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1

Comparison of Dry Medium Culture Plates for Mesophilic Aerobic Bacteria in Milk, Ice Cream, Ham, and Codfish Fillet Products  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

2013-01-01

2

Effect of hot water spray on broiler carcasses for reduction of loosely attached, intermediately attached, and tightly attached pathogenic (Salmonella and Campylobacter) and mesophilic aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Chickens are known to harbor many bacteria, including pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hot water spray (HWS, 71°C for 1 min) in reducing bacterial contamination of prechilled broiler carcasses. For each of 4 replications, skin samples from 5 broilers were collected at 3 processing stages: after bleeding (feathers removed manually), after evisceration (with/without HWS), and after water chilling. Broiler skin was quantitatively assessed for loosely attached (by rinsing the skin), intermediately attached (by stomaching the rinsed skin), and tightly attached (by grinding the rinsed/stomached skin) mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and Campylobacter as well as for the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Broiler skins possessed 6.4 to 6.6 log cfu/g, 3.8 to 4.1 log cfu/g, and 2.8 to 3.5 log cfu/g of MAB populations after bleeding, evisceration, and chilling, respectively. The HWS resulted in more than 1 log unit of reduction in MAB immediately after evisceration and immediately after chilling regardless of microbial sampling method. Compared with MAB, the contamination of Campylobacter was low (1.7 to 2.6 log cfu/g) after bleeding, but the level was not reduced throughout the processing steps regardless of HWS. The application of HWS reduced the prevalence of Salmonella after chilling, but not for Campylobacter except for loosely attached cells. After hot water exposure, a partially cooked appearance was seen on both broiler skin and skinless breast surface. More research is required to effectively eliminate pathogenic organisms during processing and suppress any recovery of bacteria regardless of attachment type after chilling. PMID:23436532

Zhang, L; Singh, P; Lee, H C; Kang, I

2013-03-01

3

Cold Stress Responses in Mesophilic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of the prokaryotes that have been studied, combined with the many different effects of low temperature, has led to an extensive literature concerning cold stress responses in mesophilic bacteria. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of cold on the behavior of bacteria. The following three responses will be described: (i) biochemical modifications consisting first

Jean-Michel Panoff; Bouachanh Thammavongs; Micheline Guéguen; Philippe Boutibonnes

1998-01-01

4

Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the ?-1, ?-3, and ?-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes.

Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

5

Thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria in biofilms associated with corrosion in a heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm development on AISI-1020 carbon steel coupons installed at the outlet of a heat exchanger was evaluated at the thirtieth and the sixtieth days of exposure. Water temperature varied between 41 and 60?°C. The most probable number technique (MPN) was applied to quantify mesophilic and thermophilic species of aerobic, anaerobic, and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in planktonic and sessile phases. The

M. A. N. Almeida; F. P. de França

1999-01-01

6

The elimination of Salmonella typhimurium in sewage sludge by aerobic mesophilic stabilization and lime hydrated stabilization.  

PubMed

This study observed the effects of two methods, aerobic mesophilic stabilization and lime hydrated stabilization of sewage sludge upon the survival of Salmonella typhimurium. Raw (primary) sludges from the mechanical biological municipal sewage treatment plant were used. Aerobic stabilization and lime hydrated stabilization were carried out in a laboratory fermentor. Aerobic stabilization was carried out in the mesophilic temperature range (from 25.70+/-0.40 to 37.82+/-1.38 degrees C). Lime hydrated was used at an amount of 10 kg/m(3) for the stabilization. Sludge samples were inoculated with a broth culture of S. typhimurium. Quantitative and qualitative examinations of the presence of S. typhimurium were carried out. Aerobic mesophilic stabilization caused elimination S. typhimurium within 48 h. The T(90) value of S. typhimurium was 6.66+/-0.20 h. During the lime hydrated stabilization pH values significantly increased from 5.66+/-0.07 to 12.12+/-0.02 (P<0.01). S. typhimurium was inactivated within 1h and the T(90) value was 0.19+/-0.01 h. Our study confirmed that the treatment of sewage sludge with lime hydrated was significantly more effective than the aerobic mesophilic stabilization, (P<0.01). PMID:17931859

Plachá, Iveta; Venglovský, Ján; Maková, Zuzana; Martinéz, José

2008-07-01

7

Evaluation of conditioning responses of thermophilic-mesophilic anaerobically and mesophilic aerobically digested biosolids using rheological properties.  

PubMed

One of the most crucial processes in biosolids management is stabilisation, which is typically accomplished using either anaerobic or aerobic digestion processes. Although there are many advantages to both of these methods--such as reduction of volatile organic matter, pathogen content, and offensive odours--one common disadvantage is that digested biosolids exhibit poor dewaterability characteristics. The deterioration in dewaterability of digested biosolids leads to increases in polymer requirements, connoting higher conditioning costs. Many studies have examined this phenomenon based on conventional filterability tests such as capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration. However, these test methods are limited in their ability to predict full-scale dewatering behaviour (particularly in centrifugation), and do not regard handling properties as being important for sludge transport. For this purpose, new rheometric methods may assist in predicting sludge behaviour, potentially allowing optimisation of stabilisation and conditioning processes relative to the desired sludge properties. This paper investigates the possible utility of these methods. Classical methods for characterising biosolids, such as filtration tests, are compared with yield stress values and other rheological properties as determined using the steady-shear rate sweep test. The rheological behaviours are compared for different sludge types, including raw and polymer conditioned thermophilic anaerobically, mesophilic anaerobically, and mesophilic aerobically digested biosolids. The paper demonstrates the determination of specific energy values associated with breakdown of the flocculated matrix. Robust modelling approaches are employed to optimise the conditioning of the digested samples, and to shed light on commonly used rheological models such as Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, and Ostwald equations. PMID:17087366

Ayol, A; Filibeli, A; Dentel, S K

2006-01-01

8

DESTRUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION OF VIRUSES AND INDICATOR BACTERIA INDIGENOUS TO DOMESTIC SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In raw sludges and in mesophilically and thermophilically digested anaerobic sludges, large variations in numbers of viruses occurred over narrow ranges of numbers of fecal coliforms, total coliforms, and fecal streptococci, demonstrating that the bacteria are poor quantitative r...

9

Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.  

PubMed

An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production. PMID:23419990

Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

2013-10-01

10

Phylogenetic and physiological characterization of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria from a sewage sludge composting process in Sapporo, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic and physiological characteristics of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria isolated from a field-scale sewage\\u000a sludge composter were determined by 16S rDNA and phenotype analyses. Of the 34 mesophilic isolates, 5 (15%), 16 (47%), and\\u000a 3 (9%) displayed amylase, protease, and lipase activities, respectively. Among these isolates, the following species were\\u000a identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences: Aneurinibacillus

Akihiro Ohnishi; Akihiro Nagano; Naoshi Fujimoto; Masaharu Suzuki

2011-01-01

11

Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process: effect on sludge degradation and variation of sludge property.  

PubMed

One-stage autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is effective for the reduction of volatile solids (VSs) and pathogen in sewage sludges. A novel process of combining mesophilic (<35 °C) anaerobic digestion with a thermophilic (55 °C) aerobic digestion process (AN/TAD) occurred in a one-stage digester, which was designed for aeration energy savings. The efficiency of sludge degradation and variation of sludge properties by batch experiments were evaluated for the AN/TAD digester with an effective volume of 23 L for 30 days compared with conventional thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD). The AN/TAD system can efficiently achieve sludge stabilization on the 16th day with a VS removal rate of 38.1 %. The AN/TAD system was operated at lower ORP values in a digestion period with higher contents of total organic compounds, volatile fatty acids, protein, and polysaccharide in the soluble phase than those of the TAD system, which can rapidly decreased and had low values in the late period of digestion for the AN/TAD system. In the AN/TAD system, intracellular substances had lysis because of initial hydrolytic acidification. PMID:23996119

Cheng, Jiehong; Ji, Yuehong; Kong, Feng; Chen, Xian

2013-12-01

12

Colonization of aerobic biofilms by sulfate?reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans to colonize aerobic heterotrophic or nitrifying biofilms on stainless steel surfaces was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directed to the dissimilatory sulfite reductase and by oxygen microelectrodes. Biofilms of heterotrophic bacteria and of nitrifying bacteria pregrown on steel

Mary E Power; Jan Roelof Van Der Meer; Hauke Harms; Oskar Wanner

2001-01-01

13

Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and petroleum-utilizing bacteria from cow dung and poultry manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, enumeration and identification of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and petroleum-utilizing bacteria as\\u000a well as the degradative potential of petroleum-utilizing bacterial isolates were carried out. The average counts of total\\u000a aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in cow dung and poultry manure were 74.25 × 105 c.f.u. g?1 and 138.75 × 105 c.f.u. g?1 respectively. Acinetobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, and Serratia spp. occurred as aerobic

S. B. Akinde; O. Obire

2008-01-01

14

Semiquantitative determination of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in cocoa products using the Soleris NF-TVC method.  

PubMed

The Soleris Non-fermenting Total Viable Count method was previously validated for a wide variety of food products, including cocoa powder. A matrix extension study was conducted to validate the method for use with cocoa butter and cocoa liquor. Test samples included naturally contaminated cocoa liquor and cocoa butter inoculated with natural microbial flora derived from cocoa liquor. A probability of detection statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using the AOAC Official Method 966.23 dilution plating method. Results of the two methods were not statistically different at any dilution level in any of the three trials conducted. The Soleris method offers the advantage of results within 24 h, compared to the 48 h required by standard dilution plating methods. PMID:24672871

Montei, Carolyn; McDougal, Susan; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

2014-01-01

15

TEMPO TVC for the enumeration of aerobic mesophilic flora in foods: collaborative study.  

PubMed

The automated system for enumeration of total viable count (TVC) in foods, TEMPO TVC, uses a dehydrated culture medium and an enumeration card containing 48 wells across 3 different dilutions for the automatic determination of the most probable number (MPN). The alternative method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to AOAC Method 966.23 for determination of aerobic plate count for nondairy products and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Standard Plate Count for dairy products. Five food types, raw ground beef, raw ground chicken, cooked whitefish fillets, bagged lettuce, and milk, were analyzed for TVC by 14 collaborating laboratories throughout the United States and Canada. Three lots of naturally contaminated food products representing a wide range of counts were tested for each of the 5 food types. The study demonstrated that the overall repeatability, reproducibility, and mean log counts of the TEMPO TVC method were statistically comparable to those of the 2 standard methods at the 5% level. PMID:19382575

Crowley, Erin S; Bird, Patrick M; Torontali, Marianne K; Agin, James R; Goins, David G; Johnson, Ronald

2009-01-01

16

Bioleaching of complex zinc sulphides using mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria: comparative importance of pH and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the bioleaching of the complex Pb\\/Zn ore\\/concentrate using mesophilic (at 30 °C), moderate (at 50 °C), and extreme thermophilic (at 70 °C) strains of acidophilic bacteria. The effects of bacterial strain, pH, iron precipitation, and external addition of Fe2+ on the extraction of zinc were evaluated. The results have shown that the ore is readily amenable to

H. Deveci; A. Akcil; I. Alp

2004-01-01

17

Aerobic denitrifying bacteria that produce low levels of nitrous oxide.  

PubMed

Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) instead of dinitrogen (N(2)) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N(2)O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to N(2) at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 micro mol min(-1) unit of optical density at 540 nm(-1) at dissolved oxygen (O(2)) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 micro mol liter(-1), respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N(2) but evolved more than 10-fold more N(2)O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO(3)(-) with concomitant consumption of O(2). These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the beta subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N(2)O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N(2)O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

2003-06-01

18

Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic protein degradation (24% of total protein) took place almost exclusively during the initial 24 h of starvation. Metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as CO(inf2) during aerobic starvation. In contrast, cell biomass decreased by only 2.4% during anaerobic starvation, and metabolized carbon was recovered mainly as organic solutes in the starvation medium. During anaerobic starvation, only the concentration of intracellular low-molecular-weight compounds decreased, whereas no significant changes were measured for cellular protein, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. Strain WP 12 was also capable of a limited anaerobic glucose metabolism in the absence of added electron acceptors. Small amounts of CO(inf2) and organic acids, including acetate, were produced from exogenous glucose under anoxic conditions. Addition of potential anaerobic electron acceptors (fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, or sulfate) to starved cultures of the methanotrophs Methylobacter albus BG8, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, and strain WP 12 did not stimulate anaerobic survival. However, anaerobic starvation of these bacteria generally resulted in better survival than did aerobic starvation. The results suggest that methanotrophic bacteria can enter a state of anaerobic dormancy accompanied by a severe attenuation of endogenous metabolism. In this state, maintenance requirements are presumably provided for by fermentation of certain endogenous substrates. In addition, low-level catabolism of exogenous substrates may support long-term anaerobic survival of some methanotrophic bacteria.

Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

1995-01-01

19

Use of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria for the improvement of copper extraction from a low-grade ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioleaching was examined for copper extraction from a low grade ore using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic bacteria. Five equal size columns were used for the leaching of the ore. Sulfuric acid solution with a flow rate of 3.12 L·m-2·h-1 and pH 1.5 passed through each column continuously for 90 d. In the first and the second column, bioleaching was performed without agglomeration of the ore and on the agglomerated ore, respectively. 28wt% of the copper was extracted in the first column after 40 d, while this figure was 38wt% in the second column. After 90 d, however, the overall extractions were almost the same for both of them. Bioleaching with mesophilic bacteria was performed in the third column without agglomeration of the ore and in the fourth column on the agglomerated ore. After 40 d, copper extractions in the third and the fourth columns were 62wt% and 70wt%, respectively. Copper extractions were 75wt% for both the columns after 90 d. For the last column, bioleaching was performed with moderate thermophilic bacteria and agglomerated ore. Copper extractions were 80wt% and 85wt% after 40 and 90 d, respectively. It was concluded that crushing and agglomeration of the ore using bacteria could enhance the copper extraction considerably.

Darezereshki, E.; Schaffie, M.; Lotfalian, M.; Seiedbaghery, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.

2011-04-01

20

Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria of cold ecosystems.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the ecophysiological role and structure-function features of methanotrophic bacteria living in various cold ecosystems. The occurrence of methanotrophs in a majority of psychrosphere sites was verified by direct measurement of their methane-utilizing activity, by electron microscopy and immunofluorescent observations, and analyses of specific signatures in cellular phospholipids and total DNAs extracted from environmental samples. Surprisingly, the phenotypic and genotypic markers of virtually all extant methanotrophs were detected in various cold habitats, such as underground waters, Northern taiga and tundra soils, polar lakes and permafrost sediments. Also, recent findings indicated that even after long-term storage in permafrost, some methanotrophs can oxidize and assimilate methane not only at positive but also at subzero temperatures. Pure cultures of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant methanotrophs were isolated and characterized as new genera and species: Methylobacter psychrophilus, Methylosphaera hansonii, Methylocella palustris, Methylocella silvestris, Methylocella tundrae, Methylocapsa acidiphila and Methylomonas scandinavica. However, our knowledge about their adaptive mechanisms and survival in cold ecosystems remains limited and needs to be established using both traditional and molecular microbiological methods. PMID:16329925

Trotsenko, Yuri A; Khmelenina, Valentina N

2005-06-01

21

Family Spirosomaceae: gram-negative ring-forming aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The bacteria having a unique ring-like morphology first isolated from nasal mucus by Weibel in 1887 were classified as a new genus Spirosoma by Migula in 1894. However, because these bacteria were not completely described for taxonomic purposes and their cultures were no longer available, the genus was deleted from the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th edition, 1948. Orskov (1928) created a new genus "Microcyclus" (a name that has been found to be illegitimate and replaced with Ancylobacter by Raj 1983) to describe these nonmotile vibroid bacteria that occasionally formed ring-like structures. Several similar isolates found in many countries during the last 60 years were readily identified with this genus on the basis of the characteristic morphology alone. For the first time, these fascinating bacteria were extensively reviewed by Raj in 1977 and again in 1981. However, during the last decade, the systematics of these microcyclus bacteria has been reexamined and redefined. It has been shown that these Gram-negative ring-forming aerobic bacteria constitute a heterogeneous group of five genera: Ancylobacter, Cyclobacterium, Flectobacillus, Runella, and Spirosoma; the last four genera have been grouped into a family Spirosomaceace (reviving the old discarded name originally proposed by Migula 1894), thus separating them from the genus Ancylobacter which remains unaffiliated with any family yet (Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. I, 9th ed., 1984). Also, this article reviews the recent studies reported on the ecology, morphogenesis, metabolism, and physiology of the picturesque bacteria. PMID:2248690

Raj, H D; Maloy, S R

1990-01-01

22

Evaluation of Cathra system for identifying gram negative aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Cathra system is a commercial multipoint inoculation method for the identification of aerobic Gram negative bacteria. The system uses a replicator technique in which 21 different agar media can be inoculated simultaneously with 36 organisms. Identifications are made by use of a special computer database. The performance of this system was compared with that of the API 20E for the identification of 372 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and 133 miscellaneous Gram negative bacteria. For enterobacteria, the Cathra system was in 97% agreement with API 20E at species level and 98% at genus level. For miscellaneous Gram negative strains the two systems were in 59% agreement at species level and 77% at genus level. The Cathra system is suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories, especially those with a heavy workload and a wish to use break-point sensitivity testing. The identification database for miscellaneous Gram negative organisms, however, needs to be expanded.

Ling, J M; Zhang, L C; Hui, Y W; French, G L

1990-01-01

23

Comparative study on the selective chalcopyrite bioleaching of a molybdenite concentrate with mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria.  

PubMed

This study evaluates different bioleaching treatments of a molybdenite concentrate using mesophilic and thermophilic bacterial cultures. Further studies on the chemical leaching and the electrochemical behavior of the MoS(2) concentrate were carried out. Bioleaching tests showed a progressive removal of chalcopyrite from the molybdenite concentrate with an increase in temperature. Chemical leaching tests support the idea of an indirect attack of the concentrate. Electrochemical tests indicate that chalcopyrite dissolution is favored when molybdenite is present. Therefore, this type of bioleaching treatment could be applied to purify molybdenite flotation concentrates by selectively dissolving chalcopyrite. PMID:11257551

Romano, P; Blázquez, M L; Alguacil, F J; Muñoz, J A; Ballester, A; González, F

2001-03-01

24

Mesophilic and Psychrotrophic Bacteria from Meat and Their Spoilage Potential In Vitro and in Beef ?  

PubMed Central

Mesophilic and psychrotrophic populations from refrigerated meat were identified in this study, and the spoilage potential of microbial isolates in packaged beef was evaluated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty mesophilic and twenty-nine psychrotrophic isolates were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, and representative strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and C. divergens were the species most frequently found in both mesophilic and psychrotrophic populations. Acinetobacter baumannii, Buttiauxella spp. and Serratia spp. were identified among the mesophilic isolates, while Pseudomonas spp. were commonly identified among the psychrotrophs. The isolates were further characterized for their growth at different temperatures and their proteolytic activity in vitro on meat proteins extracts at 7°C. Selected proteolytic strains of Serratia proteamaculans, Pseudomonas fragi, and C. maltaromaticum were used to examine their spoilage potential in situ. Single strains of these species and mixtures of these strains were used to contaminate beef chops that were packed and stored at 7°C. At time intervals up to 1 month, viable counts were determined, and VOC were identified by GC/MS. Generally, the VOC concentrations went to increase during the storage of the contaminated meats, and the profiles of the analyzed meat changed dramatically depending on the contaminating microbial species. About 100 volatiles were identified in the different contaminated samples. Among the detected volatiles, some specific molecules were identified only when the meat was contaminated by a specific microbial species. Compounds such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-buten-1-ol, 2-hexyl-1-octanol, 2-nonanone, and 2-ethylhexanal were detectable only for C. maltaromaticum, which also produced the highest number of aldehydes, lactones, and sulfur compounds. The highest number of alcohols and ketons were detected in the headspace of meat samples contaminated by P. fragi, whereas the highest concentrations of some alcohols, such as 1-octen-3-ol, and some esters, such as isoamyl acetate, were produced by S. proteamaculans. In conclusion, different microbial species can contribute to meat spoilage with release of different volatile compounds that concur to the overall quality decrease of spoiling meat.

Ercolini, Danilo; Russo, Federica; Nasi, Antonella; Ferranti, Pasquale; Villani, Francesco

2009-01-01

25

Nitrogen holding property of the composts in an aerobic mesophilic composting reactor for sanitary disposal of human feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

.cn Abstract-Aerobic composting is a method for sanitary disposal of human feces as has been used in bio-toilet systems. As the composting products can be utilized as fertilizer, it would be favorable if the composting condition could be well controlled for holding fecal nitrogen as far as possible in the composts. In this study, batch experiments were conducted using a

Fan Bai; Xiaochang Wang

2011-01-01

26

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotides Reveals Localization of Methanogens and Selected Uncultured Bacteria in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Sludge Granules  

PubMed Central

16S rRNA-targeted in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to elucidate the spatial distribution of microbes within two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C), in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with sucrose-, acetate-, and propionate-based artificial wastewater. The spatial organization of the microbes was visualized in thin sections of the granules by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several phylogenetic groups of microbes. In situ hybridization with archaeal- and bacterial-domain probes within granule sections clearly showed that both mesophilic and thermophilic granules had layered structures and that the outer layer harbored mainly bacterial cells while the inner layer consisted mainly of archaeal cells. Methanosaeta-, Methanobacterium-, Methanospirillum-, and Methanosarcina-like cells were detected with oligonucleotide probes specific for the different groups of methanogens, and they were found to be localized inside the granules, in both types of which dominant methanogens were members of the genus Methanosaeta. For specific detection of bacteria which were previously detected by whole-microbial-community 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-cloning analysis (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Syutsubo, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, and K. Nakamura, Microbiology 144:2655–2665, 1998) we designed probes specific for clonal 16S rDNAs related to unidentified green nonsulfur bacteria and clones related to Syntrophobacter species. The probe designed for the cluster closely related to Syntrophobacter species hybridized with coccoid cells in the inner layer of the mesophilic granule sections. The probe for the unidentified bacteria which were clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria detected filamentous cells in the outermost layer of the thermophilic sludge granule sections. These results revealed the spatial organizations of methanogens and uncultivated bacteria and their in situ morphologies and metabolic functions in both mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludges.

Sekiguchi, Yuji; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

1999-01-01

27

Improved stability of aerobic granules by selecting slow-growing nitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the feasibility of improving the stability of aerobic granules through selecting slow-growing nitrifying bacteria. For this purpose, four sequencing batch reactors were operated at different substrate N\\/COD ratios ranging from 5\\/100 to 30\\/100. Results showed that aerobic granules formed in all four reactors, and aerobic granulation was a gradual process evolving from the dispersed seed sludge to

Yu Liu; Shu-Fang Yang; Joo-Hwa Tay

2004-01-01

28

Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.  

PubMed

In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production. PMID:24759540

Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

2014-01-01

29

An innovative sewage sludge reduction by using a combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic process with thermal-alkaline treatment and sludge recirculation.  

PubMed

Lab-scale High Efficiency Digestion (HED) systems containing a Mesophilic Anaerobic Reactor (MAR), Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (TAR), liquid/solid separation unit, and thermal-alkaline treatment were developed to evaluate the efficiencies of sludge reduction and methane production. The HED process was divided into three phases to examine the influence of sludge pretreatment and pretreated sludge recirculation using TCOD and VSS reduction, COD solubilization, and methane production. The VSS removal with a solid/liquid separation unit, sludge recirculation, and thermal-alkaline treatment drastically increased up to 95% compared to the feed concentration. In addition, the results of COD solubilization and VSS/TSS showed that the solubilization of cells and organic matters by the thermal-alkaline treatment was highly increased, which was also consistent with the SEM images. In particular, the methane production rate increased 24-fold when the feed sludge and recirculated sludge were pretreated together. Collectively, the HED experiments performed with sludge recirculation and thermal-alkaline treatment demonstrated that the HED systems can be successfully employed for highly efficient sewage sludge reduction and methane gas production. PMID:23968913

Cho, Hyun Uk; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

2013-11-15

30

Distribution of Heterotrophic and Nitrifying Bacteria within the Aerobic-Media Trickling Filter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distribution and densities of the heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria within the aerobic-media trickling filter (AMTF) were evaluated for response to changing detention times and nitrogen loadings. Comparison of the total mean densities obtained during ...

G. W. Gillespie

1977-01-01

31

Sulfate reducing and methane producing bacteria in aerobic wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection of aerobic biofilm reactors and activated sludge plants were investigated for the presence of methane producing bacteria (MPB) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Detection tests showed that acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic MPB as well as lactate, acetate and propionate oxidizing SRB were present in all reactor types investigated, except in an activated sludge reactor aerated with pure oxygen. Methane

P. N. Lens; M.-P. De Poorter; C. C. Cronenberg; W. H. Verstraete

1995-01-01

32

Aerobic bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii and Cytomegalovirus as agents of severe pneumonia in small infants.  

PubMed

The authors studied 58 infants hospitalized for pneumonia in a semi-intensive care unit. Age ranged from 1 complete to 6 incomplete months. The infants were sent from another hospital in 20 cases and from home in a further 38. Pulmonary involvement, which was alveolar in 46 cases and interstitial in 12, was bilateral in 31 children. The investigation was carried out prospectively on the etiological agents associated with respiratory infection to look for evidence of aerobic bacteria (blood cultures), Chlamydia trachomatis and Cytomegalovirus (serology), and Pneumocystis carinii (direct microscopy of tracheal aspirated material). The following infectious agents were diagnosed in 21 children (36.2%): Aerobic bacteria (8), Chlamydia trachomatis (5), Pneumocystis carinii (3), Cytomegalovirus (3), Cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia trachomatis (1), Aerobic bacteria and Cytomegalovirus (1). Seven cases of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Cytomegalovirus were diagnosed out of the 12 cases with pulmonary interstitial involvement. PMID:8762633

Ejzenberg, B; Melles, H; Melles, C; Dias, R; Baldacci, E R; Okay, Y

1996-01-01

33

Complete decomposition of biological waste sludge by thermophilic aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional activated sludge (AS) process is an economical and effective biooxidation process although a large amount of excess sludge is necessarily generated. We have developed a new zero- discharge AS process, in which no excess sludge is generated. It was formed by combining the conventional AS process with thermophilic aerobic sludge digester in which excess sludge is solubilized by thermophilic

Y. Sakai; T. Aoyagi; N. Shiota; A. Akashi; S. Hasegawa

2000-01-01

34

Cellulosomes from Mesophilic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes have become increasingly important, since the development of efficient biomass degra- dation methods and the conversion of sugars to valuable prod- ucts such as butanol and amino acids and utilizable forms of energy such as ethanol and methane could lead to less depen- dence on imported petroleum as a fuel and chemical source. Plant biomass is

Roy H. Doi; Akihiko Kosugi; Koichiro Murashima; Yutaka Tamaru; Sung Ok Han

2003-01-01

35

Distribution, diversity and ecology of aerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies indicate that carbon monoxide (CO) participates in a broader range of processes than any other single molecule, ranging from subcellular to planetary scales. Despite its toxicity to many organisms, a diverse group of bacteria that span multiple phylogenetic lineages metabolize CO. These bacteria are globally distributed and include pathogens, plant symbionts and biogeochemically important lineages in soils and

Carolyn F. Weber; Gary M. King

2007-01-01

36

Iron Isotope Fractionation by Aerobic Bacteria; A Useful Biosignature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present new information gleaned from cultures of Fe oxidizing bacteria and consider isotopic fractionation effects. This information may prove useful in understanding Fe as a biosignature in the natural environment.

Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Nelson, B. K.; Edwards, K. J.; Staley, J. T.; Murray, J. W.

2010-04-01

37

PCB-degrading potential of aerobic bacteria enriched from marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to study catabolic potential of marine sediment bacteria in aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Marine sediment samples were collected at urban areas of the Croatian Adriatic coast, and microcosm enrichment experiments were performed in seawater mineral salts (SMS) medium with the addition of biphenyl as the only carbon source. After two to

Ana Begonja Kolar; Dubravka Hršak; Sanja Fingler; Helena ?etkovi?; Ines Petri?; Nikolina Udikovi? Koli?

2007-01-01

38

Effect of Radiation Dose on the Recovery of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria from Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9. or 10 Gy CO60 radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The num...

I. Brook R. I. Walker T. J. MacVittie

1986-01-01

39

Concentrations of butyric acid bacteria spores in silage and relationships with aerobic deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination and growth of spores of butyric acid bacteria (BAB) may cause severe defects in semihard cheeses. Silage is the main source of BAB spores in cheese milk. The objectives of the study were to deter- mine the significance of grass silages and corn silages assourcesofBABsporesandtoinvestigatetherelation- ships between high concentrations of BAB spores in corn silage and aerobic deterioration. In

M. M. M. Vissers; F. Driehuis; M. C. Te Giffel; P. De Jong; J. M. G. Lankveld

2007-01-01

40

Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process.  

PubMed

The key issue in achieving a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent. In the present study, aerobic batch biodegradation was conducted over the temperature range of 27-63°C (step 9°C), at a pH of 6.5 and 8.0, using a mixed culture of bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Betaine was assimilated at 27-54°C and the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27-45°C and the pH of 6.5. The processes where betaine was assimilated produced a high BOD(5) removal, which exceeded 99.40% over the temperature range of 27-45°C at the pH of 8.0, as well as at 27°C and the pH of 6.5. Maximal COD removal (88.73%) was attained at 36°C and the pH of 6.5. The results indicate that the process can be applied on an industrial scale as the first step in the treatment of beet molasses vinasse. PMID:21367516

Cibis, Edmund; Ryznar-Luty, Agnieszka; Krzywonos, Ma?gorzata; Lutos?awski, Krzysztof; Mi?kiewicz, Tadeusz

2011-07-01

41

Testing for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria allows no prediction of contamination with potentially pathogenic bacteria in the output water of dental chair units  

PubMed Central

Background: Currently, to our knowledge, quality of output water of dental chair units is not covered by specific regulations in the European Union, and national recommendations are heterogeneous. In Germany, water used in dental chair units must follow drinking water quality. In the United States of America, testing for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria is recommended. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the counts of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria correlate with the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella spp. or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: 71 samples were collected from 26 dental chair units with integrated disinfection device and 31 samples from 15 outlets of the water distribution pipework within the department were examined. Samples were tested for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria at 35°C and 22°C using different culture media and for Legionella spp. and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were typed with monoclonal antibodies and representative samples of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were typed by sequence based typing. Results: Our results showed a correlation between different agars for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria but no correlation for the count of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and the presence of Legionella spp. or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Testing for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in output water or water distribution pipework within the departments alone is without any value for predicting whether the water is contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria like Legionella spp. or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bristela, Margit; Skolka, Astrid; Schmid-Schwap, Martina; Piehslinger, Eva; Indra, Alexander; Wewalka, Gunther; Stauffer, Fritz

2012-01-01

42

Role of anaerobic flora in the translocation of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed Central

It is thought that the normal enteric microflora acts not only to prevent intestinal colonization but also to prevent subsequent systemic dissemination of ingested, potentially pathogenic bacteria. To determine the relative roles of specific components of the intestinal bacterial flora in bacterial translocation out of the gut, mice were given various antimicrobial agents to selectively eliminate specific groups of intestinal bacteria. The cecal flora and the translocating bacteria in mesenteric lymph nodes were monitored both before and after oral inoculation with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli C25. Orally administered streptomycin selectively eliminated cecal facultative gram-negative bacilli, orally administered bacitracin-streptomycin eliminated all cecal bacterial species except low numbers of aerobic sporeformers, and parenterally administered metronidazole selectively eliminated cecal anaerobic bacteria. Compared with control mice, only metronidazole-treated mice had significantly increased rates of dissemination of intestinal bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes, indicating that the exclusive absence of anaerobic bacteria facilitated the translocation of the intestinal facultative bacteria. In a parallel experiment with streptomycin-resistant E. coli C25 as a marker, parallel results were obtained. Metronidazole increased the translocation of the marker strain and the indigenous strains of intestinal bacteria. Thus, anaerobes appeared to play a key role in confining indigenous bacteria to the gut. However, intestinal colonization and translocation of E. coli C25 occurred most readily after bacitracin-streptomycin treatment, suggesting that in addition to anaerobic bacteria, other bacterial groups may play a role in limiting the intestinal colonization and extraintestinal dissemination of E. coli C25.

Wells, C L; Maddaus, M A; Reynolds, C M; Jechorek, R P; Simmons, R L

1987-01-01

43

Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis genes and operons in uncultured bacteria in the Delaware River.  

PubMed

Photosynthesis genes and operons of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic (AAP) bacteria have been examined in a variety of marine habitats, but genomic information about freshwater AAP bacteria is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine photosynthesis genes of AAP bacteria in the Delaware River. In a fosmid library, we found two clones bearing photosynthesis gene clusters with unique gene content and organization. Both clones contained 37 open reading frames, with most of those genes encoding known AAP bacterial proteins. The genes in one fosmid were most closely related to those of AAP bacteria in the Rhodobacter genus. The genes of the other clone were related to those of freshwater beta-proteobacteria. Both clones contained the acsF gene, which is required for aerobic bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, suggesting that these bacteria are not anaerobes. The beta-proteobacterial fosmid has the puf operon B-A-L-M-C and is the first example of an uncultured bacterium with this operon structure. The alpha-3-proteobacterial fosmid has a rare gene order (Q-B-A-L-M-X), previously observed only in the Rhodobacter genus. Phylogenetic analyses of photosynthesis genes revealed a possible freshwater cluster of AAP beta-proteobacteria. The data from both Delaware River clones suggest there are groups of freshwater or estuarine AAP bacteria distinct from those found in marine environments. PMID:16309388

Waidner, Lisa A; Kirchman, David L

2005-12-01

44

The search and its outcome: high-resolution structures of ribosomal particles from mesophilic, thermophilic, and halophilic bacteria at various functional states.  

PubMed

We determined the high-resolution structures of large and small ribosomal subunits from mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and compared them with those of the thermophilic ribosome and the halophilic large subunit. We confirmed that the elements involved in intersubunit contacts and in substrate binding are inherently flexible and that a common ribosomal strategy is to utilize this conformational variability for optimizing its functional efficiency and minimizing nonproductive interactions. Under close-to-physiological conditions, these elements maintain well-ordered characteristic conformations. In unbound subunits, the features creating intersubunit bridges within associated ribosomes lie on the interface surface, and the features that bind factors and substrates reach toward the binding site only when conditions are ripe. PMID:11988470

Yonath, Ada

2002-01-01

45

Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH 4-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon isotope fractionation factors reported for aerobic bacterial oxidation of CH4(?CH4–CO2) range from 1.003 to 1.039. In a series of experiments designed to monitor changes in the carbon isotopic fractionation of CH4 by Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria, we found that the magnitude of fractionation was largely due to the first oxidation step catalyzed by methane monooxygenase (MMO).

Alexis S. Templeton; Kung-Hui Chu; Lisa Alvarez-Cohen; Mark E. Conrad

2006-01-01

46

Characteristics of aerobic granules rich in autotrophic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic granules with high carbon- and ammonia-oxidizing activities were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor. The granule size slowly increased with the operating time and the mean diameter reached 0.85mm after 120 days of operation. Most of the ammonia was converted to nitrite and less nitrate was generated. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased significantly in the formation of matured

Xian-Yang Shi; Han-Qing Yu; Yu-Jiao Sun; Xia Huang

2009-01-01

47

Anaerobic decolorization bacteria for the treatment of azo dye in a sequential anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing wastewater is harmful to both marine organisms and human beings. This study focused on the treatment of wastewater containing an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) combined with an aerobic membrane bioreactor (aerobic MBR). In addition the anaerobic RB5 degrading bacteria were isolated and their individual performance were tested separately. Nearly

Sheng-Jie You; Jun-Yu Teng

2009-01-01

48

Anaerobic and aerobic skin bacteria before and after skin-disinfection with chlorhexidine: an experimental study in volunteers.  

PubMed Central

The amount, composition, and localization of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in the normal skin before and after disinfection were the subject of a volunteer study. The superficial bacterial flora were sampled by velvet pad imprints, and the deep flora were determined from whole skin biopsies. Only one anaerobic species, Propionebacterium acnes, was encountered even though other and more strict anaerobic bacteria could have been grown with the anaerobic technique employed. Staphylococcus albus dominated among the aerobic superficial bacteria, while diphtheroids, Micrococcus spp., and lactobacilli occurred sporadically. The deep aerobic bacteria were present in a significantly greater amount than the anaerobic. A two-step cleansing/disinfection procedure was evaluated in vivo in volunteers as well as in surgical patients, and aqueous cetrimide/chlorhexidine (Savlon) followed by chlorhexidine in alcohol (Hibitane) almost eradicated both the superficial and deep anaerobic and aerobic skin flora.

Nielsen, M L; Raahave, D; Stage, J G; Justesen, T

1975-01-01

49

High Abundances of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria in the South Pacific Ocean?  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the abundance, distribution, and ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, particularly in oligotrophic environments, which represent 60% of the ocean. We investigated the abundance of AAP bacteria across the South Pacific Ocean, including the center of the gyre, the most oligotrophic water body of the world ocean. AAP bacteria, Prochlorococcus, and total prokaryotic abundances, as well as bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and divinyl-chlorophyll a concentrations, were measured at several depths in the photic zone along a gradient of oligotrophic conditions. The abundances of AAP bacteria and Prochlorococcus were high, together accounting for up to 58% of the total prokaryotic community. The abundance of AAP bacteria alone was up to 1.94 × 105 cells ml?1 and as high as 24% of the overall community. These measurements were consistent with the high BChl a concentrations (up to 3.32 × 10?3 ?g liter?1) found at all stations. However, the BChl a content per AAP bacterial cell was low, suggesting that AAP bacteria are mostly heterotrophic organisms. Interestingly, the biovolume and therefore biomass of AAP bacteria was on average twofold higher than that of other prokaryotic cells. This study demonstrates that AAP bacteria can be abundant in various oligotrophic conditions, including the most oligotrophic regime of the world ocean, and can account for a large part of the bacterioplanktonic carbon stock.

Lami, Raphael; Cottrell, Matthew T.; Ras, Josephine; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Claustre, Herve; Kirchman, David L.; Lebaron, Philippe

2007-01-01

50

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria attached to particles in turbid waters of the Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries.  

PubMed

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are photoheterotrophs that, if abundant, may be biogeochemically important in the oceans. We used epifluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine the abundance of these bacteria by enumerating cells with bacteriochlorophyll a (bChl a) and the light-reaction center gene pufM, respectively. In the surface waters of the Delaware estuary, AAP bacteria were abundant, comprising up to 34% of prokaryotes, although the percentage varied greatly with location and season. On average, AAP bacteria made up 12% of the community as measured by microscopy and 17% by qPCR. In the surface waters of the Chesapeake, AAP bacteria were less abundant, averaging 6% of prokaryotes. AAP bacterial abundance was significantly correlated with light attenuation (r=0.50) and ammonium (r=0.42) and nitrate (r=0.71) concentrations. Often, bChl a-containing bacteria were mostly attached to particles (31 to 94% of total AAP bacteria), while usually 20% or less of total prokaryotes were associated with particles. Of the cells containing pufM, up to 87% were associated with particles, but the overall average of particle-attached cells was 15%. These data suggest that AAP bacteria are particularly competitive in these two estuaries, in part due to attachment to particles. PMID:17468276

Waidner, Lisa A; Kirchman, David L

2007-06-01

51

Determination of total aerobic and indicator bacteria on some raw eaten vegetables from wholesalers in Ankara, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of some raw eaten salad vegetables obtained from wholesalers in Ankara, Turkey. A total of 180 samples including lettuces, cos lettuce, iceberg lettuce, parsley, dill and carrots were analyzed for total aerobic bacteria, total coliform bacteria and E. coli between January 2004 and April 2004. Compact Dry media (Nissui

Hasan Aycicek; Utku Oguz; Koray Karci

2006-01-01

52

Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYB, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S.wolfei LYB was closely related to S.wolfei subsp. solfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas. Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA of different groups within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all currently known saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, were developed and characterized. The probes were designed to be specific at the family, genus, and species levels and were characterized by temperature-of-dissociation and specificity studies. To demonstrate the usefulness of the probes for the detection and quantification of saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities and microbial numbers determined with most-probable-number estimates. Most of the methanogenic rRNA was comprised of Methanomicrobiales rRNA, suggesting that members of this order served as the main hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. Between 0.2 and 1% of the rRNA was attributed to the Syntrophomonadaceae, or which the majority was accounted for by the genus Syntrophomonas.

Hansen, K.H.; Ahring, B.K.; Raskin, L.

1999-11-01

53

Population of aerobic heterotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with wetland and dryland rice  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen-fixing activity and populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with two varieties of rice grown in dryland and wetland conditions were measured at various growth stages during the dry season. Acetylene reduction activities were measured both in the field and for the hydroponically grown rice, which was transferred from the field to water culture 1 day before assay. The activities measured by both methods were higher in wetland than in dryland rice. The population of nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was determined by the most probable number method with semisolid glucose-yeast extract and semisolid malate-yeast extract media. The number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was higher in wetland conditions than in dryland conditions. The difference between two conditions was most pronounced in the population associated with the basal shoot. The glucose medium gave higher counts than did the malate medium. Colonies were picked from tryptic soy agar plates, and their nitrogen-fixing activity was tested on a semisolid glucose-yeast extract medium. The incidence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in association with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was much lower in dryland rice than in wetland rice. (Refs. 11).

Barraquio, W.L.; De Guzman, M.R.; Barrion, M.; Watanahe, I.

1982-01-01

54

Population of Aerobic Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Associated with Wetland and Dryland Rice  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen-fixing activity and populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with two varieties of rice grown in dryland and wetland conditions were measured at various growth stages during the dry season. Acetylene reduction activities were measured both in the field and for the hydroponically grown rice, which was transferred from the field to water culture 1 day before assay. The activities measured by both methods were higher in wetland than in dryland rice. The population of nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was determined by the most probable number method with semisolid glucose-yeast extract and semisolid malate-yeast extract media. The number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was higher in wetland conditions than in dryland conditions. The difference between two conditions was most pronounced in the population associated with the basal shoot. The glucose medium gave higher counts than did the malate medium. Colonies were picked from tryptic soy agar plates, and their nitrogen-fixing activity was tested on a semisolid glucose-yeast extract medium. The incidence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in association with rhizosphere soil, root, and basal shoots was much lower in dryland rice than in wetland rice.

Barraquio, W. L.; de Guzman, M. R.; Barrion, M.; Watanabe, I.

1982-01-01

55

Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-β-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-β-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYB, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S.wolfei LYB was closely related to S.wolfei subsp. solfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas. Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA

KAARE H. HANSEN; BIRGITTE K. AHRING; LUTGARDE RASKIN

1999-01-01

56

Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: Influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key issue in achieving a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent. In the present study, aerobic batch biodegradation was conducted over the temperature range of 27–63°C (step 9°C), at a pH of 6.5 and 8.0, using a

Edmund Cibis; Agnieszka Ryznar-Luty; Ma?gorzata Krzywonos; Krzysztof Lutos?awski; Tadeusz Mi?kiewicz

2011-01-01

57

Diverse Arrangement of Photosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC). In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. Conclusions/Significance Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria.

Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Koblizek, Michal; Boldareva, Ekaterina N.; Yurkov, Vladimir; Yan, Shi; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-01-01

58

[Bioaugmentation for shortcut nitrification in SBR treating for sewage containing sea water by nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria].  

