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1

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itÃ¢ÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. If youÃ¢ÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics.The first site (1) provides some general information on aerodynamics. For those wanting a little more on the theory of aerodynamics, the University of Sydney has published this web textbook, Aerodynamics for Students (2). When people think of aerodynamics, they generally think of aviation and flight, which is explained on this site (3). Aerodynamics also has applications in sports, such as tennis, sailing and cycling. This website provides explanations for sports applications whether you are a beginner in the study of aerodynamics or an instructor (4). The next website reviews the aerodynamics of cycling and has a form that lets you Calculate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist (5). The last site, AeroNet (6), is an interactive site designed to provide information about topics involved with aviation in a fun way for anyone casually interested in flight, someone thinking about aviation as a profession, or a student doing research for physics class.

2

Aerodynamic Drag and Drag Reduction: Energy and Energy Savings (Invited)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that up to 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, 27% of the total energy used in the United States is consumed by transportation systems, and 60% of the transportation energy or 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Drag reduction goals of 50% are proposed and discussed which if realized would produce a 7.85% total energy savings. This energy savings correlates to a yearly cost savings in the $30Billion dollar range.

Wood, Richard M.

2003-01-01

3

Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

1981-01-01

4

Aerodynamics/ACEE: aircraft energy efficiency

An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

Not Available

1981-01-01

5

Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of aeroelasticity and flutter. These studies have sought to develop tools and methods to analyze aeroelastic effects by laying the foundation for more modern high aspect ratio wing aircraft such as the Truss-Braced Wing (TBW).1-3 Originally suggested by Northrop Grumman for the development of a long-range bomber, the idea of using truss structures to alleviate the bending moments of an ultra-high aspect ratio wing has culminated in more than a decade of work focused on understanding the aeroelastic properties and structural weight penalties due to the more aerodynamically efficient wing. The Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeingdeveloped N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD Fixed Wing Project.4, 5 The TBW aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing an aspect ratio on the order of 14, which is significantly greater than those of conventional aircraft wings. As a result, intermediate structural supports are required. The main wings The development of the TBW aircraft is supported through a collaboration between the NASA FixedWing Project, Boeing Research and Technology, and a number of other organizations. Multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization (MDAO) studies have been conducted at each stage to improve the wing aerodynamics, structural efficiency, and flight performance using advanced N+4 turbofan engines. These MDAO studies have refined the geometry of the wing and configuration layout and have involved trade studies involving minimizing induced drag with wing span, minimizing profile drag at lower Reynolds numbers, and minimizing wave drag due to the addition of the strut and brace. The chart in Fig. 2 summarizes progression of the past revisions of the TBW aircraft design at various developmental stage This paper presents an initial aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX coupled with the aerodynamic superposition method. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the complex configurati

Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

2014-01-01

6

Aerodynamic levitation : an approach to microgravity.

Measurements of the thermophysical and structural properties of liquid materials at high temperature have undergone considerable development in the past few years. Following improvements in electromagnetic levitation, aerodynamic levitation associated with laser heating has shown promise for assessing properties of different molten materials (metals, oxides, and semiconductors), preserving sample purity over a wide range of temperatures and under different gas environments. The density, surface tension and viscosity are measured with a high-speed video camera and an image analysis system. Results on nickel and alumina show that small droplets can be considered in the first approximation to be under microgravity conditions. Using a non-invasive contactless technique recently developed to measure electrical conductivity, results have been extended to variety of materials ranging from liquid metals and liquid semiconductors to ionically conducting materials. The advantage of this technique is the feasibility of monitoring changes in transport occurring during phase transitions and in deeply undercooled states.

Glorieux, B.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Millot, F.; Enderby, J.; Rifflet, J.-C.

2000-12-05

7

Resonance versus aerodynamics for energy savings in agile natural flyers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects are the most diverse natural flyers in nature, being able to hover and perform agile manoeuvres. Dragon- flies in particular are aggressive flyers, attaining accelerations of up to 4g. Flight in all insects requires demanding aerodynamic and inertial loads be overcome. It has been proposed that resonance is a primary mechanism for reducing energy costs associated with flapping flight, by storing energy in an elastic thorax and releasing it on the following half-stroke. Certainly in insect flight motors dominated by inertial loads, such a mechanism would be extremely beneficial. However in highly manoeuvrable, aerodynamically dominated flyers, such as the dragonfly, the use of elastic storage members requires further investigation. We show that employing resonant mechanisms in a real world configuration produces minimal energy savings that are further reduced by 50 to 133% across the operational flapping frequency band of the dragonfly. Using a simple harmonic oscillator analysis to represent the dynamics of a dragonfly, we further demonstrate a reduction in manoeuvring limits of ˜1.5 times for a system employing elastic mechanisms. This is in contrast to the potential power reductions of ?2/2 from regulating aerodynamics via active wing articulation. Aerodynamic means of energy storage provides flexibility between an energy efficient hover state and a manoeuvrable state capable of large accelerations. We conclude that active wing articulation is preferable to resonance for aerodynamically dominated natural flyers.

