo

1985-01-01

265

Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic sensitivity of three isolates of lactic acid bacteria from fermented fish product, Budu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the fermented food product, Budu, were identified as genus lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei LA17, Lactobacillus plantarum LA22 and L. paracasei LA02), and the highest population was Lb. paracasei LA02. The antibacterial agent produced by the isolates inhibited the growth of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity test to 18 different

M. Shuhaimi

2009-01-01

266

Tina wooden vat biofilm: a safe and highly efficient lactic acid bacteria delivering system in PDO Ragusano cheese making.  

PubMed

In the Sicilian PDO Ragusano cheese making, raw milk is placed in a wooden vat called a Tina. As no starter is added, lactic acid is produced by milk flora and flora released from the Tina biofilm. The aim of this work was to assess the safety and efficiency of this natural inoculation system. From 15 Tinas' biofilms, bacteria total counts varied from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU/cm(2), with the predominance of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria. Low counts of yeasts and moulds were found in a few Tinas. Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 were totally absent, as assessed by conventional plating and the Bax detection system after enrichment, highlighting the safety of the system. From four Tinas out of the 15, micropieces of wood were observed by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm entrapped in a matrix covered almost entirely the surface of the wood. Polysaccharides were detected in the four Tinas. In three of the latter, cocci were predominant in the ecosystem whereas in the other one, cocci, bacilli, yeasts and moulds were observed. Fifty litres of microfiltrated milk (<10 CFU/mL) were poured in the four Tinas for 10 min of contact. Enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and enterococci were performed in the milk after contact. Depending on the Tina, from 5.10(4) to 10(6) CFU/mL of Streptococcus thermophilus were released into the milk, and from 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/mL of thermophilic lactobacilli. Spontaneous acidification after contact confirmed the high efficiency of biofilm lactic acid bacteria delivery. PMID:19361876

Lortal, Sylvie; Di Blasi, Annalisa; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Pediliggieri, Concetta; Tuminello, Laura; Tanguy, Gaëlle; Fauquant, Jacques; Lecuona, Yohan; Campo, Patrizia; Carpino, Stefania; Licitra, Giuseppe

2009-06-01

267

Occurrence of non-lactic acid bacteria populations involved in protein hydrolysis of cold-stored high moisture Mozzarella cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse non-lactic acid bacteria populations (NLABPs) and evaluate their role in proteolysis of cold-stored high moisture (HM) Mozzarella cheese. NLABPs reached values close to 8 log cfu mL?1 after seven days of cold storage. Sequencing of 16 rDNA and rpoB genes and molecular biotyping allowed to identify 66 bacterial strains belonging to 25 species from

Federico Baruzzi; Rosanna Lagonigro; Laura Quintieri; Maria Morea; Leonardo Caputo

268

The Screening of Hydrogen Peroxide-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Application to Inactivating Psychrotrophic Food-Borne Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from various food samples and evaluated for hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) production. Cells suspended in 0.5% (wt\\/vol) glucose plus 0.5% (wt\\/vol) lactate (pH 7.0) were incubated for 5 h at 37°C under aeration. Among 193 strains, 27 strains accumulated 201-300 ppm H 2O 2, and 4 strains accumulated more than 301 ppm H 2O

Ayano Ito; Yuki Sato; Syoko Kudo; Susumu Sato; Hajime Nakajima; Takahiro Toba

2003-01-01

269

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdoughs for Cornetto , a traditional bread produced in Basilicata (Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 41 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from durum wheat sourdoughs used to produce Cornetto di Matera bread, were identified by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins (WCP) and screened for acid production ability, antimicrobial\\u000a activity and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (49%), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (17%), Lactobacillus curvatus (15%), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (12%),

Teresa Zotta; Paolo Piraino; Eugenio Parente; Giovanni Salzano; Annamaria Ricciardi

2008-01-01

270

Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with inhibitory activity against pathogens and spoilage organisms associated with fresh meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as protective cultures in vacuum-packed chill-stored meat has potential application for assuring and improving food quality, safety and market access. In a study to identify candidate strains suitable for evaluation in a meat model, agar-based methods were employed to screen 181 chilled meat and meat process-related LAB for strains inhibitory to pathogens and

Rhys J. Jones; Hassan M. Hussein; Monique Zagorec; Gale Brightwell; John R. Tagg

2008-01-01

271

Improvement of Experimentally Induced Hepatic and Renal Disorders in Rats using Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Extract (Biofermentics™)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean extract (BiofermenticsTM; BF) on experimental models of hepatic and renal disorders were investigated in vivo and in vitro. In rat, hepatitis induced by feeding of deoxycholic acid (DCA, 0.5 wt\\/wt, n = 6) or intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (GMN, 500 mg\\/body wt, n = 6), the increase in serum AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and

Ryoichi Shin; Momoyo Suzuki; Takeo Mizutani; Nobuyuki Susa

2009-01-01

272

Effect of dominant specie of lactic acid bacteria from tomato on natural microflora development in tomato purée  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant lactic acid bacteria specie from tomatoes surface and its effect, as competitive microflora, on tomato purée during storage at 30°C was investigated. Four genera were found Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides being the dominant group. Leuc. mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides Tsc when inoculated on tomato purée, pH 4.1, grew approximately 2 log cycles in 48h, inhibiting natural bacterial development and

S. A. Sajur; F. M. Saguir; M. C. Manca de Nadra

2007-01-01

273

Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in different original kefir grains were first assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) by a culture-dependent way, and were further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated that a combined method of cultivation with PCR-DGGE and subsequent DNA sequencing could successfully identify four LAB strains from three kefir grains from Taiwan (named Hsinchu,

Hsi-Chia Chen; Sheng-Yao Wang; Ming-Ju Chen

2008-01-01

274

Antimicrobial interactions of microbial species involved in the fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima with particular reference to the inhibitory effect of lactic acid bacteria on enteric pathogens.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus species and yeasts are involved in the fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima. Microbial interactions within and between these groups of microorganisms were investigated in addition to the survival of five enteric pathogens inoculated into agbelima under various conditions. Nine out of 10 cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated at the end of agbelima fermentation showed inhibitory effect against 10 cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated at the start of fermentation. Only 3 out of 10 isolates of Bacillus subtilis were inhibited by 10 isolates of lactic acid bacteria tested. No interactions were observed between yeasts and the lactic acid bacteria, whereas three of the Bacillus isolates showed inhibitory effects against the yeasts. Twelve isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum tested inhibited the growth of an isolate each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus brevis but none tested positive for bacteriocin production. The antimicrobial effect of the lactic acid bacteria was attributed to acid production. In fermenting cassava dough, enteric pathogens survived to different extents depending on pH and their sensitivity to acids. Vibrio cholerae C-230, Salmonella typhimurium 9 and Salmonella enteritidis 226 were not detectable in 10 g of sample after 4 h when inoculated into the 48-h fermented product, agbelima, whereas Shigella dysenteriae 2357T and Escherichia coli D2188 were detectable up to 8 h in the product. PMID:14580972

Mante, Ebenezer Siaw; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

2003-12-15

275

Broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.  

PubMed

A large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould Penicillium expansum. In excess of 500 LAB isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against P. expansum, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing of 94 broad spectrum isolates revealed that the majority of antifungal producers were strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. The remaining population was composed of Weissella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceous isolates. Characterization of six selected broad-spectrum antifungal LAB isolates revealed that antifungal activity is maximal at a temperature of 30 °C, a pH of 4.0 and is stable across a variety of salt concentrations. The antifungal compound(s) was shown to be neither proteinaceous nor volatile in nature. P. pentosaceous 54 was shown to have protective properties against P. expansum spoilage when applied in pear, plum and grape models, therefore representing an excellent candidate for food-related applications. PMID:23160868

Crowley, Sarah; Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

2013-07-01

276

Spoilage characteristics of traditionally packaged ground beef with added lactic acid bacteria displayed at abusive temperatures.  

PubMed

Growth of pathogenic organisms such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. can be inhibited in ground beef through the addition of certain lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51, Lactobacillus crispatus NP35, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis). This study evaluated the effects of LAB inclusion on the organoleptic and biochemical properties typically associated with spoilage in traditionally packaged ground beef displayed at abusive (10°C) temperatures for 36 h. Trained and untrained panelist evaluations of lean color and off-odor, as well as instrumental color analyses, did not indicate an effect on spoilage traits due to LAB utilization (P > 0.05). However, display length affected each variable independently and was indicative of decreased stability and acceptability as display time (h) increased (P < 0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values were decreased for ground beef with added LAB (P < 0.05), but likely can be related to bacterial degradation of lipid oxidation by-products because no reduction in organoleptic traits due to oxidation was noted between treatments. Overall, LAB did not adversely influence the spoilage characteristics of traditionally packaged ground beef displayed at abusive temperatures for up to 36 h. Furthermore, biochemical and sensory indicators of spoilage were present for all treatments at the conclusion of display. Therefore, LAB can be added to ground beef in traditional packaging as a processing intervention without masking or delaying the expected spoilage characteristics. PMID:22064744

Hoyle Parks, A R; Brashears, M M; Woerner, W D; Martin, J N; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C

2012-02-01

277

Transformation of isoflavone phytoestrogens during the fermentation of soymilk with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.  

PubMed

In the present study, soymilk is fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus BCRC 14085, Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 14079) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis BCRC 14633, B. longum B6) individually, and in combination. The change in the content of various isoflavones (aglycones, glucoside, acetyl- and malonyl-glucosides) and the beta-glucosidase activity in soymilk during fermentation is investigated. It is observed that fermented soymilk contains a lower total isoflavone content (81.94-86.61 microg/ml) than soymilk without fermentation (87.61 microg/ml). Regardless of starter organism employed, fermentation causes a major reduction in the contents of glucoside, malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside isoflavones along with a significant increase of aglycone isoflavones content. The level of change in the content of various isoflavones and beta-glucosidase activity after fermentation varies with the starter organism. Among all the fermented soymilks tested, soymilk fermented with S. thermophilus showed the highest beta-glucosidase activity and the greatest increase in the contents of aglycones. The percentage of daidzein, genistein and glycitein to total isoflavone content in S. thermophilus-fermented soymilk increases from an initial 14.24%, 6.89% and 2.45%, respectively, to 36.20%, 28.80% and 12.44% after 24h of fermentation. Finally, the increase of aglycones and decrease of glucoside isoflavones during fermentation coincides with the increase of beta-glucosidase activity observed in fermented soymilk. PMID:16943081

Chien, Hsiang-Lin; Huang, Hui-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Chun

2006-12-01

278

Lactic acid bacteria isolated from young calves--characterization and potential as probiotics.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as probiotics in humans and animals to restore the ecological balance of different mucosa. They help in the physiological functions of newborn calves that are susceptible to a variety of syndromes. The criteria for the selection of strains for the design of probiotic products are not available. Based in the host-specificity of the indigenous microbiota, 96 LAB isolates from faeces and oral cavity of calves were obtained. The surface properties were screened showing a small number of highly hydrophobic or autoagglutinating isolates. Also, a group produced H(2)O(2) and were able to inhibit pathogens, and two strains were bacteriocin-producers. Some grew at very low pH and high bile concentrations. The strains sharing some of the specific properties evaluated were identified genetically, assayed their compatibility and exopolysaccharide production. The results allow going further in the establishment of criteria to select strains to be included in a multi-strain-probiotic-product to be further assayed in animals. PMID:21497871

Maldonado, Natalia C; de Ruiz, Clara Silva; Otero, María Claudia; Sesma, Fernando; Nader-Macías, María Elena

2012-04-01

279

Control of spoilage fungi by protective lactic acid bacteria displaying probiotic properties.  

PubMed

Thirty-six lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus were isolated, and the spectrum of antifungal activity was verified against Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 42109), Aspergillus niger (KACC 42589), Fusarium moniliforme (KACC 08141), Penicillium chrysogenum (NII 08137), and the yeast Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). Three isolates, identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (TG2), Lactobacillus casei (DY2), and Lactococcus (BSN) were selected further, and their antifungal compounds were identified by ESI-MS and HPLC analysis as a range of carboxylic acids along with some unidentified, higher molecular weight compounds. An attempt to check out the shelf life extension of wheat bread without fungal spoilage was performed by fermenting the dough with the Lactococcus isolate. Apart from growth in low pH and tolerance to bile salts, probiotic potential of these three isolates was further substantiated by in vitro screening methods that include transit tolerance to the conditions in the upper human gastrointestinal tract and bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines. PMID:24532445

Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Priya, Sulochana; Devendra, Leena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

2014-04-01

280

Biopreservation of Brined Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

In brined shrimp (ca. 3% NaCl), the effects of three different lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins (crude [6.54 x 10(sup10) U of bacteriocin activity {BU}/g] and purified [8.13 x 10(sup23) BU/g] nisin Z, carnocin UI49 [2.32 x 10(sup4) BU/g], and crude bavaricin A [2.78 BU/g]) on bacterial growth and shelf life were compared with those of a benzoate-sorbate solution (0.1% each [wt/wt]) and a control with no preservatives. The shelf life of shrimp subjected to the control treatment was found to be 10 days. Carnocin UI49 did not extend the shelf life, while crude bavaricin A (a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus bavaricus MI 401) resulted in a shelf life of 16 days, as opposed to 31 days with nisin Z for both its crude and purified forms. The benzoate-sorbate solution preserved the brined shrimp for the whole storage period (59 days). In the control, carnocin UI49, and crude bavaricin A treatments, a gram-positive flora dominated towards the end of the storage period while in the nisin Z treatment a gram-negative flora was more pronounced.

Einarsson, H.; Lauzon, H. L.

1995-01-01

281

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the one humped camel milk produced in Morocco.  

PubMed

One hundred and twenty (120) strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were enumerated and isolated from raw dromedary milk in Morocco using various cultured media. Strains isolated were characterized by phenotypic, physiological and biochemical properties. Results showed that high counts of LAB were found. Presumptive lactobacilli counts ranged from 2.5x10(2) to 6x10(7)cfu/ml, presumptive lactococci levels varied from 5x10(2) to 6x10(7)cfu/ml, presumptive streptococci counts varied from 4.2x10(2) to 8x10(7)cfu/ml, presumptive leuconostoc levels ranged from 5.4x10(2) to 5.4x10(7)cfu/ml. Results showed also that Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were the predominant genera with 37.5% and 25.8%, respectively. The dominated species found were Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (17.5%), Lactobacillus helveticus (10%), Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (9.20%), Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (5.80%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (5%). This is the first report on the characterization of LAB strains isolated from the one humped camel milk produced in Morocco. PMID:17187971

Khedid, K; Faid, M; Mokhtari, A; Soulaymani, A; Zinedine, A

2009-01-01

282

Microbiological characterization of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese: analysis of its indigenous lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the bacterial populations involved in the production of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese (Italian Maritime Alps, northwest Italy) in order to collect preliminary knowledge on indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 21 samples of Raschera PDO cheese, collected from six dairy farms located in the production area, were submitted to microbiological analysis. LAB were randomly isolated from M17 agar, MRS agar and KAA plates and identified by combining PCR 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer analysis, species-specific primers and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolates was investigated by RAPD-PCR. LAB microflora showed the highest count values among all microbial groups targeted. They reached counts of 10(9) colony forming unit (cfu)/g in cheese samples after 3 days of salting and 15 days of ripening. Yeast population also showed considerable count values, while enterococci and coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) did not overcome 10(7)cfu/g. L. lactis subsp. lactis was the species most frequently isolated from Raschera PDO samples at all different production stages while in aged cheeses Lactobacillus paracasei was frequently isolated. RAPD-PCR highlighted that isolates of L. lactis subsp. lactis isolated from Raschera PDO were highly homogeneous. PMID:18206782

Dolci, Paola; Alessandria, Valentina; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca

2008-04-01

283

Isolation and partial characterization of halotolerant lactic acid bacteria from two Mexican cheeses.  

PubMed

Isolated strains of halotolerant or halophilic lactic acid bacteria (HALAB) from Cotija and doble crema cheeses were identified and partially characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods, and their technological abilities were studied in order to test their potential use as dairy starter components. Humidity, a(w), pH, and salt concentration of cheeses were determined. Genotypic diversity was evaluated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. Molecular identification and phylogenetic reconstructions based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were performed. Additional technological abilities such as salt tolerance, acidifying, and proteolytic and lipolytic activities were also investigated. The differences among strains reflected the biodiversity of HALAB in both types of cheeses. Lactobacillus acidipiscis, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Weissella thailandensis, and Lactobacillus pentosus from Cotija cheese, and L. acidipiscis, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus farciminis, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus from doble crema cheese were identified based on 16S rRNA. Quantitative and qualitative assessments showed strains of T. halophilus and L. plantarum to be proteolytic, along with E. faecium, L. farciminis, and L. pentosus to a lesser extent. Lipolytic activity could be demonstrated in strains of E. faecium, L. pentosus, L. plantarum, and T. halophilus. Strains belonging to the species L. pentosus, L. plantarum, and E. faecium were able to acidify the milk media. This study evidences the presence of HALAB that may play a role in the ripening of cheeses. PMID:21327742

Morales, Fredy; Morales, Jesús I; Hernández, César H; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

2011-07-01

284

Use of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria for Spanish-style table olive fermentation.  

PubMed

The present work presents a successful attempt to achieve an enhanced and more predictable fermentation process in Spanish-style green olive technology by selection and use of autochthonous starter cultures. During the first phase of this work, two Spanish-like fermentations of green table olives of cultivar (cv) "Nocellara del Belice", coming from irrigated and not irrigated fields, were monitored, in order to highlight the best agricultural conditions for drupe production and to isolate lactic acid bacteria strains with relevant technological properties. Among 88 identified isolates, one Lactobacillus pentosus strain showed remarkable biochemical features and high acidification rate in synthetic brine. In the second phase, the selected strain was used as starter culture in three different trials to establish the best conditions for its use. Microbial counting, as well as starter tracking by M13 RAPD-PCR, reflected the optimal adaptation of the strain to the environment. Spontaneous fermentation needed a 14-day long lag phase to reach the same population as the inoculated trials. Moreover, sensory traits of table olives obtained with adjunct culture showed better characteristics compared to those processed in the other trials, in particular concerning the presence of off-odours. PMID:22265277

Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Croce, Francesco La; Mazzaglia, Agata; Farina, Vittorio; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-05-01

285

Lactic acid bacteria: inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

A total of 26 strains of wild-type lactic acid bacteria, mainly belonging to Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus, were assayed in vitro for their ability to produce a milk fermentate with inhibitory activity towards angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). It was clear that the test strains in this study, in general, produce inhibitory substances in varying amounts. Using a spectrophotometric assay based on amino group derivatization with ortho-phthaldialdehyde as a measure of relative peptide content, it was shown that there is a significant correlation between peptide formation and ACE inhibition, indicating that peptide measurement constitutes a convenient selection method. The effect of active fermentates on in vivo ACE activity was demonstrated in normotensive rats. The pressor effect of angiotensin I (0.3 microg/kg) upon intravenous injection was significantly lower when rats were pre-fed with milks fermented using two strains of Lactobacillus helveticus. An increased response to bradykinin (10 microg/kg, intravenously injected) was observed using one of these fermented milks. It is concluded that Lactobacillus helveticus produces substances which in vivo can give rise to an inhibition of ACE. The inhibition in vivo was low compared to what can be achieved with classical ACE inhibitors. The clinical relevance of this finding is discussed. This work is the first in which an effect of fermented milk on ACE in vivo has been demonstrated, measured as decreased ability to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II. PMID:12755477

Fuglsang, Anders; Rattray, Fergal P; Nilsson, Dan; Nyborg, Niels C B

2003-01-01

286

Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Italian ryegrass silage.  