PubMed

The feasibility of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in shortcut nitrification system was studied. Four heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strains mixed with halotolerant activated sludge was added into SBR in order to test their bioaugmentation ability for shortcut nitrification system, which was treating for sewage containing sea water, and the difference between bioaugmentation system and original system was compared. The results showed that the maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N in bioaugmentation system was 34.92% lower than that in original system, and the time of maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N was 2 hours earlier than that in original system. The TN and COD was continuously decreasing in the later phase of nitrification in bioaugmentation system, and finally the removal rate of TN and COD were 15.24% and 5.39% higher than that in original system respectively, as well as the removal rate of NH4(+) -N and the nitrosation rate were 6.85% and 14.47% higher than that in original system. And the pH was 0.46 higher than that in original system, whereas the ORP was 25.84 mV lower. It was considered that the function of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria should strengthen the performance of bioaugmentation system. When the seawater content raised to 70%, the stability of bioaugmentation system was better than that in original system, and the current that transforming shortcut nitrification to complete nitrification was restrained by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria effectively. The number of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria was changed when bioaugmentation system and original system ran in different phase and the bacteria had a great loss with the discharge of activated sludge. These results may provide a theoretical reference about the feasibility that the heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in shortcut nitrification system. PMID:21229749

Qu, Yang; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Yu, De-Shuang; Guo, Sha-Sha; Yang, Rui-Xia

2010-10-01

59

Increased salinity improves the thermotolerance of mesophilic nitrification.  

PubMed

Nitrification is a well-studied and established process to treat ammonia in wastewater. Although thermophilic nitrification could avoid cooling costs for the treatment of warm wastewaters, applications above 40 °C remain a significant challenge. This study tested the effect of salinity on the thermotolerance of mesophilic nitrifying sludge (34 °C). In batch tests, 5 g NaCl L(-1) increased the activity of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) by 20-21 % at 40 and 45 °C. For nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), the activity remained unaltered at 40 °C, yet decreased by 83 % at 45 °C. In a subsequent long-term continuous reactor test, temperature was increased from 34 to 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50 °C. The AerAOB activity showed 65 and 37 % higher immediate resilience in the salt reactor (7.5 g NaCl L(-1)) for the first two temperature transitions and lost activity from 45 °C onwards. NOB activity, in contrast to the batch tests, was 37 and 21 % more resilient in the salt reactor for the first two transitions, while no difference was observed for the third temperature transition. The control reactor lost NOB activity at 47.5 °C, while the salt reactor only lost activity at 50 °C. Overall, this study demonstrates salt amendment as a tool for a more efficient temperature transition for mesophilic sludge (34 °C) and eventually higher nitrification temperatures. PMID:24526362

Courtens, Emilie N P; Boon, Nico; De Schryver, Peter; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

2014-05-01

60

Bacteriochlorophyll and community structure of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in a particle-rich estuary.  

PubMed

Photoheterotrophic microbes use organic substrates and light energy to satisfy their demand for carbon and energy and seem to be well adapted to eutrophic estuarine and oligotrophic oceanic environments. One type of photoheterotroph, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, is especially abundant in particle-rich, turbid estuaries. To explore questions regarding the controls of these photoheterotrophic bacteria, we examined their abundance by epifluorescence microscopy, concentrations of the light-harvesting pigment, bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and the diversity of pufM and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the Chesapeake Bay. Concentrations of BChl a varied substantially, much more so than AAP bacterial abundance, along the estuarine salinity gradient. The BChl a concentration was correlated with turbidity only when oceanic and estuarine waters were considered together. Concentrations of BChl a and BChl a quotas were higher in particle-associated than in free-living AAP bacterial communities and appear to reflect physiological adaptation, not different AAP bacterial communities; pufM genes did not differ between particle-associated and free-living communities. In contrast, particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were significantly different, on the basis of the analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The BChl a quota of AAP bacteria was not correlated with turbidity, suggesting that pigment synthesis varies in direct response to particles, not light attenuation. The AAP bacteria seem to synthesize more BChl a when dissolved and particulate substrates are available than when only dissolved materials are accessible, which has implications for understanding the impact of substrates on the level of photoheterotrophy compared with heterotrophy in AAP bacteria. PMID:20182527

Cottrell, Matthew T; Ras, Josephine; Kirchman, David L

2010-07-01

61

Summer community structure of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the western Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are found in a range of aquatic and terrestrial environments, potentially playing unique roles in biogeochemical cycles. Although known to occur in the Arctic Ocean, their ecology and the factors that govern their community structure and distribution in this extreme environment are poorly understood. Here, we examined summer AAP abundance and diversity in the North East Pacific and the Arctic Ocean with emphasis on the southern Beaufort Sea. AAP bacteria comprised up to 10 and 14% of the prokaryotic community in the bottom nepheloid layer and surface waters of the Mackenzie plume, respectively. However, relative AAP abundances were low in offshore waters. Environmental pufM clone libraries revealed that AAP bacteria in the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes dominated in offshore and in river-influenced surface waters, respectively. The most frequent AAP group was a new uncultivated betaproteobacterial clade whose abundance decreased along the salinity gradient of the Mackenzie plume even though its photosynthetic genes were actively expressed in offshore waters. Our data indicate that AAP bacterial assemblages represented a mixture of freshwater and marine taxa mostly restricted to the Arctic Ocean and highlight the substantial influence of riverine inputs on their distribution in coastal environments. PMID:23560623

Boeuf, Dominique; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L; Lebaron, Philippe; Jeanthon, Christian

2013-09-01

62

Characterisation of aerobically grown non-spore-forming bacteria from paper mill pulps containing recycled fibres.  

PubMed

A total of 179 non-spore-forming bacteria aerobically growing on Nutrient Agar, Plate Count Agar or in specific enrichment conditions for salmonella, campylobacteria, listeria, yersinia or staphylococci, were isolated from 16 untreated paper mill pulps. After phenotypical screening the isolates were characterised by automated ribotyping and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. They could be divided into seven taxonomical classes representing 63 taxa (species): actinobacteria (11 species), bacilli (7), flavobacteria (3) alphaproteobacteria (10), betaproteobacteria (5), gammaproteobacteria (25) and sphingobacteria (2). Most of the gammaproteobacteria were enterobacteria, mainly species of the genera Enterobacter (7 species, 7 samples/3 mills) and Klebsiella (5 species, 6 samples/3 mills). Other commonly occurring bacteria were most closely related to Microbacterium barkeri (7 samples/3 mills), Cloacibacterium normanense (6 samples/2 mills), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis (5 samples/2 mills) and Sphingobacterium composti (5 samples/1 mill). Sporadic isolates of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus warneri were detected, from which only L. monocytogenes is considered to be a food pathogen. No isolates of the genera Campylobacter, Salmonella or Yersinia were detected. The detected bacteria may be harmful in process control, but the load of food pathogens with recycled fibres to paper machines is insignificant. Faecal contamination of the pulp samples was not indicated. PMID:18820960

Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Skyttä, Eija

2009-01-01

63

Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real-Time PCR and Flow Cytometry-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid-based assays were developed to enumerate members of the three taxa Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc spp. in mesophilic starter cultures. To our knowledge the present is the first study to present a multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) strategy for the relative enumeration of bacteria. The multiplex qPCR strategy was designed to quantify the target DNA simultaneously relative to total bacterial DNA. The assay has a high discriminatory power and resolves concentration changes as low as 1.3-fold. The methodology was compared with flow cytometric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FLOW-FISH) and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-galactopyranoside (X-Gal)-calcium citrate agar-based plate counting. For enumeration by FLOW-FISH, three new probes having the same specificity as the qPCR assay were designed and established. A combination with flow cytometry greatly reduced the time consumed compared to manual enumeration. Both qPCR and FLOW-FISH yielded similar community compositions for 10 complex starter cultures, with all detected subpopulations being highly significantly correlated (P < 0.001). Correlations between X-Gal-calcium citrate agar-based CFU and qPCR-derived counts were highly significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) for the number of acidifiers versus L. lactis subsp. cremoris and for Leuconostoc spp. as quantified by the two techniques, respectively. This confirmed that most acidifiers in the studied PROBAT cultures are members of L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Quantitative real-time PCR and FLOW-FISH were found to be effective and accurate tools for the bacterial community analysis of complex starter cultures.

Friedrich, Udo; Lenke, Jan

2006-01-01

64

Vertical distribution and characterization of aerobic phototrophic bacteria at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of culturable anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was investigated at five sites at or near the Juan\\u000a de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Twelve similar strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria were isolated in pure\\u000a culture, from depths ranging from 500 to 2,379 m below the surface. These strains appear morphologically, physiologically,\\u000a biochemically, and phylogenetically similar to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum

Christopher Rathgeber; Michael T. Lince; Jean Alric; Andrew S. Lang; Elaine Humphrey; Robert E. Blankenship; André Verméglio; F. Gerald Plumley; Cindy L. Van Dover; J. Thomas Beatty; Vladimir Yurkov

2008-01-01

65

Anaerobic and aerobic skin bacteria before and after skin-disinfection with chlorhexidine: an experimental study in volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount, composition, and localization of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in the normal skin before and after disinfection were the subject of a volunteer study. The superficial bacterial flora were sampled by velvet pad imprints, and the deep flora were determined from whole skin biopsies. Only one anaerobic species, Propionebacterium acnes, was encountered even though other and more strict anaerobic

M L Nielsen; D Raahave; J G Stage; T Justesen

1975-01-01

66

[In vitro activity of several cytostatic drugs against aerobic and anaerobic intestinal bacteria].  

PubMed

The human normal intestinal flora prevents the colonization of exogenous bacteria, maintaining a constant microecology: this property is called "colonization resistance". In leukemia patients antibiotics used for prevention and/or therapy of infectious episodes can alter the intestinal microecology, so that the gut can represent the trigger zone for generalized septicemia. Moreover cytotoxic drugs used in these patients can favour intestinal disturbances. In our study we evaluated the in vitro activity of three commonly used antineoplastic drugs (Daunorubicin, Cytosine arabinoside, Methotrexate) against aerobic and anaerobic intestinal bacteria and Clostridium difficile that is the aetiological agent of pseudomembranous colitis. Daunorubicin proved to be the most active inhibiting, in concentration ranging from 16 to 128 micrograms/ml, 50% of Bacteroides strains and 90% of Clostridium difficile and Enterococci strains tested. Methotrexate showed activity only against some Bacteroides strains, while Cytosine arabinoside had no activity at all. We conclude that in these patients the use of these drugs may represent another factor of risk altering the intestinal flora and so lowering the colonization resistance. PMID:6534396

Vetere, A; Giuliano, M; Pantosti, A; Panichi, G

1984-01-01

67

Environmental detection of octahaem cytochrome c hydroxylamine/hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial aerobic ammonium oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are important processes in the global nitrogen cycle. Key enzymes in both processes are the octahaem cytochrome c (OCC) proteins, hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which catalyses the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite, and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) of anammox bacteria, which converts hydrazine to N(2). While the genomes of AOB encode up to three nearly identical copies of hao operons, genome analysis of Candidatus'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis' showed eight highly divergent octahaem protein coding regions as possible candidates for the HZO. Based on their phylogenetic relationship and biochemical characteristics, the sequences of these eight gene products grouped in three clusters. Degenerate primers were designed on the basis of available gene sequences with the aim to detect hao and hzo genes in various ecosystems. The hao primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 738 to 1172 bp and the hzo primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 289 to 876 bp in length, when tested on genomic DNA isolated from a variety of AOB and anammox bacteria. A selection of these primer pairs was also used successfully to amplify and analyse the hao and hzo genes in community DNA isolated from different ecosystems harbouring both AOB and anammox bacteria. We propose that OCC protein-encoding genes are suitable targets for molecular ecological studies on both aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:18973625

Schmid, Markus C; Hooper, Alan B; Klotz, Martin G; Woebken, Dagmar; Lam, Phyllis; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Pommerening-Roeser, Andreas; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

2008-11-01

68

Distribution and Physiology of Aerobic Bacteria Containing Bacteriochlorophyll a on the East and West Coasts of Australia †  

PubMed Central

Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll were isolated from specimens from a wide variety of marine environments on the west (Shark Bay, Lake Clifton, Lake Heyward, and Perth) and east (near Townsville and Brisbane) coasts of Australia. The bacteria were found in a high proportion (10 to 30%) of the total heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from marine algae, seagrasses, stromatolites, the epiphytes on stromatolites, seawater, and sands; in some cases they constituted up to 49% of the total. This is much higher than the previous report of 6% from Japan. A high percentage, 13%, was also found in the seawater of Hamelin Pool, at Shark Bay, where the salinity was 66%. The number of these bacteria was generally low in seawater and sands, with a few exceptions. There were no aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria on sponges or corals. The isolated strains were orange or pink, and most had absorption maxima around 800 and 850 to 870 nm, the latter range being the absorption of bacteriochlorophyll a in vivo. The maximum bacteriochlorophyll content was 1 nmol/mg (dry weight) of bacterial cells. Most of the bacteria did not grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions in a broth medium containing succinate. Cells and cell extracts grown under aerobic conditions had photochemical activities such as reversible photooxidations of the reaction center and cytochrome(s). Some strains showed denitrifying activity. The optimal salinity for bacterial growth varied between strains.

Shiba, Tsuneo; Shioi, Yuzo; Takamiya, Ken-Ichiro; Sutton, David C.; Wilkinson, Clive R.

1991-01-01

69

Rapid High-Throughput Assessment of Aerobic Bacteria in Complex Samples by Fluorescence-Based Oxygen Respirometry  

PubMed Central

A simple method has been developed for the analysis of aerobic bacteria in complex samples such as broth and food homogenates. It employs commercial phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes to monitor oxygen consumption of samples containing bacteria using standard microtiter plates and fluorescence plate readers. As bacteria grow in aqueous medium, at certain points they begin to deplete dissolved oxygen, which is seen as an increase in probe fluorescence above baseline signal. The time required to reach threshold signal is used to either enumerate bacteria based on a predetermined calibration or to assess the effects of various effectors on the growth of test bacteria by comparison with an untreated control. This method allows for the sensitive (down to a single cell), rapid (0.5 to 12 h) enumeration of aerobic bacteria without the need to conduct lengthy (48 to 72 h) and tedious colony counts on agar plates. It also allows for screening a wide range of chemical and environmental samples for their toxicity. These assays have been validated with different bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, with the enumeration of total viable counts in broth and industrial food samples (packaged ham, chicken, and mince meat), and comparison with established agar plating and optical-density-at-600-nm assays has been given.

O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

2006-01-01

70

Analyses of Spatial Distributions of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activity in Aerobic Wastewater Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O2, H2S, NO2?, NO3?, NH4+, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 109 to 1010 cells per cm3 of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 ?m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S0) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 ?m), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-01-01

71

Isolation of Optically Targeted Single Bacteria by Application of Fluidic Force Microscopy to Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs from the Phyllosphere  

PubMed Central

In their natural environment, bacteria often behave differently than they do under laboratory conditions. To gain insight into the physiology of bacteria in situ, dedicated approaches are required to monitor their adaptations and specific behaviors under environmental conditions. Optical microscopy is crucial for the observation of fundamental characteristics of bacteria, such as cell shape, size, and marker gene expression. Here, fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) was exploited to isolate optically selected bacteria for subsequent identification and characterization. In this study, bacteriochlorophyll-producing bacteria, which can be visualized due to their characteristic fluorescence in the infrared range, were isolated from leaf washes. Bacterial communities from the phyllosphere were investigated because they harbor genes indicative of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Our data show that different species of Methylobacterium express their photosystem in planta, and they show a distinct pattern of bacteriochlorophyll production under laboratory conditions that is dependent on supplied carbon sources.

Stiefel, Philipp; Zambelli, Tomaso

2013-01-01

72

Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and food production for human thus rely on local Martian resources. A tree growing subsystem will also give an interesting feature to Martian agriculture. In addition to producing excess oxygen, trees’ rigid body will provide structural material, which can be used for habitat construction. The combination of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting, plant cultivation, and tree growing with utilizing in-situ natural local resources available on Mars can provide important elements which can enable space agriculture on Mars.

Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

73

Organic Osmolytes in Aerobic Bacteria from Mono Lake, an Alkaline, Moderately Hypersaline Environment  

PubMed Central

The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, Calif., an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress.

Ciulla, R. A.; Diaz, M. R.; Taylor, B. F.; Roberts, M. F.

1997-01-01

74

Production of Wax Esters during Aerobic Growth of Marine Bacteria on Isoprenoid Compounds  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the production of isoprenoid wax esters during the aerobic degradation of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and phytol by four bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain PHY9, Pseudomonas nautica [IP85/617], Marinobacter sp. strain CAB [DSMZ 11874], and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus [ATCC 49840]) isolated from the marine environment. Different pathways are proposed to explain the formation of these compounds. In the case of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, these esters result from the condensation of some acidic and alcoholic metabolites produced during the biodegradation, while phytol constitutes the alcohol moiety of most of the esters produced during growth on this isoprenoid alcohol. The amount of these esters formed increased considerably in N-limited cultures, in which the ammonium concentration corresponds to conditions often found in marine sediments. This suggests that the bacterial formation of isoprenoid wax esters might be favored in such environments. Although conflicting evidence exists regarding the stability of these esters in sediments, it seems likely that, under some conditions, bacterial esterification can enhance the preservation potential of labile compounds such as phytol.

Rontani, Jean-Francois; Bonin, Patricia C.; Volkman, John K.

1999-01-01

75

Physiological characterization of aerobic culturable bacteria in the intestine of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.  

PubMed

Various aerobic culturable bacteria (1,133 isolates) were isolated from the gut of Apostichopus japonicus (black adult, green adult, black small, green small, black juvenile, and green juvenile sea cucumbers) and from the sea sediment and the seawater using different culture conditions and without enrichment culture. By molecular analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 231 isolates, they were tentatively affiliated with 53 described species in the phyla Firmicutes (42 species), Proteobacteria (9 species) and Actinobacteria (2 species). Eighteen species were often found among the intestines and the sea sediment. High diversity was observed in the genus Bacillus (20 species), Oceanobacillus and Virgibaillus but there were no isolates affiliated to members of the genus Vibrio, well-known sea pathogens. There were no clear differences in the bacterial communities among the hosts varied in size and color. Most isolates showed various polysaccharide degradation activities, suggesting their possible contributions in the digestion of organic matters in the gut. PMID:23518513

Zhang, Xiaochi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Murase, Shinji; Nakata, Hideaki; Inoue, Tetsushi; Kudo, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

76

Cultivation of aerobic chemoorganotrophic proteobacteria and gram-positive bacteria from a hot spring microbial mat.  

PubMed

The diversity of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria inhabiting the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat community (Yellowstone National Park) was examined by using serial-dilution enrichment culture and a variety of enrichment conditions to cultivate the numerically significant microbial populations. The most abundant bacterial populations cultivated from dilutions to extinction were obtained from enrichment flasks which contained 9.0 x 10(2) primary producer (Synechococcus spp.) cells in the inoculum. Two isolates exhibited 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences typical of beta-proteobacteria. One of these isolates contained a 16S rRNA sequence identical to a sequence type previously observed in the mat by molecular retrieval techniques. Both are distantly related to a new sequence directly retrieved from the mat and contributed by a beta-proteobacterial community member. Phenotypically diverse gram-positive isolates genetically similar to Bacillus flavothermus were obtained from a variety of dilutions and enrichment types. These isolates exhibited identical 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences through a variable region of the molecule. Of the three unique sequences observed, only one had been previously retrieved from the mat, illustrating both the inability of the cultivation methods to describe the composition of a microbial community and the limitations of the ability of molecular retrieval techniques to describe populations which may be less abundant in microbial communities. PMID:8899976

Nold, S C; Kopczynski, E D; Ward, D M

1996-11-01

77

Halotolerant aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.  

PubMed

The Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR) near Cherokee, Oklahoma, contains a barren salt flat where Permian brine rises to the surface and evaporates under dry conditions to leave a crust of white salt. Rainfall events dissolve the salt crust and create ephemeral streams and ponds. The rapidly changing salinity and high surface temperatures, salinity, and UV exposure make this an extreme environment. The Salt Plains Microbial Observatory (SPMO) examined the soil microbial community of this habitat using classic enrichment and isolation techniques and phylogenetic rDNA studies. Rich growth media have been emphasized that differ in total salt concentration and composition. Aerobic heterotrophic enrichments were performed under a variety of conditions. Heterotrophic enrichments and dilution plates have generated 105 bacterial isolates, representing 46 phylotypes. The bacterial isolates have been characterized phenotypically and subjected to rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Fast-growing isolates obtained from enrichments with 10% salt are predominantly from the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria and from the low GC Gram-positive cluster. Several different areas on the salt flats have yielded a variety of isolates from the Gram-negative genera Halomonas, Idiomarina, Salinivibrio, and Bacteroidetes. Gram-positive bacteria are well represented in the culture collection including members of the Bacillus, Salibacillus, Oceanobacillus, and Halobacillus. PMID:15696379

Caton, T M; Witte, L R; Ngyuen, H D; Buchheim, J A; Buchheim, M A; Schneegurt, M A

2004-11-01

78

Induction of bphA, Encoding Biphenyl Dioxygenase, in Two Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Degrading Bacteria, Psychrotolerant Pseudomonas Strain Cam1 and Mesophilic Burkholderia Strain LB400  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated induction of biphenyl dioxygenase in the psychrotolerant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader Pseudomonas strain Cam-1 and in the mesophilic PCB degrader Burkholderia strain LB400. Using a counterselectable gene replacement vector, we inserted a lacZ-Gmr fusion cassette between chromosomal genes encoding the large subunit (bphA) and small subunit (bphE) of biphenyl dioxygenase in Cam-1 and LB400, generating Cam-10 and LB400-1,

EMMA R. MASTER; WILLIAM W. MOHN

2001-01-01

79

Isolation and preliminary characterization of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from sub-glacial Antarctic water samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, evidence has been accumulating supporting the presence of biogeochemically active microbial communities in cold, dark, and isolated subglacial environments. These environments are important sites of rock weathering, provide insight into global biogeochemistry during glacial periods, and are potential analogues for ancient Snowball Earth events and the ice-covered oceans of the Jovian moon, Europa. However, the extent of microbial influence on subglacial geochemistry is unclear. As part of an ongoing project to address the extent of that influence, we isolated aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from sediment-laden water from beneath Ice Stream C, a fast moving region of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Plates of a standard environmental media (R2A) were prepared at three dilutions (1x, 0.1x, 0.01x) and inoculated in duplicate in a HEPA-filtered environment. One replicate was incubated at 4oC, the other at room temperature in the dark. All plates showed abundant growth, although colony size was positively correlated with media concentration. One-hundred eighty-one colonies total were picked, grown in liquid R2A (1x concentration) at the same initial temperature, and characterized for Gram character, cell shape, cell size, and production of a diffusible yellow pigment with similar chemical characteristics to the siderophore, pyoverdine. Based on these characters, a moderate level of diversity was observed in these isolates. A few types dominated the samples, with several others found only rarely. Further characterization of these isolates is ongoing, and results of these studies and their possible implications for sub-glacial biogeochemistry are discussed.

Palma-Alvarez, R.; Lanoil, B. D.

2002-05-01

80

Functional Relationship Between Phytoplankton and Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria: Modes of Coexistence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria (AAPs) are ubiquitously distributed in the upper ocean. Although they contain bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla), the main absorption bands in the near UV (370 nm) and infrared (800-850 nm) make this pigment impractical in light harvesting below the first few meters of the water column. Instead, they utilize carotenoids as major light harvesting pigments. Since these carotenoids absorb in the 430-550 nm range, phytoplankton and AAPs utilize a similar portion of the available light spectrum. As AAPs cannot utilize water as the electron donor, they transfer electrons between a range of organic/inorganic electron donors and electron acceptors, thus significantly participating in the redox cycle in the upper ocean. We have measured the vertical distribution and photosynthetic properties of both phytoplankton and AAPs in a highly oligotrophic region 800 km SW of Monterey Bay (34N, 129W), and we have consistently observed the presence of a BChla maximum about 30 to 40 meters above the chlorophyll maximum, indicating that phytoplankton and AAPs occupy different ecological niches in the water column. However, the abundance of AAPs generally displayed a maximum at dawn and a minimum at the dusk, indicating a high level of mortality. This diel cycle was observed in 5 micron and 3 micron size fractions, indicating active grazing by small protists. Incubation experiments with natural, mixed population of AAPs and phytoplankton results in an unusually high accumulation of AAPs in DCMU-treated samples, indicating that pigmented protists do contribute significantly to AAP grazing in a tightly-controlled microbial loop. On the other hand, AAP incubations in pure cultures indicate that they biomineralize sulfur, thus affecting the sulfur cycle. All of these observations indicate that the role of AAPs in the upper ocean ecology is defined by their relationship with phototrophic and heterotrophic communities, rather than by their relative contribution to the carbon and energy cycles.

Kolber, Z. S.; Haffa, A.; Klimov, D.

2006-12-01

81

Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater sediments of the Xinyi River (China).  

PubMed

Here we report on the biodiversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in sediment samples from the Xinyi River, Jinagsu Province (China). The biodiversity of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the sediment was assessed using the amoA gene as functional marker. The retrieved amoA clones were affiliated to environmental sequences from freshwater habitats. The closest cultivated relative was Nitrosomonas urea. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were studied using anammox and planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene primers. The sediments contained 16S rRNA genes and bacterial cells closely related to the known anammox bacterium Candidatus'Brocadia anammoxidans'. Anaerobic continuous flow reactors were set up to enrich anammox organisms from the sediments. After an adaptation period of about 25 days the reactors started to consume ammonium and nitrite, indicating that the anammox reaction was occurring with a rate of 41-58 nmol cm(-3) h(-1). Community analysis of the enrichments by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization showed an increase in the abundance of anammox bacteria from < 1% to 6 +/- 2% of the total population. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the enriched anammox organisms were related to the Candidatus'Scalindua' genus. PMID:17686033

Zhang, Ying; Ruan, Xiao-Hong; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Smits, Toine J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Schmid, Markus C

2007-09-01

82

Characteristics of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river.  

PubMed

Both ?-proteobacterial aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were investigated in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated river in China containing high ammonium levels and low chemical oxygen demand. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning-sequencing were employed in this study. FISH analysis illustrated that AOB (average population of 3.5 %) coexisted with ANAMMOX bacteria (0.7 %). The DGGE profile revealed a high abundance and diversity of bacteria at the water-air-soil interface rather than at the water-soil interface. The redundancy analysis correlated analysis showed that the diversity of ANAMMOX bacteria was positively related to the redox potential. The newly detected sequences of ANAMMOX organisms principally belonged to the genus Candidatus "Brocadia", while most ammonia monooxygenase subunit-A gene amoA sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. These results suggest that the water-air-soil interface performs an important function in the nitrogen removal process and that the bioresources of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria can potentially be utilized for the eutrophication of rivers. PMID:22806720

Wang, Ziyuan; Qi, Yun; Wang, Jun; Pei, Yuansheng

2012-09-01

83

Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with a biphasic blood culture medium for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The Du Pont Isolator tube and Roche Septi-Chek blood culture bottle employ solid media which facilitate the removal of bacteria from static or cidal substances in blood to increase recovery and decrease detection time. In a comparison of 11,567 blood culture sets, the Isolator tube and vented Roche Septi-Chek bottle were positive for 533 (80%) and 494 (74%) of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms recovered, respectively. This difference was not significant. A significant difference was found in the overall detection time. The Isolator tube recovered the bacteria ca. 1 day earlier. The earlier detection time was most notable with Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the 355 bacteremic episodes analyzed by a computer program, the Isolator tube was responsible more often for the first report of bacteremia in a given patient. Both systems performed well for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, but it is recommended that either be used in combination with an unvented broth-containing bottle.

Henry, N K; Grewell, C M; Van Grevenhof, P E; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1984-01-01

84

Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with a biphasic blood culture medium for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The Du Pont Isolator tube and Roche Septi-Chek blood culture bottle employ solid media which facilitate the removal of bacteria from static or cidal substances in blood to increase recovery and decrease detection time. In a comparison of 11,567 blood culture sets, the Isolator tube and vented Roche Septi-Chek bottle were positive for 533 (80%) and 494 (74%) of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms recovered, respectively. This difference was not significant. A significant difference was found in the overall detection time. The Isolator tube recovered the bacteria ca. 1 day earlier. The earlier detection time was most notable with Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the 355 bacteremic episodes analyzed by a computer program, the Isolator tube was responsible more often for the first report of bacteremia in a given patient. Both systems performed well for the recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, but it is recommended that either be used in combination with an unvented broth-containing bottle. PMID:6386858

Henry, N K; Grewell, C M; Van Grevenhof, P E; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1984-09-01

85

Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30?mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20?mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39?mg kg?1), plant P uptake (0.78?P pot?1), and plant biomass (33.26?mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10?cfu g?1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

2013-01-01

86

Evidence for propagation of aerobic bacteria in particles suspended in gaseous atmospheres. [Terrestrial microorganism contamination of Jupiter atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One factor involved in the possibility that airborne microbes might contaminate the Jovian atmosphere is whether microbes have the capacity to propagate in air. Prior to these studies, the evidence was that the airborne state was lethal to microbes. An aerosol of aerobic bacteria was mixed with another containing C-14-glucose, and the presence of C-14-CO2 was subsequently detected, which indicates that the airborne cells were metabolically active. In the same type of experiment, it was shown that thymidine was incorporated into the acid-insoluble fraction of samples, indicating the formation of DNA. It was also shown, both by an increase in the numbers of viable cells and a parallel increase in particle numbers, that at least two new generations of cells could occur. Evidence for propagation of anaerobic bacteria has so far been negative.

Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.; Straat, P.

1977-01-01

87

Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a), the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 52 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94%) was affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the discrepancies between culture-based and molecular methods, this study highlights the existing gaps in the understanding of the AAP bacteria ecology, especially in the Mediterranean Sea and likely globally.

Jeanthon, C.; Boeuf, D.; Dahan, O.; Le Gall, F.; Garczarek, L.; Bendif, E. M.; Lehours, A.-C.

2011-05-01

88

Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a), the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 54 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94 %) was affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the discrepancies between culture-based and molecular methods, this study highlights the existing gaps in the understanding of the AAP bacteria ecology, especially in the Mediterranean Sea and likely globally.

Jeanthon, C.; Boeuf, D.; Dahan, O.; Le Gall, F.; Garczarek, L.; Bendif, E. M.; Lehours, A.-C.

2011-07-01

89

Biomass characterization of laboratory-scale thermophilic-mesophilic wastewater treatment processes.  

PubMed

Two thermophilic-mesophilic wastewater treatment processes, one as the combination of the thermophilic activated sludge process (ASP), followed by the mesophilic ASP and the other as thermophilic suspended carrier biofilm process (SCBP), followed by the mesophilic ASP, were used to study sludge characteristics and floc formation. Thermophilic bacteria in both ASP and SCBP were able to form flocs, which were <50 microm in size and had a weak structure and irregular shape. Flocs in both the mesophilic ASPs were larger in size (50-500 microm) and had more compact structures. Filamentous bacteria played an important role in both the thermophilic and mesophilic processes by forming bridges between small flocs. Both thermophilic processes showed a high density of dispersed particles, such as free bacteria. When hydraulic retention time (HRT) was decreased the biofilm was retained in the thermophilic SCBP better than the flocs in the thermophilic ASP. The mesophilic ASPs efficiently removed dispersed particles originating from the thermophilic processes. PMID:16457174

Suvilampi, J; Lehtomäki, A; Rintala, J

2006-01-01

90

A genomic view of methane oxidation by aerobic bacteria and anaerobic archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent sequencing of the genome and proteomic analysis of a model aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has revealed a highly versatile metabolic potential. In parallel, environmental genomics has provided glimpses into anaerobic methane oxidation by certain archaea, further supporting the hypothesis of reverse methanogenesis.

Ludmila Chistoserdova; Julia A Vorholt; Mary E Lidstrom

2005-01-01

91

Degradation of anaerobic reductive dechlorinationproducts of Aroclor 1242 by four aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the aerobic degradation of eight PCB congeners which comprise from 70 to 85% of the anaerobic dechlorination products from Aroclor 1242, including2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, 2,2'-, 2,4'-, 2,2',4-, and2,4,4'-chlorobiphenyl (CB), and the biodegradation of their mixtures designed to simulate anaerobic dechlorination profiles M and C. StrainsComamonas testosteroni VP44 and Rhodococcus erythreus NY05 preferentially oxidizeda para-substituted ring, while Rhodococcus

Olga V. Maltseva; Tamara V. Tsoi; John F. Quensen; Masao Fukuda; James M. Tiedje

1999-01-01

92

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by concurrent bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring and aerobic degrading bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation of sediments contaminated with commercial PCBs is potentially achievable by the sequential activity of anaerobic halorespiration to convert higher chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are susceptible to aerobic respiratory degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with anaerobic halorespiring “Dehalobium chlorocoercia” DF1 and aerobic Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 added concurrently with GAC as a delivery system was determined in 2-liter laboratory mesocosms containing weathered Aroclor-contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The greatest effect was seen in the mesocosm bioaugmented with both DF1 and LB400 together, which resulted in an 80% decrease by mass of PCBs, from 8 mg/kg to less than 2 mg/kg after 120 days. There was no significant increase in lesser-chlorinated congeners, indicating that both anaerobic dechlorination by DF1 and aerobic degradation by LB400 occurred. In contrast, non-bioaugmented controls containing filtered culture supernatant showed only 25% decrease in total levels of PCBs after 365 days, which was likely due to biostimulation of the indigenous population by the medium. Direct colony counts and molecular analysis targeting a putative reductive dehalogenase gene of D. chlorocoercia, or the bphA gene of LB400 showed the presence of viable DF1 and LB400 in bioaugmented mesocosms after 365 days, indicating that both non-indigenous strains were sustainable within the indigenous microbial community. These results suggest that an in situ treatment employing the simultaneous application of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms could be an effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to reduce PCBs levels in contaminated sediment.

Payne, Rayford B.; Fagervold, Sonja K.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

93

Diversity and activity of cultivable aerobic planktonic bacteria of a saline Lake located in Sovata, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic bacterial strains from the salt water of Lake Red (Sovata, Romania) were cultivated. More than half of the 80 strains\\u000a were G? and formed motile straight rods. Only a few strains produced acid from d-glucose and reduced nitrate to nitrite. Optimum NaCl concentration for growth varied between 5 and 15 % in the majority of\\u000a the strains, so the

A. K. Borsodi; R. I. Kiss; G. Cech; B. Vajna; E. M. Tóth; K. Márialigeti

2010-01-01

94

Radioassay for Hydrogenase Activity in Viable Cells and Documentation of Aerobic Hydrogen-Consuming Bacteria Living in Extreme Environments  

PubMed Central

An isotopic tracer assay based on the hydrogenase-dependent formation of tritiated water from tritium gas was developed for in life analysis of microbial hydrogen transformation. This method allowed detection of bacterial hydrogen metabolism in pure cultures or in natural samples obtained from aquatic ecosystems. A differentiation between chemical-biological and aerobic-anaerobic hydrogen metabolism was established by variation of the experimental incubation temperature or by addition of selective inhibitors. Hydrogenase activity was shown to be proportional to the consumption or production of hydrogen by cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Methanosarcina barkeri. This method was applied, in connection with measurements of free hydrogen and most-probable-number enumerations, in aerobic natural source waters to establish the activity and document the ecology of hydrogen-consuming bacteria in extreme acid, thermal, or saline environments. The utility of the assay is based in part on the ability to quantify bacterial hydrogen transformation at natural hydrogen partial pressures, without the use of artificial electron acceptors.

Schink, Bernhard; Lupton, F. S.; Zeikus, J. G.

1983-01-01

95

Abundance, depth distribution, and composition of aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria in four basins of the central Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The abundance, vertical distribution, and diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) were studied at four basins of the Baltic Sea. AAP were enumerated by infrared epifluorescence microscopy, and their diversity was analyzed by using pufM gene clone libraries. In addition, numbers of CFU containing the pufM gene were determined, and representative strains were isolated. Both approaches indicated that AAP reached maximal abundance in the euphotic zone. Maximal AAP abundance was 2.5 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) (11% of total prokaryotes) or 1.0 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) (9 to 10% of total CFU). Environmental pufM clone sequences were grouped into 11 operational taxonomic units phylogenetically related to cultivated members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. In spite of varying pufM compositions, five clones were present in all libraries. Of these, Jannaschia-related clones were always found in relative abundances representing 25 to 30% of the total AAP clones. The abundances of the other clones varied. Clones potentially affiliated with typical freshwater Betaproteobacteria sequences were present at three Baltic Sea stations, whereas clones grouping with Loktanella represented 40% of the total cell numbers in the Gotland Basin. For three alphaproteobacterial clones, probable pufM phylogenetic relationships were supported by 16S rRNA gene analyses of Baltic AAP isolates, which showed nearly identical pufM sequences. Our data indicate that the studied AAP assemblages represented a mixture of marine and freshwater taxa, thus characterizing the Baltic Sea as a "melting pot" of abundant, polyphyletic aerobic photoheterotrophic bacteria. PMID:18502937

Salka, Ivette; Moulisová, Vladimíra; Koblízek, Michal; Jost, Günter; Jürgens, Klaus; Labrenz, Matthias

2008-07-01

96

Abundance, Depth Distribution, and Composition of Aerobic Bacteriochlorophyll a-Producing Bacteria in Four Basins of the Central Baltic Sea? †  

PubMed Central

The abundance, vertical distribution, and diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) were studied at four basins of the Baltic Sea. AAP were enumerated by infrared epifluorescence microscopy, and their diversity was analyzed by using pufM gene clone libraries. In addition, numbers of CFU containing the pufM gene were determined, and representative strains were isolated. Both approaches indicated that AAP reached maximal abundance in the euphotic zone. Maximal AAP abundance was 2.5 × 105 cells ml?1 (11% of total prokaryotes) or 1.0 × 103 CFU ml?1 (9 to 10% of total CFU). Environmental pufM clone sequences were grouped into 11 operational taxonomic units phylogenetically related to cultivated members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. In spite of varying pufM compositions, five clones were present in all libraries. Of these, Jannaschia-related clones were always found in relative abundances representing 25 to 30% of the total AAP clones. The abundances of the other clones varied. Clones potentially affiliated with typical freshwater Betaproteobacteria sequences were present at three Baltic Sea stations, whereas clones grouping with Loktanella represented 40% of the total cell numbers in the Gotland Basin. For three alphaproteobacterial clones, probable pufM phylogenetic relationships were supported by 16S rRNA gene analyses of Baltic AAP isolates, which showed nearly identical pufM sequences. Our data indicate that the studied AAP assemblages represented a mixture of marine and freshwater taxa, thus characterizing the Baltic Sea as a “melting pot” of abundant, polyphyletic aerobic photoheterotrophic bacteria.

Salka, Ivette; Moulisova, Vladimira; Koblizek, Michal; Jost, Gunter; Jurgens, Klaus; Labrenz, Matthias

2008-01-01

97

Aerobic degradation of lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane) in bacteria and its biochemical and molecular basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH, also called ?-BHC and lindane) is a halogenated organic insecticide that causes serious environmental\\u000a problems. The aerobic degradation pathway of ?-HCH was extensively revealed in bacterial strain Sphingobium japonicum (formerly Sphingomonas paucimobilis) UT26. ?-HCH is transformed to 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone through sequential reactions catalyzed by LinA, LinB, and LinC, and\\u000a then 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone is further metabolized by LinD, LinE, LinF, LinGH,

Yuji Nagata; Ryo Endo; Michihiro Ito; Yoshiyuki Ohtsubo; Masataka Tsuda

2007-01-01

98

Isolation of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria from Black Smoker Plume Waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described.

Yurkov, Vladimir; Beatty, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

99

Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

100

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis used to monitor the enrichment culture of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat.  

PubMed

Previous studies investigating microbial diversity in the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat community (Yellowstone National Park) have shown a discrepancy between bacterial populations observed by molecular retrieval and cultivation techniques. To investigate how selective enrichment culture techniques affect species composition, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) separation of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments to monitor the populations contained within enrichment cultures of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria from the ca. 50 degrees C region of the mat community. By varying the degree of dilution of the inoculum, medium composition, and enrichment conditions and duration and by analyzing the cultures by DGGE, we detected 14 unique 16S rRNA sequence types. These corresponded to alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-proteobacteria, Thermus relatives, and gram-positive bacteria with high G + C ratio and, at the highest inoculum dilutions, Chloroflexus aurantiacus relatives, which were estimated to still be approximately 300 times less abundant than cells of the mat primary producer, Synechococcus spp. Only three of these populations were previously cultivated on solidified medium after similar enrichment. Only two of these population have 16S rRNA sequences which were previously cloned directly from the mat. These results reveal a diversity of bacterial populations in enrichment culture which were not detected by either molecular retrieval or strain purification techniques. PMID:8899977

Santegoeds, C M; Nold, S C; Ward, D M

1996-11-01

101

Diversity and activity of cultivable aerobic planktonic bacteria of a saline Lake located in Sovata, Romania.  

PubMed

Aerobic bacterial strains from the salt water of Lake Red (Sovata, Romania) were cultivated. More than half of the 80 strains were G(-) and formed motile straight rods. Only a few strains produced acid from D-glucose and reduced nitrate to nitrite. Optimum NaCl concentration for growth varied between 5 and 15 % in the majority of the strains, so the isolates were regarded moderately halophilic. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity almost half of the strains were identified as members of genus Halomonas. Other strains belonged to genera Marinobacter, Psychrobacter, Serratia, Morganella (?-Proteobacteria), Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Planococcus (Firmicutes), and Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, and Nesterenkonia (Actinobacteria). PMID:20941581

Borsodi, A K; Kiss, R I; Cech, G; Vajna, B; Tóth, E M; Márialigeti, K

2010-09-01

102

Recalcitrance of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis( p -chlorophenyl)ethylene to degradation by pure cultures of 1,1-diphenylethylene-degrading aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) is the peri-chlorinated derivative of 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE). Biodegradation of DDE and DPE\\u000a by bacteria has so far not been shown. Pure cultures of aerobic bacteria involved in biodegradation of styrene and polychlorinated\\u000a biphenyls (PCB) were therefore screened for their ability to degrade or cometabolize DPE and DDE. Styrene-metabolizing bacteria\\u000a (Rhodococcus strains S5 and VLB150) grew with DPE as

M. Megharaj; S. Hartmans; K.-H. Engesser; J. H. Thiele

1998-01-01

103

Monitoring Methanotrophic Bacteria in Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors with PCR and a Catabolic Gene Probe  

PubMed Central

We attempted to mimic in small upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors the metabolic association found in nature between methanogens and methanotrophs. UASB bioreactors were inoculated with pure cultures of methanotrophs, and the bioreactors were operated by using continuous low-level oxygenation in order to favor growth and/or survival of methanotrophs. Unlike the reactors in other similar studies, the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors which we used were operated synchronously, not sequentially. Here, emphasis was placed on monitoring various methanotrophic populations by using classical methods and also a PCR amplification assay based on the mmoX gene fragment of the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). The following results were obtained: (i) under the conditions used, Methylosinus sporium appeared to survive better than Methylosinus trichosporium; (ii) the PCR method which we used could detect as few as about 2,000 sMMO gene-containing methanotrophs per g (wet weight) of granular sludge; (iii) inoculation of the bioreactors with pure cultures of methanotrophs contributed greatly to increases in the sMMO-containing population (although the sMMO-containing population decreased gradually with time, at the end of an experiment it was always at least 2 logs larger than the initial population before inoculation); (iv) in general, there was a good correlation between populations with the sMMO gene and populations that exhibited sMMO activity; and (v) inoculation with sMMO-positive cultures helped increase significantly the proportion of sMMO-positive methanotrophs in reactors, even after several weeks of operation under various regimes. At some point, anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors like those described here might be used for biodegradation of various chlorinated pollutants.

