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1

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâ??s the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. If youâ??ve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics.The first site (1) provides some general information on aerodynamics. For those wanting a little more on the theory of aerodynamics, the University of Sydney has published this web textbook, Aerodynamics for Students (2). When people think of aerodynamics, they generally think of aviation and flight, which is explained on this site (3). Aerodynamics also has applications in sports, such as tennis, sailing and cycling. This website provides explanations for sports applications whether you are a beginner in the study of aerodynamics or an instructor (4). The next website reviews the aerodynamics of cycling and has a form that lets you Calculate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist (5). The last site, AeroNet (6), is an interactive site designed to provide information about topics involved with aviation in a fun way for anyone casually interested in flight, someone thinking about aviation as a profession, or a student doing research for physics class.

2

Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

1975-01-01

3

Aerodynamic Drag and Drag Reduction: Energy and Energy Savings (Invited)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that up to 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, 27% of the total energy used in the United States is consumed by transportation systems, and 60% of the transportation energy or 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Drag reduction goals of 50% are proposed and discussed which if realized would produce a 7.85% total energy savings. This energy savings correlates to a yearly cost savings in the $30Billion dollar range.

Wood, Richard M.

2003-01-01

4

Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

1981-01-01

5

Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of aeroelasticity and flutter. These studies have sought to develop tools and methods to analyze aeroelastic effects by laying the foundation for more modern high aspect ratio wing aircraft such as the Truss-Braced Wing (TBW).1-3 Originally suggested by Northrop Grumman for the development of a long-range bomber, the idea of using truss structures to alleviate the bending moments of an ultra-high aspect ratio wing has culminated in more than a decade of work focused on understanding the aeroelastic properties and structural weight penalties due to the more aerodynamically efficient wing. The Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeingdeveloped N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD Fixed Wing Project.4, 5 The TBW aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing an aspect ratio on the order of 14, which is significantly greater than those of conventional aircraft wings. As a result, intermediate structural supports are required. The main wings The development of the TBW aircraft is supported through a collaboration between the NASA FixedWing Project, Boeing Research and Technology, and a number of other organizations. Multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization (MDAO) studies have been conducted at each stage to improve the wing aerodynamics, structural efficiency, and flight performance using advanced N+4 turbofan engines. These MDAO studies have refined the geometry of the wing and configuration layout and have involved trade studies involving minimizing induced drag with wing span, minimizing profile drag at lower Reynolds numbers, and minimizing wave drag due to the addition of the strut and brace. The chart in Fig. 2 summarizes progression of the past revisions of the TBW aircraft design at various developmental stage This paper presents an initial aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX coupled with the aerodynamic superposition method. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the complex configurati

Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

2014-01-01

6

Aerodynamic levitation : an approach to microgravity.

Measurements of the thermophysical and structural properties of liquid materials at high temperature have undergone considerable development in the past few years. Following improvements in electromagnetic levitation, aerodynamic levitation associated with laser heating has shown promise for assessing properties of different molten materials (metals, oxides, and semiconductors), preserving sample purity over a wide range of temperatures and under different gas environments. The density, surface tension and viscosity are measured with a high-speed video camera and an image analysis system. Results on nickel and alumina show that small droplets can be considered in the first approximation to be under microgravity conditions. Using a non-invasive contactless technique recently developed to measure electrical conductivity, results have been extended to variety of materials ranging from liquid metals and liquid semiconductors to ionically conducting materials. The advantage of this technique is the feasibility of monitoring changes in transport occurring during phase transitions and in deeply undercooled states.

Glorieux, B.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Millot, F.; Enderby, J.; Rifflet, J.-C.

2000-12-05

7

Resonance versus aerodynamics for energy savings in agile natural flyers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects are the most diverse natural flyers in nature, being able to hover and perform agile manoeuvres. Dragon- flies in particular are aggressive flyers, attaining accelerations of up to 4g. Flight in all insects requires demanding aerodynamic and inertial loads be overcome. It has been proposed that resonance is a primary mechanism for reducing energy costs associated with flapping flight, by storing energy in an elastic thorax and releasing it on the following half-stroke. Certainly in insect flight motors dominated by inertial loads, such a mechanism would be extremely beneficial. However in highly manoeuvrable, aerodynamically dominated flyers, such as the dragonfly, the use of elastic storage members requires further investigation. We show that employing resonant mechanisms in a real world configuration produces minimal energy savings that are further reduced by 50 to 133% across the operational flapping frequency band of the dragonfly. Using a simple harmonic oscillator analysis to represent the dynamics of a dragonfly, we further demonstrate a reduction in manoeuvring limits of ˜1.5 times for a system employing elastic mechanisms. This is in contrast to the potential power reductions of ?2/2 from regulating aerodynamics via active wing articulation. Aerodynamic means of energy storage provides flexibility between an energy efficient hover state and a manoeuvrable state capable of large accelerations. We conclude that active wing articulation is preferable to resonance for aerodynamically dominated natural flyers.

Kok, Jia M.; Chahl, Javaan

2014-03-01

8

The discrete adjoint approach to aerodynamic shape optimization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A viscous discrete adjoint approach to automatic aerodynamic shape optimization is developed, and the merits of the viscous discrete and continuous adjoint approaches are discussed. The viscous discrete and continuous adjoint gradients for inverse design and drag minimization cost functions are compared with finite-difference and complex-step gradients. The optimization of airfoils in two-dimensional flow for inverse design and drag minimization is illustrated. Both the discrete and continuous adjoint methods are used to formulate two new design problems. First, the time-dependent optimal design problem is established, and both the time accurate discrete and continuous adjoint equations are derived. An application to the reduction of the time-averaged drag coefficient while maintaining time-averaged lift and thickness distribution of a pitching airfoil in transonic flow is demonstrated. Second, the remote inverse design problem is formulated. The optimization of a three-dimensional biconvex wing in supersonic flow verifies the feasibility to reduce the near field pressure peak. Coupled drag minimization and remote inverse design cases produce wings with a lower drag and a reduced near field peak pressure signature.

Nadarajah, Siva Kumaran

9

High speed propeller acoustics and aerodynamics - A boundary element approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is applied in this paper to the problems of acoustics and aerodynamics of high speed propellers. The underlying theory is described based on the linearized Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The surface pressure on the blade is assumed unknown in the aerodynamic problem. It is obtained by solving a singular integral equation. The acoustic problem is then solved by moving the field point inside the fluid medium and evaluating some surface and line integrals. Thus the BEM provides a powerful technique in calculation of high speed propeller aerodynamics and acoustics.

Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.; Dunn, M. H.

1989-01-01

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic energy method is used in this paper to synthesize control laws for NASA's Drone for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing-Aerodynamic Research Wing 1 (DAST-ARW1) mathematical model. The performance of these control laws in terms of closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure, control surface activity, and robustness is compared against other control laws that appear in the literature and relate to the same model. A control law synthesis technique that makes use of the return difference singular values is developed in this paper. it is based on the aerodynamic energy approach and is shown to yield results superior to those given in the literature and based on optimal control theory. Nyquist plots are presented together with a short discussion regarding the relative merits of the minimum singular value as a measure of robustness, compared with the more traditional measure of robustness involving phase and gain margins.

Nissim, E.

1989-01-01

11

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic energy method is used to synthesize control laws for NASA's drone for aerodynamic and structural testing-aerodynamic research wing 1 (DAST-ARW1) mathematical model. The performance of these control laws in terms of closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure, control surface activity, and robustness is compared with other control laws that relate to the same model. A control law synthesis technique that makes use of the return difference singular values is developed. It is based on the aerodynamic energy approach and is shown to yield results that are superior to those results given in the literature and are based on optimal control theory. Nyquist plots are presented, together with a short discussion regarding the relative merits of the minimum singular value as a measure of robustness as compared with the more traditional measure involving phase and gain margins.

Nissim, Eli

1990-01-01

12

Energy Efficient Engine Low Pressure Subsystem Aerodynamic Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capability to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the complete low pressure subsystem (LPS) of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE). Detailed analyses were performed using three- dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical models employing advanced clustered processor computing platforms. The analysis evaluates the impact of steady aerodynamic interaction effects between the components of the LPS at design and off- design operating conditions. Mechanical coupling is provided by adjusting the rotational speed of common shaft-mounted components until a power balance is achieved. The Navier-Stokes modeling of the complete low pressure subsystem provides critical knowledge of component acro/mechanical interactions that previously were unknown to the designer until after hardware testing.

Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Lynn, Sean R.; Veres, Joseph P.

1998-01-01

13

Optimal cycling time trial position models: aerodynamics versus power output and metabolic energy.

The aerodynamic drag of a cyclist in time trial (TT) position is strongly influenced by the torso angle. While decreasing the torso angle reduces the drag, it limits the physiological functioning of the cyclist. Therefore the aims of this study were to predict the optimal TT cycling position as function of the cycling speed and to determine at which speed the aerodynamic power losses start to dominate. Two models were developed to determine the optimal torso angle: a 'Metabolic Energy Model' and a 'Power Output Model'. The Metabolic Energy Model minimised the required cycling energy expenditure, while the Power Output Model maximised the cyclists? power output. The input parameters were experimentally collected from 19 TT cyclists at different torso angle positions (0-24°). The results showed that for both models, the optimal torso angle depends strongly on the cycling speed, with decreasing torso angles at increasing speeds. The aerodynamic losses outweigh the power losses at cycling speeds above 46km/h. However, a fully horizontal torso is not optimal. For speeds below 30km/h, it is beneficial to ride in a more upright TT position. The two model outputs were not completely similar, due to the different model approaches. The Metabolic Energy Model could be applied for endurance events, while the Power Output Model is more suitable in sprinting or in variable conditions (wind, undulating course, etc.). It is suggested that despite some limitations, the models give valuable information about improving the cycling performance by optimising the TT cycling position. PMID:24726654

Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

2014-06-01

14

Energy harvesting under combined aerodynamic and base excitations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the transduction of a piezoaeroelastic energy harvester under the combination of vibratory base excitations and aerodynamic loadings. The harvester which consists of a rigid airfoil supported by nonlinear flexural and torsional springs is placed in an incompressible air flow and subjected to a harmonic base excitation in the plunge direction. Under this combined loading, the airfoil undergoes complex motions which strain a piezoelectric element producing a voltage across an electric load. To capture the qualitative behavior of the harvester, a five-dimensional lumped-parameter model which adopts nonlinear quasi-steady aerodynamics is used. A center manifold reduction is implemented to reduce the full model into one nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equation. The normal form of the reduced system is then derived to study slow modulation of the response amplitude and phase near the flutter instability. Below the flutter speed, the response of the harvester is observed to be always periodic with the air flow serving to amplify the influence of the base excitation on the response by reducing the effective stiffness of the system, and hence, increasing the RMS output power. Beyond the flutter speed, two distinct regions are observed. The first occurs when the base excitation is small and/or when the excitation frequency is not close to the frequency of the self-sustained oscillations induced by the flutter instability. In this case, the response of the harvester is two-period quasiperiodic with amplitude modulation due to the presence of two incommensurate frequencies in the response. This amplitude modulation reduces the RMS output power. In the second region, the amplitude of excitation is large enough to eliminate the quasiperiodic response by causing the two frequencies to lock into each other. In this region, the response becomes periodic and the output power increases exhibiting little dependence on the base excitation.

Bibo, Amin; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

2013-09-01

15

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for determining the degree of erosion for zonal soils of the East European Plain. This new approach uses soil porosity and filtration to determine a coefficient of aerodynamic similarity. We evaluated the degree of soil erosion on ranges of the major zonal soils of the eastern part of European Russia by applying this new method. Based on these data, we developed a diagnostic scale to determine the extent of soil erosion in this area.

Sergey, V.; Vyacheslav, S.

2015-03-01

16

An approach to constrained aerodynamic design with application to airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach was developed for incorporating flow and geometric constraints into the Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (DISC) design method. In this approach, an initial target pressure distribution is developed using a set of control points. The chordwise locations and pressure levels of these points are initially estimated either from empirical relationships and observed characteristics of pressure distributions for a given class of airfoils or by fitting the points to an existing pressure distribution. These values are then automatically adjusted during the design process to satisfy the flow and geometric constraints. The flow constraints currently available are lift, wave drag, pitching moment, pressure gradient, and local pressure levels. The geometric constraint options include maximum thickness, local thickness, leading-edge radius, and a 'glove' constraint involving inner and outer bounding surfaces. This design method was also extended to include the successive constraint release (SCR) approach to constrained minimization.

Campbell, Richard L.

1992-01-01

17

Systematic approach to analyzing and reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles

This paper presents an approach for reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by systematically analyzing trailer components using existing computational tools and moving on to the analyses of integrated tractor-trailers using advanced computational tools. Experimental verification and validation are also an important part of this approach. The project is currently in the development phase while we are in the process of constructing a Multi-Year Program Plan. Projects I and 2 as described in this paper are the anticipated project direction. Also included are results from past and current related activities by the project participants which demonstrate the analysis approach.

McCallen, R.; Browand, F.; Leonard, A.; Rutledge, W.

1997-09-16

18

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple matrix polynomial approach is introduced for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the s-plane and ultimately, after combining matrix polynomial coefficients with matrices defining the structure, a matrix polynomial of the flutter equations of motion (EOM) is formed. A technique of recasting the matrix-polynomial form of the flutter EOM into a first order form is also presented that can be used to determine the eigenvalues near the origin and everywhere on the complex plane. An aeroservoelastic (ASE) EOM have been generalized to include the gust terms on the right-hand side. The reasons for developing the new matrix polynomial approach are also presented, which are the following: first, the "workhorse" methods such as the NASTRAN flutter analysis lack the capability to consistently find roots near the origin, along the real axis or accurately find roots farther away from the imaginary axis of the complex plane; and, second, the existing s-plane methods, such as the Roger s s-plane approximation method as implemented in ISAC, do not always give suitable fits of some tabular data of the unsteady aerodynamics. A method available in MATLAB is introduced that will accurately fit generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients in a tabular data form into the coefficients of a matrix polynomial form. The root-locus results from the NASTRAN pknl flutter analysis, the ISAC-Roger's s-plane method and the present matrix polynomial method are presented and compared for accuracy and for the number and locations of roots.

Pototzky, Anthony S.

2008-01-01

19

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improvement of the performances for wind energy conversions systems (WECS), an advanced control techniques must be used. In this paper, as an alternative to conventional PI-type control methods, a nonlinear predictive control (NPC) approach is developed for DFIG-based wind turbine. To enhance the robustness of the controller, a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the aerodynamic torque which is considered as an unknown perturbation. An explicitly analytical form of the optimal predictive controller is given consequently on-line optimization is not necessary The DFIG is fed through the rotor windings by a back-to-back converter controlled by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), where the stator winding is directly connected to the grid. The presented simulation results show a good performance in trajectory tracking of the proposed strategy and rejection of disturbances is successfully achieved.

Kamel, Ouari; Mohand, Ouhrouche; Toufik, Rekioua; Taib, Nabil

2015-01-01

20

Laboratory Evaluation of Fan-filter Units' Aerodynamic and Energy Performance

Laboratory Evaluation of Fan-filter Units' Aerodynamic and Energy Performance Tengfang Xu, Lawrence design, testing of fans and ventilation equipment, as well as noise control of HVAC systems. Dr. Jeng is currently involved in several research topics, including the development of high efficiency fan- filter

21

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.

Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.

1988-01-01

22

Active distributed aerodynamic control for load reduction on wind turbine blades is an innovative concept, inspired by rotorcraft research, often named as smart rotor control. In this stage of research, unsteady aerodynamic models and small scale experimental setups are developed, investigating the potential and implementation of such concepts. This paper describes a successful wind tunnel experiment on a dynamically scaled

A. K. Barlas

2007-01-01

23

Aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth with flexible wings: a computational approach

Insect wings are deformable structures that change shape passively and dynamically owing to inertial and aerodynamic forces during flight. It is still unclear how the three-dimensional and passive change of wing kinematics owing to inherent wing flexibility contributes to unsteady aerodynamics and energetics in insect flapping flight. Here, we perform a systematic fluid-structure interaction based analysis on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth, Manduca, with an integrated computational model of a hovering insect with rigid and flexible wings. Aerodynamic performance of flapping wings with passive deformation or prescribed deformation is evaluated in terms of aerodynamic force, power and efficiency. Our results reveal that wing flexibility can increase downwash in wake and hence aerodynamic force: first, a dynamic wing bending is observed, which delays the breakdown of leading edge vortex near the wing tip, responsible for augmenting the aerodynamic force-production; second, a combination of the dynamic change of wing bending and twist favourably modifies the wing kinematics in the distal area, which leads to the aerodynamic force enhancement immediately before stroke reversal. Moreover, an increase in hovering efficiency of the flexible wing is achieved as a result of the wing twist. An extensive study of wing stiffness effect on aerodynamic performance is further conducted through a tuning of Young's modulus and thickness, indicating that insect wing structures may be optimized not only in terms of aerodynamic performance but also dependent on many factors, such as the wing strength, the circulation capability of wing veins and the control of wing movements. PMID:21831896

Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

2012-01-01

24

An enhanced integrated aerodynamic load/dynamic approach to optimum rotor blade design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced integrated aerodynamic load/dynamic optimization procedure is developed to minimize vibratory root shears and moments. The optimization is formulated with 4/rev vertical and 3/rev inplane shears at the blade root as objective functions and constraints, and 4/rev lagging moment. Constraints are also imposed on blade natural frequencies, weight, autorotational inertia, contrifugal stress, and rotor thrust. The Global Criteria Approach is used for formulating the multi-objective optimization. Design variables include spanwise distributions of bending stiffnesses, torsional stiffness, nonstructural mass, chord, radius of gyration, and blade taper ratio. The program CAMRAD is coupled with an optimizer, which consists of the program CONMIN and an approximate analysis, to obtain optimum designs. The optimization procedure is applied to an advanced rotor as a reference design. Optimum blade designs, obtained with and without a constraint on the rotor thrust, are presented and are compared to the reference blade. Substantial reductions are obtained in the vibratory root forces and moments. As a byproduct, improvements are also found in some performance parameters, such as total power required, which were not considered during optimization.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Chiu, Y. Danny

1990-01-01

25

Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

2003-01-01

26

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an integrated aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural (IADS) optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance, dynamics, and structural analyses with a general purpose optimizer using multilevel decomposition techniques. At the upper level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (stiffnesses, mass, and average strains). At the lower level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (detailed dimensions of the blade structure and stresses). The IADS procedure provides an optimization technique that is compatible with industrial design practices in which the aerodynamic and dynamic design is performed at a global level and the structural design is carried out at a detailed level with considerable dialogue and compromise among the aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural groups. The IADS procedure is demonstrated for several cases.

Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

1994-01-01

27

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program written to calculate the proximity aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of the Orbiter/Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) vehicles based on flight instrumentation is described. The ground reduced aerodynamic coefficients and instrumentation errors (GRACIE) program was developed as a tool to aid in flight test verification of the Orbiter/SCA separation aerodynamic data base. The program calculates the force and moment coefficients of each vehicle in proximity to the other, using the load measurement system data, flight instrumentation data and the vehicle mass properties. The uncertainty in each coefficient is determined, based on the quoted instrumentation accuracies. A subroutine manipulates the Orbiter/747 Carrier Separation Aerodynamic Data Book to calculate a comparable set of predicted coefficients for comparison to the calculated flight test data.

Homan, D. J.

1977-01-01

28

Traditionally, aeropropulsion structural performance and aerodynamic performance have been designed separately and later mated together via flight testing. In today`s atmosphere of declining resources, it is imperative that more productive ways of designing and verifying aeropropulsion performance and structural interaction be made available to the aerospace industry. One method of obtaining a more productive design and evaluation capability is through the use of numerical simulations. Currently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a generalized fluid/structural interaction code known as ALE3D. This code is capable of characterizing fluid and structural interaction for components such as the combustor, fan/stators, inlet and/or nozzles. This code solves the 3D Euler equations and has been applied to several aeropropulsion applications such as a supersonic inlet and a combustor rupture simulation. To characterize aerodynamic-structural interaction for rotating components such as the compressor, appropriate turbomachinery simulations would need to be implemented within the ALE3D structure. The Arnold Engineering Development Center is currently developing a three-dimensional compression system code known as TEACC (Turbine Engine Analysis Compressor Code). TEACC also solves the 3D Euler equations and is intended to simulate dynamic behavior such as inlet distortion, surge or rotating stall. The technology being developed within the TEACC effort provides the necessary turbomachinery simulation for implementation into ALE3D. This paper describes a methodology to combine three-dimensional aerodynamic turbomachinery technology into the existing aerodynamic-structural interaction simulation, ALE3D to obtain the desired aerodynamic and structural integrated simulation for an aeropropulsion system.

Naziar, J. [Boeing Commerical Airplane Group, Seattle, WA (United States). Propulsion Research; Couch, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Davis, M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Arnold Air Force Base, TN (United States). Arnold Engineering Development Center

1996-01-01

29

Comparison of Computational Approaches for Rapid Aerodynamic Assessment of Small UAVs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods were used to determine the basic aerodynamic, performance, and stability and control characteristics of the unmanned air vehicle (UAV), Kahu. Accurate and timely prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics of small UAVs is an essential part of military system acquisition and air-worthiness evaluations. The forces and moments of the UAV were predicted using a variety of analytical methods for a range of configurations and conditions. The methods included Navier Stokes (N-S) flow solvers (USM3D, Kestrel and Cobalt) that take days to set up and hours to converge on a single solution; potential flow methods (PMARC, LSAERO, and XFLR5) that take hours to set up and minutes to compute; empirical methods (Datcom) that involve table lookups and produce a solution quickly; and handbook calculations. A preliminary aerodynamic database can be developed very efficiently by using a combination of computational tools. The database can be generated with low-order and empirical methods in linear regions, then replacing or adjusting the data as predictions from higher order methods are obtained. A comparison of results from all the data sources as well as experimental data obtained from a wind-tunnel test will be shown and the methods will be evaluated on their utility during each portion of the flight envelope.

Shafer, Theresa C.; Lynch, C. Eric; Viken, Sally A.; Favaregh, Noah; Zeune, Cale; Williams, Nathan; Dansie, Jonathan

2014-01-01

30

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bifurcation theory is used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic stability characteristics of an aircraft subject to single-degree-of-freedom. The requisite moment of the aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion is shown to be representable in a form equivalent to the response to finite amplitude oscillations. It is shown how this information can be deduced from the case of infinitesimal-amplitude oscillations. The bifurcation theory analysis reveals that when the bifurcation parameter is increased beyond a critical value at which the aerodynamic damping vanishes, new solutions representing finite amplitude periodic motions bifurcate from the previously stable steady motion. The sign of a simple criterion, cast in terms of aerodynamic properties, determines whether the bifurcating solutions are stable or unstable. For the pitching motion of flat-plate airfoils flying at supersonic/hypersonic speed and for oscillation of flaps at transonic speed, the bifurcation is subcritical, implying either the exchanges of stability between steady and periodic motion are accompanied by hysteresis phenomena, or that potentially large aperiodic departures from steady motion may develop.

Hui, W. H.

1985-01-01

31

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the influence of different key parameters in aerodynamic wind turbine rotor design on the power efficiency, Cp, and energy production has been investigated. The work was divided into an analysis of 2D airfoils/blade sections and of entire rotors. In the analysis of the 2D airfoils it was seen that there was a maximum of the local Cp for airfoils with finite maximum Cl/Cd values. The local speed ratio should be between 2.4 and 3.8 for airfoils with maximum cl/cd between 50 and 200, respectively, to obtain maximum local Cp. Also, the investigation showed that Re had a significant impact on CP and especially for Re<2mio corresponding to rotors below approximately 400kW this impact was pronounced. The investigation of Cp for rotors was made with three blades and showed that with the assumption of constant maximum cl/cd along the entire blade, the design tip speed ratio changed from X=6 to X=12 for cl/cd=50 and cl/cd=200, respectively, with corresponding values of maximum cp of 0.46 and 0.525. An analysis of existing rotors re-designed with new airfoils but maintaining the absolute thickness distribution to maintain the stiffness showed that big rotors are more aerodynamic efficient than small rotors caused by higher Re. It also showed that the design tip speed ratio was very dependent on the rotor size and on the assumptions of the airfoil flow being fully turbulent (contaminated airfoil) or free transitional (clean airfoil). The investigations showed that rotors with diameter D=1.75m, should be designed for X around 5.5, whereas rotors with diameter D=126m, should be designed for Xbetween 6.5 and 8.5, depending on the airfoil performance.

Bak, Christian

2007-07-01

32

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

Wilson, R. E.

1981-05-01

33

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

Wilson, R. E.

1981-01-01

34

Uncertainty-Based Approach for Dynamic Aerodynamic Data Acquisition and Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of improved modeling methods to provide increased fidelity of flight predictions for aircraft motions during flight in flow regimes with large nonlinearities requires improvements in test techniques for measuring and characterizing wind tunnel data. This paper presents a method for providing a measure of data integrity for static and forced oscillation test techniques. Data integrity is particularly important when attempting to accurately model and predict flight of today s high performance aircraft which are operating in expanded flight envelopes, often maneuvering at high angular rates at high angles-of-attack, even above maximum lift. Current aerodynamic models are inadequate in predicting flight characteristics in the expanded envelope, such as rapid aircraft departures and other unusual motions. Present wind tunnel test methods do not factor changes of flow physics into data acquisition schemes, so in many cases data are obtained over more iterations than required, or insufficient data may be obtained to determine a valid estimate with statistical significance. Additionally, forced oscillation test techniques, one of the primary tools used to develop dynamic models, do not currently provide estimates of the uncertainty of the results during an oscillation cycle. A method to optimize the required number of forced oscillation cycles based on decay of uncertainty gradients and balance tolerances is also presented.