PubMed

Twenty-three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from three cultivars (Akiaoba, Nagahahikari and Tachiwase) of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were precisely characterized by a combination of phenotypic tests, genotypic 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and rapid PCR-based analyses, focusing on their useful phenotypes for silage preparation as inoculants. We successfully identified both at the species and subspecies levels: phenotypically novel Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. carnosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Pediococcus parvulus. This is the first report to elucidate the presence of Lactobacillus coryniformis ssp. torquens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum in Italian ryegrass silages. Physiological and biochemical tests revealed that phenotypic characteristics are different among the different strains of the same species and subspecies, and that the isolates show unique and diverse phenotypes related to fermentation factors, such as available carbohydrates, optimal growth pH and temperature. These results suggest that, for various well-preserved silage preparations, the isolates may be useful in producing novel inoculants corresponding to their optimally climatic and ecological niches. PMID:22339691

Tohno, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hisami; Nomura, Masaru; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Cai, Yimin

2012-02-01

287

Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro. Methods The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1% oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines. Conclusions These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

Wang, Shu Chen; Chang, Chen Kai; Chan, Shu Chang; Shieh, Jiunn Shiuh; Chiu, Chih Kwang; Duh, Pin-Der

2014-01-01

288

Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm2 were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS) from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100°C for 10 min) and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0). These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products.

Oliveira, Roseane B. P.; de L. Oliveira, Afonso; Gloria, M. Beatriz A.

2008-01-01

289

Symbionts as major modulators of insect health: lactic acid bacteria and honeybees.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial host-associated members of the microbiota of humans and animals. Yet LAB-associations of invertebrates have been poorly characterized and their functions remain obscure. Here we show that honeybees possess an abundant, diverse and ancient LAB microbiota in their honey crop with beneficial effects for bee health, defending them against microbial threats. Our studies of LAB in all extant honeybee species plus related apid bees reveal one of the largest collections of novel species from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ever discovered within a single insect and suggest a long (>80 mya) history of association. Bee associated microbiotas highlight Lactobacillus kunkeei as the dominant LAB member. Those showing potent antimicrobial properties are acquired by callow honey bee workers from nestmates and maintained within the crop in biofilms, though beekeeping management practices can negatively impact this microbiota. Prophylactic practices that enhance LAB, or supplementary feeding of LAB, may serve in integrated approaches to sustainable pollinator service provision. We anticipate this microbiota will become central to studies on honeybee health, including colony collapse disorder, and act as an exemplar case of insect-microbe symbiosis. PMID:22427985

Vásquez, Alejandra; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Paxton, Robert J; Flaberg, Emilie; Szekely, Laszlo; Olofsson, Tobias C

2012-01-01

290

Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria isolated from some pharmaceutical and dairy products  

PubMed Central

A total of 244 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from 180 dairy and pharmaceutical products that were collected from different areas in Minia governorate, Egypt. LAB were identified phenotypically on basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Lactobacillus isolates were further confirmed using PCR-based assay. By combination of phenotypic with molecular identification Lactobacillus spp. were found to be the dominant genus (138, 76.7%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (65, 36.1%) and Lactococcus spp. (27, 15%). Some contaminant organisms such as (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., mould and yeast) were isolated from the collected dairy samples but pharmaceutical products were free of such contaminants. Susceptibility of LAB isolates to antibiotics representing all major classes was tested by agar dilution method. Generally, LAB were highly susceptible to Beta-lactams except penicillin. Lactobacilli were resistant to vancomycin, however lactococci and streptococci proved to be very susceptible. Most strains were susceptible to tetracycline and showed a wide range of streptomycin MICs. The MICs of erythromycin and clindamycin for most of the LAB were within the normal range of susceptibility. Sixteen Lactobacillus, 8 Lactococcus and 8 Streptococcus isolates including all tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant strains were tested for the presence of tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant genes [tet(M) and/or erm(B)]. PCR assays shows that some resistant strains harbor tet(M) and/or erm(B) resistance genes.

Gad, Gamal Fadl M.; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Farag, Zeinab Shawky H.

2014-01-01

291

Detection of mobile genetic elements in pediocin PA-1 like producing lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

To evaluate the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in intergeneric and interspecific pediocin producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) the flanking regions of the pediocin PA-1/AcH (pediocin PA-1) operon was characterized. In Enterococcus faecium Acr4 and Lactobacillus plantarum Acr2 a variation in the amplicon size in the downstream region of the operon was identified, suggesting a deletion in this region. Beyond that, in pediocin PA-1 encoding plasmids MGEs such as ISLpl1 and mobilization regions were detected by Southern hybridization analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of the E. faecium Acr4 ISLpl1 gene sequence suggested the gene transfer from lactobacilli in the environment. The tyrosine recombinase detected in pediocin plasmids of Pediococcus acidilactici H and K7 indicate a possible transfer of the entire operon among LAB. Since these elements are known to be associated with transfer of genes linked to the bacteriocin production, antibiotic resistance, and sugar utilization, we suggest similar mechanism for natural spread of pediocin PA-1 operon among different bacterial species. PMID:22915312

Devi, Sundru Manjulata; Halami, Prakash M

2013-07-01

292

Diversity and technological potential of lactic acid bacteria of wheat flours.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were analysed from wheat flours used in traditional bread making throughout Sicily (southern Italy). Plate counts, carried out in three different media commonly used to detect food and sourdough LAB, revealed a maximal LAB concentration of approximately 4.75 Log CFU g(-1). Colonies representing various morphological appearances were isolated and differentiated based on phenotypic characteristics and genetic analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Fifty unique strains were identified. Analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing grouped the strains into 11 LAB species, which belonged to six genera: Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella. Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Leuconostoc citreum were the most prevalent species. The strains were not geographically related. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of total DNA of flour was used to provide a more complete understanding of the LAB population; it confirmed the presence of species identified with the culture-dependent approach, but did not reveal the presence of any additional LAB species. Finally, the technological characteristics (acidifying capacity, antimicrobial production, proteolytic activity, organic acid, and volatile organic compound generation) of the 50 LAB strains were investigated. Eleven strains were selected for future in situ applications. PMID:24010616

Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Corona, Onofrio; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

2013-12-01

293

FTIR-based polyphasic identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Greek Graviera cheese.  

PubMed

This study used a combination of phenotypic, physical (Fourier Transformed Infra-Red [FTIR] spectroscopy) and molecular (RFLP and SSCP analysis of 16S rRNA genes) methods to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) flora present in traditional Greek Graviera cheese after five weeks of ripening. A total of 300 isolates collected from high dilution plates of TSAYE (incubated at 30 °C), M-17 (22 °C) and M-17 (42 °C) agar media were clustered by FTIR and then representative strains of each cluster were cross-identified blindly by all methods. Based on their FTIR spectra, 282 isolates were LAB grouped in 28 clusters. The LAB species identified and their prevalence in the cheese samples were: Lactobacillus casei/paracasei (68.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (19.5%), Streptococcus thermophilus (8.9%), Enterococcus faecium (2.1%), and Lactococcus lactis (0.7%). Also, Staphylococcus equorum (11 isolates), Corynebacterium sp. (5 isolates) and Brevibacterium sp. (1 isolate) were recovered from TSAYE. Comparative identification results showed that phenotypic and molecular methods were in mutual agreement as regards the LAB species identified. The present polyphasic identification approach based on rapid FTIR screening of 10-fold more isolates than a previous classical identification approach allowed or improved detection of few sub-dominant species; however the predominant LAB species in the cheese samples were the same with both approaches. PMID:21056778

Samelis, John; Bleicher, Anne; Delbès-Paus, Céline; Kakouri, Athanasia; Neuhaus, Klaus; Montel, Marie-Christine

2011-02-01

294

Esterase activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from malolactic fermentation of red wines.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine the esterase activity of 243 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from wines of different red grape varieties, belonging to the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus. p-Nitrophenyl octanoate was used as substrate. All strains presented esterase activity in the first screening, but only those showing higher activity were used in subsequent studies to determine the cellular location of this activity, the influence of pH, temperature and the presence of ethanol and the substrate specificity. For the thirteen selected strains, the highest activity was observed in the intracellular fraction. Responses to pH, temperature and ethanol were strain-dependent, but for all the strains, a marked decrease in activity in presence of ethanol was observed. When the influence of pH and ethanol acting together was studied at 25 °C and 37 °C, temperature-dependent differences were not observed for any of the strains except for Oen6. In the substrate specificity assay, the majority of strains of all genera displayed a trend to more readily hydrolyse ester substrates from C8 and longer. PMID:23558198

Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

2013-05-15

295

Correlation between in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory properties of lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation between the in vitro immune profile of probiotic strains and their ability to prevent experimental colitis in mice. METHODS: in vitro immunomodulation was assessed by measuring interleukin (IL)-12p70, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interferon ? (IFN?) release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after 24 h stimulation with 13 live bacterial strains. A murine model of acute TNBS-colitis was next used to evaluate the prophylactic protective capacity of the same set of strains. RESULTS: A strain-specific in vivo protection was observed. The strains displaying an in vitro capacity to induce higher levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and lower levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-12, offered the best protection in the in vivo colitis model. In contrast, strains leading to a low IL-10/IL-12 cytokine ratio could not significantly attenuate colitis symptoms. CONCLUSION: These results show that we could predict the in vivo protective capacity of the studied lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based on the cytokine profile we established in vitro. The PBMC-based assay we used may thus serve as a useful primary indicator to narrow down the number of candidate strains to be tested in murine models for their anti-inflammatory potential.

Foligne, Benoit; Nutten, Sophie; Grangette, Corinne; Dennin, Veronique; Goudercourt, Denise; Poiret, Sabine; Dewulf, Joelle; Brassart, Dominique; Mercenier, Annick; Pot, Bruno

2007-01-01

296

Interaction of Aeromonas Strains with Lactic Acid Bacteria via Caco-2 Cells  

PubMed Central

The genus Aeromonas includes some species that have now been identified as human pathogens of significant medical importance. We investigated the ability of 13 selected Aeromonas strains belonging to nine species isolated from clinical cases (n = 5), environmental waters (n = 5), and fish (n = 3) to adhere to and translocate Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB), i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve. Aeromonas isolates were also assessed for their cytotoxicity, the presence of virulence genes, and hemolysin production. Among the clinical isolates, one strain of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii and two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila carried cytotoxin (act), heat-labile toxin (alt), hemolysin (hlyA), and aerolysin (aerA) genes, were cytotoxic to Vero cells, produced hemolysin, and showed higher adherence to Caco-2 cells. In contrast, this was seen in only one environmental strain, a strain of A. veronii biovar sobria. When Aeromonas strains were coinoculated with LAB onto Caco-2 cells, their level of adhesion was reduced. However, their rate of translocation in the presence of LAB increased and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher among fish strains. We suggest that either the interaction between Aeromonas and LAB strains could have a detrimental effect on the Caco-2 cells, allowing the Aeromonas to translocate more readily, or the presence of the LAB stimulated the Aeromonas strains to produce more toxins and/or increase their translocation rate.

Hatje, E.; Neuman, C.

2014-01-01

297

Symbionts as Major Modulators of Insect Health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Honeybees  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial host-associated members of the microbiota of humans and animals. Yet LAB-associations of invertebrates have been poorly characterized and their functions remain obscure. Here we show that honeybees possess an abundant, diverse and ancient LAB microbiota in their honey crop with beneficial effects for bee health, defending them against microbial threats. Our studies of LAB in all extant honeybee species plus related apid bees reveal one of the largest collections of novel species from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ever discovered within a single insect and suggest a long (>80 mya) history of association. Bee associated microbiotas highlight Lactobacillus kunkeei as the dominant LAB member. Those showing potent antimicrobial properties are acquired by callow honey bee workers from nestmates and maintained within the crop in biofilms, though beekeeping management practices can negatively impact this microbiota. Prophylactic practices that enhance LAB, or supplementary feeding of LAB, may serve in integrated approaches to sustainable pollinator service provision. We anticipate this microbiota will become central to studies on honeybee health, including colony collapse disorder, and act as an exemplar case of insect-microbe symbiosis.

Vasquez, Alejandra; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Paxton, Robert J.; Flaberg, Emilie; Szekely, Laszlo

2012-01-01

298

Monitoring psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria contamination in a ready-to-eat vegetable salad production environment.  

PubMed

A study monitoring lactic acid bacteria contamination was conducted in a company producing fresh, minimally processed, packaged and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads (stored at 4°C) in order to investigate the reason for high psychrotrophic LAB levels in the products at the end of shelf-life. Initially, high microbial counts exceeding the established psychrotrophic thresholds (>10(7)-10(8)CFU/g) and spoilage manifestations before the end of the shelf-life (7days) occurred in products containing an assortment of sliced and diced vegetables, but within a one year period these spoilage defects became prevalent in the entire processing plant. Environmental sampling and microbiological analyses of the raw materials and final products throughout the manufacturing process highlighted the presence of high numbers of Leuconostoc spp. in halved and unseeded, fresh sweet bell peppers provided by the supplier. A combination of two DNA fingerprinting techniques facilitated the assessment of the species diversity of LAB present in the processing environment along with the critical point of their introduction in the production facility. Probably through air mediation and surface adhesion, mainly members of the strictly psychrotrophic species Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum subsp. gelidum were responsible for the cross-contamination of every vegetable handled within the plant. PMID:24927398

Pothakos, Vasileios; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Devlieghere, Frank

2014-08-18

299

Lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic preserved meat products of the Western Himalayas.  

PubMed

We used culture- and molecular-biology-based methods to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the ethnic chevon (goat) meat products chartayshya, jamma and arjia of the Western Himalayas. In six chartayshya, six jamma and four arjia samples, LAB were the predominant microbial component involved in the fermentation of these samples, and the total LAB population in arjia (7.8 ± 0.1 log cfu g(-1); mean ± SD) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in chartayshya (6.9 ± 0.1 log cfu g(-1)) and jamma (7.5 ± 0.1 log cfu g(-1)). We identified 53 LAB samples by 16S rRNA and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) genes sequencing. The LAB isolates were identified as Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Weissella cibaria. These results revealed that there is a high level of diversity of LAB in the Himalayan ethnic preserved meat products. PMID:21839380

Oki, Kaihei; Rai, Arun Kumar; Sato, Sumie; Watanabe, Koichi; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

2011-10-01

300

Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we investigated the catabolic pathways used by these bacteria. In the three lactic acid bacterial species, amino acid catabolism was initiated by a transamination step, which requires the presence of an ?-keto acid such as ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) as the amino group acceptor, and produced ?-keto acids. Only S. thermophilus exhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which produces ?-KG from glutamate, and consequently only S. thermophilus was capable of catabolizing amino acids in the reaction medium without ?-KG addition. In the presence of ?-KG, lactobacilli produced much more varied aroma compounds such as acids, aldehydes, and alcohols than S. thermophilus, which mainly produced ?-keto acids and a small amount of hydroxy acids and acids. L. helveticus mainly produced acids from phenylalanine and leucine, while L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis produced larger amounts of alcohols and/or aldehydes. Formation of aldehydes, alcohols, and acids from ?-keto acids by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis mainly results from the action of an ?-keto acid decarboxylase, which produces aldehydes that are then oxidized or reduced to acids or alcohols. In contrast, the enzyme involved in the ?-keto acid conversion to acids in L. helveticus and S. thermophilus is an ?-keto acid dehydrogenase that produces acyl coenzymes A.

Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

2004-01-01

301

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from naturally-fermented Manzanilla Aloreña green table olives.  

PubMed

Manzanilla Aloreña (or Aloreña) table olives are naturally fermented traditional green olives with a denomination of protection (DOP). The aim of this study was to search for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with technological properties of interest for possible inclusion in a starter or protective culture preparation or also as probiotics. A collection of 144 LAB obtained from Aloreña green table olives naturally-fermented by four small-medium enterprises (SMEs) from Málaga (Spain), including lactobacilli (81.94%), leuconostocs (10.42%) and pediococci (7.64%) were studied. REP-PCR clustering and further identification of strains by sequencing of phes and rpo genes revealed that all lactobacilli from the different SMEs were Lactobacillus pentosus. Pediococci were identified as Pediococcus parvulus (SME1) and leuconostocs as Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (SME1 and SME4). Genotyping revealed that strains were not clonally related and exhibited a considerable degree of genomic diversity specially for lactobacilli and also for leuconostocs. Some strains exhibit useful technological properties such as production of antimicrobial substances active against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Salmonella enterica, utilization of raffinose and stachyose, production of bile salt hydrolase, phytase and haeme-dependent catalase activities, growth at 10 °C and in the presence of 6.5% NaCl, good acidifying capacity and also resistance to freezing. However, none of the isolates showed protease or amylase activity, and also did not exhibit biogenic amine production from histidine, ornithine, cysteine or tyrosine. On the basis of data obtained, selected strains with potential traits were tested for their survival at low pH and their tolerance to bile salts, and the survival capacity demonstrated by some of the analysed strains are encouraging to further study their potential as probiotics. PMID:22986194

Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Cobo, Antonio; Caballero, Natacha; Fernández Fuentes, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

2012-12-01

302

Population of aerobic heterotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with wetland and dryland rice  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen-fixing activity and populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with two varieties of rice grown in dryland and wetland conditions were measured at various growth stages during the dry season. Acetylene reduction activities were measured both in the field and for the hydroponically grown rice, which was transferred from the field to water culture 1 day before assay. The activities measured by both methods were higher in wetland than in dryland rice. The population of nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was determined by the most probable number method with semisolid glucose-yeast extract and semisolid malate-yeast extract media. The number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was higher in wetland conditions than in dryland conditions. The difference between two conditions was most pronounced in the population associated with the basal shoot. The glucose medium gave higher counts than did the malate medium. Colonies were picked from tryptic soy agar plates, and their nitrogen-fixing activity was tested on a semisolid glucose-yeast extract medium. The incidence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in association with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was much lower in dryland rice than in wetland rice. (Refs. 11).

Barraquio, W.L.; De Guzman, M.R.; Barrion, M.; Watanahe, I.

1982-01-01

303

Population of Aerobic Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Associated with Wetland and Dryland Rice  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen-fixing activity and populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with two varieties of rice grown in dryland and wetland conditions were measured at various growth stages during the dry season. Acetylene reduction activities were measured both in the field and for the hydroponically grown rice, which was transferred from the field to water culture 1 day before assay. The activities measured by both methods were higher in wetland than in dryland rice. The population of nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was determined by the most probable number method with semisolid glucose-yeast extract and semisolid malate-yeast extract media. The number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was higher in wetland conditions than in dryland conditions. The difference between two conditions was most pronounced in the population associated with the basal shoot. The glucose medium gave higher counts than did the malate medium. Colonies were picked from tryptic soy agar plates, and their nitrogen-fixing activity was tested on a semisolid glucose-yeast extract medium. The incidence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in association with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was much lower in dryland rice than in wetland rice.