Miguez, Carlos B.; Shen, Chun F.; Bourque, Denis; Guiot, Serge R.; Groleau, Denis

1999-01-01

104

Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are climatically important trace gases that are produced by both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In the denitrification pathway, N2O is produced from nitric oxide (NO) by the enzyme nitric oxide reductase (NOR). The ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea also possesses a functional nitric oxide reductase, which was shown recently to serve a unique function. In this study, sequences homologous to the large subunit of nitric oxide reductase (norB) were obtained from eight additional strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, including Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus species (i.e., both beta- and gamma-Proteobacterial ammonia oxidizers), showing widespread occurrence of a norB homologue in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. However, despite efforts to detect norB homologues from Nitrosospira strains, sequences have not yet been obtained. Phylogenetic analysis placed nitrifier norB homologues in a subcluster, distinct from denitrifier sequences. The similarities and differences of these sequences highlight the need to understand the variety of metabolisms represented within a "functional group" defined by the presence of a single homologous gene. These results expand the database of norB homologue sequences in nitrifying bacteria. PMID:16329906

Casciotti, Karen L; Ward, Bess B

2005-04-01

105

Lipid composition and vertical distribution of bacteria in aerobic sediments of the Venezuela Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Box cores of surface (0 to 30-cm) sediments from carbonate, hemipelagic, and turbidite sediment types of the deep (3493 to 5039-m) Venezuelan Basin were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the vertical distribution of bacteria, lipids, lipid phosphate, and grain size. The polar lipid fraction was isolated chromatographically and quantified by flame-ionization detection using the Iatroscan TH-10 analyzer. Total bacterial abundance was measured by epifluorescence microscopy in sediments (0 to 20-cm) from the carbonate and turbidite sediments. In all three sediment types investigated, both total and polar lipid concentrations decreased with increasing depth in the sediment. The highest total and polar lipid concentrations were at the sediment-water interface (0 to 2-cm) of hemipelagic sediments (62.0 and 25.7 ?g g -1 dry sediment, respectively) followed by the carbonate and turbidite sediments. A similar decline in lipid phosphate was also observed. Bacterial abundance was > 5 × 10 8 bacteria (per gram dry sediment) at the sediment surface in both sediments examined and over 1 × 10 7 bacteria 20 cm below the sediment-water interface. Polar lipid and lipid phosphate concentrations did not appear to correlate with estimates of bacterial biomass, even in regions where bacteria were apparently the only organisms present.

Harvey, H. Rodger; Richardson, Michael D.; Patton, John S.

1984-04-01

106

Contribution of Aerobic Photoheterotrophic Bacteria to the Carbon Cycle in the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of bacteriochlorophyll a, the numbers of infrared fluorescent cells, and the variable fluorescence signal at 880 nanometers wave- length, all indicate that photosynthetically competent anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are abundant in the upper open ocean and comprise at least 11% of the total microbial community. These organisms are facultative photohetero- trophs, metabolizing organic carbon when available, but are

Zbigniew S. Kolber; F. Gerald Plumley; Andrew S. Lang; J. Thomas Beatty; Robert E. Blankenship; Cindy L. VanDover; Costantino Vetriani; Michal Koblizek; Christopher Rathgeber; Paul G. Falkowski

2001-01-01

107

Distribution of epiphytic bacteria on olive leaves and the influence of leaf age and sampling time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic heterotrophic, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that grow on yeast tryptone glucose extract agar were\\u000a isolated from the surface of olive leaves of 3 or 4 different ages in January, April, July, and October from 1984 to 1989.\\u000a Unweighted average linkage cluster analysis on either the Jaccard coefficient or the simple matching coefficient recovered\\u000a 1,701 representative strains in 32

G. L. Ercolani

1991-01-01

108

Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09  

SciTech Connect

Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

Boden, Rich [University of Warwick, UK; Cunliffe, Michael [University of Warwick, UK; Scanlan, Julie [University of Warwick, UK; Moussard, Helene [University of Warwick, UK; Kits, K. Dimitri [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Jetten, MSM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stein, Lisa Y. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Murrell, Collin [University of Warwick, UK

2011-01-01

109

Strategies of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria for coping with nutrient and oxygen fluctuations.  

PubMed

In most natural environments as well as in engineered environments, such as wastewater treatment plants, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) experience fluctuating substrate concentrations. Several physiological traits, such as low maintenance energy demand and decay rate, cell-to-cell communication, cell mobility, stable enzymes and RNAs, could allow AOB to maintain themselves under unfavourable circumstances. This review examines whether AOB possess such traits and how these traits might offer advantages over competing organisms such as heterotrophic bacteria during periods of starvation. In addition, within the AOB groups, differences exist in adaptation to and competitiveness under conditions of high or low ammonia or oxygen concentrations. Because these findings are of importance with regard to the ecology and activity of AOB in natural and engineered environments, concluding remarks are directed towards future research objectives that may clarify unanswered questions, thereby contributing to the general knowledge of the ecology and activity of ammonia oxidizers. PMID:16958903

Geets, Joke; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

2006-10-01

110

Cook\\/chill foodservice system with a microwave oven: Injured aerobic bacteria during food product flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study determined how processing in cook\\/chill foodservice systems affected the quantity of sublethally injured bacteria\\u000a in food. Beef loaf and frozen green beans were each prepared three times in a laboratory simulation following time-temperature\\u000a recommendations of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point model. Beef loaf (15 kg) was initially cooked (1 kg\\/loaf) to\\u000a a mean and temperature of 66C;

C. A. Dahl; M. E. Matthews; E. H. Marth

1981-01-01

111

Distribution and persistence of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species and other aerobic bacteria on human skin.  

PubMed

The districution of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species and associated coryneform bacteria, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Bacillus, and Streptomyces on skin was determined during October 1971 from samples collected on persons living in North Carolina and New Jersey. Persistence of these organisms on skin was estimated in temporal studies conducted during the period from June 1971 to June 1972 on persons living in North Carolina. Staphylococci and coryneforms were the most predominant and persistent bacteria isolated from the nares and axillae. Staphylococci, coryneforms, micrococci, and Bacillus were the most predominant and persistent bacteria isolated from the head, legs, and arms. Acinetobacters were most frequently isolated during the warmer months of the years. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were the most predominant and persistent staphylococci isolated from the nares, whereas S. epidermidis and S. hominis were the most predominant and persistent staphylocicci isolated from the axillae, head, legs, and arms. S. capitis was often isolated from the head and arms and S. haemolyticus was often isolated from the head, legs, and arms. S. simulans, S. xylosus, S. cohnii, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, and an unclassified coagulase-positive species were only occasionally isolated from skin. Micrococcus luteus was the most predominant and persistent Micrococcus isolated from skin and preferred regions of the head, legs, and arms. M. varians was the second most frequent Micrococcus isolated. M. lylae, M. sedentarius, M. roseus, M. kristinae, and M. nishinomiyaensis were only occasionally isolated from skin. M. lylae was most frequently isolated during the colder months of the years. PMID:810086

Kloos, W E; Musselwhite, M S

1975-09-01

112

[Sensitivity and resistance of aerobic bacteria isolated from patients with periodontitis towards antibiotics and bacteriophages (comparative analysis)].  

PubMed

In order to examine sensitivity and resistance of isolated aerobic bacteria from periodontitis materials towards antibiotics and bacteriophages, there has been studied exudations taken from 737 patients' periodontic pockets or the tissue taken from curettage. According to the rate of identified microorganisms, they have been arranged as follows: S. epidermidis 39,34+/-1,56%; S. pyogenes 18,84+/-1,25%; M. catarrhalis 17,09+/-1,2%; S. aureus 10,71+/-0,99%; E.coli-5,66+/-0,74%; Diphtheroids in 1,13+/-0,33%; S. Mucilaginosus 1,02+/-0,32%, proteus vulgaris - 0,72+/-0,27%; H. parainfluenzae - 0,72+/-0,27%; S. intermedium 0,61+/-0,24%; P. aeruginosa - 0,61+/-0,24%; H. influenzae - 0,51+/-0,22%, S. saprophiticus - 0,51+/-0,22%; S. viridans - 0,51+/-0,22%; S. pneumoniae - 0,41+/-0,2%; K. pneumoniae - 0,41+/-0,22%; S. haemoliticus - 0,41+/-0,2%; B. adolescentics - 0,3+/-0,17%; L. acidophilus -0,3+/-0,17%; S. salivarius-0,1+/-0,1%. It has been stated that percentage of polyresistant strains is growing. While having aerobic infections of periodontitis, kefzol, cephazolin, cephamezin, zinaceph, klaphoran, cephdazidim (cephalosporins I, II, II generation); tetracycline, doxycycline, (tetracyclines); 5-noks, cyprophloxacyne (chinolons I, II generation); ryphamphcyne (rymphamicynes); but standby medicines may be also considered: penicillin G, procaine penicillin (penicillines); streptomycin, kanamicin, gentamicin (aminoglycosides); lincomycin, clindamycin, (lincosamides); eritromycin, macropen (macrolides); chloramphenicol. Since the resistance of microbial strains was not developed towards bacteriophages during the treatment it is considerable to apply simultaneously the bacteriophages and standby antibiotics. PMID:16636376

Nemsadze, T D; Mshvenieradze, D D; Apridonidze, K G

2006-03-01

113

Diversity and Function of Chloroflexus-Like Bacteria in a Hypersaline Microbial Mat: Phylogenetic Characterization and Impact on Aerobic Respiration?  

PubMed Central

We studied the diversity of Chloroflexus-like bacteria (CLB) in a hypersaline phototrophic microbial mat and assayed their near-infrared (NIR) light-dependent oxygen respiration rates. PCR with primers that were reported to specifically target the 16S rRNA gene from members of the phylum Chloroflexi resulted in the recovery of 49 sequences and 16 phylotypes (sequences of the same phylotype share more than 96% similarity), and 10 of the sequences (four phylotypes) appeared to be related to filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic members of the family Chloroflexaceae. Photopigment analysis revealed the presence of bacteriochlorophyll c (BChlc), BChld, and ?-carotene, pigments known to be produced by phototrophic CLB. Oxygen microsensor measurements for intact mats revealed a NIR (710 to 770 nm) light-dependent decrease in aerobic respiration, a phenomenon that we also observed in an axenic culture of Chloroflexus aurantiacus. The metabolic ability of phototrophic CLB to switch from anoxygenic photosynthesis under NIR illumination to aerobic respiration under non-NIR illumination was further used to estimate the contribution of these organisms to mat community respiration. Steady-state oxygen profiles under dark conditions and in the presence of visible (VIS) light (400 to 700 nm), NIR light (710 to 770 nm), and VIS light plus NIR light were compared. NIR light illumination led to a substantial increase in the oxygen concentration in the mat. The observed impact on oxygen dynamics shows that CLB play a significant role in the cycling of carbon in this hypersaline microbial mat ecosystem. This study further demonstrates that the method applied, a combination of microsensor techniques and VIS and NIR illumination, allows rapid establishment of the presence and significance of CLB in environmental samples.

Bachar, Ami; Omoregie, Enoma; de Wit, Rutger; Jonkers, Henk M.

2007-01-01

114

Population Changes in Enteric Bacteria and Other Microorganisms During Aerobic Thermophilic Windrow Composting1  

PubMed Central

Composting of wastes from swine feeding operations was studied. The effects of the frequency of turning the wastes and addition of straw to improve the physical structure were studied to determine the most effective technique to rapidly increase the temperature and, consequently, destroy coliforms and Salmonella. Four different treatments were studied; the results showed that, with addition of 5% (wt/wt) straw and mechanical turning of the compost 20 times per week, the temperature reached 60 C within 3 days and enteric bacteria were destroyed within 14 days. Images

Savage, Jacob; Chase, Theodore; Macmillan, James D.

1973-01-01

115

Aerobic degradation of lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in bacteria and its biochemical and molecular basis.  

PubMed

gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH, also called gamma-BHC and lindane) is a halogenated organic insecticide that causes serious environmental problems. The aerobic degradation pathway of gamma-HCH was extensively revealed in bacterial strain Sphingobium japonicum (formerly Sphingomonas paucimobilis) UT26. gamma-HCH is transformed to 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone through sequential reactions catalyzed by LinA, LinB, and LinC, and then 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone is further metabolized by LinD, LinE, LinF, LinGH, and LinJ to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, which are metabolized in the citrate/tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to these catalytic enzymes, a putative ABC-type transporter system encoded by linKLMN is also essential for the gamma-HCH utilization in UT26. Preliminary examination of the complete genome sequence of UT26 clearly demonstrated that lin genes for the gamma-HCH utilization are dispersed on three large circular replicons with sizes of 3.5 Mb, 682 kb, and 191 kb. Nearly identical lin genes were also found in other HCH-degrading bacterial strains, and it has been suggested that the distribution of lin genes is mainly mediated by insertion sequence IS6100 and plasmids. Recently, it was revealed that two dehalogenases, LinA and LinB, have variants with small number of amino acid differences, and they showed dramatic functional differences for the degradation of HCH isomers, indicating these enzymes are still evolving at high speed. PMID:17634937

Nagata, Yuji; Endo, Ryo; Ito, Michihiro; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Masataka

2007-09-01

116

Formation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria and Its Relationship to Carbon Source and Light Availability?  

PubMed Central

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are unique players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Cellular carbon storage is an important mechanism regulating the nutrition status of AAPB but is not yet well understood. In this paper, six AAPB species (Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114, Roseobacter litoralis OCh 149, Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12T, Labrenzia alexandrii DFL 11T, and Erythrobacter longus DSMZ 6997) were examined, and all of them demonstrated the ability to form the carbon polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in the cell. The PHA in Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447 was identified as poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) according to evidence from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations. Carbon sources turned out to be critical for PHA production in AAPB. Among the eight media tested with Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, sodium acetate, giving a PHA production rate of 72%, was the most productive carbon source, followed by glucose, with a 68% PHA production rate. Such PHA production rates are among the highest recorded for all bacteria. The C/N ratio of substrates was verified by the experiments as another key factor in PHA production. In the case of R. denitrificans OCh 114, PHA was not detected when the organism was cultured at C/N ratios of <2 but became apparent at C/N ratios of >3. Light is also important for the formation of PHA in AAPB. In the case of Dinoroseobacter sp. JL1447, up to a one-quarter increase in PHB production was observed when the culture underwent growth in a light-dark cycle compared to growth completely in the dark.

Xiao, Na; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-01-01

117

Isolation and characterization of potential aerobic bacteria capable for pyridine degradation in presence of picoline, phenol and formaldehyde as co-pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyridine, heterocyclic aromatic compound is known to be toxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic to several living organisms. In\\u000a this study, two aerobic bacteria ITRCEM1 and ITRCEM2 capable for pyridine degradation were isolated and characterized as Bacillus cereus (DQ435020) and Alcaligenes faecalis (DQ435021), respectively. For pyridine degradation, mixed bacterial culture was found more effective compared to axenic culture\\u000a ITRCEM1 and ITRCEM2 degrading

Ram Chandra; Ram Naresh Bharagava; Atya Kapley; Hemant J. Purohit

2009-01-01

118

Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden  

PubMed Central

Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gram-negative (58%) bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130) showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2–8 mM) when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92) tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB) broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6–17.8 mM), the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate.

Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A.K.

2013-01-01

119

Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden.  

PubMed

Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gram-negative (58%) bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130) showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2-8 mM) when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92) tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr(+6) reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB) broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr(+6) (MIC 8.6-17.8 mM), the isolates showed tolerance to Ni(+2), Fe(+3), Cu(+2) and Co(+2) but were extremely sensitive to Hg(+2) followed by Cd(+2), Mn(+2) and Zn(+2). In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr(+6) in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr(+6) present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate. PMID:24159321

Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A K

2013-01-01

120

Aerobic Hetrotrophic Bacterial Populations of Sewage and Activated Sludge. II. Method of Characterization of Activated Sludge Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The replica-plating technique and Lochhead's nutritional method were combined in exploratory experiments to test their feasibility as useful means for characterizing the aerobic heterotrophic flora of activated sludge and to minimize the burdensome proces...

T. B. S. Prakasam N. C. Dondero

1967-01-01

121

Segregation of biomass in cyclic anaerobic/aerobic granular sludge allows the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria at low temperatures.  

PubMed

A cyclic anaerobic/aerobic bubble column reactor was run for 420 days to study the competition for nitrite between nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Anammox) at low temperatures. An anaerobic feeding period with nitrite and ammonium in the influent followed by an aerated period was applied resulting in a biomass specific conversion rate of 0.18 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1)· day(-1)] when the dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained at 1.0 mgO(2) · L(-1). An increase in white granules was observed in the reactor which were mainly located at the top of the settled sludge bed, whereas red granules were located at the bottom. FISH, activity tests, and qPCR techniques revealed that red biomass was dominated by Anammox bacteria and white granules by NOB. Granules from the top of the sludge bed were smaller and therefore had a higher aerobic volume fraction, a lower density, and consequently a slower settling rate. Sludge was manually removed from the top of the settled sludge bed to selectively remove NOB which resulted in an increased overall biomass specific N-conversion rate of 0.32 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1) · day(-1)]. Biomass segregation in granular sludge reactors gives an extra opportunity to select for specific microbial groups by applying a different SRT for different microbial groups. PMID:21744798

Winkler, Mari K H; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Kuenen, J Gijs; Yang, Jingjing; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

2011-09-01

122

Comparison of the BACTEC MYCO\\/F Lytic Bottle to the Isolator Tube, BACTEC Plus Aerobic F\\/Bottle, and BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic\\/10 Bottle and Comparison of the BACTEC Plus Aerobic F\\/Bottle to the Isolator Tube for Recovery of Bacteria, Mycobacteria, and Fungi from Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BACTEC MYCO\\/F Lytic blood culture bottle (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.) is designed to optimize the recovery of fungi and mycobacteria; however, this bottle also supports the growth of most aerobic bacteria. We compared the MYCO\\/F Lytic bottle with two other BACTEC bottles and the Isolator system for the recovery of bacteria as well as fungi and

E. Vetter; C. Torgerson; A. Feuker; J. Hughes; S. Harmsen; C. Schleck; C. Horstmeier; G. Roberts; F. Cockerill

2001-01-01

123

Concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria released to the air of a dental operation area before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines.  

PubMed

Bacteriological air sampling was conducted at 25 dental units during restorative treatment sessions before and after disinfection of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) with hydrogen peroxide. Air samples for determining the concentration and species composition of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were collected with the portable Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (RCS Plus) in the dental operation area close to patient's mouth. Large concentrations of airborne bacteria in the range of 0.35-40.08 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 1.63 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)) were recorded before DUWL disinfection. After disinfection, the concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.05), ranging from 0.51-3.82 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median = 0.9 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Streptococci were most numerous among airborne bacteria before DUWL disinfection, forming 79.23 % of total isolates. The remaining isolates were staphylococci/micrococci (15.7 % ), corynebacteria (2.3 % ), endospore-forming bacilli (1.45 % ), Gram-negative bacteria (1.31 % ), and actinomycetes (0.01 % ). After DUWL disinfection, a significant decrease in the numbers of streptococci (p<0.05) and Gram-negative bacteria (p<0.01) was noted, while the numbers of other types of bacteria were unaffected. Altogether, 50 species or genera of bacteria were identified in the examined air samples before and after DUWL disinfection. Of these, 36 species or genera are considered potentially pathogenic, as a potential cause of infection, allergic disease or intoxication. In conclusion, the high pollution of dental operation area with bacteria indicates a need for use of preventive measures protecting dental staff and patients, such as DUWL disinfection that proved efficient in decrease of exposure in the present study. PMID:19061267

Szyma?ska, Jolanta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2008-12-01

124

Biochemistry and biotechnology of mesophilic and thermophilic nitrile metabolizing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic nitrile-degrading enzymes are widely dispersed in the Bacteria and lower orders of the eukaryotic kingdom. Two\\u000a distinct enzyme systems, a nitrilase catalyzing the direct conversion of nitriles to carboxylic acids and separate but cotranscribed\\u000a nitrile hydratase and amidase activities, are now well known. Nitrile hydratases are metalloenzymes, incorporating FeIII or CoII ions in thiolate ligand networks where they function

Don Cowan; Rebecca Cramp; Rui Pereira; Dan Graham; Qadreyah Almatawah

1998-01-01

125

Microbiologically influenced corrosion of 304 stainless steel by aerobic Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 bacteria: AFM and XPS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steel 304 by a marine aerobic Pseudomonas bacterium in a seawater-based medium was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM was used to observe in situ the proliferation of a sessile Pseudomonas cell by binary fission. The development of a biofilm on the coupon surface and the extent of

S. J. Yuan; S. O. Pehkonen

2007-01-01

126

The absolute requirement for carbon dioxide for aerobic methane oxidation by a methanotrophic-heterotrophic soil community of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerobic methanotrophic-heterotrophic soil community has been characterised when growing with different partial pressures of CO2. The methanotrophic population using methane as carbon source reached 3 × 107 cfu ml-1 with one of the major methanotrophs being of type II which uses the serine pathway for C assimilation. Optimal methanotrophic activity required the addition of CO2, and in the absence of CO2 no

Victor Acha; Joel Alba; Frederic Thalasso

2002-01-01

127

Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria from surfacewater and groundwater of Rautahat District, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a serious Environmental Health Management issue of drinking water sources especially in Terai region of Nepal. Many studies have reported that due to natural abundance of arsenic in the environment, various bacteria have developed different resistance mechanisms for arsenic compound. In this study, the culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria indigenous to surfacewater as well as groundwater

S. Shakya; B. Pradhan; L. Smith; J. Shrestha; S. Tuladhar

128

Enhancement of Growth of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Facultative Bacteria in Mixed Infections with Anaerobic and Facultative Gram-Positive Cocci,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic and facultative gram-positive cocci (AFGPC) mixed with other bacteria are frequently recovered from infections at different sites in the body. Although many of these organisms are synergistic, the exact role of AFGPC in these infections and thei...

I. Brook

1988-01-01

129

Iodide Accumulation by Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Subsurface Sediments of a 129I-Contaminated Aquifer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina ?  

PubMed Central

129I is of major concern because of its mobility in the environment, excessive inventory, toxicity (it accumulates in the thyroid), and long half-life (?16 million years). The aim of this study was to determine if bacteria from a 129I-contaminated oxic aquifer at the F area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, SC, could accumulate iodide at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 ?M I?). Iodide accumulation capability was found in 3 out of 136 aerobic bacterial strains isolated from the F area that were closely related to Streptomyces/Kitasatospora spp., Bacillus mycoides, and Ralstonia/Cupriavidus spp. Two previously described iodide-accumulating marine strains, a Flexibacter aggregans strain and an Arenibacter troitsensis strain, accumulated 2 to 50% total iodide (0.1 ?M), whereas the F-area strains accumulated just 0.2 to 2.0%. Iodide accumulation by FA-30 was stimulated by the addition of H2O2, was not inhibited by chloride ions (27 mM), did not exhibit substrate saturation kinetics with regard to I? concentration (up to 10 ?M I?), and increased at pH values of <6. Overall, the data indicate that I? accumulation likely results from electrophilic substitution of cellular organic molecules. This study demonstrates that readily culturable, aerobic bacteria of the F-area aquifer do not accumulate significant amounts of iodide; however, this mechanism may contribute to the long-term fate and transport of 129I and to the biogeochemical cycling of iodine over geologic time.

Li, Hsiu-Ping; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Jones, Whitney L.; Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Schwehr, Kathy A.; Santschi, Peter H.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris M.

2011-01-01

130

Boundary Between Bacterial Mesophilism and Thermophilism  

PubMed Central

Bausum, Howard T. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), and Thomas S. Matney. Boundary between bacterial mesophilism and thermophilism. J. Bacteriol. 90:50–53. 1965.—The temperature boundary between bacterial mesophilism and thermophilism has been identified as 44 to 52 C. Facultative thermophiles growing in the mesophilic range require a brief period of adaptation at intermediate temperatures before gaining the capacity to initiate growth at thermophilic temperatures. Obligate mesophiles cannot grow in the thermophilic temperature range, but obligate thermophiles may show limited growth at temperatures as low as 41 C.

Bausum, Howard T.; Matney, Thomas S.

1965-01-01

131

Ammonium-dependent regulation of aerobic methane-consuming bacteria in landfill cover soil by leachate irrigation.  

PubMed

The impacts of landfill leachate irrigation on methane oxidation activities and methane-consuming bacteria populations were studied by incubation of landfill cover soils with leachate and (NH4)2SO4 solution at different ammonium concentrations. The community structures and abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were examined by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR. Compared with the pure (NH4)2SO4 solution, leachate addition was found to have a positive effect on methane oxidation activity. In terms of the irrigation amount, ammonium in leachate was responsible for the actual inhibition of leachate. The extent of inhibitory effect mainly depended on its ammonium concentration. The suppression of the predominant methane-consuming bacteria, type I MOB, was responsible for the decreased methane oxidation activity by ammonium inhibition. Methane-consuming bacteria responded diversely in abundance to ammonium. The abundance of type I MOB decreased by fivefold; type II MOB showed stimulation response of fivefold magnification upon the first addition but lessened to be lower than the original level after the second addition; the amount of AOB was stimulated to increase for 20-30 times gradually. Accumulated nitrate from nitrification strengthened the ammonium inhibition on type I and type II MOB, as a result, repetitive irrigation was unfavorable for methane oxidation. PMID:22894107

Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing; Guo, Min; Yang, Na; Shao, Liming

2012-01-01

132

Inactivation of Enteric Pathogens during Aerobic Digestion of Wastewater Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion ...

S. R. Farrah G. Bitton S. G. Zam

1986-01-01

133

INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

134

Comparison of two transport systems available in Japan (TERUMO kenkiporter II and BBL Port-A-Cul) for maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

The kenkiporter II (KP II) transport system is commonly used in many hospitals in Japan for transporting bacterial specimens to microbiology laboratories. Recently, the BBL Port-A-Cul (PAC) fluid vial became available. However, no reports thus far have compared the effectiveness of these two transport systems. We chose 4 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria as well as 8 anaerobic organisms, and prepared three strains of each bacterium in culture media for placement into PAC and KP II containers. We compared the effectiveness of each transport system for preserving each organism at 6, 24, and 48 h after inoculation at room temperature. Thirty-six strains out of 12 bacteria were used in this study. The PAC system yielded better recovery in quantity of organisms than the KP II system at 6, 24 and 48 h. More strains were significantly recovered with the PAC system than with the KP II at 24 h (36/36 vs. 23/36, P < 0.001) and 48 h (30/36 vs. 12/36, P < 0.001). The PAC system was better in the recovery of viable organisms counted at 24 and 48 h after inoculation compared with the KP II system. The PAC system may be recommended for the transfer of bacterial specimens in clinical settings. PMID:24462420

Fujimoto, Daichi; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Sakizono, Kenji; Kotani, Yoko; Miki, Kanji; Naito, Takuya; Niki, Marie; Miyamoto, Junko; Tamai, Koji; Nagata, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Tachikawa, Ryo; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

2014-01-01

135

Treatment of thermomechanical pulping condensate using thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

In-mill thermophilic treatment of individual wastewater streams to achieve water system closure has received much attention in pulp and paper mills. Aerobic biological treatment of thermomechanical pulping (TMP) condensate was conducted using thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for a period of 143 days at a cyclic time of 6, 8 and 12 h. A soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) removal efficiency of 77 to 91% was achieved, given an organic loading rate of 0.7-1.3 kg/m³ d. The COD removal efficiency of the thermophilic SBR was slightly lower than that of the mesophilic SBR. Majority of the soluble COD was removed by biodegradation with a small portion (9-13%) of soluble COD stripped by aeration. The settleability (sludge volume index) and the flocculating ability (effluent suspended solids) of thermophilic sludge were comparable to or slightly poorer than that of the mesophilic sludge. The level of filaments in thermophilic sludge was usually higher than that in mesophilic sludge. The results of the study indicate that both thermophilic and mesophilic SBRs can be successfully operated for in-mill treatment of TMP condensate. The treated effluent has the potential for subsequent reuse in the mill. PMID:21099038

Langevin, S P; Liao, B Q

2010-01-01

136

Novel cellulose-binding domains, NodB homologues and conserved modular architecture in xylanases from the aerobic soil bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and Cellvibrio mixtus.  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that selective pressure has led to the retention of cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) by hemicellulase enzymes from aerobic bacteria, four new xylanase (xyn) genes from two cellulolytic soil bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and Cellvibrio mixtus, have been isolated and sequenced. Pseudomonas genes xynE and xynF encoded modular xylanases (XYLE and XYLF) with predicted M(r) values of 68,600 and 65000 respectively. XYLE contained a glycosyl hydrolase family 11 catalytic domain at its N-terminus, followed by three other domains; the second of these exhibited sequence identity with NodB from rhizobia. The C-terminal domain (40 residues) exhibited significant sequence identity with a non-catalytic domain of previously unknown function, conserved in all the cellulases and one of the hemicellulases previously characterized from the pseudomonad, and was shown to function as a CBD when fused to the reporter protein glutathione-S-transferase. XYLF contained a C-terminal glycosyl hydrolase family 10 catalytic domain and a novel CBD at its N-terminus. C. mixtus genes xynA and xynB exhibited substantial sequence identity with xynE and xynF respectively, and encoded modular xylanases with the same molecular architecture and, by inference, the same functional properties. In the absence of extensive cross-hybridization between other multiple cel (cellulase) and xyn genes from P. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and genomic DNA from C. mixtus, similarity between the two pairs of xylanases may indicate a recent transfer of genes between the two bacteria. Images Figure 1 Figure 4

Millward-Sadler, S J; Davidson, K; Hazlewood, G P; Black, G W; Gilbert, H J; Clarke, J H

1995-01-01

137

Anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica , Desulfococcus multivorans , Geobacter sulfurreducens are more sensitive towards organic solvents than aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of seven important pollutants and three representative organic solvents on growth of Thauera aromatica K172, as reference strain for nitrate-reducing anaerobic bacteria, was investigated. Toxicity in form of the effective concentrations\\u000a (EC50) that led to 50% growth inhibition of potential organic pollutants such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and\\u000a xylene), chlorinated phenols and aliphatic alcohols on cells was

Ilka Duldhardt; Ivonne Nijenhuis; Frieder Schauer; Hermann J. Heipieper

2007-01-01

138

Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria from surfacewater and groundwater of Rautahat District, Nepal.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a serious Environmental Health Management issue of drinking water sources especially in Terai region of Nepal. Many studies have reported that due to natural abundance of arsenic in the environment, various bacteria have developed different resistance mechanisms for arsenic compound. In this study, the culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria indigenous to surfacewater as well as groundwater from Rautahat District of Nepal were randomly isolated by standard plate count method on the basis of viable growth on plate count agar amended with arsenate ranging from 0, 0.5, 10, 40, 80 to 160 milligram per liter (mg/l). With respect to the morphological and biochemical tests, nine morphologically distinct potent arsenate tolerant bacteria showed relatedness with Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus smithii 1 and Bacillus smithii 2. The isolates were capable of tolerating more than 1000 mg/l of arsenate and 749 mg/l of arsenite. Likewise, bioaccumulation capability was highest with M. roseus (85.61%) and the least with B. smithii (47.88%) indicating the potential of the organisms in arsenic resistance and most probably in bioremediation. PMID:21868146

Shakya, S; Pradhan, B; Smith, L; Shrestha, J; Tuladhar, S

2012-03-01

139

Central Role of Dynamic Tidal Biofilms Dominated by Aerobic Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Diatoms in the Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Coastal Mudflats  

PubMed Central

Mudflats and salt marshes are habitats at the interface of aquatic and terrestrial systems that provide valuable services to ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to determine how catastrophic incidents, such as oil spills, influence the microbial communities in sediment that are pivotal to the function of the ecosystem and to identify the oil-degrading microbes that mitigate damage to the ecosystem. In this study, an oil spill was simulated by use of a tidal chamber containing intact diatom-dominated sediment cores from a temperate mudflat. Changes in the composition of bacteria and diatoms from both the sediment and tidal biofilms that had detached from the sediment surface were monitored as a function of hydrocarbon removal. The hydrocarbon concentration in the upper 1.5 cm of sediments decreased by 78% over 21 days, with at least 60% being attributed to biodegradation. Most phylotypes were minimally perturbed by the addition of oil, but at day 21, there was a 10-fold increase in the amount of cyanobacteria in the oiled sediment. Throughout the experiment, phylotypes associated with the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cycloclasticus) and alkanes (Alcanivorax, Oleibacter, and Oceanospirillales strain ME113), substantively increased in oiled mesocosms, collectively representing 2% of the pyrosequences in the oiled sediments at day 21. Tidal biofilms from oiled cores at day 22, however, consisted mostly of phylotypes related to Alcanivorax borkumensis (49% of clones), Oceanospirillales strain ME113 (11% of clones), and diatoms (14% of clones). Thus, aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation is most likely to be the main mechanism of attenuation of crude oil in the early weeks of an oil spill, with tidal biofilms representing zones of high hydrocarbon-degrading activity.

Coulon, Frederic; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Fahy, Anne; Paisse, Sandrine; Goni-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; Acuna Alvarez, Laura; McKew, Boyd A.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Duran, Robert

2012-01-01

140

Evaluation of the removal of indicator bacteria from domestic sludge processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD).  

PubMed

The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing. PMID:20948933

Piterina, Anna V; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J

2010-09-01

141

Enrichment and characterization of a bacteria consortium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at low temperature.  

PubMed

Nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants is usually severely inhibited under cold temperature. The present study proposes bioaugmentation using psychrotolerant heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification consortium to enhance nitrogen removal at low temperature. A functional consortium has been successfully enriched by stepped increase in DO concentration. Using this consortium, the specific removal rates of ammonia and nitrate at 10 °C reached as high as 3.1 mg N/(gSSh) and 9.6 mg N/(gSSh), respectively. PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis both indicated a significant reduction in bacterial diversity during enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly full-length 16S rRNA genes showed that Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and particularly Bacteroidetes declined while Gammaproteobacteria (all clustered into Pseudomonas sp.) and Betaproteobacteria (mainly Rhodoferax ferrireducens) became dominant in the enriched consortium. It is likely that Pseudomonas spp. played a major role in nitrification and denitrification, while R. ferrireducens and its relatives utilized nitrate as both electron acceptor and nitrogen source. PMID:23131636

Yao, Shuo; Ni, Jinren; Chen, Qian; Borthwick, Alistair G L

2013-01-01

142

Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)  

PubMed Central

The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing.

Piterina, Anna V.; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J.

2010-01-01

143

Combined thermophilic aerobic process and conventional anaerobic digestion: effect on sludge biodegradation and methane production.  

PubMed

The efficiency of hyper-thermophilic (65 degrees Celsius) aerobic process coupled with a mesophilic (35 degrees Celsius) digester was evaluated for the activated sludge degradation and was compared to a conventional mesophilic digester. For two Sludge Retention Time (SRT), 21 and 42 days, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilisation and biodegradation processes, the methanisation yield and the aerobic oxidation were investigated during 180 days. The best results were obtained at SRT of 44 days; the COD removal yield was 30% higher with the Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion/Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (MAD-TAR) co-treatment. An increase of the sludge intrinsic biodegradability is also observed (20-40%), showing that the unbiodegradable COD in mesophilic conditions becomes bioavailable. However, the methanisation yield was quite similar for both processes at a same SRT. Finally, such a process enables to divide by two the volume of digester with an equivalent efficiency. PMID:19959355

Dumas, C; Perez, S; Paul, E; Lefebvre, X

2010-04-01

144

Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter.  

PubMed

Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26. PMID:24903867

Pedersen, T B; Kot, W P; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, S J; Broadbent, J R; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

2014-01-01

145

Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter  

PubMed Central

Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26.

Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; S?rensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardo, Y.

2014-01-01

146

Evaluation of the Use of PCR and Reverse Transcriptase PCR for Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Biosolids from Anaerobic Digestors and Aerobic Composters  

PubMed Central

A PCR-based method and a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based method were developed for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in organic waste, using Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. In seeded organic waste samples, detection limits of less than 10 cells per g of organic waste were achieved after one-step enrichment of bacteria, isolation, and purification of DNA or RNA before PCR or RT-PCR amplification. To test the reproducibility and reliability of the newly developed methods, 46 unseeded samples were collected from diverse aerobic (composting) facilities and anaerobic digestors and analyzed by both culture-based classical and newly developed PCR-based procedures. No false-positive but some false-negative results were generated by the PCR- or RT-PCR-based methods after one-step enrichment when compared to the classical detection methods. The results indicated that the level of activity of the tested bacteria in unseeded samples was very low compared to that of freshly inoculated cells, preventing samples from reaching the cell density required for PCR-based detection after one-step enrichment. However, for Salmonella spp., a distinct PCR product could be obtained for all 22 nonamended samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the classical detection procedure when a selective two-step enrichment (20 h in peptone water at 37°C and 24 h in Rappaport Vassiliadis medium at 43°C) was performed prior to nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Hence, the classical procedure was shortened, since cell plating and further differentiation of isolated colonies can be omitted, substituted for by highly sensitive and reliable detection based on nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Similarly, 2 of the 22 samples in which Salmonella spp. were detected also tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes according to a two-step enrichment procedure followed by PCR, compared to 3 samples that tested positive when classical isolation procedures were followed. The study shows that selective two-step enrichment is useful when very low numbers of bacterial pathogens must be detected in organic waste materials, such as biosolids. There were no false-positive results derived from DNA of dead cells in the waste sample, suggesting that it is not necessary to perform RT-PCR analyses when PCR is combined with selective enrichment. Large numbers of added nontarget bacteria did not affect detection of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Y. enterocolitica but increased the detection limit of Staphylococcus aureus from <10 to 104 CFU/g of organic waste. Overall, the detection methods developed using seeded organic waste samples from one waste treatment facility (WTF) needed to be modified for satisfactory detection of pathogens in samples from other WTFs, emphasizing the need for extensive field testing of laboratory-derived PCR protocols. A survey of 13 WTFs in Germany revealed that all facilities complied with the German Biowaste Ordinance, which mandates that the end product after anaerobic digestion or aerobic composting be free of Salmonella. In addition, all biosolids were free of L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Y. enterocolitica, as evidenced by both classical and PCR-based detection methods.

Burtscher, Carola; Wuertz, Stefan

2003-01-01

147

Susceptibility to antibiotics of aerobic bacteria isolated from community acquired secondary peritonitis in children: therapeutic guidelines might not always fit with and everyday experience.  

PubMed

Appendicitis is a frequent clinical condition in normal children that may be complicated by community-acquired secondary peritonitis (CASP). We evaluated the potential efficacy of different drugs for initial treatment of this condition, as recommended by recent Consensus Conference and Guidelines for paediatric patients. Susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam, ertapenem, gentamycin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, vancomycin, and teicoplanin was evaluated according to EUCST 2012 recommendations in aerobic bacteria isolated from peritoneal fluid in CASP diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 at 'Istituto Giannina Gaslini', Genoa, Italy. A total of 114 strains were analysed: 83 E. coli, 15 P. aeruginosa, 6 Enterococci, and 10 other Gram-negatives. Resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam was detected in 37% of strains, while ertapenem showed a potential resistance of 13% (all P. aeruginosa strains). However, the combination of these drugs with gentamicin would have been increased the efficacy of the treatment to 99 and 100%, respectively. Resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam was 3%, while no strain was resistant to meropenem. Our data suggest that monotherapy with ampicillin-sulbactam or ertapenem for community-acquired secondary peritonitis would present a non-negligible rate of failure, but the addition of gentamycin to these drugs could reset to zero this risk. On the contrary, monotherapy with piperacillin-tazobactam or meropenem is highly effective. PMID:23906074

Castagnola, Elio; Bandettini, Roberto; Ginocchio, Francesca; Perotti, Maddalena; Masa, Daniela La; Ciucci, Antonella; Loy, Anna; Caviglia, Ilaria; Haupt, Riccardo; Guida, Edoardo; Pini Prato, Alessio; Mattioli, Girolamo; Buffa, Piero

2013-08-01

148

Thermophilic and Mesophilic Aminopeptidases from Bacillus Stearothermophilus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various strains of B. stearothermophilus contain different proportions of three aminopeptidases. Obligately thermophilic strains contain more of the thermophilic enzyme; obligately mesophilic strains contain very little of it, and facultative strains cont...

H. Zuber G. Roncari

1974-01-01

149

Ferric Iron Reduction by Acidophilic Heterotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Fifty mesophilic and five moderately thermophilic strains of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria were tested for the ability to reduce ferric iron in liquid and solid media under aerobic conditions; about 40% of the mesophiles (but none of the moderate thermophiles) displayed at least some capacity to reduce iron. Both rates and extents of ferric iron reduction were highly strain dependent. No acidophilic heterotroph reduced nitrate or sulfate, and (limited) reduction of manganese(IV) was noted in only one strain (Acidiphilium facilis), an acidophile which did not reduce iron. Insoluble forms of ferric iron, both amorphous and crystalline, were reduced, as well as soluble iron. There was evidence that, in at least some acidophilic heterotrophs, iron reduction was enzymically mediated and that ferric iron could act as a terminal electron acceptor. In anaerobically incubated cultures, bacterial biomass increased with increasing concentrations of ferric but not ferrous iron. Mixed cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans or Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and an acidophilic heterotroph (SJH) produced sequences of iron cycling in ferrous iron-glucose media.

Johnson, D. Barrie; McGinness, Stephen

1991-01-01

150

Adaptation of mesophilic anaerobic sewage fermentor populations to thermophilic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Thermophilic (50/sup 0/ ) and obligately thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) anaerobic carbohydrate- and protein-digesting and methanogenic bacterial populations were enumerated in a mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) fermentor anaerobically digesting municipal primary sludge. Of the total population in the mesophilic fermentor, 9% were thermophiles and 1% were obligate thermophiles. Of these 10%, the percentages of bacteria (thermophiles and obligate thermophiles, respectively) able to use specific substrates were as follows: bacteria able to digest albumin, casein, starch, and mono- and disaccharides, 30 and 10%; pectin degraders, 10 and 0.2%; cellulose degraders, 2 and 0.06%; methanogens that grow with H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/, methanol, and dimethylamine, 9 and 1%; methanogens that grow with formate, 8 and 5%; and methanogens that grow with acetate, 25 and less than 0.8%. Shortly after the temperature was elevated from 35 to 50 or 60 degrees C, the digestion of albumin, casein, starch, and mono- and disaccharides was detected, and methane was produced from H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. Methane produced from acetate was not delayed at 50 degrees C, but was delayed by 29 days at 60 degrees C. Methane produced from formate was delayed by 3 days, from methanol by 7 days, and from dimethylamine by 5 days at 50 and 60 degrees C. A 10- and 20-day acclimation period was required for hydrolysis of pectin and cellulose, respectively, at 50 degrees C. Digestion of pectin required 20 days and cellulose longer than 85 days when the temperature was elevated abruptly from 35 to 60 degrees C. The acclimation period for the digestion of pectin and cellulose at 60 degrees C was shortened to 3 and 15 days, respectively, by seeding with a small amount of a culture acclimated to 50 degrees C. The data suggest that enrichment of cellulolytic, pectinolytic, and acetate-utilizing bacteria is crucial for the digestion of sewage sludge at 60 degrees C. (Refs. 17).

Chen, M.

1983-04-01

151

Contamination flows of Bacillus cereus and spore-forming aerobic bacteria in a cooked, pasteurized and chilled zucchini purée processing line.  