Heim, Eugene H. D.; Bandon, Jay M.

2004-01-01

35

Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.

Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.

1983-01-01

36

Wing shape allometry and aerodynamics in calopterygid damselflies: a comparative approach

Background Wing size and shape have important aerodynamic implications on flight performance. We explored how wing size was related to wing shape in territorial males of 37 taxa of the damselfly family Calopterygidae. Wing coloration was also included in the analyses because it is sexually and naturally selected and has been shown to be related to wing shape. We studied wing shape using both the non-dimensional radius of the second moment of wing area (RSM) and geometric morphometrics. Lower values of the RSM result in less energetically demanding flight and wider ranges of flight speed. We also re-analyzed previously published data on other damselflies and dragonflies. Results The RSM showed a hump-shaped relationship with wing size. However, after correcting for phylogeny using independent contrast, this pattern changed to a negative linear relationship. The basal genus of the study family, Hetaerina, was mainly driving that change. The obtained patterns were specific for the study family and differed from other damselflies and dragonflies. The relationship between the RSM and wing shape measured by geometric morphometrics was linear, but relatively small changes along the RSM axis can result in large changes in wing shape. Our results also showed that wing coloration may have some effect on RSM. Conclusions We found that RSM showed a complex relationship with size in calopterygid damselflies, probably as a result of other selection pressures besides wing size per se. Wing coloration and specific behavior (e.g. courtship) are potential candidates for explaining the complexity. Univariate measures of wing shape such as RSM are more intuitive but lack the high resolution of other multivariate techniques such as geometric morphometrics. We suggest that the relationship between wing shape and size are taxa-specific and differ among closely-related insect groups. PMID:23742224

2013-01-01

37

The Impact of Active Aerodynamic Load Control on Fatigue and Energy Capture at Low Wind Speed Sites

Abstract † Active aerodynamic ,load control of wind turbine blades has been,heavily researched,for years by the,wind energy,research,community and,shows ,great promise ,for reducing ,turbine fatigue damage., One,way,to benefit,from this technology,is to choose,to utilize a larger,rotor ona,turbine tower ,and ,drive train to realize increased,turbine ,energy ,capture ,while keeping,the fatigue damage ,of critical turbine components,at the ,original levels. To assess this rotor-increase potential,

Dale E. Berg; David G. Wilson; Matthew F. Barone; Brian R. Resor; Jonathan C. Berg; Joshua A. Paquette; Jose R. Zayas; Sridhar Kota; Gregory Ervin; Dragan Maric

38

Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Trade Study Part I : Energy Consumption and Aerodynamic Efficiency

the airfoil aerodynamic efficiency and requires important tail force to balance, further reducing the airplane efficiency. In addition, those devices introduce a significant weight penalty and complexity in the wing structure. Recently, a zero-net mass-flux(ZNMF) co-flow jet (CFJ) flow control airfoil developed by Zha et

Zha, Gecheng

39

A Parallel Cartesian Approach for External Aerodynamics of Vehicles with Complex Geometry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This workshop paper presents the current status in the development of a new approach for the solution of the Euler equations on Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries in three dimensions on distributed and shared memory architectures. The approach uses adaptively refined Cartesian hexahedra to fill the computational domain. Where these cells intersect the geometry, they are cut by the boundary into arbitrarily shaped polyhedra which receive special treatment by the solver. The presentation documents a newly developed multilevel upwind solver based on a flexible domain-decomposition strategy. One novel aspect of the work is its use of space-filling curves (SFC) for memory efficient on-the-fly parallelization, dynamic re-partitioning and automatic coarse mesh generation. Within each subdomain the approach employs a variety reordering techniques so that relevant data are on the same page in memory permitting high-performance on cache-based processors. Details of the on-the-fly SFC based partitioning are presented as are construction rules for the automatic coarse mesh generation. After describing the approach, the paper uses model problems and 3- D configurations to both verify and validate the solver. The model problems demonstrate that second-order accuracy is maintained despite the presence of the irregular cut-cells in the mesh. In addition, it examines both parallel efficiency and convergence behavior. These investigations demonstrate a parallel speed-up in excess of 28 on 32 processors of an SGI Origin 2000 system and confirm that mesh partitioning has no effect on convergence behavior.

Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.

2001-01-01

40

Rarefied aerodynamic measurements in hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the feasibility of space missions, the prediction accuracy of rarefied aerodynamics is one of the important factors. To improve rarefied aerodynamic predictions, the determination of accommodation coefficients and direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamic forces are crucial. Thus, at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, a hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel has been developed for rarefied aerodynamic measurements. In this work, we have utilized both experimental and numerical approaches for rarefied hypersonic aerodynamic measurements, and the measurement schemes have been developed by using pendulous models for accommodation coefficients and for aeroshell aerodynamic characteristics. Consequently, we have successfully demonstrated measurements of accommodation coefficients and rarefied aerodynamic characteristics for an aeroshell.

Ozawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, K.

2014-12-01

41

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyclogiro is the name given by NASA researchers in the '30s to an aerodynamic configuration of several large aspect ratio rectangular airfoils with horizontal span, placed on the circumference of a vertical circle of radius of the order of the airfoil chord, and rotating around the circle center at high speed, with periodically changing angle of attack. This configuration produces aerodynamic forces that can be applied to lift and thrust, depending on the phase angle between the instantaneous position and angle of attack. The original approach was to install such rotors instead of an aircraft wing, and thus combine the lift & thrust producing functions. As a result of the state of knowledge of unsteady aerodynamics at the time disparities between predictions and measured forces remained unexplained. This, combined with low efficiency resulted in the concept being abandoned. In the present study the concept is revisited, as a possible propulsor/lift generator for a hover-capable micro-UAV. Preliminary analysis showed that scaling down to rotor airfoil sizes of 10-15 cm span and 2 cm chord will reduce the centrifugal forces to manageable proportions while the aerodynamic forces would be comparable to those obtained by conventional rotors. A series of experiments was performed, showing disparities of up to 30theory. Visualization showed that this difference resulted mainly from interactions between single foil wakes with the following foils, and a numerical study confirmed the magnitude of the effects, in good agreement with the experiments.

Iosilevski, Gil; Levy, Yuval; Weihs, Daniel

2001-11-01

42

Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

Wood, Richard M.

1988-01-01

43

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of active controls on flutter suppression and gust alleviation of the Arava twin turboprop STOL transport and the Westwind twinjet business transport are investigated. The active control surfaces are introduced in pairs which include, in any chosen wing strip, a 20-percent chord leading-edge control and a 20-percent chord trailing-edge control. Each control surface is driven by a combined linear-rotational sensor system located on the activated strip. The control law is based on the concept of aerodynamic energy and utilizes previously optimized control law parameters based on two-dimensional aerodynamic theory. The best locations of the activated system along the span of the wing are determined for bending-moment alleviation, reduction in fuselage accelerations, and flutter suppression. The effectiveness of the activated system over a wide range of maximum control deflections is also determined. Two control laws are investigated. The first control law utilizes both rigid-body and elastic contributions of the motion. The second control law employs primarily the elastic contribution of the wing and leads to large increases in the activated control effectiveness as compared with the basic control law. The results indicate that flutter speed can be significantly increased (over 70 percent increase) and that the bending moment due to gust loading can be almost totally eliminated by a control system of about 10 to 20 percent span with reasonable control-surface rotations.

Nissim, E.; Caspi, A.; Lottati, I.

1976-01-01

44

PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

Akishita, Sadao

2010-02-01

45

Aerodynamics at the Particle Level

This paper is intended to clarify some of the rather well-known aerodynamic phenomena. It is also intended to pique the interest of the layman as well as the professional. All aerodynamic forces on a surface are caused by collisions of fluid particles with the surface. While the standard approach to fluid dynamics, which is founded on the fluid approximation, is effective in providing a means of calculating various behavior and properties, it begs the question of causality. The determination of the causes of many of the most important aerodynamic effects requires a microscopic examination of the fluid and of the surface with which it interacts. The Kutta-Joukowski theorem is investigated from first physical principles. It is noted that the circulation does not arise as a physical phenomenon. Various aerodynamic devices are discussed, e.g. rocket engine exhaust diffuser and the perfume atomizer.

Charles A. Crummer

2012-09-23

46

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn about the role of scientific research in the design of competition suits for athletes in the Winter Olympics. Students will also explore and research the concept of aerodynamics, and conduct their own scientific experiment to gain an understanding of this concept.

2010-01-01

47

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the effect of aileron deflections on the aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic energy efficient transport (EET) model. The semispan model had an aspect ratio 10 supercritical wing and was configured with a conventionally located set of ailerons (i.e., a high speed aileron located inboard and a low speed aileron located outboard). Data for the model were taken over a Mach number range from 0.30 to 0.90 and an angle of attack range from approximately -2 deg to 10 deg. The Reynolds number was 2.5 million per foot for Mach number = 0.30 and 4 million per foot for the other Mach numbers. Model force and moment data, aileron effectiveness parameters, aileron hinge moment data, otherwise pressure distributions, and spanwise load data are presented.

Jacobs, P. F.

1985-01-01

48

Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

Kurtz, D. W.

1980-01-01

49

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes current research about insect flight dynamics. It focuses on the work of biologist R. McNeill Alexander of the University of Leeds, whose research team has built large-scale models of insects to test their flight aerodynamics in wind tunnels. At the bottom of the page is a small (160 x 120) QuickTime video of a Morpho butterfly (Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae) with detailed views of its wing scales. It is an excerpt from the Alien Empire miniseries of the Public Broadcasting Service's Nature series. The video requires QuickTime and may not be accessible to those with older or slow computers. The link to the "enhanced multimedia video clip" did not work at the time of this review.

0000-00-00

50

A new technique for aerodynamic noise calculation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method for the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation is presented. The method involves first solving for the time-dependent incompressible flow for the given geometry. This fully nonlinear method that is tailored to extract the relevant acoustic fluctuations seems to be an efficient approach to the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation.

Hardin, J. C.; Pope, D. S.

1992-01-01

51

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the study is to develop and verify a methodology capable of predicting the vibration levels and estimating the aerodynamic loads and rotor impedance of a rotorcraft blade. Simulated flight test data is generated, blade airloads and elastic hub motions are estimated from the simulated data through the use of the Kalman filter/smoother, simulation upgrading and parameter identification are performed, and the ability to identify rotor impedance from a simulation by isolating the rotor model and providing a prescribed motion for the hub as rotor excitation is demonstrated. It is pointed out that the statistical estimation procedure utilized in the proposed methodology minimizes the impact of sensor noise, truncation error, and instrumentation bias on the results.

Bruhis, Ofer; Duval, Ronald W.; Idan, Moshe

1990-01-01

52

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

Jones, R. T. (compiler)

1979-01-01

53

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exercise was performed which illustrates the prediction of high-speed aerodynamic coefficients using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System. Two generic transatmospheric vehicle configurations are used as examples on which various inviscid and viscous estimation techniques are applied. As a means of evaluating the reliability of the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System results, comparisons of predictions using this preliminary-level approach are compared with Shuttle-derived data, hypersonic helium tunnel data for several configurations, and computational fluid dynamics results. Overall, predictions using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System agree well with the other calculations and data.

Cruz, Christopher I.; Wilhite, Alan W.

1989-01-01

54

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

1992-01-01

55

Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

Denny, Mark

2009-01-01

56

Aerodynamics as a subway design parameter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric sensitivity study has been performed on the system operational energy requirement in order to guide subway design strategy. Aerodynamics can play a dominant or trivial role, depending upon the system characteristics. Optimization of the aerodynamic parameters may not minimize the total operational energy. Isolation of the station box from the tunnel and reduction of the inertial power requirements pay the largest dividends in terms of the operational energy requirement.

Kurtz, D. W.

1976-01-01

57

Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

Graham, Sean (Primary Investigator); Bigatel, Patrick

2004-10-17

58

Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

1986-01-01

59

Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accommodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

1987-01-01

60

UTILITY OF RADIOMETRIC-AERODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE RELATIONS FOR HEAT FLUX ESTIMATION

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many land surface models using bulk transfer (one-source) approaches, the application of radiometric surface temperature observations in energy flux computations has given mixed results. This is due in part to the non-unique relationship between the so-called aerodynamic temperature, which relat...

61

Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

62

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (editor)

1992-01-01

63

Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

1953-01-01

64

Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed pasage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamicaly detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentialy spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.

Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

1986-01-01

65

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those wanting a little more on the theory of aerodynamics, the University of Sydney has published this web textbook, "Aerodynamics for Students". In addition to information on fluid dynamics, flight theory, gas dynamics, propulsion, aircraft performance, and aeroelasticity, the textbook also includes data tables, computer programs, and simulations to aid in the study and understanding of aerodynamics. This textbook is a great resource for undergraduates studying engineering.

66

Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's "Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics" provides some general information on the basics of aerodynamics. The site allows users to explore at their own pace and level of interest. Some of the topics that are available here are: equations of motion, free falling, air resistance, force, gas properties, and atmosphere. Movies, reading materials, and activities are all available to accommodate a variety of different learning styles. This is an excellent resource, with great reference materials for anyone interested in learning more about aerodynamics.

67

Aerodynamics of runback ice accretions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the effects of simulated runback ice accretions has been performed in order to describe their aerodynamic performance penalties and investigate their scaling for use in sub-scale aerodynamic testing. Runback ice accretions corresponding to three flight conditions, warm hold, cold hold and descent, were simulated and tested on the NACA 23012 and NACA 3415. The ice shapes were simulated on two levels of fidelity. Medium-fidelity simulations captured the chordwise location, cross-section, height distribution and chordwise extent of the ice accretion. Low-fidelity simulations captured their height and chordwise location. Two scaling methods were also employed. Each simulation was scaled based upon the ratio of the aerodynamic model chord to the full-scale icing model, called geometric scaling. The warm hold simulations were also scaled based upon the ratio of the local, clean-model boundary-layer thickness on the aerodynamic model to that of the icing model, called boundary-layer scaling. This method was employed because the geometrically-scaled simulations were found to be on the order of the boundary-layer thickness as the model approached stall. Following aerodynamic performance testing, fluorescent-oil flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry were used to investigate the flowfield resulting from the low-fidelity warm hold simulations. Results for this work have shown that runback ice accretions can cause significant aerodynamic performance penalties. In general, the NACA 23012 experienced greater aerodynamic performance penalties due to the runback simulations than did the NACA 3415. Low-fidelity simulations of the cold hold case agreed quite well with their medium fidelity counterparts. In the descent case, the level of variation in ice accretion height was too small for there to be a distinction between the low- and medium-fidelity cases. Low-fidelity simulations of the warm hold accretion did not agree well with the medium-fidelity simulation. In fact, the geometrically-scaled simulation was observed to increase the maximum lift and stalling angle-of-attack of the NACA 3415. Flowfield investigations using fluorescent-oil flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry showed that the simulations that were similar in height to the clean-model local boundary-layer thickness acted to stabilize the recovering boundary layer, delaying stall past the stalling angle-of-attack of the clean case.

Whalen, Edward A.

68

Fluid-thermal-structural interaction of aerodynamically heated leading edges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional finite element approach is presented for the integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis of aerodynamically heated leading edges. The approach is combined with an adaptive unstructured remeshing technique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for high speed compressible flow, the energy equation for the structure thermal response, and the quasi-static equilibrium equations for the structural response. Coupling and interaction between the three disciplines are demonstrated using two applications for high speed flow over a cylinder and a simulated engine leading edge verification test.

Dechaumphai, Pramote; Wieting, Allan R.; Pandey, Ajay K.

1989-01-01

69

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests

R. D. Mehta

1985-01-01

70

Computation of dragonfly aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dragonflies are seen to hover and dart, seemingly at will and in remarkably nimble fashion, with great bursts of speed and effectively discontinuous changes of direction. In their short lives, their gossamer flight provides us with glimpses of an aerodynamics of almost extraterrestrial quality. Here we present the first computer simulations of such aerodynamics.

Gustafson, Karl; Leben, Robert

1991-04-01

71

Computation of dragonfly aerodynamics

Dragonflies are seen to hover and dart, seemingly at will and in remarkably nimble fashion, with great bursts of speed and effectively discontinuous changes of direction. In their short lives, their gossamer flight provides us with glimpses of an aerodynamics of almost extraterrestrial quality. Here we present the first computer simulations of such aerodynamics.

Karl Gustafson; Robert Leben

1991-01-01

72

System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.

Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

2001-01-01

73

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâ??s the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youâ??ve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

74

A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management

A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

Spencer, R. J.

75

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Water Rocket and Stabilization of Flight Trajectory

The aerodynamic characteristics of water rockets are analyzed experimentally by wind tunnel testing. Aerodynamic devices such as vortex generators and dimples are tested and their effectiveness to the flight performance of water rocket is discussed. Attaching vortex generators suppresses the unsteady body fluttering. Dimpling the nose reduces the drag coefficient in high angles of attack. Robust design approach is applied

Rikio Watanabe; Nobuyuki Tomita; Toshiaki Takemae

2004-01-01

76

Effect of automotive headlamp modeling on automotive aerodynamic drag

Automotive headlamp design, combining science with art, is essential in automotive modeling design. Headlamp modeling design should consider harmonizing with automotive modeling design as well as meeting the national standards of structural design and lighting property. The research aims to present an approach for headlamp modeling design considering automotive aerodynamic drag. The effect of different headlamp modeling design on aerodynamic

Lanfang Jiang; Hong Liu; Guozhong Chail; Guangnan Jiang; Weiming Lin

2008-01-01

77

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

Weltner, Klaus

1990-01-01

78

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

Horstman, Raymond H.

1992-01-01

79

Science of Cycling: Aerodynamics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the Exploratorium, reviews the aerodynamics of cycling. Wind resistance is often one of the biggest challenges that professional and amateur cyclists face. This site has a form that lets you "Calculate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist". Use the form to calculate resistance using different inclines, velocity, weight or wind velocity. At the bottom of the page, you can find useful information and tips on reducing resistance. Check it out before your next bike ride!

80

A Casimir approach to dark energy

We calculate the gravitational self-energy of vacuum quantum field fluctuations using a Casimir approach. We find that the Casimir gravitational self-energy density can account for the measured dark energy density when the SUSY-breaking energy is approximately 5 TeV, in good agreement with current estimates. Furthermore, the Casimir gravitational self-energy appears to provide a quantum mechanism for the well-know geometric relation between the Planck, SUSY and cosmological constant energy scales.

Allan Rosencwaig

2006-06-26

81

Progress in computational unsteady aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After vigorous development for over twenty years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the field of aerospace engineering has arrived at a turning point toward maturity. This paper discusses issues related to algorithm development for the Euler/Navier Stokes equations, code validation and recent applications of CFD for unsteady aerodynamics. Algorithm development is a fundamental element for a good CFD program. Code validation tries to bridge the reliability gap between CFD and experiment. Many of the recent applications also take a multidisciplinary approach, which is a future trend for CFD applications. As computers become more affordable, CFD is expected to be a better scientific and engineering tool.

Obayashi, Shigeru

1993-01-01

82

Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

1976-01-01

83

Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.

Chawla, Kalpana

1995-01-01

84

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A more automated process to produce wind tunnel models using existing facilities is discussed. A process was sought to more rapidly determine the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced aircraft configurations. Such aerodynamic characteristics are determined from theoretical analyses and wind tunnel tests of the configurations. Computers are used to perform the theoretical analyses, and a computer aided manufacturing system is used to fabricate the wind tunnel models. In the past a separate set of input data describing the aircraft geometry had to be generated for each process. This process establishes a common data base by enabling the computer aided manufacturing system to use, via a software interface, the geometric input data generated for the theoretical analysis. Thus, only one set of geometric data needs to be generated. Tests reveal that the process can reduce by several weeks the time needed to produce a wind tunnel model component. In addition, this process increases the similarity of the wind tunnel model to the mathematical model used by the theoretical aerodynamic analysis programs. Specifically, the wind tunnel model can be machined to within 0.008 in. of the original mathematical model. However, the software interface is highly complex and cumbersome to operate, making it unsuitable for routine use. The procurement of an independent computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system with the capability to support both the theoretical analysis and the manufacturing tasks was recommended.

See, M. J.; Cozzolongo, J. V.

1983-01-01

85

The New Approach to Strategic Energy Planning

for numerous industrial firms and the results often provide a basis for modernization of plant operations. Step 2. Identify and develop a detailed profile of your energy suppliers as well as potential suppliers. Establish contact with current...THE NEW APPROACH TO STRATEGIC ENERGY PLANNING N. RICHARD FRIEDMAN Chairman Resource Dynamics Corporation Vienna, Virginia ABSTRACT The changing industrial energy market is placing a new emphasis on the strategic element of energy...

Friedman, N. R.

86

Approaches to Sustainable Energy Consumption Patterns

Unsustainable consumption mostly refers to energy resources and materials’ utilization, fostered by human activity. Therefore,\\u000a energy consumption represents a major challenge when approaching sustainable development issues. Despite many environmental\\u000a strategies relying on improvements in energy and material efficiency, the World’s energy demand is likely to increase in line\\u000a with its population. In addition, cultural patterns of human activities are closely

Damjan Krajnc; Rebeka Lukman; Peter Glavic

87

Aerodynamics problems of space probes in comet atmosphere

The paper deals with aerodynamic problems connected with a space probe moving in a rarefied gas-dust Halley's comet atmosphere on exposure to electromagnetic solar radiation. Their relative approach velocity will be 78 km\\/s.

Iu. A. Ryzhov; V. P. Bass; V. P. Kariagin; V. M. Kovtunenko; K. N. Kuzovkin

1985-01-01

88

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site serves as an online aerodynamics textbook for college students. Offered by the department of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Mechatronic Engineering at the University of Sydney, the material is divided into several main categories. These include fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, gasdynamics, aircraft performance, and propulsion. Each of these sections has many specific topics that are discussed in detail. There are MATLAB, Excel, and FORTRAN files and data sheets that accompany the reading, but they are best used as reference and are not needed to understand most of the material.

89

Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

1989-01-01

90

Nanoscale Material Approaches to Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

Nanoscale material approaches -- superlattices, nano dots and second phase nano-inclusions -- have become the dominant approach to enhancing the figure of merit (ZT) in thermoelectric materials for various energy conversion applications. The primary mechanism for improvement has been the significant reduction in lattice thermal conductivity through phonon scattering processes in nanoscale materials, which are not fully understood, without affecting

Rama Venkatasubramanian

2009-01-01

91

Aerodynamics of high-speed railway train

Railway train aerodynamic problems are closely associated with the flows occurring around train. Much effort to speed up the train system has to date been paid on the improvement of electric motor power rather than understanding the flow around the train. This has led to larger energy losses and performance deterioration of the train system, since the flows around train

Raghu S Raghunathan; H.-D Kim; T Setoguchi

2002-01-01

92

AEROSPACE SCIENCES Applied aerodynamics

. In Europe, Airbus delivered the first A380 for use in passenger revenue service, while aerodynamic design in noise emission and fuel burn com- pared to existing aircraft. Next-generation tactical transport AFRL enable future transport air- craft to take off and land in short distances while providing fast

Xu, Kun

93

Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design

Sean Graham; Patrick Bigatel

2004-01-01

94

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indicial aerodynamic influence coefficients were evaluated from potential theory for a thin, flexible wing with supersonic leading and trailing edges only. The analysis is based on the use of small surface areas in which the downwash is assumed uniform. Within this limitation, the results are exact except for the restriction of linearized theory. The areas are not restricted either to square boxes or Mach boxes. A given area may be any rectangle or square which may or may not be cut by the Mach forecone, and any area can be used anywhere in the forecone without loss of accuracy.

Warner, R. W.

1975-01-01

95

Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

Le?niewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

2014-08-01

96

Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird.

Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a variety of empirical tests. Here we provide measurements of the wake of hovering rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) obtained with digital particle image velocimetry that show force asymmetry: hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and only 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry is probably due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. The wake of hummingbird wings also reveals evidence of leading-edge vortices created during the downstroke, indicating that they may operate at Reynolds numbers sufficiently low to exploit a key mechanism typical of insect hovering. Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan. PMID:15973407

Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

2005-06-23

97

We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system. PMID:23262604

Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

2012-12-20

98

Modified PROMETHEE approach for assessing energy technologies

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to elaborate a multi-criteria methodology for the performance assessment of energy supply technologies, which also takes into account the dynamics of technological change. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach chosen is based on the multi-criteria outranking methodology Preference Ranking Organisation METHod for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), which is linked to the concept of technology's life

Julia Oberschmidt; Jutta Geldermann; Jens Ludwig; Meike Schmehl

2010-01-01

99

Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

1999-01-01

100

Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009suspension, road, aerodymamics, and of course the driver. In recent\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009years, however vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009yielding several important performance improvements. This review\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic down force and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009how it improves race

Joseph Katz

2006-01-01

101

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.

Potter, J. Leith

1992-01-01

102

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

Cole, Jennifer Hansen

2010-01-01

103

Thermal Monitoring Approaches for Energy Savings Verification

THERMAL MONITORING APPROACHES FOR ENERGY SAVINGS VERIFICATION John R. McBride Charles J. Bohmer Roger H. Lippman MarkJ. Zem Senior Scientist Senior Instrumentation Senior Instrumentation Senior Instrumentation & Monitoring Specialist.... REFERENCES 1. Bohmer, c., Lippman, R., and McBride, 1., Monitoring EQUipment Installation Manual Third Edition, LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program, Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1995. 96 ESL-IE-96...

McBride, J. R.; Bohmer, C. J.; Lippman, R. H.; Zern, M. J.