Barraquio, W. L.; de Guzman, M. R.; Barrion, M.; Watanabe, I.

1982-01-01

304

Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB) of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or beta-galactosidase (Gal) was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological application.

2011-01-01

305

Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI. PMID:21569932

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

2011-08-01

306

Characteristics of isolated lactic acid bacteria and their effectiveness to improve stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Sw.) silage quality at various temperatures.  

PubMed

Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Pediococcus pentosaceus SC1 and Lactobacillus paraplantarum SC2 isolated from king grass silage, were characterized and their effectiveness to improve the silage fermentation quality of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Sw.) was studied. Strain SC1 was able to grow at a high temperature of 45°C, while SC2 did not. SC2 normally grew at a low pH of 4.0, while SC1 could not. These two strains and a commercial inoculant of LAB (L. plantarum, LP) were used as additives to stylo silage preparation at various temperatures (20°C, 30°C and 40°C). All LAB inoculants significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the pH value and ammonia-N content, and increased the ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid and quality score compared with the control. In addition, inoculating LAB strains markedly (P < 0.05) reduced butyric acid content at the temperatures of 30°C and 40°C. Compared to SC2 and LP strains, strain SC1 was the most effective for improving stylo silage quality at 20°C, indicated by the increase in lactic acid, ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid and quality score. At 30°C and 40°C, there were no significant differences among SC1, SC2 and LP treatments in pH values, contents of acetic acid, butyric acid and ammonia-N (P > 0.05). PMID:22339693

Liu, Qinhua; Chen, Mingxia; Zhang, Jianguo; Shi, Shangli; Cai, Yimin

2012-02-01

307

Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG)5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5) and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64?mg/L whereas some W. confusa and Lb. plantarum strains had a MIC value of 16?mg/L and 32?mg/L respectively. No ?-haemolytic activity was observed, however, ?-haemolytic activity was observed in 27% (9) of the strains comprising Lb. salivarius (6), W. confusa (2) and Lb. delbrueckii (1) isolates. Conclusions The resistance to kanamycin and vancomycin is probably an intrinsic feature since similar observations were reported in the literature for LAB. Low prevalence of pathogenicity indicator traits were observed among the isolates especially with the presence of poor haemolytic activities and they could therefore be considered as interesting candidates for selection of starter cultures or probiotics for different applications.

2012-01-01

308

Diverse Arrangement of Photosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC). In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. Conclusions/Significance Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria.

Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Koblizek, Michal; Boldareva, Ekaterina N.; Yurkov, Vladimir; Yan, Shi; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-01-01

309

pRS4: UN VECTOR DE CLONACIÓN IDÓNEO PARA BACTERIAS ÁCIDO-LÁCTICAS DE USO ALIMENTARIO pRS4: AN APPROPRIATE CLONING VECTOR FOR LACTIC-ACID BACTERIA OF FOOD USE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of pRS4, a cryptic plasmid from Pediococcus pentosaceus, as a selective cloning vector for lactic acid bacteria has been analysed. The results indicate that pRS4C1, a cloning vector from pRS4 can stably transform Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici and P. pentosaceus (three lactic acid bacteria used as starters in the food industry) but it does not transform Enterococcus faecalis

J. M. Mesas; M. C. Rodríguez; M. T. Alegre

2006-01-01

310

[Bioaugmentation for shortcut nitrification in SBR treating for sewage containing sea water by nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria].  

PubMed

The feasibility of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in shortcut nitrification system was studied. Four heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strains mixed with halotolerant activated sludge was added into SBR in order to test their bioaugmentation ability for shortcut nitrification system, which was treating for sewage containing sea water, and the difference between bioaugmentation system and original system was compared. The results showed that the maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N in bioaugmentation system was 34.92% lower than that in original system, and the time of maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N was 2 hours earlier than that in original system. The TN and COD was continuously decreasing in the later phase of nitrification in bioaugmentation system, and finally the removal rate of TN and COD were 15.24% and 5.39% higher than that in original system respectively, as well as the removal rate of NH4(+) -N and the nitrosation rate were 6.85% and 14.47% higher than that in original system. And the pH was 0.46 higher than that in original system, whereas the ORP was 25.84 mV lower. It was considered that the function of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria should strengthen the performance of bioaugmentation system. When the seawater content raised to 70%, the stability of bioaugmentation system was better than that in original system, and the current that transforming shortcut nitrification to complete nitrification was restrained by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria effectively. The number of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria was changed when bioaugmentation system and original system ran in different phase and the bacteria had a great loss with the discharge of activated sludge. These results may provide a theoretical reference about the feasibility that the heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in shortcut nitrification system. PMID:21229749

Qu, Yang; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Yu, De-Shuang; Guo, Sha-Sha; Yang, Rui-Xia

2010-10-01

311

Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria enhance immunomodulatory potential by skewing the immune response toward Th1 polarization.  

PubMed

Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria not only possess immunomodulatory functions but also provide the advantages of longer product shelf life, easier storage, and more convenient transportation. To establish appropriate heat treatments for the industrial preparation of probiotics with immunomodulatory effects, 4 different heat treatments were used to kill 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria. Comparisons among the strains and with viable forms were carried out in terms of immunomodulatory activity and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was employed to observe morphological changes in bacteria after heating. Among the 11 viable strains,?Lactobacillus gasseri?AI-88 was the strongest inducer of interferon-gamma (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-12p70 production. However, after heat treatments its stimulatory ability was attenuated. Heat-killed?Enterococcus faecalis?YM-73 and?Lactobacillus salivarius?AP-32 strains showed enhanced stimulation of IFN-? and IL-12p70 secretion and coincidental decrease in IL-13 production. The adhesion of lactic acid bacteria to Caco-2 cells decreased with increases in temperature. However, heat exposure did not influence immunomodulatory activity. With rising temperature, roughness and unevenness of bacterial cell surfaces increased significantly. The results indicated that heat-killed?E. faecalis?YM-73 and?L. salivarius?AP-32 have immunomodulatory ability via increased Th1-associated cytokines and reduced Th2-associated cytokines, switching the immune response from a Th2 toward a Th1 response. These 2 heat-killed strains have the potential for development as commercial products. PMID:22417436

Ou, Chu-Chyn; Lin, Shiao-Lin; Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Meei-Yn

2011-01-01

312

Stress response of some lactic acid bacteria isolated from Romanian artisan dairy products.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of stress response and adaptation to stress in the case of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially in the case of strains with functional properties, is very important when such strains are potential candidates for starter cultures or probiotics. In this context, our study shows the response of some LAB [four exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strains and one strain with potential probiotic effect] to the stresses induced by low and high incubation temperatures, acidity, NaCl, and bile salts, often encountered during the technological processes in food or during the passage through the human gastro-intestinal tract. The strains were able to grow at temperatures up to 40 °C (the mesophilic strains) and 47 °C (the thermophilic strain), in medium with an initial pH of at least 4.0 (Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB801), or in the presence of NaCl up to 10% (Weissella confusa/cibaria 38.2), or bile salts up to 0.2% (L. acidophilus IBB801). The protein and isoenzyme patterns of the strains subjected to various stress conditions presented several differences compared with the control patterns, among which the overexpression of some proteins of about 50-60 kDa, differences in the bands intensity in the case of the intracellular enzymes, or the complete loss of some of these bands. The best survival to low pH values and high temperatures was observed for strain L. acidophilus IBB801, the candidate probiotic strain. The EPS production of the four tested strains was, in general, directly related to the growth, the highest yields being obtained when strains were incubated at 24 °C. PMID:23933743

Zamfir, Medana; Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona

2014-02-01

313

Assessment of antibiotic susceptibility within lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from wine.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested in 75 unrelated lactic acid bacteria strains of wine origin of the following species: 38 Lactobacillus plantarum, 3 Lactobacillus hilgardii, 2 Lactobacillus paracasei, 1 Lactobacillus sp, 21 Oenococcus oeni, 4 Pediococcus pentosaceus, 2 Pediococcus parvulus, 1 Pediococcus acidilactici, and 3 Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the different antibiotics that inhibited 50% of the strains of the Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus genera were, respectively, the following ones: penicillin (2, < or =0.5, and < or =0.5 microg/ml), erythromycin (< or =0.5 microg/ml), chloramphenicol (4 microg/ml), ciprofloxacin (64, 8, and 128 microg/ml), vancomycin (> or =128 microg/ml), tetracycline (8, 2, and 8 microg/ml), streptomycin (256, 32, and 512 microg/ml), gentamicin (64, 4, and 128 microg/ml), kanamycin (256, 64, and 512 microg/ml), sulfamethoxazole (> or =1024 microg/ml), and trimethoprim (16 microg/ml). All 21 O. oeni showed susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, rifampicin and chloramphenicol, and exhibited resistance to aminoglycosides, vancomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, that could represent intrinsic resistance. Differences were observed among the O. oeni strains with respect to penicillin or ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Antibiotic resistance genes were studied by PCR and sequencing, and the following genes were detected: erm(B) (one P. acidilactici), tet(M) (one L. plantarum), tet(L) (one P. parvulus), aac(6')-aph(2") (four L. plantarum, one P. parvulus, one P. pentosaceus and two O. oeni), ant(6) (one L. plantarum, and two P. parvulus), and aph(3')-IIIa (one L. plantarum and one O. oeni). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ant(6), aph(3')-IIIa and tet(L) genes are found in Lactobacillus and Pediococcus strains and antimicrobial resistance genes are reported in O. oeni strains. PMID:16876896

Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Sáenz, Yolanda; Poeta, Patricia; Zarazaga, Myriam; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda; Torres, Carmen

2006-10-01

314

Antibiotic resistances of starter and probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The antibiotic resistances of 45 lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc were investigated. The objective was to determine antibiotic resistances and to verify these at the genetic level, as is currently suggested by the European "qualified presumption of safety" safety evaluation system for industrial starter strains. In addition, we sought to pinpoint possible problems in resistance determinations. Primers were used to PCR amplify genes involved in beta-lactam antibiotic, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin resistance. The presence of ribosomal protection protein genes and the ermB gene was also determined by using a gene probe. Generally, the incidences of erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, or beta-lactam resistances in this study were low (<7%). In contrast, aminoglycoside (gentamicin and streptomycin) and ciprofloxacin resistances were higher than 70%, indicating that these may constitute intrinsic resistances. The genetic basis for ciprofloxacin resistance could not be verified, since no mutations typical of quinolone resistances were detected in the quinolone determining regions of the parC and gyrA genes. Some starter strains showed low-level ampicillin, penicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline resistances, but no known resistance genes could be detected. Although some strains possessed the cat gene, none of these were phenotypically resistant to chloramphenicol. Using reverse transcription-PCR, these cat genes were shown to be silent under both inducing and noninducing conditions. Only Lactobacillus salivarius BFE 7441 possessed an ermB gene, which was encoded on the chromosome and which could not be transferred in filter-mating experiments. This study clearly demonstrates problems encountered with resistance testing, in that the breakpoint values are often inadequately identified, resistance genes may be present but silent, and the genetic basis and associated resistance mechanisms toward some antibiotics are still unknown. PMID:17122388

Hummel, Anja S; Hertel, Christian; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

2007-02-01

315

Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows.  

PubMed

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as antioxidant nutraceutical vectors. PMID:22919677

Pessione, Enrica

2012-01-01

316

Surface of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Relationships between Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties  

PubMed Central

The surface chemical composition and physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity and zeta potential) of two lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetilactis and Lactobacillus helveticus, have been investigated using cells harvested in exponential or stationary growth phase. The surface composition determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was converted into a molecular composition in terms of proteins, polysaccharides, and hydrocarbonlike compounds. The concentration of the last was always below 15% (wt/wt), which is related to the hydrophilic character revealed by water contact angles of less than 30°. The surfaces of L. lactis cells had a polysaccharide concentration about twice that of proteins. The S-layer of L. helveticus was either interrupted or crossed by polysaccharide-rich compounds; the concentration of the latter was higher in the stationary growth phase than in the exponential growth phase. Further progress was made in the interpretation of XPS data in terms of chemical functions by showing that the oxygen component at 531.2 eV contains a contribution of phosphate in addition to the main contribution of the peptide link. The isoelectric points were around 2 and 3, and the electrophoretic mobilities above pH 5 (ionic strength, 1 mM) were about ?3.0 × 10?8 and ?0.6 × 10?8 m2 s?1 V?1 for L. lactis and L. helveticus, respectively. The electrokinetic properties of the latter reveal the influence of carboxyl groups, while the difference between the two strains is related to a difference between N/P surface concentration ratios, reflecting the relative exposure of proteins and phosphate groups at the surface.

Boonaert, Christophe J. P.; Rouxhet, Paul G.

2000-01-01

317

Autoinducer-2-like activity in lactic acid bacteria isolated from minced beef packaged under modified atmospheres.  

PubMed

Fifteen fingerprints (assigned to Leuconostoc spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weissella viridescens, Leuconostoc citreum, and Lactobacillus sakei) of 89 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from minced beef stored under modified atmospheres at various temperatures were screened for their ability to exhibit autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-like activity under certain growth conditions. Cellfree meat extracts (CFME) were collected at the same time as the LAB isolates and tested for the presence of AI-2-like molecules. All bioassays were conducted using the Vibrio harveyi BAA-1117 (sensor 1(-), sensor 2(+)) biosensor strain. The possible inhibitory effect of meat extracts on the activity of the biosensor strain was also evaluated. AI-2-like activity was observed for Leuconostoc spp. isolates, but none of the L. sakei strains produced detectable AI-2-like activity. The AI-2-like activity was evident mainly associated with the Leuconostoc sp. B 233 strain, which was the dominant isolate recovered from storage at 10 and 15°C and at the initial and middle stages of storage at chill temperatures (0 and 5°C). The tested CFME samples displayed low AI-2-like activity and inhibited AI-2 activity regardless of the indigenous bacterial populations. The LAB isolated during meat spoilage exhibited AI-2-like activity, whereas the LAB strains retrieved depended on storage time and temperature. The production of AI-2-like molecules may affect the dominance of different bacterial strains during storage. The results provide a basis for further research concerning the effect of storage temperature on the expression of genes encoding AI-2 activity and on the diversity of the ephemeral bacterial population. PMID:21477479

Blana, Vasiliki A; Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Nychas, George-John E

2011-04-01

318

Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination. PMID:23296912

Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

2013-05-01

319

Influence of Different Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria on Microbiota and Metabolism of Rats with Dysbiosis  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are often used for prevention and treatment of dysbiosis. However, the action of various strains of LAB on metabolism and digestion under these conditions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of probiotic LAB on metabolism, digestion and microbiota in animals with dysbiosis. After administration of ampicillin and metronidazole male Wistar rats, were fed products containing Enterococcus faecium L3 (E.f.), Lactobacillus fermentum Z (L.f.) or milk (control 1). Animals in control group 2 were fed milk, after water instead of antibiotics. Dyspeptic symptoms disappeared after administration of probiotic compared with control 1. At the end of the experiment, an increase in the content of enterococci and lactobacilli in the proximal part of the small intestine was found in the animals treated with E.f. and L.f., respectively. After the introduction of probiotic enterococci, the quantity of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the intestines of rats increased, and the content of Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli decreased in comparison with the control group 1 and the group fed lactobacilli. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase was greater in blood serum of rats with dysbiosis receiving milk and lactobacilli. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity increased in the epithelium and chyme in the jejunum of the animals treated with L. f. and in the chyme only in the animals treated with E. f. Thus, the specific effects of different strains of probiotic LAB on the microbiota, and on metabolism and digestion of various nutrients were demonstrated.

ERMOLENKO, Elena; GROMOVA, Ludmila; BORSCHEV, Yuri; VOEIKOVA, Anna; KARASEVA, Alena; ERMOLENKO, Konstantin; GRUZDKOV, Andrei; SUVOROV, Alexander

2013-01-01

320

Invited review: methods for the screening, isolation, and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) is widespread among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), although the physiological role of these molecules has not been clearly established yet. Some EPS confer on LAB a "ropy" character that can be detected in cultures that form long strands when extended with an inoculation loop. When EPS are produced in situ during milk fermentation they can act as natural biothickeners, giving the product a suitable consistency, improving viscosity, and reducing syneresis. In addition, some of these EPS may have beneficial effects on human health. The increasing demand by consumers of novel dairy products requires a better understanding of the effect of EPS on existing products and, at the same time, the search for new EPS-producing strains with desirable properties. The use of genetically modified organisms capable of producing high levels of EPS or newly designed biopolymers is still very limited. Therefore, exploration of the biodiversity of wild LAB strains from natural ecological environments is currently the most suitable approach to search for the desired EPS-phenotype. The screening of ropy strains and the isolation and characterization of EPS responsible for this characteristic have led to the application over the past years of a wide variety of techniques. This review summarizes the available information on methods and procedures used for research on this topic. The information provided deals with methods for screening of EPS-producing LAB, detection of the ropy phenotype, and the physicochemical and structural characterization of these molecules, including parameters related to their viscosifying properties. To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of methods available for the study of EPS produced by LAB. PMID:15738217

Ruas-Madiedo, P; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G

2005-03-01

321

Diversity in growth and protein degradation by dairy relevant lactic acid bacteria species in reconstituted whey.  

PubMed

The high nutritional value of whey makes it an interesting substrate for the development of fermented foods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth and proteolytic activity of sixty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria in whey to further formulate a starter culture for the development of fermented whey-based beverages. Fermentations were performed at 37 °C for 24 h in 10 and 16% (w/v) reconstituted whey powder. Cultivable populations, pH, and proteolytic activity (o-phthaldialdehyde test) were determined at 6 and 24 h incubation. Hydrolysis of whey proteins was analysed by Tricine SDS-PAGE. A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to evaluate the behaviour of strains. Forty-six percent of the strains grew between 1 and 2 ?log CFU/ml while 19% grew less than 0·9 ?log CFU/ml in both reconstituted whey solutions. Regarding the proteolytic activity, most of the lactobacilli released amino acids and small peptides during the first 6 h incubation while streptococci consumed the amino acids initially present in whey to sustain growth. Whey proteins were degraded by the studied strains although to different extents. Special attention was paid to the main allergenic whey protein, ?-lactoglobulin, which was degraded the most by Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656. The strain variability observed and the PCA applied in this study allowed selecting appropriate strains able to improve the nutritional characteristics (through amino group release and protein degradation) and storage (decrease in pH) of whey. PMID:22559062

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Bru, Elena; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Mozzi, Fernanda

2012-05-01

322

Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management of nursing home residents. Methods Nineteen subjects (8M, 11F; mean age 77.1 ± 10.1) suffering with chronic constipation were assigned to receive LAB (3.0 × 1011 CFU/g) twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner) a day for 2 weeks in November 2008. Subjects draw up a questionnaire on defecation habits (frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool), and we collected fecal samples from the subjects both before entering and after ending the trial, to investigate LAB levels and inhibition of harmful enzyme activities. Results were tested with SAS and Student's t-test. Results Analysis of questionnaire showed that there was an increase in the frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit after LAB treatment, but there were no significant changes. And it also affects the intestinal environment, through significantly increase (p < 0.05) fecal LAB levels. In addition, tryptophanase and urease among harmful enzyme activities of intestinal microflora were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after LAB treatment. Conclusion LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation.