Kok, Jia M.; Chahl, Javaan

2014-03-01

8

In the present talk, the strategies to apply the sensitivity analysis method to aerodynamic shape optimization problems of complex geometries are intensively discussed. To resolve the design of complicated aircraft geometries such as high-lift devices, wing\\/body configurations, overset mesh techniques are adopted. In addition, a noticeable sensitivity analysis method, adjoint approach, which shows very good efficiency and accuracy for aerodynamic

Byung Joon Lee; Chongam Kim

9

To investigate the alfalfa crop response to environmental factors, a Bowen ratio-energy balance method was used to evaluate short-term alfalfa canopy resistance. Continuous evapotranspiration (ET a ) and the aerodynamic resistance ( r a ) for an alfalfa crop in each 20-min interval were calculated. Using the calculated ET a and r a and the Penman-Monteith approach, the bulk stomatal

Esmaiel Malek; Gail E. Bingham; Greg D. McCurdy

1992-01-01

10

Energy-conserving schemes for wind farm aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational demands compel researchers to use coarse grids for the study of wind farm aerodynamics, which necessitates the use of accurate numerical schemes. Energy- conserving (EC) schemes are designed to enforce the conservation of Kinetic Energy (KE), an invariant property of incompressible flows. These schemes are numerically stable and free from artificial dissipation, even on coarse grids and could be used as an alternative to high-order pseudo-spectral schemes. This article details tests on EC schemes in the context of Large Eddy Simulations (LES). Results suggest that the accuracy of EC schemes is influenced by the Subgrid Scale model used for the LES. EC methods use central schemes that lead to dispersion, which is more apparent with a less-dissipative Scale Similarity model. Whereas, the purely dissipative Smagorinsky's model reduces the dispersion and generates a smoother solution but at the cost of accuracy in terms of predicting the KE. Although the impact of EC schemes and SGS models on the LES of wind farms is yet to be assessed, a simple LES of a model wind farm uncovers that EC schemes are quite suitable for wind farm aerodynamics.

Mehta, Dhruv; van Zuijlen, Alexander; Bijl, Hester

2014-06-01

11

Energy harvesting under combined aerodynamic and base excitations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the transduction of a piezoaeroelastic energy harvester under the combination of vibratory base excitations and aerodynamic loadings. The harvester which consists of a rigid airfoil supported by nonlinear flexural and torsional springs is placed in an incompressible air flow and subjected to a harmonic base excitation in the plunge direction. Under this combined loading, the airfoil undergoes complex motions which strain a piezoelectric element producing a voltage across an electric load. To capture the qualitative behavior of the harvester, a five-dimensional lumped-parameter model which adopts nonlinear quasi-steady aerodynamics is used. A center manifold reduction is implemented to reduce the full model into one nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equation. The normal form of the reduced system is then derived to study slow modulation of the response amplitude and phase near the flutter instability. Below the flutter speed, the response of the harvester is observed to be always periodic with the air flow serving to amplify the influence of the base excitation on the response by reducing the effective stiffness of the system, and hence, increasing the RMS output power. Beyond the flutter speed, two distinct regions are observed. The first occurs when the base excitation is small and/or when the excitation frequency is not close to the frequency of the self-sustained oscillations induced by the flutter instability. In this case, the response of the harvester is two-period quasiperiodic with amplitude modulation due to the presence of two incommensurate frequencies in the response. This amplitude modulation reduces the RMS output power. In the second region, the amplitude of excitation is large enough to eliminate the quasiperiodic response by causing the two frequencies to lock into each other. In this region, the response becomes periodic and the output power increases exhibiting little dependence on the base excitation.

Bibo, Amin; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

2013-09-01

12

Aerodynamic and surface resistances affecting energy transport in a sparse crop

Ham, J.M. and Heilman, J.L., 1991. Aerodynamic and surface resistances affecting energy transport in a sparse crop. Agric, For. Meteorol., 53: 267-284. Aerodynamic and surface properties of the soil and canopy affect energy transport within sparse crops. A study was conducted with cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) to evaluate the feasibility of using both surface and within-canopy resistances to

J. M. Ham; J. L. Heilman

1991-01-01

13

To investigate the alfalfa crop response to environmental factors, a Bowen ratio-energy balance method was used to evaluate short-term alfalfa canopy resistance. Continuous evapotranspiration (ETa) and the aerodynamic resistance (ra) for an alfalfa crop in each 20-min interval were calculated. Using the calculated ETa and ra and the Penman-Monteith approach, the bulk stomatal or actual canopy resistance (rc) was evaluated.

Esmaiel Malek; Gail E. Bingham; Greg D. McCurdy

1992-01-01

14

Towards Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an Oblique Wing using the ADjoint Approach

Abstract The ADjoint method,is applied to a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver to generate the sensitivities required for aerodynamic shape optimization. The ADjoint approach selectively uses Automatic Dierentiation,(AD) to generate the partial derivative terms in the discrete adjoint equations. By selectively applying AD techniques, the computational cost and memory overhead incurred by using AD are significantly reduced, while still

Charles A. Mader; Joaquim R. R. A. Martins

15

Systematic approach to analyzing and reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles

This paper presents an approach for reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by systematically analyzing trailer components using existing computational tools and moving on to the analyses of integrated tractor-trailers using advanced computational tools. Experimental verification and validation are also an important part of this approach. The project is currently in the development phase while we are in the process of constructing a Multi-Year Program Plan. Projects I and 2 as described in this paper are the anticipated project direction. Also included are results from past and current related activities by the project participants which demonstrate the analysis approach.