PubMed

A food processing plant producing pasteurized purées and its zucchini purée processing line were examined for contamination with aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial spores during a day's operation. Multiplication of spores was also monitored in the product stored under different conditions. High concentrations of Bacillus cereus spores were found in the soil in which the zucchinis were grown (4.6+/-0.3 log CFU/g), with a background spore population of 6.1+/-0.2 log CFU/g. In the processing plant, no B. cereus or psychrotrophic bacterial spores were detected on equipment. B. cereus and psychrotrophic bacterial spores were detected after enrichment in all samples of raw zucchinis, washed zucchinis, of two ingredients (starch and milk proteins) and in processed purée at each processing step. Steam cooking of raw zucchinis and pasteurization of purée in the final package significantly reduced spore numbers to 0.5+/-0.3 log CFU/g in the processed food. During storage, numbers of spore-forming bacteria increased up to 7.8+/-0.1 log CFU/g in purée after 5 days at 20-25 degrees C, 7.5+/-0.3 log CFU/g after 21 days at 10 degrees C and 3.8+/-1.1 log CFU/g after 21 days at 4 degrees C. B. cereus counts reached 6.4+/-0.5 log CFU/g at 20-25 degrees C, 4.6+/-1.9 log CFU/g at 10 degrees C, and remained below the detection threshold (1.7 log CFU/g) at 4 degrees C. Our findings indicate that raw vegetables and texturing agents such as milk proteins and starch, in spite of their low levels of contamination with bacterial spores and the heat treatments they undergo, may significantly contribute to the final contamination of cooked chilled foods. This contamination resulted in growth of B. cereus and psychrotrophic bacterial spores during storage of vegetable purée. Ways to eliminate such contamination in the processing line are discussed. PMID:12593925

Guinebretiere, M H; Girardin, H; Dargaignaratz, C; Carlin, F; Nguyen-The, C

2003-05-15

152

Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial exopolysaccharides are biothickeners that can be added to a wide variety of food products, where they serve as viscosifying, stabilizing, emulsifying or gelling agents. Numerous exopolysaccharides with different composition, size and structure are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria. The heteropolysaccharides from both mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria have received renewed interest recently. Structural analysis combined with rheological studies

Luc De Vuyst; Bart Degeest

1999-01-01

153

Differential bioleaching of copper by mesophilic and moderately thermophilic acidophilic consortium enriched from same copper mine water sample.  

PubMed

Three acidophilic enrichment consortium were developed from mine water sample of copper mine site at Khetri, India were compared for their copper leaching efficiency. Out of these one was mesophilic (35 degrees C) and two were moderately thermophilic (50 degrees C). Consortia were named as mesophilic acidophilic chemolithotrophic consortia (MACC), thermophilic acidophilic chemolithotrophic consortia (TACC), and Sulfobacillus acidophilic consortia (SAC). Copper extraction ability of both the thermophilic consortia (77-78% extraction) was almost double to that of mesophilic consortia (40% extraction) at 10% pulp density after 55 days. Both the thermophilic consortia were equally effective in leaching of other metals like Ni, Co, Zn, Mn. After 55 days, the percentage of extractions of copper by TACC was 76, 74, 67, 48 and 45 at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% pulp density, respectively. Total number of bacteria was maximum at 5% pulp density which decreases with increase in pulp density. Sulfobacillus-like bacteria were seen in the Sulfobacillus enrichment cultures. Moderately thermophilic consortia proved to be better in leaching performance than the mesophilic counterpart. PMID:18434140

Marhual, N P; Pradhan, N; Kar, R N; Sukla, L B; Mishra, B K

2008-11-01

154

Aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor treating thermomechanical pulping whitewater under thermophilic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuously operated laboratory scale Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used for thermophilic (55°C) aerobic treatment of TMP whitewater. In the MBBR, the biomass is grown on carrier elements that move along with the water in the reactor. Inoculation with mesophilic activated sludge gave 60–65% SCOD removal from the first day onwards. During the 107 days of experiment,

Sigrun J Jahren; Jukka A Rintala; Hallvard Ødegaard

2002-01-01

155

Distribution of Thermophilic Bacteria in Arctic and Subarctic Habitats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrestrial and aquatic habitats of North American and the European Arctic and Subarctic were sampled for the presence of thermophilic, mesophilic, and psychrophilic bacteria. Thirteen geographic regions of Alaska, one in northern Canada, and seven in Nor...

W. L. Boyd J. W. Boyd

1969-01-01

156

Exposure of water consumers to mesophilic actinomycetes.  

PubMed Central

In autumn 1978 an epidemic of respiratory disease resembling allergic alveolitis occurred in a small Finnish community. The disease was caused by repeated exposures to tap water aerosol. The raw water of the community and the sand filters of the purification system were heavily contaminated with mesophilic actinomycetes. Fourteen different strains of actinomycetes were isolated. Exposed persons with and without symptoms as well as unexposed control persons were tested for antibodies against five of these actinomycetes and against Enterobacter agglomerans. Both the exposed and the control persons had antibodies to actinomycetes but the exposed persons had antibodies against more actinomycete strains than the control persons. Precipitating antibodies against E. agglomerans were also found in control persons as well as in patients. There was a significant difference between the patients and the exposed healthy persons in bacterial agglutination tests with flagellar antigen of one E. agglomerans strain. However, the role of mesophilic actinomycetes and E. agglomerans in the aetiology of the disease could not be firmly established.

Ojanen, T. H.; Katila, M. L.; MA?ntyjA?rvi, R.; SeppA?nen, H.; Muittari, A.; Kuusisto, P.; Virtanen, P.

1983-01-01

157

Comparison of the BACTEC MYCO/F Lytic Bottle to the Isolator Tube, BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/Bottle, and BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 Bottle and Comparison of the BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/Bottle to the Isolator Tube for Recovery of Bacteria, Mycobacteria, and Fungi from Blood  

PubMed Central

The BACTEC MYCO/F Lytic blood culture bottle (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.) is designed to optimize the recovery of fungi and mycobacteria; however, this bottle also supports the growth of most aerobic bacteria. We compared the MYCO/F Lytic bottle with two other BACTEC bottles and the Isolator system for the recovery of bacteria as well as fungi and mycobacteria from blood. A total of 6,108 blood culture sets were inoculated with blood obtained from adult patients. Twenty-five to 28 ml of blood collected by a phlebotomy team for each blood culture set was randomly distributed into each of four blood culture receptacles: the Isolator tube (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and three BACTEC bottles: the MYCO/F Lytic bottle, the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle, and the BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle. The sediment from the Isolator tube was inoculated onto chocolate agar (CA), brain heart infusion agar (BHI), and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and into a BACTEC 13A bottle. Incubation durations were as follows: MYCO/F Lytic bottle, 42 days; Plus Aerobic/F bottle, 5 days; Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle, 5 days; sediment from Isolator tube on CA, 3 days; sediment from Isolator tube on BHI, 30 days; sediment from Isolator tube on SDA, 30 days; and sediment from Isolator tube in a BACTEC 13A bottle, 42 days. Two isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered from the Isolator tube only. Three isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were recovered: two isolates from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle only and one isolate from the Isolator tube (whose sediment was inoculated into the BACTEC 13A bottle) only. Two isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were recovered: one from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle only and the other from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle and the Isolator tube (whose sediment was inoculated into the BACTEC 13A bottle). For potential pathogens overall, there was a statistical difference in recovery that favored the Isolator system over the MYCO/F Lytic bottle (P = 0.0015), including statistically significant differences for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0001) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P = 0.0313). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two blood culture systems when detection of bloodstream infection was considered. The time to detection for all potential pathogens combined was less for the MYCO/F Lytic bottle than for the Isolator system (P = 0.0004). Overall, the potential pathogen recovery was greater for the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle than for either the Isolator system (P = 0.0003) or the MYCO/F Lytic bottle (P = 0.0001). However, the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle did not recover M. tuberculosis, H. capsulatum, or C. neoformans isolates. The combination of the Isolator system and MYCO/F Lytic bottle may be useful as a selective blood culture method to optimize the recovery of fungi and mycobacteria from blood. Compared with the manual Isolator system, the MYCO/F Lytic system has the advantage of less preanalytic processing and continuous automated monitoring of bottles for growth by the BACTEC 9240 instrument.

Vetter, E.; Torgerson, C.; Feuker, A.; Hughes, J.; Harmsen, S.; Schleck, C.; Horstmeier, C.; Roberts, G.; Cockerill, F.

2001-01-01

158

Comparison of the BACTEC MYCO/F Lytic bottle to the isolator tube, BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/bottle, and BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle and comparison of the BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/bottle to the Isolator tube for recovery of bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi from blood.  

PubMed

The BACTEC MYCO/F Lytic blood culture bottle (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.) is designed to optimize the recovery of fungi and mycobacteria; however, this bottle also supports the growth of most aerobic bacteria. We compared the MYCO/F Lytic bottle with two other BACTEC bottles and the Isolator system for the recovery of bacteria as well as fungi and mycobacteria from blood. A total of 6,108 blood culture sets were inoculated with blood obtained from adult patients. Twenty-five to 28 ml of blood collected by a phlebotomy team for each blood culture set was randomly distributed into each of four blood culture receptacles: the Isolator tube (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and three BACTEC bottles: the MYCO/F Lytic bottle, the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle, and the BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle. The sediment from the Isolator tube was inoculated onto chocolate agar (CA), brain heart infusion agar (BHI), and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and into a BACTEC 13A bottle. Incubation durations were as follows: MYCO/F Lytic bottle, 42 days; Plus Aerobic/F bottle, 5 days; Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle, 5 days; sediment from Isolator tube on CA, 3 days; sediment from Isolator tube on BHI, 30 days; sediment from Isolator tube on SDA, 30 days; and sediment from Isolator tube in a BACTEC 13A bottle, 42 days. Two isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered from the Isolator tube only. Three isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were recovered: two isolates from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle only and one isolate from the Isolator tube (whose sediment was inoculated into the BACTEC 13A bottle) only. Two isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were recovered: one from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle only and the other from the MYCO/F Lytic bottle and the Isolator tube (whose sediment was inoculated into the BACTEC 13A bottle). For potential pathogens overall, there was a statistical difference in recovery that favored the Isolator system over the MYCO/F Lytic bottle (P = 0.0015), including statistically significant differences for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0001) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P = 0.0313). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two blood culture systems when detection of bloodstream infection was considered. The time to detection for all potential pathogens combined was less for the MYCO/F Lytic bottle than for the Isolator system (P = 0.0004). Overall, the potential pathogen recovery was greater for the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle than for either the Isolator system (P = 0.0003) or the MYCO/F Lytic bottle (P = 0.0001). However, the BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottle did not recover M. tuberculosis, H. capsulatum, or C. neoformans isolates. The combination of the Isolator system and MYCO/F Lytic bottle may be useful as a selective blood culture method to optimize the recovery of fungi and mycobacteria from blood. Compared with the manual Isolator system, the MYCO/F Lytic system has the advantage of less preanalytic processing and continuous automated monitoring of bottles for growth by the BACTEC 9240 instrument. PMID:11724848

Vetter, E; Torgerson, C; Feuker, A; Hughes, J; Harmsen, S; Schleck, C; Horstmeier, C; Roberts, G; Cockerill, F

2001-12-01

159

ADP-Dependent Phosphofructokinases in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Methanogenic Archaea  

PubMed Central

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a key enzyme of the glycolytic pathway in all domains of life. Two related PFKs, ATP-dependent and PPi-dependent PFK, have been distinguished in bacteria and eucarya, as well as in some archaea. Hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Thermococcales, including Pyrococcus and Thermococcus spp., have recently been demonstrated to possess a unique ADP-dependent PFK (ADP-PFK) that appears to be phylogenetically distinct. Here, we report the presence of ADP-PFKs in glycogen-producing members of the orders Methanococcales and Methanosarcinales, including both mesophilic and thermophilic representatives. To verify the substrate specificities of the methanogenic kinases, the gene encoding the ADP-PFK from Methanococcus jannaschii was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the produced enzyme was purified and characterized in detail. Compared to its counterparts from the two members of the order Thermococcales, the M. jannaschii ADP-PFK has an extremely low Km for fructose 6-phosphate (9.6 ?M), and it accepts both ADP and acetyl-phosphate as phosphoryl donors. Phylogenetic analysis of the ADP-PFK reveals it to be a key enzyme of the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway of heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic archaea. Interestingly, uncharacterized homologs of this unusual kinase are present in several eucarya.

Verhees, Corne H.; Tuininga, Judith E.; Kengen, Serve W. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

2001-01-01

160

Cellulase complex of a mesophilic Streptomyces strain.  

PubMed

Various cellulolytic streptomycetes were isolated from natural environments. The cellulase production of one of these mesophilic Streptomyces strains, identified as S. flavogriseus was studied. When grown as a submerged culture with 1% microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) as substrate, the strain produced considerable amounts of beta-1,4-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4; CM cellulase) in the extracellular supernatant and exhibited good overall cellulolytic activity as measured using filter paper (FP cellulase) and cotton as substrates. The maximum enzyme yields were obtained after 72 h of incubation at 30 degrees C. The optimal conditions for the FP cellulase activity were found at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. All beta-glucosidase and cellobiase activities were found in the mycelial fraction of the culture and could be obtained in soluble form by sonication. PMID:6773643

Ishaque, M; Kluepfel, D

1980-02-01

161

Evaluation of analytical methods for determining the distribution of biofilm and active bacteria in a commercial heating system.  

PubMed

Danish district heating systems have good water quality, but continue to suffer from biofouling and biocorrosion. Localisation analyses of bacteria using microautoradiography were performed for one system in order to obtain detailed information for solving these problems. A mass balance showed that 77% of the bacteria were located at surfaces, with 23% in the bulk water, and 9% of the total carbon originated from biomass, while 91% was dissolved in the bulk water. The presence of active bacteria was determined with microautoradiography which showed that biofilms contained 99% and 1% were in the bulk water. A high bacterial functional diversity was observed, with active mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and with potentially corrosive biofilm bacteria present. The study reveals that by applying the activity based approach, the ratio of living and dead bacteria in the biofilm and bulk water in this type of system could be accurately determined. Also, the results emphasise that to minimise biofilm growth and biocorrosion, monitoring should be established focusing on the surfaces, since bulk water parameters do not reflect bacterial activity. PMID:17290859

Kjellerup, B V; Gudmonsson, G; Sowers, K; Nielsen, P H

2006-01-01

162

Isolation and characterization of heterotrophic bacteria able to grow aerobically with quaternary ammonium alcohols as sole source of carbon and nitrogen.  

PubMed

The quaternary ammonium alcohols (QAAs) 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium (TM), dimethyl-diethanol-ammonium (DM) and methyl-triethanol-ammonium (MM) are hydrolysis products of their parent esterquat surfactants, which are widely used as softeners in fabric care. We isolated several bacteria growing with QAAs as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The strains were compared with a previously isolated TM-degrading bacterium, which was identified as a representative of the species Pseudomonas putida (Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24 (2001) 252). Two bacteria were isolated with DM, referred to as strains DM 1 and DM 2, respectively. Based on 16S-rDNA analysis, they provided 97% (DM 1) and 98% (DM 2) identities to the closest related strain Zoogloea ramigera Itzigsohn 1868AL. Both strains were long, slim, motile rods but only DM 1 showed the floc forming activity, which is typical for representatives of the genus Zoogloea. Using MM we isolated a Gram-negative, non-motile rod referred to as strain MM 1. The 16S-rDNA sequence of the isolated bacterium revealed 94% identities (best match) to Rhodobacter sphaeroides only. The strains MM 1 and DM 1 exclusively grew with the QAA which was used for their isolation. DM 2 was also utilizing TM as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. However, all of the isolated bacteria were growing with the natural and structurally related compound choline. PMID:15900970

Kaech, Andres; Vallotton, Nathalie; Egli, Thomas

2005-04-01

163

Isolation, Characterization, and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential of Aerobic Bacteria from Marine Macrofaunal Burrow Sediments and Description of Lutibacterium anuloederans gen. nov., sp. nov., and Cycloclasticus spirillensus sp. nov.†  

PubMed Central

Two new polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria have been isolated from burrow wall sediments of benthic macrofauna by using enrichments on phenanthrene. Strain LC8 (from a polychaete) and strain M4-6 (from a mollusc) are aerobic and gram negative and require sodium chloride (>1%) for growth. Both strains can use 2- and 3-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as their sole carbon and energy sources, but they are nutritionally versatile. Physiological and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequences suggest that strain M4-6 belongs to the genus Cycloclasticus and represents a new species, Cycloclasticus spirillensus sp. nov. Strain LC8 appears to represent a new genus and species, Lutibacterium anuloederans gen. nov., sp. nov., within the Sphingomonadaceae. However, when inoculated into sediment slurries with or without exogenous phenanthrene, only L. anuloederans appeared to sustain a significant phenanthrene uptake potential throughout a 35-day incubation. In addition, only L. anuloederans appeared to enhance phenanthrene degradation in heavily contaminated sediment from Little Mystic Cove, Boston Harbor, Boston, Mass.

Chung, W. K.; King, G. M.

2001-01-01

164

Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

Coyne, P.; Smith, G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1995-08-15

165

Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa. PMID:19663984

Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G

2010-06-01

166

Optimum Detection Times for Bacteria and Yeast Species with the BACTEC 9120 Aerobic Blood Culture System: Evaluation for a 5-Year Period in a Turkish University Hospital  

PubMed Central

We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11,156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3,676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used.

Durmaz, Gul; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgun, Yurdanur

2003-01-01

167

Comparative study of energy-transducing properties of cytoplasmic membranes from mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species.  

PubMed Central

The properties of enzymes involved in energy transduction from a mesophilic (Bacillus subtilis) and a thermophilic (B. stearothermophilus) bacterium were compared. Membrane preparations of the two organisms contained dehydrogenases for NADH, succinate, L-alpha-glycerophosphate, and L-lactate. Maximum NADH and cytochrome c oxidation rates were obtained at the respective growth temperatures of the two bacteria. The enzymes involved in the oxidation reactions in membranes of the thermophilic species were more thermostable than those of the mesophilic species. The apparent microviscosities of the two membrane preparations were studied at different temperatures. At the respective optimal growth temperatures, the apparent microviscosities of the membranes of the two organisms were remarkably similar. The transition from the gel to the liquid-crystalline state occurred at different temperatures in the two species. In the two species, the oxidation of physiological (NADH) and nonphysiological (N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine or phenazine methosulfate) electron donors led to generation of a proton motive force which varied strongly with temperature. At increasing temperatures, the efficiency of energy transduction declined because of increasing H+ permeability. At the growth temperature, the efficiency of energy transduction was lower in B. stearothermophilus than in the mesophilic species. Extremely high respiratory activities enabled B. stearothermophilus to maintain a high proton motive force at elevated temperatures. The pH dependence of proton motive force generation appeared to be similar in the two membrane preparations. The highest proton motive forces were generated at low external pH, mainly because of a high pH gradient. At increasing external pH, the proton motive force declined.

De Vrij, W; Bulthuis, R A; Konings, W N

1988-01-01

168

Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

2002-01-01

169

Comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating instant coffee production wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable anaerobic digestion of settled instant coffee wastewater was achieved for over 100 days in mesophilic (35°C) and termophilic (55°C) UASB reactors. Thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blankets (UASBs) were seeded with mesophilic granules and converted to thermophilic operation by raising the temperature to 55°C in one step. Successful thermophilic operation was achieved within 28 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic UASBs

Richard M. Dinsdale; Freda R. Hawkes; Dennis L. Hawkes

1997-01-01

170

Thermophilic adaptation of a mesophilic anaerobic sludge for food waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As opposed to mesophilic, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste can increase the biogas output of reactors. To facilitate the transition of anaerobic digesters, this paper investigated the impact of adapting mesophilic sludge to thermophilic conditions. A 5L bench scale reactor was seeded with mesophilic granular sludge obtained from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket digester. After 13 days of operation

Luis Ortega; Suzelle Barrington; Serge R. Guiot

2008-01-01

171

Monitoring of thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp.  

PubMed

Anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp was investigated in pilot-scale digesters. Thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic culture was monitored using chemical analysis and metagenomic characterization of the sludge. Temperature adaptation was achieved by increasing the temperature gradually (2°Cday(-1)) and by greatly decreasing the OLR. During stable run, the OLR was increased gradually to 11.29kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and biogas yield was 5% higher in the thermophilic reactor. VFA levels increased in the thermophilic reactor with increased OLR (acetic acid 646mgL(-1), propionic acid 596mgL(-1)), then VFA decreased and the operation was manageable beside the relative high tVFA (1300-2000mgL(-1)). The effect of thermophilic adaptation on the microbial communities was studied using a sequencing-based metagenomic approach. Connections between physico-chemical parameters and populations of bacteria and methanogen archaea were revealed. PMID:24926601

Tukacs-Hájos, Annamária; Pap, Bernadett; Maróti, Gergely; Szendefy, Judit; Szabó, Piroska; Rétfalvi, Tamás

2014-08-01

172

Pilot-scale comparison of thermophilic aerobic suspended carrier biofilm process and activated sludge process in pulp and paper mill effluent treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic aerobic treatment of settled pulp and paper mill effluent was studied under mill premises with two comparative pilot processes; suspended carrier biofilm process (SCBP) and activated sludge process (ASP). Full-scale mesophilic activated sludge process was a reference treatment. During the runs (61 days) hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were kept 13 ± 5 h and 16 ± 6 h for

J. E. Suvilampi; J. A. Rintala

173

Dynamic modeling of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of animal waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model with time-varying parameters was developed to describe the dynamic behavior of the anaerobic mesophilic digestion of animal waste. Batch and continuous cases were considered. In the case of continuous process linearized models were proposed. Special emphasis was given to the parameters identification. Using sensitivity analysis and optimization software a simple methodology was developed. The model verification and

Iv. Simeonov; V. Momchev; D. Grancharov

1996-01-01

174

Sequencing Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digesters. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project employed two laboratory bench scale, complete-mix anaerobic sludge digesters arranged in a series configuration. The first digester was operated at 35 exp 0 C (mesophilic) and the second at 50 exp 0 C (thermophilic). A portion of the thermoph...

1982-01-01

175

Novel microbial populations in ambient and mesophilic biogas-producing and phenol-degrading consortia unraveled by high-throughput sequencing.  

PubMed

Methanogenesis from wastewater-borne organics and organic solid wastes (e.g., food residues) can be severely suppressed by the presence of toxic phenols. In this work, ambient (20 °C) and mesophilic (37 °C) methane-producing and phenol-degrading consortia were enriched and characterized using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). 454 Pyrosequencing indicated novel W22 (25.0 % of bacterial sequences) in the WWE1 and Sulfurovum-resembled species (32.0 %) in the family Campylobacterales were the most abundant in mesophilic and ambient reactors, respectively, which challenges previous knowledge that Syntrophorhabdus was the most predominant. Previous findings may underestimate bacterial diversity and low-abundance bacteria, but overestimate abundance of Syntrophorhabdus. Illumina HTS revealed that archaeal populations were doubled in ambient reactor and tripled in mesophilic reactor, respectively, compared to the ?4.9 % (of the bacteria and archaea sequences) in the seed sludge. Moreover, unlike the dominance of Methanosarcina in seed sludge, acetotrophic Methanosaeta predominated both (71.4-76.5 % of archaeal sequences) ambient and mesophilic enrichments. Noteworthy, this study, for the first time, discovered the co-occurrence of green sulfur bacteria Chlorobia, sulfur-reducing Desulfovibrio, and Sulfurovum-resembling species under ambient condition, which could presumably establish mutualistic relationships to compete with syntrophic bacteria and methanogens, leading to the deterioration of methanogenic activity. Taken together, this HTS-based study unravels the high microbial diversity and complicated bacterial interactions within the biogas-producing and phenol-degrading bioreactors, and the identification of novel bacterial species and dominant methanogens involved in the phenol degradation provides novel insights into the operation of full-scale bioreactors for maximizing biogas generation. PMID:24633337

Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

2014-08-01

176

Rhodococcus yunnanensis sp. nov., a mesophilic actinobacterium isolated from forest soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, mesophilic strain, designated YIM 70056(T), was isolated from a forest soil sample in Yunnan Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this isolate had less than 97.0 % similarity to any Rhodococcus species with validly published names, with the exception of Rhodococcus fascians (DSM 20669(T)), which was found to be its closest neighbour (98.9 % similarity). Chemotaxonomic data, including peptidoglycan type, diagnostic sugar compositions, fatty acid profiles, menaquinones, polar lipids and mycolic acids, were determined for this isolate; the results supported the affiliation of strain YIM 70056(T) to the genus Rhodococcus. The DNA G + C content was 63.5 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization with R. fascians DSM 20669(T), in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data, demonstrated that isolate YIM 70056(T) represents a novel Rhodococcus species, for which the name Rhodococcus yunnanensis sp. nov. is proposed, with YIM 70056(T) (=CCTCC AA 204007(T) = KCTC 19021(T) = DSM 44837(T)) as the type strain. PMID:15879245

Zhang, Yu-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Kim, Chang-Jin; Chen, Guo-Zhong; Park, Dong-Jin; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

2005-05-01

177

The use of mesophilic cultures in the dairy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of mesophilic starter cultures, containing group N Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, in the dairy industry is examined. Bacteriophage attack is identified as the main cause of culture inhibition and criteria used to select stable mixed-strain starter cultures and phage-insensitive defined strains are established. The key aspects of culture propagation and storage are highlighted, as well as bulk-culture protection

Charles Daly

1983-01-01

178

Pilot-scale comparison of thermophilic aerobic suspended carrier biofilm process and activated sludge process in pulp and paper mill effluent treatment.  

PubMed

Thermophilic aerobic treatment of settled pulp and paper mill effluent was studied under mill premises with two comparative pilot processes; suspended carrier biofilm process (SCBP) and activated sludge process (ASP). Full-scale mesophilic activated sludge process was a reference treatment. During the runs (61 days) hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were kept 13+/-5 h and 16+/-6 h for SCBP and ASP, respectively. Corresponding volumetric loadings rates (VLR) were 2.7+/-0.9 and 2.2+/-1.0 kg CODfilt m(-3)d(-1). Temperatures varied between 46 to 60 degrees C in both processes. Mesophilic ASP was operated with HRT of 36 h, corresponding VLR of 0.7 kg CODfilt m(-3)d(-1). Both SCBP and ASP achieved CODfilt (GF/A filtered) removals up to 85%, while the mesophilic ASP removal was 89+/-2%. NTU values were markedly higher (100-300) in thermophilic effluents than in mesophilic effluent (30). Effluent turbidity was highly dependent on temperature; in batch experiment mesophilic effluent sample had NTU values of 30 and 60 at 35 degrees C and 55 degrees C, respectively. As a conclusion, both thermophilic treatments gave high CODfilt removals, which were close to mesophilic process removal and were achieved with less than half of HRT. PMID:15461403

Suvilampi, J E; Rintala, J A

2004-01-01

179

Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads: an underestimated vehicle of bacteria and clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes.  

PubMed

The increase demand for fresh vegetables is causing an expansion of the market for minimally processed vegetables along with new recognized food safety problems. To gain further insight on this topic we analyzed the microbiological quality of Portuguese ready-to-eat salads (RTS) and their role in the spread of bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, food products scarcely considered in surveillance studies. A total of 50 RTS (7 brands; split or mixed leaves, carrot, corn) were collected in 5 national supermarket chains in Porto region (2010). They were tested for aerobic mesophilic counts, coliforms and Escherichia coli counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were also plated in different selective media with/without antibiotics before and after enrichment. The E. coli, other coliforms and Enterococcus recovered were characterized for antibiotic resistance profiles and clonality with phenotypic and genetic approaches. A high number of RTS presented poor microbiological quality (86%--aerobic mesophilic counts, 74%--coliforms, 4%--E. coli), despite the absence of screened pathogens. In addition, a high diversity of bacteria (species and clones) and antibiotic resistance backgrounds (phenotypes and genotypes) were observed, mostly with enrichment and antibiotic selective media. E. coli was detected in 13 samples (n=78; all types and 4 brands; phylogenetic groups A, B1 and D; none STEC) with resistance to tetracycline [72%; tet(A) and/or tet(B)], streptomycin (58%; aadA and/or strA-strB), sulfamethoxazole (50%; sul1 and/or sul2), trimethoprim (50%; dfrA1 or dfrA12), ampicillin (49%; blaTEM), nalidixic acid (36%), ciprofloxacin (5%) or chloramphenicol (3%; catA). E. coli clones, including the widespread group D/ST69, were detected in different samples from the same brand or different brands pointing out to a potential cross-contamination. Other clinically relevant resistance genes were detected in 2 Raoultella terrigena carrying a bla(SHV-2) and 1 Citrobacter freundii isolate with a qnrB9 gene. Among Enterococcus (n=108; 35 samples; Enterococcus casseliflavus--40, Enterococcus faecalis--20, Enterococcus faecium--18, Enterococcus hirae--9, Enterococcus gallinarum--5, and Enterococcus spp.--16) resistance was detected for tetracyclines [6%; tet(M) and/or tet(L)], erythromycin [3%; erm(B)], nitrofurantoin (1%) or ciprofloxacin (1%). The present study places ready-to-eat salads within the spectrum of ecological niches that may be vehicles for antibiotic resistance bacteria/genes with clinical interest (e.g. E. coli-D-ST69; bla(SHV-2)) and these findings are worthy of attention as their spread to humans by ingestion cannot be dismissed. PMID:24036261

Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Pestana, Nazaré; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Carla; Antunes, Patrícia

2013-09-16

180

Comparative degradation of cellulose and sugar formation by three newly isolated mesophilic anaerobes and Clostridium thermocellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To develop a coculture for a single step conversion of cellulose to fuels and chemicals, the cellulose degradation by three\\u000a newly isolated mesophilic anaerobes was compared with that of Clostridium thermocellum. Degradation of cellulose obtained from cotton linters, and delignified ball-milled pulp and steam-exploded aspen wood by\\u000a mesophilic anaerobes was comparable to that by Cl. thermocellum. However mesophilic anaerobes produced

C. Guilliano; M. Asther; A. W. Khan

1983-01-01

181

What Is Aerobic Dancing?  

MedlinePLUS

... see a doctor of podiatric medicine specializing in sports medicine before beginning an aerobics regimen. The podiatrist will ... toes and nails. The American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine has long held the position that sports specific ...

182

Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

Reps, A.; Ku?micka, M.; Wi?niewska, K.

2008-07-01

183

Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P < 0.001) were found for changes in plasma glucose during and after exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

2013-01-01

184

Effects of chilling on sampling of bacteria attached to swine carcasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Two microbiological sampling techniques, excision and sponge swabbing, were compared by determining counts of aerobic bacteria, coliforms and injured coliforms from 20 de-haired swine carcasses before and after chilling. Excised jowl skin produced significantly greater counts of the three types of bacteria than sponge swabs. Aerobic bacteria, coliforms and injured coliforms recovered by sponge swabbing carcasses before chilling were

S.-L. Yu; P. H. Cooke; S.-I. Tu

2001-01-01

185

Degradation of Tce Using Sequential Anaerobic Biofilm and Aerobic Immobilized Bed Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the gro...

K. D. Chapatwala G. R. V. Babu L. Baresi R. M. Trunzo

1995-01-01

186

Start-up of a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with mesophilic granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast start-up of thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors was achieved at process temperatures of 46, 55 and 64° C, using mesophilic granular sludge as inoculum and fatty acid mixtures as feed. The start-up was brought about by increasing the temperature of mesophilic UASB reactors in a single step, which initially led to a sharp drop in the methane

Jules B. van Lier; Katja C. F. Grolle; Alfons J. M. Stams; Everly Conway de Macario; Gatze Lettinga

1992-01-01

187

Thermal adaptation analyzed by comparison of protein sequences from mesophilic and extremely thermophilic Methanococcus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sequence of the extremely ther- mophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii provides a wealth of data on proteins from a thermophile. In this paper, sequences of 115 proteins from M. jannaschii are compared with their ho- mologs from mesophilic Methanococcus species. Although the growth temperatures of the mesophiles are about 50°C below that of M. jannaschii, their genomic G1C contents

PAUL J. HANEY; J ONATHAN H. BADGER; G ERALD L. BULDAK; I. REICH; ARL R. WOESE; GARY J. OLSEN

1999-01-01

188

Double Mutation in Photosystem II Reaction Centers and Elevated CO2 Grant Thermotolerance to Mesophilic Cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic biomass production rapidly declines in mesophilic cyanobacteria grown above their physiological temperatures largely due to the imbalance between degradation and repair of the D1 protein subunit of the heat susceptible Photosystem II reaction centers (PSIIRC). Here we show that simultaneous replacement of two conserved residues in the D1 protein of the mesophilic Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, by the analogue

Jorge Dinamarca; Oksana Shlyk-Kerner; David Kaftan; Eran Goldberg; Alexander Dulebo; Manuel Gidekel; Ana Gutierrez; Avigdor Scherz

2011-01-01

189

PCB and AOX removal in mesophilic and thermophilic sewage sludge digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a comparison of the biodegradation of adsorbed organic halogen compounds (AOX) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (seeded with waste activated sludge) at different hydraulic retention times (HRT 18, 22 and 26 days in the mesophilic digester and 8, 12, 18, 22 and 26 days in the thermophilic digester) was performed. Results obtained

T. Benabdallah El-Hadj; J. Dosta; R. Torres; J. Mata-Álvarez

2007-01-01

190

Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

2014-01-01

191

Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

2014-01-01

192

Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological

P. J. Schramm; E. A. Haack; P. A. Maurice

2006-01-01

193

Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

Cohen, Arlette

1984-01-01

194

Mixed culture of nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed culture containing nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria was investigated for aerobic simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. A mixture of NaHCO3 and CH3COONa was selected as the appropriate carbon source for cell growth and nitrogen removal, the concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources were also examined. Ammonia could be oxidized aerobically to nitrite by the mixed culture, and the intermediate

Guocheng Du; Jinju Geng; Jian Chen; Shiyi Lun

2003-01-01

195

Evaluation of mesophilic biodegraded grape marc as soil fertilizer.  

PubMed

The wine industry generates a large amount of wastes, including grape marc and vinification lees. These substances can be used to produce enzymes or other food additives. Composting could be a successful strategy for the sustainable and complete recycling of grape marc. In this work, the mesophilic biodegradation of grape marc during 60 d under microaerobic conditions using several ratios of seeds, skin, and stem were studied. The presence of Penicillium spp. was detected at the beginning of the composting. Changes in chemical and biological parameters were evaluated. Biodegraded grape marc with stem showed the best organic matter properties (C/N ratio of 14 and N content of 37 g/kg) and a germination index of 155% for the growth of ray grass seeds. The results suggest that the biodegraded of grape marc could be used as fertilizer, especially for ray grass crops. PMID:17625264

Moldes, Ana B; Vázquez, Manuel; Domínguez, José M; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco; Barral, María T

2007-04-01

196

Experimental Evolution of a Facultative Thermophile from a Mesophilic Ancestor  

PubMed Central

Experimental evolution via continuous culture is a powerful approach to the alteration of complex phenotypes, such as optimal/maximal growth temperatures. The benefit of this approach is that phenotypic selection is tied to growth rate, allowing the production of optimized strains. Herein, we demonstrate the use of a recently described long-term culture apparatus called the Evolugator for the generation of a thermophilic descendant from a mesophilic ancestor (Escherichia coli MG1655). In addition, we used whole-genome sequencing of sequentially isolated strains throughout the thermal adaptation process to characterize the evolutionary history of the resultant genotype, identifying 31 genetic alterations that may contribute to thermotolerance, although some of these mutations may be adaptive for off-target environmental parameters, such as rich medium. We undertook preliminary phenotypic analysis of mutations identified in the glpF and fabA genes. Deletion of glpF in a mesophilic wild-type background conferred significantly improved growth rates in the 43-to-48°C temperature range and altered optimal growth temperature from 37°C to 43°C. In addition, transforming our evolved thermotolerant strain (EVG1064) with a wild-type allele of glpF reduced fitness at high temperatures. On the other hand, the mutation in fabA predictably increased the degree of saturation in membrane lipids, which is a known adaptation to elevated temperature. However, transforming EVG1064 with a wild-type fabA allele had only modest effects on fitness at intermediate temperatures. The Evolugator is fully automated and demonstrates the potential to accelerate the selection for complex traits by experimental evolution and significantly decrease development time for new industrial strains.

Blaby, Ian K.; Lyons, Benjamin J.; Wroclawska-Hughes, Ewa; Phillips, Grier C. F.; Pyle, Tyler P.; Chamberlin, Stephen G.; Benner, Steven A.; Lyons, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

197

Micromorphology of Gram-negative hydrogen bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell morphology, the arrangement and fine structure of flagella and the piliation of the following Gram-negative aerobic hydrogen bacteria have been studied: Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes paradoxus, Alcaligenes ruhlandii, Pseudomonas flava, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, Pseudomonas palleronii, Pseudomonas facilis, Aquaspirillum autotrophicum, Paracoccus denitrificans, Corynebacterium autotrophicum, and strains MA 2 and SA 35. The identity of the bacteria was examined by their substrate

M. Aragno; Anna Walther-Mauruschat; F. Mayer; H. G. Schlegel

1977-01-01

198

Diversity and distribution of photosynthetic bacteria in the Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an infrared fast-repetition-rate (IRFRR) fluorometer, we measured bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) fluorescence kinetics to examine the spatial pattern of the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria in the Black Sea in June 2001. Aerobic photosynthetic bacteria containing BChl a were distributed together with chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton in the upper, aerobic portion of the water column, confirming their exclusive requirement for oxygen. The BChl a to chlorophyll a ratio averaged 10 -2 within the euphotic zone. Seven strains of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and partially characterized. They belong to two subgroups closely related to Erythrobacter and Roseobacter genera. Green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria were detected in the central part of the basin, at the boundary between suboxic and anoxic (hydrogen sulfide) zone. However, the population of green sulfur bacteria was extremely small, and confined to a very narrow density layer deep in the water column.

Koblížek, Michal; Falkowski, Paul G.; Kolber, Zbigniew S.

2006-08-01

199

Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Glucoisosaccharinic Acid  

PubMed Central

?-Glucoisosaccharinic acid (GISA), a major by-product of kraft paper manufacture, was synthesized from lactose and used as the carbon source for microbial media. Ten strains of aerobic bacteria capable of growth on GISA were isolated from kraft pulp mill environments. The highest growth yields were obtained with Ancylobacter spp. at pH 7.2 to 9.5. GISA was completely degraded by cultures of an Ancylobacter isolate. Ancylobacter cell suspensions consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide in response to GISA addition. A total of 22 laboratory strains of bacteria were tested, and none was capable of growth on GISA. GISA-degrading isolates were not found in forest soils. Images

Strand, S. E.; Dykes, J.; Chiang, V.

1984-01-01

200

Fatty Acids in Temperature Adaptation of Mesophilic Bacteria, Yeasts and Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the microbial temperature adaptation, the changes occurring in the fatty acids of the membrane phospholipids have been regarded as one of the most fundamental responses for the maintenance of the liquid-chrystalline state. The study on the fatty acid i...

M. Suutari

1992-01-01

201

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

202

Bacteria and fungi in aerosols generated by two different types of wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Raw wastewater is a potential carrier of pathogenic microorganisms and may pose a health risk when pathogenic microorganisms become aerosolized during aeration. Two different types of wastewater treatment plants were investigated, and the amounts of cultivable bacteria and fungi were measured in the emitted aerosols. Average concentrations of 17,000 CFU m(-3) of mesophilic, 2,100 CFU m(-3) of TSA-SB bacteria (bacteria associated with certain waterborne virulence factors), 1700 CFU m(-3) of mesophilic and 45 CFU m(-3) of thermotolerant fungi, were found in the aerosol emitted by the aeration tank of the activated sludge plant. In the aerosol of the fixed-film reactor 3000 CFU m(-3) mesophilic and 730CFUm(-3) TSA-SB bacteria, and 180 CFUm(-3) mesophilic and 14 CFU m(-3) thermotolerant fungi were measured. The specific emissions per population equivalent between the two types of treatment plants differed by two orders of magnitude. The microbial flux based on the open water surface area of the two treatment plants was similar. The aerosolization ratios of cultivable bacteria (expressed as CFU m(-3) aerosol/m(-3) wastewater) ranged between 8.4 x 10(-11) and 4.9 x 10(-9). The aerosolization ratio of fungi was one to three orders of magnitude higher and a significant difference between the two types of treatment plants could be observed. PMID:12405405

Bauer, H; Fuerhacker, M; Zibuschka, F; Schmid, H; Puxbaum, H

2002-09-01

203

Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with thermophilic pre-acidification of instant-coffee-production wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of instant-coffee-production wastewater in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors with thermophilic pre-acidification was studied over a period of more than 120 days. The UASB reactors had been seeded with granules adapted to this wastewater, and they previously operated in single-stage mode mesophilically or thermophilically. The thermophilic pre-acidification stage was operated with pH control or

Richard M. Dinsdale; Freda R. Hawkes; Dennis L. Hawkes

1997-01-01

204

IDENTIFICATION OF COLEMAN'S SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM AS A MESOPHILIC RELATIVE OF CLOSTRIDIUM NIGRIFICANS  

PubMed Central

Postgate, John R. (University of Illinois, Urbana) and L. Leon Campbell. Identification of Coleman's sulfate-reducing bacterium as a mesophilic relative of Clostridium nigrificans. J. Bacteriol. 86:274–279. 1963.—Coleman's sulfate-reducing bacterium is immunologically and morphologically similar to Clostridium nigrificans and unlike Desulfovibrio species. It is not thermophilic and does not acquire the thermophilic habit; it is thus the first naturally occurring mesophilic member of this group to be described. Images

Postgate, John R.; Campbell, L. Leon

1963-01-01

205

IDENTIFICATION OF COLEMAN'S SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM AS A MESOPHILIC RELATIVE OF CLOSTRIDIUM NIGRIFICANS.  

PubMed

Postgate, John R. (University of Illinois, Urbana) and L. Leon Campbell. Identification of Coleman's sulfate-reducing bacterium as a mesophilic relative of Clostridium nigrificans. J. Bacteriol. 86:274-279. 1963.-Coleman's sulfate-reducing bacterium is immunologically and morphologically similar to Clostridium nigrificans and unlike Desulfovibrio species. It is not thermophilic and does not acquire the thermophilic habit; it is thus the first naturally occurring mesophilic member of this group to be described. PMID:14058952

POSTGATE, J R; CAMPBELL, L L

1963-08-01

206

Bio-hydrogen Production in an EGSB Reactor Under Mesophilic, Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bio-hydrogen production with an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) fed with glucose and arabinose, without methane production, was demonstrated. Homoacetogenesis was observed on reactor when operated under mesophilic (37ºC) conditions but not under thermophilic (55ºC) and hyper-thermophilic conditions (70ºC). It was also found that under thermophilic and hyper-thermophilic conditions glucose is preferentially consumed than arabinose.

A. A. Abreu; A. S. Danko; M. M. Alves

207

Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase rates in aerobic gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in Vietnam: report from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART 2009-2011).  