2010-01-01

323

Characterization and transfer of antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria from fermented food products.  

PubMed

The study provides phenotypic and molecular analyses of the antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented foods in Xi'an, China. LAB strains (n = 84) belonging to 16 species of Lactobacillus (n = 73), and Streptococcus thermophilus (n = 11) were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin, and cefsulodin, and intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid, kanamycin, and vancomycin (except L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and S. thermophilus, which were susceptible to vancomycin). Some strains had acquired resistance for penicillin (n = 2), erythromycin (n = 9), clindamycin (n = 5), and tetracycline (n = 14), while resistance to gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol was species dependent. Minimum inhibitory concentrations presented in this study will help to review microbiological breakpoints for some of the species of Lactobacillus. The erm(B) gene was detected from two strains of each of L. fermentum and L. vaginalis, and one strain of each of L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. acidophilus, L. animalis, and S. thermophilus. The tet genes were identified from 12 strains of lactobacilli from traditional foods. This is the first time, the authors identified tet(S) gene from L. brevis and L. kefiri. The erm(B) gene from L. fermentum NWL24 and L. salivarius NWL33, and tet(M) gene from L. plantarum NWL22 and L. brevis NWL59 were successfully transferred to Enterococcus faecalis 181 by filter mating. It was concluded that acquired antibiotic resistance is well dispersed in fermented food products in Xi'an, China and its transferability to other genera should be monitored closely. PMID:21212956

Nawaz, Muhammad; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Aiping; Ma, Chaofeng; Wu, Xiaokang; Moore, John E; Millar, B Cherie; Xu, Jiru

2011-03-01

324

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional fermented dairy products in Mongolia.  

PubMed

Spontaneous milk fermentation has a long history in Mongolia, and beneficial microorganisms have been handed down from one generation to the next for use in fermented dairy products. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities in fermented yak, mare, goat, and cow milk products by analyzing 189 samples collected from 13 different regions in Mongolia. The LAB counts in these samples varied from 3.41 to 9.03 log cfu/mL. Fermented yak and mare milks had almost identical mean numbers of LAB, which were significantly higher than those in fermented goat milk but slightly lower than those in fermented cow milk. In total, 668 isolates were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. Each isolate was considered to be presumptive LAB based on gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and was identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. All isolates from Mongolian dairy products were accurately identified as Enterococcus faecalis (1 strain), Enterococcus durans (3 strains), Lactobacillus brevis (3 strains), Lactobacillus buchneri (2 strains), Lactobacillus casei (16 strains), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (142 strains), Lactobacillus diolivorans (17 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (42 strains), Lactobacillus helveticus (183 strains), Lactobacillus kefiri (6 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum (7 strains), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (7 strains), Leuconostoc lactis (22 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (21 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (195 strains), and Weissella cibaria (1 strain). The predominant LAB were Strep. thermophilus and Lb. helveticus, which were isolated from all sampling sites. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Mongolia have complex compositions of LAB species. Such diversity of LAB provides useful information for further studies of probiotic strain selection and starter culture design, with regard to the industrial production of traditional fermented milk. PMID:21700007

Yu, J; Wang, W H; Menghe, B L G; Jiri, M T; Wang, H M; Liu, W J; Bao, Q H; Lu, Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, F; Xu, H Y; Sun, T S; Zhang, H P

2011-07-01

325

Bacteriochlorophyll and community structure of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in a particle-rich estuary.  

PubMed

Photoheterotrophic microbes use organic substrates and light energy to satisfy their demand for carbon and energy and seem to be well adapted to eutrophic estuarine and oligotrophic oceanic environments. One type of photoheterotroph, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, is especially abundant in particle-rich, turbid estuaries. To explore questions regarding the controls of these photoheterotrophic bacteria, we examined their abundance by epifluorescence microscopy, concentrations of the light-harvesting pigment, bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and the diversity of pufM and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the Chesapeake Bay. Concentrations of BChl a varied substantially, much more so than AAP bacterial abundance, along the estuarine salinity gradient. The BChl a concentration was correlated with turbidity only when oceanic and estuarine waters were considered together. Concentrations of BChl a and BChl a quotas were higher in particle-associated than in free-living AAP bacterial communities and appear to reflect physiological adaptation, not different AAP bacterial communities; pufM genes did not differ between particle-associated and free-living communities. In contrast, particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were significantly different, on the basis of the analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The BChl a quota of AAP bacteria was not correlated with turbidity, suggesting that pigment synthesis varies in direct response to particles, not light attenuation. The AAP bacteria seem to synthesize more BChl a when dissolved and particulate substrates are available than when only dissolved materials are accessible, which has implications for understanding the impact of substrates on the level of photoheterotrophy compared with heterotrophy in AAP bacteria. PMID:20182527

Cottrell, Matthew T; Ras, Josephine; Kirchman, David L

2010-07-01

326

Summer community structure of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the western Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are found in a range of aquatic and terrestrial environments, potentially playing unique roles in biogeochemical cycles. Although known to occur in the Arctic Ocean, their ecology and the factors that govern their community structure and distribution in this extreme environment are poorly understood. Here, we examined summer AAP abundance and diversity in the North East Pacific and the Arctic Ocean with emphasis on the southern Beaufort Sea. AAP bacteria comprised up to 10 and 14% of the prokaryotic community in the bottom nepheloid layer and surface waters of the Mackenzie plume, respectively. However, relative AAP abundances were low in offshore waters. Environmental pufM clone libraries revealed that AAP bacteria in the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes dominated in offshore and in river-influenced surface waters, respectively. The most frequent AAP group was a new uncultivated betaproteobacterial clade whose abundance decreased along the salinity gradient of the Mackenzie plume even though its photosynthetic genes were actively expressed in offshore waters. Our data indicate that AAP bacterial assemblages represented a mixture of freshwater and marine taxa mostly restricted to the Arctic Ocean and highlight the substantial influence of riverine inputs on their distribution in coastal environments. PMID:23560623

Boeuf, Dominique; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L; Lebaron, Philippe; Jeanthon, Christian

2013-09-01

327

Characterisation of aerobically grown non-spore-forming bacteria from paper mill pulps containing recycled fibres.  

PubMed

A total of 179 non-spore-forming bacteria aerobically growing on Nutrient Agar, Plate Count Agar or in specific enrichment conditions for salmonella, campylobacteria, listeria, yersinia or staphylococci, were isolated from 16 untreated paper mill pulps. After phenotypical screening the isolates were characterised by automated ribotyping and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. They could be divided into seven taxonomical classes representing 63 taxa (species): actinobacteria (11 species), bacilli (7), flavobacteria (3) alphaproteobacteria (10), betaproteobacteria (5), gammaproteobacteria (25) and sphingobacteria (2). Most of the gammaproteobacteria were enterobacteria, mainly species of the genera Enterobacter (7 species, 7 samples/3 mills) and Klebsiella (5 species, 6 samples/3 mills). Other commonly occurring bacteria were most closely related to Microbacterium barkeri (7 samples/3 mills), Cloacibacterium normanense (6 samples/2 mills), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis (5 samples/2 mills) and Sphingobacterium composti (5 samples/1 mill). Sporadic isolates of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus warneri were detected, from which only L. monocytogenes is considered to be a food pathogen. No isolates of the genera Campylobacter, Salmonella or Yersinia were detected. The detected bacteria may be harmful in process control, but the load of food pathogens with recycled fibres to paper machines is insignificant. Faecal contamination of the pulp samples was not indicated. PMID:18820960

Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Skyttä, Eija

2009-01-01

328

Vertical distribution and characterization of aerobic phototrophic bacteria at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of culturable anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was investigated at five sites at or near the Juan\\u000a de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Twelve similar strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria were isolated in pure\\u000a culture, from depths ranging from 500 to 2,379 m below the surface. These strains appear morphologically, physiologically,\\u000a biochemically, and phylogenetically similar to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum

Christopher Rathgeber; Michael T. Lince; Jean Alric; Andrew S. Lang; Elaine Humphrey; Robert E. Blankenship; André Verméglio; F. Gerald Plumley; Cindy L. Van Dover; J. Thomas Beatty; Vladimir Yurkov

2008-01-01

329

Growth and Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during and after Malolactic Fermentation of Wines at Different pH  

PubMed Central

Commercially produced red wines were adjusted to pH 3.0, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7, or 4.0 and examined during and after malolactic fermentation for growth of lactic acid bacteria and changes in the concentrations of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and acetaldehyde. With one exception, Leuconostoc oenos conducted the malolactic fermentation in all wines and was the only species to occur in wines at pH below 3.5. Malolactic fermentation by L. oenos was accompanied by degradation of malic, citric, and fumaric acids and production of lactic and acetic acids. The concentrations of arginine, histidine, and acetaldehyde also decreased at this stage, but the behavior of hexose and pentose sugars was complicated by other factors. Pediococcus parvulus conducted the malolactic fermentation in one wine containing 72 mg of total sulfur dioxide per liter. Fumaric and citric acids were not degraded during this malolactic fermentation, but hexose sugars were metabolized. P. parvulus and species of Lactobacillus grew after malolactic fermentation in wines with pH adjusted above 3.5. This growth was accompanied by the utilization of wine sugars and production of lactic and acetic acids.

Davis, C. R.; Wibowo, D. J.; Lee, T. H.; Fleet, G. H.

1986-01-01

330

Anaerobic and aerobic skin bacteria before and after skin-disinfection with chlorhexidine: an experimental study in volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount, composition, and localization of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in the normal skin before and after disinfection were the subject of a volunteer study. The superficial bacterial flora were sampled by velvet pad imprints, and the deep flora were determined from whole skin biopsies. Only one anaerobic species, Propionebacterium acnes, was encountered even though other and more strict anaerobic

M L Nielsen; D Raahave; J G Stage; T Justesen

1975-01-01

331

Potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from specific natural niches in food production and preservation.  

PubMed

Autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been isolated from traditionally homemade cheeses collected from specific ecological localities across Serbia and Montenegro. Genetic and biochemical analysis of this LAB revealed that they produce bacteriocins, proteinases and exopolysaccharides. LAB produces a variety of antimicrobial substances with potential importance for food fermentation and preservation. Apart from the metabolic end products, some strains also secrete antimicrobial substances known as bacteriocins. Among the natural isolates of LAB from homemade cheeses, bacteriocin producers were found in both lactococci and lactobacilli. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGMN1-5 was found to produce three narrow spectrum class II heat-stable bacteriocins. In addition to bacteriocin production, BGMN1-5 synthesized a cell envelope-associated proteinase (CEP) and shows an aggregation phenotype. Another isolate, L. lactis subsp. lactis BGSM1-19 produces low molecular mass (7 kDa) bacteriocin SM19 that showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus and partially against Salmonella paratyphi. Production of bacteriocin reaches a plateau after 8 h of BGSM1-19 growth. Bacteriocin SM19 retained activity within the wide pH range from 1 to 12 and after the treatment at 100 degrees C for 15 min. Among collection of lactobacilli, the isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 produces heat-stable bacteriocin SJ (approx. 5 kDa) polypeptide. It retained activity after treatment for 1 h at 100 degrees C, and in the pH range from 2 to 11. In addition to isolates from cheeses, bacteriocin-producing human oral lactobacilli were detected. Most of them showed antimicrobial activity against streptococci, staphylococci and micrococci, but not against Candida. Isolate BGHO1 that showed the highest antimicrobial activity was determined as L. paracasei. Interestingly, Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43, which was isolated from the human intestine showed strong activity against Clostridium sporogenes, but it was not possible to detect any bacteriocin production in this isolate by using standard procedures. Further analysis of antimicrobial activity revealed that BGRA43 has a relatively broad spectrum. Lactobacilli resistant to nisin were also detected among natural isolates. They produce bacteriocins, which have no activity against nisin producing lactococci. PMID:16764959

Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Kojic, Milan; Fira, Djordje; Golic, Natasa; Strahinic, Ivana; Lozo, Jelena

2006-12-01

332

Extension of Tosèla cheese shelf-life using non-starter lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Six strains of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were used to extend the shelf-life of the fresh cheese Tosèla manufactured with pasteurised cows' milk. The acidification kinetics of three Lactobacillus paracasei, one Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Streptococcus macedonicus were studied in synthetic milk medium. Lb. paracasei NdP78 and NdP88 and S. macedonicus NdP1 and PB14-1 showed an interesting acidifying capacity and were further characterised for growth in UHT milk and production of antimicrobial compounds. Lb. paracasei NdP78 and S. macedonicus NdP1 grew more than 2 log cycles in 6 h. Lb. paracasei NdP78 was also found to produce a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) active against Listeria monocytogenes. The four NSLAB strains (singly or in combination) were used to produce experimental pilot-scale cheeses which were compared by a panel. The cheese manufactured with the mixed culture Lb. paracasei NdP78 - S. macedonicus NdP1 was the most appreciated for its sensory properties. The cheeses produced at factory-scale showed higher concentrations of lactobacilli (7.90 log CFU/g) and streptococci (6.10 log CFU/g), but a lower development of coliforms (3.10 log CFU/g) and staphylococci (2.78 log CFU/g) than control cheese (4.86, 4.89, 4.93 and 5.00 log CFU/g of lactobacilli, streptococci, coliforms and staphylococci, respectively) processed without NSLAB addition. The food pathogens Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected. The dominance of the species inoculated was demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), whereas strain recognition was evaluated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. From the results obtained, Lb. paracasei NdP78 and S. macedonicus NdP1 were able to persist during the storage of Tosèla cheese and their combination influenced positively the sensory characteristics and shelf-life of the final product. PMID:21569930

Settanni, Luca; Franciosi, Elena; Cavazza, Agostino; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Poznanski, Elisa

2011-08-01

333

Regulation of beta-galactoside transport and accumulation in heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Galactose-grown cells of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus buchneri transported methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (TMG) by an active transport mechanism and accumulated intracellular free TMG when provided with an exogenous source of energy, such as arginine. The intracellular concentration of TMG resultant under these conditions was approximately 20-fold higher than that in the medium. In contrast, the provision of energy by metabolism of glucose, gluconate, or glucosamine promoted a rapid but transient uptake of TMG followed by efflux that established a low cellular concentration of the galactoside, i.e., only two- to fourfold higher than that in the medium. Furthermore, the addition of glucose to cells preloaded with TMG in the presence of arginine elicited a rapid efflux of the intracellular galactoside. The extent of cellular TMG displacement and the duration of the transient effect of glucose on TMG transport were related to the initial concentration of glucose in the medium. Exhaustion of glucose from the medium restored uptake and accumulation of TMG, providing arginine was available for ATP generation. The nonmetabolizable sugar 2-deoxyglucose elicited efflux of TMG from preloaded cells of L. buchneri but not from those of L. brevis. Phosphorylation of this glucose analog was catalyzed by cell extracts of L. buchneri but not by those of L. brevis. Iodoacetate, at a concentration that inhibits growth and ATP production from glucose, did not prevent efflux of cellular TMG elicited by glucose. The results suggested that a phosphorylated metabolite(s) at or above the level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate was required to evoke displacement of intracellular TMG from the cells. Counterflow experiments suggested that glucose converted the active uptake of TMG in L. brevis to a facilitated diffusion mechanism that allowed equilibrium of TMG between the extra- and intracellular milieux. The means by which glucose metabolites elicited this vectorial regulation is not known, but similarities to the inducer expulsion that has been described for homofermentative Streptococcus and Lactobacillus species suggested the involvement of HPr, a protein that functions as a phosphocarrier protein in the phosphotransferase system, as well as a presumptive regulator of sugar transport. Indeed, complementation assays wit extracts of Staphylococcus aureus ptsH mutant revealed the presence of HPr in L. brevis, although this lactobacillus lacked a functional phaosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphortransferase system for glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, or TMG.

Romano, A H; Brino, G; Peterkofsky, A; Reizer, J

1987-01-01

334

Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria attenuate the proinflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a physiological response to infections and tissue injury; however, abnormal immune responses can give rise to chronic inflammation and contribute to disease progression. Various dietary components, including probiotic lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics, have the potential to modulate intestinal inflammatory responses. One factor in particular, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL-8), is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate modulation of the inflammatory host response induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in the presence of selected probiotics and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from human sources, dairy products, and farm animals. IL-8 gene expression and protein production in HT-29 cells were evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Pre-incubation of HT-29 cells with Lactobacillus kefir IM002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis FRP 61, Bifidobacterium longum FRP 68 and FRP 69, Bifidobacterium breve FRP 334, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IM080 significantly inhibited IL-8 secretion induced by Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. Co-culture of selected probiotics and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 reduced IL-8 production, while potential probiotics and LAB had no effect on IL-8 secretion in HT-29 cells preincubated with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 prior to adding probiotics. Lactobacillus kefir IM002 supernatant also significantly reduced IL-8 production. In conclusion, our study suggests that probiotic bifidobacteria and LAB modulate cytokine induction and possess anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effectiveness is strain dependent. PMID:23391223

Carey, Christine M; Kostrzynska, Magdalena

2013-01-01

335

In Situ Production of Exopolysaccharides during Sourdough Fermentation by Cereal and Intestinal Isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

EPS formed by lactobacilli in situ during sourdough fermentation may replace hydrocolloids currently used as texturizing, antistaling, or prebiotic additives in bread production. In this study, a screening of >100 strains of cereal-associated and intestinal lactic acid bacteria was performed for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose. Fifteen strains produced fructan, and four strains produced glucan. It was remarkable that formation of glucan and fructan was most frequently found in intestinal isolates and strains of the species Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus pontis, and Lactobacillus frumenti from type II sourdoughs. By the use of PCR primers derived from conserved amino acid sequences of bacterial levansucrase genes, it was shown that 6 of the 15 fructan-producing lactobacilli and none of 20 glucan producers or EPS-negative strains carried a levansucrase gene. In sourdough fermentations, it was determined whether those strains producing EPS in MRS medium modified as described by Stolz et al. (37) and containing 100 g of sucrose liter?1 as the sole source of carbon also produce the same EPS from sucrose during sourdough fermentation in the presence of 12% sucrose. For all six EPS-producing strains evaluated in sourdough fermentations, in situ production of EPS at levels ranging from 0.5 to 2 g/kg of flour was demonstrated. Production of EPS from sucrose is a metabolic activity that is widespread among sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the use of these organisms in bread production may allow the replacement of additives.

Tieking, Markus; Korakli, Maher; Ehrmann, Matthias A.; Ganzle, Michael G.; Vogel, Rudi F.