McCallen, R.; Browand, F.; Leonard, A.; Rutledge, W.

1997-09-16

16

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple matrix polynomial approach is introduced for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the s-plane and ultimately, after combining matrix polynomial coefficients with matrices defining the structure, a matrix polynomial of the flutter equations of motion (EOM) is formed. A technique of recasting the matrix-polynomial form of the flutter EOM into a first order form is also presented that can be used to determine the eigenvalues near the origin and everywhere on the complex plane. An aeroservoelastic (ASE) EOM have been generalized to include the gust terms on the right-hand side. The reasons for developing the new matrix polynomial approach are also presented, which are the following: first, the "workhorse" methods such as the NASTRAN flutter analysis lack the capability to consistently find roots near the origin, along the real axis or accurately find roots farther away from the imaginary axis of the complex plane; and, second, the existing s-plane methods, such as the Roger s s-plane approximation method as implemented in ISAC, do not always give suitable fits of some tabular data of the unsteady aerodynamics. A method available in MATLAB is introduced that will accurately fit generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients in a tabular data form into the coefficients of a matrix polynomial form. The root-locus results from the NASTRAN pknl flutter analysis, the ISAC-Roger's s-plane method and the present matrix polynomial method are presented and compared for accuracy and for the number and locations of roots.

Pototzky, Anthony S.

2008-01-01

17

Optimal shape design of aerodynamic configurations: A Newton-Krylov approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal shape design of aerodynamic configurations is a challenging problem due to the nonlinear effects of complex flow features such as shock waves, boundary layers, and separation. A Newton-Krylov algorithm is presented for aerodynamic design using gradient-based numerical optimization. The flow is governed by the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation turbulence model, which are discretized on multi-block structured grids. The discrete-adjoint method is applied to compute the objective function gradient. The adjoint equation is solved using the preconditioned generalized minimal residual (GMRES) method. A novel preconditioner is introduced, and together with a complete differentiation of the discretized Navier-Stokes and turbulence model equations, this results in an accurate and efficient evaluation of the gradient. The gradient is obtained in just one-fifth to one-half of the time required to converge a flow solution. Furthermore, fast flow solutions are obtained using the same preconditioned GMRES method in conjunction with an inexact-Newton approach. Optimization constraints are enforced through a penalty formulation, and the resulting unconstrained problem is solved via a quasi-Newton method. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated for several design examples that include lift enhancement, where the optimal position of a flap is determined within a high-lift configuration, lift-constrained drag minimization at multiple transonic operating points, and the computation of a Pareto front based on competing objectives. In all examples, the gradient is reduced by several orders of magnitude, indicating that a local minimum has been obtained. Overall, the results show that the new algorithm is among the fastest presently available for aerodynamic shape optimization and provides an effective approach for practical aerodynamic design.

Nemec, Marian

18

A comparison of two closely-related approaches to aerodynamic design optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two related methods for aerodynamic design optimization are compared. The methods, called the implicit gradient approach and the variational (or optimal control) approach, both attempt to obtain gradients necessary for numerical optimization at a cost significantly less than that of the usual black-box approach that employs finite difference gradients. While the two methods are seemingly quite different, they are shown to differ (essentially) in that the order of discretizing the continuous problem, and of applying calculus, is interchanged. Under certain circumstances, the two methods turn out to be identical. We explore the relationship between these methods by applying them to a model problem for duct flow that has many features in common with transonic flow over an airfoil. We find that the gradients computed by the variational method can sometimes be sufficiently inaccurate to cause the optimization to fail.

Shubin, G. R.; Frank, P. D.

1991-01-01

19

This study considers evaporation from northern peatlands, which are important global stores of soil carbon. Evaporation is commonly simulated using the Penman-Monteith model. The model incorporates the aerodynamic resistance to vapour transfer (ra), which can currently only be measured using expensive, labour intensive micro-meteorological methods. A new approach to measuring ra is presented. The approach involves accurately measuring the evaporation

Nicholas Kettridge; Andrew Baird

2006-01-01

20

Aeroelasticity is the discipline of the aeronautical engineering that studies the vibration of the aircraft flexible structure as affected by the surrounding air. The aeroelastic behaviour of an aircraft depends basically of four major inputs: structure, inertia, aerodynamics, and flight control systems (aeroservoelasticity). The classical approach considers linear models for the structure, and does not include the effect on structural

Arévalo Lozano; Paseo John Lennon

21

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.

Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.