104

Aeroelastic control of stability and forced response of supersonic rotors by aerodynamic detuning

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row, is a new approach to passive flutter and forced response control. In this paper, a mathematical model for aerodynamic detuning is developed and utilized to demonstrate the aeroelastic stability enhancement due to aerodynamic detuning of supersonic blade rows. In particular, a model is developed to analyze both the torsion mode and the coupled bending-torsion mode unstalled supersonic flutter and torsion mode aerodynamically forced response characteristics of an aerodynamically detuned rotor operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus. As small solidity variations do not have a dominant effect on the steady-state performance of a rotor, the aerodynamic detuning mechanism considered is nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent blades.

Hoyniak, Daniel; Fleeter, Sanford

1987-01-01

105

An Institutional Approach to Understanding Energy Transitions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, whose function is invisible to most users, 2) coordination and collective-action problems that are path dependent, and 3) difficulty in scaling up RE technologies. Because energy transitions rely on technological and social innovations, I am interested in how institutional factors can be leveraged to surmount these obstacles. The overarching question that underlies my research is: What constellation of institutional, biophysical, and social factors are essential for an energy transition? My objective is to derive a set of "design principles," that I term institutional drivers, for energy transitions analogous to Ostrom's institutional design principles. My dissertation research will analyze energy transitions using two approaches: applying the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework and a comparative case study analysis comprised of both primary and secondary sources. This dissertation includes: 1) an analysis of the world's energy portfolio; 2) a case study analysis of five countries; 3) a description of the institutional factors likely to promote a transition to renewable-energy use; and 4) an in-depth case study of Thailand's progress in replacing nonrenewable energy sources with renewable energy sources. My research will contribute to our understanding of how energy transitions at different scales can be accomplished in developing countries and what it takes for innovation to spread in a society.

Koster, Auriane Magdalena

106

Full-scale wind turbine rotor aerodynamics research

The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve wind turbine technology at the NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative instrumentation and data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. Data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

1994-11-01

107

High-angle-of-attack aerodynamics - Lessons learned

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, the military and civil technical communities have undertaken numerous studies of the high angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics of advanced airplane and missile configurations. The method of approach and the design methodology employed have necessarily been experimental and exploratory in nature, due to the complex nature of separated flows. However, despite the relatively poor definition of many of the key aerodynamic phenomena involved for high-alpha conditions, some generic guidelines for design consideration have been identified. The present paper summarizes some of the more important lessons learned in the area of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics with examples of a number of key concepts and with particular emphasis on high-alpha stability and control characteristics of high performance aircraft. Topics covered in the discussion include the impact of design evolution, forebody flows, control of separated flows, configuration effects, aerodynamic controls, wind-tunnel flight correlation, and recent NASA research activities.

Chambers, J. R.

1986-01-01

108

Aerodynamics: The Mathematical Implications

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit from the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute is "an attempt to develop a unit in mathematics that will provide topics for students interested in the aviation trades." The unit can be used to cover all areas of mathematics from areas in geometry sectors to basic addition of fraction and decimal numbers. These general math concepts will be introduced using aerodynamics and aviation language and it is hoped that students will begin "to understand the applicability of some of the mathematics concepts they have learned." This curriculum unit also includes sample lesson plans and references.

2007-06-14

109

Computational Approaches for Understanding Energy Metabolism

There has been a surge of interest in understanding the regulation of metabolic networks involved in disease in recent years. Quantitative models are increasingly being used to i nterrogate the metabolic pathways that are contained within this complex disease biology. At the core of this effort is the mathematical modeling of central carbon metabolism involving glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (referred to as energy metabolism). Here we discuss several approaches used to quantitatively model metabolic pathways relating to energy metabolism and discuss their formalisms, successes, and limitations. PMID:23897661

Shestov, Alexander A; Barker, Brandon; Gu, Zhenglong; Locasale, Jason W

2013-01-01

110

Aeroacoustic and aerodynamic applications of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in the field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics associated with viscous flows are examined and related to developments to the understanding of specific phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. A key element of the nonequilibrium theory is the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady dissipative processes near equilibrium, and variational calculus is used to apply this principle to several examples of viscous flow. A review of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its role in fluid motion are presented. Several formulations are presented of the local entropy production rate and the local energy dissipation rate, two quantities that are of central importance to the theory. These expressions and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady viscous flows are used to identify parallel-wall channel flow and irrotational flow as having minimally dissipative velocity distributions. Features of irrotational, steady, viscous flow near an airfoil, such as the effect of trailing-edge radius on circulation, are also found to be compatible with the minimum principle. Finally, the minimum principle is used to interpret the stability of infinitesimal and finite amplitude disturbances in an initially laminar, parallel shear flow, with results that are consistent with experiment and linearized hydrodynamic stability theory. These results suggest that a thermodynamic approach may be useful in unifying the understanding of many diverse phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.

Horne, W. Clifton; Smith, Charles A.; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

1991-01-01

111

Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

Cross, Rod

2007-01-01

112

On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

Millson, David

2000-01-01

113

DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present

R McCallen; K Salari; J Ortega; P Castellucci; D Pointer; F Browand; J Ross; B Storms

2007-01-01

114

Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

Steers, L.

1978-01-01

115

Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

Verdon, Joseph M.

1989-01-01

116

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

Zahm, A F

1924-01-01

117

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

Mehta, R. D.

1985-01-01

118

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

Mehta, R. D.

119

Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The analysis of field test data

Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteady aerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.

Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Sciences

1994-08-01

120

Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

2013-01-01

121

A Kinematical Approach to Dark Energy Studies

We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological ''dark energy'' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all {Lambda}CDM models have j(t) = 1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Applying our model to the three best available sets of redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t) = j, we measure q{sub 0} = -0.81 {+-} 0.14 and j = 2.16{sub -0.75}{sup +0.81}, results that are consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} confidence level. A standard ''dynamical'' analysis of the same data, employing the Friedmann equations and modeling the dark energy as a fluid with an equation of state parameter, w (constant), gives {Omega}{sub m} = 0.306{sub -0.040}{sup +0.042} and w = -1.15{sub -0.18}{sup +0.14}, also consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} level. In comparison to dynamical analyses, the kinematical approach uses a different model set and employs a minimum of prior information, being independent of any particular gravity theory. The results obtained with this new approach therefore provide important additional information and we argue that both kinematical and dynamical techniques should be employed in future dark energy studies, where possible. Our results provide further interesting support for the concordance {Lambda}CDM paradigm.

Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2006-06-06

122

Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

Mueller, Thomas J.

123

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of the progress of modeling the aerodynamic effects on the blades of a Darrieus wind turbine is presented. Interference is discussed in terms of blade/blade wake interaction and improvements in single and multiple stream tube models, of vortex simulations of blades and their wakes, and a hybrid momentum/vortex code to combine fast computation time with interference-describing capabilities. An empirical model has been developed for treating the properties of dynamic stall such as airfoil geometry, Reynolds number, reduced frequency, angle-of-attack, and Mach number. Pitching circulation has been subjected to simulation as potential flow about a two-dimensional flat plate, along with applications of the concepts of virtual camber and virtual incidence, with a cambered airfoil operating in a rectilinear flowfield. Finally, a need to develop a loading model suitable for nonsymmetrical blade sections is indicated, as well as blade behavior in a dynamic, curvilinear regime.

Klimas, P. C.

1982-05-01

124

Jet Quenching Beyond the Energy Loss Approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the jet quenching effect in heavy ion collisions, based on medium-induced splitting functions calculated from Soft Collinear Effective Theory with Glauber Gluons. Our method is formulated in the language of DGLAP evolution equations with medium-induced splitting functions. In the small-x soft gluon approximation we analytically solve the evolution equations and find an intuitive connection to the energy loss approach. For central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC we quantify the effect of finite-x corrections for the nuclear modification factor and compare to data.

Ovanesyan, Grigory

2015-02-01

125

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of rotary-wing aircraft in general is defined. The energy effectiveness of helicopters is compared with that of other static thrust generators in hover, as well as with various air and ground vehicles in forward translation. The most important aspects of rotor-blade dynamics and rotor control are reviewed. The simple physicomathematical model of the rotor offered by the momentum theory is introduced and its usefulness and limitations are assessed. The combined blade-element and momentum theory approach, which provides greater accuracy in performance predictions, is described as well as the vortex theory which models a rotor blade by means of a vortex filament or vorticity surface. The application of the velocity and acceleration potential theory to the determination of flow fields around three dimensional, non-rotating bodies as well as to rotor aerodynamic problems is described. Airfoil sections suitable for rotors are also considered.

Stepniewski, W. Z.

1979-01-01

126

Impulse-Based Dynamic Simulation of Articulated Rigid Bodies with Aerodynamics

We propose a physically-based modeling approach to generate effect of aerodynamics. We take the impulse-based method that allows us to treat, articulation, contact, collision in a unified manner. We use the concept of dynamic pressure which is the pressure related to the relative wind velocity, and is frequently adopted in flight simulation and wing design. Moreover, we calculate the aerodynamics

Chia-Da Lee; Li-Chen Fu

2006-01-01

127

FY 2004 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

The objective of this report is: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices. The approaches used were: (1) Develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles

R C McCallen; K Salari; J Ortega; P Castellucci; C Eastwood; K Whittaker; L J DeChant; C J Roy; J L Payne; B Hassan; W D Pointer; F Browand; M Hammache; T Hsu; J Ross; D Satran; J T Heineck; S Walker; D Yaste; R Englar; A Leonard; M Rubel; P Chatelain

2004-01-01

128

Progress in reducing aerodynamic drag for higher efficiency of heavy duty trucks (class 7-8)

This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation

M Brady; F Browand; M Hammache; J T Heineck; A Leonard; R McCallen; J Ross; W Rutledge; K Salari; B Storms

1999-01-01

129

Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation

Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J. T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

1999-01-01

130

Aerodynamic Shape Optimal Design in Automotive Headlamp

The optimization of aerodynamic shape of head-lamp is helpful to enhance automotive aerodynamics and appearance. As aerodynamic shape parameters of head-lamp are complex and their values are ambiguous, the paper optimizes aerodynamic shape parameters of head-lamp by use of orthogonal experimental design based on numerical simulation. According to aesthetics and function, the paper divides aerodynamic shape parameters of head-lamp into

Lanfang Jiang; Hong Liu; Guozhong Chai

2009-01-01

131

Improving the aerodynamics of top fuel dragsters

The standard drag race is a straight ahead quarter mile race from a standing stop. As engine technology has improved, the speeds attained at the end of the quarter mile have increased. As the speed has increased, the importance of aerodynamic effects on the dragster has also increased. Lift and drag are the two primary aerodynamic effects. Lift is produced vertically downward to increase the normal force on the rear wheels, thereby increasing the ability to transmit energy from the engine through the wheels to the racetrack. Drag is an unwanted aerodynamic effect. Drag is produced by viscous interaction between the dragster and the air, by separation causing profile drag, and as a result of the lift being produced. This paper addresses the mechanisms of lift and drag production by a high speed dragster and proposes some design changes that can decrease the drag while maintaining the necessary negative lift. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on dragster models confirm that reductions in drag can be achieved. The effects of these changes on the elapsed time and final speed are estimated using a computer simulation of a quarter mile drag race. The simulation predicts a decrease in elapsed time of almost 0.1 seconds and an increase in top speed of approximately 10 miles per hour.

Winn, R.C.; Kohlman, D.L.; Kenner, M.T.

1998-07-01

132

Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 percent in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady aerodynamic model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -0.14 percent.

Pak, Chan-gi

2011-01-01

133

Aerodynamics of engine-airframe interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the variational approach for the solution of inviscid aerodynamic problems using solution adaptive grids is discussed. The formulation of a new, directional weighting, functional has been shown to have desirable properties. The scheme has been applied to compute the transonic flow past two-dimensional airfoils using the Euler equations of inviscid, compressible flow. Transonic flows in quasi-one-dimensional nozzles and over the two dimensional airfoils are solved on the various solution-adaptive-grids to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed directional-concentration functional and the grid adaptation process from the stand point of improving the solution accuracy and demonstrating the overall convergence.

Caughey, David A.

1989-01-01

134

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter has been performed. It is shown that slender wing theory can be modified to account for the effect of Mach number and leading edge roundness on both attached and separated flow loads. The orbiter unsteady aerodynamics can be computed by defining two equivalent slender wings, one for attached flow loads and another for the vortex-induced loads. It is found that the orbiter is in the transonic speed region subject to vortex-shock-boundary layer interactions that cause highly nonlinear or discontinuous load changes which can endanger the structural integrity of the orbiter wing and possibly cause snap roll problems. It is presently impossible to simulate these interactions in a wind tunnel test even in the static case. Thus, a well planned combined analytic and experimental approach is needed to solve the problem.

Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

1976-01-01

135

Aerodynamics Via Acoustics: Application of Acoustic Formulas for Aerodynamic Calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.

Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

1986-01-01

136

Aerodynamics via acoustics - Application of acoustic formulas for aerodynamic calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.

Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

1986-01-01

137

Aerodynamic performance of thin wings at low Reynolds numbers

Purpose – This study seeks to explore the aerodynamic performance of wings with different shapes at low Reynolds numbers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The airfoils of these wings are made from aluminum plates, and the maximum cord length and wingspan are 15 cm. Wings A to D are plates with 6 percent Gottingen camber but different wing planforms. The forward-half sections of

J. L. Lin; C. Y. Wei; C. Y. Lin

2007-01-01

138

Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.

Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.

1979-01-01

139

Aerodynamic Heating and Deceleration During Entry into Planetary Atmospheres

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic Heating and Deceleration During Entry into Planetary Atmospheres. Dr. Chapman's lecture examines the physics behind spacecraft entry into planetary atmospheres. He explains how scientists determine if a planet has an atmosphere and how scientists can compute deceleration when the atmospheric conditions are unknown. Symbols and equations used for calculations for aerodynamic heating and deceleration are provided. He also explains heat transfer in bodies approaching an atmosphere, deceleration, and the use of ablation in protecting spacecraft from high temperatures during atmospheric entry. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030962. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1962-01-01

140

Product Design for Energy: An Inverted Pyramid Approach

to specific issues. This approach, termed as the "inverted pyramid" approach, and outlined in this paper is beneficial in providing energy related information to product designers and manufacturing process specialists at an early stage in the product life...

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Alkadi, N. M.; Plummer, R. W.

141

System Identification and POD Method Applied to Unsteady Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The representation of unsteady aerodynamic flow fields in terms of global aerodynamic modes has proven to be a useful method for reducing the size of the aerodynamic model over those representations that use local variables at discrete grid points in the flow field. Eigenmodes and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) modes have been used for this purpose with good effect. This suggests that system identification models may also be used to represent the aerodynamic flow field. Implicit in the use of a systems identification technique is the notion that a relative small state space model can be useful in describing a dynamical system. The POD model is first used to show that indeed a reduced order model can be obtained from a much larger numerical aerodynamical model (the vortex lattice method is used for illustrative purposes) and the results from the POD and the system identification methods are then compared. For the example considered, the two methods are shown to give comparable results in terms of accuracy and reduced model size. The advantages and limitations of each approach are briefly discussed. Both appear promising and complementary in their characteristics.

Tang, Deman; Kholodar, Denis; Juang, Jer-Nan; Dowell, Earl H.

2001-01-01

142

Low Dimensional Modeling And Computational Analysis of Dragonfly Wing Aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key aerodynamic features and lift production of insect wings. However, the kinematics of the insect's wing and the resulting aerodynamics is highly complex, and does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is therefore needed to dissect the wing gait and gain insight into the remarkable aerodynamic performance of the insect's wing. The focus of the current investigation is on the aerodynamics of the wing of a dragonfly (Erythemis Simplicicollis) in hovering motion. The three-dimensional, time-dependent wing kinematics is obtained via a high-speed photogrammetry system. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is then applied to extract the essential features of the wing gait. The SVD spectrum shows that the first four modes capture more than 80% of the motion. Aerodynamics of wings flapping with kinematics synthesized from SVD modes will be discussed in detail.

Ren, Yan; Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo

2011-11-01

143

Static Aerodynamics of the Mars Exploration Rover Entry Capsule

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static aerodynamics for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) aeroshell are presented. This aerodynamic database was an integral part of the end-to-end simulation used in pre- entry analysis for determining the MER entry design requirements for development of the MER entry system, as well as targeting the MER landing sites. The database was constructed using the same approach used for Mars Pathfinder (MPF). However, the MER aerodynamic database is of much higher fidelity and tailored to the MER entry trajectories. This set of data includes direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations covering the transitional regime of the entry trajectory and computational fluid dynamics calculations describing the aerodynamics in the hypersonic and supersonic continuum regimes. An overview of the methodology used to generate the data is given along with comparisons to important features in the MPF aerodynamics and related heritage data. The MER and MPF comparison indicates that trajectory specific data is required to properly model the flight characteristics of a.blunt entry capsule at Mars.

Schoenenberger, Mark; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Desai, Prasun

2005-01-01

144

An energy landscape approach to protein aggregation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein aggregation into ordered fibrillar structures is the hallmark of a class of diseases, the most prominent examples of which are Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Recent results (e.g. Baldwin et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011) suggest that the aggregated state of a protein is in many cases thermodynamically more stable than the soluble state. Therefore the solubility of proteins in a cellular context appears to be to a large extent under kinetic control. Here, we first present a conceptual framework for the description of protein aggregation ( see AK Buell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010) that is an extension to the generally accepted energy landscape model for protein folding. Then we apply this model to analyse and interpret a large set of experimental data on the kinetics of protein aggregation, acquired mainly with a novel biosensing approach (see TPJK Knowles et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 2007). We show how for example the effect of sequence modifications on the kinetics and thermodynamics of human lysozyme aggregation can be understood and quantified (see AK Buell et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011). These results have important implications for therapeutic strategies against protein aggregation disorders, in this case lysozyme systemic amyloidosis.

Buell, Alexander; Knowles, Tuomas

2012-02-01

145

New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

1972-01-01

146

Aerodynamic performance of scarf inlets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scarf inlet is characterized by having a longer lower lip than upper lip leading to both aerodynamic and acoustic advantages. Aerodynamically, a scarf inlet has higher angle of attack capability and is less likely to ingest foreign objects while the aircraft is on the ground. Acoustically, a scarf inlet provides for reduced inlet radiated noise levels below the engine as a result of upward reflection and refraction of inlet radiated noise. Results of a wind tunnel test program are presented which illustrate the aerodynamic performance of two different scarf inlet designs. Based on these results, scarf inlet performance is summarized in a way to illustrate the advantages and limitations of a scarf inlet compared to an axisymmetric inlet.

Abbott, J. M.

1979-01-01

147

Challenges and Complexity of Aerodynamic Wing

aerodynamic performance and structural weight. Flow past the airplane is governed by a system of highly #12Chapter 1 Challenges and Complexity of Aerodynamic Wing Design Kasidit Leoviriyakit and Antony and complexity of aerodynamic wing design for a transonic aircraft, which arise from the complex nature of flow

Jameson, Antony

148

Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

Stack, Sharon H. (compiler)

1986-01-01

149

Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan

2012-02-01

150

Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

2008-01-01

151

Six Degree of Freedom Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model with Aerodynamics

in the analysis of a non-traditional morphing aircraft design. Reference [11] attempts to optimize the shape of a morphing airfoil which will lead to low aerodynamic drag as well as low actuator energy usage. Reference [17] discusses the application of various bio...

Niksch, Adam

2010-01-14

152

Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure that is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid-point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions that are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. Practically identical optimization results are obtained that are independent of the method used to represent the surface. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process is achieved by implementing both of the design procedure improvements.

Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

1994-01-01

153

Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric Aircraft Engines and Pratt & Whitney for evaluation, (3) a collaborative effort has been initiated with the National Institute of Standards and Testing to develop a Standard Data Access Interface, and (4) a blade tip clearance capability has been implemented into the Structural Airfoil Blade Engineering Routine (SABER) program. We plan to continue to develop the data mappers and data management tools. As progress is made, additional efforts will be made to apply these tools to propulsion system applications.

1995-01-01

154

New technology in turbine aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

1972-01-01

155

AIAA 20030185 Aerodynamically Controlled Expansion

An aerodynamically controlled expansion propulsion nozzle that improves hover thrust performance by 2.5 percent in the divergent section, thereby relieving over-expansion losses during hover. This study specifies design system, which must be efficient for high-speed flight and during hover. At the same time, the STOVL

Texas at Arlington, University of

156

Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

1982-01-01

157

POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

2010-01-01

158

Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird

Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either

Douglas R. Warrick; Bret W. Tobalske; Donald R. Powers

2005-01-01

159

The Aerodynamics of Hummingbird Flight

(Abstract) Hummingbirds fly with their wings almost fully extended during their entire wingbeat. This pattern, associated with having proportionally short humeral bones, long distal wing elements, and assumed to be an adaptation for extended hovering flight, has lead to predictions that the aerodynamic mechanisms exploited by hummingbirds during hovering should be similar to those observed in insects. To test these

Douglas R. Warrick; Bret W. Tobalske; Donald R. Powers; Michael H. Dickinson

160

Energy management - The delayed flap approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

Bull, J. S.

1976-01-01

161

Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

Griffin, D.A. [R. Lynette & Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-04-01

162

Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 % in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -.14 %.

Pak, Chan-Gi

2011-01-01

163

ExoMars Entry Demonstrator Module Aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamics data for ExoMars Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients are generated as a function of total angle-of- attack, Knudsen number and Mach number depending on the flight regime. Bridging functions were developed from DSMC computations in transitional flow regime between free-molecular and continuum flow regimes. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions with non- equilibrium flow assumptions in hot hypersonic (M>6.3) and with an equivalent approach below. Wind-tunnel in cold hypersonic (ONERA S4Ma - M=10) and in high-enthalpy facilities (ONERA F4 and DLR-HEG) tests were conducted in order to address uncertainty model in hypersonic-supersonic flow regime. For M<3.5, wind- tunnel campaign was conducted in DLR-TMK (1.8

Tran, P.; Beck, J.

2011-08-01

164

Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

1990-01-01

165

Formulation for Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient approach for simultaneous aerodynamic analysis and design optimization is presented. This approach does not require the performance of many flow analyses at each design optimization step, which can be an expensive procedure. Thus, this approach brings us one step closer to meeting the challenge of incorporating computational fluid dynamic codes into gradient-based optimization techniques for aerodynamic design. An adjoint-variable method is introduced to nullify the effect of the increased number of design variables in the problem formulation. The method has been successfully tested on one-dimensional nozzle flow problems, including a sample problem with a normal shock. Implementations of the above algorithm are also presented that incorporate Newton iterations to secure a high-quality flow solution at the end of the design process. Implementations with iterative flow solvers are possible and will be required for large, multidimensional flow problems.

Hou, G. W.; Taylor, A. C., III; Mani, S. V.; Newman, P. A.

1993-01-01

166

Energy planning for development - needs and approaches

The capability of developing countries to carry out comprehensive national energy planning is examined. The analytical methods or models constructed for analyzing the energy system have to take into account the specific context in which they are built to address issues of interest to development planners. Issues discussed are resource development and technology research, energy equity considerations to all peoples in a nation, the pricing policy, and the balance of payments considerations. The impartance of the availability of adequate skilled personnel and training programs to impart the requisite skill necessary to carry out the planning is discussed. Various surveys were conducted to determine the training needs for energy planners in developing countries. (MCW)

Mubayi, V

1981-01-01

167

Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.

Brewer, Edwin B.

1989-01-01

168

A New Approach To Wind Energy: Opportunities And Challenges

1 A New Approach To Wind Energy: Opportunities And Challenges John O. Dabiria , Julia R. Greera, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA Abstract. Despite common characterizations of modern wind energy technology as mature, there remains a persistent disconnect between the vast global wind energy resource--which is 20

Dabiri, John O.

169

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis of flexible-aircraft modeling techniques encompassing aerodynamic, control, and elastic-structure effects is investigated analytically, with a focus on methods which employ minimum-state approximations for the unsteady aerodynamics. Rational-function approximations to generalized aerodynamic forces are reviewed; constraints and lag-coefficient optimization are explained; the problem of physical weighting in the minimum-state equations of motion is examined; and results of typical analyses from the NASA Active Flexible Wing project (Perry et al., 1988) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The minimum-state approach is shown to produce accurate models at significantly reduced computation costs.

Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Karpel, Mordechay

1989-01-01

170

Computation of External Aerodynamics for a Canard Rotor/Wing Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic loads on a Canard Rotor/Wing vehicle are investigated using inviscid numerical simulations to understand the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle during conversion from rotorcraft to fixed wing flight. Steady numerical simulations at five azimuthal rotor indices are presented over a quarter turn of the rotor, producing 19 points during a single rotation due to symmetry. A Cartesian mesh approach is used to compute the steady flow field. All computations are done with a faired over engine inlet and exit to be consistent with the wind tunnel model geometry. Modification to the geometry is suggested and the aerodynamic effect of the modification is discussed.

Pandya, S.; Aftosmis, M. J.

2000-01-01

171

Local Energy Approach to Steel Fatigue

This paper presents an experimental protocol developed to locally estimate different terms of the energy balance associated with the fatigue of DP600 steel. The method involves two quantitative imaging techniques. First, digital image correlation provides displacement fields and, after derivation, strain and strain-rate fields. A variational method, associated with an energy functional, is used to simultaneously identify elastic parameter and

A. Chrysochoos; B. Berthel; F. Latourte; S. Pagano; B. Wattrisse; B. Weber

2008-01-01

172

Group Dynamics Approach to Industrial Energy Management

This paper is aimed at people who want to start or rejuvenate an energy management effort. The information in this paper is based on a combination of four years as the energy coordinator of a fertilizer manufacturing plant and other experiences...

Thomas, D. G.

173

Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

2008-08-01

174

Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

Fabunmi, James A.