2003-01-01

336

Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Lipid Metabolism and Fat Synthesis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet  

PubMed Central

Visceral fat accumulation is a major risk factor for the development of obesity-related diseases, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Stimulation of lipolytic activity in adipose tissue or inhibition of fat synthesis is one way to prevent these serious diseases. Lactic acid bacteria have an anti-obesity effect, but the mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the administration of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus gasseri NT) on lipid metabolism and fat synthesis in a mouse high-fat-diet model, focusing on visceral fat. Balb/c mice were fed a 45?kcal% fat diet for 13 weeks with and without a freeze-dried preparation of L. gasseri NT (109 CFU/g). An ex vivo glycerol assay with periovarian fat revealed that L. gasseri NT did not stimulate lipolytic activity. However, L. gasseri NT decreased the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and its target gene fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver and decreased free fatty acid (FFA) in the blood. In conclusion, these findings indicated that administration of L. gasseri NT did not enhance lipid mobilization but can reduce fat synthesis, suggesting its potential for improving obesity-related diseases.

YONEJIMA, Yasunori; USHIDA, Kazunari; MORI, Yoshiro

2013-01-01

337

[In vitro activity of several cytostatic drugs against aerobic and anaerobic intestinal bacteria].  

PubMed

The human normal intestinal flora prevents the colonization of exogenous bacteria, maintaining a constant microecology: this property is called "colonization resistance". In leukemia patients antibiotics used for prevention and/or therapy of infectious episodes can alter the intestinal microecology, so that the gut can represent the trigger zone for generalized septicemia. Moreover cytotoxic drugs used in these patients can favour intestinal disturbances. In our study we evaluated the in vitro activity of three commonly used antineoplastic drugs (Daunorubicin, Cytosine arabinoside, Methotrexate) against aerobic and anaerobic intestinal bacteria and Clostridium difficile that is the aetiological agent of pseudomembranous colitis. Daunorubicin proved to be the most active inhibiting, in concentration ranging from 16 to 128 micrograms/ml, 50% of Bacteroides strains and 90% of Clostridium difficile and Enterococci strains tested. Methotrexate showed activity only against some Bacteroides strains, while Cytosine arabinoside had no activity at all. We conclude that in these patients the use of these drugs may represent another factor of risk altering the intestinal flora and so lowering the colonization resistance. PMID:6534396

Vetere, A; Giuliano, M; Pantosti, A; Panichi, G

1984-01-01

338

Environmental detection of octahaem cytochrome c hydroxylamine/hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial aerobic ammonium oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are important processes in the global nitrogen cycle. Key enzymes in both processes are the octahaem cytochrome c (OCC) proteins, hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which catalyses the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite, and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) of anammox bacteria, which converts hydrazine to N(2). While the genomes of AOB encode up to three nearly identical copies of hao operons, genome analysis of Candidatus'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis' showed eight highly divergent octahaem protein coding regions as possible candidates for the HZO. Based on their phylogenetic relationship and biochemical characteristics, the sequences of these eight gene products grouped in three clusters. Degenerate primers were designed on the basis of available gene sequences with the aim to detect hao and hzo genes in various ecosystems. The hao primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 738 to 1172 bp and the hzo primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 289 to 876 bp in length, when tested on genomic DNA isolated from a variety of AOB and anammox bacteria. A selection of these primer pairs was also used successfully to amplify and analyse the hao and hzo genes in community DNA isolated from different ecosystems harbouring both AOB and anammox bacteria. We propose that OCC protein-encoding genes are suitable targets for molecular ecological studies on both aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:18973625

Schmid, Markus C; Hooper, Alan B; Klotz, Martin G; Woebken, Dagmar; Lam, Phyllis; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Pommerening-Roeser, Andreas; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

2008-11-01

339

Distribution and Physiology of Aerobic Bacteria Containing Bacteriochlorophyll a on the East and West Coasts of Australia †  

PubMed Central

Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll were isolated from specimens from a wide variety of marine environments on the west (Shark Bay, Lake Clifton, Lake Heyward, and Perth) and east (near Townsville and Brisbane) coasts of Australia. The bacteria were found in a high proportion (10 to 30%) of the total heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from marine algae, seagrasses, stromatolites, the epiphytes on stromatolites, seawater, and sands; in some cases they constituted up to 49% of the total. This is much higher than the previous report of 6% from Japan. A high percentage, 13%, was also found in the seawater of Hamelin Pool, at Shark Bay, where the salinity was 66%. The number of these bacteria was generally low in seawater and sands, with a few exceptions. There were no aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria on sponges or corals. The isolated strains were orange or pink, and most had absorption maxima around 800 and 850 to 870 nm, the latter range being the absorption of bacteriochlorophyll a in vivo. The maximum bacteriochlorophyll content was 1 nmol/mg (dry weight) of bacterial cells. Most of the bacteria did not grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions in a broth medium containing succinate. Cells and cell extracts grown under aerobic conditions had photochemical activities such as reversible photooxidations of the reaction center and cytochrome(s). Some strains showed denitrifying activity. The optimal salinity for bacterial growth varied between strains.

Shiba, Tsuneo; Shioi, Yuzo; Takamiya, Ken-Ichiro; Sutton, David C.; Wilkinson, Clive R.

1991-01-01

340

Distribution of D-amino acids in vinegars and involvement of lactic acid bacteria in the production of D-amino acids.  

PubMed

Levels of free D-amino acids were compared in 11 vinegars produced from different sources or through different manufacturing processes. To analyze the D- and L-amino acids, the enantiomers were initially converted into diastereomers using pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde plus N-acethyl-L-cysteine or N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-cysteine. This was followed by separation of the resultant fluorescent isoindol derivatives on an octadecylsilyl stationary phase using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The analyses showed that the total D-amino acid level in lactic fermented tomato vinegar was very high. Furthermore, analysis of the amino acids in tomato juice samples collected after alcoholic, lactic and acetic fermentation during the production of lactic fermented tomato vinegar showed clearly that lactic fermentation is responsible for the D-amino acids production; marked increases in D-amino acids were seen during lactic fermentation, but not during alcoholic or acetic fermentation. This suggests lactic acid bacteria have a greater ability to produce D-amino acids than yeast or acetic acid bacteria. PMID:24422181

Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Akano, Hirofumi; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2013-01-01

341

Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana.  

PubMed

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as "Weissella ghanaensis," was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter ghanaensis" (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-03-01

342

Rapid High-Throughput Assessment of Aerobic Bacteria in Complex Samples by Fluorescence-Based Oxygen Respirometry  

PubMed Central

A simple method has been developed for the analysis of aerobic bacteria in complex samples such as broth and food homogenates. It employs commercial phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes to monitor oxygen consumption of samples containing bacteria using standard microtiter plates and fluorescence plate readers. As bacteria grow in aqueous medium, at certain points they begin to deplete dissolved oxygen, which is seen as an increase in probe fluorescence above baseline signal. The time required to reach threshold signal is used to either enumerate bacteria based on a predetermined calibration or to assess the effects of various effectors on the growth of test bacteria by comparison with an untreated control. This method allows for the sensitive (down to a single cell), rapid (0.5 to 12 h) enumeration of aerobic bacteria without the need to conduct lengthy (48 to 72 h) and tedious colony counts on agar plates. It also allows for screening a wide range of chemical and environmental samples for their toxicity. These assays have been validated with different bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, with the enumeration of total viable counts in broth and industrial food samples (packaged ham, chicken, and mince meat), and comparison with established agar plating and optical-density-at-600-nm assays has been given.

O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

2006-01-01

343

Growth/no growth models describing the influence of pH, lactic and acetic acid on lactic acid bacteria developed to determine the stability of acidified sauces.  

PubMed

Growth/no growth models were developed for two spoilage bacteria typical for acidified sauces, L. plantarum and L. fructivorans. Influencing factors embedded in the model are also those typically encountered in these acidified sauces. The pH was varied between 3.0 and 5.0 (5 levels), and the acetic and lactic acid concentration ranged from 0 to 3% (6 levels). Modified MRS broth was inoculated at a high inoculation level (10(6) CFU/ml), incubated at 30 degrees C and growth was assessed by optical density measurements. All combinations of environmental conditions were tested in twelvefold yielding precise values for the probability of growth. Data were modelled by means of ordinary logistic regression. A comparison was made between a model containing the total acid concentrations as explanatory variables, on the one hand, and a model differentiating between the dissociated and undissociated concentrations, on the other hand. Results showed that (i) L. plantarum and L. fructivorans behave differently, resulting in a clearly distinct growth/no growth interface, (ii) there was no great difference between the established models with different explanatory variables, (iii) in some cases, growth/no growth boundaries at very low probabilities (which are more practical in industry) show illogical behaviour. The results of this study were also compared with the CIMSCEE code, which is often used by food producers to determine the stability of their acidified food products. PMID:17868939

Vermeulen, A; Devlieghere, F; Bernaerts, K; Van Impe, J; Debevere, J

2007-11-01

344

Analyses of Spatial Distributions of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activity in Aerobic Wastewater Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O2, H2S, NO2?, NO3?, NH4+, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 109 to 1010 cells per cm3 of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 ?m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S0) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 ?m), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-01-01

345

Isolation of Optically Targeted Single Bacteria by Application of Fluidic Force Microscopy to Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs from the Phyllosphere  

PubMed Central

In their natural environment, bacteria often behave differently than they do under laboratory conditions. To gain insight into the physiology of bacteria in situ, dedicated approaches are required to monitor their adaptations and specific behaviors under environmental conditions. Optical microscopy is crucial for the observation of fundamental characteristics of bacteria, such as cell shape, size, and marker gene expression. Here, fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) was exploited to isolate optically selected bacteria for subsequent identification and characterization. In this study, bacteriochlorophyll-producing bacteria, which can be visualized due to their characteristic fluorescence in the infrared range, were isolated from leaf washes. Bacterial communities from the phyllosphere were investigated because they harbor genes indicative of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Our data show that different species of Methylobacterium express their photosystem in planta, and they show a distinct pattern of bacteriochlorophyll production under laboratory conditions that is dependent on supplied carbon sources.

Stiefel, Philipp; Zambelli, Tomaso

2013-01-01

346

A Study on the Prevention of Salmonella Infection by Using the Aggregation Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is one of the major pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning. This study investigated whether heat-killed as well as live Lactobacillus protects host animal against Salmonella infection. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillusacidophilus was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks before the rats were inoculated with Salmonella. Rise in body temperature was moderate in the group that was treated with heat-killed bacteria as compared to the Salmonella control group. The mean amount of feed intake and water consumption of each rat in the heat-killed bacteria group were nearly normal. The number of fecal Salmonellae was comparable between the live and the heat-killed L. acidophilus groups. This finding shows that L. acidophilus facilitates the excretion of Salmonella. Moreover, the levels of pro inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, in the heat-killed L. acidophilus group were significantly lower when compared to the levels in the Salmonella control group. These results indicate that nonviable lactic acid bacteria also could play an important role in preventing infections by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella.

Kim, Min-Soo; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Lee, Hyun-Gi; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

2013-01-01

347

Use of a starter culture of lactic acid bacteria in plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish.  

PubMed

Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish prepared from freshwater fish and various ingredients. In this study, two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from natural plaa-som fermentation were used as starter cultures: Lactobacillus plantarum IFRPD P15 and Lactobacillus reuteri IFRPD P17. These strains were used as a mixed starter culture for plaa-som using an air-drying method (laminar airflow) with sterilized rice grains as the filler. This method produced a suitable starter culture, which was maintained at 4 °C for more than 20 weeks. LAB were the dominant bacteria in the starter culture and produced high acidity from 24h until the end of fermentation. This resulted in decreased pH in plaa-som. L. plantarum IFRPD P15 was dominant as an acidity producer, whereas L. reuteri IFRPD P17 showed an ability to suppress and eliminate pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli within 24h. The use of a single starter culture for plaa-som resulted in incomplete suppression of pathogenic bacteria and elimination of E. coli. Thus, L. plantarum IFRPD P15 and L. reuteri IFRPD P17 have great potential for use as a mixed starter culture in plaa-som fermentation and may possibly help to reduce fermentation time. PMID:20609623

Saithong, Pramuan; Panthavee, Wanchai; Boonyaratanakornkit, Malai; Sikkhamondhol, Chomdao

2010-11-01

348

Species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Background Mother’s milk is a source of bacteria that influences the development of the infant commensal gut microbiota. To date, the species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of non-human primates have not been described. Methods Milk samples were aseptically obtained from 54 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at peak lactation. Following GM17 and MRS agar plating, single bacterial colonies were isolated based on difference in morphotypes, then grouped based on whole-cell protein profiles on SDS–PAGE. Bacterial DNA was isolated and the sequence the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed. Results A total of 106 strains of 19 distinct bacterial species, belonging to five genera, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Streptococcus, were identified. Conclusions Maternal gut and oral commensal bacteria may be translocated to the mammary gland during lactation and present in milk. This pathway can be an important source of commensal bacteria to the infant gut and oral cavity.

Jin, L.; Hinde, K.; Tao, L.

2013-01-01

349

Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to Abiotrophia/Granulicatella. Results As lactobacilli are known for notorious resistance to probe penetration, probe-specific assay protocols were experimentally developed to provide maximum cell wall permeability, probe accessibility, hybridization stringency, and fluorescence intensity. The new assays were then applied in a pilot study to three biofilm samples harvested from variably demineralized bovine enamel discs that had been carried in situ for 10 days by different volunteers. Best probe penetration and fluorescent labeling of reference strains were obtained after combined lysozyme and achromopeptidase treatment followed by exposure to lipase. Hybridization stringency had to be established strictly for each probe. Thereafter all probes showed the expected specificity with reference strains and labeled the anticipated morphotypes in dental plaques. Applied to in situ grown biofilms the set of probes detected only Lactobacillus fermentum and bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group. The most cariogenic biofilm contained two orders of magnitude higher L. fermentum cell numbers than the other biofilms. Abiotrophia/Granulicatella and streptococci from the mitis group were found in all samples at high levels, whereas Streptococcus mutans was detected in only one sample in very low numbers. Conclusions Application of these new group- and species-specific FISH probes to oral biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria will allow a clearer understanding of the supragingival biome, its spatial architecture and of structure-function relationships implicated during plaque homeostasis and caries development. The probes should prove of value far beyond the field of oral microbiology, as many of them detect non-oral species and phylogenetic groups of importance in a variety of medical conditions and the food industry.

2011-01-01

350

Influence of Vaginal Bacteria and d- and l-Lactic Acid Isomers on Vaginal Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer: Implications for Protection against Upper Genital Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We evaluated levels of vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) in vaginal secretions in relation to the composition of vaginal bacterial communities and d- and l-lactic acid levels. The composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 46 women was determined by pyrosequencing the V1 to V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Lactobacilli were dominant in 71.3% of the women, followed by Gardnerella (17.4%), Streptococcus (8.7%), and Enterococcus (2.2%). Of the lactobacillus-dominated communities, 51.5% were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, 36.4% by Lactobacillus iners, and 6.1% each by Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii. Concentrations of l-lactic acid were slightly higher in lactobacillus-dominated vaginal samples, but most differences were not statistically significant. d-Lactic acid levels were higher in samples containing L. crispatus than in those with L. iners (P < 0.0001) or Gardnerella (P = 0.0002). The relative proportion of d-lactic acid in vaginal communities dominated by species of lactobacilli was in concordance with the proportions found in axenic cultures of the various species grown in vitro. Levels of l-lactic acid (P < 0.0001) and the ratio of l-lactic acid to d-lactic acid (P = 0.0060), but not concentrations of d-lactic acid, were also correlated with EMMPRIN concentrations. Moreover, vaginal concentrations of EMMPRIN and MMP-8 levels were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). Taken together, the data suggest the relative proportion of l- to d-lactic acid isomers in the vagina may influence the extent of local EMMPRIN production and subsequent induction of MMP-8. The expression of these proteins may help determine the ability of bacteria to transverse the cervix and initiate upper genital tract infections.

Witkin, Steven S.; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Linhares, Iara M.; Jayaram, Aswathi; Ledger, William J.; Forney, Larry J.

2013-01-01

351

Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and food production for human thus rely on local Martian resources. A tree growing subsystem will also give an interesting feature to Martian agriculture. In addition to producing excess oxygen, trees’ rigid body will provide structural material, which can be used for habitat construction. The combination of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting, plant cultivation, and tree growing with utilizing in-situ natural local resources available on Mars can provide important elements which can enable space agriculture on Mars.

Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

352

Effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL) was assayed for antifungal activities against Rosellinia necatrix, Helicobasidium mompa, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium graminicola and Pyricularia oryzae. FHL completely inhibited the growth of R. necatrix, H. mompa, P. graminicola and P. oryzae, and reduced the growth of F. oxysporum by 35%. When the seeds of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), Asparagus

Shinsuke Kuwaki; Iichiro Ohhira; Masumi Takahata; Atsuko Hirota; Yoshiyuki Murata; Mikiro Tada

2004-01-01

353

Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from stool samples of longevous people in regions of Hotan, Xinjiang and Bama, Guangxi, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 567 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from the stool samples of longevous people in regions of Hotan, Xinjiang and Bama, Guangxi, China. In order to reduce the number of strains for further examinations, 36 isolates were screened out for further examination whilst the other strains, which had lower probiotic properties, were not suitable for yogurt

Rui-Xia Gu; Zhen-Quan Yang; Zheng-Hua Li; Shun-Li Chen; Zhen-Lan Luo

2008-01-01

354

Characterization of Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria from Italian Ewe Cheeses Based on Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Cell Wall Protein Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were isolated from 12 Italian ewe cheeses representing six different types of cheese, which in several cases were produced by different manufacturers. A total of 400 presumptive Lactobacillus isolates were obtained, and 123 isolates and 10 type strains were subjected to phenotypic, genetic, and cell wall protein characterization analyses. Phenotypically, the cheese isolates included 32%

M. De Angelis; A. Corsetti; N. Tosti; J. Rossi; M. R. Corbo; M. Gobbetti

2001-01-01

355

Characterization of starch-hydrolyzing lactic acid bacteria isolated from a fermented fish and rice food, “burong isda”, and its amylolytic enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine strains of lactic acid bacteria that hydrolyze starch were isolated from burong isda, an indigenous fermented food made from fish and rice in the Philippines. Conventional taxonomic and DNA-DNA reassociation studies indicated that all these isolates belong to Lactobacillus plantarum. Each of these isolates harbored more than ten plasmid species with molecular sizes of 2 to 60 kb. The

Minerva Olympia; Hajime Fukuda; Hisayo Ono; Yoshinobu Kaneko; Mitsuo Takano

1995-01-01

356

The Effect of Reduced Salt Content and Addition of Halophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria on Quality and Composition of Fish Sauce Made from Sprat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fish sauce samples, three of each containing about 23 and 20% (w\\/w) salt, were made from sprat (Sprattus sprattus) caught in the North Sea. The effects of different salt concentrations and addition of a halophilic lactic acid bacteria (Tetragenococcus halophilus) on autolysis, chemical composition and organoleptic quality were studied. Both autolytic and microbial activity were highest at the lowest

Asbjorn Gildberg; Chaufah Thongthai

2001-01-01

357

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on

Kris Audenaert; Klaas D'Haene; Kathy Messens; Tony Ruyssen; Peter Vandamme; Geert Huys

2010-01-01

358

Identification and enzymatic profiles of the predominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from soft?variety Chhurpi, a traditional cheese typical of the Sikkim Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report on the microbial population and predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of two soft?varieties (mild and strong flavoured) of chhurpi., a traditional cheese product of the Sikkim Himalayas. The enzymatic profiles and percentage hydrophobicity (as one criterion of potential adhesion capability) of the predominant LAB were also studied. The LAB, yeasts and viable mesophilic microbial

J. P. Tamang; S. Dewan; S. Thapa; N. A. Olasupo; U. Schillinger; A. Wijaya; W. H. Holzapfel

2000-01-01

359

Selection Procedure for Obtaining Naturally Occuring Lactic Acid Bacteria or Their Mutants Which Do or Do Not Produce Carbon Dioxide from Malic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to the use of microbial cultures in the food processing industry. The invention consists of a bacterial growth medium which allows for the growth and differentiation of lactic acid bacteria that lack the ability to produce carbon di...