PubMed

Treatment options for multidrug-resistant pathogens remain problematic in many regions and individual countries, warranting ongoing surveillance and analysis. Limited antimicrobial susceptibility information is available for pathogens from Vietnam. This study determined the bacterial susceptibility of aerobic gram-negative pathogens of intra-abdominal infections among patients in Vietnam during 2009-2011. A total of 905 isolates were collected from 4 medical centers in this investigation as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) rates among the appropriate species were determined by a central laboratory using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. Among the species collected, Escherichia coli (48.1% ESBL-positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (39.5% ESBL-positive) represented the majority (46.4%) of the isolates submitted for this study. Ertapenem MIC90 values were lowest for these 2 species at 0.12 and 0.25?g/mL and remained unchanged for ESBL-positive isolates. Imipenem MIC90 values were also the same for all isolates and ESBL-positive strains at 0.25 and 0.5?g/mL, respectively. Ertapenem MIC90 values for additional species with sufficient numbers for analysis, including Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were 1, 0.06, >4, and >4?g/mL, respectively. Analysis of beta-lactamases in a subset of 132 phenotypically ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae demonstrated that CTX-M variants, particularly CTX-M-27 and CTX-M-15, were the predominant enzymes. High resistance rates in Vietnam hospitals dictate continuous monitoring as antimicrobial inactivating enzymes continue to spread throughout Asia and globally. PMID:24923210

Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith; Phuong, Doan Mai; Nga, Tran Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Tran My; Phuong, Tran Thi Lan; Badal, Robert E

2014-08-01

208

Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.  

PubMed

Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. PMID:24837280

Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

2014-10-01

209

Comparative metagenomic analysis of bacterial populations in three full-scale mesophilic anaerobic manure digesters.  

PubMed

While the use of anaerobic digestion to generate methane as a source of bioenergy is increasing worldwide, our knowledge of the microbial communities that perform biomethanation is very limited. Using next-generation sequencing, bacterial population profiles were determined in three full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digesters operated on dairy farms in the state of Vermont (USA). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a metagenomic analysis on the bacterial population of anaerobic digesters using dairy manure as their main substrate. A total of 20,366 non-chimeric sequence reads, covering the V1-V2 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, were assigned to 2,176 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a genetic distance cutoff value of 5 %. Based on their limited sequence identity to validly characterized species, the majority of OTUs identified in our study likely represented novel bacterial species. Using a naïve Bayesian classifier, 1,624 anaerobic digester OTUs could be assigned to 16 bacterial phyla, while 552 OTUs could not be classified and may belong to novel bacterial taxonomic groups that have yet to be described. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi were the most highly represented bacteria overall, with Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi showing the least and the most variation in abundance between digesters, respectively. All digesters shared 132 OTUs, which as a "core" group represented 65.4 to 70.6 % of sequences in individual digesters. Our results show that bacterial populations from microbial communities of anaerobic manure digesters can display high levels of diversity despite sharing a common core substrate. PMID:24085391

St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

2014-03-01

210

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2002-01-01

211

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2000-01-01

212

Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

1986-01-01

213

The Twin Arginine Translocation System Is Essential for Aerobic Growth and Full Virulence of Burkholderia thailandensis  

PubMed Central

The twin arginine translocation (Tat) system in bacteria is responsible for transporting folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane, and in some bacteria, Tat-exported substrates have been linked to virulence. We report here that the Tat machinery is present in Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis, and we show that the system is essential for aerobic but not anaerobic growth. Switching off of the Tat system in B. thailandensis grown anaerobically resulted in filamentous bacteria, and bacteria showed increased sensitivity to some ?-lactam antibiotics. In Galleria mellonella and zebrafish infection models, the Tat conditional mutant was attenuated. The aerobic growth-restricted phenotype indicates that Tat substrates may play a functional role in oxygen-dependent energy conservation. In other bacteria, aerobic growth restriction in Tat mutants has been attributed to the inability to translocate PetA, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein which forms part of the quinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex. Here, we show that PetA is not responsible for aerobic growth restriction in B. thailandensis. However, we have identified an operon encoding 2 proteins of unknown function (BTH_I2176 and BTH_I2175) that play a role in aerobic growth restriction, and we present evidence that BTH_I2176 is Tat translocated.

Wagley, Sariqa; Hemsley, Claudia; Thomas, Rachael; Moule, Madeleine G.; Vanaporn, Muthita; Andreae, Clio; Robinson, Matthew; Goldman, Stan; Wren, Brendan W.; Butler, Clive S.

2014-01-01

214

Comparison of laboratory-scale thermophilic biofilm and activated sludge processes integrated with a mesophilic activated sludge process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined thermophilic–mesophilic wastewater treatment was studied using a laboratory-scale thermophilic activated sludge process (ASP) followed by mesophilic ASP or a thermophilic suspended carrier biofilm process (SCBP) followed by mesophilic ASP, both systems treating diluted molasses (dilution factor 1:500 corresponding GF\\/A-filtered COD (CODfilt) of 1900±190 mgl?1). With hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12–18 h the thermophilic ASP and thermophilic SCBP

J. Suvilampi; A. Lehtomäki; J. Rintala

2003-01-01

215

Sea to air bacteria transfer over the baltic sea coast and Gulf of Gda?sk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number concentration of living bacteria within the psychrophile and mesophile categories, in the water and in the air along with meteorology and hydrographic conditions were investigated over the Southern Baltic Sea and coastal station in Lubiatowo in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Separate data sets were collected at four coastal stations over the Gulf of Gda?sk in Jantar, Zaspa, Sopot

Ma?gorzata Michalska; Maria Królska

1997-01-01

216

Maltodextrin-binding proteins from diverse bacteria and archaea are potent solubility enhancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein (MBP) is frequently used as an affinity tag to facilitate the purification of recombinant proteins. An important additional attribute of MBP is its remarkable ability to enhance the solubility of its fusion partners. MBPs are present in a wide variety of microorganisms including both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and archaea. In the present study, we compared

Jeffrey D. Fox; Karen M. Routzahn; Matthew H. Bucher; David S. Waugh

2003-01-01

217

Interconversion of functional motions between mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases.  

PubMed

Dynamic properties are functionally important in many proteins, including the enzyme adenylate kinase (AK), for which the open/closed transition limits the rate of catalytic turnover. Here, we compare our previously published coarse-grained (double-well G?) simulation of mesophilic AK from E. coli (AKmeso) to simulations of thermophilic AK from Aquifex aeolicus (AKthermo). In AKthermo, as with AKmeso, the LID domain prefers to close before the NMP domain in the presence of ligand, but LID rigid-body flexibility in the open (O) ensemble decreases significantly. Backbone foldedness in O and/or transition state (TS) ensembles increases significantly relative to AKmeso in some interdomain backbone hinges and within LID. In contact space, the TS of AKthermo has fewer contacts at the CORE-LID interface but a stronger contact network surrounding the CORE-NMP interface than the TS of AKmeso. A "heated" simulation of AKthermo at 375K slightly increases LID rigid-body flexibility in accordance with the "corresponding states" hypothesis. Furthermore, while computational mutation of 7 prolines in AKthermo to their AKmeso counterparts produces similar small perturbations, mutation of these sites, especially positions 8 and 155, to glycine is required to achieve LID rigid-body flexibility and hinge flexibilities comparable to AKmeso. Mutating the 7 sites to proline in AKmeso reduces some hinges' flexibilities, especially hinge 2, but does not reduce LID rigid-body flexibility, suggesting that these two types of motion are decoupled in AKmeso. In conclusion, our results suggest that hinge flexibility and global functional motions alike are correlated with but not exclusively determined by the hinge residues. This mutational framework can inform the rational design of functionally important flexibility and allostery in other proteins toward engineering novel biochemical pathways. PMID:21779157

Daily, Michael D; Phillips, George N; Cui, Qiang

2011-07-01

218

Aerobic granulation: advances and challenges.  

PubMed

Aerobic granulation was developed in overcoming the problem of biomass washout often encountered in activated sludge processes. The novel approach to developing fluffy biosolids into dense and compact granules offers a new dimension for wastewater treatment. Compared with conventional biological flocs, aerobic granules are characterized by well-defined shape and compact buildup, superior biomass retention, enhanced microbial functions, and resilient to toxicity and shock loading. This review provides an up-to-date account on development in aerobic granulation and its applications. Granule characterization, factors affecting granulation, and response of granules to various environmental and operating conditions are discussed. Maintaining granule of adequate structural stability is one of the main challenges for practical applications of aerobic granulation. This paper also reviews recent advances in addressing granule stability and storage for use as inoculums, and as biomass supplement to enhance treatment efficiency. Challenges and future work of aerobic granulation are also outlined. PMID:22383048

Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

2012-07-01

219

Biological Control of Phytopathogenic Fungi by Aerobic Endospore-Formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological control is an environmentally friendly alternative to using fungicides for the control of phytopathogenic fungi,\\u000a and it is likely to gain wider use in the future. The use of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria as biocontrol agents for fungal\\u000a plant diseases is increasing throughout the world, as this control strategy gradually gains acceptance. Various free-living\\u000a and endophytic Bacillus species have been

Alejandro Pérez-García; Diego Romero; Houda Zeriouh; Antonio de Vicente

220

Aerobic microbial manufacture of nanoscale selenium: exploiting nature’s bio-nanomineralization potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the environment to yield organisms that can produce functional bionanominerals is demonstrated by selenium-tolerant,\\u000a aerobic bacteria isolated from a seleniferous rhizosphere soil. An isolate, NS3, was identified as a Bacillus species (EU573774.1) based on morphological and 16S rRNA characterization. This strain reduced Se(IV) under aerobic conditions\\u000a to produce amorphous ? Se(0) nanospheres. A room-temperature washing treatment was

N. Tejo Prakash; Neetu Sharma; Ranjana Prakash; Kuldeep K. Raina; Jonathan Fellowes; Carolyn I. Pearce; Jonathan R. Lloyd; Richard A. D. Pattrick

2009-01-01

221

Anaerobic bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow in the presence of oxygen. In humans, ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

222

Community size and metabolic rates of psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in Arctic marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

The numbers of sulfate reducers in two Arctic sediments with in situ temperatures of 2.6 and {minus}1.7C were determined. Most-probable-number counts were higher at 10 C than at 20 C, indicating the predominance of a psychrophilic community. Mean specific sulfate reduction rates of 19 isolated psychrophiles were compared to corresponding rates of 9 marine, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The results indicate that, as a physiological adaptation to the permanently cold Arctic environment, psychrophilic sulfate reducers have considerably higher specific metabolic rates than their mesophilic counterparts at similarly low temperatures.

Knoblauch, C.; Joergensen, B.B.; Harder, J.

1999-09-01

223

Comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp: performance, dewaterability and foam control.  

PubMed

Digestion of sugar beet pulp was assessed in relation to biogas and methane production, foaming potential, and digestate dewaterability. Four 4-litre working volume digesters were operated mesophilically (37±0.5 °C) and four thermophilically (55±0.5 °C) over three hydraulic retention times. Digesters were operated in duplicate at organic loading rates (OLR) of 4 and 5 g volatile solids l(-1) day(-1) without water addition. Thermophilic digestion gave higher biogas and methane productivity than mesophilic and was able to operate at the higher OLR, where mesophilic digestion showed signs of instability. Digestate dewaterability was assessed using capillary suction time and frozen image centrifugation. The occurrence of, or potential for, stable foam formation was assessed using a foaming potential test. Thermophilic operation allowed higher loadings to be applied without loss of performance, and gave a digestate with superior dewatering characteristics and very little foaming potential. PMID:24291796

Suhartini, Sri; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles J

2014-01-01

224

Differentiation of Methanosaeta concilii and Methanosarcina barkeri in Anaerobic Mesophilic Granular Sludge by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy†  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotide probes, designed from genes coding for 16S rRNA, were developed to differentiate Methanosaeta concilii, Methanosarcina barkeri, and mesophilic methanogens. All M. concilii oligonucleotide probes (designated MS1, MS2, and MS5) hybridized specifically with the target DNA, but MS5 was the most specific M. concilii oligonucleotide probe. Methanosarcina barkeri oligonucleotide probes (designated MB1, MB3, and MB4) hybridized with different Methanosarcina species. The MB4 probe specifically detected Methanosarcina barkeri, and the MB3 probe detected the presence of all mesophilic Methanosarcina species. These new oligonucleotide probes facilitated the identification, localization, and quantification of the specific relative abundance of M. concilii and Methanosarcina barkeri, which play important roles in methanogenesis. The combined use of fluorescent in situ hybridization with confocal scanning laser microscopy demonstrated that anaerobic granule topography depends on granule origin and feeding. Protein-fed granules showed no layered structure with a random distribution of M. concilii. In contrast, a layered structure developed in methanol-enriched granules, where M. barkeri growth was induced in an outer layer. This outer layer was followed by a layer composed of M. concilii, with an inner core of M. concilii and other bacteria.

Rocheleau, Sylvie; Greer, Charles W.; Lawrence, John R.; Cantin, Christiane; Laramee, Louise; Guiot, Serge R.

1999-01-01

225

Effect of ammonia on the anaerobic degradation of protein by a mesophilic and thermophilic biowaste population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ammonia on the anaerobic degradation of peptone by mesophilic and thermophilic populations of biowaste was\\u000a investigated. For peptone concentrations from 5?g?l?1 to 20?g?l?1 the mesophilic population revealed a higher rate of deamination than the thermophilic population, e.g. 552?mg?l?1?day?1 compared to 320?mg?l?1?day?1 at 10?g?l?1 peptone. The final degree of deamination of the thermophilic population was, however, higher: 102

C. Gallert; S. Bauer; J. Winter

1998-01-01

226

Aerobic Fermentation Apparatus Design Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the process of transferring oxygen from the gaseous to the liquid phase in the light of the theory of absorption with reaction in the aerobic fermentations used to produce microorganisms and their metabolites. The variables characteris...

R. Falini

1968-01-01

227

A Colonization Factor (Production of Lateral Flagella) of Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. Is Inactive in Aeromonas salmonicida Strains  

PubMed Central

The nine laf (lateral flagellum) genes of mesophilic aeromonads are in the Aeromonas salmonicida genome. The laf genes are functional, except for lafA (flagellin gene), which was inactivated by transposase 8 (IS3 family). A pathogenic characteristic of mesophilic aeromonads (lateral flagella) is abolished in this specialized pathogen with a narrow host range.

Merino, Susana; Gavin, Rosalina; Vilches, Silvia; Shaw, Jonathan G.; Tomas, Juan M.

2003-01-01

228

Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive information on the identification of coryneform bacteria and outlines recent changes in taxonomy. The following genera are covered: Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter. Propionibacterium, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Sanguibacter, Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, "Corynebacterium aquaticum," Arcanobacterium, and Actinomyces. Case reports claiming disease associations of coryneform bacteria are critically reviewed. Minimal microbiological requirements for publications on disease associations of coryneform bacteria are proposed.

Funke, G; von Graevenitz, A; Clarridge, J E; Bernard, K A

1997-01-01

229

Aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms in tubercles of the Columbus, Ohio, water distribution system.  

PubMed Central

Aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were enumerated in tubercles collected from sections of the water distribution pipeline in the Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan area. Coliform bacteria were not detected in the tubercles examined. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in 80% of the samples. Nitrate-reducing heterotrophs were present in all samples. The results, including plate counts of aerobic heterotrophs, indicated variation in bacterial densities depending on the tubercle sample and fraction examined. The associations among the viable counts obtained by the different culture methods were analyzed statistically, using three methods (Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall).

Tuovinen, O H; Hsu, J C

1982-01-01

230

The cytochrome composition of carboxydotrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopy at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures with extracts of the carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas carboxydovorans, P. carboxydohydrogena, P. carboxydoflava, P. compransoris, Alcaligenes carboxydus, and Arthrobacter 11\\/x revealed the presence of normal electron transport systems, containing b-, c-, and a-type cytochromes at concentrations that compare to those of other aerobic bacteria. CO did not induce the formation of special CO-insensitive

Heribert Cypionka; Ortwin Meyer

1983-01-01

231

Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis.  

PubMed

The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

2014-01-01

232

Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis  

PubMed Central

The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

2014-01-01

233

Anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR) for municipal wastewater treatment under mesophilic and psychrophilic temperature conditions.  

PubMed

A pilot scale anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR) with an external filtration unit for municipal wastewater treatment was operated for 100 days. Besides gas sparging, additional shear was created by circulating sludge to control membrane fouling. During the first 69 days, the reactor was operated under mesophilic temperature conditions. Afterwards, the temperature was gradually reduced to 20 °C. A slow and linear increase in the filtration resistance was observed under critical flux conditions (7 L/(m2 h)) at 35 °C. However, an increase in the fouling rate probably linked to an accumulation of solids, a higher viscosity and soluble COD concentrations in the reactor was observed at 20 °C. The COD removal efficiency was close to 90% under both temperature ranges. Effluent COD and BOD5 concentrations were lower than 80 and 25 mg/L, respectively. Pathogen indicator microorganisms (fecal coliforms bacteria) were reduced by log(10)5. Hence, the effluent could be used for irrigation purposes in agriculture. PMID:21962536

Martinez-Sosa, David; Helmreich, Brigitte; Netter, Thomas; Paris, Stefania; Bischof, Franz; Horn, Harald

2011-11-01

234

The use of total aerobic and Gram-negative flora for quality assurance in the production chain of consumption eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washing eggs in sterile plastic bags with diluent is an efficient sample preparation method for the determination of the bacterial contamination on eggshells. The total count of aerobic bacteria and the total count of Gram-negative bacteria on the eggshell can be used to detect critical contamination points in the egg production chain. The number of eggs to be sampled in

K. De Reu; K. Grijspeerdt; M. Heyndrickx; M. Uyttendaele; L. Herman

2005-01-01

235

Removal and biotransformation of U(VI) and Cr(VI) by aerobically grown mixed microbial granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of aerobic granular sludge consisting of mixed species of bacteria to remove and immobilize uranium (VI) and chromium (VI). Microbial granules were cultivated in a laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) by feeding with acetate-containing synthetic media. Microbial granules formed in the SBR exhibited excellent settling characteristics and predominantly consisted of rod\\/cocci shaped bacteria. The microbial granules

Y. Venkata Nancharaiah; V. P. Venugopalan; A. J. Francis

2012-01-01

236

Project summary report, DE-FG02-96ER14668 [Dissolution of Fe(III)(hydr)oxides by aerobic microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to determine the rates and mechanisms whereby aerobic bacteria dissolve Fe(III)(hydr)oxides and clays in aerobic environments where Fe is insoluble. We determined that an aerobic P. mendocina bacterium dissolves the clay mineral kaolinite in order to obtain nutrient Fe. We also determined that the rate of dissolution of the Fe hydroxide mineral goethite increases with Al substitution. Both of these observations have important implications for Fe cycling and for mineral dissolution studies.

Maurice, Patricia A.

2001-02-15

237

Methylophilus: a New Genus of Methanol-Utilizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus, Methyluphilus, and species of restricted facultative methanol-utilizing bacteria are described. These bacteria are aerobic gram-negative rods that occur singly and in pairs. In addition to methanol and glucose, a limited range of other carbon compounds including fructose and methylamines may be used as the sole carbon and energy source. The fatty acid composition is primarily of the

OWEN JENKINS; DAVID BYROM; DOROTHY JONES

238

Mesophilic biogas production from fruit and vegetable waste in a tubular digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-continuously mixed mesophilic tubular anaerobic digester was tested for the conversion of fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) into biogas. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the feed concentration on the extent of the degradation of the waste was examined. Varying the HRT between 12 and 20 days had no effect on the fermentation stability and pH remained

H Bouallagui; R Ben Cheikh; L Marouani; M Hamdi

2003-01-01

239

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION - PHASE II. STEADY STATE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of the relative performance of anaerobic digestion systems under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was conducted. Fifty liter laboratory scale digesters were fed primary sludge from the Allentown, PA Waste Water Treatment Plant. Long-term, steady-state performance da...

240

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION. PHASE 2. STEADY STATE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted of the relative performance of anaerobic digestion systems under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Fifty liter laboratory scale digesters were fed primary sludge from the Allentown, PA Waste Water Treatment Plant. Long-term, steady-state performance da...

241

Complete Genome Sequence of the Subsurface, Mesophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio aespoeensis Aspo-2.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio aespoeensis Aspo-2, DSM 10631(T), is a mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium sampled from a 600-m-deep subsurface aquifer in hard rock under the island of Äspö in southeastern Sweden. We report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which is a 3,629,109-bp chromosome; plasmids were not found. PMID:24874683

Pedersen, Karsten; Bengtsson, Andreas; Edlund, Johanna; Rabe, Lisa; Hazen, Terry; Chakraborty, Romy; Goodwin, Lynne; Shapiro, Nicole

2014-01-01

242

Complete Type III Secretion System of a Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the existence and genetic organization of a functional type III secretion system (TTSS) in a mesophilic Aeromonas strain by initially using the Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3. We report for the first time the complete TTSS DNA sequence of an Aeromonas strain that comprises 35 genes organized in a similar disposition as that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using several

Silvia Vilches; Cecilia Urgell; Susana Merino; Matilde R. Chacon; Lara Soler; Graciela Castro-Escarpulli; Maria Jose Figueras; Juan M. Tomas

2004-01-01

243

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION - PHASE I. TEMPERATURE TRANSITION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of a larger study on the comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion, a study of the operation of anaerobic systems under temperature transition was conducted. Systems seeded with domestic sewage sludge, but subsequently fed a chemically defined com...

244

Complete Genome Sequence of the Subsurface, Mesophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio aespoeensis Aspo-2  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio aespoeensis Aspo-2, DSM 10631T, is a mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium sampled from a 600-m-deep subsurface aquifer in hard rock under the island of Äspö in southeastern Sweden. We report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which is a 3,629,109-bp chromosome; plasmids were not found.

Bengtsson, Andreas; Edlund, Johanna; Rabe, Lisa; Hazen, Terry; Chakraborty, Romy; Goodwin, Lynne; Shapiro, Nicole

2014-01-01

245

Study on Economic Heating Source for Mesophilic Fermentation in a Rural Biogas Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper introduces a new technology making a rural biogas plant of mesophilic fermentation, the key of which is a set of efficient installation recovering waste heat from a biogas-diesel engine. The system exhausts no extra energy and waste heat recover...

D. Gu Z. Fang

1987-01-01

246

Alternatives for energy production in aerobic wastewater treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Using technologies such as anaerobic digestion for energy generation from wastewater demands a change in infrastructure that several treatment works are not prepared to immediately implement. This works explores the use of energy production technologies to increase the sustainability of conventional aerobic wastewater treatment plants. The first option considered sludge (a by-product from wastewater treatment) as raw material for biodiesel production as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). The second option consisted of the addition of microalgae during aerobic wastewater treatment and subsequent harvesting of combined microalgae-sludge to produce biodiesel. Results showed that microalgae were able to grow in aerobic wastewater treatment reactors, reaching maximum growth after 6 days. The use of microalgae did not statistically affect chemical oxygen demand removal but provided benefits on ammonia removal (100% removal vs 68 ± 9% when microalgae were not added). Activated sludge contained fewer lipids (13 ± 3%, by dry weight) than the microalgae-sludge mixture (20.8 ± 4.5%). Hence, FAME production when using microalgae-sludge was higher (51.12 ± 12 mg of FAME/g of dry microalgae-sludge) than when using activated sludge (25.6 ± 7 mg of FAME/g of dry activated sludge). This work showed that producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in conjunction with bacteria during aerobic wastewater treatment can reduce energy use and carbon emissions produced by 18.6 and 26.5%, respectively. PMID:23787329

Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B

2013-01-01

247

Identification and Expression of the tig Gene Coding for Trigger Factor from Psychrophilic Bacteria with no Information of Genome Sequence Available  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trigger factor (TF) plays a key role as a molecular chaperone with a peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase (PPIase) activity by which cells promote folding of newly synthesized proteins coming out of ribosomes. Since psychrophilic\\u000a bacteria grow at a quite low temperature, between 4 and 15°C, TF from such bacteria was investigated and compared with that\\u000a of mesophilic bacteria E. coli in order

Kyunghee Lee; Hyojung Choi; Hana Im

2009-01-01

248

Biotransformation of anisole and phenetole by aerobic hydrocarbonoxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild type, mutant, and recombinant bacterial strains capable of oxidizing aromatic hydrocarbons were screened for their ability to oxidize anisole (methoxybenzene) and phenetole (ethoxybenzene). Toluene-induced cells ofPseudomonas putida F39\\/D transformed anisole to a compound tentatively identified ascis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-methoxyclohexa-3,5-diene (anisole-2,3-dihydrodiol), 2-methoxyphenol, catechol, and trace amounts of phenol while phenetole was converted primarily tocis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-ethoxycyclohexa-3,5-diene (phenetole-2,3-dihydrodiol) and 2-ethoxyphenol. Induced cells ofPseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816\\/11

Sol M. Resnick; David T. Gibson

1993-01-01

249

Oxygen deficiency and excretion of metabolites by strictly aerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alcaligenes eutrophus, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas delafieldii and Paracoccus denitrificans excrete metabolites when the oxygen demand of cells is not satisfied. The mechanism by which various metabolites are excreted at different degrees of oxygen deficiency is discussed.

D. Vollbrecht

1980-01-01

250

Selective inhibition of nitrite oxidation by chlorate dosing in aerobic granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial nitrification was successfully achieved with addition of 5mM KClO3 in the aerobic granules system. Batch tests demonstrated that KClO3 selectively inhibited nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) but not ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). During stable partial nitrification, the influent pH was kept at 7.8–8.2, while the DO and temperature were not controlled in the SBR. When the NH4–N and COD levels were kept

Guangjing Xu; Xiaochen Xu; Fenglin Yang; Sitong Liu

2011-01-01

251

Characterization of nitrifying granules produced in an aerobic upflow fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since nitrification is the rate-determining step in the biological nitrogen removal from wastewater, many research studies have been conducted on the immobilization of nitrifying bacteria. In this research, granulation of nitrifying bacteria in an aerobic upflow fluidized bed (AUFB) reactor in a nitrification process for inorganic wastewater containing 500g\\/m3 of NH4+-N was investigated. It was observed that spherical, pseudocubic and

Satoshi Tsuneda; Tatsuo Nagano; Tatsuhiko Hoshino; Yoshihiro Ejiri; Naohiro Noda; Akira Hirata

2003-01-01

252

Cellulose synthesized by Enterobacter sp. FY-07 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Enterobacter sp. FY-07 can produce bacterial cellulose (BC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In static cultivation at 30 °C for 72 h under anoxic, oxygen-limited and aerated conditions, cellulose production exceeded 5 g/l, which indicated that oxygen was not essential for production of BC by Enterobacter sp. FY-07. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the microstructure of the BC was similar to that produced by aerobic bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinum BCRC12335 and Acetobacter sp. V6. The crystallinity index of the BC was 63.3%. Water-holding capacity (approximately 11000%) and rehydration ratio (24.4%) were superior to those reported for BC produced by the aerobic bacteria G. xylinum BCRC12335 and Acetobacter sp. V6. These results will facilitate static submerged fermentation for the production of BC. PMID:23073085

Ma, Ting; Ji, Kaihua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jinghong; Li, Zhaoyu; Ran, Haitao; Liu, Bin; Li, Guoqiang

2012-12-01

253

Aerobic granulation in a sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of piggery wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated the formation of aerobic granules fed with digested piggery wastewater. After 42 days of cultivation, small yellow granules with mean diameter of 0.4 mm were first observed in the reactor. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed the granules were compact, round structures with clear outer shapes and mainly composed of filamentous bacteria. Maximum chemical oxygen demand and ammonia removal ratios were 90.1 and 91.7%, respectively. The Monod equation, which was used to describe ammonium utilization, yielded a maximum rate of 6.25 mg (g volatile suspended solids)(-1) h(-1). The measurement of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix results showed that the EPS concentration increased during the granulation process. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed significant amounts of nitrifying bacteria in the aerobic granules. Results in this study provide insights to the treatment of piggery wastewater using aerobic granular sludge. PMID:23581239

Zhang, Dalei; Wang, Yanan; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Shaoran; Jing, Yumei

2013-03-01

254

Formation of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by phototrophic and chemolithotrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acid), PHA, by various strains of chemolithotrophic and phototrophic bacteria has\\u000a been examined. Chemolithotrophic bacteria were grown aerobically under nitrogen-limiting conditions on various aliphatic organic\\u000a acids. Phototrophic bacteria were grown anaerobically in the light on a nitrogen-rich medium and were subsequently transferred\\u000a to a nitrogen-free medium containing acetate, propionate, valerate, heptanoate or octanoate as carbon source.

Matthias Liebergesell; Eilert Hustede; Arnulf Timm; Alexander Steinbiichel; R. Clinton Fuller; Robert W. Lenz; Hans G. Schlegel

1991-01-01

255

The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

1980-01-01

256

An Aerobic Points Nomogram for Running.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nomogram was constructed which simplifies the computation of aerobic points for running. This form of exercise was selected because the energy cost (oxygen consumed) of running can be reliably predicted from time and distance. Aerobic points for swimmin...

W. S. Myles D. G. Bell

1977-01-01

257

Salinisphaera hydrothermalis sp. nov., a mesophilic, halotolerant, facultatively autotrophic, thiosulfate-oxidizing gammaproteobacterium from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and emended description of the genus Salinisphaera  

PubMed Central

A mesophilic, aerobic, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacterium, designated strain EPR70T, was isolated from hydrothermal fluids from diffuse-flow vents on the East Pacific Rise at ?° 50? N 10?° 17? W. Cells were Gram-negative rods, approximately 0.8–1.0??m long and 0.3–0.5??m wide. Strain EPR70T grew at 20–40?°C (optimum 30–35?°C), 1–25?% NaCl (optimum 2.5?%) and pH?5.0–7.5 (optimum pH?5.5). The shortest generation time observed for strain EPR70T was 42?min. Growth occurred under aerobic chemolithoautotrophic conditions in the presence of thiosulfate and CO2. Strain EPR70T grew heterotrophically with acetate or n-alkanes as sole carbon and energy sources, and in complex artificial seawater medium. Nitrate was not used as an electron acceptor. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64?mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this organism is a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, with Salinisphaera shabanensis E1L3AT as its closest relative (94?% sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, rbcL and alkB genes and physiological analysis, it is proposed that the organism represents a novel species within the genus Salinisphaera, for which the name Salinisphaera hydrothermalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPR70T (=DSM 21483T =JCM 15514T).

Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Chatziefthimiou, Aspassia; Cruz-Matos, Ramaydalis; Perez-Rodriguez, Ileana; Barkay, Tamar; Lutz, Richard A.; Starovoytov, Valentin; Vetriani, Costantino

2009-01-01

258

Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.  

PubMed

Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization. PMID:24718344

Woo, Bryen

2014-01-01

259

Interstrain variation in murine aerobic capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIGHTFOOT, T. J., M. J. TURNER, K. A. DEBATE, and S. R. KLEEBERGER. Interstrain variation in murine aerobic capacity.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 12, 2001, pp. 2053-2057. Purpose: The contribution of genetic factors to aerobic capacity is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure maximal aerobic performance among inbred strains of mice to provide basic heritability

J. TIMOTHY LIGHTFOOT; MICHAEL J. TURNER; KARL A. DEBATE; STEVEN R. KLEEBERGER

2001-01-01

260

Thermodynamic Stability of Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Pheromones of the Protozoan Ciliate Euplotes  

PubMed Central

Three psychrophilic protein pheromones (En-1, En-2 and En-6) from the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, and six mesophilic pheromones (Er-1, Er-2, Er-10, Er-11, Er-22 and Er-23) from the temperate-water sister species, Euplotes raikovi,were studied in aqueous solution for their thermal unfolding and refolding based on the temperature dependence of their circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The three psychrophilic proteins showed thermal unfolding with mid points in the temperature range 55–70 °C. In contrast, no unfolding was observed for any of the six mesophilic proteins and their regular secondary structures were maintained up to 95 °C. Possible causes of these differences are discussed based on comparisons of the NMR structures of the nine proteins.

Geralt, Michael; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo; Wuthrich, Kurt

2013-01-01

261

Mesophilic aeromonads in wild and aquacultured freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Numbers and species of motile Aeromonas were determined in freshly caught freshwater fish, in the surrounding environment, and also during iced chilled storage of fish specimens. Although no significant differences were observed in water samples, initial levels for skin, gill, and intestines were significantly lower in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) than in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). During storage of wild specimens, naturally occurring aeromonads grew fairly well on the surfaces of skin and body cavity. Of 171 strains assigned to the genus Aeromonas, 88% were identified to phenospecies and putative genospecies level by using comprehensive biochemical schemes. The isolates were allocated to putative hybridization groups (HGs) 1 and 3 Aeromonas hydrophila (29%); putative HG 8 Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (19%); putative HG 2 Aeromonas bestiarum (18%); putative HG 9 Aeromonas jandaei (16%); putative HGs 4 and 5a Aeromonas caviae (2%); putative HG 12 Aeromonas schubertii (2%); and putative HG 11 (unnamed, 0.6%). The remaining 20 isolates (12%) resembled A. schubertii but could not be allocated to currently recognized phenospecies or to putative HGs. Although cultured rainbow trout yielded strains of putative HGs 1, 4, and 8, which appear to be of major clinical importance, most isolates assigned to putative HGs 1 and 8 were recovered from pike. Differences among HGs found in wild animals could be related to their origin (unpolluted rivers for brown trout and urban rivers for pike). The recovery of these aeromonads species was not related to sampling site. The initial levels of motile aeromonads, their behavior during storage, and the strong potential spoilage activity of most isolates confirm that these bacteria can contribute to deterioration of iced wild freshwater fish. Although adequate cooking would inactivate motile aeromonads, the high incidence of isolates belonging to gastroenteritis-associated HGs should be regarded as a potential health concern, particularly for susceptible populations when there is a possibility of cross-contamination. PMID:11348001

González, C J; Santos, J A; García-López, M L; González, N; Otero, A

2001-05-01

262

In VivoCharacteristics and Localisation of Carotenoid Pigments in Psychrotrophic and Mesophilic Micrococcus roseusUsing Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoacoustic spectra of cells ofM.roseuswere recorded to study thein vivocharacteristics and localisation of the carotenoid pigments in these cells. The PA spectra indicated that both the psychrotrophic and mesophilic strains had similar chromophores. Theciscarotenoids were prominent in the psychrotrophicM.roseuswhereas shorter polyenes were more prominent in mesophilicM.roseus.Further, depth profiling photoacoustic studies revealed that in both the strains ofM.roseusthe bulk of the

M. V. Jagannadham; K. Narayanan; Ch. Mohan Rao; S. Shivaji

1996-01-01

263

Comparative Evaluation of Bio-Hydrogen Production From Cheese Whey Wastewater Under Thermophilic and Mesophilic Anaerobic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production from cheese whey wastewater via dark fermentation was conducted using mixed culture under mesophilic (36°C ± 1) and thermophilic (55°C ± 1) conditions, respectively. The hydrogen yields and specific hydrogen production rates were found as follows: mesophilic: 9.2 mmol H2 \\/g COD (chemical oxygen demand) and 5.1 mL H2 \\/g VSS h; thermophilic: 8.1 mmol H2 \\/ g

N. Azbar; F. T. Dokgöz; T. Keskin; R. Eltem; K. S. Korkmaz; Y. Gezgin; Z. Akbal; S. Öncel; M. C. Dalay; Ç. Gönen; F. Tutuk

2009-01-01

264

Differences in the catalytic mechanisms of mesophilic and thermophilic indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase enzymes at their adaptive temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic mechanisms of thermophilic-mesophilic enzymes may differ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Product release is rate-determining for thermophilic IGPS at low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer But at higher temperatures, proton transfer from the general acid is rate-limiting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rate-determining step is different still for mesophilic IGPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both chemical and physical steps of catalysis are important for temperature adaptation. -- Abstract: Thermophilic enzymes tend to be less catalytically-active at lower temperatures relative to their mesophilic counterparts, despite having very similar crystal structures. An often cited hypothesis for this general observation is that thermostable enzymes have evolved a more rigid tertiary structure in order to cope with their more extreme, natural environment, but they are also less flexible at lower temperatures, leading to their lower catalytic activity under mesophilic conditions. An alternative hypothesis, however, is that complementary thermophilic-mesophilic enzyme pairs simply operate through different evolutionary-optimized catalytic mechanisms. In this communication, we present evidence that while the steps of the catalytic mechanisms for mesophilic and thermophilic indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) enzymes are fundamentally similar, the identity of the rate-determining step changes as a function of temperature. Our findings indicate that while product release is rate-determining at 25 Degree-Sign C for thermophilic IGPS, near its adaptive temperature (75 Degree-Sign C), a proton transfer event, involving a general acid, becomes rate-determining. The rate-determining steps for thermophilic and mesophilic IGPS enzymes are also different at their respective, adaptive temperatures with the mesophilic IGPS-catalyzed reaction being rate-limited before irreversible CO{sub 2} release, and the thermophilic IGPS-catalyzed reaction being rate limited afterwards.

Zaccardi, Margot J.; Mannweiler, Olga [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Boehr, David D., E-mail: ddb12@psu.edu [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2012-02-10

265

FULL SCALE DEMONSTRATION AND ASSESSMENT OF ENZYMIC HYDROLYSIS PRETREATMENT FOR MESOPHILIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale monitoring programme was undertaken to assess acidogenic pre-treatment as a bolt- on biological upgrade to mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD). The United Utilities Enhanced Enzymic Hydrolysis (EEH) MAD pre-treatment process was installed by Monsal Limited at the Blackburn (UK) wastewater treatment plant. This process combines mesophilic acid phase digestion with pasteurization at 55 ºC using low grade boiler heat

Alan G. Werker; My Carlsson; Fernando Morgan-Sagastume; Dorian Harrison

266

A study of two-stage anaerobic digestion of solid potato waste using reactors under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.  

PubMed

A two-stage anaerobic digestion process operated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was investigated for the treatment of solid potato waste to determine optimal methane yield, efficiency of operation and process stability. A solid-bed reactor was used for hydrolysis/acidification stage while an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the second stage, for methanogenesis. Three sets of conditions were investigated: (1) mesophilic + mesophilic, (II) mesophilic + thermophilic and (III) thermophilic + thermophilic in the hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis reactors, respectively. The methane yield was higher under mesophilic conditions (0.49 l CH4 g COD(-1)degraded) than thermophilic conditions (0.41 l CH4 g COD(-1)degraded) with reference to the methanogenic reactors. (COD)--chemical oxygen demand. However, the digestion period was shorter in systems II and III than in system I. Also, in system III the UASB reactor (thermophilic conditions) could handle a higher organic loading rate (OLR) (36 g COD 1(-1)d(-1)) than in system I (11 g COD 1(-1)d(-1)) (mesophilic conditions) with stable operation. Higher OLRs in the methanogenic reactors resulted in reactor failure due to increasing total volatile fatty acid levels. In all systems, the concentration of propionate was one of the highest, higher than acetic acid, among the volatile fatty acids in the effluent. The results show the feasibility of using a two-stage system to treat solid potato waste under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. If the aim is to treat solid potato waste completely within a short period of time thermophilic conditions are to be preferred, but to obtain higher methane yield mesophilic conditions are preferable and therefore there is a need to balance methane yield and complete digestion period when dealing with large quantities of solid potato waste. PMID:18290530

Parawira, W; Murto, M; Read, J S; Mattiasson, B

2007-11-01

267

The effect of sulphate on methanol conversion in mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic (30°C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors were fed with an influent containing sulphate (2 g l?1) and methanol (1.33 g l?1). More than 90% of the methanol was mineralised to methane, while only ?5–10% of the methanol was used for sulphate reduction. This pattern was independent of short-term pH variations in the range from 5 to 8, addition of

Jan Weijma; Tran Minh Chi; Look W. Hulshoff Pol; Alfons J. M. Stams; Gatze Lettinga

2003-01-01

268

A comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic upflow filters treating paper–pulp–liquors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper–pulp–liquors and corrugated-paper–pulp–liquors were used as the bases for simulated papermill wastewater and were treated in anaerobic upflow filters which were operated at mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged from 11.7 to 26.2 h with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.70–3.87 g\\/l per day. With the paper–pulp–liquors, the thermophilic digester showed significant increases in

J.-H Ahn; C. F Forster

2002-01-01

269

Mesophilic anaerobic treatment of sludge from saline fish farm effluents with biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesophilic anaerobic treatment of sludge from saline fish farm effluents (total solids (TS): 8.2–10.2 wt%, chemical oxygen demand (COD): 60–74 g\\/l, sodium (Na): 10–10.5 g\\/l) was carried out in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 35 °C. COD stabilization between 36% and 55% and methane yields between 0.114 and 0.184 l\\/g COD added were achieved. However, the process was

Ruth Gebauer

2004-01-01

270

Dynamics and unfolding pathways of a hyperthermophilic and a mesophilic rubredoxin.  

PubMed Central

Molecular dynamics simulations in solution are performed for a rubredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (RdPf) and one from the mesophilic organism Desulfovibrio vulgaris (RdDv). The two proteins are simulated at four temperatures: 300 K, 373 K, 473 K (two sets), and 500 K; the various simulations extended from 200 ps to 1,020 ps. At room temperature, the two proteins are stable, remain close to the crystal structure, and exhibit similar dynamic behavior; the RMS residue fluctuations are slightly smaller in the hyperthermophilic protein. An analysis of the average energy contributions in the two proteins is made; the results suggest that the intraprotein energy stabilizes RdPf relative to RdDv. At 373 K, the mesophilic protein unfolds rapidly (it begins to unfold at 300 ps), whereas the hyperthermophilic does not unfold over the simulation of 600 ps. This is in accord with the expected stability of the two proteins. At 473 K, where both proteins are expected to be unstable, unfolding behavior is observed within 200 ps and the mesophilic protein unfolds faster than the hyperthermophilic one. At 500 K, both proteins unfold; the hyperthermophilic protein does so faster than the mesophilic protein. The unfolding behavior for the two proteins is found to be very similar. Although the exact order of events differs from one trajectory to another, both proteins unfold first by opening of the loop region to expose the hydrophobic core. This is followed by unzipping of the beta-sheet. The results obtained in the simulation are discussed in terms of the factors involved in flexibility and thermostability.

Lazaridis, T.; Lee, I.; Karplus, M.

1997-01-01

271

Comparison of laboratory-scale thermophilic biofilm and activated sludge processes integrated with a mesophilic activated sludge process.  

PubMed

A combined thermophilic-mesophilic wastewater treatment was studied using a laboratory-scale thermophilic activated sludge process (ASP) followed by mesophilic ASP or a thermophilic suspended carrier biofilm process (SCBP) followed by mesophilic ASP, both systems treating diluted molasses (dilution factor 1:500 corresponding GF/A-filtered COD (COD(filt)) of 1900+/-190 mgl(-1)). With hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12-18 h the thermophilic ASP and thermophilic SCBP removed 60+/-13% and 62+/-7% of COD(filt), respectively, with HRT of 8 h the removals were 48+/-1% and 69+/-4%. The sludge volume index (SVI) was notably lower in the thermophilic SCBP (measured from suspended sludge) than in the thermophilic ASP. Under the lowest HRT the mesophilic ASP gave better performance (as SVI, COD(filt), and COD(tot) removals) after the thermophilic SCBP than after the thermophilic ASP. Measured sludge yields were low (less than 0.1 kg suspended solids (SS) kg COD(filt removed)(-1)) in all processes. Both thermophilic treatments removed 80-85% of soluble COD (COD(sol)) whereas suspended COD (COD(susp)) and colloidal COD (COD(col)) were increased. Both mesophilic post-treatments removed all COD(col) and most of the COD(susp) from the thermophilic effluents. In conclusion, combined thermophilic-mesophilic treatment appeared to be easily operable and produced high effluent quality. PMID:12618042

Suvilampi, J; Lehtomäki, A; Rintala, J

2003-07-01

272

Performance comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic reactors for treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions without long-time POME storage in order to compare the performance of each condition in the field of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The anaerobic treatment system was composed of anaerobic hybrid reactor and anaerobic baffled filter. Raw POME was pretreated by screw decanter to reduce suspended solids and residual oil. The total COD removal rate of 90-95% was achieved in both conditions at the OLR of 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d. The COD removal in thermophilic conditions was slightly better, however the biogas production was much higher than that in the mesophilic one at high OLR. The organic contents in pretreated POME were highly biodegradable in mesophilic under the lower OLRs. The biogas production was 13.5-20.0l/d at the 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d OLR, and the average content of carbon dioxide was 5-35% in both conditions. PMID:24797939

Jeong, Joo-Young; Son, Sung-Min; Pyon, Jun-Hyeon; Park, Joo-Yang

2014-08-01

273

Performance and energy economics of mesophilic and thermophilic digestion in anaerobic hybrid reactor treating coal wastewater.  