1991-01-01

175

Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

Polutchko, R. J.

1974-01-01

176

Faster Aerodynamic Simulation With Cart3D

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-developed aerodynamic simulation tool is ensuring the safety of future space operations while providing designers and engineers with an automated, highly accurate computer simulation suite. Cart3D, co-winner of NASA's 2002 Software of the Year award, is the result of over 10 years of research and software development conducted by Michael Aftosmis and Dr. John Melton of Ames Research Center and Professor Marsha Berger of the Courant Institute at New York University. Cart3D offers a revolutionary approach to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the computer simulation of how fluids and gases flow around an object of a particular design. By fusing technological advancements in diverse fields such as mineralogy, computer graphics, computational geometry, and fluid dynamics, the software provides a new industrial geometry processing and fluid analysis capability with unsurpassed automation and efficiency.

2003-01-01

177

A New Aerodynamic Data Dispersion Method for Launch Vehicle Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method for implementing aerodynamic data dispersion analysis is herein introduced. A general mathematical approach combined with physical modeling tailored to the aerodynamic quantity of interest enables the generation of more realistically relevant dispersed data and, in turn, more reasonable flight simulation results. The method simultaneously allows for the aerodynamic quantities and their derivatives to be dispersed given a set of non-arbitrary constraints, which stresses the controls model in more ways than with the traditional bias up or down of the nominal data within the uncertainty bounds. The adoption and implementation of this new method within the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Project has resulted in significant increases in predicted roll control authority, and lowered the induced risks for flight test operations. One direct impact on launch vehicles is a reduced size for auxiliary control systems, and the possibility of an increased payload. This technique has the potential of being applied to problems in multiple areas where nominal data together with uncertainties are used to produce simulations using Monte Carlo type random sampling methods. It is recommended that a tailored physics-based dispersion model be delivered with any aerodynamic product that includes nominal data and uncertainties, in order to make flight simulations more realistic and allow for leaner spacecraft designs.

Pinier, Jeremy T.

2011-01-01

178

Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight

The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute

Z. Jane Wang

2000-01-01

179

Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

2003-01-01

180

'Quick win' approach to cutting energy use.

Among the many challenges the NHS currently faces is an urgent need to cut its burgeoning energy costs and, in specialist building management system manufacturer Trend Control Systems' words, its "massive carbon footprint". Part of the solution, the company argues, lies in making better use of existing building energy management systems (BEMS). Optimising their operation and performance can, key account manager John O'Leary explains, bring substantial savings without the need for additional investment. PMID:20527591

O'Leary, John

2010-05-01

181

X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

Brauckmann, Gregory J.

1998-01-01

182

Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

1993-01-01

183

Integrated Computational and Experimental Studies of Flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle Aerodynamics

This paper describes recent research on flapping-wing micro air vehicles, based on insect-like aerodynamics. A combined analytical, experimental and CFD approach is being adopted to understand and design suitable wing aerodynamics and kinematics. The CFD has used the Fluent 6 commercial code together with the grid-generating software Gambit 2; the experiments have been conducted in air and water, using various

K Knowles; P C Wilkins; S A Ansari; R W Zbikowski

184

On Löwdin's projection technique and the energy-corrected approaches

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a new energy correction to standard approaches of the coupled-cluster (CC) method has been proposed, namely the so-called (complete) renormalized CC method [K. Kowalski and P. Piecuch, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 5644 (2000) and references therein], as well as the energy-corrected CCSD approach [X. Li and J. Paldus, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1941 (2002) and references therein], which are based on the method of moments of the CC method of Kowalski and Piecuch [Computational Chemistry: Reviews of Current Trends (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), Vol. 5, p. 1]. These methods provide an efficient and noniterative, and thus less demanding, approach than do the iterative approaches and avoid, e.g., the fallacies of the standard CCSD(T) method. We show how this type of energy corrections may be related to Löwdin's projection and bracketing techniques and also to a standard extrapolation scheme which is applied here to the results of the new energy corrections.

Meißner, Holger

2003-08-01

185

Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1976 NASA initiated the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program to assist in the development of technology for more fuel-efficient aircraft for commercial airline use. The Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project of the ACEE program is intended to lay the advanced-technology foundation for a new generation of turbofan engines. This project, planned as a seven-year cooperative government-industry effort, is aimed at developing and demonstrating advanced component and systems technologies for engines that could be introduced into airline service by the late 1980s or early 1990s. In addition to fuel savings, new engines must offer potential for being economically attractive to the airline users and environmentally acceptable. A description is presented of conceptual energy-efficient engine designs which offer potential for achieving all of the goals established for the EEE Project.

Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

1978-01-01

186

Approaches for biological and biomimetic energy conversion

This article highlights areas of research at the interface of nanotechnology, the physical sciences, and biology that are related to energy conversion: specifically, those related to photovoltaic applications. Although much ongoing work is seeking to understand basic processes of photosynthesis and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, electron transfer, and ion transport, application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices is still in its infancy. To develop systems that produce energy in an efficient manner, it is important both to understand the biological mechanisms of energy flow for optimization of primary structure and to appreciate the roles of architecture and assembly. Whether devices are completely synthetic and mimic biological processes or devices use natural biomolecules, much of the research for future power systems will happen at the intersection of disciplines. PMID:16567648

LaVan, David A.; Cha, Jennifer N.

2006-01-01

187

Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.

A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1. PMID:25638120

Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T

2015-01-01

188

Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.

Ozawa, T.; Fujita, K.; Suzuki, T.

2015-01-01

189

A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply

Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a

Jonathan W. Kimball; Brian T. Kuhn; Robert S. Balog

2009-01-01

190

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

191

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st century new we focused on the case of un- conventional natural gas recovery from the Marcellus shale In addition

Walter, M.Todd

192

Two-Stage Axial Compressor Rig Designed To Develop and Validate Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future aeropropulsion gas turbine engines must be affordable in addition to being energy efficient and environmentally benign. Progress in aerodynamic design capability is required not only to maximize the specific thrust of next-generation engines without sacrificing fuel consumption, but also to reduce parts count by increasing the aerodynamic loading of the compression system. To meet future compressor requirements, the NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to more compact, higher efficiency, and wider operability configurations than are currently in operation.

Larosiliere, Louis M.

2003-01-01

193

Aerodynamic performance of thin wings at low Reynolds numbers

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the aerodynamic performance of wings with different shapes at low Reynolds numbers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The airfoils of these wings are made from aluminum plates, and the maximum chord length and wingspan are 15 cm. Wings A-D are plates with 6 percent Gottingen camber but different wing platforms. The forward-half sections

Jih-Lung Lin; Chin-Yi Wei; Chi-Yu Lin

2009-01-01

194

Prediction of aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical approach for predicting tonal aerodynamic noise from "open rotors" is presented. "Open rotor" refers to an engine architecture with a pair of counter-rotating propellers. Typical noise spectra from an open rotor consist of dominant tones, which arise due to both the steady loading/thickness and the aerodynamic interaction between the two bladerows. The proposed prediction approach utilizes Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to obtain near-field description of the noise sources. The near-to-far-field propagation is then carried out by solving the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Since the interest of this paper is limited to tone noise, a linearized, frequency domain approach is adopted to solve the wake/vortex-blade interaction problem.This paper focuses primarily on the speed scaling of the aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors. Even though there is no theoretical mode cut-off due to the absence of nacelle in open rotors, the far-field noise is a strong function of the azimuthal mode order. While the steady loading/thickness noise has circumferential modes of high order, due to the relatively large number of blades (?10-12), the interaction noise typically has modes of small orders. The high mode orders have very low radiation efficiency and exhibit very strong scaling with Mach number, while the low mode orders show a relatively weaker scaling. The prediction approach is able to capture the speed scaling (observed in experiment) of the overall aerodynamic noise very well.

Sharma, Anupam; Chen, Hsuan-nien

2013-08-01

195

Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.

Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

1977-01-01

196

Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also contributed to energy efficiency convergence analysis employing the delta-convergence and unconditional & conditional beta-convergence concepts, investigating economic energy efficiency differences across the four US sectors using panel data models. The results show that, in terms of technical and allocative energy efficiency, the energy-intensive sectors, SCG and textile mill products, tend to catch the energy extensive sectors, the Com and furniture & fixtures, being conditional on sector-specific characteristics. Conditional convergence results indicate that technology, capital and energy are crucial factors in determining energy efficiency differences across the US sectors, implying that environmental or energy policies, and technological changes should be industry specific across the US sectors. The main finding is that the marginal value measure conveys information on both technical and allocative energy efficiency and accounts for all costs and benefits of energy consumption including environmental and externality costs.

Khademvatani, Asgar

197

Within wind energy research there is a drive towards the development of a “smart rotor”; a rotor of which the loading can be measured and controlled through the application of a sensor system, a control system and an aerodynamic device. Most promising solutions from an aerodynamic point of view are trailing edge flaps, either hinged or continuously deformable. An experiment

A. W. Hulskamp; A. Beukers; H. E. N. Bersee; J. W. Van Wingerden; T. Barlas

2007-01-01

198

Outsourced Energy Management- A Trustee Approach

-side management, supply-side management, and risk management. The following sections of this paper outline the Data Management, Demand Side Management and Risk Management services, and discuss Supply-Side services in detail. 220 ESL-IE-03-05-27 Proceedings... to the client's corporate culture. The key to the program is to build a voluntary network within the industrial client's existing management structure that will provide the infrastructure to develop and sustain energy improvements. Risk Management...

Ciarlone, D. F.; O'Connor, T. W.

199

Aerodynamic Parameters of a UK City Derived from Morphological Data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional building data and a morphometric model are used to estimate the aerodynamic roughness length z 0 and displacement height d over a major UK city (Leeds). Firstly, using an adaptive grid, the city is divided into neighbourhood regions that are each of a relatively consistent geometry throughout. Secondly, for each neighbourhood, a number of geometric parameters are calculated. Finally, these are used as input into a morphometric model that considers the influence of height variability to predict aerodynamic roughness length and displacement height. Predictions are compared with estimations made using standard tables of aerodynamic parameters. The comparison suggests that the accuracy of plan-area-density based tables is likely to be limited, and that height-based tables of aerodynamic parameters may be more accurate for UK cities. The displacement heights in the standard tables are shown to be lower than the current predictions. The importance of geometric details in determining z 0 and d is then explored. Height variability is observed to greatly increase the predicted values. However, building footprint shape only has a significant influence upon the predictions when height variability is not considered. Finally, we develop simple relations to quantify the influence of height variation upon predicted z 0 and d via the standard deviation of building heights. The difference in these predictions compared to the more complex approach highlights the importance of considering the specific shape of the building-height distributions. Collectively, these results suggest that to accurately predict aerodynamic parameters of real urban areas, height variability must be considered in detail, but it may be acceptable to make simple assumptions about building layout and footprint shape.

Millward-Hopkins, J. T.; Tomlin, A. S.; Ma, L.; Ingham, D. B.; Pourkashanian, M.

2013-03-01

200

Energy Security: a robust optimization approach to design a robust ...

paper uses the approach of Robust Optimization to model uncertainty on the ... In the United States, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and the ... and energy imports might reach up to 65% of the EU consumption by 2030 [11].

2010-06-11

201

The 727 approach energy management system avionics specification (preliminary)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware and software requirements for an Approach Energy Management System (AEMS) consisting of an airborne digital computer and cockpit displays are presented. The displays provide the pilot with a visual indication of when to manually operate the gear, flaps, and throttles during a delayed flap approach so as to reduce approach time, fuel consumption, and community noise. The AEMS is an independent system that does not interact with other navigation or control systems, and is compatible with manually flown or autopilot coupled approaches. Operational use of the AEMS requires a DME ground station colocated with the flight path reference.

Jackson, D. O.; Lambregts, A. A.

1976-01-01

202

A Casimir approach for radiative self-energy

We apply a Casimir energy approach to evaluate the self-energy or one-photon radiative correction for an electron in a hydrogen orbital. This linking of the Lamb shift to the Casimir effect is obtained by treating the hydrogen orbital as a one-electron shell and including the probability of the electron being at a particular radius in that orbital and the probability that the electron will interact with a virtual photon of a given energy.

Allan Rosencwaig

2006-06-21

203

The problem with the “portfolio approach” in American energy policy

One predominant theme in American energy and electricity policy is the idea of a “portfolio approach,” or that society must\\u000a embrace an assortment of different energy technologies simultaneously. This article argues that such a strategy, in practice,\\u000a is (a) biased, since fossil fuel and nuclear technologies have been heavily favored; (b) opaque, obscuring the different full\\u000a social costs of energy

Benjamin K. Sovacool

2008-01-01

204

Oscillating aerodynamics and flutter of an aerodynamically detuned cascade in an incompressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is developed and utilized to demonstrate the enhanced torsion mode stability associated with alternate blade circumferential aerodynamic detuning of a rotor operating in an incompressible flow field. The oscillating cascade aerodynamics, including steady loading effects, are determined by developing a complete first order unsteady aerodynamic analysis. An unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is then utilized, thereby enabling the stability of both conventional uniformly spaced rotors and detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotors to be determined. To demonstrate the enhanced flutter aeroelastic stability associated with this aerodynamic detuning mechanism, this model is applied to a baseline unstable rotor with a Gostelow flow geometry.

Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

1989-01-01

205

A method for the reduction of aerodynamic drag of road vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is proposed for the reduction of the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies, particularly for application to road transport vehicles. This technique consists of installation of panels on the forward surface of the vehicle facing the airstream. With the help of road tests, it was demonstrated that the attachment of proposed panels can reduce aerodynamic drag of road vehicles and result in significant fuel cost savings and conservation of energy resources.

Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Larry W.; Leary, Terrance O.

1990-01-01

206

Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.

Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.

1991-01-01

207

Aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressors

Saving money with an efficient pipeline system design depends on accurately predicting compressor performance and ensuring that it meets the manufacturer's guaranteed levels. When shop testing with the actual gas is impractical, an aerodynamic test can ascertain compressor efficiency, but the accuracy and consistency of data acquisition in such tests is critical. Low test-pressure levels necessitate accounting for the effects of Reynolds number and heat transfer. Moreover, the compressor user and manufacturer must agree on the magnitude of the corrections to be applied to the test data.

Sayyed, S.

1981-12-01

208

Aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades via the blade element momentum (BEM) based approach and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based approach. From this research, it is possible to draw a series of detailed guidelines on small wind turbine blade design and analysis. The research also provides a platform for further comprehensive study using these two approaches. The wake induction corrections and stall corrections of the BEM method were examined through a case study of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine. A hybrid stall correction model was proposed to analyse wind turbine power performance. The proposed model shows improvement in power prediction for the validation case, compared with the existing stall correction models. The effects of the key rotor parameters of a small wind turbine as well as the blade chord and twist angle distributions on power performance were investigated through two typical wind turbines, i.e. a fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine and a fixed-pitch fixed-speed (FPFS) wind turbine. An engineering blade design and analysis code was developed in MATLAB to accommodate aerodynamic design and analysis of the blades.. The linearisation for radial profiles of blade chord and twist angle for the FPFS wind turbine blade design was discussed. Results show that, the proposed linearisation approach leads to reduced manufacturing cost and higher annual energy production (AEP), with minimal effects on the low wind speed performance. Comparative studies of mesh and turbulence models in 2D and 3D CFD modelling were conducted. The CFD predicted lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil S809 were compared with wind tunnel test data and the 3D CFD modelling method of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine were validated against measurements. Airfoil aerodynamic characterisation and wind turbine power performance as well as 3D flow details were studied. The detailed flow characteristics from the CFD modelling are quantitatively comparable to the measurements, such as blade surface pressure distribution and integrated forces and moments. It is confirmed that the CFD approach is able to provide a more detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis for wind turbine airfoils and rotors..

Tang, Xinzi

209

Aerodynamics of dragonfly flight and robotic design

A pair of dynamically scaled robotic dragonfly model wings was developed to investigate the aerodynamic effect of wing-wing interaction in dragonfly flight. Instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured while forewing-hindwing phase difference (?) was systematically varied. Experimental results showed that, i) for hovering flight, ?=0° enhanced the lift force on both forewing and hindwing; ?=180° reduced the total lift force, but

Zheng Hu; Raymond Mccauley; Steve Schaeffer; Xinyan Deng

2009-01-01

210

Review of aerodynamic design in the Netherlands

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic design activities in the Netherlands, which take place mainly at Fokker, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and Delft University of Technology (TUD), are discussed. The survey concentrates on the development of the Fokker 100 wing, glider design at TUD, and research at NLR in the field of aerodynamic design. Results are shown to illustrate these activities.

Labrujere, Th. E.

1991-01-01

211

The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

Schmitz, F. W.

1980-01-01

212

Numerical Analysis of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics

Flapping-wing aerodynamics recently has generated a great deal of interest and increasing research effort because of the potential application in micro-air vehicles. The objective of this study is to critically review the recent progress of CFD analysis of flapping- wing aerodynamics. Critical parameters like flapping modes, frequency and amplitude for optimal thrust generation and propulsive efficiency are identified. Current gaps

M. A. Ashraf; J. C. S. Lai; J. Young

213

Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and

Sean Graham

2007-01-01

214

Energy Aware Paradigm for Energy Efficient ICT: a Systemic Approach Sergio Ricciardi

Energy Aware Paradigm for Energy Efficient ICT: a Systemic Approach Sergio Ricciardi Technical) Jordi Girona 3 08034 Barcelona, Spain +34 93 4016982 pareta@ac.upc.edu ABSTRACT Energy is imposing as the new constraint in the ICT sector and the problem of energy efficient in ICT has consequently arisen

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

215

Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies conceptually and practically integrate urban spatial and energy planning approaches. The combined modelling approach that will be developed based on the described sectorial models holds the potential to represent hybrid energy systems coupling distributed generation of electricity with thermal conversion systems.

Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.

2013-09-01

216

Efficient optimization of integrated aerodynamic-structural design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The introduction of composite materials is having a profound effect on the design process. Because these materials permit the designer to tailor material properties to improve structural, aerodynamic and acoustic performance, they require a more integrated multidisciplinary design process. Because of the complexity of the design process numerical optimization methods are required. The present paper is focused on a major difficulty associated with the multidisciplinary design optimization process - its enormous computational cost. We consider two approaches for reducing this computational burden: (1) development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculation using perturbation methods; and (2) the use of approximate numerical optimization procedures. Our efforts are concentrated upon combined aerodynamic-structural optimization. Results are presented for the integrated design of a sailplane wing. The impact of our computational procedures on the computational costs of integrated costs of integrated designs are discussed.

Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Eppard, W. M.; Kao, P. J.

1987-01-01

217

Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.

Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1995-01-01

218

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

219

Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

220

Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability

This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by the experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The experiments reported here also demonstrate a decrease in aerodynamic drag near Sg = 1.23 +/- 0.02. It is hypothesized that this decrease in drag over a narrow band of Sg values is due to a rapid damping of coning motions (precession and nutation). Observation of this drag decrease at a consistent value of Sg demonstrates the relati...

Courtney, Elya R

2013-01-01

221

Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ? 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394

Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

2010-01-01

222

Effective-surface-energy approach for size effects in ferroics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple approach enabling analytical treatments of size effects in ferroelectric samples of complicated shapes for the cases where long-range depolarizing effects are not involved. The key element of the approach is the presentation of the energy of the system as the sum of the bulk and effective surface energy (like in the classical nucleation problem), while the latter is expressed as a function of the bulk value of the order parameter. The effective surface energy is calculated in terms of the Kretschmer-Binder framework. The size-driven shift of TC in the ferroelectric thin films with in-plane polarization and the nanowires with axial polarization is studied using the proposed approach and the results are compared with those exact. In the limit of large extrapolation length, the approach reproduces the exact results (analytical and numerical). For short extrapolation lengths, it can provide a good approximation to the exact results for the case of second-order phase transitions. For ferroelectrics with the first-order phase transition having the maximal correlation length smaller than the extrapolation length (a common situation in perovskites), the approach provides as well an appropriate description of the size effect on the transition temperature. The proposed approach can be used for the description of the size effect not only in ferroelectrics, but in other ferroics as well.

Wang, Jin; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

2015-03-01

223

Morphometric Approach to the Solvation Free Energy of Complex Molecules

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the solvation free energy of a complex molecule such as a protein can be calculated using only four geometrical measures of the molecular structure and corresponding thermodynamical coefficients. We compare results from this morphometric approach to those obtained by an elaborate statistical-mechanical theory in liquid state physics for a large variety of different structures of protein G and find excellent agreement. Since the computational time is drastically reduced, the new approach provides a practical and efficient way for calculating the solvation free energy which can be employed when this quantity has to be calculated for a large number of structures, as in a simulation study of protein folding.

Roth, Roland; Harano, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Masahiro

2006-08-01

224

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils at High Speeds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with an experimental investigation of the aerodynamical characteristics of airfoils at high speeds. Lift, drag, and center of pressure measurements were made on six airfoils of the type used by the air service in propeller design, at speeds ranging from 550 to 1,000 feet per second. The results show a definite limit to the speed at which airfoils may efficiently be used to produce lift, the lift coefficient decreasing and the drag coefficient increasing as the speed approaches the speed of sound. The change in lift coefficient is large for thick airfoil sections (camber ratio 0.14 to 0.20) and for high angles of attack. The change is not marked for thin sections (camber ratio 0.10) at low angles of attack, for the speed range employed. At high speeds the center of pressure moves back toward the trailing edge of the airfoil as the speed increases. The results indicate that the use of tip speeds approaching the speed of sound for propellers of customary design involves a serious loss in efficiency.

Briggs, L J; Hull, G F; Dryden, H L

1925-01-01

225

A multicriteria lifespan energy efficiency approach to intelligent building assessment

This paper presents a multicriteria decision-making model for lifespan energy efficiency assessment of intelligent buildings (IBs). The decision-making model called IBAssessor is developed using an analytic network process (ANP) method and a set of lifespan performance indicators for IBs selected by a new quantitative approach called energy–time consumption index (ETI). In order to improve the quality of decision-making, the authors

Zhen Chen; Derek Clements-Croome; Ju Hong; Heng Li; Qian Xu

2006-01-01

226

Post-Stall Aerodynamic Modeling and Gain-Scheduled Control Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multidisciplinary research e.ort that combines aerodynamic modeling and gain-scheduled control design for aircraft flight at post-stall conditions is described. The aerodynamic modeling uses a decambering approach for rapid prediction of post-stall aerodynamic characteristics of multiple-wing con.gurations using known section data. The approach is successful in bringing to light multiple solutions at post-stall angles of attack right during the iteration process. The predictions agree fairly well with experimental results from wind tunnel tests. The control research was focused on actuator saturation and .ight transition between low and high angles of attack regions for near- and post-stall aircraft using advanced LPV control techniques. The new control approaches maintain adequate control capability to handle high angle of attack aircraft control with stability and performance guarantee.

Wu, Fen; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Kim, Sungwan

2005-01-01

227

An Approach to Sociable Robots through Self-distributed Energy

Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are naturally inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to cluster animal and

Trung Dung Ngo; Henrik Schiøler

2006-01-01

228

Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: Application to electronic energy transfer

Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Reichman, David R. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 3000 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Markland, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-02-28

229

Energy-density functional approach for non-spherical nuclei

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of the self-consistent energy-density functional method to non-spherical nuclei is briefly described. A comparison of the spherical and the non-spherical approach in lead nuclei is given and first results for the chain of strongly deformed dysprosium isotopes are presented.

Krömer, E.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Fayans, S. A.; Zawischa, D.

1995-02-01

230

Cost of alternative sources of energy -- Early outlook approach

This paper discusses the difficulties of developing cost projections for alternative energy source projects. The authors offer their ideas for a standardized cost framework with which to compare competing ideas. The topics of the paper include surveying relevant literature, searching for the right approach, binary polling scenario analysis and its application, and a project view of research and development.

Samid, G. [Virginia Technology Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Samid, A. [AGS Technologies, Inc., Tel-Aviv (Israel)

1996-11-01

231

Data driven signal processing: an approach for energy efficient computing

The computational switching activity of digital CMOS circuits can be dynamically minimized by designing algorithms that exploit signal statistics. This results in processors that have time-varying power requirements and perform computation on demand. An approach is presented to minimize the energy dissipation per data sample in variable-load DSP systems by adaptively minimizing the power supply voltage for each sample using

Anantha Chandrakasan; Vadim Gutnik; Thucydides Xanthopoulos

1996-01-01

232

Energy Conservation in Our Schools--A Practical Approach.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A practical approach designed to reduce energy waste by schools is to improve the knowledge and upgrade the skills of school building custodians. This paper discusses an operation and maintenance training program for custodians developed by the Will County (Illinois) educational service region. The major parts of the program consist of skill…

Brewin, C. Edwin; Racich, Matthew J.

233

A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission

A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission Minh Quoc Nguyen of optimizing the efficiency of a wireless power transmission system in terms of mutual inductance. A circuit model was developed in PSpice to simulate the effect of mutual inductance by inductive coupling on power

Chiao, Jung-Chih

234

System for determining aerodynamic imbalance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is provided for determining tracking error in a propeller or rotor driven aircraft by determining differences in the aerodynamic loading on the propeller or rotor blades of the aircraft. The system includes a microphone disposed relative to the blades during the rotation thereof so as to receive separate pressure pulses produced by each of the blades during the passage thereof by the microphone. A low pass filter filters the output signal produced by the microphone, the low pass filter having an upper cut-off frequency set below the frequency at which the blades pass by the microphone. A sensor produces an output signal after each complete revolution of the blades, and a recording display device displays the outputs of the low pass filter and sensor so as to enable evaluation of the relative magnitudes of the pressure pulses produced by passage of the blades by the microphone during each complete revolution of the blades.