M. Daeschel R. McFeeters H. Fleming T. Klaenhammer R. Sanozky

1983-01-01

360

LAB-Secretome: a genome-scale comparative analysis of the predicted extracellular and surface-associated proteins of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), the extracellular and surface-associated proteins can be involved in processes such as cell wall metabolism, degradation and uptake of nutrients, communication and binding to substrates or hosts. A genome-scale comparative study of these proteins (secretomes) can provide vast information towards the understanding of the molecular evolution, diversity, function and adaptation of LAB to their

Miaomiao Zhou; Daniel Theunissen; Michiel Wels; Roland J Siezen

2010-01-01

361

Effect of storage temperature and gas permeability of packaging film on the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked meat emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gas permeability of packaging film on the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked meat emulsions stored at 0, 8 and 15°C was investigated. The estimated parameters from Gompertz equation for the assayed temperature–oxygen permeability combinations showed LAB development to be significantly greater than those of B. thermosphacta. The influence of the two sources

M. E. Cayré; O. Garro; G. Vignolo

2005-01-01

362

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Greek dry-fermented sausage in respect of their technological and probiotic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 147 lactic acid bacteria was isolated from two types of naturally fermented dry sausages at four different stages of the ripening process studied in order to select the most suitable strains according to their technological characteristics including probiotic properties and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens. Identification of the isolates revealed that 90% were lactobacilli, 4% enterococci, 3%

E. Papamanoli; N. Tzanetakis; E. Litopoulou-Tzanetaki; P. Kotzekidou

2003-01-01

363

Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria and yeast-LAB cultures isolated from traditional fermented milk against pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival and growth of Escherichia coli 3339 and Salmonella enteritidis 949575 isolated from human clinical samples, in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains previously isolated from Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk (NFM) was studied. The LAB starter cultures used were Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis C1 alone (C1) or in combination with Candida kefyr 23

J. Mufandaedza; B. C. Viljoen; S. B. Feresu; T. H. Gadaga

2006-01-01

364

Screening and Identification of Effective Thermotolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Antimicrobial Activity Against Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Resistant to Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred fifty six isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) displaying antimicrobial activity were isolated from chicken intestine. Twenty effective isolates of LAB show bacteriocin - like activity (BLA) against the target strains resistant to antibiotics ( Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.) to varying degrees. Broad spectrum inhibition specific (SIS) were found from 6 h cultivation while the longer cultivation

Sunee Nitisinprasert; Veeraphol Nilphai; Phunjai Bunyun; Prakit Sukyai; Katsumi Doi; Kenji Sonomoto

365

Organic Osmolytes in Aerobic Bacteria from Mono Lake, an Alkaline, Moderately Hypersaline Environment  

PubMed Central

The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, Calif., an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress.

Ciulla, R. A.; Diaz, M. R.; Taylor, B. F.; Roberts, M. F.

1997-01-01

366

Interactions of nisin and perdiocin PA1 with closely related lactic acid bacteria that manifest over hundred-fold differences in bacteriocin sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural variation in the susceptibilities of gram-positive bacteria towards the bacteriocins nisin and pediocin PA-1 is considerable. This study addresses the factors associated with this variability for closely related lactic acid bacteria. We compared two sets of nonbacteriocinogenic strains for which the MICs of nisin and pediocin PA-1 differed 100- to 1,000-fold: Lactobacillus sake DSM20017 and L. sake DSM20497

MARJON H. J. BENNIK; ANNETTE VERHEUL; TJAKKO ABEE; GEESJE NAAKTGEBOREN-STOFFELS; LEON G. M. GORRIS; EDDY J. SMID

1997-01-01

367

Production of Wax Esters during Aerobic Growth of Marine Bacteria on Isoprenoid Compounds  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the production of isoprenoid wax esters during the aerobic degradation of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and phytol by four bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain PHY9, Pseudomonas nautica [IP85/617], Marinobacter sp. strain CAB [DSMZ 11874], and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus [ATCC 49840]) isolated from the marine environment. Different pathways are proposed to explain the formation of these compounds. In the case of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, these esters result from the condensation of some acidic and alcoholic metabolites produced during the biodegradation, while phytol constitutes the alcohol moiety of most of the esters produced during growth on this isoprenoid alcohol. The amount of these esters formed increased considerably in N-limited cultures, in which the ammonium concentration corresponds to conditions often found in marine sediments. This suggests that the bacterial formation of isoprenoid wax esters might be favored in such environments. Although conflicting evidence exists regarding the stability of these esters in sediments, it seems likely that, under some conditions, bacterial esterification can enhance the preservation potential of labile compounds such as phytol.

Rontani, Jean-Francois; Bonin, Patricia C.; Volkman, John K.

1999-01-01

368

Physiological characterization of aerobic culturable bacteria in the intestine of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Various aerobic culturable bacteria (1,133 isolates) were isolated from the gut of Apostichopus japonicus (black adult, green adult, black small, green small, black juvenile, and green juvenile sea cucumbers) and from the sea sediment and the seawater using different culture conditions and without enrichment culture. By molecular analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 231 isolates, they were tentatively affiliated with 53 described species in the phyla Firmicutes (42 species), Proteobacteria (9 species) and Actinobacteria (2 species). Eighteen species were often found among the intestines and the sea sediment. High diversity was observed in the genus Bacillus (20 species), Oceanobacillus and Virgibaillus but there were no isolates affiliated to members of the genus Vibrio, well-known sea pathogens. There were no clear differences in the bacterial communities among the hosts varied in size and color. Most isolates showed various polysaccharide degradation activities, suggesting their possible contributions in the digestion of organic matters in the gut. PMID:23518513

Zhang, Xiaochi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Murase, Shinji; Nakata, Hideaki; Inoue, Tetsushi; Kudo, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

369

Cultivation of aerobic chemoorganotrophic proteobacteria and gram-positive bacteria from a hot spring microbial mat.  

PubMed

The diversity of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria inhabiting the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat community (Yellowstone National Park) was examined by using serial-dilution enrichment culture and a variety of enrichment conditions to cultivate the numerically significant microbial populations. The most abundant bacterial populations cultivated from dilutions to extinction were obtained from enrichment flasks which contained 9.0 x 10(2) primary producer (Synechococcus spp.) cells in the inoculum. Two isolates exhibited 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences typical of beta-proteobacteria. One of these isolates contained a 16S rRNA sequence identical to a sequence type previously observed in the mat by molecular retrieval techniques. Both are distantly related to a new sequence directly retrieved from the mat and contributed by a beta-proteobacterial community member. Phenotypically diverse gram-positive isolates genetically similar to Bacillus flavothermus were obtained from a variety of dilutions and enrichment types. These isolates exhibited identical 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences through a variable region of the molecule. Of the three unique sequences observed, only one had been previously retrieved from the mat, illustrating both the inability of the cultivation methods to describe the composition of a microbial community and the limitations of the ability of molecular retrieval techniques to describe populations which may be less abundant in microbial communities. PMID:8899976

Nold, S C; Kopczynski, E D; Ward, D M

1996-11-01

370

Halotolerant aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.  

PubMed

The Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR) near Cherokee, Oklahoma, contains a barren salt flat where Permian brine rises to the surface and evaporates under dry conditions to leave a crust of white salt. Rainfall events dissolve the salt crust and create ephemeral streams and ponds. The rapidly changing salinity and high surface temperatures, salinity, and UV exposure make this an extreme environment. The Salt Plains Microbial Observatory (SPMO) examined the soil microbial community of this habitat using classic enrichment and isolation techniques and phylogenetic rDNA studies. Rich growth media have been emphasized that differ in total salt concentration and composition. Aerobic heterotrophic enrichments were performed under a variety of conditions. Heterotrophic enrichments and dilution plates have generated 105 bacterial isolates, representing 46 phylotypes. The bacterial isolates have been characterized phenotypically and subjected to rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Fast-growing isolates obtained from enrichments with 10% salt are predominantly from the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria and from the low GC Gram-positive cluster. Several different areas on the salt flats have yielded a variety of isolates from the Gram-negative genera Halomonas, Idiomarina, Salinivibrio, and Bacteroidetes. Gram-positive bacteria are well represented in the culture collection including members of the Bacillus, Salibacillus, Oceanobacillus, and Halobacillus. PMID:15696379

Caton, T M; Witte, L R; Ngyuen, H D; Buchheim, J A; Buchheim, M A; Schneegurt, M A

2004-11-01

371

Microbiology of Cheese Lactic Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO publication on microbiology of cheese lactic acid fermentation - covers (1) ecology and classification of the lactic acid microorganisms involved in cheese production (2) the properties of such bacteria; their role in cheese-making (3) growth condit...

J. L. Bergere

1985-01-01

372

The Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Milk Products on Carrageenan-induced Tail Thrombosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean milk products (FS-LAB) inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of FS-LAB against thrombosis has yet to be investigated. In this study, FS-LAB were administered subcutaneously into the tails of rats, with the subsequent intravenous administration of ?-carrageenan 12 hr after the initial injection. In general, administration of ?-carrageenan induces thrombosis. The length of the infarcted tail regions was significantly shorter in the rats administered a single-fold or double-fold concentration of the FS-LAB solution compared with the region in control rats. Therefore, FS-LAB exhibited significant antithrombotic effects. Our study is the first to characterize the properties of FS-LAB and, by testing their efficacy on an in vivo rat model of thrombosis, demonstrate the potency of their antithrombotic effect.

KAMIYA, Seitaro; OGASAWARA, Masayoshi; ARAKAWA, Masayuki; HAGIMORI, Masayori

2013-01-01

373

Phenotypic and genotypic identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented bamboo tender shoots of North East India.  

PubMed

Mesu, soidon, soibum and soijim are ethnic fermented bamboo tender shoot products prepared by the people in North East India. Microbiological analysis of mesu, soidon, soibum and soijim showed the population dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranging up to 10(8) cfu g(-1). The phenotypic characterisation of predominant LAB isolated from the fermented bamboo shoot products was based on general morphology, physiological tests, API and Biolog systems. The genotypic characterisation of LAB was based on RAPD-PCR, rep PCR, species-specific PCR techniques, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridisation. Predominant functional LAB strains associated with the fermented bamboo shoot products were identified as Lactobacillus brevis, Lb. plantarum, Lb. curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Leuc. fallax, Leuc. lactis, Leuc. citreum and Enterococcus durans. PMID:18036695

Tamang, Buddhiman; Tamang, Jyoti P; Schillinger, Ulrich; Franz, Charles M A P; Gores, Michael; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

2008-01-15

374

A review of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria used as bioprotective cultures in fresh meat produced in Argentina.  

PubMed

Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with meat products are important natural bacteriocin producers. Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antagonistic substances that are important in the control of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The use of LAB as bioprotective cultures to extend the shelf life of fresh meat can improve microbial stability and safety in commercial meat preservation. Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 used as a protective culture in fresh beef is effective in inhibiting Listeria innocua and Brochothrix thermosphacta as well as the indigenous contaminant LAB, retaining its inhibitory effect at low temperatures and having a negligible effect on meat pH. In addition to the hurdle represented by low temperature and vacuum-packaging, the use of live cells of Lb. curvatus CRL705 seems more feasible from an economic point of view - and without legal restrictions - compared to the addition of purified bacteriocins. A description of meat-borne bacteriocins and their application in meat to extend shelf life is discussed. PMID:22062909

Castellano, P; Belfiore, C; Fadda, S; Vignolo, G

2008-07-01

375

Role of lactic acid bacteria during meat conditioning and fermentation: peptides generated as sensorial and hygienic biomarkers.  

PubMed

The microbial ecology of meat fermentation is a complex process in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative cocci play a major role. The present work reviews the most significant developments in which LAB are the main characters acting both as starter cultures improving the sensorial quality and as biopreservative agents. New findings about the identification of low molecular weight peptides arisen from protein hydrolysis in dry fermented sausages and their relation with flavor is presented. Also, a brief description of a proteomic approach is detailed in order to exemplify its application as a tool in the search for improved LAB strains that will contribute to food quality and safety. Finally, the most important features of bacteriocinogenic LAB and its bacteriocins in bioprotection of meat and meat products are analyzed. PMID:20619799

Fadda, Silvina; López, Constanza; Vignolo, Graciela

2010-09-01

376

Variations in the energy metabolism of biotechnologically relevant heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during growth on sugars and organic acids.  

PubMed

Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, and Lactobacillus strains ferment pentoses by the phosphoketolase pathway. The extra NAD(P)H, which is produced during growth on hexoses, is transferred to acetyl-CoA, yielding ethanol. Ethanol fermentation represents the limiting step in hexose fermentation, therefore, part of the extra NAD(P)H is used to produce erythritol and glycerol. Fructose, pyruvate, citrate, and O2 can be used in addition as external electron acceptors for NAD(P)H reoxidation. Use of the external acceptors increases the growth rate of the bacteria. The bacteria are also able to ferment organic acids like malate, pyruvate, and citrate. Malolactic fermentation generates a proton potential by substrate transport. Pyruvate fermentation sustains growth by pyruvate disproportionation involving pyruvate dehydrogenase. Citrate is fermented in the presence of an additional electron donor to acetate and lactate. Thus, heterofermentative LAB are able to use a variety of unusual fermentation reactions in addition to classical heterofermentation. Most of the reactions are significant for food biotechnology/microbiology. PMID:16826375

Zaunmüller, T; Eichert, M; Richter, H; Unden, G

2006-09-01

377

The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods.  

PubMed

The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of some traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods were studied through culture-dependent method and pyrosequencing. Flours used for back slopping and sourdoughs were also biochemically characterized. Principal component analysis was applied to explore eventual correlations between process parameters applied during back slopping, some flour nutrients, profile of microbiota, and biochemical characteristics of sourdoughs. The median values of the cell density of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were 8.05 and 7.03 log CFU/g, respectively. As shown by culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo. For eleven sourdoughs, all the lactic acid bacteria isolates were allotted to this species. For Buccellato di Lucca, Mbriagotto, Pandoro, and Nadalin sourdoughs, at least 80% of the isolates was allotted to this species. Other lactic acid bacteria isolated with a relatively high frequence were Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc citreum. Pyrosequencing confirmed and complemented the culture-dependent approach, detecting L. sanfranciscensis also in Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Mbriagotto, Ciambella di Mosto and Pandolce Genovese. These latter sourdoughs harbored strains of Candida humilis, whereas five sourdoughs combined the presence of both yeast species. Positive correlations were found between time of back slopping and cell density and main metabolites of lactic acid bacteria. Percentage of sourdough used as inoculum was mainly correlated with the cell density of yeasts and the concentration of ethanol. This study provided a comprehensive and comparative approach to highlight the dominant microbiota of Italian sourdoughs, which could be exploited further to guarantee a highly reproducible quality of the Italian sweet goods studied, while preserving their traditional trait. PMID:23558189

Lattanzi, Anna; Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Diviccaro, Annamaria; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

2013-05-15

378

The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition.

De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

2002-01-01

379

Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must  

PubMed Central

Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated.

Munoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

2014-01-01

380

Fermentative l-(+)-lactic acid production from non-sterilized rice washing drainage containing rice bran by a newly isolated lactic acid bacteria without any additions of nutrients.  

PubMed

A newly isolated lactic acid producing bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus M-23, from a rice washing drainage storage tank was found to produce l-(+)-lactic acid from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran without any additions of nutrients under the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The maximum lactate yield attained was 59 g/l with a productivity of 1.23 g/l/h and a product optical purity of 95% corresponding to a conversion of 0.85 g of lactic acid per gram of sugar equivalent. PMID:23200415

Watanabe, Masanori; Makino, Masahiro; Kaku, Nobuo; Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kozo; Sasano, Kazuo

2013-04-01

381

Species-specific FISH analysis of cecal microflora in rats administered with lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We investigated the effects of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cells in rats using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting 16S rRNA to identify the cecal microbial community. We designed a novel species-specific 16S\\u000a rDNA probe to detect Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lrham454). Subtractive technique using the LAC722 probe (Sakai et al. 2004\\u000a Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering\\u000a 98, 48) under different hybridization stringency

Kenji Sakai; Kazutoshi Oue; Miki Umeki; Masatsugu Mori; Mari Kuribayashi; Satoshi Mochizuki

2006-01-01

382

Practical removal of radioactivity from soil in Fukushima using immobilized photosynthetic bacteria combined with anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation as pre-treatment.  

PubMed

Practical removal of radioactivity from polluted soil in Fukushima, Japan was done using a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides SSI, immobilized in alginate beads. The beads were put in a mesh bag and soaked in which soil was suspended (5 kg of soil/10 L of tap water). The radioactivity of the broth decreased by 31% after 15 d of aerobic treatment. When lactic acid bacterial culture broth was added to the suspend broth, about 50% of the radioactivity was transferred to a suspend broth fraction consisting of small particles from the soil after 3 d of fermentation and 20 s of sedimentation. The results suggest that organic matter in the soil was decomposed by anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation simultaneously, and was then transferred into the liquid as small particles. With combined treatment by anaerobic digestion and lactic acid fermentation for 5 d and immobilized bead aerobic treatment for an additional 19 d, the radioactivity of suspend broth decreased by 66%. The radioactivity of the original soil (10.56 µSv/h) ultimately decreased by 67% (3.52 µSv/h) after the combined treatment. PMID:22972354

Sasaki, Ken; Morikawa, Hiroyo; Kishibe, Takashi; Takeno, Kenji; Mikami, Ayaka; Harada, Toshihiko; Ohta, Masahiro

2012-01-01

383

Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.  