1988-01-01

22

An enhanced integrated aerodynamic load/dynamic approach to optimum rotor blade design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced integrated aerodynamic load/dynamic optimization procedure is developed to minimize vibratory root shears and moments. The optimization is formulated with 4/rev vertical and 3/rev inplane shears at the blade root as objective functions and constraints, and 4/rev lagging moment. Constraints are also imposed on blade natural frequencies, weight, autorotational inertia, contrifugal stress, and rotor thrust. The Global Criteria Approach is used for formulating the multi-objective optimization. Design variables include spanwise distributions of bending stiffnesses, torsional stiffness, nonstructural mass, chord, radius of gyration, and blade taper ratio. The program CAMRAD is coupled with an optimizer, which consists of the program CONMIN and an approximate analysis, to obtain optimum designs. The optimization procedure is applied to an advanced rotor as a reference design. Optimum blade designs, obtained with and without a constraint on the rotor thrust, are presented and are compared to the reference blade. Substantial reductions are obtained in the vibratory root forces and moments. As a byproduct, improvements are also found in some performance parameters, such as total power required, which were not considered during optimization.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Chiu, Y. Danny

1990-01-01

23

Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

2003-01-01

24

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study considers evaporation from northern peatlands, which are important global stores of soil carbon. Evaporation is commonly simulated using the Penman-Monteith model. The model incorporates the aerodynamic resistance to vapour transfer (ra), which can currently only be measured using expensive, labour intensive micro-meteorological methods. A new approach to measuring ra is presented. The approach involves accurately measuring the evaporation from a modified Bellani plate atmometer, of known surface resistance and temperature. With knowledge of basic meteorological parameters, ra can then be calculated. The approach is compared to modelled resistances within a northern peatland: no significant difference was found between modelled and measured ra. Copyright

Kettridge, Nicholas; Baird, Andrew

2006-12-01

25

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program written to calculate the proximity aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of the Orbiter/Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) vehicles based on flight instrumentation is described. The ground reduced aerodynamic coefficients and instrumentation errors (GRACIE) program was developed as a tool to aid in flight test verification of the Orbiter/SCA separation aerodynamic data base. The program calculates the force and moment coefficients of each vehicle in proximity to the other, using the load measurement system data, flight instrumentation data and the vehicle mass properties. The uncertainty in each coefficient is determined, based on the quoted instrumentation accuracies. A subroutine manipulates the Orbiter/747 Carrier Separation Aerodynamic Data Book to calculate a comparable set of predicted coefficients for comparison to the calculated flight test data.

Homan, D. J.

1977-01-01

26

Laboratory evaluation of fan/filter units' aerodynamic and energy performance

The paper discusses the benefits of having a consistent testing method to characterize aerodynamic and energy performance of FFUs. It presents evaluation methods of laboratory-measured performance of ten relatively new, 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) fan-filter units (FFUs), and includes results of a set of relevant metrics such as energy performance indices (EPI) based upon the sample FFUs tested. This paper concludes that there are variations in FFUs' performance, and that using a consistent testing and evaluation method can generate compatible and comparable FFU performance information. The paper also suggests that benefits and opportunities exist for our method of testing FFU energy performance to be integrated in future recommended practices.

Xu, Tengfang; Jeng, Ming-Shan

2004-07-27

27

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Wings Using a Parallel NewtonKrylov Approach

uid dynamics (CFD). In the last decade, CFD has emerged as an indispensable design tool for aircraft aerodynamics, complementing and sometimes replacing wind tunnel testing. Improvements in computer hardware have allowed engineers to solve larger and more complex CFD problems. However, using CFD as an analysis tool

Zingg, David W.

28

A comparison of optimization-based approaches for solving the aerodynamic design problem

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three optimization-based methods for solving aerodynamic design problems are compared. The Euler equations for one-dimensional duct flow was used as a model problem, and the three methods are compared for efficiency, robustness, and implementation difficulty. The smoothness of the design problem with respect to different shock-capturing finite difference schemes, and in the presence of grid refinement, is investigated.

Frank, Paul D.; Shubin, Gregory R.

1990-01-01

29

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bifurcation theory is used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic stability characteristics of an aircraft subject to single-degree-of-freedom. The requisite moment of the aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion is shown to be representable in a form equivalent to the response to finite amplitude oscillations. It is shown how this information can be deduced from the case of infinitesimal-amplitude oscillations. The bifurcation theory analysis reveals that when the bifurcation parameter is increased beyond a critical value at which the aerodynamic damping vanishes, new solutions representing finite amplitude periodic motions bifurcate from the previously stable steady motion. The sign of a simple criterion, cast in terms of aerodynamic properties, determines whether the bifurcating solutions are stable or unstable. For the pitching motion of flat-plate airfoils flying at supersonic/hypersonic speed and for oscillation of flaps at transonic speed, the bifurcation is subcritical, implying either the exchanges of stability between steady and periodic motion are accompanied by hysteresis phenomena, or that potentially large aperiodic departures from steady motion may develop.

Hui, W. H.

1985-01-01

30

Comparison of Computational Approaches for Rapid Aerodynamic Assessment of Small UAVs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods were used to determine the basic aerodynamic, performance, and stability and control characteristics of the unmanned air vehicle (UAV), Kahu. Accurate and timely prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics of small UAVs is an essential part of military system acquisition and air-worthiness evaluations. The forces and moments of the UAV were predicted using a variety of analytical methods for a range of configurations and conditions. The methods included Navier Stokes (N-S) flow solvers (USM3D, Kestrel and Cobalt) that take days to set up and hours to converge on a single solution; potential flow methods (PMARC, LSAERO, and XFLR5) that take hours to set up and minutes to compute; empirical methods (Datcom) that involve table lookups and produce a solution quickly; and handbook calculations. A preliminary aerodynamic database can be developed very efficiently by using a combination of computational tools. The database can be generated with low-order and empirical methods in linear regions, then replacing or adjusting the data as predictions from higher order methods are obtained. A comparison of results from all the data sources as well as experimental data obtained from a wind-tunnel test will be shown and the methods will be evaluated on their utility during each portion of the flight envelope.