PubMed

Two anaerobic hybrid AHRs (AHR), mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) were operated with coal wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 3-0.5 to 3.12-0.6d with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.12-6.72 g L(-1) d(-1). Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg L(-1) and phenolics concentration of 752 mg L(-1) was used as substrate. At each HRT, the thermophilic AHR gave a better performance, measured in terms of phenolics/COD removal and gas production. The specific methane yield was also higher for thermophilic AHR at each HRT compared to mesophilic one. The volatile fatty acid concentration in the effluent increased with the lowering of HRT. The Stover-Kincannon model was applicable at both temperatures and showed higher substrate utilization in thermophilic AHR. Energy economic study of the AHRs revealed that 11,938 MJ d(-1) more energy can be generated using thermophilic AHR than mesophilic. PMID:23138053

Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Surampalli, Rao Y

2013-01-01

274

Thermal adaptation analyzed by comparison of protein sequences from mesophilic and extremely thermophilic Methanococcus species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The genome sequence of the extremely thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii provides a wealth of data on proteins from a thermophile. In this paper, sequences of 115 proteins from M. jannaschii are compared with their homologs from mesophilic Methanococcus species. Although the growth temperatures of the mesophiles are about 50 degrees C below that of M. jannaschii, their genomic G+C contents are nearly identical. The properties most correlated with the proteins of the thermophile include higher residue volume, higher residue hydrophobicity, more charged amino acids (especially Glu, Arg, and Lys), and fewer uncharged polar residues (Ser, Thr, Asn, and Gln). These are recurring themes, with all trends applying to 83-92% of the proteins for which complete sequences were available. Nearly all of the amino acid replacements most significantly correlated with the temperature change are the same relatively conservative changes observed in all proteins, but in the case of the mesophile/thermophile comparison there is a directional bias. We identify 26 specific pairs of amino acids with a statistically significant (P < 0.01) preferred direction of replacement.

Haney, P. J.; Badger, J. H.; Buldak, G. L.; Reich, C. I.; Woese, C. R.; Olsen, G. J.

1999-01-01

275

A comparative study on thermomechanical pulping pressate treatment using thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

A comparative study on the treatment of thermomechanical pulping (TMP) pressate was conducted under thermophilic (55 degrees C) and mesophilic (30 degrees C) temperatures to explore in-mill biological treatment, with the intention to operate under heat-efficient conditions. The experimental study involved sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated over 114 days. Receiving a total influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3700-4100 mg L(-1), the COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% and 75-85% were achieved for the mesophilic and thermophilic SBRs, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 and 24h. Excellent sludge settleability (sludge volume index < 100 mL g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids) was obtained at both thermophilic and mesophilic SBRs. A higher level of effluent suspended solids was observed under thermophilic conditions. The results support the feasibility of applying thermophilic biological treatment of TMP pressate. The treated effluent has the potential for subsequent reuse as process water after polishing, thus addressing the long-standing desire to develop water system closure for the pulp and paper mill operation. PMID:24701939

Zheng, Meiru; Liao, B Q

2014-01-01

276

Identification and enzymatic profiles of the predominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from soft?variety Chhurpi, a traditional cheese typical of the Sikkim Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first report on the microbial population and predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of two soft?varieties (mild and strong flavoured) of chhurpi., a traditional cheese product of the Sikkim Himalayas. The enzymatic profiles and percentage hydrophobicity (as one criterion of potential adhesion capability) of the predominant LAB were also studied. The LAB, yeasts and viable mesophilic microbial

J. P. Tamang; S. Dewan; S. Thapa; N. A. Olasupo; U. Schillinger; A. Wijaya; W. H. Holzapfel

2000-01-01

277

Gastrointestinal Bacteria of Certain Antarctic Birds and Mammals  

PubMed Central

An investigation was carried out of the aerobic gram-negative intestinal flora of 158 penguins, 30 skuas, and 66 seals from the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic zones and Phillip Island. Among penguins and seals, 17% and 11%, respectively, were devoid of aerobic enteric organisms, but microscopic examination showed the presence of other bacteria. The coliforms outnumbered the paracolons and nonlactosefermenting bacteria; irregular coliform types and Escherichia coli were predominant. The present study indicated the effect of diet on the composition of the intestinal flora of the birds and mammals examined.

Soucek, Z.; Mushin, Rose

1970-01-01

278

Aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor treating thermomechanical pulping whitewater under thermophilic conditions.  

PubMed

The continuously operated laboratory scale Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used for thermophilic (55 degrees C) aerobic treatment of TMP whitewater. In the MBBR, the biomass is grown on carrier elements that move along with the water in the reactor. Inoculation with mesophilic activated sludge gave 60-65% SCOD removal from the first day onwards. During the 107 days of experiment, the 60-65% SCOD removals were achieved at organic loading rates of 2.5-3.5 kg SCODm(-3) d(-1), the highest loading rates applied during the run and HRT of 13-22h. Carbohydrates, which contributed to 50-60% of the influent SCOD. were removed by 90-95%, while less than 15% of the lignin-like material (30-35% of SCODin) was removed. The sludge yield was 0.23g VSSg SCOD(-1)removed. The results show that the aerobic biofilm process can be successfully operated under thermophilic conditions. PMID:11848344

Jahren, Sigrun J; Rintala, Jukka A; Odegaard, Hallvard

2002-02-01

279

Reductive Precipitation of Gold by Dissimilatory Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria and Archaea  

PubMed Central

Studies with a diversity of hyperthermophilic and mesophilic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing Bacteria and Archaea demonstrated that some of these organisms are capable of precipitating gold by reducing Au(III) to Au(0) with hydrogen as the electron donor. These studies suggest that models for the formation of gold deposits in both hydrothermal and cooler environments should consider the possibility that dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms can reductively precipitate gold from solution.

Kashefi, Kazem; Tor, Jason M.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

2001-01-01

280

Anaerobic degradation and carbon isotopic fractionation of alkylbenzenes in crude oil by sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mesophilic enrichment culture of sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from the water phase of a North Sea oil tank using oil from the same tank as sole source of carbon and energy specifically depletes certain C1–C5 alkylbenzenes in crude oil during growth. The enrichment culture grows on oils of different origin and composition resulting in similar patterns of alkylbenzene depletion. Two

Heinz Wilkes; Chris Boreham; Gerda Harms; Karsten Zengler; Ralf Rabus

2000-01-01

281

The inhibition of Clostridium botulinum type C by other bacteria in wetland sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bacteria with inhibitory activity against Clostridium botulinum type C were isolated from 32% of sediment samples (n = 1600) collected from 10 marshes in a northern California wetland over a 12 mo period. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from 12% and 23% of the samples, respectively. Bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from all 10 study sites and throughout the year. This study demonstrates that bacteria with inhibitory activity against C. botulinum type C occur naturally in wetland sediments.

Sandler, R. L.; Rocke, T. E.; Yuill, T. M.

1998-01-01

282

Toxic effects of butyl elastomers on aerobic methane oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large quantities of the potent greenhouse gas methane are liberated into the water column of marine and lacustrine environments where it may be consumed by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria before reaching the atmosphere.The reliable quantification of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates is consequently of paramount importance for estimating methane budgets and to understand the controls on water column methane cycling. A widely used set of methods for measuring MOx rates is based on the incubation of water samples during which the consumption of methane is monitored, for instance with radio-tracer assays. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber stoppers because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases at the relevant time scales. We tested the effect of different stopper materials (unmodified- and halogenated butyl rubber) on MOx activity in environmental samples and in cultures of methane oxidising bacteria. MOx rates in samples sealed with unmodified butyl rubber were > 75% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber seals, suggesting inhibiting/toxic effects associated with the use of unmodified butyl elastomers. To further explore the cause of these effects, we analysed aqueous extracts of the different stoppers. Halogenated butyl rubber stoppers appeared to bleed off comparably little amounts of organics. In stark contrast, extracts of unmodified butyl rubber were contaminated with various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes, phenylalkanes and benzuothiazoles. We also found tetramethylthiourea, a scavenger of active oxygen species, which may inhibit the MOx pathway.

Niemann, Helge; Steinle, Lea I.; Blees, Jan H.; Krause, Stefan; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina

2013-04-01

283

Bacteria in Crude Oil Survived Autoclaving and Stimulated Differentially by Exogenous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if “endogenous” bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the “exogenous” bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain). The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-Biao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Chun-Zhong

2012-01-01

284

The sea to air bacteria transfer from the coastal waters.  

PubMed

Bacteria transfer from the water into the air may play an important role in bioaerosol cycle. Bubbles raising through the water column collect bacteria but also other suspended material and transport them towards water surface. When the bubble burst at the water surface collected material are skimmed off the bubble to become highly enriched in jet and film drops. After ejection airborne droplets can evaporate and as small droplets can be transported even to remote locations. Such a stream of aerosol droplets may carry stream of bacteria scavenged from the water column. The fate of bacteria in the air may possibly depend on the environmental conditions like intensity of sunlight or ambient air humidity. In addition the wind speed might be responsible for both wave/bubble mediated production of marine originated droplets and their transport in the atmosphere. The evidences that bacteria are transferred from the breaking waves, in particular in the coastal zone, were observed during several field experiments conducted in 1994 and 1995 over the Gulf of Gdansk and the Baltic Sea coast. Enhanced sea to air bacteria transfer were noticed over the polluted waters where in addition gas supersaturations in the water were recorded. Further laboratory investigations of bacteria scavenge via bubbles produced by single capillary and by plume of bubbles produced by ceramic stone indicated high enrichment within both mesophile and psychrophile bacteria categories. PMID:9101057

Marks, R; Jankowska, K; Michalska, M; Królska, M

1996-01-01

285

Lipolytic Bacteria in the Ottawa River  

PubMed Central

Lipolytic bacteria were isolated from two stations on Brewery Creek, an arm of the Ottawa River, during the winter of 1971-72. Total counts were approximately sevenfold higher at the more polluted downstream station, whereas lipolytic counts were about 100-fold higher. At this station, significantly more lipolytic bacteria grew on plates incubated at 20 C than at 4 C, suggesting that the population was comprised of both mesophiles and psychrophiles. However, at the upstream station, approximately the same number were obtained at both temperatures. A total of 434 isolates, mainly from the downstream station, were tentatively classified. The major groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter-Moraxella, and Aeromonas. Though the total number of lipolytic bacteria was fairly constant throughout the winter, the relative abundance of the acinetobacters dropped from approximately 90% in November to less than 10% in March, and then increased. The aeromonads and pseudomonads showed the opposite trend. Most of the bacteria, though isolated at 4 C, also grew at 30 C. Lipolysis, however, was generally strongest at 20 C or below.

Blaise, Christian R.; Armstrong, John B.

1973-01-01

286

Selective inhibition of nitrite oxidation by chlorate dosing in aerobic granules.  

PubMed

Partial nitrification was successfully achieved with addition of 5mM KClO(3) in the aerobic granules system. Batch tests demonstrated that KClO(3) selectively inhibited nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) but not ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). During stable partial nitrification, the influent pH was kept at 7.8-8.2, while the DO and temperature were not controlled in the SBR. When the NH(4)-N and COD levels were kept at 100mg/l and 400mg/l in the influent, the NH(4)-N and COD removal efficiencies reached 98.93% and 78.65%, respectively. The NO(2)-N accounted for 92.95% of the NO(?)-N (NO(2)-N+NO(3)-N) in the effluent. Furthermore, about 90% of the chlorate was reduced to nontoxic chloride, thus it would not cause environmental problem. SEM showed that the main composition of the aerobic granules was bacilli and coccus bacteria. FISH analysis revealed that AOB became the dominant nitrifying bacteria, whereas NOB were detected only in low abundance. Chlorate could be used to control the development and maintenance of aerobic granules sludge for partial nitrification. PMID:20926188

Xu, Guangjing; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, Fenglin; Liu, Sitong

2011-01-15

287

Magnetotactic Bacteria and Their Potential for Terraformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on magnetotactic bacteria and their possible contributions to the terraformation of Mars or other planets.\\u000a The potential for terraformation is mainly based on their ability to carry out aerobic or anaerobic respiration with either\\u000a nitrate or ferric iron, to fix carbon dioxide in the dark using the energy released through the oxidation of inorganic chemicals\\u000a such

Ioan I. Ardelean; Cristina Moisescu; Dan Razvan Popoviciu

288

Trichloroethylene biodegradation by mesophilic and psychrophilic ammonia oxidizers and methanotrophs in groundwater microcosms.  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the efficiency of methane and ammonium for stimulating trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation in groundwater microcosms (flasks and batch exchange columns) at a psychrophilic temperature (12 degrees C) typical of shallow aquifers in the northern United States or a mesophilic temperature (24 degrees C) representative of most laboratory experiments. After 140 days, TCE biodegradation rates by ammonia oxidizers and methanotrophs in mesophilic flask microcosms were similar (8 to 10 nmol day-1), but [14C]TCE mineralization (biodegradation to 14CO2) by ammonia oxidizers was significantly greater than that by methanotrophs (63 versus 53%). Under psychrophilic conditions, [14C]TCE mineralization in flask systems by ammonia oxidizers and methanotrophs was reduced to 12 and 5%, respectively. In mesophilic batch exchange columns, average TCE biodegradation rates for methanotrophs (900 nmol liter-1 day-1) were not significantly different from those of ammonia oxidizers (775 nmol liter-1 day-1). Psychrophilic TCE biodegradation rates in the columns were similar with both biostimulants and averaged 145 nmol liter-1 day-1. Methanotroph biostimulation was most adversely affected by low temperatures. At 12 degrees C, the biodegradation efficiencies (TCE degradation normalized to microbial activity) of methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers decreased by factors of 2.6 and 1.6, respectively, relative to their biodegradation efficiencies at 24 degrees C. Collectively, these experiments demonstrated that in situ bioremediation of TCE is feasible at the psychrophilic temperatures common in surficial aquifers in the northern United States and that for such applications biostimulation of ammonia oxidizers could be more effective than has been previously reported.

Moran, B N; Hickey, W J

1997-01-01

289

Conventional mesophilic vs. thermophilic anaerobic digestion: a trade-off between performance and stability?  

PubMed

A long-term comparative study using continuously-stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs) operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures was conducted to evaluate the influence of the organic loading rate (OLR) and chemical composition on process performance and stability. Cow manure was co-digested with dog food, a model substrate to simulate a generic, multi-component food-like waste and to produce non-substrate specific, composition-based results. Cow manure and dog food were mixed at a lower - and an upper co-digestion ratio to produce a low-fiber, high-strength substrate, and a more recalcitrant, lower-strength substrate, respectively. Three increasing OLRs were evaluated by decreasing the CSADs hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 20 to 10 days. At longer HRTs and lower manure-to-dog food ratio, the thermophilic CSAD was not stable and eventually failed as a result of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation/degradation, which was triggered by the compounded effects of temperature on reaction rates, mixing intensity, and physical state of LCFAs. At shorter HRTs and upper manure-to-dog food ratio, the thermophilic CSAD marginally outperformed the biomethane production rates and substrate stabilization of the mesophilic CSAD. The increased fiber content relative to lipids at upper manure-to-dog food ratios improved the stability and performance of the thermophilic process by decreasing the concentration of LCFAs in solution, likely adsorbed onto the manure fibers. Overall, results of this study show that stability of the thermophilic co-digestion process is highly dependent on the influent substrate composition, and particularly for this study, on the proportion of manure to lipids in the influent stream. In contrast, mesophilic co-digestion provided a more robust and stable process regardless of the influent composition, only with marginally lower biomethane production rates (i.e., 7%) for HRTs as short as 10 days (OLR = 3 g VS/L-d). PMID:24530545

Labatut, Rodrigo A; Angenent, Largus T; Scott, Norman R

2014-04-15

290

Nucleotide-dependent protein folding in the type II chaperonin from the mesophilic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.  

PubMed Central

We report the characterization of the first chaperonin (Mm-cpn) from a mesophilic archaeon, Methanococcus maripaludis. The single gene was cloned from genomic DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a recombinant protein of 543 amino acids. In contrast with other known archaeal chaperonins, Mm-cpn is fully functional in all respects under physiological conditions of 37 degrees C. The complex has Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity and can prevent the aggregation of citrate synthase. It promotes a high-yield refolding of guanidinium-chloride-denatured rhodanese in a nucleotide-dependent manner. ATP binding is sufficient to effect folding, but ATP hydrolysis is not essential.

Kusmierczyk, Andrew R; Martin, Jorg

2003-01-01

291

Local entropy difference upon a substrate binding of a psychrophilic ?-amylase and a mesophilic homologue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychrophilic ?-amylase from the antarctic bacterium pseudoalteromonashaloplanktis (AHA) and its mesophilic homologue, porcine pancreatic ?-amylase (PPA) are theoretically investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We carried out 240-ns MD simulations for four systems, AHA and PPA with/without the bound substrate, and examined protein conformational entropy changes upon the substrate binding. We developed an analysis that decomposes the entropy changes into contributions of individual amino acids, and successfully identified protein regions responsible for the entropy changes. The results provide a molecular insight into the structural flexibilities of those enzymes related to the temperature dependences of the enzymatic activity.

Kosugi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Shigehiko

2011-01-01

292

Aerobic Mineralization of Hexachlorobenzene by Newly Isolated Pentachloronitrobenzene-Degrading Nocardioides sp. Strain PD653 ?  

PubMed Central

A novel aerobic pentachloronitrobenzene-degrading bacterium, Nocardioides sp. strain PD653, was isolated from an enrichment culture in a soil-charcoal perfusion system. The bacterium also degraded hexachlorobenzene, a highly recalcitrant environmental pollutant, accompanying the generation of chloride ions. Liberation of 14CO2 from [U-ring-14C]hexachlorobenzene was detected in a culture of the bacterium and indicates that strain PD653 is able to mineralize hexachlorobenzene under aerobic conditions. The metabolic pathway of hexachlorobenzene is initiated by oxidative dechlorination to produce pentachlorophenol. As further intermediate metabolites, tetrachlorohydroquinone and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone have been detected. Strain PD653 is the first naturally occurring aerobic bacteria capable of mineralizing hexachlorobenzene.

Takagi, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Akio; Kamei, Ichiro; Satsuma, Koji; Yoshioka, Yuichi; Harada, Naoki

2009-01-01

293

Response of pulse phenol injection on an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic system.  

PubMed

The performance of a three-stage suspended growth continuous system consisting of anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic reactors was evaluated after injection of a pulse phenol shock load in the anaerobic reactor. The synthetic feed contained phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen. Anaerobic reactor required 22 days to regain its previous cyanide removal efficiency and the reactor achieved a new steady state in terms of phenol removal. The anoxic reactor achieved its previous phenol and the thiocyanate removal efficiency in seven to nine days. In the aerobic reactor, nitrification was severely inhibited due to the washout of nitrifying bacteria. The aerobic reactor was the most sensitive in terms of phenol shock load in the three-stage system. PMID:15607188

Chakraborty, Saswati; Veeramani, H

2005-05-01

294

Piggery wastewater treatment using Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification.  

PubMed

Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4, which has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, was used to treat actual piggery wastewater containing high-strength ammonium under aerobic conditions. In a continuous experiment using a solids-free wastewater (SFW) mixed with feces, almost all of the 2000 NH4+ -N mg/L and 12,000 COD mg/L in the wastewater was removed and the ammonium removal rate was approximately 30 mg-N/L/h, which was 5-10 times higher than the rates achieved by other bacteria with the same abilities. The denitrification ratio was more than 65% of removed NH4+ -N, indicating that strain No. 4 exhibited its heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities in the piggery wastewater. PMID:16893560

Joo, Hung-Soo; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

2006-09-01

295

Effect of high pressure combined with mild heat or nisin on inoculated bacteria and mesophiles of goat's milk fresh cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pressures ranging from 400 to 500 MPa combined with mild heat on Staphylococcus carnosus inoculated in fresh cheese and the concurrent use of 500 MPa and nisin to inactivate cheese indigenous populations has been studied. Staphylococcus carnosus counts could not be substantially decreased with treatments at 500 MPa at 10 or 25°C for 30 min, whereas treatments

M Capellas; M Mor-Mur; R Gervilla; J Yuste; B Guamis

2000-01-01

296

Acidophilic, Heterotrophic Bacteria of Acidic Mine Waters  

PubMed Central

Obligately acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated both from enrichment cultures developed with acidic mine water and from natural mine drainage. The bacteria were grouped by the ability to utilize a number of organic acids as sole carbon sources. None of the strains were capable of chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic reduced iron and sulfur compounds. All bacteria were rod shaped, gram negative, nonencapsulated, motile, capable of growth at pH 2.6 but not at pH 6.0, catalase and oxidase positive, strictly aerobic, and capable of growth on citric acid. The bacteria were cultivatable on solid nutrient media only if agarose was employed as the hardening agent. Bacterial densities in natural mine waters ranged from approximately 20 to 250 cells per ml, depending upon source and culture medium. Ferric hydrates and stream vegetation contained from 1,500 to over 7 × 106 cells per g. Images

Wichlacz, Paul L.; Unz, Richard F.

1981-01-01

297

Soccer specific aerobic endurance training  

PubMed Central

Background: In professional soccer, a significant amount of training time is used to improve players' aerobic capacity. However, it is not known whether soccer specific training fulfils the criterion of effective endurance training to improve maximal oxygen uptake, namely an exercise intensity of 90–95% of maximal heart rate in periods of three to eight minutes. Objective: To determine whether ball dribbling and small group play are appropriate activities for interval training, and whether heart rate in soccer specific training is a valid measure of actual work intensity. Methods: Six well trained first division soccer players took part in the study. To test whether soccer specific training was effective interval training, players ran in a specially designed dribbling track, as well as participating in small group play (five a side). Laboratory tests were carried out to establish the relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake while running on a treadmill. Corresponding measurements were made on the soccer field using a portable system for measuring oxygen uptake. Results: Exercise intensity during small group play was 91.3% of maximal heart rate or 84.5% of maximal oxygen uptake. Corresponding values using a dribbling track were 93.5% and 91.7%. No higher heart rate was observed during soccer training. Conclusions: Soccer specific exercise using ball dribbling or small group play may be performed as aerobic interval training. Heart rate monitoring during soccer specific exercise is a valid indicator of actual exercise intensity.

Hoff, J; Wisloff, U; Engen, L; Kemi, O; Helgerud, J

2002-01-01

298

Physiological characteristics of bacteria isolated from water brines within permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Arctic there are lenses of overcooled water brines (cryopegs) sandwiched within permafrost marine sediments 100 120 thousand years old. We have investigated the physiological properties of the pure cultures of anaerobic Clostridium sp. strain 14D1 and two strains of aerobic bacteria Psychrobacter sp. isolated from these cryopegs. The structural and physiological characteristics of new bacteria from water brines have shown their ability to survive and develop under harsh conditions, such as subzero temperatures and high salinity.

Shcherbakova, V.; Rivkina, E.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Pecheritsina, S.; Gilichinsky, D.

2004-01-01

299

Physical Characterization of Extra-Chromosomal DNA in Chesapeake Bay Bacteria from Polluted and Non Polluted Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The significance of extrachromosomal elements in natural populations of estuarine bacteria has not been determined. To obtain measure of the frequency of plasmids in this ecosystem, a random sample of the total aerobic heterotrophic community was collecte...

D. L. Glassman L. A. McNicol

1980-01-01

300

Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) reactor and 2) to combine this system with proper aerobic post treatment processes, such as the activated sludge process or

Kaijun Wang

1994-01-01

301

Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth pre-treated at 80 degrees C.  

PubMed

Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is a fast growing aquatic plant which causes environmental problems in continental water bodies. Harvesting and handling this plant becomes an issue, and focus has been put on the research of treatment alternatives. Amongst others, energy production through biomethanation has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The effect of a thermal sludge pre-treatment at 80 degrees C was also evaluated. To this end, anaerobic biodegradability tests were carried out at 35 degrees C and 55 degrees C, with raw and pre-treated water hyacinth. According to the results, the thermal pre-treatment enhanced the solubilisation of water hyacinth (i.e. increase in the soluble to total chemical oxygen demand (COD)) from 4% to 12% after 30 min. However, no significant effect was observed on the methane yields (150-190 L CH(4)/kg volatile solids). Initial methane production rates for thermophilic treatments were two fold those of mesophilic ones (6-6.5L vs. 3-3.5 L CH(4)/kg COD x day). Thus, higher methane production rates might be expected from thermophilic reactors working at short retention times. The study of longer low temperature pre-treatments or pre-treatments at elevated temperatures coupled to thermophilic reactors should be considered in the future. PMID:19837577

Ferrer, Ivet; Palatsi, Jordi; Campos, Elena; Flotats, Xavier

2010-10-01

302

Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale digestion of Nannochloropsis microalga residues.  

PubMed

This paper studies methane production using a marine microalga, Nannochloropsis sp. residue from biodiesel production. Residue cake from Nannochloropsis, oils wet-extracted, had a methane potential of 482LCH4kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) in batch assays. However, when dry-extracted, the methane potential of residue cake was only 194LCH4kg(-1) VS. In semi-continuous reactor trials with dry-extracted residue cake, a thermophilic reactor produced 48% higher methane yield (220LCH4kg(-1)VS) than a mesophilic reactor (149LCH4kg(-1)VS). The thermophilic reactor was apparently inhibited due to ammonia with organic loading rate (OLR) of 2kgVSm(-3)d(-1) (hydraulic retention time (HRT) 46d), whereas the mesophilic reactor performed with OLR of 3kgVSm(-3)d(-1) (HRT 30d). Algal salt content did not inhibit digestion. Additional methane (18-33% of primary digester yield) was produced during 100d post-digestion. PMID:24462882

Kinnunen, H V; Koskinen, P E P; Rintala, J

2014-03-01

303

Study of the cellulases produced by three mesophilic actinomycetes grown on bagasse as substrate  

SciTech Connect

The cellulases that strains of Streptomyces albogrisolus, S. nitrosporeus, and Micromonospora melanosporea produce when grown on untreated ballmilled bagasse were investigated. Optimum conditions for extracellular cellulase production and activity were determined to be growth at pH 6.7-7.4 and 25-35 degrees C for 4-5 days and assay at pH 5.0-6.0 and 45-55 degrees C, respectively. The endoglucanases were thermally stable at 50 degrees C, but the Avicelases had a half-life of approximately 24 hours at this temperature. Nearly half of the endoglucanases and almost all of the Avicelases were absorbed on ballmilled bagasse after 15 minutes incubation at 50 degrees C. The ..beta..-glucosidases were found to be mainly intracellular or cell wall bound. These mesophilic actinomycetes concomitantly produced xylanases and ..beta..-xylosidases with cellulases that, apart from cellobiose and glucose, also release xylose from bagasse. This feature may be advantageous in the commercial application of the enzymes of mesophilic actinomycetes for the saccharification of natural cellulosic substrates.

Van Zyl, W.H.

1985-09-01

304

Hot Stuff: Lability of Forest Floor DOM to Aerobic Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis that the lability of DOM to aerobic microbial degradation to CO2 is related to its age and character is tested in an incubation study conducted using an assemblage of soil bacteria in their natural state. Extracts (WF) of leaf and forest floor material characterized by different degrees of degradation: green leaves, fresh fallen leaves, litter (one year weathering), fibric matter, hemic matter and peat were used in this study. The working hypothesis is that these extracts represent a chronosequence of degradation and DOM extracted from them might also represent a similar lability sequence. As well aliquots of the WF extracts were processed to remove DOM fractions. Thus a fulvic acid (FA) fraction was made by precipitating and removing humic acid, and a hydrophilic fraction (HPI) by removing hydrophobics from the FA using XAD-8 resin. Incubations were carried out on all three DOM solutions from each extract to determine if there were differences in lability among the fractions. When comparing the WF solutions for CO2 production, the green leaves, litter, fibric and hemic extracts showed approximately the same CO2 yield, on an equal C basis, and the fresh fallen leaves and peat produced less. For five of the six extracts the respective WF and HPI solutions yielded nearly the same quantity of CO2 per mg C suggesting that the HPI component contributes almost all the lability. Furthermore the magnitudes of the C-normalized CO2 yield for these solutions are similar to that for glucose, which fractionates as HPI. For the same five extracts the FA solution yielded lower quantities of CO2, on an equal C basis, than WF and HPI suggesting that the hydrophobic content of the extracts may inhibit aerobic degradation. The peat extract solutions yielded a different CO2 production distribution with the HPI only slightly higher than the FA which in turn was much greater than WF. The material from which this extract was made is much older and contains significant HA, suggesting that the hydrophobics in peat do not inhibit aerobic degradation, but the humic acid does. These preliminary results suggest that lability to aerobic degradation of DOM extracted from forest floor organic matter differs somewhat with age but more with DOM character. These results indicate that the humic and hydrophobic fractions of DOM are more refractory to aerobic microbial activity, degrading more slowly than hydrophilic DOM. As well preliminary results suggest that refractory DOM may have an inhibitory effect on the degradation rate of the labile DOM.

Bourbonniere, R. A.; Creed, I. F.; Kapila, R.; Collins, J.

2004-05-01

305

In vivo characteristics and localisation of carotenoid pigments in psychrotrophic and mesophilic Micrococcus roseus using photoacoustic spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Photoacoustic spectra of cells of M. roseus were recorded to study the in vivo characteristics and localisation of the carotenoid pigments in these cells. The PA spectra indicated that both the psychrotrophic and mesophilic strains had similar chromophores. The cis carotenoids were prominent in the psychrotrophic M.roseus whereas shorter polyenes were more prominent in mesophilic M.roseus. Further, depth profiling photoacoustic studies revealed that in both the strains of M.roseus the bulk of the chromophore was associated with the cell membrane. PMID:8858129

Jagannadham, M V; Narayanan, K; Rao, C M; Shivaji, S

1996-10-01

306

Comparison of the Survival and Metabolic Activity of Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Yeasts Subjected to Freeze-Thaw Stress  

PubMed Central

A mesophilic yeast, Candida utilis, and a psychrophilic yeast, Leucosporidium stokesii, were subjected to freeze-thaw cycling over the range 25 to -60 C. Viability after freeze-thaw stress was directly correlated with the rate of cooling and the physiological age of the cultures. Rates of glucose fermentation and oxidation could be directly correlated with viability. The optimal cooling rate for both yeast strains was 4.5 to 6.5 C/min; however, their levels of survival obtained at this optimal cooling rate varied considerably. In addition, the psychrophile was less resistant to freeze-thaw stress than was the mesophile.

Meyer, Edward D.; Sinclair, Norval A.; Nagy, Bartholomew

1975-01-01

307

The effects of wilting and storage temperatures on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage.  

PubMed

In order to clarify the ensiling characteristics of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Swartz), the effects of wilting (no wilting, light wilting and heavy wilting) and storage temperatures (10°C, 20°C, 30°C and 40°C) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage were investigated. Wilting had no significant influence on the contents of crude protein, ether extract and acid detergent fiber, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria, aerobic bacteria, yeasts and mold (P > 0.05). Heavy wilted material, wilted for 12 h, had higher neutral detergent fiber content and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content than unwilted and light wilted materials (P < 0.05). Wilting and storage temperatures had significant effects on pH value, acetic acid, butyric acid and NH(3) -N contents of stylo silage (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Wilting tended to reduce acetic acid and NH(3) -N contents and improve the fermentation quality of stylo silage. In all the silages, no wilting silage ensiled at 30°C had the highest butyric acid content (P < 0.05). High temperature of 40°C markedly restricted the growth of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria in silage, irrespective of wilting. The wilted silage or silage stored at low temperature had poor aerobic stability. PMID:21794013

Liu, Qinghua; Zhang, Jianguo; Shi, Shangli; Sun, Qizhong

2011-08-01

308

Comparative In Vitro Activities of GAR936 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Animal and Human Bite Wound Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAR-936 is a new semisynthetic glycylcycline with a broad antibacterial spectrum, including tetracycline- resistant strains. The in vitro activities of GAR-936, minocycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, moxifloxacin, penicillin G, and erythromycin were determined by agar dilution methods against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic strains of bacteria (including Pasteurella, Eikenella, Moraxella, Bergeyella, Neisseria, EF-4, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, Propi-

ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN; DIANE M. CITRON; C. VRENI MERRIAM; YUMI WARREN; KERIN TYRRELL

2000-01-01

309

Metagenomics of hydrocarbon resource environments indicates aerobic taxa and genes to be unexpectedly common.  

PubMed

Oil in subsurface reservoirs is biodegraded by resident microbial communities. Water-mediated, anaerobic conversion of hydrocarbons to methane and CO2, catalyzed by syntrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea, is thought to be one of the dominant processes. We compared 160 microbial community compositions in ten hydrocarbon resource environments (HREs) and sequenced twelve metagenomes to characterize their metabolic potential. Although anaerobic communities were common, cores from oil sands and coal beds had unexpectedly high proportions of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Likewise, most metagenomes had high proportions of genes for enzymes involved in aerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. Hence, although HREs may have been strictly anaerobic and typically methanogenic for much of their history, this may not hold today for coal beds and for the Alberta oil sands, one of the largest remaining oil reservoirs in the world. This finding may influence strategies to recover energy or chemicals from these HREs by in situ microbial processes. PMID:23889694

An, Dongshan; Caffrey, Sean M; Soh, Jung; Agrawal, Akhil; Brown, Damon; Budwill, Karen; Dong, Xiaoli; Dunfield, Peter F; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M; Hallam, Steven J; Hanson, Niels W; He, Zhiguo; Jack, Thomas R; Klassen, Jonathan; Konwar, Kishori M; Kuatsjah, Eugene; Li, Carmen; Larter, Steve; Leopatra, Verlyn; Nesbø, Camilla L; Oldenburg, Thomas; Pagé, Antoine P; Ramos-Padron, Esther; Rochman, Fauziah F; Saidi-Mehrabad, Alireeza; Sensen, Christoph W; Sipahimalani, Payal; Song, Young C; Wilson, Sandra; Wolbring, Gregor; Wong, Man-Ling; Voordouw, Gerrit

2013-09-17

310

Metagenomics of Hydrocarbon Resource Environments Indicates Aerobic Taxa and Genes to be Unexpectedly Common  

PubMed Central

Oil in subsurface reservoirs is biodegraded by resident microbial communities. Water-mediated, anaerobic conversion of hydrocarbons to methane and CO2, catalyzed by syntrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea, is thought to be one of the dominant processes. We compared 160 microbial community compositions in ten hydrocarbon resource environments (HREs) and sequenced twelve metagenomes to characterize their metabolic potential. Although anaerobic communities were common, cores from oil sands and coal beds had unexpectedly high proportions of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Likewise, most metagenomes had high proportions of genes for enzymes involved in aerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. Hence, although HREs may have been strictly anaerobic and typically methanogenic for much of their history, this may not hold today for coal beds and for the Alberta oil sands, one of the largest remaining oil reservoirs in the world. This finding may influence strategies to recover energy or chemicals from these HREs by in situ microbial processes.

2013-01-01

311

DESTRUCTION OF SELECT HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN MUSHROOM COMPOST DURING PHASE II PASTEURIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to investigate changes in microbial levels during mushroom composting and the destruction of human pathogens during Phase II pasteurization and conditioning. Total aerobic bacteria and coliform levels in compost prepared on a model mushroom farm were monitored throughout a complete crop cycle. There was little change in total bacteria levels. However, coliforms decreased to undetectable levels immediately

Jennifer D. Weil; Robert B. Beelman; Luke F. LaBorde

312

Lipoquinones of some bacteria and mycoplasmas, with considerations on their functional significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a comparative study the lipoquinones of some chemoorganotrophic, facultatively aerobic bacteria, and representative Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma, and Thermoplasma strains were investigated. The quinones were partly purified by preparative thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts, and characterized by their difference spectra (reduced minus oxidized) and Rf values. Respiring bacteria expectedly contained benzoquinones and\\/or naphthoquinones in micromolar concentrations whereas some aerotolerant,

R. Holländer; Gerda Wolf; W. Mannheim

1977-01-01

313

Capnocytophaga : New genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria I. General characteristics, taxonomic considerations and significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of gliding bacteria isolated from both healthy and diseased sites in the oral cavity are, summarized and the taxonomic position of the bacteria discussed. Uniform attributes of the fusiform isolates include gliding motility, strictly fermentative metabolism dependent on the presence of CO2 (or HCO3-), under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions, presence of benzidine-reactive components, and the production of

E. R. Leadbetter; S. C. Holt; S. S. Socransky

1979-01-01

314

The cellulosome and cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its simple chemical composition, cellulose exists in a number of crystalline and amorphous topologies. Its insolubility and heterogeneity makes native cellulose a recalcitrant substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Microorganisms meet this challenge with the aid of a multi-enzyme system. Aerobic bacteria produce numerous individual, extra-cellular enzymes with binding modules for different cellulose conformations. Specific enzymes act in synergy to elicit

W. H. Schwarz

2001-01-01

315

Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses.

2011-01-01

316

Bacteria bites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally occurring bacteria may be a future solution for myriad pollution problems, mounting laboratory evidence suggests. Last month, USGS scientists reported in Nature that microbes living in oxygen-free sediments can break down derivatives of hydrofluorocarbons, which are among the compounds under consideration to replace ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). And now, another USGS scientist reports in the July 14 Nature that microbes which degrade toxic and carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene and toluene can be boosted with an iron additive or chemical binder to work in anaerobic conditions that are commonly found in heavily polluted aquifers. Previously, scientists thought the bacteria could reduce the hard pollutants only if plenty of dissolved oxygen was in the water. Other bacteria have been shown to convert uranium to a highly insoluble form in cbntaminated waters as well.

317

Solar inactivation of faecal bacteria in water: the critical role of oxygen.  

PubMed

Suspensions of the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were incubated in full sunlight in plastic bottles containing either (i) air-equilibrated (oxygenated) water or (ii) anaerobic (deoxygenated) water. A rapid decrease in cfu ml-1 was observed for actively growing and stationary phase cells of both types of faecal bacteria when illuminated under aerobic conditions, with Ent. faecalis showing the greater enhancement in the rate of inactivation in air-equilibrated water. The demonstration of an oxygen requirement for the inactivation of faecal bacteria in sunlight indicates that solar-based water disinfection systems are likely to require fully aerobic conditions in order to function effectively. PMID:9134775

Reed, R H

1997-04-01

318

Effectiveness of Resins in Neutralizing Antibiotic Activities in Bactec Plus Aerobic\\/F Culture Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating resins in blood culture media can effectively reduce the activities of several antibiotics. It was shown that the activities of some generally used antibiotics decreased by 80 to 90% withi n2hi nBactec Plus Aerobic\\/F resin-containing culture medium. Bactec vials containing resins were still found to be positive for bacteria when antibiotics were present. The addition of b-lactamase shortened the

J. SPAARGAREN; C. P. A. VAN BOVEN; G. P. VOORN

1998-01-01

319

Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate by Sphingomonas sp. isolated from phthalic-acid-degrading aerobic granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contamination in water, air, and soil is one of the major environmental concerns in many countries.\\u000a Besides the PAE biodegradation process, the PAE degrading bacteria have become one of the focuses of study. This study reports\\u000a the successful isolation of one kind of indigenous bacterium PA-02 from phthalic acid (PA)-degrading aerobic granules. Based\\u000a on its 16S

Ping Zeng; Benjamin Yan-Pui Moy; Yong-Hui Song; Joo-Hwa Tay

2008-01-01

320

Comparative in vitro activities of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens from patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the in vitro activities of ertapenem (Merck & Co., Inc.), ceftriaxone, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam against 518 aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from 340 patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. Ciprofloxacin was also tested against Gram-negative isolates. Gram-positive cocci accounted for 68.1% of the aerobic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate (45.6%). The

Barbara A Pelak; Ken Bartizal; Gail L Woods; Richard M Gesser; Mary Motyl

2002-01-01

321

Enhanced aerobic granulation, stabilization, and nitrification in a continuous-flow bioreactor by inoculating biofilms.  

PubMed

In this study, the possibility of using backwashed biofilm as seed in an aerobic granular sludge continuous-flow airlift fluidized bed (CAFB) reactor was investigated. After the addition of the inoculated backwashed biofilm, the start-up period of this reactor fed with municipal wastewater was reduced to 25 days, and aerobic granulation and stabilization were enhanced. At steady state, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and nitrification efficiency were as high as 80-90 and 60 %, respectively. The CAFB was operated continuously and totally for 90 days, and its performance was much more stable when compared with system inoculated with activated sludge. Microbial distribution analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were compatible with heterotrophic bacteria and distributed evenly throughout the granules. Such unique population distribution might be attributed to the low COD level and abundant dissolved oxygen in the entire granule as simulated by the mathematic models. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy revealed broad holes in the granules, which might promote the mass transfer of the nutrients from the surface to the center and enable simultaneous COD removal and nitrification. In conclusion, backwashed biofilm is an alternative seed of the conventional flocculent activated sludge in the aerobic granular sludge system to enhance carbonaceous oxidization and nitrification. PMID:24643735

Yang, Yang; Zhou, Dandan; Xu, Zhengxue; Li, Aijun; Gao, Hang; Hou, Dianxun

2014-06-01

322

The cell membrane plays a crucial role in survival of bacteria and archaea in extreme environments.  