Churchill, Gary B. (inventor); Cheung, Benny K. (inventor)

1994-01-01

235

Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute unsteady viscous flows, governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, about a two dimensional flapping wing which mimics the motion of an insect wing. I will present two main results: the existence of a prefered frequency in forward flight and its physical origin, and 2) the vortex dynamics and forces in hovering dragonfly flight.

Wang, Z. Jane

2000-03-01

236

Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this report is to bring together the investigations of the various aerodynamic laboratories in this country and Europe upon the subject of aerofoils suitable for use as lifting or control surfaces on aircraft. The data have been so arranged as to be of most use to designing engineers and for the purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report.

1921-01-01

237

Image processing of aerodynamic data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital image processing techniques in analyzing and evaluating aerodynamic data is discussed. An image processing system that converts images derived from digital data or from transparent film into black and white, full color, or false color pictures is described. Applications to black and white images of a model wing with a NACA 64-210 section in simulated rain and to computed low properties for transonic flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil are presented. Image processing techniques are used to visualize the variations of water film thicknesses on the wing model and to illustrate the contours of computed Mach numbers for the flow past the NACA 0012 airfoil. Since the computed data for the NACA 0012 airfoil are available only at discrete spatial locations, an interpolation method is used to provide values of the Mach number over the entire field.

Faulcon, N. D.

1985-01-01

238

A nonlinear complementarity approach for the national energy modeling system

The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a large-scale mathematical model that computes equilibrium fuel prices and quantities in the U.S. energy sector. At present, to generate these equilibrium values, NEMS sequentially solves a collection of linear programs and nonlinear equations. The NEMS solution procedure then incorporates the solutions of these linear programs and nonlinear equations in a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel approach. The authors describe how the current version of NEMS can be formulated as a particular nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP), thereby possibly avoiding current convergence problems. In addition, they show that the NCP format is equally valid for a more general form of NEMS. They also describe several promising approaches for solving the NCP form of NEMS based on recent Newton type methods for general NCPs. These approaches share the feature of needing to solve their direction-finding subproblems only approximately. Hence, they can effectively exploit the sparsity inherent in the NEMS NCP.

Gabriel, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kydes, A.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Energy Information Administration

1995-03-08

239

Community-based Energy Model: A Novel Approach to Developing Sustainable Energy

Conventional energy development and management systems are centralized and grid-connected, making the setup vulnerable and unsustainable. In this paper, a new energy development and management model is proposed. This proposed approach aims at utilizing available natural resources and considers the community as the main stakeholder to implement the model. Locally produced wastes are considered as one source for generating energy

M. I. Khan; A. B. Chhetri; M. R. Islam

2007-01-01

240

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, 2006 1 Distributed Control Agents Approach to Energy

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, 2006 1 Distributed Control Agents Approach to Energy is an important step toward improved fight- through and self-healing capabilities of naval warships a new scheme for an energy management system in the form of distributed control agents. The control

Lai, Hong-jian

241

Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.

Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

1993-01-01

242

Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

Reynolds, Gregory A.

2001-01-01

243

Aerodynamic roughness over an inhomogeneous ground surface

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic roughness parameter z 0 over inhomogeneous ground surfaces, such as cities, rural towns and so on, is determined by analyzing the wind data at AMeDAS observatories in the Tohoku and Kanto districts of Japan, by making use of Rossby number similarity theory. It is found that the aerodynamic roughness parameter is proportional to the average size of the roughness elements. A practical method of estimating the aerodynamic roughness parameter over an extensive area with various inhomogeneities is developed. In this method, the Digital National Land Information data bank is employed. As an example, the roughness parameter distribution around Tsukuba Academic City is presented.

Kondo, Junsei; Yamazawa, Hiromi

1986-06-01

244

Nonlinear programming extensions to rational function approximations of unsteady aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper deals with approximating unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include both the same flexibility in constraining them and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used 'extended least-squares' method. Optimal selection of 'nonlinear' parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear (nongradient) optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is of lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free 'linear' parameters are determined using least-squares matrix techniques on a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from the different approaches are described, and results are presented which show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example. The results obtained for the example problem show a significant (up to 63 percent) reduction in the number of differential equations used to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces in linear time-invariant equations of motion as compared to a conventional method in which nonlinear terms are not optimized.

Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.

1987-01-01

245

Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.

Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav

2011-01-01

246

Tandem cylinder aerodynamic sound control using porous coating

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is concerned with the application of porous coatings as a passive flow control method for reducing the aerodynamic sound from tandem cylinders. The aim here is to perform a parametric proof-of-concept study to investigate the effectiveness of porous treatment on bare tandem cylinders to control and regularize the vortex shedding and flow within the gap region between the two bluff bodies, and thereby control the aerodynamic sound generation mechanism. The aerodynamic simulations are performed using 2D transient RANS approach with k - ? turbulence model, and the acoustic computations are carried out using the standard Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy. Numerical flow and acoustic results are presented for bare tandem cylinders and porous-covered cylinders, with different porosities and thicknesses. Experimental flow and acoustic data are also provided for comparison. Results show that the proper use of porous coatings can lead to stabilization of the vortex shedding within the gap region, reduction of the vortex shedding interaction with the downstream body, and therefore the generation of tonal and broadband noise. It has also been observed that the magnitude and the frequency of the primary tone reduce significantly as a result of the flow regularization. The proposed passive flow-induced noise and vibration control method can potentially be used for other problems involving flow interaction with bluff bodies.

Liu, Hanru; Azarpeyvand, Mahdi; Wei, Jinjia; Qu, Zhiguo

2015-01-01

247

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

248

Application of CFD techniques toward the validation of nonlinear aerodynamic models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the regimes of applicability of nonlinear models describing the unsteady aerodynamic responses to aircraft flight motions are described. The potential advantages of computational methods over experimental methods are discussed and the concepts underlying mathematical modeling are reviewed. The economic and conceptual advantages of the modeling procedure over coupled, simultaneous solutions of the gas dynamic equations and the vehicle's kinematic equations of motion are discussed. The modeling approach, when valid, eliminates the need for costly repetitive computation of flow field solutions. For the test cases considered, the aerodynamic modeling approach is shown to be valid.

Schiff, L. B.; Katz, J.

1985-01-01

249

Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.

Rose McCallen, Dan Flowers, Tim Dunn; Jerry Owens; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J. T. Heineck, David Driver; James Bell; Steve Walker; Gregory Zilliac

2000-06-19

250

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.

Messina, Michael D.

1995-01-01

251

An Investigation of Inboard Rotor/blade Aerodynamics and its Influence on Blade Design Helge Aagaard Madsen Risoe The rotor loading is directly specified not the blade design The approach: #12;Presentation at Sandia the BEM model for the aerodynamic modeling Often the blade design is done by numerical optimization where

252

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the aerodynamic characteristics and the process of developing the preflight aerodynamic database of the NASA/ Orbital X-34 reusable launch vehicle is presented in this paper. Wind tunnel tests from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers including ground effect tests at low subsonic speeds were conducted in various facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. The APAS (Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System) code was used for engineering level analysis and to fill the gaps in the wind tunnel test data. This aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach numbers, angles of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections anticipated in the complete flight envelope.

Pamadi , Bandu N.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.

1999-01-01

253

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

254

A modeling approach to energy savings of flying Canada geese using computational fluid dynamics.

A flapping flight mechanism of the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) was estimated using a two-jointed arm model in unsteady aerodynamic performance to examine how much energy can be saved in migration. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate airflow fields around the wing and in the wake. From the distributions of velocity and pressure on the wing, it was found that about 15% of goose flight energy could be saved by drag reduction from changing the morphology of the wing. From the airflow field in the wake, it was found that a pair of three-dimensional spiral flapping advantage vortices (FAV) was alternately generated. We quantitatively deduced that the optimal depth (the distance along the flight path between birds) was around 4m from the wing tip of a goose ahead, and optimal wing tip spacing (WTS, the distance between wing tips of adjacent birds perpendicular to the flight path) ranged between 0 and -0.40m in the spanwise section. It was found that a goose behind can save about 16% of its energy by induced power from FAV in V-formation. The phase difference of flapping between the goose ahead and behind was estimated at around 90.7° to take full aerodynamic benefit caused by FAV. PMID:23261397

Maeng, Joo-Sung; Park, Jae-Hyung; Jang, Seong-Min; Han, Seog-Young

2013-03-01

255

Rudolf Hermann, wind tunnels and aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rudolf Hermann was born on December 15, 1904 in Leipzig, Germany. He studied at the University of Leipzig and at the Aachen Institute of Technology. His involvement with wind tunnels began in 1934 when Professor Carl Wieselsberger engaged him to work at Aachen on the development of a supersonic wind tunnel. On January 6, 1936, Dr. Wernher von Braun visited Dr. Hermann to arrange for use of the Aachen supersonic wind tunnel for Army problems. On April 1, 1937, Dr. Hermann became Director of the Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the Army installation at Peenemunde. Results from the Aachen and Peenemunde wind tunnels were crucial in achieving aerodynamic stability for the A-4 rocket, later designated as the V-2. Plans to build a Mach 10 'hypersonic' wind tunnel facility at Kochel were accelerated after the Allied air raid on Peenemunde on August 17, 1943. Dr. Hermann was director of the new facility. Ignoring destruction orders from Hitler as WWII approached an end in Europe, Dr. Hermann and his associates hid documents and preserved wind tunnel components that were acquired by the advancing American forces. Dr. Hermann became a consultant to the Air Force at its Wright Field in November 1945. In 1951, he was named professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Minnesota. In 1962, Dr. Hermann became the first Director of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), a position he held until he retired in 1970.

Lundquist, Charles A.; Coleman, Anne M.

2008-04-01

256

Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.

1975-01-01

257

Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

Sazonov, V. V.

1983-01-01

258

Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

259

Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

2011-01-01

260

Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, part 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers given at the conference present the results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include two-dimensional configurations, three-dimensional configurations, transonic aircraft, and the space shuttle.

1975-01-01

261

The aerodynamics of the beautiful game

We consider the aerodynamics of football, specifically, the interaction between a ball in flight and the ambient air. Doing so allows one to account for the characteristic range and trajectories of balls in flight, as well ...

Bush, John W. M.

2013-01-01

262

HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

1999-01-01

263

16.100 Aerodynamics, Fall 2002

This course extends fluid mechanic concepts from Unified Engineering to the aerodynamic performance of wings and bodies in sub/supersonic regimes. 16.100 generally has four components: subsonic potential flows, including ...

Darmofal, David L.

264

Atmospheric tests of trailing-edge aerodynamic devices

An experiment was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable-span, trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. The goal of the investigation was to directly compare results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were used to define effective changes in the aerodynamic and hinge-moment coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans (7.5%, 15%, and 22.5%) and configurations (Spoiler-Flap, vented sileron, and unvented aileron). Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (about a 30% reduction from infinite-span) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

Miller, L.S.; Huang, S. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)] [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Quandt, G.A.

1998-01-01

265

Aerodynamic Performance Studies for Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical progress made in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research program has supported an expanded research program in aerodynamics including an ever growing experimental data base, methodology development across the Mach number range, and sonic boom. Progress in the aerodynamics area could facilitate the choice of the highly swept subsonic leading edge, arrow wing, known for superior supersonic cruise efficiency.

Mascitti, V. R.

1976-01-01

266

Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

1991-01-01

267

Multiparticle production in nuclear collisions using effective-energy approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The study is based on the earlier proposed model, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics and shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. The effectiveenergy approach is shown to reveal a similarity in the energy dependence for the most central and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.

Nath Mishra, Aditya; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K. G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

2015-03-01

268

A method for multiaxial fatigue life prediction using energy approaches

Fatigue criteria based on the concept of damage energy have been proposed and evaluated with experimental fatigue data generated under uniaxial as well as biaxial loading conditions. Most of the energy-based methods utilize plastic energy of stress-strain hysteresis loops as a correlating parameter. Limited success has been made in predicting fatigue life in the low-cycle fatigue range where the plastic energy of the hysteresis loops is well defined. However, is is difficult to estimate the plastic hysteresis energy in the high-cycle range where the stress-strain behavior is virtually elastic. Failure to adequately predict high-cycle fatigue life is an obvious shortcoming of the plastic energy-based method. A new method is proposed for multiaxial fatigue life prediction using strain energy as a correlating parameter which is physically associated with modes of fatigue fracture on a critical plane of the material that may be sensitive to either axial stress or shear at a given temperature. Biaxial fatigue data were analyzed for type 304 stainless steel and SAE 1045 steel subjected to in-phase and 90{degrees} out-of-phase tension/torsion loading at room and elevated temperatures. Comparisons were made between the experimental data and theoretical predictions to show the effectiveness to the new energy-based approach.

Liu, K.C.

1991-01-01

269

DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag coefficient of the vehicle. Furthermore, the evaluation of the impact of small changes in radiator or grille dimensions has revealed that the total drag is not particularly sensitive to those changes. This observation leads to two significant conclusions. First, a small increase in radiator size to accommodate heat rejection needs related to new emissions restrictions may be tolerated without significant increases in drag losses. Second, efforts to reduce drag on the tractor requires that the design of the entire tractor be treated in an integrated fashion. Simply reducing the size of the grille will not provide the desired result, but the additional contouring of the vehicle as a whole which may be enabled by the smaller radiator could have a more significant effect.

McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

2007-01-04

270

Structure of the Universe: An Approach Based on Gravitational Energy

An approach to modelling the universe based on the requisites of gravitational energy. This model is explained as it relates to the stages of the universal life cycle and the continued existence of the universe as it is known today. The article attempts to reconcile the most common problems with physical models of the universe and overcome doubt as to its validity through the most common questions.

Anthony Baldocchi

2002-05-07

271

Predicting Accumulations of Ice on Aerodynamic Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LEWICE is a computer program that predicts the accumulation of ice on two-dimensional aerodynamic surfaces under conditions representative of the flight of an aircraft through an icing cloud. The software first calculates the airflow surrounding the body of interest, then uses the airflow to compute the trajectories of water droplets that impinge on the surface of the body. The droplet trajectories are also used to compute impingement limits and local collection efficiencies, which are used in subsequent ice-growth calculations and are also useful for designing systems to protect against icing. Next, the software predicts the shape of accumulating ice by modeling transfers of mass and energy in small control volumes. The foregoing computations are repeated over several computational time steps until the total icing exposure time is reached. Results of computations by LEWICE have been compared with an extensive database of measured ice shapes obtained from experiments, and have been shown to closely approximate those shapes under most conditions of interest to the aviation community.

Bidwell, Colin; Potapczuk, Mark; Addy, Gene; Wright, William

2003-01-01

272

Aerodynamic Design on Unstructured Grids for Turbulent Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerodynamic design algorithm for turbulent flows using unstructured grids is described. The current approach uses adjoint (costate) variables for obtaining derivatives of the cost function. The solution of the adjoint equations is obtained using an implicit formulation in which the turbulence model is fully coupled with the flow equations when solving for the costate variables. The accuracy of the derivatives is demonstrated by comparison with finite-difference gradients and a few example computations are shown. In addition, a user interface is described which significantly reduces the time required for setting up the design problems. Recommendations on directions of further research into the Navier Stokes design process are made.

Anderson, W. Kyle; Bonhaus, Daryl L.

1997-01-01

273

Aerodynamic design and analysis of a highly loaded turbine exhaust

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic design and analysis of a turbine exhaust volute manifold is described. This turbine exhaust system will be used with an advanced gas generator oxidizer turbine designed for very high specific work. The elevated turbine stage loading results in increased discharge Mach number and swirl velocity which, along with the need for minimal circumferential variation of fluid properties at the turbine exit, represent challenging volute design requirements. The design approach, candidate geometries analyzed, and steady state/unsteady CFD analysis results are presented.

Huber, F. W.; Montesdeoca, X. A.; Rowey, R. J.

1993-01-01

274

Nonlinear potential analysis techniques for supersonic-hypersonic aerodynamic design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate nonlinear inviscid theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at supersonic and moderate hypersonic speeds were developed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to conceptual configuration design level of effort. Second order small disturbance and full potential theory was utilized to meet this objective. Numerical codes were developed for relatively general three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes.

Shankar, V.; Clever, W. C.

1984-01-01

275

Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.

Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.

2005-01-01

276

Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

2012-06-01

277

Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability

This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The relationship between Sg and drag may be used to test the applicability of existing gyroscopic stability formulas for given bullet designs and to evaluate the accuracy of alternate formulas in cases where the existing stability formulas are not as accurate. The most definitive test of formulas predicting stability will always be observation of whether bullets tumble under given conditions. However, observations of drag changes provide valuable supplemental information because they suggest changes in stability as conditions change. Use of a continuous variable (drag) rather than a binary variable (tumbling) allows insight into stability over a range of conditions where the binary variable does not change.

Elya R. Courtney; Michael W. Courtney

2014-10-16

278

Spring 2011 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound

Spring 2011 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound Instructor theory of acoustics; they will serve as an introduction to acoustics for those new to the subject. Great care will be taken to discuss underlying fluid mechanical and acoustic concepts. A considerable number

279

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

1999-01-01

280

Exploring Discretization Error in Simulation-Based Aerodynamic Databases

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work examines the level of discretization error in simulation-based aerodynamic databases and introduces strategies for error control. Simulations are performed using a parallel, multi-level Euler solver on embedded-boundary Cartesian meshes. Discretization errors in user-selected outputs are estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals and we use adaptive mesh refinement to reduce these errors to specified tolerances. Using this framework, we examine the behavior of discretization error throughout a token database computed for a NACA 0012 airfoil consisting of 120 cases. We compare the cost and accuracy of two approaches for aerodynamic database generation. In the first approach, mesh adaptation is used to compute all cases in the database to a prescribed level of accuracy. The second approach conducts all simulations using the same computational mesh without adaptation. We quantitatively assess the error landscape and computational costs in both databases. This investigation highlights sensitivities of the database under a variety of conditions. The presence of transonic shocks or the stiffness in the governing equations near the incompressible limit are shown to dramatically increase discretization error requiring additional mesh resolution to control. Results show that such pathologies lead to error levels that vary by over factor of 40 when using a fixed mesh throughout the database. Alternatively, controlling this sensitivity through mesh adaptation leads to mesh sizes which span two orders of magnitude. We propose strategies to minimize simulation cost in sensitive regions and discuss the role of error-estimation in database quality.

Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

2010-01-01

281

A New Approach to Testing Dark Energy Models by Observations

We propose a new approach to the consistency test of dark energy models with observations. To test a category of dark energy models, we suggest introducing a characteristic Q(z) that in general varies with the redshift z but in those models plays the role of a (constant) distinct parameter. Then, by reconstructing dQ(z)/dz from observational data and comparing it with zero we can assess the consistency between data and the models under consideration. For a category of models that passes the test, we can further constrain the distinct parameter of those models by reconstructing Q(z) from data. For demonstration, in this paper we concentrate on quintessence. In particular we examine the exponential potential and the power-law potential via a widely used parametrization of the dark energy equation of state, w(z) = w_0 + w_a z/(1+z), for data analysis. This method of the consistency test is particularly efficient because for all models we invoke the constraint of only a single parameter space that by choice can be easily accessed. The general principle of our approach is not limited to dark energy. It may also be applied to the testing of various cosmological models and even the models in other fields beyond the scope of cosmology.

Je-An Gu; Chien-Wen Chen; Pisin Chen

2009-08-31

282

Analysis of VAWT aerodynamics and design using the Actuator Cylinder flow model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actuator cylinder (AC) flow model is defined as the ideal VAWT rotor. Radial directed volume forces are applied on the circular path of the VAWT rotor airfoil and constitute an energy conversion in the flow. The power coefficient for the ideal as well as the real energy conversion is defined. The describing equations for the two-dimensional AC model are presented and a solution method splitting the final solution in a linear and non-linear part is briefly described. A family of loadforms approaching the uniform loading is used to study the ideal energy conversion indicating that the maximum power coefficient for the ideal energy conversion of a VAWT could exceed the Betz limit. The real energy conversion of the 5MW DeepWind rotor is simulated with the AC flow model in combination with the blade element analysis. Aerodynamic design aspects are discussed on this basis revealing that the maximum obtainable power coefficient for a fixed pitch VAWT is constrained by the fundamental cyclic variation of inflow angle and relative velocity leading to a loading that deviates considerably from the uniform loading.

Madsen, H. Aa; Paulsen, U. S.; Vitae, L.

2014-12-01

283

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

284

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers

2014-01-01

285

METERING AND MONITORING APPROACHES FOR VERIFYING ENERGY SAVINGS FROM ENERGY CONSERVATION RETROFITS: EXPERIENCES FROM THE FIELD John R. McBride Charles J. Bohmer Roger H. Lippman Senior Scientist Senior Instrumentation Senior Instrumentation..., 18:57-88. 5. Bohmer, c., Lippman, R., and McBride, J., Monitoring Equipment Installation Manual, LoanStar Monitoring and Analysis Program, Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1994. 6. Misuriello, H. "Field...

McBride, J. R.; Bohmer, C. J.; Lippman, R. H.

286

DuPont Approach to Energy Management: A System Wide Approach to Energy Efficiency

Pont is organized (Figure 2) into to two major components: * Conoco - "the petroleum company" * Chemicals & Specialties (C&S) - "the chemical company" In 1997, DuPont net income before nonrecurring charges (Figure 3) was $4.1 billion on sales of $45.1 billion.... Conoco is comprised of into an "upstream" business and a "downstream" business (Figure 4). C&S is comprised of about twenty Strategic Business Units (SBUs), examples of which are Nylon, Lycra?, Specialty Chemicals, and White Pigments. Energy is very...

Stewart, J. W.

287

Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of widely used sampling methods, such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations, to explore complex free energy landscapes is severely hampered by the presence of kinetic bottlenecks. A large number of solutions have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Many are based on the introduction of a bias potential which is a function of a small number of collective variables. However constructing such a bias is not simple. Here we introduce a functional of the bias potential and an associated variational principle. The bias that minimizes the functional relates in a simple way to the free energy surface. This variational principle can be turned into a practical, efficient, and flexible sampling method. A number of numerical examples are presented which include the determination of a three-dimensional free energy surface. We argue that, beside being numerically advantageous, our variational approach provides a convenient and novel standpoint for looking at the sampling problem.

Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

2014-08-01

288

Unsteady incompressible aerodynamics and forced response of detuned blade rows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is developed and utilized to demonstrate the enhanced forced response behavior associated with aerodynamic, structural, and combined aerodynamic-structural detuning of a loaded rotor operating in an incompressible flow field. The unsteady aerodynamic gust response and oscillating cascade aerodynamics are determined by developing both a complete first-order unsteady aerodynamic analysis and a locally analytical solution in individual grid elements of a body fitted computational grid. The aerodynamic detuning is accomplished by means of alternate circumferential airfoil spacing, with alternate blade structural detuning also considered. The beneficial forced response effects of these detuning techniques are then demonstrated by applying this model to various detuned rotor configurations.

Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

1990-01-01

289

Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.

Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.

2012-01-01

290

Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.

Intrieri, Peter F.

1988-01-01

291

Real-Time Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation without Air Flow Angle Measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for estimating aerodynamic parameters in real time from flight data without air flow angle measurements is described and demonstrated. The method is applied to simulated F-16 data, and to flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Modeling results obtained with the new approach using flight data without air flow angle measurements were compared to modeling results computed conventionally using flight data that included air flow angle measurements. Comparisons demonstrated that the new technique can provide accurate aerodynamic modeling results without air flow angle measurements, which are often difficult and expensive to obtain. Implications for efficient flight testing and flight safety are discussed.

Morelli, Eugene A.

2010-01-01

292

Scientific Approach to Renewable Energy Through Solar Cells

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy is increasingly viewed as critically important globally. Solar cells convert the energy of the sun into electricity. The method of converting solar energy to electricity is pollution free, and appears a good practical solution to the global energy problems. Energy policies have pushed for different technologies to decrease pollutant emissions and reduce global climate change. Photovoltaic technology, which utilizes sunlight to generate energy, is an attractive alternate energy source because it is renewable, harmless and domestically secure. Transparent conducting metal oxides, being n-type were used extensively in the production of heterojunction cells using p-type Cu2O. The long held consensus is that the best approach to improve cell efficiency in Cu2O-based photovoltaic devices is to achieve both p- and n-type Cu2O and thus p-n homojunction of Cu2O solar cells. Silicon, which, next to oxygen, is the most represented element in the earth's crust, is used for the production of monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Silicon is easily obtained and processed and it is not toxic and does not form compounds that would be environmentally harmful. In contemporary electronic industry silicon is the main semiconducting element. Thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are the basis of a significant technology with major commercial impact on solar energy production. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells such as CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe compound semiconductors are important for terrestrial applications because of their high efficiency, long-term stable performance and potential for low-cost production. Highest record efficiencies of 19.2% for CIGS and 16.5% for CdTe have been achieved.

Rao, M. C.

293

Local approach to fatigue based on energy considerations

The paper presents a development of a fatigue crack growth theory published by the author in 1981 based on an energy approach. In an ideally elastic material containing a crack the only mechanism through which energy can be absorbed during a virtual crack extension is that associated to the creation of new free surface. It is an in-out situation in that a crack of a given length 2a under a stress state {sigma} either becomes unstable or stays like it is. In a real elastic-plastic material the energy absorption rate R comes mainly from the energy stored ahead of the crack tip as plastic strain energy. The resistance R is no longer represented by a constant term, but becomes a rather complex function of crack length increasing the crack grows. The consequence is that there is sufficient energy in the system to drive the crack to a point where the driving force G is equal to the resistance R and the crack stops. Unloading the system and reloading it, the crack grows by fatigue indicating that the previous condition G = R is no longer satisfied. If this happens it is because the volume that yields ahead of the crack tip is not capable during the reloading to absorb energy with the same rate as before. This causes the crack to grow further to regain the loss through the yielding of new material and establishes again the equilibrium between G and R. The author has related this lack of capability to develop the same energy absorption rate in any of the following cycles to a shake-down effect that takes place in the plastic enclave. The theory and the equation explain why short cracks shall grow faster than large ones. It also explains why the fatigue crack growth rate depends on the ratio between the minimum and maximum stress and is practically the same in any material independently of the yield stress and toughness that the material may have.