Shafer, Theresa C.; Lynch, C. Eric; Viken, Sally A.; Favaregh, Noah; Zeune, Cale; Williams, Nathan; Dansie, Jonathan

2014-01-01

31

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Arc Jet Facilities' Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) has been instrumented for the Enthalpy By Energy Balance (EB2) method. Diagnostic EB2 data is routinely taken for all AHF runs. This paper provides an overview of the EB2 method implemented in the AHF. The chief advantage of the AHF implementation over earlier versions is the non-intrusiveness of the instruments used. For example, to measure the change in cooling water temperature, thin film 1000 ohm Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are used with an Anderson Current Loop (ACL) as the signal conditioner. The ACL with 1000 ohm RTDs allows for very sensitive measurement of the increase in temperature (Delta T) of the cooling water to the arc heater, which is a critical element of the EB2 method. Cooling water flow rates are measured with non-intrusive ultrasonic flow meters.

Hightower, T. Mark; MacDonald, Christine L.; Martinez, Edward R.; Balboni, John A.; Anderson, Karl F.; Arnold, Jim O. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

32

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the influence of different key parameters in aerodynamic wind turbine rotor design on the power efficiency, Cp, and energy production has been investigated. The work was divided into an analysis of 2D airfoils/blade sections and of entire rotors. In the analysis of the 2D airfoils it was seen that there was a maximum of the local Cp for airfoils with finite maximum Cl/Cd values. The local speed ratio should be between 2.4 and 3.8 for airfoils with maximum cl/cd between 50 and 200, respectively, to obtain maximum local Cp. Also, the investigation showed that Re had a significant impact on CP and especially for Re<2mio corresponding to rotors below approximately 400kW this impact was pronounced. The investigation of Cp for rotors was made with three blades and showed that with the assumption of constant maximum cl/cd along the entire blade, the design tip speed ratio changed from X=6 to X=12 for cl/cd=50 and cl/cd=200, respectively, with corresponding values of maximum cp of 0.46 and 0.525. An analysis of existing rotors re-designed with new airfoils but maintaining the absolute thickness distribution to maintain the stiffness showed that big rotors are more aerodynamic efficient than small rotors caused by higher Re. It also showed that the design tip speed ratio was very dependent on the rotor size and on the assumptions of the airfoil flow being fully turbulent (contaminated airfoil) or free transitional (clean airfoil). The investigations showed that rotors with diameter D=1.75m, should be designed for X around 5.5, whereas rotors with diameter D=126m, should be designed for Xbetween 6.5 and 8.5, depending on the airfoil performance.

Bak, Christian

2007-07-01

33

Coupled flow, thermal and structural analysis of aerodynamically heated panels

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element approach to coupling flow, thermal and structural analyses of aerodynamically heated panels is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible flow are solved together with the energy equation and quasi-static structural equations of the panel. Interactions between the flow, panel heat transfer and deformations are studied for thin stainless steel panels aerodynamically heated by Mach 6.6 flow.

Thornton, Earl A.; Dechaumphai, Pramote

1986-01-01

34

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical method is described which uses a rectangular grid to solve the nonlinear full potential equation about complex configurations. The grid is locally refined to resolve high velocity gradients arising from leading edge expansions or shock waves. The grid penetrates the boundary (described by networks of quadrilateral panels) and is generated automatically. Discrete operators are constructed using the finite element method. The system of nonlinear discrete equations is solved iteratively using a Krylov subspace method preconditioned by an exterior Poisson solver and a direct sparse solver. The primary emphasis is to provide design engineers with an aerodynamic analysis tool (the TRANAIR code) which is accurate, reliable, economical, and flexible to use. Computational results for many interesting configurations are presented.

Johnson, Forrester T.; Samant, Satish S.; Bieterman, Michael B.; Melvin, Robin G.; Young, David P.; Bussoletti, John E.; Madson, Mike D.

1990-01-01

35

The relative importance of surface and aerodynamic resistances in a multi-source energy-CO 2 model

An interactive multi-source SVAT model, describing the fluxes of heat, water vapour and CO2, has been developed. The parameterisation of the canopy conductance is based on a physiological photosynthesis-conductance model. The energy partitioning between the various sources is calculated using the Penman Monteith equation and a resistance network, involving aerodynamic and surface resistances. The model has been tested using micro-meteorological

A. Verhoef; S. J. Allen

1998-01-01

36

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic design and test results of the fan and quarter-stage component for the GE/NASA Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) are presented. The fan is a high bypass ratio, single-stage design having 32 part-span shrouded rotor blades, coupled with a unique quarter-stage arrangement that provides additional core-stream pressure ratio and particle separation. The fan produces a bypass pressure ratio of 1.65 at the exit of the low aspect ratio vane/frame and a core-stream pressure ratio of 1.67 at the entrance to the core frame struts. The full-scale fan vehicle was instrumented, assembled and tested as a component in November 1981. Performance mapping was conducted over a range of speeds and bypass ratios using individually-controlled bypass and core-stream discharge valves. The fan bypass and core-stream test data showed excellent results, with the fan exceeding all performance goals at the important engine operating conditions.