PubMed

The cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and archaea determine to a large extent the composition of the cytoplasm. Since the ion and in particular the proton and/or the sodium ion electrochemical gradients across the membranes are crucial for the bioenergetic conditions of these microorganisms, strategies are needed to restrict the permeation of these ions across their cytoplasmic membrane. The proton and sodium permeabilities of all biological membranes increase with the temperature. Psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, and mesophilic, (hyper)thermophilic and halophilic archaea are capable of adjusting the lipid composition of their membranes in such a way that the proton permeability at the respective growth temperature remains low and constant (homeo-proton permeability). Thermophilic bacteria, however, have more difficulties to restrict the proton permeation across their membrane at high temperatures and these organisms have to rely on the less permeable sodium ions for maintaining a high sodium-motive force for driving their energy requiring membrane-bound processes. Transport of solutes across the bacterial and archaeal membrane is mainly catalyzed by primary ATP driven transport systems or by proton or sodium motive force driven secondary transport systems. Unlike most bacteria, hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea prefer primary ATP-driven uptake systems for their carbon and energy sources. Several high-affinity ABC transporters for sugars from hyperthermophiles have been identified and characterized. The activities of these ABC transporters allow these organisms to thrive in their nutrient-poor environments. PMID:12448706

Konings, Wil N; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Koning, Sonja; Driessen, Arnold J M

2002-08-01

323

Thermostable lipases from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus SOL1 and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel genes encoding for heat and solvent stable lipases from strictly anaerobic extreme thermophilic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus (LipTth) and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis (LipCst) were successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. Recombinant proteins were purified to homogeneity by heat precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography.\\u000a Unlike the enzymes from mesophile counterparts, enzymatic activity was measured at a

Marina Royter; M. Schmidt; C. Elend; H. Höbenreich; T. Schäfer; U. T. Bornscheuer; G. Antranikian

2009-01-01

324

Psychrophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of brewery effluent: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Two expanded granular sludge bed-anaerobic filter (EGSB-AF) bioreactors (3.38 l active volume) were used to directly compare psychrophilic (15 degrees C), anaerobic digestion (PAD) to mesophilic (37 degrees C) anaerobic digestion (MAD) for the treatment of a brewery wastewater (chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 3,136+/-891 mg l(-1)). Bioreactor performance was evaluated by COD removal efficiency and biogas yields at a range of hydraulic and organic loading rates. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays were also employed to investigate the activity of the biomass in the bioreactors. No significant difference in the COD removal efficiencies (which ranged from 85-93%) were recorded between PAD and MAD during the 194-d trial at maximum organic and hydraulic loading rates of 4.47 kg m(-3) day(-1) and 1.33 m(3) m(-3) day(-1), respectively. In addition, the methane content (%) of the biogas was very similar. The volumetric biogas yield from the PAD bioreactor was approximately 50% of that from the MAD bioreactor at an organic loading rate of 4.47 kg COD m(-3) day(-3) and an applied liquid up-flow velocity (V(up)) of 2.5 m h(-1). Increasing the V(up) in the PAD bioreactor to 5 m h(-1) resulted in a volumetric biogas production rate of approximately 4.1 l d(-1) and a methane yield of 0.28 l CH(4) g(-1) COD d(-1), which were very similar to the MAD bioreactor. Significant and negligible biomass washout was observed in the mesophilic and psychrophilic systems, respectively, thus increasing the sludge loading rate applied to the former and underlining the robustness of the latter, which appeared underloaded. A psychrotolerant mesophilic, but not truly psychrophilic, biomass developed in the PAD bioreactor biomass, with comparable maximum SMA values to the MAD bioreactor biomass. PAD, therefore, was shown to be favourably comparable to MAD for brewery wastewater treatment and biogas generation. PMID:16814840

Connaughton, Sean; Collins, Gavin; O'Flaherty, Vincent

2006-07-01

325

Fixed-bed fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure using a mixed culture of marine mesophilic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of rice straw (80%) and chicken manure (20%) was pretreated and fermented to carboxylic acids by using a mixed culture of marine mesophilic microorganisms. Two sets of four fermentors, built from PVC pipes, were used for both biomass pretreatment and fermentation. Four 1L fermentors (F1–F4) were arranged in series, where liquid fermentation products were transferred from one fermentor

Frank K. Agbogbo; Mark T. Holtzapple

2007-01-01

326

Production of gamma-decalactone by a psychrophilic and a mesophilic strain of the yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca.  

PubMed

Among 18 psychrophilic strains isolated near the Antarctic Station, the psychrophilic strain Rhodotorula aurantiaca A19 was selected for its ability of growth and gamma-decalactone production at low temperatures. The effects of temperature, initial pH, and castor oil concentration on the growth and gamma-decalactone production by a psychrophilic and a mesophilic strain of R. aurantiaca were investigated. The highest gamma-decalactone production in flasks (5.8 g/l) was obtained with the strain A19 at 14 degrees C and initial pH 7.0 in medium containing 20 g/l castor oil. On the other hand, these factors did not affect the production of gamma-decalactone by the mesophilic strain. In fermentor, a gamma-decalactone concentration of 6.6 g/l was reached with the strain A19, whereas a maximum of 0.1 g/l was obtained with the mesophilic strain. Our results suggest that the ability to synthesize gamma-decalactone is a particularity of the strain A19, since the mesophilic strain (no. 30645) produced small amounts, and the other (no. 31354) did not exhibit this property. It is, to our knowledge, the first report of gamma-decalactone production by R. aurantiaca and furthermore by a psychrophilic yeast strain. Moreover, the amount of gamma-decalactone obtained in fermentor with the strain 19 was on the order of concentrations usually described in patents. PMID:18642100

Alchihab, Mohamed; Destain, Jacqueline; Aguedo, Mario; Majad, Lamia; Ghalfi, Hakim; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Thonart, Philippe

2009-07-01

327

Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions Select for Unique but Highly Parallel Microbial Communities to Perform Carboxylate Platform Biomass Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carboxylate platform is a flexible, cost-effective means of converting lignocellulosic materials into chemicals and liquid fuels. Although the platform's chemistry and engineering are well studied, relatively little is known about the mixed microbial communities underlying its conversion processes. In this study, we examined the metagenomes of two actively fermenting platform communities incubated under contrasting temperature conditions (mesophilic 40°C; thermophilic

Emily B. Hollister; Andrea K. Forrest; Heather H. Wilkinson; Daniel J. Ebbole; Susannah G. Tringe; Stephanie A. Malfatti; Mark T. Holtzapple; Terry J. Gentry

2012-01-01

328

Molecular characterization of mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate reducing microbial communities in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors.  

PubMed

The microbial communities established in mesophilic and thermophilic expanded granular sludge bed reactors operated with sulfate as the electron acceptor were analyzed using 16S rRNA targeted molecular methods, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, and phylogenetic analysis. Bacterial and archaeal communities were examined over 450 days of operation treating ethanol (thermophilic reactor) or ethanol and later a simulated semiconductor manufacturing wastewater containing citrate, isopropanol, and polyethylene glycol 300 (mesophilic reactor), with and without the addition of copper(II). Analysis, of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a defined shift in microbial diversity in both reactors following a change in substrate composition (mesophilic reactor) and in temperature of operation from 30 degrees C to 55 degrees C (thermophilic reactor). The addition of copper(II) to the influent of both reactors did not noticeably affect the composition of the bacterial or archaeal communities, which is in agreement with the very low soluble copper concentrations (3-310 microg l(-1)) present in the reactor contents as a consequence of extensive precipitation of copper with biogenic sulfides. Furthermore, clone library analysis confirmed the phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing consortia in mesophilic and thermophilic sulfidogenic reactors operated with simple substrates. PMID:17479349

Freeman, Stephanie A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Altinbas, Mahmut; Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Stams, Alfons J M; Smidt, Hauke

2008-04-01

329

Hydrolysis and acidification of dewatered sludge under mesophilic, thermophilic and extreme thermophilic conditions: effect of pH.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of pH (uncontrolled, 8.0, 10.0 and 12.0) and temperature (mesophilic, thermophilic and extreme thermophilic) on hydrolysis and acidification of dewatered sludge in 7-day batch fermentation experiment. Solublization of COD, protein and carbohydrates as well as concentration and composition of VFAs were investigated. Sludge hydrolysis was enhanced with higher pH and temperature. The maximum SCOD, soluble protein and carbohydrates was observed at pH 12.0 at extreme thermophilic condition. The maximum VFAs yield was obtained at thermophilic and was 2.15 times that at mesophilic condition, but it took more time to reach the maximum. The VFAs consisted of acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric, iso-valeric, and n-valeric acids, and acetic acid was the prevalent product in most cases except for uncontrolled pH and pH 8.0 at mesophilic condition. The methane production was as follows: pH 8.0>pH 10.0>uncontrolled (0.015)>pH 12.0; mesophilic>thermophilic>extreme thermophilic. PMID:24077155

Liu, Xiaoguang; Dong, Bin; Dai, Xiaohu

2013-11-01

330

Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Abramowicz, D.A. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

331

Enzymes and genes involved in aerobic alkane degradation  

PubMed Central

Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil. They are also present at low concentrations in diverse non-contaminated because many living organisms produce them as chemo-attractants or as protecting agents against water loss. Alkane degradation is a widespread phenomenon in nature. The numerous microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, capable of utilizing alkanes as a carbon and energy source, have been isolated and characterized. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how bacteria metabolize alkanes aerobically, with a particular emphasis on the oxidation of long-chain alkanes, including factors that are responsible for chemotaxis to alkanes, transport across cell membrane of alkanes, the regulation of alkane degradation gene and initial oxidation.

Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

2013-01-01

332

Bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products under aerobic conditions at 4°C.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically at 4°C, using "bone and chicken string," a product popular in the People's Republic of China, as the study subject. Samples collected from three different factories were tray packaged with cling film and stored at 4°C. Bacterial diversity and dominant bacteria were analyzed using PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Combined with selective cultivation of the dominant bacteria and correlation analysis, the dominant spoilage microbiota was determined. The results showed that bacterial diversity varied with different manufacturers. Such bacteria as Acinetobacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Rahnella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix sp., and Weissella sp. were detected in freshly prepared chicken products during storage. And Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Brochothrix sp. bacteria were the common dominant spoilage bacteria groups in most freshly prepared chicken products from different factories. Carnobacterium was, for the first time, shown to be an important contributor to the spoilage-related microflora of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. Our work shows the bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage microbiota of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. PMID:22691472

Liang, Rongrong; Yu, Xiaoqiao; Wang, Renhuan; Luo, Xin; Mao, Yanwei; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin

2012-06-01

333

Definition of Bacteriophage Groups According to Their Lytic Action on Mesophilic Lactic Streptococci  

PubMed Central

The lytic activity of 132 phages isolated during slow acid production in cheese factories situated in all the dairying regions of France during the past 16 years has been determined on 291 strains of mesophilic lactic streptococci. The results have been treated according to a method of analysis of data so as to establish a classification. Six groups of phages have thus been formed. Sixty-six percent of the phages studied, which are very similar and for the most part nonspecific to one species, have been gathered together in one group. On the other hand, a classification of the bacterial strains has been made on their sensitivity to the phages. Six groups, each corresponding to one of these groups of phages, have thus been defined. One of them accounts for 40% of the strains studied, of which certain ones are sensitive to a large number of phages.

Chopin, M.-C.; Chopin, A.; Roux, C.

1976-01-01

334

Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.  

PubMed

Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

2014-01-01

335

Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells at ambient and mesophilic temperatures.  

PubMed

Domestic wastewater treatment was examined under two different temperature (23+/-3 degrees C and 30+/-1 degrees C) and flow modes (fed-batch and continuous) using single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Temperature was an important parameter for treatment efficiency and power generation. The highest power density of 422 mW/m(2) (12.8 W/m(3)) was achieved under continuous flow and mesophilic conditions, at an organic loading rate of 54 g COD/L-d, achieving 25.8% COD removal. Energy recovery was found to depend significantly on the operational conditions (flow mode, temperature, organic loading rate, and HRT) as well as the reactor architecture. The results demonstrate that the main advantages of using temperature-phased, in-series MFC configurations for domestic wastewater treatment are power savings, low solids production, and higher treatment efficiency. PMID:19734045

Ahn, Youngho; Logan, Bruce E

2010-01-01

336

Chemical Changes during Anaerobic Decomposition of Hardwood, Softwood, and Old Newsprint under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.  

PubMed

The anaerobic decomposition of plant biomass is an important aspect of global organic carbon cycling. While the anaerobic metabolism of cellulose and hemicelluloses to methane and carbon dioxide are well-understood, evidence for the initial stages of lignin decomposition is fragmentary. The objective of this study was to look for evidence of chemical transformations of lignin in woody tissues [hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), and old newsprint (ONP)] after anaerobic decomposition using Klason and acid-soluble lignin, CuO oxidation, and 2D NMR. Tests were conducted under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, and lignin associations with structural carbohydrates are retained. For HW and ONP, the carbon losses could be attributed to cellulose and hemicelluloses, while carbon loss in SW was attributable to an uncharacterized fraction (e.g., extractives etc.). The 2D NMR and chemical degradation methods revealed slight reductions in ?-O-4 linkages for HW and ONP, with no depolymerization of lignin in any substrate. PMID:24967726

De la Cruz, Florentino B; Yelle, Daniel J; Gracz, Hanna S; Barlaz, Morton A

2014-07-01

337

Column bioleaching of uranium embedded in granite porphyry by a mesophilic acidophilic consortium.  

PubMed

A mesophilic acidophilic consortium was enriched from acid mine drainage samples collected from several uranium mines in China. The performance of the consortium in column bioleaching of low-grade uranium embedded in granite porphyry was investigated. The influences of several chemical parameters on uranium extraction in column reactor were also investigated. A uranium recovery of 96.82% was achieved in 97 days column leaching process including 33 days acid pre-leaching stage and 64 days bioleaching stage. It was reflected that indirect leaching mechanism took precedence over direct. Furthermore, the bacterial community structure was analyzed by using Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis. The results showed that microorganisms on the residual surface were more diverse than that in the solution. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the dominant species in the solution and Leptospirillum ferriphilum on the residual surface. PMID:21316943

Qiu, Guanzhou; Li, Qian; Yu, Runlan; Sun, Zhanxue; Liu, Yajie; Chen, Miao; Yin, Huaqun; Zhang, Yage; Liang, Yili; Xu, Lingling; Sun, Limin; Liu, Xueduan

2011-04-01

338

Evaluation of the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and tomato waste at mesophilic temperature.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is a hazardous waste, which must be managed adequately. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a widely employed treatment for sewage sludge involving several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability, and nutrient imbalance. Tomato waste was proposed as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to increase the viability of the process in a centralized system. The mixture proportion of sewage sludge and tomato waste evaluated was 95:5 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters in an organic loading rate from 0.4 to 2.2 kg total volatile solids (VS)/m(3) day. Moreover, the methane yield coefficient was 159 l/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm), and the studied mixture showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of 95 % (in VS). Although the ammonia concentration increased until 1,864 ± 23 mg/l, no inhibition phenomenon was determined in the stability variables, methane yield, or kinetics parameters studied. PMID:24682875

Belhadj, Siham; Joute, Yassine; El Bari, Hassan; Serrano, Antonio; Gil, Aida; Siles, José A; Chica, Arturo F; Martín, M Angeles

2014-04-01

339

Complete Type III Secretion System of a Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the existence and genetic organization of a functional type III secretion system (TTSS) in a mesophilic Aeromonas strain by initially using the Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3. We report for the first time the complete TTSS DNA sequence of an Aeromonas strain that comprises 35 genes organized in a similar disposition as that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using several gene probes, we also determined the presence of a TTSS in clinical or environmental strains of different Aeromonas species: A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae. By using one of the TTSS genes (ascV), we were able to obtain a defined insertion mutant in strain AH-3 (AH-3AscV), which showed reduced toxicity and virulence in comparison with the wild-type strain. Complementation of the mutant strain with a plasmid vector carrying ascV was fully able to restore the wild-type toxicity and virulence.

Vilches, Silvia; Urgell, Cecilia; Merino, Susana; Chacon, Matilde R.; Soler, Lara; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Figueras, Maria Jose; Tomas, Juan M.

2004-01-01

340

Biodegradability and mesophilic co-digestion of municipal sludge and scum.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate and optimize the co-digestion of scum with thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and primary sludge (PS) undergoing mesophilic anaerobic digestion. The effect of scum loading on the co-digestion of PS, TWAS and scum has shown to have a significant impact on the ultimate cumulative biogas production and on the specific biogas production between 20 and 40 days of digestion, while the effects of the scum holding time within the scum concentrator and temperature of the scum concentrator did not demonstrate a significant effect on the ultimate or specific biogas production. The study demonstrates that care must be taken to avoid inhibitory effects and potential souring of digesters due to scum overloading and specifically scum overloading in combination with long holding times of scum within the scum concentrator at elevated temperatures. PMID:23553004

Young, Bradley; Delatolla, Robert; Kennedy, Kevin

2013-11-01

341

Occurrence op some indicator bacteria in the waters of al?Khair stream and Al?Jaish canal passing through Baghdad city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci were monitored in water samplescollected from twelve stations located in two water sources in Baghdad city. The samples were collected at a monthly intervals during the period December 1980 ?December1981.High counts of pollution indicator bacteria were observed at all the stations studied. All of these bacteria were found to be

S. F. Jazrawi; Maryam W. Ishaq

1983-01-01

342

Survey of petroleum-degrading bacteria in coastal waters of Sunderban Biosphere Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of petroleum-degrading bacteria was carried out in the Indian part of deltaic Sunderbans to evaluate the distribution of the naturally occurring petroleum-degrading aerobic bacteria. Bacteriological analysis of surface water samples collected from five different locations in the Hooghly–Matla river mouth showed that, depending on the location, 0.08–2.0% of the heterotrophic bacteria culturable in marine agar medium could degrade

Subarna Roy; Dipak Hens; Debabrata Biswas; Dipa Biswas; Ranajit Kumar

2002-01-01

343

Escherichia coli inactivation kinetics in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under moderate, mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.  

PubMed

Batch anaerobic digestion experiments using dairy manure as feedstocks were performed at moderate (25°C), mesophilic (37°C), and thermophilic (52.5°C) temperatures to understand E. coli, an indicator organism for pathogens, inactivation in dairy manure. Incubation periods at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 61, 41, and 28 days respectively. Results were used to develop models for predicting E. coli inactivation and survival in anaerobic digestion. For modeling we used the decay of E. coli at each temperature to calculate the first-order inactivation rate coefficients, and these rates were used to formulate the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships. We found the inactivation rate coefficient at 52.5°C was 17 and 15 times larger than the inactivation rate coefficients at 25 and 37°C, respectively. Decimal reduction times (D10; time to achieve one log removal) at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 9 -10, 7 - 8 days, and < 1 day, respectively. The Arrhenius correlation between inactivation rate coefficients and temperatures over the range 25 -52.5°C was developed to understand the impacts of temperature on E. coli inactivation rate. Using this correlation, the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships were derived. Besides E. coli inactivation, impacts of temperature on biogas production, methane content, pH change, ORP, and solid reduction were also studied. At higher temperatures, biogas production and methane content was greater than that at low temperatures. While at thermophilic temperature pH was increased, at mesophilic and moderate temperatures pH were reduced over the incubation period. These results can be used to understand pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure, and impacts of temperatures on performance of anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure. PMID:21906374

Pandey, Pramod K; Soupir, Michelle L

2011-01-01

344

Escherichia coli inactivation kinetics in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under moderate, mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures  

PubMed Central

Batch anaerobic digestion experiments using dairy manure as feedstocks were performed at moderate (25°C), mesophilic (37°C), and thermophilic (52.5°C) temperatures to understand E. coli, an indicator organism for pathogens, inactivation in dairy manure. Incubation periods at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 61, 41, and 28 days respectively. Results were used to develop models for predicting E. coli inactivation and survival in anaerobic digestion. For modeling we used the decay of E. coli at each temperature to calculate the first-order inactivation rate coefficients, and these rates were used to formulate the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships. We found the inactivation rate coefficient at 52.5°C was 17 and 15 times larger than the inactivation rate coefficients at 25 and 37°C, respectively. Decimal reduction times (D10; time to achieve one log removal) at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 9 -10, 7 - 8 days, and < 1 day, respectively. The Arrhenius correlation between inactivation rate coefficients and temperatures over the range 25 -52.5°C was developed to understand the impacts of temperature on E. coli inactivation rate. Using this correlation, the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships were derived. Besides E. coli inactivation, impacts of temperature on biogas production, methane content, pH change, ORP, and solid reduction were also studied. At higher temperatures, biogas production and methane content was greater than that at low temperatures. While at thermophilic temperature pH was increased, at mesophilic and moderate temperatures pH were reduced over the incubation period. These results can be used to understand pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure, and impacts of temperatures on performance of anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

2011-01-01

345

Aerobic granulation of aggregating consortium X9 isolated from aerobic granules and role of cyclic di-GMP.  

PubMed

This study monitored the granulation process of an aggregating functional consortium X9 that was consisted of Pseudomonas putida X-1, Acinetobacter sp. X-2, Alcaligenes sp. X-3 and Comamonas testosteroni X-4 in shaken reactors. The growth curve of X9 was fit using logistic model as follows y=1.49/(1+21.3*exp(-0.33x)), the maximum specific cell growth rate for X9 was 0.33 h(-1). Initially X9 consumed polysaccharides (PS) and secreted proteins (PN) to trigger granulation. Then X9 grew in biomass and formed numerous micro-granules, driven by increasing hydrophobicity of cell membranes and of accumulated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In later stage the intracellular cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) was at high levels for inhibiting bacteria swarming motility, thereby promotion formation of large aerobic granules. The findings reported herein advise the way to accelerate granule formation and to stabilize operation in aerobic granular reactors. PMID:24326212

Wan, Chunli; Yang, Xue; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Xin-Yue; Yang, Qiaoli; Pan, Xiangliang

2014-01-01

346

Bacteria Counter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science Applications, Inc.'s ATP Photometer makes a rapid and accurate count of the bacteria in a body fluid sample. Instrument provides information on the presence and quantity of bacteria by measuring the amount of light emitted by the reaction between two substances. Substances are ATP adenosine triphosphate and luciferase. The reactants are applied to a human body sample and the ATP Photometer observes the intensity of the light emitted displaying its findings in a numerical output. Total time lapse is usually less than 10 minutes, which represents a significant time savings in comparison of other techniques. Other applications are measuring organisms in fresh and ocean waters, determining bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, biological process control in the beverage industry, and in assay of activated sewage sludge.

1981-01-01

347

Aerobic dynamic feeding as a strategy for in situ accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate in aerobic granules.  

PubMed

Aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) strategy was applied in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aerobic granules. The aerobic granules were able to remove 90% of the COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the POME are the sole source of the PHA accumulation. In this work, 100% removal of propionic and butyric acids in the POME were observed. The highest amount of PHA produced in aerobic granules was 0.6833mgPHA/mgbiomass. The PHA formed was identified as a P (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) P (HB-co-HV). PMID:24725384

Gobi, K; Vadivelu, V M

2014-06-01

348

Bacterial Diversity and Function of Aerobic Granules Engineered in a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Phenol Degradation  

PubMed Central

Aerobic granules are self-immobilized aggregates of microorganisms and represent a relatively new form of cell immobilization developed for biological wastewater treatment. In this study, both culture-based and culture-independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial diversity and function in aerobic phenol- degrading granules cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes demonstrated a major shift in the microbial community as the seed sludge developed into granules. Culture isolation and DGGE assays confirmed the dominance of ?-Proteobacteria and high-G+C gram-positive bacteria in the phenol-degrading aerobic granules. Of the 10 phenol-degrading bacterial strains isolated from the granules, strains PG-01, PG-02, and PG-08 possessed 16S rRNA gene sequences that matched the partial sequences of dominant bands in the DGGE fingerprint belonging to the aerobic granules. The numerical dominance of strain PG-01 was confirmed by isolation, DGGE, and in situ hybridization with a strain-specific probe, and key physiological traits possessed by PG-01 that allowed it to outcompete and dominate other microorganisms within the granules were then identified. This strain could be regarded as a functionally dominant strain and may have contributed significantly to phenol degradation in the granules. On the other hand, strain PG-08 had low specific growth rate and low phenol degradation ability but showed a high propensity to autoaggregate. By analyzing the roles played by these two isolates within the aerobic granules, a functional model of the microbial community within the aerobic granules was proposed. This model has important implications for rationalizing the engineering of ecological systems.

Jiang, He-Long; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Maszenan, Abdul Majid; Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee

2004-01-01

349

A simple model for diauxic growth of denitrifying bacteria.  

PubMed

A simple model has been formulated to simulate diauxic growth of denitrifying bacteria. It is capable of fitting the experimental results of batch growth experiments with Pseudomonas denitrificans under various conditions. It successfully predicts the observed lags when a pure culture of this bacterium switches from oxygen to nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. The model includes the effect of carbon substrate limitation and length of aerobic phase and does not run into problems when switching from anoxic to aerobic conditions, unlike prior models of diauxic growth. PMID:15899290

Casasús, Anna I; Hamilton, Ryan K; Svoronos, Spyros A; Koopman, Ben

2005-05-01

350

Isolation of hydrogen-producing bacteria from granular sludge of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2-producing bacteria were isolated from anaerobic granular sludge. Out of 72 colonies (36 grown under aerobic conditions and\\u000a 36 under anaerobic conditions) arbitrarily chosen from the agar plate cultures of a suspended sludge, 34 colonies (15 under\\u000a aerobic conditions and 19 under anaerobic conditions) produced H2 under anaerobic conditions. Based on various biochemical tests and microscopic observations, they were classified

You-Kwan Oh; Mi So Park; Eun-Hee Seol; Sang-Joon Lee; Sunghoon Park

2003-01-01

351

Aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera. Two hundred thirty-nine were Gram-negative and 86 were Gram-positive isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal samples. The Enterobacteriaceae family, including Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, was the largest Gram-negative group of bacteria recovered and comprised 127 of 239 (53.1%) of the Gram-negative isolates. Staphylococcus species was the largest Gram-positive bacteria group, including S. aureus, S. cromogenes, S. epidermis, and S. intermedius, and made up 63 of 86 (73.2%) of the Gram-positive isolates recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero National Park is composed of a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including several potential pathogens. PMID:17315444

Santoro, Mario; Hernández, Giovanna; Caballero, Magaly

2006-12-01

352

Estuarine ecology of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenanthrene degrading bacteria were ubiquitously distributed in waters and sediments of the Great Bay Estuary, NH, as determined using a 14C-phenanthrene mineralization assay. Similar activities were observed in water samples collected in March and June when these were incubated at 18 °C even though ambient water temperatures were 1-4 °C and 10-22 °C, respectively. This observation indicated the constant presence of a mesophilic phenanthrene-degrading bacterial population in the estuary. Among water samples, the highest biodegradation activities were associated with samples collected downstream from a dredging operation which introduced high concentrations of coal tar PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) into the Cocheco River, and in areas receiving PAH from pleasure and commercial boating activities. Mid-estuarine maxima in biodegradation activity during both sampling trips suggested adaptation of the microbial flora to the salinities prevailing in the low turnover, high residence time portion of the Estuary at the time of sampling. Despite the hydrophobicity of phenanthrene, no correlation between biodegradation rates and particulate matter concentrations were observed. Similarly, concentrations of nutrients and dissolved and particulate organic matter correlated poorly with biodegradation rates. Better agreements between 14C-phenanthrene mineralization potentials and plate counts on a phenanthrene/toluene agar (PTA) medium were observed. Phenanthrene biodegradative activities and numbers of culturable bacteria growing on PTA were governed by the degree of previous exposure to PAH.

Guerin, William F.; Jones, Galen E.

1989-08-01

353

Bosea minatitlanensis sp. nov., a strictly aerobic bacterium isolated from an anaerobic digester.  

PubMed

A strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, strain AMX 51(T), was isolated from anaerobic digester sludge. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, non-sporulating, straight to curved rods with one polar flagellum. The isolate had phenotypic traits of the genus Bosea, including cellular fatty acid and substrate utilization profiles. Physiological characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain AMX 51(T) was a member of the alpha-Proteobacteria, most closely related to Bosea thiooxidans DSM 9653(T) (similarity of 98.88 %). Methylobacterium organophilum JCM 2833(T), Methylobacterium mesophilicum JCM 2829(T), Afipia clevelandensis DSM 7315(T), Afipia felis DSM 7326(T), Afipia broomeae DSM 7327(T), Blastobacter denitrificans LMG 8443(T) and Bradyrhizobium japonicum DSM 30131(T) showed significant 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to strain AMX 51(T). The DNA G+C composition of strain AMX 51(T) was 68.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed 44.2 and 15.1 % relatedness between strain AMX 51(T) and the respective type strains of Bosea thiooxidans and A. felis. Overall results suggest that strain AMX 51(T) (=DSM 13099(T)=ATCC 700918(T)=CIP 106457(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Bosea; the name Bosea minatitlanensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:13130002

Ouattara, Aboubakar S; Assih, Essokazi A; Thierry, Sébastien; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Labat, Marc; Monroy, Oscar; Macarie, Hervé

2003-09-01

354

Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

Idaho Univ., Moscow.

355

Rapid cultivation of aerobic granular sludge in a pilot scale sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

Aerobic granular sludge which had good performance to pollutants removal was successfully cultivated within 18days in a pilot scale sequencing batch reactor, about 25% mature aerobic granular sludge was inoculated when the setting time of activated sludge was reduced to 10min. Anaerobic biological selector was implemented to inhibit filamentous bacteria overgrowth, where the maximum COD could reach to 1703.74mg/L. The cultivated aerobic granular sludge was irregular and pale yellow, average particle size, SVI, SV30/SV5, PN/PS, EPS and water content were 1.58mm, 67.64mL/g, 0.91, 2.17, 268.90mgEPS/g MLVSS and 98.16% on the 18th day. Mechanism of rapid granulation mainly included crystal nucleus hypothesis and selection pressure hypothesis. The inoculated aerobic granules could maintain stable under short setting time environment, making it directly as the crystal nucleus and the carriers for new particles without obvious disintegration, which eventually shortened the granulation time greatly. PMID:24905043

Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Jiang, Guo-Sheng; Dan, Jing-Feng; Li, Chun-Yang; Liu, Fu-Biao

2014-08-01

356

Microbial community analysis of an aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying MBR treating ABS resin wastewater.  

PubMed

A two-stage aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) system for treating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin wastewater was carried out in this study to evaluate the system performance on nitrification. The results showed that nitrification of the aerobic MBR system was significant and the highest TKN removal of approximately 90% was obtained at hydraulic retention time (HRT) 18 h. In addition, the result of nitrogen mass balance revealed that the percentage of TN removal due to denitrification was in the range of 8.7-19.8%. Microbial community analysis based on 16s rDNA molecular approach indicated that the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) group in the system was a ?-class ammonia oxidizer which was identified as uncultured sludge bacterium (AF234732). A heterotrophic aerobic denitrifier identified as Thauera mechernichensis was found in the system. The results indicated that a sole aerobic MBR system for simultaneous removals of carbon and nitrogen can be designed and operated for neglect with an anaerobic unit. PMID:21236663

Chang, Chia-Yuan; Tanong, Kulchaya; Xu, Jia; Shon, Hokyong

2011-05-01

357

[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents--special references to bacteria isolated between April 2009 and March 2010].  

PubMed

Bacteria isolated from surgical infections during the period from April 2009 to March 2010 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 671 strains including 16 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 174 (79.1%) of 220 patients with surgical infections. Four hundred and eleven strains were isolated from primary infections, and 244 strains were isolated from surgical site infection. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from surgical site infection aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from surgical site infection. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in this order, and from surgical site infection, E. coli was most predominantly isolated, followed by P. aeruginosa and E. cloacae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Eggerthella lenta was the highest from primary infections, followed by Parvimonas micra, Streptococcus constellatus and Finegoldia magna, and from surgical site infection, E. lenta was most predominantly isolated. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bilophila wadsworthia was the highest from primary infections, followed by Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and from surgical site infection, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by B. ovatus, B. wadsworthia and B. thetaiotaomicron, in this order. In this series, we noticed no vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive cocci, nor multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. We should carefully follow up B. wadsworthia which was resistant to various antibiotics, and also Bacteroides spp. which was resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:21861307

Shinagawa, Nagao; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Mizukuchi, Tohru; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitake; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Someya, Tetsufumi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oono, Keisuke; Mizuno, Isamu; Shamoto, Tomoya; Fukui, Takuji; Tokita, Shoji; Nakamura, Masashi; Mashita, Keiji; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Moritsugu; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Oshima, Hideki; Maeda, Hideki; Ishikawa, Syu; Mukaiya, Mitsuhiro; Kihara, Chikasi; Mizuno, Akira; Watabe, Kosho; Iwai, Akihiko; Saito, Takaaki; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Hitoshi; Moori, Noriaki; Sumita, Naoki; Jae-Hoon, Yoo; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Aikawa, Naoki; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Abe, Shinya; Oomura, Toru; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamaue, Hiroki; Ozawa, Satoru; Takesue, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Kimura, Hideyuki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Kouji; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Yasunami, Yoichi; Sasaki, Takamitsu

2011-06-01

358

[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents --special references to bacteria isolated between April 2008 and March 2009].  

PubMed

Bacteria isolated from infections in abdominal surgery during the period from April 2008 to March 2009 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 712 strains including 18 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 173 (80.5%) of 215 patients with surgical infections. Three hundred and sixty-six strains were isolated from primary infections, and 346 strains were isolated from postoperative infections. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from postoperative infections aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from postoperative infections. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in this order, and from postoperative infections, P aeruginosa was most predominantly isolated, followed by E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and K. pneumoniae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Eggerthella lenta was the highest from primary infections, followed by Parvimonas micra, Streptococcus constellatus and Gemella morbillorum, and from postoperative infections, E. lenta was most predominantly isolated. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bacteroides fragilis was the highest from primary infections, followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus and Bilophila wadsworthia, and from postoperative infections, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by B. thetaiotaomicron, B. wadsworthia and B. ovatus, in this order. In this series, we noticed no vancomycin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp., nor multidrug-resistant P aeruginosa. We should carefully follow up B. wadsworthia which was resistant to various antibiotics, and also Bacteroides spp. which was resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:20919496

Shinagawa, Nagao; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Mizukuchi, Tohru; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitaka; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Someya, Tetsufumi; Harada, Keisuke; Oono, Keisuke; Tokita, Shoji; Nakamura, Masashi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Oshima, Hideki; Maeda, Hideki; Mukaiya, Mitsuhiro; Kihara, Chikasi; Kosho, Watabe; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Yasuhide; Yae-Hoon, Yoo; Aikawa, Naoki; Abe, Shinya; Yura, Jiro; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Mizuno, Isamu; Fukui, Takuji; Mashita, Keiji; Ishikawa, Svu; Mizuno, Akira; Moori, Noriaki; Sumita, Naoki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeruj; Oomura, Toru; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamaue, Hiroki; Kawai, Manabu; Takesue, Yoshio; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kimura, Hideyuki; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ooge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Kouji; Yasunami, Yoichi; Ryu, Shinichiro

2010-04-01

359

Enhanced yields of iron-oxidizing bacteria by in situ electrochemical reduction of soluble iron in the growth medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical apparatus for culturing chemolithotrophic bacteria that respire aerobically on ferrous ions is described. Enhanced yields of the bacteria were achieved by the in situ electrochemical reduction of soluble iron in the growth medium. When subjected to a direct current of 30 A for 60 days, a 45-liter culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans grew from 6 x 10⁷ to 9.5

R. C. II Blake; G. T. Howard; S. McGinness

1994-01-01

360

Viability of bacteria in dental calculus - A microbiological study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was (1) To investigate the viability of bacteria within supragingival and subgingival calculus, (2) To examine motility of bacteria, and (3) To identify bacterial morphotypes in calculus. Materials and Methods: Supra and subgingival calculus were harvested from 30 subjects having clinical evidence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease and were divided into two groups. Samples from both groups were immediately transported to the Department of Microbiology for gram staining, acridine orange staining, bacterial culture and to the Department of Oral Pathology for dark field microscopy. Results: Gram staining revealed presence of bacteria within the samples.Dark field microscopic examination revealed presence of filamentous organisms, spirochetes, and motile short bacilli. Acridine orange fluorescent stain showed that the viable bacteria appeared apple green. Bacterial culture revealed presence of a variety of aerobic organisms. Conclusion: From the results, it appeared that viable bacteria were present within calculus especially within internal channels and lacunae.

Moolya, Nikesh N.; Thakur, Srinath; Ravindra, S.; Setty, Swati B.; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Hallikeri, Kaveri

2010-01-01

361

Effect of microwave pretreatment in presence of NaOH on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge.  

PubMed

This work experimentally determined the effect of microwave irradiation with NaOH pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge in semi-continuous mesophilic digesters at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15, 10, 7, and 5 days. The degree of substrate solubilization was 18 times higher in pretreated sludge (53.2%) than in raw sludge (3.0%). Removal efficiency of volatile solid in digesters fed with raw (control) and pretreated sludges (PD) decreased as HRT reduced. The highest relative improvement of properties compared with the control occurred at 5 day HRT. Improvements in biogas production compared with the control increased in the PD as HRT was reduced to 5 days (205% higher at 5 days). However, digested sludges in the control and PD increased capillary suction time compared with raw sludge. The results show that microwave irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment is effective in increasing mesophilic anaerobic biodegradability of sewage sludge. PMID:23376834

Jang, Joo-Hyun; Ahn, Johng-Hwa

2013-03-01

362

Occurrence and reactivation of viable but non-culturable E. coli in sewage sludge after mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The occurrence and reactivation of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli after different anaerobic digestions and the subsequent dewatering and storage were evaluated and compared. Culturable E. coli in digested sludge increased by two to four orders of magnitudes immediately after dewatering. However, counts of both the total and viable E. coli indicated that the increase of E. coli was attributed to its reactivation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. The VBNC pathogen incidences of thermophilic digestion were two to three orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, culturable E. coli in thermophilic, digested sludge after storage were one order of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Anaerobic digestion thus mainly alters the culturable state of pathogens rather than killing them; therefore the biological safety of digested sludge, especially temperature-phased anaerobic digestion, should be carefully assessed. PMID:24101245

Fu, Bo; Jiang, Qian; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, He

2014-02-01

363

High ratio of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis genes to chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in bacteria of humic lakes.  

PubMed

Recent studies highlight the diversity and significance of marine phototrophic microorganisms such as picocyanobacteria, phototrophic picoeukaryotes, and bacteriochlorophyll- and rhodopsin-holding phototrophic bacteria. To assess if freshwater ecosystems also harbor similar phototroph diversity, genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll were targeted to explore oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototroph composition in a wide range of lakes. Partial dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) and chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR) genes in bacteria of seven lakes with contrasting trophic statuses were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Out of 61 sequences encoding the L subunit of DPOR (L-DPOR), 22 clustered with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, whereas 39 L-DPOR sequences related to oxygenic phototrophs, like cyanobacteria, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clear separation of these freshwater L-DPOR genes as well as 11 COR gene sequences from their marine counterparts. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis of L-DPOR genes was used to characterize oxygenic aerobic and anoxygenic photosynthesizing populations in 20 lakes differing in physical and chemical characteristics. Significant differences in L-DPOR community composition were observed between dystrophic lakes and all other systems, where a higher proportion of genes affiliated with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was observed than in other systems. Our results reveal a significant diversity of phototrophic microorganisms in lakes and suggest niche partitioning of oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in these systems in response to trophic status and coupled differences in light regime. PMID:19801478

Eiler, Alexander; Beier, Sara; Säwström, Christin; Karlsson, Jan; Bertilsson, Stefan

2009-11-01

364

High Ratio of Bacteriochlorophyll Biosynthesis Genes to Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Genes in Bacteria of Humic Lakes ?  

PubMed Central

Recent studies highlight the diversity and significance of marine phototrophic microorganisms such as picocyanobacteria, phototrophic picoeukaryotes, and bacteriochlorophyll- and rhodopsin-holding phototrophic bacteria. To assess if freshwater ecosystems also harbor similar phototroph diversity, genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll were targeted to explore oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototroph composition in a wide range of lakes. Partial dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) and chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR) genes in bacteria of seven lakes with contrasting trophic statuses were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Out of 61 sequences encoding the L subunit of DPOR (L-DPOR), 22 clustered with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, whereas 39 L-DPOR sequences related to oxygenic phototrophs, like cyanobacteria, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clear separation of these freshwater L-DPOR genes as well as 11 COR gene sequences from their marine counterparts. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis of L-DPOR genes was used to characterize oxygenic aerobic and anoxygenic photosynthesizing populations in 20 lakes differing in physical and chemical characteristics. Significant differences in L-DPOR community composition were observed between dystrophic lakes and all other systems, where a higher proportion of genes affiliated with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was observed than in other systems. Our results reveal a significant diversity of phototrophic microorganisms in lakes and suggest niche partitioning of oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in these systems in response to trophic status and coupled differences in light regime.

Eiler, Alexander; Beier, Sara; Sawstrom, Christin; Karlsson, Jan; Bertilsson, Stefan

2009-01-01

365

New generic mathematical model for WWTP sludge digesters operating under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: Model building and experimental verification.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new mathematical model developed to reproduce the performance of a generic sludge digester working either under aerobic or anaerobic operational conditions. The digester has been modelled as two completely mixed tanks associated with gaseous and liquid volumes. The conversion model has been developed based on a plant wide modelling methodology (PWM) and comprises biochemical transformations, physicochemical reactions and thermodynamic considerations. The model predicts the reactor temperature and the temporary evolution of an extensive vector of model components which are completely defined in terms of elemental mass fractions (C, H, O, N and P) and charge density. Thus, the comprehensive definition of the model components guarantees the continuity of elemental mass and charge in all the model transformations and between any two systems defined by the model. The aim of the generic digester model is to overcome the problems that arise when trying to connect aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes working in series or to connect water and sludge lines in a WWTP. The modelling methodology used has allowed the systematic construction of the biochemical model which acts as an initial illustrative example of an application that has been experimentally verified. The variation of the temperature is also predicted based on a thermal dynamic model. Real data from four different facilities and a straightforward calibration have been used to successfully verify the model predictions in the cases of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion as well as autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD). The large amount of data from the full scale ATAD and the anaerobic digestion pilot plants, all of them working under different conditions, has allowed the validation of the model for that case study. PMID:19720390

de Gracia, M; Grau, P; Huete, E; Gómez, J; García-Heras, J L; Ayesa, E

2009-10-01

366

Comparison of the biodegradability of the grey fraction of municipal solid waste of Barcelona in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.  

PubMed

The results of the start-up of two digesters in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, together with its steady results at several organic loading rates are described. A kinetic study is also carried out which allows one to estimate the ultimate methane production, together with the first-order kinetic constant. Operation at thermophilic temperature yields better results as it allows a more loaded reactor and the methane production is slightly higher. PMID:14531418

Mace, S; Bolzonella, D; Cecchi, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

2003-01-01

367

Profile of hydrolases and biogas production during two-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion of solid potato waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two two-stage systems, one consisting of a solid-bed reactor for hydrolysis\\/acidification connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket methanogenic reactor, and the other consisting of a solid-bed reactor connected to a methanogenic reactor packed with wheat straw biofilm carriers, were investigated with regard to hydrolytic enzymes and methane production during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of solid potato waste. Some of the

W. Parawira; M. Murto; J. S. Read; B. Mattiasson

2005-01-01

368

Molecular characterization of mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate reducing microbial communities in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial communities established in mesophilic and thermophilic expanded granular sludge bed reactors operated with sulfate\\u000a as the electron acceptor were analyzed using 16S rRNA targeted molecular methods, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,\\u000a cloning, and phylogenetic analysis. Bacterial and archaeal communities were examined over 450 days of operation treating ethanol\\u000a (thermophilic reactor) or ethanol and later a simulated semiconductor manufacturing wastewater

Stephanie A. Freeman; Reyes Sierra-Alvarez; Mahmut Altinbas; Jeremy Hollingsworth; Alfons J. M. Stams; Hauke Smidt

2008-01-01

369

Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.  