PubMed

Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but spoilage then occurred due to growth of fermentative yeasts, which produced ethanol in the cucumbers. Allyl isothiocyanate (2 mM) prevented growth of Zygosaccharomyces globiformis, which has been responsible for commercial pickle spoilage, as well as the yeasts that were present on fresh cucumbers. However, allyl isothiocyanate did not prevent growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. When these compounds were added in combination to acidified cucumbers, the cucumbers were successfully preserved as indicated by the fact that neither yeasts or lactic acid bacteria increased in numbers nor were lactic acid or ethanol produced by microorganisms when cucumbers were stored at 30 degrees C for at least 2 mo. This combination of 2 naturally occurring preservative compounds may serve as an alternative approach to the use of sodium benzoate or sodium metabisulfite for preservation of acidified vegetables without a thermal process. PMID:20546411

Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

2010-05-01

384

Isolation and preliminary characterization of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from sub-glacial Antarctic water samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, evidence has been accumulating supporting the presence of biogeochemically active microbial communities in cold, dark, and isolated subglacial environments. These environments are important sites of rock weathering, provide insight into global biogeochemistry during glacial periods, and are potential analogues for ancient Snowball Earth events and the ice-covered oceans of the Jovian moon, Europa. However, the extent of microbial influence on subglacial geochemistry is unclear. As part of an ongoing project to address the extent of that influence, we isolated aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from sediment-laden water from beneath Ice Stream C, a fast moving region of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Plates of a standard environmental media (R2A) were prepared at three dilutions (1x, 0.1x, 0.01x) and inoculated in duplicate in a HEPA-filtered environment. One replicate was incubated at 4oC, the other at room temperature in the dark. All plates showed abundant growth, although colony size was positively correlated with media concentration. One-hundred eighty-one colonies total were picked, grown in liquid R2A (1x concentration) at the same initial temperature, and characterized for Gram character, cell shape, cell size, and production of a diffusible yellow pigment with similar chemical characteristics to the siderophore, pyoverdine. Based on these characters, a moderate level of diversity was observed in these isolates. A few types dominated the samples, with several others found only rarely. Further characterization of these isolates is ongoing, and results of these studies and their possible implications for sub-glacial biogeochemistry are discussed.

Palma-Alvarez, R.; Lanoil, B. D.

2002-05-01

385

Functional Relationship Between Phytoplankton and Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria: Modes of Coexistence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria (AAPs) are ubiquitously distributed in the upper ocean. Although they contain bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla), the main absorption bands in the near UV (370 nm) and infrared (800-850 nm) make this pigment impractical in light harvesting below the first few meters of the water column. Instead, they utilize carotenoids as major light harvesting pigments. Since these carotenoids absorb in the 430-550 nm range, phytoplankton and AAPs utilize a similar portion of the available light spectrum. As AAPs cannot utilize water as the electron donor, they transfer electrons between a range of organic/inorganic electron donors and electron acceptors, thus significantly participating in the redox cycle in the upper ocean. We have measured the vertical distribution and photosynthetic properties of both phytoplankton and AAPs in a highly oligotrophic region 800 km SW of Monterey Bay (34N, 129W), and we have consistently observed the presence of a BChla maximum about 30 to 40 meters above the chlorophyll maximum, indicating that phytoplankton and AAPs occupy different ecological niches in the water column. However, the abundance of AAPs generally displayed a maximum at dawn and a minimum at the dusk, indicating a high level of mortality. This diel cycle was observed in 5 micron and 3 micron size fractions, indicating active grazing by small protists. Incubation experiments with natural, mixed population of AAPs and phytoplankton results in an unusually high accumulation of AAPs in DCMU-treated samples, indicating that pigmented protists do contribute significantly to AAP grazing in a tightly-controlled microbial loop. On the other hand, AAP incubations in pure cultures indicate that they biomineralize sulfur, thus affecting the sulfur cycle. All of these observations indicate that the role of AAPs in the upper ocean ecology is defined by their relationship with phototrophic and heterotrophic communities, rather than by their relative contribution to the carbon and energy cycles.

Kolber, Z. S.; Haffa, A.; Klimov, D.

2006-12-01

386

Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater sediments of the Xinyi River (China).  

PubMed

Here we report on the biodiversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in sediment samples from the Xinyi River, Jinagsu Province (China). The biodiversity of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the sediment was assessed using the amoA gene as functional marker. The retrieved amoA clones were affiliated to environmental sequences from freshwater habitats. The closest cultivated relative was Nitrosomonas urea. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were studied using anammox and planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene primers. The sediments contained 16S rRNA genes and bacterial cells closely related to the known anammox bacterium Candidatus'Brocadia anammoxidans'. Anaerobic continuous flow reactors were set up to enrich anammox organisms from the sediments. After an adaptation period of about 25 days the reactors started to consume ammonium and nitrite, indicating that the anammox reaction was occurring with a rate of 41-58 nmol cm(-3) h(-1). Community analysis of the enrichments by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization showed an increase in the abundance of anammox bacteria from < 1% to 6 +/- 2% of the total population. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the enriched anammox organisms were related to the Candidatus'Scalindua' genus. PMID:17686033

Zhang, Ying; Ruan, Xiao-Hong; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Smits, Toine J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Schmid, Markus C

2007-09-01

387

Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

Herzallah, Saqer

2013-01-01

388

Genetic engineering techniques for lactic acid bacteria: construction of a stable shuttle vector and expression vector for ?-glucuronidase.  

PubMed

The shuttle vector, pUL6erm, was constructed by using a replicon from pL2, a multiple cloning site, colE1 ori, the ori of Gram-negative bacteria from vector pUC19, and the erythromycin resistance gene from pVA838 as a selection marker. pUL6erm could be transformed easily and maintained stably in Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei. Transformation assays of pUL6erm indicated that it had a narrow host range. ?-Glucuronidase was induced in the presence of 0.3 M NaCl and 50 mM glutamate and expressed at 2.4 U mg(-1) with the expression vector (pUL6erm-gadR-GUS) constructed based on pUL6erm carrying ?-glucuronidase gene wuth a chloride-inducible (gadR) expression cassette using Pgad as promoter. Therefore, pUL6erm and pUL6erm-gadR-GUS might be a safe and useful genetic tool for the improvement of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:24101246

Chang, Shiao-Ming; Yan, Tsong-Rong

2014-02-01

389

Formation of lactic acid bacteria-yeasts communities on the olive surface during Spanish-style Manzanilla fermentations.  

PubMed

This work examines the formation of poly-microbial communities adhered to the surface of Manzanilla olive fruits processed according to the Spanish style. The experimental design consisted of four pilot fermenters inoculated with four Lactobacillus pentosus strains, plus another fermenter which was not inoculated and fermented spontaneously. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were analysed in depth on olive epidermis throughout fermentation by plate count, molecular techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Data show that in all cases high population levels (above 8 log(10) CFU per olive) were reached for both groups of microorganisms at the second week of fermentation and that these counts never fell below 6 log(10) CFU per olive during the 3 months that fermenters were monitored. In situ observation of olive epidermis slices revealed a strong aggregation and adhesion between bacteria and yeasts by the formation of a matrix which embedded the microorganisms. Geotrichum candidum, Pichia galeiformis and Candida sorbosa were the main yeast species isolated from these biofilms at the end of fermentation (confirmed by RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS region), while molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolates by means of RAPD-PCR with primer OPL(5) showed in many cases a high similarity in their banding profiles with the inoculated strains. Results obtained in this survey show the importance of studying the olive epidermis throughout fermentation, because ultimately, olives are ingested by consumers. PMID:22986192

Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Domínguez-Manzano, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodriguez-Gómez, F; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A; Jiménez-Díaz, R

2012-12-01

390

Ecofriendly control of potato late blight causative agent and the potential role of lactic acid bacteria: a review.  

PubMed

In times of increasing societal pressure to reduce the application of pesticides on crops, demands for environmentally friendly replacements have intensified. In the case of late blight, a devastating potato plant disease, the historically most widely known plant destroyer has been the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. To date, the most important strategy for control of this pathogen has been the frequent application of fungicides. Due to the aforementioned necessity to move away from traditional chemical treatments, many studies have focused on finding alternative ecofriendly biocontrol systems. In general, due to the different modes of actions (i.e. antagonistic effects or induction of plant defence mechanisms), the use of microorganisms as biological control agents has a definite potential. Amongst them, several species of lactic acid bacteria have been recognised as producers of bioactive metabolites which are functional against a broad spectrum of undesirable microorganisms, such as fungi, oomycetes and other bacteria. Thus, they may represent an interesting tool for the development of novel concepts in pest management. This review describes the present situation of late blight disease and summarises current literature regarding the biocontrol of the phytopathogen P. infestans using antagonistic microorganisms. PMID:22864968

Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Guo, Jiahui; Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K

2012-10-01

391

Rapid identification, by use of the LTQ Orbitrap hybrid FT mass spectrometer, of antifungal compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Fungal contamination of food causes health and economic concerns. Several species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have antifungal activity which may inhibit food spoilage fungi. LAB have GRAS (generally recognised as safe) status, allowing them to be safely integrated into food systems as natural food preservatives. A method is described herein that enables rapid screening of LAB cultures for 25 known antifungal compounds associated with LAB. This is the first chromatographic method developed which enables the rapid identification of a wide range of antifungal compounds by a single method with a short analysis time (23 min). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 100A column (150 mm?×?2.0 mm; 5 ?m) by use of a mobile-phase gradient prepared from (A) water containing acetic acid (0.1%) and (B) acetonitrile containing acetic acid (0.1%), at a flow rate of 0.3 µL min(-1). The gradient involved a progressive ramp from 10-95% acetonitrile over 13 min. The LC was coupled to a hybrid LTQ Orbitrap XL fourier-transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) operated in negative ionisation mode. High mass accuracy data (<3 ppm) obtained by use of high resolution (30,000 K) enabled unequivocal identification of the target compounds. This method allows comprehensive profiling and comparison of different LAB strains and is also capable of the identification of additional compounds produced by these bacteria. PMID:22526638

Brosnan, Brid; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K; Furey, Ambrose

2012-07-01

392

Production of L-lactic acid from a mixture of xylose and glucose by co-cultivation of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The production of optically pure lactic acid in a high yield from xylose or a mixture of xylose and glucose, which is a model hydrolysate of lignocellulose, is described. In a single cultivation, Enterococcus casseliflavus produced 38 g/l of lactic acid with an optical purity of 96% enantiomeric excess (ee) and 6.4 g/l of acetic acid from 50 g/l of xylose when MRS medium was used. When a mixture of 50 g/l of xylose and 100 g/l of glucose was used as the carbon source in a cultivation of E. casseliflavus alone, glucose was converted to lactic acid in the early phase of the cultivation but xylose was hardly consumed. In a co-cultivation where E. casseliflavus and Lactobacillus casei specific for glucose were simultaneously inoculated, little or no lactic acid was produced after the glucose was almost consumed. A co-cultivation with two-stage inoculation (in which E. casseliflavus was added at a cultivation time of 40 h after L. casei cells were inoculated) resulted in complete consumption of 50 g/l of xylose and 100 g/l of glucose. In the co-cultivation, 95 g/l of lactic acid with a high optical purity of 96% ee was obtained at 192 h. Such a co-cultivation using two microorganisms specific for each sugar is considered to be one promising cultivation technique for the efficient production of lactic acid from a sugar mixture derived from lignocellulose. PMID:15558273

Taniguchi, M; Tokunaga, T; Horiuchi, K; Hoshino, K; Sakai, K; Tanaka, T

2004-12-01

393

Characteristics of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river.  

PubMed

Both ?-proteobacterial aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were investigated in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river in China containing high ammonium levels and low chemical oxygen demand. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning-sequencing were employed in this study. FISH analysis illustrated that AOB (average population of 3.5 %) coexisted with ANAMMOX bacteria (0.7 %). The DGGE profile revealed a high abundance and diversity of bacteria at the water-air-soil interface rather than at the water-soil interface. The redundancy analysis correlated analysis showed that the diversity of ANAMMOX bacteria was positively related to the redox potential. The newly detected sequences of ANAMMOX organisms principally belonged to the genus Candidatus "Brocadia", while most ammonia monooxygenase subunit-A gene amoA sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. These results suggest that the water-air-soil interface performs an important function in the nitrogen removal process and that the bioresources of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria can potentially be utilized for the eutrophication of rivers. PMID:22806720

Wang, Ziyuan; Qi, Yun; Wang, Jun; Pei, Yuansheng

2012-09-01

394

Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with a biphasic blood culture medium for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Du Pont Isolator tube and Roche Septi-Chek blood culture bottle employ solid media which facilitate the removal of bacteria from static or cidal substances in blood to increase recovery and decrease detection time. In a comparison of 11,567 blood culture sets, the Isolator tube and vented Roche Septi-Chek bottle were positive for 533 (80%) and 494 (74%) of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms recovered, respectively. This difference was not significant. A significant difference was found in the overall detection time. The Isolator tube recovered the bacteria ca. 1 day earlier. The earlier detection time was most notable with Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the 355 bacteremic episodes analyzed by a computer program, the Isolator tube was responsible more often for the first report of bacteremia in a given patient. Both systems performed well for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, but it is recommended that either be used in combination with an unvented broth-containing bottle.

Henry, N K; Grewell, C M; Van Grevenhof, P E; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1984-01-01

395

Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with a biphasic blood culture medium for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The Du Pont Isolator tube and Roche Septi-Chek blood culture bottle employ solid media which facilitate the removal of bacteria from static or cidal substances in blood to increase recovery and decrease detection time. In a comparison of 11,567 blood culture sets, the Isolator tube and vented Roche Septi-Chek bottle were positive for 533 (80%) and 494 (74%) of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms recovered, respectively. This difference was not significant. A significant difference was found in the overall detection time. The Isolator tube recovered the bacteria ca. 1 day earlier. The earlier detection time was most notable with Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the 355 bacteremic episodes analyzed by a computer program, the Isolator tube was responsible more often for the first report of bacteremia in a given patient. Both systems performed well for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, but it is recommended that either be used in combination with an unvented broth-containing bottle. PMID:6386858

Henry, N K; Grewell, C M; Van Grevenhof, P E; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1984-09-01

396

The Bacillus subtilis and Lactic Acid Bacteria Probiotics Influences Intestinal Mucin Gene Expression, Histomorphology and Growth Performance in Broilers  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of commercial monostrain and multistrain probiotics in diets on growth performance, intestinal morphology and mucin gene (MUC2) expression in broiler chicks. Three hundred seventy-eight 1-d-old male Arian broiler chicks were allocated in 3 experimental groups for 6 wk. The birds were fed on a corn-soybean based diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: control-unsupplemented (C), birds supplemented with Bacillus subtilis (BS) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based probiotics. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 21 broilers each. Treatment effects on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and biomarkers such as intestinal goblet cell density, villus length, villus width, and mucin gene expression were determined. Total feed intake did not differ significantly between control birds and those fed a diet with probiotics (p>0.05). However, significant differences in growth performance were found. Final body weight at 42 d of age was higher in birds fed a diet with probiotics compared to those fed a diet without probiotic (p<0.05). Inclusion of Bacillus subtilis based probiotic in the diets also significantly affected feed conversion rate (FCR) compared with control birds (p<0.05). No differences in growth performance were observed in birds fed different types of probiotic supplemented diets. Inclusion of lactic acid bacteria based probiotic in the diets significantly increased goblet cell number and villus length (p<0.05). Furthermore, diets with Bacillus subtilis based probiotics significantly increased gene expression (p<0.05), with higher intestinal MUC2 mRNA in birds fed diet with probiotics compared to those fed the control diet. In BS and LAB probiotic fed chicks, higher growth performance may be related to higher expression of the MUC2 gene in goblet cells and/or morphological change of small intestinal tract. The higher synthesis of the mucin gene after probiotic administration may positively affect bacterial interactions in the intestinal digestive tract, intestinal mucosal cell proliferation and consequently efficient nutrient absorption.

Aliakbarpour, H. R.; Chamani, M.; Rahimi, G.; Sadeghi, A. A.; Qujeq, D.

2012-01-01

397

Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of fructo-oligosaccharides. These data support the use of immature wheat grain flour, and exopolysaccaride-producing lactic acid bacteria in formulating functional prebiotic baked goods whose nutritional value can be suitably improved.

Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

2013-01-01

398

Nitric Oxide (NO) and Lactic Acid Bacteria-Contributions to Health, Food Quality, and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide producer bacteria on food quality, safety, and human health care high lighted. NO, which was previously recognized as a toxic gas, has attracted attention in the last two decades due to its vital role in many physiological processes of animals and plants. Particularly, it is important to note

Aynur Gül Karahan; M. Lütfü Çakmakçi; Buket Cicioglu-Aridogan; Arzu Kart-Gündogdu

2005-01-01

399

Lactic acidosis  

MedlinePLUS

Lactic acidosis is when lactic acid builds ups in the bloodstream faster than it can be removed. Lactic acid ... The most common cause of lactic acidosis is intense exercise. ... as: AIDS Cancer Kidney failure Respiratory failure Sepsis A ...

400

Development of oligonucleotide primers from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic sequences for identifying different dairy and probiotic lactic acid bacteria by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer regions between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of different dairy and probiotic lactic acid bacteria were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with conserved primers and the nucleotide sequences of these spacer regions were determined. Amplification\\/oligonucleotide primer pairs were designed for Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus and Streptococcus thermophilus based on the

Anu Tilsala-Timisjärvi; Tapani Alatossava

1997-01-01

401

Diversity analysis of lactic acid bacteria in Korean rice wines by culture-independent method using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was used to determine the presence and\\u000a diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in takju, a traditional Korean rice wine. Bacterial DNAs were extracted from 15 commercial rice wines and amplicons of partial 16S\\u000a rRNA genes were separated by DGGE and intense bands were sequenced. Lactobacillus (Lb.) paracasei, Lb. plantarum, and

So-Young Kim; Ki-Seon Yoo; Ji Eun Kim; Ji-Sun Kim; Jee Yun Jung; Qing Jin; Hyun-Ju Eom; Nam Soo Han

2010-01-01

402

?????????????????????????????????????????????? Salmonella typhimurium ???????????????? The use of Crude Extracts from Lactic Acid Bacteria to Reduce Salmonella typhimurium on Ready-to-eat Produce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of natural extracts may replace chemical sanitizers in washing fresh produce in order to enhance the microbiological safety in food. The study of antimicrobial efficacy of crude extracts from 7 strains of lactic acid bacteria to eliminate Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC13311 was conducted. The tested strains were Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC 5, KUB-AC 16, KUB-AC 20, Lactobacillus salivarius KUB-AC 21,

Monchan Khamya; Warapa Mahakarnchanakul

403

Use of alginate and cryo-protective sugars to improve the viability of lactic acid bacteria after freezing and freeze-drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the present paper, the effect of cryo-protective sugars on the survival rate of different strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspbulgaricus, Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus), after freezing or freeze-drying procedures, was compared. The cells were incubated at 4 °C in 32% final concentration sugar solutions (trehalose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and lactose), and viability was evaluated by

B. De Giulio; P. Orlando; G. Barba; R. Coppola; M. De Rosa; A. Sada; P. P. De Prisco; F. Nazzaro

2005-01-01

404

Effect of steam and lactic acid treatments on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin.  