Sullivan, T. J.; Hager, R. D.

1983-01-01

37

Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.

Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.

1983-01-01

38

Uncertainty-Based Approach for Dynamic Aerodynamic Data Acquisition and Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of improved modeling methods to provide increased fidelity of flight predictions for aircraft motions during flight in flow regimes with large nonlinearities requires improvements in test techniques for measuring and characterizing wind tunnel data. This paper presents a method for providing a measure of data integrity for static and forced oscillation test techniques. Data integrity is particularly important when attempting to accurately model and predict flight of today s high performance aircraft which are operating in expanded flight envelopes, often maneuvering at high angular rates at high angles-of-attack, even above maximum lift. Current aerodynamic models are inadequate in predicting flight characteristics in the expanded envelope, such as rapid aircraft departures and other unusual motions. Present wind tunnel test methods do not factor changes of flow physics into data acquisition schemes, so in many cases data are obtained over more iterations than required, or insufficient data may be obtained to determine a valid estimate with statistical significance. Additionally, forced oscillation test techniques, one of the primary tools used to develop dynamic models, do not currently provide estimates of the uncertainty of the results during an oscillation cycle. A method to optimize the required number of forced oscillation cycles based on decay of uncertainty gradients and balance tolerances is also presented.

Heim, Eugene H. D.; Bandon, Jay M.

2004-01-01

39

Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines

objective of the research was to develop new computational tools or approaching techniques for analysingComputational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines #12;#12;Computational Aerodynamics Shen, Wen Zhong Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines Doctor Thesis Technical

40

Portfolio Assessment in Aerodynamics Nikos J. Mourtos

Portfolio Assessment in Aerodynamics Nikos J. Mourtos Department of Mechanical & Aerospace in an aerodynamics course through the use of portfolios is presented. The approach is portable to any engineering student motivation and learning. I. Introduction The aerodynamics course (AE 162) at SJSU is a second

Mourtos, Nikos

41

Wing shape allometry and aerodynamics in calopterygid damselflies: a comparative approach

Background Wing size and shape have important aerodynamic implications on flight performance. We explored how wing size was related to wing shape in territorial males of 37 taxa of the damselfly family Calopterygidae. Wing coloration was also included in the analyses because it is sexually and naturally selected and has been shown to be related to wing shape. We studied wing shape using both the non-dimensional radius of the second moment of wing area (RSM) and geometric morphometrics. Lower values of the RSM result in less energetically demanding flight and wider ranges of flight speed. We also re-analyzed previously published data on other damselflies and dragonflies. Results The RSM showed a hump-shaped relationship with wing size. However, after correcting for phylogeny using independent contrast, this pattern changed to a negative linear relationship. The basal genus of the study family, Hetaerina, was mainly driving that change. The obtained patterns were specific for the study family and differed from other damselflies and dragonflies. The relationship between the RSM and wing shape measured by geometric morphometrics was linear, but relatively small changes along the RSM axis can result in large changes in wing shape. Our results also showed that wing coloration may have some effect on RSM. Conclusions We found that RSM showed a complex relationship with size in calopterygid damselflies, probably as a result of other selection pressures besides wing size per se. Wing coloration and specific behavior (e.g. courtship) are potential candidates for explaining the complexity. Univariate measures of wing shape such as RSM are more intuitive but lack the high resolution of other multivariate techniques such as geometric morphometrics. We suggest that the relationship between wing shape and size are taxa-specific and differ among closely-related insect groups. PMID:23742224

2013-01-01

42

Advanced propeller aerodynamic analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analytical approaches as well as the capabilities of three advanced analyses for predicting propeller aerodynamic performance are presented. It is shown that two of these analyses use a lifting line representation for the propeller blades, and the third uses a lifting surface representation.

Bober, L. J.

1980-01-01

43

Aerodynamics and Aeroelastics, WP 2 Flemming Rasmussen

Aerodynamics and Aeroelastics, WP 2 Flemming Rasmussen Aeroelastic Design Wind Energy Department RisÃ¸ DTU #12;WP2 Aero-dynamics and Aero-elastics OBJECTIVES 1. Development of nonlinear structural dynamic models (modeling on the micromechanical scale is input from WP3). 2. Advanced aerodynamic models

44

Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

1991-01-01

45

A Parallel Cartesian Approach for External Aerodynamics of Vehicles with Complex Geometry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This workshop paper presents the current status in the development of a new approach for the solution of the Euler equations on Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries in three dimensions on distributed and shared memory architectures. The approach uses adaptively refined Cartesian hexahedra to fill the computational domain. Where these cells intersect the geometry, they are cut by the boundary into arbitrarily shaped polyhedra which receive special treatment by the solver. The presentation documents a newly developed multilevel upwind solver based on a flexible domain-decomposition strategy. One novel aspect of the work is its use of space-filling curves (SFC) for memory efficient on-the-fly parallelization, dynamic re-partitioning and automatic coarse mesh generation. Within each subdomain the approach employs a variety reordering techniques so that relevant data are on the same page in memory permitting high-performance on cache-based processors. Details of the on-the-fly SFC based partitioning are presented as are construction rules for the automatic coarse mesh generation. After describing the approach, the paper uses model problems and 3- D configurations to both verify and validate the solver. The model problems demonstrate that second-order accuracy is maintained despite the presence of the irregular cut-cells in the mesh. In addition, it examines both parallel efficiency and convergence behavior. These investigations demonstrate a parallel speed-up in excess of 28 on 32 processors of an SGI Origin 2000 system and confirm that mesh partitioning has no effect on convergence behavior.

Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.

2001-01-01

46

PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

Akishita, Sadao

2010-02-01

47

Aerodynamics at the Particle Level

This paper is intended to clarify some of the rather well-known aerodynamic phenomena. It is also intended to pique the interest of the layman as well as the professional. All aerodynamic forces on a surface are caused by collisions of fluid particles with the surface. While the standard approach to fluid dynamics, which is founded on the fluid approximation, is effective in providing a means of calculating various behavior and properties, it begs the question of causality. The determination of the causes of many of the most important aerodynamic effects requires a microscopic examination of the fluid and of the surface with which it interacts. The Kutta-Joukowski theorem is investigated from first physical principles. It is noted that the circulation does not arise as a physical phenomenon. Various aerodynamic devices are discussed, e.g. rocket engine exhaust diffuser and the perfume atomizer.

Charles A. Crummer

2005-07-15

48

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the effect of aileron deflections on the aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic energy efficient transport (EET) model. The semispan model had an aspect ratio 10 supercritical wing and was configured with a conventionally located set of ailerons (i.e., a high speed aileron located inboard and a low speed aileron located outboard). Data for the model were taken over a Mach number range from 0.30 to 0.90 and an angle of attack range from approximately -2 deg to 10 deg. The Reynolds number was 2.5 million per foot for Mach number = 0.30 and 4 million per foot for the other Mach numbers. Model force and moment data, aileron effectiveness parameters, aileron hinge moment data, otherwise pressure distributions, and spanwise load data are presented.

Jacobs, P. F.

1985-01-01

49

Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: a guidebook

A typical present-day subcompact EHV, operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

Kurtz, D.W.

1980-09-30

50

Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

Kurtz, D. W.

1980-01-01

51

A new technique for aerodynamic noise calculation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method for the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation is presented. The method involves first solving for the time-dependent incompressible flow for the given geometry. This fully nonlinear method that is tailored to extract the relevant acoustic fluctuations seems to be an efficient approach to the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation.

Hardin, J. C.; Pope, D. S.

1992-01-01

52

This introduction to aerodynamic aspects of motor vehicle design will be of use both to vehicle designers and students of automobile engineering. Content covers vehicle systems, ventilation and aerodynamic design to reduce drag and increase stability of cars, commercial vehicles and PSVs. Topics considered include automobile aerodynamics; some fundamentals of fluid mechanics; performance of cars and light vans; aerodynamic drag of passenger cars; driving stability in sidewinds; operation, safety and comfort; high-performance vehicle aerodynamics; commercial vehicles; engine cooling systems; heating, ventilation and air conditioning of motor vehicles; wind tunnels for automobile aerodynamics; measuring and testing techniques; and numerical methods for computation of flow around road vehicles.

Hucho, W.H.

1987-01-01

53

Ris-PhD-Report Wind Turbines: Unsteady Aerodynamics and

RisÃ¸-PhD-Report Wind Turbines: Unsteady Aerodynamics and Inflow Noise Brian Riget Broe RisÃ¸-PhD-47 Title: Wind Turbines: Unsteady Aerodynamics and Inflow Noise Division: Wind Energy Division RisÃ¸-PhD-47(EN) December 2009 Abstract (max. 2000 char.): Aerodynamical noise from wind turbines due

54

Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamically detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus is analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.

Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

1985-01-01

55

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

Jones, R. T. (compiler)

1979-01-01

56

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

1992-01-01

57

Chapter 11 Aerodynamics Antony Jameson Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA 1 Focus Multidimensional Domains 359 6 Time-stepping Schemes 365 7 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization 379 8 Related Chapters 400 Acknowledgment 400 References 400 1 FOCUS AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.1 Classical aerodynamics