PubMed

Three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (FORC) on cucumber. Two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (WDS) or vermicomposting (VMC) while the third, obtained from International Bio-Recovery (IBR), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. Three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at varying ratios, and seeded with cucumber cv. Corona. After 14 days of growth in the greenhouse, inoculum of FORC (20 mL of 5 x 10(6) micro-conidia per mL) was applied to each pot at three different times (14, 21, and 35 days). In unamended inoculated pots, the pathogen caused stunted growth and reduced flowers. Amendment of WDS in the potting mix suppressed these symptoms, while VMC and IBR had no effect. All three composts reduced the FORC colony forming units (cfu) at the end of the experiment (10 weeks). There was a large increase of fluorescent bacteria near the vicinity of roots particularly in WDS amended potting mixes. When water extracts of the composts were plated onto acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), only IBR contained a potent thermostable inhibitor to FORC. This inhibitor was removed by activated charcoal but was not partitioned into petroleum ether at acid, basic, or neutral pH. Inhibition of FORC by IBR was not due to electrical conductivity or trace elements in the compost. Contrasting effectiveness of the WDS and VMC made from the same waste suggests that composting method can influence the disease suppression properties of the finished compost. PMID:11109490

Kannangara, T; Utkhede, R S; Paul, J W; Punja, Z K

2000-11-01

370

Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions Select for Unique but Highly Parallel Microbial Communities to Perform Carboxylate Platform Biomass Conversion  

PubMed Central

The carboxylate platform is a flexible, cost-effective means of converting lignocellulosic materials into chemicals and liquid fuels. Although the platform's chemistry and engineering are well studied, relatively little is known about the mixed microbial communities underlying its conversion processes. In this study, we examined the metagenomes of two actively fermenting platform communities incubated under contrasting temperature conditions (mesophilic 40°C; thermophilic 55°C), but utilizing the same inoculum and lignocellulosic feedstock. Community composition segregated by temperature. The thermophilic community harbored genes affiliated with Clostridia, Bacilli, and a Thermoanaerobacterium sp, whereas the mesophilic community metagenome was composed of genes affiliated with other Clostridia and Bacilli, Bacteriodia, ?-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Although both communities were able to metabolize cellulosic materials and shared many core functions, significant differences were detected with respect to the abundances of multiple Pfams, COGs, and enzyme families. The mesophilic metagenome was enriched in genes related to the degradation of arabinose and other hemicellulose-derived oligosaccharides, and the production of valerate and caproate. In contrast, the thermophilic community was enriched in genes related to the uptake of cellobiose and the transfer of genetic material. Functions assigned to taxonomic bins indicated that multiple community members at either temperature had the potential to degrade cellulose, cellobiose, or xylose and produce acetate, ethanol, and propionate. The results of this study suggest that both metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy contribute to the platform's ability to process lignocellulosic substrates and are likely to provide a degree of stability to the platform's fermentation processes.

Hollister, Emily B.; Forrest, Andrea K.; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Ebbole, Daniel J.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Holtzapple, Mark T.; Gentry, Terry J.

2012-01-01

371

Comparative void-volume analysis of psychrophilic and mesophilic enzymes: Structural bioinformatics of psychrophilic enzymes reveals sources of core flexibility  

PubMed Central

Background Psychrophiles, cold-adapted organisms, have adapted to live at low temperatures by using a variety of mechanisms. Their enzymes are active at cold temperatures by being structurally more flexible than mesophilic enzymes. Even though, there are some indications of the possible structural mechanisms by which psychrophilic enzymes are catalytic active at cold temperatures, there is not a generalized structural property common to all psychrophilic enzymes. Results We examine twenty homologous enzyme pairs from psychrophiles and mesophiles to investigate flexibility as a key characteristic for cold adaptation. B-factors in protein X-ray structures are one way to measure flexibility. Comparing psychrophilic to mesophilic protein B-factors reveals that psychrophilic enzymes are more flexible in 5-turn and strand secondary structures. Enzyme cavities, identified using CASTp at various probe sizes, indicate that psychrophilic enzymes have larger average cavity sizes at probe radii of 1.4-1.5 Å, sufficient for water molecules. Furthermore, amino acid side chains lining these cavities show an increased frequency of acidic groups in psychrophilic enzymes. Conclusions These findings suggest that embedded water molecules may play a significant role in cavity flexibility, and therefore, overall protein flexibility. Thus, our results point to the important role enzyme flexibility plays in adaptation to cold environments.

2011-01-01

372

Fate of selected emerging micropollutants during mesophilic, thermophilic and temperature co-phased anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was studied in three lab-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) systems; a single-stage mesophilic, a single-stage thermophilic and a two-stage thermophilic/mesophilic. All micropollutants underwent microbial degradation. High removal efficiency (>80%) was calculated for diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen; whereas triclosan, bisphenol A and the sum of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate were moderately removed (40-80%). NSAIDs removal was not affected by the type of AD system used; whereas slightly higher EDCs removal was observed in two-stage system. In this system, most microcontaminants were removed in thermophilic digester. Biotransformation of NP1EO and NP was affected by the temperature applied to bioreactors. Under mesophilic conditions, higher removal of NP1EO and accumulation of NP was noticed; whereas the opposite was observed under thermophilic conditions. For most analytes, higher specific removal rates were calculated under thermophilic conditions and 20 days SRT. PMID:24768891

Samaras, Vasilios G; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Mamais, Daniel; Lekkas, Themistokles D

2014-06-01

373

Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene without auxiliary substrates.  

PubMed

Trichloroethene (TCE) represents a priority pollutant and is among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater. The current bioremediation measures have certain drawbacks like e.g. the need for auxiliary substrates. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TCE as the sole growth substrate is demonstrated. This new process of metabolic TCE degradation was first detected in groundwater samples. TCE degradation was stable in an enriched mixed bacterial culture in mineral salts medium for over five years and repeated transfers of the culture resulting in a 10(10) times dilution of the original groundwater. Aerobic TCE degradation resulted in stoichiometric chloride formation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation was observed providing a reliable analytical tool to assess this new biodegradation process at field sites. The results suggest that aerobic biodegradation of TCE without auxiliary substrate could be considered as an option for natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:24793109

Schmidt, Kathrin R; Gaza, Sarah; Voropaev, Andrey; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

2014-08-01

374

Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API(®) strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

2013-12-01

375

Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API® strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder.

Hillion, Melanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

2013-01-01

376

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentations during the production of sour cassava starch in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sour cassava starch is a traditional fermented food used in the preparation of fried foods and baked goods such as traditional cheese breads in Brazil. Thirty samples of sour cassava starch were collected from two factories in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Bacillus cereus and faecal coliforms. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolates were identified by biochemical tests, and the identities were confirmed by molecular methods. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were the prevalent lactic acid bacteria in product from both factories, at numbers between 6.0 and 9.0 log cfu g(-)(1). Lactobacillus perolans and Lactobacillus brevis were minor fractions of the population. Galactomyces geothricum and Issatchenkia sp. were the prevalent yeasts at numbers of 5.0 log cfu g(-)(1). A species similar to Candida ethanolica was frequently isolated from one factory. Mesophilic bacteria and amylolytic microorganisms were recovered in high numbers at all stages of the fermentation. B. cereus was found at low numbers in product at both factories. The spontaneous fermentations associated with the production of sour cassava starch involve a few species of lactic acid bacteria at high numbers and a variety of yeasts at relatively low numbers. PMID:16153731

Lacerda, Inayara C A; Miranda, Rose L; Borelli, Beatriz M; Nunes, Alvaro C; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2005-11-25

377

Could bacterial vaginosis be due to the competitive suppression of lactobacilli by aerobic microorganisms?  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by lack of lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic species. Ciprofloxacin is active against a great number of aerobic bacteria. The effect of ciprofloxacin on the vaginal microbial flora was studied both in healthy subjects and in patients with BV in order to test if BV may be due to competitive suppression of lactobacilli by aerobic species. About half of the patients were relieved of their symptoms. No adverse effects on the microbial profile or colonization by lactobacilli were produced by the drug. Lactobacilli known to be able to produce hydrogen peroxide were found to be significantly more common in healthy women than in women with BV. The species most frequently related to vaginal health were Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus rogosae. PMID:1559624

Fredricsson, B; Englund, K; Nord, C E; Weintraub, L

1992-01-01

378

Isolation of an aerobic sulfur oxidizer from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade  

PubMed Central

Bacteria from the uncultured SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade of gamma proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers (GSOs) have the genetic potential to oxidize reduced sulfur and fix carbon in the tissues of clams and mussels, in oxygen minimum zones and throughout the deep ocean (>200?m). Here, we report isolation of the first cultured representative from this GSO clade. Closely related cultures were obtained from surface waters in Puget Sound and from the deep chlorophyll maximum in the North Pacific gyre. Pure cultures grow aerobically on natural seawater media, oxidize sulfur, and reach higher final cell densities when glucose and thiosulfate are added to the media. This suggests that aerobic sulfur oxidation enhances organic carbon utilization in the oceans. The first isolate from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade was given the provisional taxonomic assignment ‘Candidatus: Thioglobus singularis', alluding to the clade's known role in sulfur oxidation and the isolate's planktonic lifestyle.

Marshall, Katharine T; Morris, Robert M

2013-01-01

379

Isolation of an aerobic sulfur oxidizer from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade.  

PubMed

Bacteria from the uncultured SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade of gamma proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers (GSOs) have the genetic potential to oxidize reduced sulfur and fix carbon in the tissues of clams and mussels, in oxygen minimum zones and throughout the deep ocean (>200?m). Here, we report isolation of the first cultured representative from this GSO clade. Closely related cultures were obtained from surface waters in Puget Sound and from the deep chlorophyll maximum in the North Pacific gyre. Pure cultures grow aerobically on natural seawater media, oxidize sulfur, and reach higher final cell densities when glucose and thiosulfate are added to the media. This suggests that aerobic sulfur oxidation enhances organic carbon utilization in the oceans. The first isolate from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade was given the provisional taxonomic assignment 'Candidatus: Thioglobus singularis', alluding to the clade's known role in sulfur oxidation and the isolate's planktonic lifestyle. PMID:22875135

Marshall, Katharine T; Morris, Robert M

2013-02-01

380

Disintegration of aerobic granules: role of second messenger cyclic di-GMP.  

PubMed

Loss of structural stability of aerobic granular process is the challenge for its field applications to treat wastewaters. The second messenger, cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), is widely used by bacteria to regulate the synthesis of exopolysaccharide. This study for the first time confirmed the correlation between concentration of intracellular c-di-GMP and the granular stability under sequencing batch reactor (MBR) mode. In the presence of manganese ions (Mn(2+)), the concentrations of intracellular c-di-GMP and of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins in granules were declined. Clone library study revealed that the polysaccharide producers. Acinetobacter sp., Thauera sp., Bdellovibrio sp. and Paracoccus sp. were lost after Mn(2+) addition. The findings reported herein confirmed that the c-di-GMP is a key chemical factor epistatic to quorum sensing to determine granular stability. Stimulation of synthesis of intracellular c-di-GMP presents a potential way to enhance long-term stability of aerobic granules. PMID:23948271

Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Liu, Xiang; Sun, Supu; Pan, Xiangliang

2013-10-01

381

Application of aerobic respirometry: studies on the impact of humate on biological treatment of municipal sewage.  

PubMed

This paper describes an application of aerobic respirometry to investigate the influence of humic matter (humate) on biological processes in dilution water and in municipal sewage. Standard product PolySeed, a consortium of bacteria considered to be representative of those found in an activated sludge, was used as a source of biomass. The results indicate that aerobic respirometry is a simple and convenient method for studies of biological processes. It was observed that an addition of humate at doses up to 2000 mg 1(-1) stimulated biological processes both in dilution water and in sewage. Also, it was found that humate is effective in suppressing an inhibitory effect of phenol and copper on the biomass. The results of the studies suggest than the application of humate has great potential in wastewater treatment, as it can serve as a source of additives, stimulating biological activity and removing toxic inhibitors of biological processes. PMID:18702290

Lipczynska-Kochany, E; Kochany, J

2008-06-01

382

A new cold-adapted, organic solvent stable lipase from mesophilic Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2.  

PubMed

The gene encoding a cold-adapted, organic solvent stable lipase from a local soil-isolate, mesophilic Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2 was expressed in a prokaryotic system. A two-step purification of AT2 lipase was achieved using butyl sepharose and DEAE sepharose column chromatography. The final recovery and purification fold were 47.09 % and 3.45, respectively. The molecular mass of the purified lipase was estimated to be 43 kDa. AT2 lipase was found to be optimally active at pH 8 and stable at pH 6-9. Interestingly, this enzyme demonstrated remarkable stability at cold temperature (<30 °C) and exhibited optimal activity at a temperature of 25 °C. A significant enhancement of the lipolytic activity was observed in the presence of Ca(2+), Tween 60 and Tween 80. Phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, a well known serine inhibitor did not cause complete inhibition of the enzymatic activity. AT2 lipase exhibited excellent preferences towards long chain triglycerides and natural oils. The lipolytic activity was stimulated by dimethylsulfoxide and diethyl ether, while more than 50 % of its activity was retained in methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, and n-hexane. Taken together, AT2 lipase revealed highly attractive biochemical properties especially because of its stability at low temperature and in organic solvents. PMID:24777627

Kamarudin, Nor Hafizah Ahmad; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Leow, Thean Chor; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar

2014-06-01

383

Improvement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of agri-food waste by addition of glycerol.  

PubMed

Anaerobic co-digestion is a promising alternative to manage agri-food waste rather than landfilling, composting or incineration. But improvement of methane yield and biodegradability is often required to optimize its economic viability. Biomethanization of agri-food solid waste presents the disadvantage of a slow hydrolytic phase, which might be enhanced by adding a readily digestible substrate such as glycerol. In this study, strawberry extrudate, fish waste and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing are mixed at a proportion of 54:5:41, in VS (VS, total volatile solids), respectively. The mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion at lab-scale of the mixture was stable at loads lower than 1.85 g VS/L, reaching a methane yield coefficient of 308 L CH4/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm) and a biodegradability of 96.7%, in VS. Moreover, the treatment capacity of strawberry and fish waste was increased 16% at adding the crude glycerol. An economic assessment was also carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed process. Even in a pessimistic scenario, the net balance was found to be positive. The glycerol adding implied a net saving in a range from 25.5 to 42.1 €/t if compared to landfill disposal. PMID:24726968

Serrano, Antonio; Siles, Jose A; Chica, Arturo F; Martin, M Angeles

2014-07-01

384

Isolation and Characterization of Methanomicrobium paynteri sp. nov., a Mesophilic Methanogen Isolated from Marine Sediments †  

PubMed Central

A new mesophilic methanogenic bacterial species isolated from marine sediments collected in the Cayman Islands is described. Cells are small rods occuring singly without filaments, are not motile, and do not possess flagella. Colonies are semitransparent and off-white in color. After 2 weeks of incubation at 37°C colonies are 1 to 2 mm in size, circular, and have entire edges. Only hydrogen-carbon dioxide is a substrate for growth and methane formation. Cells can tolerate a variety of organic secondary buffers (bicarbonate-CO2 being the primary buffer). Cells do not require yeast extract or Trypticase, but do require acetate, for growth. The optimum growth temperature is 40°C. The optimum sodium concentration is 0.15 M. The optimum pH for growth is 7.0. The minimum generation time is 4.8 h. The DNA base composition is 44.9 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The name Methanomicrobium paynteri is proposed in honor of M. J. B. Paynter. The type strain is G-2000 (=ATCC 33997, =DSM 2545). Images

Rivard, Christopher J.; Henson, J. Michael; Thomas, Michael V.; Smith, Paul H.

1983-01-01

385

Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.  

PubMed

The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones. PMID:17578635

Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

2007-08-01

386

Ethanol inducible expression of a mesophilic cellulase avoids adverse effects on plant development  

PubMed Central

Background Plant-produced biomass-degrading enzymes are promising tools for the processing of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. A major limitation of in planta production is that high-level expression of such enzymes could potentially affect the structure and integrity of the plant cell wall and negatively influence plant growth and development. Results Here, we evaluate the impact on tobacco plant development of constitutive versus alcohol-inducible expression of the endoglucanase TrCel5A from the mesophilic fungus Trichoderma reesei. Using this system, we are able to demonstrate that constitutive expression of the enzyme, controlled by the doubled Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter, leads to lower cellulose content of the plant combined with severe effects on plant growth. However, using an alcohol-inducible expression of the endoglucanase in the plant leaves, we achieved similar enzymatic expression levels with no changes in the crystalline cellulose content. Conclusion We were able to produce significant amounts of cellulase in the plant leaves without detrimental effects to plant development. These results demonstrate the potential feasibility of an inducible expression system for producing biomass degrading enzymes in plants.

2013-01-01

387

Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on sludge dewaterability and extracellular polymeric substances distribution in mesophilic anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on sludge dewaterability was determined and the fate of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix in mesophilic anaerobic digestion after ultrasonic pretreatment was studied. Characteristics of proteins (PN), polysaccharides (PS), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution of dissolved organic matters (DOM) in different EPS fractions were evaluated. The results showed that after ultrasonic pretreatment, the normalized capillary suction time (CST) decreased from 44.4 to 11.1 (sec x L)/g total suspended solids (TSS) during anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved. The normalized CST was significantly correlated with PN concentration (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.01) and the PN/PS ratio (R2 = 0.84, p < 0.01) in the loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) fraction. Meanwhile, the average MW of DOM in the LB-EPS and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) fractions also had a good correlation with the normalized CST (R2 > 0.66, p < 0.01). According to EEM fluorescence spectroscopy, tryptophan-like substances intensities in the slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS fractions were correlated with the normalized CST. The organic matters in the EPS matrix played an important role in influencing sludge dewaterability. PMID:20614793

Shao, Liming; Wang, Guanzhao; Xu, Huacheng; Yu, Guanghui; He, Pinjing

2010-01-01

388

Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors. PMID:21481437

Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

2011-06-01

389

Keratinolytic activity of Bacillus megaterium F7-1, a feather-degrading mesophilic bacterium.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate environmental conditions affecting chicken feather degradation and keratinolytic enzyme production by Bacillus megaterium F7-1, a feather-degrading mesophilic bacterium. B. megaterium F7-1 degraded whole chicken feather completely within 7 days. The bacterium grew with an optimum at pH 7.0-11.0 and 25-40 degrees C, where maximum keratinolytic activity was also observed. The production of keratinolytic enzyme by B. megaterium F7-1 was inducible with feather. Keratinolytic enzyme production by B. megaterium F7-1 at 0.6% (w/v) skim milk was 468U/ml, which was about 9.4-fold higher than that without skim milk. The amount of keratinolytic enzyme production depended on feather concentrations. The degradation rate of autoclaved chicken feathers by cell-free culture supernatant was 26% after 24h of incubation, but the degradation of untreated chicken feathers was unsuccessful. B. megaterium F7-1 effectively degraded feather meal, duck feather and human nail, whereas human hair and sheep wool showed relatively low degradation rates. B. megaterium F7-1 presented high keratinolytic activity and was very effective in feather degradation, providing potential use for biotechnological processes of keratin hydrolysis. PMID:17459685

Park, Geun-Tae; Son, Hong-Joo

2009-01-01

390

Comparison of Protein-water Interactions in Psychrophilic, Mesophilic, and Thermophilic Fe-SOD.  

PubMed

Iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) can eliminate superoxide anion radicals and is widely used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foodstuff. It's significant to determine the factors that influence Fe-SOD thermostability. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between the structural parameters and thermostability of Fe-SOD while the contribution of water molecules was overlooked. In this study, we examined the relationship between hydration waters and Fe-SOD thermostability. The Voronoi polyhedra method was used to explore the distribution of hydration waters around the Fe-SODs and it was interesting to find that the distribution of hydration waters is related to the B-factor of amino acids, i.e., the flexibility of residues can affect the distribution of waters. Protein-water and water-water hydrogen bonds were examined. We found that the hydrogen bond density in thermophilic Fe-SOD was higher than that in mesophilic Fe- SOD. In addition, larger hydrogen bond networks that involve more waters covered the thermophilic Fe-SOD. PMID:24410726

Mou, Zhaolin; Ding, Yanrui; Wang, Xueqin; Cai, Yujie

2014-06-01

391

Crystal structures of virus-like photosystem I complexes from the mesophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Oxygenic photosynthesis supports virtually all life forms on earth. Light energy is converted by two photosystems—photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). Globally, nearly 50% of photosynthesis takes place in the Ocean, where single cell cyanobacteria and algae reside together with their viruses. An operon encoding PSI was identified in cyanobacterial marine viruses. We generated a PSI that mimics the salient features of the viral complex, named PSIPsaJF. PSIPsaJF is promiscuous for its electron donors and can accept electrons from respiratory cytochromes. We solved the structure of PSIPsaJF and a monomeric PSI, with subunit composition similar to the viral PSI, providing for the first time a detailed description of the reaction center and antenna system from mesophilic cyanobacteria, including red chlorophylls and cofactors of the electron transport chain. Our finding extends the understanding of PSI structure, function and evolution and suggests a unique function for the viral PSI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01496.001

Mazor, Yuval; Nataf, Daniel; Toporik, Hila; Nelson, Nathan

2014-01-01

392

The Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase from the Mesophilic Bacterium Halothiobacillus neapolitanus Is a Highly Active Thermozyme  

PubMed Central

A biochemical, biophysical, and phylogenetic study of the sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) from the mesophilic gammaproteobacterium Halothiobacillus neapolitanus (HnSOR) was performed in order to determine the structural and biochemical properties of the enzyme. SOR proteins from 14 predominantly chemolithoautotrophic bacterial and archaeal species are currently available in public databases. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that they form a coherent protein family. The HnSOR purified from Escherichia coli after heterologous gene expression had a temperature range of activity of 10 to 99°C with an optimum at 80°C (42 U/mg protein). Sulfite, thiosulfate, and hydrogen sulfide were formed at various stoichiometries in a range between pH 5.4 and 11 (optimum pH 8.4). Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the HnSOR adopts secondary and quaternary structures similar to those of the 24-subunit enzyme from the hyperthermophile Acidianus ambivalens (AaSOR). The melting point of the HnSOR was ?20°C lower than that of the AaSOR, when analyzed with CD-monitored thermal unfolding. Homology modeling showed that the secondary structure elements of single subunits are conserved. Subtle changes in the pores of the outer shell and increased flexibility might contribute to activity at low temperature. We concluded that the thermostability was the result of a rigid protein core together with the stabilizing effect of the 24-subunit hollow sphere.

Veith, Andreas; Botelho, Hugo M.; Kindinger, Florian; Gomes, Claudio M.

2012-01-01

393

Identity and lipase productivity of a mesophilic actinomycete isolated from Egyptian soil.  

PubMed

1. A mesophilic lipolytic actinomycete was isolated from Egyptian soil and was identified as a strain of Streptomyces flavogriseus. 2. Lipase(s) produced by S. flavogriseus is (at least partly) constitutive in its (their) nature and can be produced in the absence of lipids, however, its production is stimulated in their presence. 3. S. flavogriseus was unable to grow at 40 degrees C or higher temperatures. However, lipase(s) produced at lower temperatures (e.g. 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C) were more active at 45 and 55 degrees C. This is probably due to the presence of a heat sensitive lipase inhibitor in the culture filtrate. 4. Optimum conditions for lipase(s) production by S. flavoriseus are pH 6.8, incubation for 48-72 hours at 35 degrees C with 0.8% castor oil as the carbon source in Dox liquid medium supplemented with 0.3% yeast extract. 5. Factors supporting good growth were not always the same as those stimulating lipase(s) production. PMID:44598

Mostafa, S A; Ali, O A

1979-01-01

394

Mesophilic anaerobic digestion: first option for waste treatment in tropical regions.  

PubMed

Rural India derives its energy needs for cooking and heating through the use of fuel wood and for lighting and agricultural operations through kerosene and diesel. Use of fuel wood has aggravated the problem of de-forestation, while availability of kerosene and diesel cannot be guaranteed due to corrupt practices in the public distribution systems. In contrast, urban India derives its energy needs through LPG cylinders, petrol, and electricity. However, their cost and uncertainty rendered them beyond the reach of lower income population. This scenario is more or less true with many developing countries. To meet these objectives, biogas generation from biodegradable waste using anaerobic digestion (AD) appears to be a sustainable avenue as it could be used for (a) water and space heating of farmhouses, animal shelters, (b) generating steam for food processing plants, and (c) electricity generation, in addition to reducing the pollution/hazard potential of these wastes. Many of the underdeveloped and developing countries are in the temperate zone and thus mesophilic AD could provide a desired pathway to achieve a long delayed need of energy for comfortable living, farming, and industrial operations. Efforts made in this direction are reviewed in the present article. PMID:20515367

Suryawanshi, P C; Chaudhari, A B; Kothari, R M

2010-12-01

395

Effect of chitosan on UASB treating POME during a transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of chitosan addition on treatment of palm oil mill effluent were investigated using two lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors: (1) with chitosan addition at the dosage of 2 mg chitosan per g volatile suspended solids on the first day of the operation (R1), (2) without chitosan addition (the control, R2). The reactors were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sludge which was acclimatized to a thermophilic condition with a stepwise temperature increase of 5 °C from 37 to 57 °C. The OLR ranged from 2.23 to 9.47 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). The difference in biogas production rate increased from non-significant to 18% different. The effluent volatile suspended solids of R1 was 65 mg l(-1) lower than that of R2 on Day 123. 16S rRNA targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of microbial community indicated that some methanogens in the genus Methanosaeta can be detected in R1 but not in R2. PMID:21316949

Khemkhao, Maneerat; Nuntakumjorn, Boonyarit; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

2011-04-01

396

Interactive effects of hypobaria, low temperature, and CO 2 atmospheres inhibit the growth of mesophilic Bacillus spp. under simulated martian conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robotic spacecraft are launched with finite levels of terrestrial microorganisms that are similar to the microbial communities within facilities in which spacecraft are assembled. In particular, spores of mesophilic aerobic Bacillus species are common spacecraft contaminants considered most likely to survive interplanetary transfer to Mars. During the cruise phase to Mars, and then again during surface operations, microbial bioloads are exposed to a diversity of biocidal factors that are likely to render the microbial species either dead or significantly inhibited from active metabolic activity and replication. We report here, for the first time, that interactive effects of low pressure, low temperature, and high CO 2 atmospheres approaching conditions likely to be encountered on the martian surface strongly inhibit the growth and replication of seven common Bacillus spp. isolated from spacecraft. Tests were conducted within a small glass bell-jar system maintained in a low-temperature microbial incubator. Atmospheric pressures were controlled at 1013 (Earth-normal), 100, 50, 35, 25, or 15 mb, and temperatures were maintained at 30, 20, 15, 10, or 5 °C. Experiments were carried out for 48 h or 7 days under either Earth-normal O 2/N 2 or pure CO 2 atmospheres. Results indicated that low pressure, low temperature, and high CO 2 atmospheres, applied separately or in combination, were capable of inhibiting the growth and replication of B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. pumilus FO-36B, B. subtilis HA-101, B. subtilis 42HS-1, B. megaterium KL-197, B. licheniformis KL-196, and B. nealsonii FO-092 under simulated martian conditions. Endospores of all seven Bacillus spp. strains failed to germinate and grow at 25 mb at 30 °C. Although, vegetative cells of these strains exhibited a slightly greater ability to replicate at lower pressures than did endospores, vegetative cells of these species failed to grow at pressures below 25 mb. Interactive effects of these environmental parameters acted to generally increase the inhibitory nature of the low-pressure conditions on growth and replication of the seven Bacillus spp. tested.

Schuerger, Andrew C.; Nicholson, Wayne L.

2006-11-01

397

A biomimetic catalytic aerobic functionalization of phenols.  

PubMed

The importance of aromatic C?O, C?N, and C?S bonds necessitates increasingly efficient strategies for their formation. Herein, we report a biomimetic approach that converts phenolic C?H bonds into C?O, C?N, and C?S bonds at the sole expense of reducing dioxygen (O2 ) to water (H2 O). Our method hinges on a regio- and chemoselective copper-catalyzed aerobic oxygenation to provide ortho-quinones. ortho-Quinones are versatile intermediates, whose direct catalytic aerobic synthesis from phenols enables a mild and efficient means of synthesizing polyfunctional aromatic rings. PMID:24753261

Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Lumb, Jean-Philip

2014-06-01

398

Influence of light on carbon utilization in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs.  

PubMed

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs contain photosynthetic reaction centers composed of bacteriochlorophyll. These organisms are photoheterotrophs, as they require organic carbon substrates for their growth whereas light-derived energy has only an auxiliary function. To establish the contribution of light energy to their metabolism, we grew the phototrophic strain Erythrobacter sp. NAP1 in a carbon-limited chemostat regimen on defined carbon sources (glutamate, pyruvate, acetate, and glucose) under conditions of different light intensities. When grown in a light-dark cycle, these bacteria accumulated 25% to 110% more biomass in terms of carbon than cultures grown in the dark. Cultures grown on glutamate accumulated the most biomass at moderate light intensities of 50 to 150 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) but were inhibited at higher light intensities. In the case of pyruvate, we did not find any inhibition of growth by high irradiance. The extent of anaplerotic carbon fixation was detemined by radioactive bicarbonate incorporation assays. While the carboxylation activity provided 4% to 11% of the cellular carbon in the pyruvate-grown culture, in the glutamate-grown cells it provided only approximately 1% of the carbon. Additionally, we tested the effect of light on respiration and photosynthetic electron flow. With increasing light intensity, respiration decreased to approximately 25% of its dark value and was replaced by photophosphorylation. The additional energy from light allows the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs to accumulate the supplied organic carbon which would otherwise be respired. The higher efficiency of organic carbon utilization may provide an important competitive advantage during growth under carbon-limited conditions. PMID:22885759

Hauruseu, Dzmitry; Koblížek, Michal

2012-10-01

399

Influence of Light on Carbon Utilization in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs  

PubMed Central

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs contain photosynthetic reaction centers composed of bacteriochlorophyll. These organisms are photoheterotrophs, as they require organic carbon substrates for their growth whereas light-derived energy has only an auxiliary function. To establish the contribution of light energy to their metabolism, we grew the phototrophic strain Erythrobacter sp. NAP1 in a carbon-limited chemostat regimen on defined carbon sources (glutamate, pyruvate, acetate, and glucose) under conditions of different light intensities. When grown in a light-dark cycle, these bacteria accumulated 25% to 110% more biomass in terms of carbon than cultures grown in the dark. Cultures grown on glutamate accumulated the most biomass at moderate light intensities of 50 to 150 ?mol m?2 s?1 but were inhibited at higher light intensities. In the case of pyruvate, we did not find any inhibition of growth by high irradiance. The extent of anaplerotic carbon fixation was detemined by radioactive bicarbonate incorporation assays. While the carboxylation activity provided 4% to 11% of the cellular carbon in the pyruvate-grown culture, in the glutamate-grown cells it provided only approximately 1% of the carbon. Additionally, we tested the effect of light on respiration and photosynthetic electron flow. With increasing light intensity, respiration decreased to approximately 25% of its dark value and was replaced by photophosphorylation. The additional energy from light allows the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs to accumulate the supplied organic carbon which would otherwise be respired. The higher efficiency of organic carbon utilization may provide an important competitive advantage during growth under carbon-limited conditions.

Hauruseu, Dzmitry

2012-01-01

400

ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

401

Influence of hydraulic retention time on partial nitrification of continuous-flow aerobic granular-sludge reactor.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 12 h, 7.2 h and 2.4 h on partial nitrification efficiency of continuous-flow aerobic granular reactors (CFAGRs) with mature aerobic granules (500 +/- 20mg l-1). At HRT 12 h and 7.2h, the removal efficiency of both ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ - N) and nitrite accumulation rate were exceeding 90%. At HRT 2.4 h, NH4+ - N removal efficiency was reduced but most of the conversion efficiency to nitrite was only slightly reduced. At HRT < 2.4 h, washout of aerobic granules occurred. In all tests conducted herein, the chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The clone library results noted the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria belonged to beta-Proteobacteria subclass, including 94% of Nitrosomonas europaea and 6% of Nitrosomonas sp. The polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results suggested that Alpha proteobacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana strain, Sphaerotilus natans and Uncultured gamma proteobacterium were responsible for the aerobic granular stability and processing performance. The present CFAGR successfully implemented continuous partial nitrification using aerobic granules at low HRT. PMID:24956768

Wan, Chunli; Yang, Xue; Lee, Duu-Jong; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Peng

2014-08-01

402

Phylogenetic analysis of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: aid for their reclassification.  

PubMed Central

Small subunit rDNA sequences were determined for 20 species of the genera Acetogenium, Clostridium, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobium, and Thermobacteroides, 3 non-validly described species, and 5 isolates of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria, providing a basis for a phylogenetic analysis of these organisms. Several species contain a version of the molecule significantly longer than that of Escherichia coli because of the presence of inserts. On the basis of normal evolutionary distances, the phylogenetic tree indicates that all bacteria investigated in this study with a maximum growth temperature above 65 degrees C form a supercluster within the subphylum of gram-positive bacteria that also contains Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermoaceticum, which have been previously sequenced. This supercluster appears to be equivalent in its phylogenetic depth to the supercluster of mesophilic clostridia and their nonspore-forming relatives. Several phylogenetically and phenotypically coherent clusters that are defined by sets of signature nucleotides emerge within the supercluster of thermophiles. Clostridium thermobutyricum and Clostridium thermopalmarium are members of Clostridium group I. A phylogenetic tree derived from transversion distances demonstrated the artificial clustering of some organisms with high rDNA G+C moles percent, i.e., Clostridium fervidus and the thermophilic, cellulolytic members of the genus Clostridium. The results of this study can be used as an aid for future taxonomic restructuring of anaerobic sporogenous and asporogenous thermophillic, gram-positive bacteria.

Rainey, F A; Ward, N L; Morgan, H W; Toalster, R; Stackebrandt, E

1993-01-01

403

AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

404

Aerobic treatment of wine-distillery wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste from food-processing and allied industries is largely made up of organic compounds which can be metabolised by aerobic or anaerobic means (Lora and Mir6 1978). However, these wastes present a series of problems to biological deputation plants, such as the need for prior treatment to establish conditions suitable for the development of the microorganisms responsible for the process; and

D. Sales; M. J. Valcárcel; L. Pérez; E. Martinez de la Ossa

1987-01-01

405

Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

406

Akt stimulates aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Cancer cells frequently display high rates of aerobic glycolysis in comparison to their nontransformed counterparts, although the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains poorly understood. Constitutive activity of the serine/threonine kinase Akt is a common perturbation observed in malignant cells. Surprisingly, although Akt activity is sufficient to promote leukemogenesis in nontransformed hematopoietic precursors and maintenance of Akt activity was required for rapid disease progression, the expression of activated Akt did not increase the proliferation of the premalignant or malignant cells in culture. However, Akt stimulated glucose consumption in transformed cells without affecting the rate of oxidative phosphorylation. High rates of aerobic glycolysis were also identified in human glioblastoma cells possessing but not those lacking constitutive Akt activity. Akt-expressing cells were more susceptible than control cells to death after glucose withdrawal. These data suggest that activation of the Akt oncogene is sufficient to stimulate the switch to aerobic glycolysis characteristic of cancer cells and that Akt activity renders cancer cells dependent on aerobic glycolysis for continued growth and survival. PMID:15172999

Elstrom, Rebecca L; Bauer, Daniel E; Buzzai, Monica; Karnauskas, Robyn; Harris, Marian H; Plas, David R; Zhuang, Hongming; Cinalli, Ryan M; Alavi, Abass; Rudin, Charles M; Thompson, Craig B

2004-06-01

407

Aerobic Dance Injuries among Instructors and Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of aerobic dance injuries among 800 students and 161 instructors in Japan indicate that most injuries seem to be caused by overuse. Lower leg injuries were most common among instructors, while foot injuries were most common among students. (IAH)

Mutoh, Yoshiteru; And Others

1988-01-01

408

p53, Aerobic Metabolism, and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract p53 regulates the cell cycle and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair pathways as part of its unequivocally important function to maintain genomic stability. Intriguingly, recent studies show that p53 can also transactivate genes involved in coordinating the two major pathways of energy generation to promote aerobic metabolism, but how this serves to maintain genomic stability is less clear. In an attempt to understand the biology, this review presents human epidemiologic data on the inverse relationship between aerobic capacity and cancer incidence that appears to be mirrored by the impact of p53 on aerobic capacity in mouse models. The review summarizes mechanisms by which p53 regulates mitochondrial respiration and proposes how this might contribute to maintaining genomic stability. Although disparate in nature, the data taken together suggest that the promotion of aerobic metabolism by p53 serves as an important tumor suppressor activity and may provide insights for cancer prevention strategies in the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1739–1748.

Lago, Cory U.; Sung, Ho Joong; Ma, Wenzhe; Wang, Ping-yuan

2011-01-01

409

Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.  

PubMed

Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

2014-03-01

410

Pre-thickened aerobic digester system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An aerobic treatment process is operated to reduce overall oxygen requirements, to maintain general pH balance and to produce a low-coliform solids effluent. From the system's clarifier a slurry of concentrated solids is moved to a premix basin, where the slurry is vigorously aerated for a sufficient time to raise microbial activity and dissolved oxygen content. The aerated, microbially active sludge is then moved to a gravity thickener basin, in which solids are allowed to settle to the bottom without aeration, to establish a quiescent state in the settled sludge and also an anoxic stage. This causes the sludge to be denitrified by microbial action, raising and stabilizing the pH of the sludge. Separated supernatant liquid is decanted and removed from the gravity thickener. The sludge is moved into an aerobic digester, where the sludge is aerated and nitrification occurs but using less aeration than normally required in a digester, due to the effect of anoxic/aerobic phases. A portion of the slurry in the aerobic digester basin is recycled back to the premix basin. Another important aspect is the use of two digesters, only one in loop with the premix and thickener at any one time, with each digester being taken out of the loop and isolated when a solids content of about 25,000 to 35,000 mg/L (21/2% to 3.5%) is achieved in that digester. The isolation results in a significantly lowered coliform content in the effluent sludge.

1999-10-26

411

Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT  

SciTech Connect

Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-12-31

412

1,1,2,2Tetrachloroethane aerobic cometabolic biodegradation in slurry and soil-free bioreactors: A kinetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA) by propane-utilizing bacteria was studied in slurry bioreactors containing soil and groundwater from 5 aquifers as well as in soil-free bioreactors. The main goals were: (a) to identify and calibrate a kinetic model of TeCA cometabolism; (b) to select and characterize a TeCA-degrading bacterial consortium; (c) to compare the results

Dario Frascari; Martina Cappelletti; Stefano Fedi; Davide Zannoni; Massimo Nocentini; Davide Pinelli

2010-01-01

413

Alleviating soil sickness caused by aerobic monocropping: responses of aerobic rice to soil oven-heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Aerobic rice” system is the cultivation of nutrient-responsive cultivars in nonflooded and nonsaturated soil under supplemental\\u000a irrigation. It is intended for lowland areas with water shortage and for favorable upland areas with access to supplementary\\u000a irrigation. Yield decline caused by soil sickness has been reported with continuous monocropping of aerobic rice grown under\\u000a nonflooded conditions. The objective of this study

Lixiao Nie; Shaobing Peng; Bas A. M. Bouman; Jianliang Huang; Kehui Cui; Romeo M. Visperas; Hong-Kyu Park

2007-01-01

414

Jania rubens-associated bacteria: molecular identification and antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine macroalgae surfaces constitute suitable\\u000asubstrata for bacterial colonization which are known to\\u000aproduce bioactive compounds. Thus, hereby we focused on\\u000aheterotrophic aerobic bacteria species associated with\\u000acoralline red alga Jania rubens (northern coast of Tunisia,\\u000asouthern Mediterranean Sea) and their inhibition against\\u000aseveral microbial marine and terrestrial species. The whole\\u000acollection (19 isolates, J1 to J19) was identified, based

A. Ismail-Ben Ali; M. El Bour; L. Ktari; H. Bolhuis; M. Ahmed; A. Boudabbous; L. J. Stal

2012-01-01

415

Sulfide and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria in anoxic marine basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of sulfide and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria was examined in waters and sediments of the Black Sea and the Caraco Trench. Isolates obtained by enrichment-culture techniques exhibited facultative autotrophic-growth characteristics and oxidized thiosulfate or sulfide. Acid was not formed during growth in mineral medium. Most of the isolates were facultatively anaerobic, using nitrate as the terminal hydrogen acceptor. Strictly aerobic

J. H. Tuttle; H. W. Jannasch

1973-01-01

416

Oxygen regulated gene expression in facultatively anaerobic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In facultatively anaerobic bacteria such asEscherichia coli, oxygen and other electron acceptors fundamentally influence catabolic and anabolic pathways.E. coli is able to grow aerobically by respiration and in the absence of O2 by anaerobic respiration with nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as acceptors or by fermentation. The expression of the various catabolic pathways occurs according to a hierarchy

G. Unden; S. Becker; J. Bongaerts; J. Schirawski

1994-01-01

417

[Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria of extreme ecosystems].  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria of the two extreme regions (Dead Sea and West Antarctic) was performed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. Thermotolerant and halotolerant spore-forming bacteria 7t1 and 7t3 of terrestrial ecosystems Dead Sea identified as Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, respectively. Taking into account remote location of thermotolerant strain 6t1 from closely related strains in the cluster Staphylococcus, 6t1 strain can be regarded as Staphylococcus sp. In terrestrial ecosystems, Galindez Island (Antarctic) detected taxonomically diverse psychrotolerant bacteria. From ornithogenic soil were isolated Micrococcus luteus O-1 and Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum O-3. Strains 4r5, 5r5 and 40r5, isolated from grass and lichens, can be referred to the genus Frondihabitans. These strains are taxonomically and ecologically isolated and on the tree diagram form the joint cluster with three isolates Frondihabitans sp., isolated from the lichen Austrian Alps, and psychrotolerant associated with plants F. cladoniiphilus CafT13(T). Isolates from black lichen in the different stationary observation points on the south side of a vertical cliff identified as: Rhodococcus fascians 181n3, Sporosarcina aquimarina O-7, Staphylococcus sp. 0-10. From orange biofilm of fouling on top of the vertical cliff isolated Arthrobacter sp. 28r5g1, from the moss-- Serratia sp. 6r1g. According to the results, Frondihabitans strains most frequently encountered among chemoorganotrophic aerobic bacteria in the Antarctic phytocenoses. PMID:25007437

2014-01-01

418

Combined anaerobic/aerobic digestion: effect of aerobic retention time on nitrogen and solids removal.  

PubMed

A combined anaerobic/aerobic sludge digestion system was studied to determine the effect of aerobic solids retention time (SRT) on its solids and nitrogen removal efficiencies. After the anaerobic digester reached steady state, effluent from the anaerobic digester was fed to aerobic digesters that were operated at 2- to 5-day SRTs. The anaerobic system was fed with a mixture of primary and secondary sludge from a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. Both systems were fed once per a day. The aerobic reactor was continuously aerated with ambient air, maintaining dissolved oxygen level at 1.1 +/- 0.3 mg/L. At a 4-day or longer SRT, more than 11% additional volatile solids and 90% or greater ammonia were removed in the aerobic digester, while 32.8 mg-N/L or more nitrite/nitrate also was measured. Most total Kjeldahl nitrogen removal was via ammonia removal, while little organic nitrogen was removed in the aerobic digester. PMID:22073727

Kim, Jongmin; Novak, John T

2011-09-01

419

Petrimonas sulfuriphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a mesophilic fermentative bacterium isolated from a biodegraded oil reservoir.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium, strain BN3(T), was isolated from a producing well of a biodegraded oil reservoir in Canada. Cells were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that did not form spores. The temperature range for growth was 15-40 degrees C, with optimum growth at 37-40 degrees C. The strain grew with up 4 % NaCl, with optimum growth in the absence of NaCl. Tryptone was required for growth. Yeast extract and elemental sulfur stimulated growth. Growth was also enhanced during fermentation of glucose, arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, rhamnose, lactose, ribose, fructose, sucrose, cellobiose, lactate, mannitol and glycerol. Acetate, hydrogen and CO(2) were produced during glucose fermentation. Elemental sulfur and nitrate were used as electron acceptors and were reduced to sulfide and ammonium, respectively. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 40.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain was a member of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes', distantly related to the genera Bacteroides and Tannerella (similarity values of less than 90 %). The chemotaxonomic data (fatty acids, polar lipids and quinones composition) also indicated that strain BN3(T) could be clearly distinguished from its closest cultivated relatives. This novel organism possesses phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic traits that do not allow its classification as a member of any previously described genus; therefore, it is proposed that this isolate should be described as a member of a novel species of a new genus, Petrimonas gen. nov., of which Petrimonas sulfuriphila sp. nov. is the type spec