PubMed

Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonotic infectious diseases. The present work evaluated the effectiveness of steam treatment at 100 °C for 8s, a 5% lactic acid treatment for 1 min and their combination for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin. The impact of each treatment on the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the effect of rinsing after contact with lactic acid were also evaluated. Residual bacteria were counted immediately after treatment or after seven days of storage at 4 °C. Results demonstrated the immediate efficiency of the steam and the combined treatments with reductions of approximately 6 and 5 log cfu/cm2 respectively for S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. They also showed significant reductions (equal to or >3.2 log cfu/cm2) in the total aerobic mesophilic plate count. Lactic acid had a persistent effect on pathogen growth during storage which was significantly higher when the skin was not rinsed, reaching reductions of 3.8 log cfu/cm2 for both S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. Only the combined treatments significantly reduced the recovery of the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria during storage. The significant reductions in both pathogens and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria on treated chicken skins are possible ways to improve the safety and shelf life of the product although high levels of indigenous non-pathogenic bacteria may be beneficial due to their protective effect against potential re-contamination of chicken skin. PMID:23454819

Chaine, Aline; Arnaud, Elodie; Kondjoyan, Alain; Collignan, Antoine; Sarter, Samira

2013-04-01

405

Use of superoxide dismutase and catalase producing lactic acid bacteria in TNBS induced Crohn's disease in mice.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species are involved in various aspects of intestinal inflammation and tumor development. Decreasing their levels using antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) could therefore be useful in the prevention of certain diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ideal candidates to deliver these enzymes in the gut. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of CAT or SOD producing LAB were evaluated using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced Crohn's disease murine model. Engineered Lactobacillus casei BL23 strains producing either CAT or SOD, or the native strain were given to mice before and after intrarectal administration of TNBS. Animal survival, live weight, intestinal morphology and histology, enzymatic activities, microbial translocation to the liver and cytokines released in the intestinal fluid were evaluated. The mice that received CAT or SOD-producing LAB showed a faster recovery of initial weight loss, increased enzymatic activities in the gut and lesser extent of intestinal inflammation compared to animals that received the wild-type strain or those that did not receive bacterial supplementation. Our findings suggest that genetically engineered LAB that produce antioxidant enzymes could be used to prevent or decrease the severity of certain intestinal pathologies. PMID:21167883

LeBlanc, Jean Guy; del Carmen, Silvina; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Sesma, Fernando; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Watterlot, Laurie; Perdigon, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

2011-02-10

406

Contribution of lactic acid bacteria esterases to the release of fatty acids in miniature ewe's milk cheese models.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the contribution of esterase activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ewe's dairy products to the release of free fatty acids (FFA) in ewe's milk cheese models. At 60 days of ripening, single-strain cheeses Ov 409 and Ov 421 showed high levels of total FFA (3075 and 2494.62 mg/kg, respectively). Cheeses Ov 227-Ov 409 and Ov 421-Ov 409 presented high percentages of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The highest levels of volatile free fatty acids (VFFA) were detected in cheeses Ov 409, Ov 421-Ov 409, and Ov 421-Ov 227. Studies on esterase activities showed that these strains hydrolyzed alpha-naphthyl derivatives of fatty acids from C2 to C6, mainly associated with the wall-membrane fraction. The results showed that the strains studied contributed to the release of FFA during ripening of ewe's milk cheese models. The increase of SCFA throughout ripening involves the action of esterases of starter strains. PMID:19138123

Abeijón Mukdsi, María C; Medina, Roxana B; Katz, Marta B; Pivotto, Rodolfo; Gatti, Patricia; González, Silvia N

2009-02-11

407

Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from "Alheira", a traditional fermented sausage produced in Portugal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "Alheira", a fermented sausage produced in Portugal. LAB were identified to genus and species level by phenotypic characteristics, using genus or species-specific primers and sequencing of the gene encoding 16S rRNA. Two-hundred and eighty-three isolates were grouped into 14 species. Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from all sausages and Enterococcusfaecalis from most of the samples. Low numbers of Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Weissella cibaria, Weissella viridescens and Enterococcus faecium were recorded. The genetic heterogeneity of L. plantarum and E. faecalis strains were determined by numerical analysis of DNA banding patterns obtained by RAPD-PCR. Strains of L. plantarum and E. faecalis were different from different producers. This study forms the basis from which starter cultures could be selected for production of "Alheira". PMID:20416703

Albano, Helena; van Reenen, Carol A; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Cruz, Diana; Fraga, Luisa; Hogg, Tim; Dicks, Leon M T; Teixeira, Paula

2009-07-01

408

Reduction of non-digestible oligosaccharides in soymilk: application of engineered lactic acid bacteria that produce alpha-galactosidase.  

PubMed

Human consumption of soy-derived products has been limited by the presence of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), such as the alpha-galactooligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose. Most mammals, including man, lack pancreatic alpha-galactosidase (alpha-Gal), which is necessary for the hydrolysis of these sugars. However, such NDO can be fermented by gas-producing microorganisms present in the cecum and large intestine, which in turn can induce flatulence and other gastrointestinal disorders in sensitive individuals. The use of microorganisms expressing alpha-Gal is a promising solution to the elimination of NDO before they reach the large intestine. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria engineered to degrade NDO have been constructed and are being used as a tool to evaluate this solution. The alpha-Gal structural genes from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC8014 (previously characterized in our laboratory) and from guar have been cloned and expressed in Lactococcus lactis. The gene products were directed to different bacterial compartments to optimize their possible applications. The alpha-Gal-producing strains are being evaluated for their efficiency in degrading raffinose and stachyose: i) in soymilk fermentation when used as starters and ii) in situ in the upper gastrointestinal tract when administered to animals orally, as probiotic preparations. The expected outcomes and possible complications of this project are discussed. PMID:15614733

LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Silvestroni, Aurelio; Connes, Cristelle; Juillard, Vincent; de Giori, Graciela Savoy; Piard, Jean-Christophe; Sesma, Fernando

2004-01-01

409

Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs? †  

PubMed Central

A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.

Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

2007-01-01

410

Enhanced degradation of five organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk by lactic acid bacteria and its potential relationship with phosphatase production.  

PubMed

Skimmed milk spiked with five organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fenitrothion, malathion and methyl parathion, was fermented by ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and four strain combinations at 42°C for 24h. OPPs left in the samples at different times were extracted, purified, detected by gas chromatography and calculated for degradation rate constants, based on a first-order reaction model. OPPs degradation was enhanced by the inoculated LAB, resulting in 0.8-225.4% increase in the rate constants. Diazinon and methyl parathion were more stable whereas chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and malathion were more labile. Lactobacillus brevis 1.0209 showed the strongest acceleration on OPPs degradation while strain combination could bring about a synergy between the strains of lower ability. Phosphatase production of the strains might be one of the key factors responsible for the enhanced OPPs degradation, as the detected phosphatase activities were positively correlated to the measured degradation rate constants of OPPs (r=0.636-0.970, P<0.05). PMID:24996321

Zhang, Ying-Hua; Xu, Di; Liu, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Xin-Huai

2014-12-01

411

Modulation of peanut-induced allergic immune responses by oral lactic acid bacteria-based vaccines in mice.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy (PNA) has becoming a non-negligible health concern worldwide. Thus far, allergen-specific immunotherapy aimed at inducing mucosal tolerance has widely been regarded as a major management strategy for PNA. The safety profiles and the intrinsic probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) render them attractive delivery vehicles for mucosal vaccines. In the present study, we exploited genetically modified Lactococcus lactis to produce peanut allergen Ara h 2 via different protein-targeting systems and their immunomodulatory potency for allergic immune responses in mice were investigated. By comparison with the strain expressing the cytoplasmic form of Ara h 2 (LL1), the strains expressing the secreted and anchored forms of Ara h 2 (LL2 and LL3) were more potent in redirecting a Th2-polarized to a non-allergic Th1 immune responses. Induction of SIgA and regulatory T cells were also observed at the local levels by orally administration of recombinant L. lactis. Our results indicate that allergen-producing L. lactis strains modulated allergic immune responses and may be developed as promising mucosal vaccines for managing allergic diseases. PMID:24770368

Ren, Chengcheng; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Wang, Gang; Ai, Chunqing; Hu, Mengsha; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Chen, Yongquan; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

2014-07-01

412

Inhibition of uropathogens by lactic acid bacteria isolated from dairy foods and cow's intestine in western Nigeria.  

PubMed

A total of 96 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from African indigenous fermented products and cow's intestines to study their inhibitory capability against multi-drug-resistant uropathogens. Escherichia coli accounted for approximately 45% of isolated uropathogens, followed by Staphylococcus spp. (20%). The Gram negative uropathogens were highly resistant to quinolones, co-trimoxazole, teicoplanin and some beta-lactams, while the Staphylococcus spp. showed high resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and macrolides. Twenty-four LAB isolates were selected based on their antimicrobial activity against two uropathogenic Staphylococcus aureus strains and bacteriocin production. LAB strains showing antimicrobial activity were grouped into smaller groups through amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Representative strains were identified as Weissella spp., Enterococcus faecium, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus brevis through sequencing of 16S rDNA. The Weissella spp. and L. brevis strains demonstrated remarkable inhibitory activity against seven strains of Gram negative uropathogens. Two strains of L. lactis produced a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against Lactobacillus sakei. In this study, an unusual high rate of co-trimoxazole, quinolones and macrolides resistance among uropathogens from south west Nigeria was discovered. Based on their sensitivity to Weissella spp., there is a potential for using these LAB as a natural approach for the protection against the uropathogens assayed. PMID:19529917

Ayeni, Funmilola A; Adeniyi, Bolanle A; Ogunbanwo, Samuel T; Tabasco, Raquel; Paarup, Torsten; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

2009-08-01

413

Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

2014-01-01

414

Cultivating conditions effects on kefiran production by the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria imbedded within kefir grains.  

PubMed

The influence of fermentation temperature, agitation rate, and additions of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, vitamins and minerals on production of kefiran by kefir grains lactic acid bacteria was studied in a series of experiments. The main aim of the work was to increase the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production where customised milk was used as fermentation medium. It was proved that the controlling of culturing conditions and the modifying of fermentation medium conditions (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources and vitamins) can dramatically enhance the production of the EPS. The temperature and agitation rate were critical for kefiran production during the 24 h cultivation of grains; our optimised conditions being 25°C and 80 rpm, respectively. In addition, when optimising the effects of additional nutrition, it was found that 5% (w/v) lactose, 0.1% (w/v) thiamine, and 0.1% (w/v) FeCl3 led to the maximal production of EPS. The results indicate that nutrients can be utilised to improve the production of EPS and that good kefir grains growth does not appear to be a determining factor for a high production yield of EPS. PMID:23561198

Zajšek, Katja; Goršek, Andreja; Kolar, Mitja

2013-08-15

415

Identification of Immunopotentiating Lactic Acid Bacteria that Induce Antibody Production by in vitro Stimulated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLME) is known to remove lysosome-rich cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To evaluate the immunopotentiating ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), we adopted the in vitro stimulation protocol of LLME-treated PBMCs as a model assay system and monitored the level of antibody produced by stimulated PBMCs. The results indicated that several LAB strains have immunopotentiating ability against PBMCs, as evidenced by the enhanced antibody production and increased number of antigen-specific B cells. Next, we identified T cells as the direct target cells of the immunopotentiating LAB strain L32, suggesting that L32 induced antibody production by PBMCs through T-cell activation. Finally, we tested the immunopotentiating ability of ligands for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate the LAB signal, and observed that both L32 and one of the TLR2 ligands, LTA-BS, induced antigen-specific antibody production by in vitro stimulated PBMC. This suggests that L32 and LTA-BS can be used as an adjuvant for stimulating immune reaction in PBMCs.

YAMASHITA, Makiko; HITAKA, Akira; FUJINO, Himiko; MATSUMOTO, Takashi; HASEGAWA, Takanori; MORIMATSU, Fumiki; FUJIKI, Tsukasa; KATAKURA, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

416

Immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria beneficially regulate immune response triggered by poly(I:C) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the functional expression of TLR3 in various gastrointestinal tissues from adult swine and shows that TLR3 is expressed preferentially in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), CD172a+CD11R1high and CD4+ cells from ileal Peyer's patches. We characterized the inflammatory immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in a clonal porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells) and in PIE-immune cell co-cultures, and demonstrated that these systems are valuable tools to study in vitro the immune response triggered by TLR3 on IEC and the interaction between IEC and immune cells. In addition, we selected an immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria strain, Lactobacillus casei MEP221106, able to beneficially regulate the anti-viral immune response triggered by poly(I:C) stimulation in PIE cells. Moreover, we deepened our understanding of the possible mechanisms of immunobiotic action by demonstrating that L. casei MEP221106 modulates the interaction between IEC and immune cells during the generation of a TLR3-mediated immune response.

2011-01-01

417

Identification of lactic acid bacteria associated with the production of plaa-som, a traditional fermented fish product of Thailand.  

PubMed

Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product for which whole fish or fish fillets are fermented with either cooked rice or steamed sticky rice, salt, and garlic. A total of 762 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated during plaa-som fermentation by culture on CaCO(3)-MRS agar plates. They were screened and grouped by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), giving six groups that were identified by ribosomal DNA sequencing as Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus bovis, Weissella cibaria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Freshly mixed ingredients contained low populations of LAB (less than 10 CFU/g) that subsequently grew during fermentation to final populations of approximately 10(7)CFU/g. Early stages of the process were dominated by the presence of Lc. garvieae, S. bovis, and W. cibaria. At 48 h into fermentation, W. cibaria, P. pentosaceus, and Lb. plantarum were prevalent, and gave way to a dominance of Lb. plantarum that completed the fermentation. A mixture of these LAB species could be considered as species for development of a starter culture for plaa-som fermentation. PMID:20167386

Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Yunchalard, Sirinda

2010-04-15

418

Microbial Quality and Direct PCR Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonpathogenic Staphylococci from Artisanal Low-Acid Sausages  

PubMed Central

Detection of six species of lactic acid bacteria and six species of gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from low-acid fermented sausages (fuets and chorizos) was assessed by species-specific PCR. Without enrichment, Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus were detected in 11.8% of the samples, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus were detected in 17.6%. Enriched samples allowed the detection of L. sakei and S. xylosus in all of the samples (100%) and of Enterococcus faecium in 11.8% of the sausages. The percentages of L. curvatus, L. plantarum, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis varied depending on the sausage type. L. curvatus was detected in 80% of fuets and in 57% of chorizos. L. plantarum was found in 50% of fuets and 100% of chorizos. S. epidermidis was detected in only 11.8% of fuets, and S. carnosus was detected in only 5.9% of chorizos. Lactococcus lactis, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus simulans were not detected in any sausage type. From a microbiological point of view, 70.6% of the samples could be considered of high quality, as they had low counts of Enterobacteriaceae and did not contain any of the food-borne pathogens assayed.

Aymerich, T.; Martin, B.; Garriga, M.; Hugas, M.

2003-01-01

419

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour congee in Inner Mongolia of China.  

PubMed

Sour congee is a popular food in the western regions of Inner Mongolia in China. It has a complex microbial population, which contributes to its unique flavor and functional properties. In this study, we chose 28 sour congee samples that were collected from different areas in Inner Mongolia for analysis of the microbial community of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by classical biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay of recA gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the tuf gene (encoding elongation factor Tu). The results revealed that all the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) paracasei (38 strains), L. fermentum (28 strains), L. plantarum (7 strains), L. brevis (4 strains), L. reuteri (2 strains), L. amylolyticus (1 strain), Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (3 strains), E. italicus (2 strains) or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (1 strain). The predominant LAB were L. casei and L. fermentum in sour congee samples. The diversity of LAB derived from sour congee could offer useful information for further research on sour congee, and the results demonstrated that the combination of tuf gene and RFLP patterns can be considered as a useful tool for differentiation of the L. casei group. PMID:21914968

Yu, Jie; Du, Xiaohua; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Jiachao; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

2011-01-01

420

Spherical Lactic Acid Bacteria Activate Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Immunomodulatory Function via TLR9-Dependent Crosstalk with Myeloid Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are a specialized sensor of viral and bacterial nucleic acids and a major producer of IFN-? that promotes host defense by priming both innate and acquired immune responses. Although synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, pathogenic bacteria and viruses activate pDC, there is limited investigation of non-pathogenic microbiota that are in wide industrial dietary use, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we screened for LAB strains, which induce pDC activation and IFN-? production using murine bone marrow (BM)-derived Flt-3L induced dendritic cell culture. Microbial strains with such activity on pDC were absent in a diversity of bacillary strains, but were observed in certain spherical species (Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Pediococcus), which was correlated with their capacity for uptake by pDC. Detailed study of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 and JCM20101 revealed that the major type I and type III interferons were induced (IFN-?, -?, and ?). IFN-? induction was TLR9 and MyD88-dependent; a slight impairment was also observed in TLR4-/- cells. While these responses occurred with purified pDC, IFN-? production was synergistic upon co-culture with myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), an interaction that required direct mDC-pDC contact. L. lactis strains also stimulated expression of immunoregulatory receptors on pDC (ICOS-L and PD-L1), and accordingly augmented pDC induction of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg compared to the Lactobacillus strain. Oral administration of L. lactis JCM5805 induced significant activation of pDC resident in the intestinal draining mesenteric lymph nodes, but not in a remote lymphoid site (spleen). Taken together, certain non-pathogenic spherical LAB in wide dietary use has potent and diverse immunomodulatory effects on pDC potentially relevant to anti-viral immunity and chronic inflammatory disease.

Jounai, Kenta; Ikado, Kumiko; Sugimura, Tetsu; Ano, Yasuhisa; Braun, Jonathan; Fujiwara, Daisuke

2012-01-01

421

Interaction between probiotic lactic acid bacteria and canine enteric pathogens: a risk factor for intestinal Enterococcus faecium colonization?  

PubMed

Selected probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to elicit positive health effects particularly in humans. Competitive exclusion of pathogens is one of the most important beneficial health claims of probiotic bacteria. The effect of probiotic LAB on competitive exclusion of pathogens has been demonstrated in humans, chicken and pigs. In this study we evaluated the ability of certain LAB strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Lactobacillus pentosus UK1A, L. pentosus SK2A, Enterococcus faecium M74 and E. faecium SF273) to inhibit the adhesion of selected canine and zoonotic pathogens (Staphylococcus intermedius, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni) to immobilised mucus isolated from canine jejunal chyme in vitro. Adhesion of C. perfringens was reduced significantly by all tested LAB strains, between 53.7 and 79.1% of the control without LAB, the LAB of canine origin yielding the best reduction. The adhesion of S. Typhimurium and S. intermedius were not significantly altered by any of the LAB included in the study. Both enterococci tested significantly enhanced the adhesion of C. jejuni, to 134.6 and 205.5% of the control without LAB. E. faecium may thus favor the adhesion and colonization of C. jejuni in the dog's intestine, making it a potential carrier and possibly a source for human infection. Enhanced C. jejuni adhesion is a new potential risk factor of enterococci. Our results further emphasize the importance of safety guidelines to be established for the probiotics intended for animal use. PMID:12488075

Rinkinen, Minna; Jalava, Katri; Westermarck, Elias; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2003-03-20

422

Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30?mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20?mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39?mg kg?1), plant P uptake (