Milella, P.P. [ANPA, Rome (Italy)

1996-12-01

294

Energy function-based approaches to graph coloring.

We describe an approach to optimization based on a multiple-restart quasi-Hopfield network where the only problem-specific knowledge is embedded in the energy function that the algorithm tries to minimize. We apply this method to three different variants of the graph coloring problem: the minimum coloring problem, the spanning subgraph k-coloring problem, and the induced subgraph k-coloring problem. Though Hopfield networks have been applied in the past to the minimum coloring problem, our encoding is more natural and compact than almost all previous ones. In particular, we use k-state neurons while almost all previous approaches use binary neurons. This reduces the number of connections in the network from (Nk)(2) to N(2) asymptotically and also circumvents a problem in earlier approaches, that of multiple colors being assigned to a single vertex. Experimental results show that our approach compares favorably with other algorithms, even nonneural ones specifically developed for the graph coloring problem. PMID:18244411

Di Blas, A; Jagota, A; Hughey, R

2002-01-01

295

Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

296

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.

Silva, Walter A.

1993-01-01

297

Intergrowth of calcium phosphates: an interfacial energy approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A factor which is usually ignored in discussions of the induced crystallization of one phase by the surface of another is the surface free energy of the nucleus/substratum interface. Interfacial energies of hydroxyapatite (HAP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and fluorapatite (FAP) microcrystals against aqueous solutions, measured using a thin-layer wicking technique, were 9.0, 4.3 and 18.5 mJ m -2, respectively. The calculated low interfacial energy, 0.93 mJ m -2, between OCP and HAP provides strong support for the suggestion that OCP is the first forming phase that induces HAP crystallization in calcium phosphate precipitation reactions. Using the constant composition kinetics method, the nucleation and growth of OCP on titanium oxide surfaces were investigated. The interfacial energy calculated from the nucleation and growth data compared favorably with that obtained by thin layer wicking. Extending the interfacial energy approach to polymeric substrata such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and the radiofrequency glow discharge treated PMMA demonstrates, in predicting the ability of surfaces to induce mineral nucleation, the importance of the Lewis base parameter.

Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Sethuraman, G.; Nancollas, G. H.

1997-04-01

298

Computation of External Aerodynamics for a Canard Rotor/Wing Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic loads on a Canard Rotor/Wing vehicle are investigated using inviscid numerical simulations in order to understand the flight characteristics of the vehicle during conversion from rotor craft to fixed-wing flight. A series of numerical simulations at seven azimuthal rotor indices are presented covering a quarter turn of the rotor With symmetry arguments, these simulations produce 25 data points for a complete rotation. A Cartesian mesh approach is used to compute the flow field about a configuration with faired-over engine inlet and exhaust that matches the wind tunnel geometry. These simulations were performed using meshes with approximately nine Million Cartesian cells. To better understand the aerodynamic effects of the rotor hub on the configuration, the same set of simulations were repeated for a hub-less geometry. Overall loads for both configurations are similar but are due to somewhat different aerodynamic mechanisms.

Pandya, S. A.; Aftosmis, M. J.

2001-01-01

299

Skyrme energy-density functional approach to collective dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent developments for the microscopic description of nuclear collective dynamics in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory is presented. It is shown that the quasiparticle random-phase approximation is ready for the systematic investigation of the giant resonances in the entire mass region of nuclear chart and that the collective Hamiltonian approach gives the quantitative description of the low-lying states in transitional nuclei with the Skyrme and pairing energy density functionals as a microscopic input. We put emphasis on necessity of the massive use of high performance computers to carry out such microscopic calculations.

Yoshida, Kenichi; Hinohara, Nobuo; Nakatsukasa, Takashi

2011-09-01

300

Fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance and dynamics analyses with a general purpose optimizer. The procedure minimizes a linear combination of power required (in hover, forward flight, and maneuver) and vibratory hub shear. The design variables include pretwist, taper initiation, taper ratio, root chord, blade stiffnesses, tuning masses, and tuning mass locations. Aerodynamic constraints consist of limits on power required in hover, forward flight and maneuver; airfoil section stall; drag divergence Mach number; minimum tip chord; and trim. Dynamic constraints are on frequencies, minimum autorotational inertia, and maximum blade weight. The procedure is demonstrated for two cases. In the first case the objective function involves power required (in hover, forward flight, and maneuver) and dynamics. The second case involves only hover power and dynamics. The designs from the integrated procedure are compared with designs from a sequential optimization approach in which the blade is first optimized for performance and then for dynamics. In both cases, the integrated approach is superior.

Walsh, Joanne L.; Lamarsh, William J., II; Adelman, Howard M.

1992-01-01

301

Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor. PMID:22617112

de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

2012-06-01

302

Aerodynamic analysis of a tumbling American football

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the aerodynamic effects on an American football are characterized, especially in a tumbling, or end-over-end, motion as seen in a typical kickoff or field goal attempt. The objective of this study is to establish aerodynamic coefficients for the dynamic motion of a tumbling American football. A subsonic wind tunnel was used to recreate a range of air velocities that, when coupled with rotation rates and differing laces orientations, would provide a test bed for aerodynamic drag, side, and lift coefficient analysis. Test results quantify effect of back-spin and top-spin on lift force. Results show that the presence of laces imposes a side force in the opposite direction of the laces orientation. A secondary system was installed to visualize air flow around the tumbling ball and record high-speed video of wake patterns, as a qualitative check of measured force directions.

Hare, Daniel Edmundson

303

Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

304

Aerodynamic collection efficiency of fog water collectors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fog water collectors (FWC) can provide water to arid zones with persistent advection and orographic fog. A key feature of any FWC is the mesh used to capture fog droplets. Two relevant mesh characteristics are its shade coefficient and the characteristics of the fibers used to weave or knit the mesh. This paper develops a simple superposition model to analyze the effect of these factors on the Aerodynamic Collection Efficiency (ACE) of FWCs. Due to the simplicity of the model it cannot be directly applied to actual FWC meshes, and serve only for guidance on the order of magnitude of the optimum shade coefficient and the corresponding ACE. The model shows that there is a maximum ACE of the order of 20-24.5% for shade coefficients between 0.5 and 0.6, for the particular mesh simulated. Aerodynamic collection efficiency can be increased by making the FWC concave and improving the aerodynamics of the mesh fibers.

Rivera, Juan de Dios

2011-11-01

305

Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.

Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.

1992-01-01

306

History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.

Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.

1987-01-01

307

14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting aerodynamic surfaces... (b) To provide for unsymmetrical loading when outboard fins extend above and below the horizontal surface, the...

2010-01-01

308

14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting aerodynamic surfaces... (b) To provide for unsymmetrical loading when outboard fins extend above and below the horizontal surface, the...

2011-01-01

309

Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

Glover, Richard D.

1988-01-01

310

Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

2007-01-01

311

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES Kelly Traditional approaches for reducing energy and waste in industrial processes typically focus on improving and more apparent to us. In our experience, this approach for reducing energy use and waste generation

Kissock, Kelly

312

Direct use of linear time-domain aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis: Aerodynamic model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented here is the first part of a continuing effort to expand existing capabilities in aeroelasticity by developing the methodology which is necessary to utilize unsteady time-domain aerodynamics directly in aeroservoelastic design and analysis. The ultimate objective is to define a fully integrated state-space model of an aeroelastic vehicle's aerodynamics, structure and controls which may be used to efficiently determine the vehicle's aeroservoelastic stability. Here, the current status of developing a state-space model for linear or near-linear time-domain indicial aerodynamic forces is presented.

Woods, J. A.; Gilbert, Michael G.

1990-01-01

313

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting body configuraiton obtained through the APAS and from wind-tunnel tests have been compared. The APAS is considered to be an easy-to-use, relatively simple tool for quick preliminary estimation of vehicle aerodynamics. The APAS estimates are found to be in good agreement with experimental results to be used for preliminary evaluation of the HL-20. The APAS accuracy in predicting aerodynamics of the HL-20 varied over the Mach range. The speed ranges of best agreement were subsonic and hypersonic, while least agreement was in the Mach range from 1.2 to about 2,5.

Cruz, Christopher I.; Ware, George M.

1992-01-01

314

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.

Liu, Gao-Lian

1991-01-01

315

Influence of aerodynamic forces in ice shedding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stresses in accreted ice on a typical airfoil impact ice caused by aerodynamic forces have been studied using finite element analyses. The objective of this study is to determine the significance of these stresses relative to values needed to cause ice shedding. In the case studied, stresses are not significant (less than 10 percent) when compared to the fracture value for airspeeds below a Mach number of 0.45. Above this velocity, the influence of aerodynamic forces on impact ice stresses should be considered in analyses of ice shedding.

Scavuzzo, R. J.; Chu, M. L.; Ananthaswamy, V.

1991-01-01

316

Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.

Mavriplis, D. J.

1992-01-01

317

Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.

Balakrishnan, A. V.

1999-01-01

318

Aerodynamic: Applications of Force and Flow

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Although there is a great deal of historical information about aerodynamics that could be discussed here, we purposely narrowed the stream of resources to those that encourage students to experiment with technological design and function. Given these learning experiences, student should be prepared to articulate preferences in vehicle design and understand how the principles of aerodynamics influence vehicle performance.

Quentin Briggs

319

Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.

1975-01-01

320

Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.

Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.

1985-01-01

321

Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex-shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.

Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.

1985-01-01

322

Marketing: an approach to successful energy-conservation information programs

This monograph shows how the adoption of a marketing approach can improve the quality of the development and delivery of energy-conservation programs. Several factors make the use of such a marketing approach to conservation particularly beneficial, namely: (1) goals of conservation programs can be quantified (e.g., specified amount of energy to be saved); in addition, intermediate effects necessary for program success are also measureable (e.g., knowledge, attitude change, etc); (2) there is an apparent and increasing need for conservation by different parts (or sectors) of the population; however, it is clear that the desire for conservation is not the same for all sectors; (3) conservation programs can be thought of in much the same way as products with benefits and costs; this necessitates an understanding of how the population makes conservation decisions so that the program can fit into that decision process; (4) the need to tailor programs to the needs of the population is heightened by the general competition for the consumer dollar; it is necessary to design and present programs in a way that the individual will view conservation as an attractive choice among many (e.g., bank savings, buying clothes, furniture, car, etc.); and (5) the population's response to, and need for conservation is constantly changing; consequently, it is important to realize that these changes may need to be reflected in the conservation programs themselves (both ongoing and new).

Hutton, R. B.; McNeill, D. L.

1980-08-01

323

Advanced High-Temperature Flexible TPS for Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Typical entry vehicle aeroshells are limited in size by the launch vehicle shroud. Inflatable aerodynamic decelerators allow larger aeroshell diameters for entry vehicles because they are not constrained to the launch vehicle shroud diameter. During launch, the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) is packed in a stowed configuration. Prior to atmospheric entry, the HIAD is deployed to produce a drag device many times larger than the launch shroud diameter. The large surface area of the inflatable aeroshell provides deceleration of high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. Even for these low ballistic coefficients there is still appreciable heating, requiring the HIAD to employ a thermal protection system (TPS). This TPS must be capable of surviving the heat pulse, and the rigors of fabrication handling, high density packing, deployment, and aerodynamic loading. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of flexible TPS tests and results, conducted over the last three years. This paper also includes an overview of each test facility, the general approach for testing flexible TPS, the thermal analysis methodology and results, and a comparison with 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel, Laser-Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory, and Panel Test Facility test data. Results are presented for a baseline TPS layup that can withstand a 20 W/cm2 heat flux, silicon carbide (SiC) based TPS layup, and polyimide insulator TPS layup. Recent work has focused on developing material layups expected to survive heat flux loads up to 50 W/cm2 (which is adequate for many potential applications), future work will consider concepts capable of withstanding more than 100 W/cm2 incident radiant heat flux. This paper provides an overview of the experimental setup, material layup configurations, facility conditions, and planned future flexible TPS activities.

DelCorso, Joseph A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

2011-01-01

324

Enhanced ground-based vibration testing for aerodynamic environments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical methods of replicating aerodynamic environments in the laboratory are generally poor. A structure which flies "freely" in its normal operating environment, excited over its entire external surface by aerodynamic forces and in all directions simultaneously, is then subjected to a vibration test in the laboratory whilst rigidly attached to a high impedance shaker and excited by forces applied through a few attachment points and in one direction only. The two environments could hardly be more different. The majority of vibration testing is carried out at commercial establishments and it is understandable that little has been published which demonstrates the limitations with the status quo. The primary objective of this research is to do just that with a view to identifying significant improvements in vibration testing in light of modern technology. In this paper, case studies are presented which highlight some of the limitations with typical vibration tests showing that they can lead to significant overtests, sometimes by many orders of magnitude, with the level of overtest varying considerably across a wide range of frequencies. This research shows that substantial benefits can be gained by "freely" suspending the structure in the laboratory and exciting it with a relatively small number of electrodynamic shakers using Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) control technology. The shaker configuration can be designed to excite the modes within the bandwidth utilising the inherent amplification of the resonances to achieve the desired response levels. This free-free MIMO vibration test approach is shown to result in substantial benefits that include extremely good replication of the aerodynamic environment and significant savings in time as all axes are excited simultaneously instead of the sequential X, Y and Z testing required with traditional vibration tests. In addition, substantial cost savings can be achieved by replacing some expensive large shaker systems with a few relatively small shaker systems.

Daborn, P. M.; Ind, P. R.; Ewins, D. J.

2014-12-01

325

Index for aerodynamic data from the Bumblebee program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bumblebee program, was designed to provide a supersonic guided missile. The aerodynamics program included a fundamental research effort in supersonic aerodynamics as well as a design task in developing both test vehicles and prototypes of tactical missiles. An index of aerodynamic missile data developed in this program is presented.

Cronvich, L. L.; Barnes, G. A.

1978-01-01

326

The Mars Exploration Rovers Entry Descent and Landing and the Use of Aerodynamic Decelerators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) project, the next United States mission to the surface of Mars, uses aerodynamic decelerators in during its entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase. These two identical missions (MER-A and MER-B), which deliver NASA s largest mobile science suite to date to the surface of Mars, employ hypersonic entry with an ablative energy dissipating aeroshell, a supersonic/subsonic disk-gap-band parachute and an airbag landing system within EDL. This paper gives an overview of the MER EDL system and speaks to some of the challenges faced by the various aerodynamic decelerators.

Steltzner, Adam; Desai, Prasun; Lee, Wayne; Bruno, Robin

2003-01-01

327

Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke. PMID:14555745

Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

2003-11-01

328

As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

2008-05-15

329

Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

2011-10-01

330

of birds, insects and fish triggered the invention of the airplane, the airplane with fixed wings only of flapping. When MAV's scale is below 15cm with conventional aerodynamic layout of fixed wing, it can, better maneuverability and agility and lower energy consumption than the MAV with fixed wings or rotors

Liu, Feng

331

Aerodynamics of a Cycling Team in a Time Trial: Does the Cyclist at the Front Benefit?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When seasonal journeys take place in nature, birds and fishes migrate in groups. This provides them not only with security but also a considerable saving of energy. The power they need to travel requires overcoming aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag forces, which can be substantially reduced when the group travels in an optimal arrangement. Also in…

Iniguez-de-la Torre, A.; Iniguez, J.

2009-01-01

332

Team Software Development for Aerothermodynamic and Aerodynamic Analysis and Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collaborative approach to software development is described. The approach employs the agile development techniques: project retrospectives, Scrum status meetings, and elements of Extreme Programming to efficiently develop a cohesive and extensible software suite. The software product under development is a fluid dynamics simulator for performing aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis and design. The functionality of the software product is achieved both through the merging, with substantial rewrite, of separate legacy codes and the authorship of new routines. Examples of rapid implementation of new functionality demonstrate the benefits obtained with this agile software development process. The appendix contains a discussion of coding issues encountered while porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95, software design principles, and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

Alexandrov, N.; Atkins, H. L.; Bibb, K. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Carpenter, M. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Hammond, D. P.; Jones, W. T.; Kleb, W. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.

2003-01-01

333

Finding the Force -- Consistent Particle Seeding for Satellite Aerodynamics

When calculating satellite trajectories in low-earth orbit, engineers need to adequately estimate aerodynamic forces. But to this day, obtaining the drag acting on the complicated shapes of modern spacecraft suffers from many sources of error. While part of the problem is the uncertain density in the upper atmosphere, this works focuses on improving the modeling of interacting rarified gases and satellite surfaces. The only numerical approach that currently captures effects in this flow regime---like self-shadowing and multiple molecular reflections---is known as test-particle Monte Carlo. This method executes a ray-tracing algorithm to follow particles that pass through a control volume containing the spacecraft and accumulates the momentum transfer to the body surfaces. Statistical fluctuations inherent in the approach demand particle numbers in the order of millions, often making this scheme too costly to be practical. This work presents a parallel test-particle Monte Carlo method that takes advantage of b...

Parham, J Brent

2013-01-01

334

Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization procedures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure which is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit (ADI) methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions which are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process was achieved by implementing both of the design improvements.

Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

1992-01-01

335

Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding Pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the Pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide Pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

Holst, Terry L.

2005-01-01

336

Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective optimization problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

Holst, Terry L.

2004-01-01

337

A random walk approach to anomalous particle and energy transport

The combined Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) in position and momentum space is introduced, in the form of two coupled integral equations that describe the evolution of the probability distribution for finding a particle at a certain position and with a certain momentum as a function of time. The integral equations are solved numerically with a pseudospectral method that is based on the expansion of the unknown functions in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. In parallel, Monte-Carlo simulation are performed. Through the inclusion of momentum space, the combined CTRW is able to yield results on density and temperature profile evolution, on particle and heat fluxes and diffusivities, and on kinetic energy distributions. Depending on the choice of the probability distributions of the particle displacements in position and momentum space, the combined CTRW is able to model phenomena of anomalous transport in position as well as in momentum (or energy or velocity) space. An application is made to a toroidally confined plasma that undergoes off-center injection of cold plasma (off-axis fueling), using two variants of the model, the mixed model and the critical gradient model. The phenomenon of profile stiffness is addressed, both for the density and for the temperature profile, respectively, and the particle and energy confinement times are determined. The analysis of the particle and heat fluxes shows that the dynamics realized in the combined CTRW is incompatible with the classical approach of Fick's or Fourier's law for particle and heat transport, respectively.

H. Isliker

2007-10-26

338

An overview of the aerodynamic characteristics andthe process of developing the preflight aerodynamicdatabase of the NASA\\/ Orbital X-34 reusable launchvehicle is presented in this paper. Wind tunnel testsfrom subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers includingground effect tests at low subsonic speeds wereconducted in various facilities at the NASA LangleyResearch Center. The APAS (Aerodynamic PreliminaryAnalysis System) code was used for engineeringlevel analysis

Bandu N. Pamadi; Gregory J. Brauckmann

1999-01-01

339

Aerodynamic Force Generation in Tiny Hovering Insects

Through two -dimensional numerical simulations, t he fluid dynamic conseque nces of varying the Reynolds number and the corresponding changes in the aerodynamic forces acting on the flapping wings are studied . The incompressible Navier -Stokes equations are discretized and solved on a non -body conforming Cartesian grid; the concept of immersed boundary method is made use of to impose

S. Vengadesan

2009-01-01

340

Measured Aerodynamic Interaction of Two Tiltrotors

The aerodynamic interaction of two model tiltrotors in helicopter-mode formation flight is investigated. Three scenarios representing tandem level flight, tandem operations near the ground, and a single tiltrotor operating above the ground for varying winds are examined. The effect of aircraft separation distance on the thrust and rolling moment of the trailing aircraft with and without the presence of a

Gloria K. Yamauchi; Alan J. Wadcock; Michael R. Derby

2003-01-01

341

CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics

reduction problem is a major topic in the automo- tive industry because of its close link with fuel the applicability of CFD-based optimization in the field of airplane engines. Laurent Dumas UniversitÂ´e Pierre et of the aerodynamic drag in the fuel con- sumption ranges between 30% during an urban cycle and 75% at a 120 km

Dumas, Laurent

342

A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.

Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

2014-01-01

343

Computational Aerodynamics for Aircraft Design Antony Jameson

translate into substantial savings in operational costs. Therefore, the operating efficiency of an airplane in shock waves. A typical transonic flow pattern over a wing is illustrated in Fig. 1. As the Mach number computational methods were hardly used in aerodynamic analysis, although they were widely used for structural

Jameson, Antony

344

Aerodynamic Optimization of an UAV Design

The Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela, is an important petroleum extraction region and besides it is a source of constant pollution. However, the early detection of the oil leakages minimizes the environment impact. In 2003 an UAV for the special mission of patrolling that region in search for oil leakages was designed. The purpose of this research is to optimize the aerodynamic

Pedro J. Boschetti; Andrea Amerio

345

An aerodynamic load criterion for airships

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.

Woodward, D. E.

1975-01-01

346

Structural evaluation of deployable aerodynamic spike booms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extendable boom consisting of a series of telescopic cylindrical tube segments and overlapping lock joints developed for use as an aerodynamic spike mounted atop a missile is described. Two candidate design concepts differing mainly in the particular overlapping lock joint designs are undergoing a combined analytical/experimental evaluation. Some of the results of this evaluation are presented.

Richter, B. J.

1975-01-01

347

AERODYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS WITH AEROSOL CENTRIFUGES

The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. he sites of deposition in the human respiratory system are primarily related to the mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhaled particle siz...

348

Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Compressors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of 'Aerodynamic systems design of axial flow compressors' is presented. Numerous chapters cover topics such as compressor design, ptotential and viscous flow in two dimensional cascades, compressor stall and blade vibration, and compressor flow theory. Theoretical aspects of flow are also covered.

Bullock, R. O. (Editor); Johnsen, I. A.

1965-01-01

349

Aerodynamics of chain link stoker mats

This paper describes experimental work on the aerodynamic features of a chain grate stoker link mat and interprets and analyses the results of flow visualisation and associated quantitative measurements. Particular attention was paid in the experimental work to local air flow characteristics by using smoke tracer techniques on an actual link mat and pulsed wire anemometry on an enlarged scale

M. E. Horsley; M. L. Waite; T. F. Wang; R. McLaren

1999-01-01

350

Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

2005-01-01

351

Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles

A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dykhuizen, Ronald C. (Albuquerque, NM); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

352

Pressure-sensitive paint in aerodynamic testing

Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is a relatively new aerodynamic measurement tool with the unique capability of providing a field measurement of pressure over a test surface. An introductory review of this technology is presented, which is confined to the application of the PSP method to aircraft development wind tunnel testing. This is at present the primary application area and thus the

B. G. McLachlan; J. H. Bell

1995-01-01

353

Multimodality and Global Optimization in Aerodynamic Design

-shape-optimization problems. The performance of each algorithm is tested on an analytical test function as well as several. Introduction THE use of computer algorithms for aerodynamic shape optimization (ASO) has the potential University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6, Canada DOI: 10.2514/1.J051835 Two optimization algorithms

Zingg, David W.

354

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

2015-03-01

355

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers

2015-01-01

356

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

2014-05-01

357

Dynamic Stall in Pitching Airfoils: Aerodynamic Damping and Compressibility Effects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic stall is an incredibly rich fluid dynamics problem that manifests itself on an airfoil during rapid, transient motion in which the angle of incidence surpasses the static stall limit. It is an important element of many manmade and natural flyers, including helicopters and supermaneuverable aircraft, and low–Reynolds number flapping-wing birds and insects. The fluid dynamic attributes that accompany dynamic stall include an eruption of vorticity that organizes into a well-defined dynamic stall vortex and massive excursions in aerodynamic loads that can couple with the airfoil structural dynamics. The dynamic stall process is highly sensitive to surface roughness that can influence turbulent transition and to local compressibility effects that occur at free-stream Mach numbers that are otherwise incompressible. Under some conditions, dynamic stall can result in negative aerodynamic damping that leads to limit-cycle growth of structural vibrations and rapid mechanical failure. The mechanisms leading to negative damping have been a principal interest of recent experiments and analysis. Computational fluid dynamic simulations and low-order models have not been good predictors so far. Large-eddy simulation could be a viable approach although it remains computationally intensive. The topic is technologically important owing to the desire to develop next-generation rotorcraft that employ adaptive rotor dynamic stall control.

Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.

2015-01-01

358

Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient incremental iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a two-dimensional inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0 and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straightforward, black-box reverse-mode applicaiton of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-rder aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoinct) procedures; then, a very efficient noniterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hesian matrices) of lift, wave drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric shape, angle of attack, and freestream Mach number.

Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.

2003-01-01

359

Full-envelope aerodynamic modeling of the Harrier aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project to identify a full-envelope model of the YAV-8B Harrier using flight-test and parameter identification techniques is described. As part of the research in advanced control and display concepts for V/STOL aircraft, a full-envelope aerodynamic model of the Harrier is identified, using mathematical model structures and parameter identification methods. A global-polynomial model structure is also used as a basis for the identification of the YAV-8B aerodynamic model. State estimation methods are used to ensure flight data consistency prior to parameter identification.Equation-error methods are used to identify model parameters. A fixed-base simulator is used extensively to develop flight test procedures and to validate parameter identification software. Using simple flight maneuvers, a simulated data set was created covering the YAV-8B flight envelope from about 0.3 to 0.7 Mach and about -5 to 15 deg angle of attack. A singular value decomposition implementation of the equation-error approach produced good parameter estimates based on this simulated data set.

Mcnally, B. David

1986-01-01

360

Structural optimization of rotor blades with integrated dynamics and aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades with integrated dynamic and aerodynamic design considerations is addressed. Results of recent optimization work on rotor blades for minimum weight with constraints on multiple coupled natural flap-lag frequencies, blade autorotational inertia and centrifugal stress has been reviewed. A strategy has been defined for the ongoing activities in the integrated dynamic/aerodynamic optimization of rotor blades. As a first step, the integrated dynamic/airload optimization problem has been formulated. To calculate system sensitivity derivatives necessary for the optimization recently developed, Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) are being investigated. A need for multiple objective functions for the integrated optimization problem has been demonstrated and various techniques for solving the multiple objective function optimization are being investigated. The method called the Global Criteria Approach has been applied to a test problem with the blade in vacuum and the blade weight and the centrifugal stress as the multiple objectives. The results indicate that the method is quite effective in solving optimization problems with conflicting objective functions.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

1988-01-01

361

Structural optimization of rotor blades with integrated dynamics and aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades with integrated dynamic and aerodynamic design considerations is addressed. Results of recent optimization work on rotor blades for minimum weight with constraints on multiple coupled natural flap-lag frequencies, blade autorotational inertia and centrifugal stress has been reviewed. A strategy has been defined for the ongoing activities in the integrated dynamic/aerodynamic optimization of rotor blades. As a first step, the integrated dynamic/airload optimization problem has been formulated. To calculate system sensitivity derivatives necessary for the optimization recently developed, Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) are being investigated. A need for multiple objective functions for the integrated optimization problem has been demonstrated and various techniques for solving the multiple objective function optimization are being investigated. The method called the Global Criteria Approach has been applied to a test problem with the blade in vacuum and the blade weight and the centrifugal stress as the multiple objectives. The results indicate that the method is quite effective in solving optimization problems with conflicting objective functions.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

1989-01-01

362

An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

2013-12-01

363

Grid and aerodynamic sensitivity analyses of airplane components

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) for defining the wing-section geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique, known as Two-Boundary Grid Generation (TBGG) is employed to generate C-type grids around wing-sections. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the wing-section surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the wing-section.

Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1993-01-01

364

Predicted and experimental aerodynamic forces on the Darrieus rotor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper compares the aerodynamic loads predicted by a double-multiple-streamtube model with wind tunnel measurements for a straight-bladed Darrieus rotor. Thus the CARDAA computer code uses two constant-interference factors in the induced velocity for estimating the aerodynamic loads. This code has been improved by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the blade position, and, in this case, the CARDAAV code is used. The Boeing-Vertol dynamic-stall model is incorporated in both the CARDAA and CARDAAV codes, and a better approach is obtained. The transient normal- and tangential-force coefficients predicted with and without dynamic-stall effects are compared with wind tunnel data for one and two NACA 0018 straight-bladed rotors. The results are given for a rotor with a large solidity (chord-to-radius ratio of 0.20) at two tip-speed ratios (X = 1.5 and 3.0) and at a low Reynolds number of 3.8 x 10 to the 4th. The comparisons between experimental data and theoretical results show the CARDAAV predictions to be more accurate than those estimated by the CARDAA code.

Paraschivoiu, I.

1983-12-01

365

An aerodynamic study on flexed blades for VAWT applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is renewed interest in aerodynamics research of VAWT rotors. Lift type, Darrieus designs sometimes use flexed blades to have an 'egg-beater shape' with an optimum Troposkien geometry to minimize the structural stress on the blades. While straight bladed VAWTs have been investigated in depth through both measurements and numerical modelling, the aerodynamics of flexed blades has not been researched with the same level of detail. Two major effects may have a substantial impact on blade performance. First, flexing at the equator causes relatively strong trailing vorticity to be released. Secondly, the blade performance at each station along the blade is influenced by self-induced velocities due to bound vorticity. The latter is not present in a straight bladed configuration. The aim of this research is to investigate these effects in relation to an innovative 4kW wind turbine concept being developed in collaboration with industry known as a self-adjusting VAWT (or SATVAWT). The approach used in this study is based on experimental and numerical work. A lifting line free-wake vortex model was developed. Wind tunnel power and hot-wire velocity measurements were performed on a scaled down, 60cm high, three bladed model in a closed wind tunnel. Results show a substantial axial wake induction at the equator resulting in a lower power generation at this position. This induction increases with increasing degree of flexure. The self-induced velocities caused by blade bound vorticity at a particular station was found to be relatively small.

Micallef, Daniel; Farrugia, Russell; Sant, Tonio; Mollicone, Pierluigi

2014-12-01

366

Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

Reuther, James

1996-01-01

367

Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body simulation software SIMPACK. The aerodynamic loads are calculated using ECN's AeroModule and NREL's BEM code Aerodynl3.

Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.

2014-06-01

368

LANDING GEARS AERODYNAMIC INTERACTION NOISE

Airframe noise is generated as a result of the interaction of turbulent flow with different airframe components, i.e. the high lift devices and landing gears in particular, and may dominate over engine noise in the approach phase of large commercial aircraft. This paper describes the landing gears interaction noise research work in the EC co-financed pro- ject \\

Werner Dobrzynski; Michael Pott-Pollenske; Dave Foot; Michael Goodwin

2004-01-01

369

Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach

We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ?CDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.

Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Watson, Scott, E-mail: jkb84@cornell.edu, E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu, E-mail: minjoonp@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

2013-08-01

370

Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products intended to further improve efficiency, lower costs, and enhance durability. Resulting products demonstrated a 30% efficiency improvement in full scale wind tunnel tests. The fuel savings of our most promising product, the “Belly Fairing” increased from 4% to 6% in scientific track and operational tests. The project successfully demonstrated the economic feasibility of trailer aerodynamics and positioned the technology to realize significant public benefits. Scientific testing conducted with partners such as the EPA Smartway program and Transport Canada clearly validated the fuel and emission saving potential of the technology. The Smartway program now recommends trailer aerodynamics as a certified fuel saving technology and is offering incentives such as low interest loans. Trailer aerodynamics can save average trucks over 1,100 gallons of fuel an 13 tons of emissions every 100,000 miles, a distance many trucks travel annually. These fuel savings produce a product return on investment period of one to two years in average fleet operations. The economic feasibility of the products was validated by participating fleets, several of which have since completed large implementations or demonstrated an interest in volume orders. The commercialization potential of the technology was also demonstrated, resulting in a national distribution and manufacturing partnership with a major industry supplier, Carrier Transicold. Consequently, Freight Wing is well positioned to continue marketing trailer aerodynamics to the trucking industry. The participation of leading fleets in this project served to break down the market skepticism that represents a primary barrier to widespread industry utilization. The benefits of widespread utilization of the technology could be quite significant for both the transportation industry and the public. Trailer aerodynamics could potentially save the U.S. trucking fleet over a billion gallons of fuel and 20 million tons of emissions annually.

Sean Graham

2007-10-31

371

be with and through energy in everyday life. Designing for individuals to be emotionally connected to their energy one's self and community. James Pierce Eric Paulos Living Environments Lab Human-Computer Interaction Institute Carnegie Mellon University In order to begin to materially explore emotional attachment to energy

Paulos, Eric

372

Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation's energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.

1994-08-01

373

Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

2010-01-01

374

Policy approaches to renewable energy investment in the Mediterranean region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe's climate policy objective of 20% renewable energy by 2020, and the call by the IPCC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, pose major challenges for the European Union. Several policy options are available to move towards these objectives. In this paper, we will address the most critical policy and governance issues associated with one particular approach to scaling up renewable energy resources: reliance on large-scale energy generation facilities outside the European continent, such as onshore and offshore wind farms and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the Mediterranean region. Several feasibility studies completed over the past three years (German Aerospace Center 2006; German Aerospace Center 2005; Czisch, Elektrotechnik 2005, p. 488; Lorenz, Pinner, Seitz, McKinsey Quarterly 2008, p.10; German Aerospace Center 2005; Knies 2008, The Club of Rome; Khosla, Breaking the Climate Deadlock Briefing Papers, 2008, p.19) have convincingly demonstrated that large-scale wind and CSP projects ought to be very attractive for a number of reasons, including cost, reliability of power supply, and technological maturity. According to these studies it would be technically possible for Europe to rely on large-scale wind and CSP for the majority of its power needs by 2050—indeed enough to completely replace its reliance on fossil fuels for power generation—at competitive cost over its current, carbon intensive system. While it has been shown to be technically feasible to develop renewable resources in North Africa to account for a large share of Europe's energy needs, doing so would require sustained double digit rates of growth in generating and long-distance transmission capacity, and would potentially require a very different high voltage grid architecture within Europe. Doing so at a large scale could require enormous up-front investments in technical capacity, financial instruments and human resources. What are the policy instruments best suited to achieving such growth quickly and smoothly? What bottlenecks—in terms of supply chains, human capital, finance, and transmission capacity—need to be anticipated and addressed if the rate of capacity growth is to be sustained over several decades? What model of governance would create a safe investment climate in consistence with new EU legislation (i.e. EU Renewable Energy Directive) as well as expected post-Kyoto targets and mechanisms? The material that we present here is based on a series of workshops held between November 2008 and January 2009, in which a wide range of stakeholders expressed their views about the fundamental needs for policy intervention. Supplementing the results from these workshops have been additional expert interviews, and basic financial modeling. One of the interesting results from this research is the need for a multi-pronged approach. First, there is a need for a support scheme, potentially compatible with in all cases supplementing the EU REN Directive, that would create a stable market for North African electricity in Europe. Second, there is a need for policies that facilitate the formation of public private partnerships in North Africa, as the specific investment vehicle, as a way to manage some of the uncertainties associated with large-scale investments in the region. Third, attention has to be paid to the development of supply chains within the Mediterranean region, as a way of ensuring the compatibility of such investments with sustainable development.

Patt, A.; Komendantova, N.; Battaglini, A.; Lilliestam, J.; Williges, K.

2009-04-01

375

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

Traditional approaches for reducing energy and waste in industrial processes typically focus on improving the efficiency of the primary energy conversion equipment. Unfortunately, this approach frequently results in incremental improvement at high costs, since most energy and mass conversion equipment is relatively efficient to begin with and upgrading to higher efficiency equipment is usually quite costly. In this paper, we

Kelly Kissock; Kevin Hallinan; Wayne Bader

376

Heuristic Approaches to Energy-Efficient Network Design Problem Cigdem Sengul Robin Kravets

Heuristic Approaches to Energy-Efficient Network Design Problem Cigdem Sengul Robin Kravets@cs.uiuc.edu Abstract Energy management remains a critical problem in wire- less networks since battery technology cannot keep up with rising communication expectations. Current approaches to energy conservation reduce

Kravets, Robin

377

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was conducted to investigate aerodynamic modeling methods for prediction of post-stall flight dynamics of large transport airplanes. The research approach involved integrating dynamic wind tunnel data from rotary balance and forced oscillation testing with static wind tunnel data to predict aerodynamic forces and moments during highly dynamic departure and spin motions. Several state-of-the-art aerodynamic modeling methods were evaluated and predicted flight dynamics using these various approaches were compared. Results showed the different modeling methods had varying effects on the predicted flight dynamics and the differences were most significant during uncoordinated maneuvers. Preliminary wind tunnel validation data indicated the potential of the various methods for predicting steady spin motions.

Murch, Austin M.; Foster, John V.

2007-01-01

378

Residential Energy Simulation and Scheduling: A Case Study Approach Jagannathan Venkatesh, Baris, baksanli, tajana}@ucsd.edu Abstract-- Residential energy contributes to 38% of the total energy consumption or by providing energy information to consumers. Industrial innovations are focused on energy efficiency

Simunic, Tajana

379

With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean. PMID:25719956

Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

2015-03-24

380

CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

Ryan, James S.

1995-01-01

381

Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the cases examined, the calculations showed that the downwind turbine power decrement (1) was significant only when the line of turbine centers was coincident with the ambient wind direction, (2) increased with increasing tipspeed ratio, and (3) is due more to induced flow angularities downstream than to speed deficits near the downstream turbine.

Schatzle, P.R.; Klimas, P.C.; Spahr, H.R.

1981-04-01

382

Aerodynamic control inside an internal combustion engine

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of intake port geometry on in-cylinder flow. The in-cylinder aerodynamics of an optical engine has been characterized using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Many geometries have been tested and their impact has been evaluated by an estimation of the tumble ratio, an analysis of the cycle-to-cycle variations and a flow structure analysis based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Such a tool allows the reduction of the PIV database in order to consider in-cylinder aerodynamic control by a device placed in the intake port. This simplification is based on a reduction of the number of modes and a polynomial fitting of the POD coefficients. Thus, some new geometries have been numerically created, and their impact on the tumble ratio has been evaluated.

Keromnes, Alan; Dujol, Charlotte; Guibert, Philippe

2010-12-01

383

Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

Doig, G.

2014-08-01

384

Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

Graham, Sean C.

2006-03-07

385

High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

Ryan, James S.

1994-01-01

386

Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

Graham, Sean C.

2006-08-22

387

Rarefaction effects on Galileo probe aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow regime using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Accuracy of the probe's drag coefficient directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties that are being extracted from the deceleration measurements made by onboard accelerometers as part of the Atmospheric Structure Experiment. The range of rarefaction considered in the present study extends from the free molecular limit to continuum conditions. Comparisons made with previous calculations and experimental measurements show the present results for drag to merge well with Navier-Stokes and experimental results for the least rarefied conditions considered.

Moss, James N.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Price, Joseph M.

1996-01-01

388

An Interactive Educational Tool for Compressible Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workstation-based interactive educational tool was developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. The tool solves for the supersonic flow past a wedge using the equations found in NACA 1135. The student varies the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the variation of flow results to the student. One such format leads the student to the generation of some of the graphs found in NACA-1135. The tool includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use. This paper will detail the numerical methods used in the tool and describe how it can be used and modified.

Benson, Thomas J.

1994-01-01

389

Aerodynamic Influence of a Slat on a Flapped Wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three high-lift configurations were computationally studied to assess the aerodynamic influence of slats. A flapped wing was simulated with no slat, a full-span slat, and a three quarter-span slat at a chord based Reynolds number of 3.7 million. The flows were computed using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver on structured grids with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. All cases were compared with experimental data to validate the approach. The slats not only increase the lift generated by the wing but alter the topology of the flowfield considerably. The changes in the flow give insight into the working of a slat and contribute to a better understanding of high-lift flows in general.

Mathias, Donovan L.; Baker, M. David; Roth, Karlin R.; Cummings, Russell M.; VanDalegen, William R. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

390

Aerodynamic shape optimization of space vehicle in very-low-earth-orbit

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space vehicles orbiting in Very-Low-Earth-Orbit (VLEO, h = 200˜300 km) experience considerably large aerodynamic drag due to high air-density in comparison with Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO, h = 600 ˜ 700 km). Therefore, the optimization of vehicle shape via minimization of aerodynamic drag is essential for accurate estimation of satellite lifetime and fuel budget at the design stage. In this study, the aerodynamic drag is computed with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) because even in VLEO, whose free stream Knudsen number is sufficiently large, some errors are still found in the prediction using free molecular approach. In order to find the optimized configuration, we vary the shape of frontal surface normal to the flight direction. Interestingly, the effects of such geometrical change appear distinctively depending on the gas-surface interaction (GSI, diffuse or specular) which can be represented by the thermal accommodation coefficient. The satellite aerodynamic characteristics including force, torque, and thermal loading are also identified by changing the pitch and the side angle.

Park, Jae Hyun; Myong, Rho Shin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Seung Wook

2014-12-01

391

Four-stage computational technology with adaptive numerical methods for computational aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational aerodynamics is a key technology in aircraft design which is ahead of physical experiment and complements it. Of course all three components of computational modeling are actively developed: mathematical models of real aerodynamic processes, numerical algorithms, and high-performance computing. The most impressive progress has been made in the field of computing, though with a considerable complication of computer architecture. Numerical algorithms are developed more conservative. More precisely, they are offered and theoretically justified for more simple mathematical problems. Nevertheless, computational mathematics now has amassed a whole palette of numerical algorithms that can provide acceptable accuracy and interface between modern mathematical models in aerodynamics and high-performance computers. A significant step in this direction was the European Project ADIGMA whose positive experience will be used in International Project TRISTAM for further movement in the field of computational technologies for aerodynamics. This paper gives a general overview of objectives and approaches intended to use and a description of the recommended four-stage computer technology.

Shaydurov, V.; Liu, T.; Zheng, Z.

2012-10-01

392

Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-inch chord, 2-D straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For four of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3% with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately one degree or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several of the ice-accretion cases tested, the aerodynamics is known to depend upon the small, three dimensional features of the ice. These data show that the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach is capable of replicating these ice features within the reported accuracies of the laser-scan measurement and rapid-prototyping method; thus providing a new capability for high-fidelity ice-accretion documentation and artificial ice-shape fabrication for icing research.

Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

2014-01-01

393

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

Salari, K; Ortega, J

2010-12-13

394

New aspects of subsonic aerodynamic noise theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of aerodynamic noise is presented which differs from Lighthill's theory primarily in the way in which convection of the noise sources is treated. The sound directivity pattern obtained from the present theory agrees better with jet-noise directivity data than does that obtained from Lighthill's theory. The results imply that the shear-noise contribution to jet noise is smaller than previously expected.

Goldstein, M. E.; Howes, W. L.

1973-01-01

395

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Annular Flat Plates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flying toy called Aerobie ® was invented by Adler in the US. The flight range of the toy is rather enormous, and it is one of the Guinness book world records. The authors were interested in the aerodynamic characteristics of the toy, and experimentally investigated annular plan form flat plates from which the toy was developed. It was found that L/D was improved and the center of pressure moved toward the center of gravity as the inner radius was increased.

Yasui, Shugo; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Hisao; Okunuki, Takeo; Morishita, Etsuo

396

Aerodynamic control inside an internal combustion engine

The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of intake port geometry on in-cylinder flow. The in-cylinder aerodynamics of an optical engine has been characterized using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Many geometries have been tested and their impact has been evaluated by an estimation of the tumble ratio, an analysis of the cycle-to-cycle variations and a flow structure

Alan Keromnes; Charlotte Dujol; Philippe Guibert

2010-01-01

397

Variable-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

\\u000a Aerodynamic shape optimization (ASO) plays an important role in the design of aircraft, turbomachinery and other fluid machinery.\\u000a Simulation-driven ASO involves the coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers with numerical optimization methods.\\u000a Although being relatively mature and widely used, ASO is still being improved and numerous challenges remain. This chapter\\u000a provides an overview of simulation-driven ASO methods, with an

Leifur Leifsson; Slawomir Koziel

398

Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

Graham, Sean C.

2005-02-15

399

Aerodynamic characteristics of flapping motion in hover

The aim of the present work is to understand the aerodynamic phenomena and the vortex topology of an unsteady flapping motion\\u000a by means of numerical and experimental methods. Instead of the use of real insect\\/bird wing geometries and kinematics which\\u000a are highly complex and difficult to imitate by an exact modeling, a simplified model is used in order to understand

D. Funda Kurtulus; Laurent David; Alain Farcy; Nafiz Alemdaroglu

2008-01-01

400

The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight costs. PMID:15939772

Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

2005-06-01

401

Smart morphable surfaces for aerodynamic drag control.

Smart Morphable Surfaces enable switchable and tunable aerodynamic drag reduction of bluff bodies. Their topography, resembling the morphology of golf balls, can be custom-generated through a wrinkling instability on a curved surface. Pneumatic actuation of these patterns results in the control of the drag coefficient of spherical samples by up to a factor of two, over a range of flow conditions. PMID:24956072

Terwagne, Denis; Brojan, Miha; Reis, Pedro M

2014-10-01

402

Statistical Analysis of the Uncertainty in Pre-Flight Aerodynamic Database of a Hypersonic Vehicle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present research was to develop a new method to derive the aerodynamic coefficients and the associated uncertainties for flight vehicles via post- flight inertial navigation analysis using data from the inertial measurement unit. Statistical estimates of vehicle state and aerodynamic coefficients are derived using Monte Carlo simulation. Trajectory reconstruction using the inertial navigation system (INS) is a simple and well used method. However, deriving realistic uncertainties in the reconstructed state and any associated parameters is not so straight forward. Extended Kalman filters, batch minimum variance estimation and other approaches have been used. However, these methods generally depend on assumed physical models, assumed statistical distributions (usually Gaussian) or have convergence issues for non-linear problems. The approach here assumes no physical models, is applicable to any statistical distribution, and does not have any convergence issues. The new approach obtains the statistics directly from a sufficient number of Monte Carlo samples using only the generally well known gyro and accelerometer specifications and could be applied to the systems of non-linear form and non-Gaussian distribution. When redundant data are available, the set of Monte Carlo simulations are constrained to satisfy the redundant data within the uncertainties specified for the additional data. The proposed method was applied to validate the uncertainty in the pre-flight aerodynamic database of the X-43A Hyper-X research vehicle. In addition to gyro and acceleration data, the actual flight data include redundant measurements of position and velocity from the global positioning system (GPS). The criteria derived from the blend of the GPS and INS accuracy was used to select valid trajectories for statistical analysis. The aerodynamic coefficients were derived from the selected trajectories by either direct extraction method based on the equations in dynamics, or by the inquiry of the pre-flight aerodynamic database. After the application of the proposed method to the case of the X-43A Hyper-X research vehicle, it was found that 1) there were consistent differences in the aerodynamic coefficients from the pre-flight aerodynamic database and post-flight analysis, 2) the pre-flight estimation of the pitching moment coefficients was significantly different from the post-flight analysis, 3) the type of distribution of the states from the Monte Carlo simulation were affected by that of the perturbation parameters, 4) the uncertainties in the pre-flight model were overestimated, 5) the range where the aerodynamic coefficients from the pre-flight aerodynamic database and post-flight analysis are in closest agreement is between Mach *.* and *.* and more data points may be needed between Mach * and ** in the pre-flight aerodynamic database, 6) selection criterion for valid trajectories from the Monte Carlo simulations was mostly driven by the horizontal velocity error, 7) the selection criterion must be based on reasonable model to ensure the validity of the statistics from the proposed method, and 8) the results from the proposed method applied to the two different flights with the identical geometry and similar flight profile were consistent.

Huh, Lynn

403

Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a dynamic unstructured grid high-order accurate spectral difference (SD) method for the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and its applications in flapping-wing aerodynamics are carried out in this work. Grid deformation is achieved via an algebraic blending strategy to save computational cost. The Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) is imposed to ensure that grid deformation will not contaminate the flow physics. A low Mach number preconditioning procedure is conducted in the developed solver to handle the bio-inspired flow. The capability of the low Mach number preconditioned SD solver is demonstrated by a series of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations of the unsteady vortex dominated flow. Several topics in the flapping wing aerodynamics are numerically and experimentally investigated in this work. These topics cover some of the cutting-edge issues in flapping wing aerodynamics, including the wake structure analysis, airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performances, vortex structure analysis around 3D flapping wings and the kinematics optimization. Wake structures behind a sinusoidally pitching NACA0012 airfoil are studied with both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments are carried out with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and two types of wake transition processes, namely the transition from a drag-indicative wake to a thrust-indicative wake and that from the symmetric wake to the asymmetric wake are distinguished. The numerical results from the developed SD solver agree well with the experimental results. It is numerically found that the deflective direction of the asymmetric wake is determined by the initial conditions, e.g. initial phase angle. As most insects use thin wings (i. e., wing thickness is only a few percent of the chord length) in flapping flight, the effects of airfoil thickness on thrust generation are numerically investigated by simulating the flow fields around a series of plunging NACA symmetric airfoils with thickness ratio ranging from 4.0% to 20.0% of the airfoil chord length. The contribution of viscous force to flapping propulsion is accessed and it is found that viscous force becomes thrust producing, instead of drag producing, and plays a non-negligible role in thrust generation for thin airfoils. This is closely related to the variations of the dynamics of the unsteady vortex structures around the plunging airfoils. As nature flyers use complex wing kinematics in flapping flight, kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performance with different airfoil thicknesses are numerically studied by using a series of NACA symmetric airfoils. It is found that the combined plunging and pitching motion can outperform the pure plunging or pitching motion by sophisticatedly adjusting the airfoil gestures during the oscillation stroke. The thin airfoil better manipulates leading edge vortices (LEVs) than the thick airfoil (NACA0030) does in studied cases, and there exists an optimal thickness for large thrust generation with reasonable propulsive efficiency. With the present kinematics and dynamic parameters, relatively low reduced frequency is conducive for thrust production and propulsive efficiency for all tested airfoil thicknesses. In order to obtain the optimal kinematics parameters of flapping flight, a kinematics optimization is then performed. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is coupled with a second-order SD Navier-Stokes solver to search for the optimal kinematics of a certain airfoil undergoing a combined plunging and pitching motion. Then a high-order SD scheme is used to verify the optimization results and reveal the detailed vortex structures associated with the optimal kinematics of the flapping flight. It is found that for the case with maximum propulsive efficiency, there exists no leading edge separation during most of the oscillation cycle. In order to provide constructive suggestions to the design of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), 3D simulations of the flapping wings are carrie

Yu, Meilin

404

Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

1993-01-01

405

Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

Pinier, Jeremy T

2012-01-01

406

Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

2002-01-01

407

Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

2000-01-01

408

Aerodynamic damping measurements in a transonic compressor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed and demonstrated for the direct measurement of aerodynamic damping in a transonic compressor. The method is based on the inverse solution of the structural dynamic equations of motion of the blade-disk system. The equations are solved inversely to determine the forces acting on the system. If the structural dynamic equations are transformed to multiblade or modal coordinates, the damping can be measured for blade-disk modes, and related to a reduced frequency and interblade phase angle. This method of damping determination was demonstrated using a specially instrumented version of the MIT Transonic Compressor run in the MIT Blowdown Compressor Test Facility. No regions of aeroelastic instability were found. In runs at the operating point, the rotor was aerodynamically excited by a controlled two-per-revolution fixed up-stream disturbance. The disturbance was sharply terminated midway through the test. Analysis of the data in terms of multiblade modes led to a direct measurement of aerodynamic damping for three interblade phase angles.

Crawley, E. F.

1982-01-01

409

Computational Aerodynamics of Insects' Flapping Flight

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.

Yang, Kyung Dong; Kyung, Richard

2011-11-01

410

Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy

This paper describes the Integrated Deployment model to accelerate market adoption of alternative energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles through a comprehensive and aggressive approach.

Werner, M.

2010-11-01

411

Genetic algorithm approach to estimate transport energy demand in Turkey

Transport energy modeling is a subject of current interest among transport engineers and scientists concerned with problems of sustainable transport. Transport energy planning is not possible without a reasonable knowledge of past and present energy consumption and likely future demands. In this study, three forms of the energy demand equations are developed in order to improve transport energy demand estimation

Soner Haldenbilen; Halim Ceylan

2005-01-01

412

Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

1995-01-01

413

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation via flighttesting. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the sensitivity analysis of the structural response of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). HIAD architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during re-entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. In the example presented here, the structural parameters of an existing HIAD model have been varied to illustrate the design approach utilizing uncertainty-based methods. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense several orders of magnitude. The suitability of the design is based on assessing variation in the resulting cone angle. The acceptable cone angle variation would rely on the aerodynamic requirements.

Lyle, Karen H.

2014-01-01

414

A Reduced-Complexity Investigation of Blunt Leading-Edge Separation Motivated by UCAV Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced complexity investigation for blunt-leading-edge vortical separation has been undertaken. The overall approach is to design the fundamental work in such a way so that it relates to the aerodynamics of a more complex Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) concept known as SACCON. Some of the challenges associated with both the vehicle-class aerodynamics and the fundamental vortical flows are reviewed, and principles from a hierarchical complexity approach are used to relate flow fundamentals to system-level interests. The work is part of roughly 6-year research program on blunt-leading-edge separation pertinent to UCAVs, and was conducted under the NATO Science and Technology Organization, Applied Vehicle Technology panel.

Luckring, James M.; Boelens, Okko J.

2015-01-01

415

Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

1999-12-31

416

The evaluation of emissions from new energy sources has stimulated the development of new comparative approaches to health assessment studies. All energy sources that result in incomplete combustion are known to emit carcinogenic and mutagenic polynuclear aromatic compounds. Ther...

417

Supplement to the Shuttle aerodynamic database using Discovery flight tests

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Discovery vehicle was found to have longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics similar to those of the Columbia and Challenger vehicles. The lateral aerodynamic characteristics of the Columbia and Challenger vehicles are reiterated and the results from the Discovery flight test are added to this database. The longitudinal aerodynamics resulting from the analysis of flight data from all three vehicles is also shown. The values of the lateral and longitudinal parameters are compared with the preflight data book and this comparison is discussed.

Suit, W. T.; Schiess, J. R.

1985-01-01

418

Study of aerodynamic methods for improving truck fuel economy

Results are reported of a 3-year program to investigate aerodynamic means to reduce fuel consumption of tractor-trailer trucks. The study considered the benefit of aerodynamic add-on devices to reduce the aerodynamic drag on existing vehicles, and the influence of design alternatives in reducing the drag of future vehicles. Results are obtained for scaled-models in water table and wind-tunnel experiments, and

F. T. Jr. Buckley; C. H. Marks; W. H. Jr. Walston

1978-01-01

419

A study of aerodynamic methods for improving truck fuel economy

Results of a 3-year program to investigate aerodynamic means to reduce fuel consumption of tractor-trailer trucks are reported. The study considers the benefit of aerodynamic add-on devices to reduce the aerodynamic drag on existing vehicles, and the influence of design alternatives in reducing the drag of future vehicles. Results are obtained for scaled-models in water table and wind-tunnel experiments, and

F. T. Jr. Buckley; C. H. Marks; W. H. Walston Jr

1978-01-01

420

Monitoring and Targeting (M&T): A Low Investment, Low Risk Approach to Energy Cost Savings

Monitoring and Targeting (M&T): A Low Investment, Low Risk Approach to Energy Cost Savings Andrew McMullan Mike Rutkowski Alan Karp Vice President President Manager Bus. Development VERITECH, INC. Sterling, VA ABSTRACT Monitoring... and Targeting (M&T) is a disciplined approach to energy management that ensures that energy resources are used to their maximmn economic advantage. M&T serves two principal functions: ? Ongoing, day-to-day control of energy use ? Planned improvements...

McMullan, A.; Rutkowski, M.; Karp, A.

421

Advanced Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex Aerodynamic Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach for distribution of grid points on the surface and in the volume has been developed and implemented in the NASA unstructured grid generation code VGRID. In addition to the point and line sources of prior work, the new approach utilizes surface and volume sources for automatic curvature-based grid sizing and convenient point distribution in the volume. A new exponential growth function produces smoother and more efficient grids and provides superior control over distribution of grid points in the field. All types of sources support anisotropic grid stretching which not only improves the grid economy but also provides more accurate solutions for certain aerodynamic applications. The new approach does not require a three-dimensional background grid as in the previous methods. Instead, it makes use of an efficient bounding-box auxiliary medium for storing grid parameters defined by surface sources. The new approach is less memory-intensive and more efficient computationally. The grids generated with the new method either eliminate the need for adaptive grid refinement for certain class of problems or provide high quality initial grids that would enhance the performance of many adaptation methods.

Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

2008-01-01

422

Advanced Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex Aerodynamic Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach for distribution of grid points on the surface and in the volume has been developed. In addition to the point and line sources of prior work, the new approach utilizes surface and volume sources for automatic curvature-based grid sizing and convenient point distribution in the volume. A new exponential growth function produces smoother and more efficient grids and provides superior control over distribution of grid points in the field. All types of sources support anisotropic grid stretching which not only improves the grid economy but also provides more accurate solutions for certain aerodynamic applications. The new approach does not require a three-dimensional background grid as in the previous methods. Instead, it makes use of an efficient bounding-box auxiliary medium for storing grid parameters defined by surface sources. The new approach is less memory-intensive and more efficient computationally. The grids generated with the new method either eliminate the need for adaptive grid refinement for certain class of problems or provide high quality initial grids that would enhance the performance of many adaptation methods.

Pirzadeh, Shahyar

2010-01-01

423

A PDE Sensitivity Equation Method for Optimal Aerodynamic Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of gradient based optimization algorithms in inverse design is well established as a practical approach to aerodynamic design. A typical procedure uses a simulation scheme to evaluate the objective function (from the approximate states) and its gradient, then passes this information to an optimization algorithm. Once the simulation scheme (CFD flow solver) has been selected and used to provide approximate function evaluations, there are several possible approaches to the problem of computing gradients. One popular method is to differentiate the simulation scheme and compute design sensitivities that are then used to obtain gradients. Although this black-box approach has many advantages in shape optimization problems, one must compute mesh sensitivities in order to compute the design sensitivity. In this paper, we present an alternative approach using the PDE sensitivity equation to develop algorithms for computing gradients. This approach has the advantage that mesh sensitivities need not be computed. Moreover, when it is possible to use the CFD scheme for both the forward problem and the sensitivity equation, then there are computational advantages. An apparent disadvantage of this approach is that it does not always produce consistent derivatives. However, for a proper combination of discretization schemes, one can show asymptotic consistency under mesh refinement, which is often sufficient to guarantee convergence of the optimal design algorithm. In particular, we show that when asymptotically consistent schemes are combined with a trust-region optimization algorithm, the resulting optimal design method converges. We denote this approach as the sensitivity equation method. The sensitivity equation method is presented, convergence results are given and the approach is illustrated on two optimal design problems involving shocks.

Borggaard, Jeff; Burns, John

1996-01-01

424

Integrated aerodynamic/structural design of a sailplane wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using lifting-line theory and beam analysis, the geometry (planiform and twist) and composite material structural sizes (skin thickness, spar cap, and web thickness) were designed for a sailplane wing, subject to both structural and aerodynamic constraints. For all elements, the integrated design (simultaneously designing the aerodynamics and the structure) was superior in terms of performance and weight to the sequential design (where the aerodynamic geometry is designed to maximize the performance, following which a structural/aeroelastic design minimizes the weight). Integrated designs produced less rigid, higher aspect ratio wings with favorable aerodynamic/structural interactions.

Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Strauch, G. J.; Eppard, W. M.

1986-01-01

425

On the formulation of the aerodynamic characteristics in aircraft dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of functionals is used to reformulate the notions of aerodynamic indicial functions and superposition. Integral forms for the aerodynamic response to arbitrary motions are derived that are free of dependence on a linearity assumption. Simplifications of the integral forms lead to practicable nonlinear generalizations of the linear superpositions and stability derivative formulations. Applied to arbitrary nonplanar motions, the generalization yields a form for the aerodynamic response that can be compounded of the contributions from a limited number of well-defined characteristic motions, in principle reproducible in the wind tunnel. Further generalizations that would enable the consideration of random fluctuations and multivalued aerodynamic responses are indicated.

Tobak, M.; Schiff, L. B.

1976-01-01

426

Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.

Gregory, T. J. (editor); Ashbaugh, J. (editor)

1980-01-01

427

Fundamental Aspects of the Aerodynamics of Turbojet Engine Combustors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic considerations in the design of high performance combustors for turbojet engines are discussed. Aerodynamic problems concerning the preparation of the fuel-air mixture, the recirculation zone where primary combustion occurs, the secondary combustion zone, and the dilution zone were examined. An aerodynamic analysis of the entire primary chamber ensemble was carried out to determine the pressure drop between entry and exit. The aerodynamics of afterburn chambers are discussed. A model which can be used to investigate the evolution of temperature, pressure, and rate and efficiency of combustion the length of the chamber was developed.

Barrere, M.

1978-01-01

428

Non-propulsive aerodynamic noise

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe noise to total aircraft noise on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB noise suppression applied to the fan and turbine noise sources. The airframe noise of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft noise, the fan inlet. The noise impact of the airframe noise, as measured by noise contour area, is 1/4 that of fan noise. Further fan noise reduction efforts should not view airframe noise as an absolute noise floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity noise wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.

Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.

1992-01-01

429

Minimizing Mobility and Communication Energy in Robotic Networks: an Optimal Control Approach

Minimizing Mobility and Communication Energy in Robotic Networks: an Optimal Control Approach H of motion energy and communication energy in a network of mobile robots. The robotic network is charged to use mobility to reduce the energy required for sensing and communications; see [13] and references

Egerstedt, Magnus

430

An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary accomplishments of the project are as follows: (1) Using the transonic small perturbation equation as a flowfield model, the project demonstrated that the quasi-analytical method could be used to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for airfoils at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic conditions for design variables such as Mach number, airfoil thickness, maximum camber, angle of attack, and location of maximum camber. It was established that the quasi-analytical approach was an accurate method for obtaining aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for airfoils at transonic conditions and usually more efficient than the finite difference approach. (2) The usage of symbolic manipulation software to determine the appropriate expressions and computer coding associated with the quasi-analytical method for sensitivity derivatives was investigated. Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, it was determined that symbolic manipulation along with a chain rule approach was extremely useful in developing a combined flowfield and quasi-analytical sensitivity derivative code capable of considering a large number of realistic design variables. (3) Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, the quasi-analytical method was applied to swept wings (i.e. three dimensional) at transonic flow conditions. (4) The incremental iterative technique has been applied to the three dimensional transonic nonlinear small perturbation flowfield formulation, an equivalent plate deflection model, and the associated aerodynamic and structural discipline sensitivity equations; and coupled aeroelastic results for an aspect ratio three wing in transonic flow have been obtained.

Carlson, Leland A.

1994-01-01

431

An approach of analysing the stability and bifurcations of a multibody system previously developed is applied to a model for a modern motorcycle. The model includes a suspension system and aerodynamic drag. Conditions of running straight ahead on a level road at a constant forward speed and cornering in a curve with constant radius are analysed. The drag force, in

J. P. Meijaard; A. A. Popov

2006-01-01

432

MEMS Applications in Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embodies the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible bulk and surface micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including microsensors and microactuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about 100 microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. For aerodynamic measurements, it is preferred that sensors be small so as to approximate measurement at a point, and in fact, MEMS pressure sensors, wall shear-stress sensors, heat flux sensors and micromachined hot wires are nearing application. For the envisioned application to wind tunnel models, MEMS sensors can be placed on the surface or in very shallow grooves. MEMS devices have often been fabricated on stiff, flat silicon substrates, about 0.5 mm thick, and therefore were not easily mounted on curved surfaces. However, flexible substrates are now available and heat-flux sensor arrays have been wrapped around a curved turbine blade. Electrical leads can also be built into the flexible substrate. Thus MEMS instrumented wind tunnel models do not require deep spanwise grooves for tubes and leads that compromise the strength of conventionally instrumented models. With MEMS, even the electrical leads can potentially be eliminated if telemetry of the signals to an appropriate receiver can be implemented. While semiconductor silicon is well known for its electronic properties, it is also an excellent mechanical material for MEMS applications. However, silicon electronics are limited to operations below about 200 C, and silicon's mechanical properties start to diminish above 400 C. In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the leading material candidate for applications in high temperature environments and can be used for high-temperature MEMS applications. With SiC, diodes and more complex electronics have been shown to operate to about 600 C, while the mechanical properties of SiC are maintained to much higher temperatures. Even when MEMS devices show benefits in the laboratory, there are many packaging challenges for any aeronautics application. Incorporating MEMS into these applications requires new approaches to packaging that goes beyond traditional integrated circuit (IC) packaging technologies. MEMS must interact mechanically, as well as electrically with their environment, making most traditional chip packaging and mounting techniques inadequate. Wind tunnels operate over wide temperature ranges in an environment that is far from being a 'clean-room.' In flight, aircraft are exposed to natural elements (e.g. rain, sun, ice, insects and dirt) and operational interferences(e.g. cleaning and deicing fluids, and maintenance crews). In propulsion systems applications, MEMS devices will have to operate in environments containing gases with very high temperatures, abrasive particles and combustion products. Hence deployment and packaging that maintains the integrity of the MEMS system is crucial. This paper presents an overview of MEMS fabrication and materials, descriptions of available sensors with more details on those being developed in our laboratories, and a discussion of sensor deployment options for wind tunnel and flight applications.

Reshotko, E.; Mehregany, M.; Bang, C.

1998-01-01

433

A stochastic mixed-integer programming approach to the energy-technology management problem

A stochastic mixed-integer programming approach to the energy-technology management problem be introduced in energy generation. The approach involves a Stochastic Mixed-Integer Program (SMIP programming, Mixed-integer programming 1 Introduction With current population growth, economic development

Dessouky, Maged

434

Renormalization group approach to energy level statistics at the integer quantum Hall transition

Renormalization group approach to energy level statistics at the integer quantum Hall transition Philipp Cain and Rudolf A. Romer #3; Institut fur Physik, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, D-09107) approach to study the energy level statistics at the integer quantum Hall (QH) transition. Within the RG

Chemnitz, Technische UniversitÃ¤t

435

Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of hovering droneflies.

The time courses of wing and body kinematics of three freely hovering droneflies (Eristalis tenax) were measured using 3D high-speed video, and the morphological parameters of the wings and body of the insects were also measured. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insects. The time courses of the geometrical angle of attack and the deviation angle of the wing are considerably different from that of fruit flies recently measured using the same approach. The angle of attack is approximately constant in the mid portions of a half-stroke (a downstroke or upstroke) and varies rapidly during the stroke reversal. The deviation angle is relatively small and is higher at the beginning and the end of a half-stroke and lower at the middle of the half-stroke, giving a shallow U-shaped wing-tip trajectory. For all three insects considered, the computed vertical force is approximately equal to the insect weight (the difference is less than 6% of the weight) and the computed horizontal force and pitching moment about the center of mass of the insect are approximately zero. The computed results satisfying the equilibrium flight conditions, especially the moment balance condition, validate the computation model. The lift principle is mainly used to produce the weight-supporting vertical force, unlike the fruit flies who use both lift and drag principles to generate the vertical force; the vertical force is mainly due to the delayed stall mechanism. The magnitude of the inertia power is larger than that of the aerodynamic power, and the largest possible effect of elastic storage amounts to a reduction of flight power by around 40%, much larger than in the case of the fruit fly. PMID:18552290

Liu, Yanpeng; Sun, Mao

2008-07-01

436

Joint computational and experimental aerodynamics research on a reentry vehicle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to improve the synergism between computational aerodynamics and wind tunnel experimentation. In this paper, experimental and computational results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. Comparisons are made between experimental and computational results in order to improve the accuracy of both approaches. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. The half-angle of the cone is 10 degrees and the ratio of spherical nose radius to base radius in 10 percent. Onto the slice portion of the vehicle can be attached flaps with three different deflection angles; 10, 20, and 30 deg. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia Mach 8 long duration, blow-down, hypersonic wind tunnel. Flow visualization results include surface oil flow, spark schlieren, and liquid crystal photographs and video. The liquid crystals were used as an aid in verifying that a laminar boundary layer existed over the entire body. An extensive uncertainty analysis was conducted to estimate quantitatively the accuracy of the measurement. Computational aerodynamic force and moment predictions are compared with the wind tunnel data. The Sandia parabolized Navier-Stokes code is used to generate solutions for the sliced vehicle (no flap) and partial solutions for the flapped vehicle. For the geometry with the flap, an axially separated flow occurs and a time iterative Navier-Stokes code is used to provide comparisons with the data. This paper presents a portion of the results given in earlier works and also discusses new experimental results with this configuration.

437

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.

Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.

1976-01-01

438

A Common Sense Approach to Energy Issues in Industry

loads. Savings per hour 300 -r:;::=;:=== o RTP (cents/kwh) Figure 3 Hourly Equipment Savings at Various RTPs Competing Energy Sources Making use of competing energy suppliers can reduce costs, sometimes dramatically. Some gas-fired eq...

Richards, F. J.

439

Aerodynamic and functional consequences of wing compliance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence indicates that a majority of insects experience some degree of wing deformation during flight. With no musculature distal to the wing base, the instantaneous shape of an insect wing is dictated by the interaction of aerodynamic forces with the inertial and elastic forces that arise from periodic accelerations of the wing. Passive wing deformation is an unavoidable feature of flapping flight for many insects due to the inertial loads that accompany rapid stroke reversals—loads that well exceed the mean aerodynamic force. Although wing compliance has been implicated in a few lift-enhancing mechanisms (e.g., favorable camber), the direct aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation remain generally unresolved. In this paper, we present new experimental data on how wing compliance may affect the overall induced flow in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Real moth wings were subjected to robotic actuation in their dominant plane of rotation at a natural wing beat frequency of 25 Hz. We used digital particle image velocimetry at exceptionally high temporal resolution (2,100 fps) to assess the influence of wing compliance on the mean advective flows, relying on a natural variation in wing stiffness to alter the amount of emergent deformation (freshly extracted wings are flexible and exhibit greater compliance than those that are desiccated). We find that flexible wings yield mean advective flows with substantially greater magnitudes and orientations more beneficial to lift than those of stiff wings. Our results confirm that wing compliance plays a critical role in the production of flight forces.

Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Daniel, Thomas L.

440

Aerodynamic and functional consequences of wing compliance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence indicates that a majority of insects experience some degree of wing deformation during flight. With no musculature distal to the wing base, the instantaneous shape of an insect wing is dictated by the interaction of aerodynamic forces with the inertial and elastic forces that arise from periodic accelerations of the wing. Passive wing deformation is an unavoidable feature of flapping flight for many insects due to the inertial loads that accompany rapid stroke reversals—loads that well exceed the mean aerodynamic force. Although wing compliance has been implicated in a few lift-enhancing mechanisms (e.g., favorable camber), the direct aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation remain generally unresolved. In this paper, we present new experimental data on how wing compliance may affect the overall induced flow in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Real moth wings were subjected to robotic actuation in their dominant plane of rotation at a natural wing beat frequency of 25 Hz. We used digital particle image velocimetry at exceptionally high temporal resolution (2,100 fps) to assess the influence of wing compliance on the mean advective flows, relying on a natural variation in wing stiffness to alter the amount of emergent deformation (freshly extracted wings are flexible and exhibit greater compliance than those that are desiccated). We find that flexible wings yield mean advective flows with substantially greater magnitudes and orientations more beneficial to lift than those of stiff wings. Our results confirm that wing compliance plays a critical role in the production of flight forces.

Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Daniel, Thomas L.

2009-05-01

441

An Operational Excellence Approach to Sustainable Energy Management

interest wanes when energy prices are lower. With today’s high energy prices and growing interest in reducing CO2 emissions, energy management must become a core business activity and be implemented in a sustainable fashion as an embedded work process...

McMullan, A.

442

The energy balance of the earth' surface : a practical approach

This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This radiation originates partly from the sun, but an~

Bruin de H. A. R

1982-01-01

443

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formulas are obtained for determining the energy generation and dissipation rates of random (turbulent and pseudoturbulent) motion of particles due their collisions and the effect of the aerodynamic drag force. The averaged force of interparticle interaction, pseudoturbulent transfer coefficients for the “gas” of particles, and other quantities are calculated which are necessary to complete the set of equations describing the aerodynamics of the pneumatic transport zone of a circulating fluidized bed reactor [1].

Rokhman, B. B.; Shraiber, A. A.

1994-02-01

444

Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-24

445

Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

2010-01-01

446

Aerodynamic performance measurements at moderate Re

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been renewed interest in the aerodynamics of lifting wings at Reynolds numbers from 10^4 to 10^5, partly due to engineering requirements of small-scale, remotely piloted aircraft, and partly because birds and bats operate in this regime. Even when the wings do not flap or pitch or plunge, the flow over the small aspect ratio wings is likely to be three-dimensional and unsteady. Wind tunnel test results are described where force measurements are combined with DPIV studies. Some problems and principles of such measurement programs will also be discussed.

Rosen, M.; McArthur, J.; Spedding, G. R.

2004-11-01

447

Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical models to predict performance and operating characteristics of dual nozzle concepts were developed and improved. Aerodynamic models are available to define flow characteristics and bleed requirements for both the dual throat and dual expander concepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow, boundary layer, and shock effects within dual nozzle engines. Thermal analyses were performed to define cooling requirements for baseline configurations, and special studies of unique dual nozzle cooling problems defined feasible means of achieving adequate cooling.

Meagher, G. M.

1981-01-01

448

Reduced order models for nonlinear aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reduced order models are needed for reliable, efficient and accurate prediction of aerodynamic forces to analyze fluid structure interaction problems in turbomachinery, including propfans. Here, a finite difference, time marching Navier-Stokes code is validated for unsteady airfoil motion by comparing results with those from classical potential flow. The Navier-Stokes code is then analyzed for calculation of primitive and exact estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with fluid-airfoil interaction. A variational formulation for the Euler equations and Navier-Stokes equations will be the basis for reduction of order through an eigenvector transformation.

Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Bliss, Donald B.

1988-01-01

449

Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory.

Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S

1940-01-01

450

Development of a droplet breakup model considering aerodynamic and droplet collision effects

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is currently under development to predict the occurrence and outcome of spray droplet breakup induced by aerodynamic forces and droplet collisions. It is speculated that these phenomena may be significant in determining the droplet size distribution in a spray subjected to acoustic velocity fluctuations. The goal is to integrate this breakup model into a larger spray model in order to examine the effects of combustion instabilities on liquid rocket motor fuel sprays. The model is composed of three fundamental components: a dynamic equation governing the deformation of the droplet, a criterion for breakage based on the amount of deformation energy stored in the droplet and an energy balance based equation to predict the Sauter mean diameter of the fragments resulting from breakup. Comparison with published data for aerodynamic breakup indicates good agreement in terms of predicting the occurrence of breakup. However, the model significantly over predicts the size of the resulting fragments. This portion of the model is still under development.

Wert, K. L.; Jacobs, H. R.

1993-01-01

451

ICI's Approach to Total Energy Savings on Ethylene Plants

Recent technological developments have led to the creation of the rigorous simulation models for ethylene plants which can be run in concert with advanced, thermodynamic “pinch” procedures. This new approach enables operators to determine...

Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.

452

Multiscale modeling approach for calculating grain-boundary energies from first principles

A multiscale modeling approach is proposed for calculating energies of tilt-grain boundaries in covalent materials from first principles over an entire misorientation range for given tilt axes. The method uses energies from density-functional calculations for a few key structures as input into a disclination structural-units model. This approach is demonstrated by calculating energies of {l_angle}001{r_angle}-symmetrical tilt-grain boundaries in diamond. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Shenderova, O.A.; Brenner, D.W. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907 (United States)] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907 (United States); Nazarov, A.A. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, 450001Ufa (Russia)] [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, 450001Ufa (Russia); Romanov, A.E. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021St. Petersburg (Russia)] [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021St. Petersburg (Russia); Yang, L.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

1998-02-01

453

A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 16, 2000. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in the analysis of experimental results, model developments, simulations, and an investigation of an aerodynamic device. The focus of the meeting was a review of University of Southern California's (USC) experimental plans and results, NASA Ames experimental plans, the computational results from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Ground Transportation System (GTS) Model, and turbulence model development and benchmark simulation for a rounded cube from California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Much of the meeting discussion involved deficiencies in commercial software, needed modeling improvements, and the importance of detailed data for code validation. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of