Jameson, Antony

58

Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

Graham, Sean (Primary Investigator); Bigatel, Patrick

2004-10-17

59

This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports. PMID:20488446

Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

2010-08-26

60

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamic roughness height (Zom) is a key parameter required in land surface hydrological model, since errors in heat flux estimations are largely dependent on accurate optimization of this parameter. Despite its significance, it remains an uncertain parameter that is not easily determined. This is mostly because of non-linear relationship in Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) and unknown vertical characteristic of vegetation. Previous studies determined aerodynamic roughness using traditional wind profile method, remotely sensed vegetation index, minimization of cost function over MOS relationship or linear regression. However, these are complicated procedures that presume high accuracy for several other related parameters embedded in MOS equations. In order to simplify a procedure and reduce the number of parameters in need, this study suggests a new approach to extract aerodynamic roughness parameter via Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that affords non-linearity and that requires only single or two heat flux measurement. So far, to our knowledge, no previous study has applied EnKF to aerodynamic roughness estimation, while a majority of data assimilation study has paid attention to land surface state variables such as soil moisture or land surface temperature. This approach was applied to grassland in semi-arid Tibetan area and maize on moderately wet condition in Italy. It was demonstrated that aerodynamic roughness parameter can inversely be tracked from data assimilated heat flux analysis. The aerodynamic roughness height estimated in this approach was consistent with eddy covariance result and literature value. Consequently, this newly estimated input adjusted the sensible heat overestimated and latent heat flux underestimated by the original Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model, suggesting better heat flux estimation especially during the summer Monsoon period. The advantage of this approach over other methodologies is that aerodynamic roughness height estimated in this way is useful even when eddy covariance data are absent and is time-variant over vegetation growth, as well as is not affected by saturation problem of remotely sensed vegetation index.

Lee, J. H.; Timmermans, J.; Su, Z.; Mancini, M.

2012-04-01

61

Aerodynamic response analysis of wind turbines

Wind energy has received increasing attention in the same way as energy crisis and environmental deterioration. The aerodynamic\\u000a response of wind turbines is the major problem in wind turbine design. Blade element momentum theory was used to study the\\u000a aerodynamic thrusts of the blades on the tower. Iterative solutions were used to calculate the axial flow induction factor\\u000a for each

Jing Li; Jianyun Chen; Xiaobo Chen

2011-01-01

62

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (editor)

1992-01-01

63

Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

64

Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass seed pod in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to measure resuspension from aerodynamic (viscous and

Dale A. Gillette; Robert E. Lawson Jr; Roger S. Thompson

2004-01-01

65

Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's "Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics" provides some general information on the basics of aerodynamics. The site allows users to explore at their own pace and level of interest. Some of the topics that are available here are: equations of motion, free falling, air resistance, force, gas properties, and atmosphere. Movies, reading materials, and activities are all available to accommodate a variety of different learning styles. This is an excellent resource, with great reference materials for anyone interested in learning more about aerodynamics.

2007-12-07

66

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those wanting a little more on the theory of aerodynamics, the University of Sydney has published this web textbook, "Aerodynamics for Students". In addition to information on fluid dynamics, flight theory, gas dynamics, propulsion, aircraft performance, and aeroelasticity, the textbook also includes data tables, computer programs, and simulations to aid in the study and understanding of aerodynamics. This textbook is a great resource for undergraduates studying engineering.

2007-12-10

67

Preconditioning Methods for Multidimensional Aerodynamics

Preconditioning Methods for Multidimensional Aerodynamics E. Turkel School of Mathematical Sciences of Design Aerodynamics Braunschweig, Germany 1 #12; Contents 1 Introduction 5 1.1 General requirements

Turkel, Eli

68

Efficient aerodynamic shape optimization in MDO context

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multidisciplinary analysis is necessary to reach physically meaningful optimum designs. For aero-structural shape optimization this means coupling two disciplines--aerodynamics and structural mechanics. In this paper, the sensitivity evaluation for aerodynamic shape optimization is considered, while taking into account the static aeroelastic effects introduced by the variations in the aerodynamic forces, which are associated with changes in the aerodynamic shape. Due to the high computational cost of a finite difference evaluation step for such a coupled problem, an extension of the adjoint approach to aeroelasticity is necessary for an efficient calculation of the sensitivities. The implementation, validation and application of such a method in the MDO context described above are presented.

Fazzolari, Antonio; Gauger, Nicolas R.; Brezillon, Joel

2007-06-01

69

Unsteady transonic aerodynamics

Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.

Nixon, D.

1989-01-01

70

NASA: Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics - Aerodynamics Index

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an index of all topics available from NASA's Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics site. Resources include lesson plans, activities, and interactive simulations for grades 3-12 relating to fundamentals of aerodynamics and the forces acting on airborne objects. The scope of content is extensive and includes specific topics such as thrust, lift, drag, relative velocity, air pressure and density, trajectory, and terminal velocity. Resources are also organized by grade level. These resources, available cost-free, were developed by scientists and teacher workshop participants at NASA's Glenn Learning Research Center.

2008-12-16

71

Aerodynamics and performance testing of the VAWT

Early investigations suggest that reductions in cost of energy (COE) and increases in reliability for VAWT systems may be brought about through relatively inexpensive changes to the current aerodynamic design. This design uses blades of symmetrical cross-section mounted such that the radius from the rotating tower centerline is normal to the blade chord at roughly the 40% chord point. The envisioned changes to this existing design are intended to: (1) lower cut-in windspeed; (2) increase maximum efficiency; (3) limit maximum aerodynamic power; and (4) limit peak aerodynamic torques. This paper describes certain experiments designed to both better understand the aerodynamics of a section operating in an unsteady, curvilinear flowfield and achieve some of the desired changes in section properties. The common goal of all of these experiments is to lower VAWT COE and increase system reliability.

Klimas, P.C.

1981-01-01

72

Fundamentals of Modern Unsteady Aerodynamics

Fundamentals of Modern Unsteady Aerodynamics U. Gulcat Springer, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121 covers the modern topics on unsteady aerodynamics. The classical chapters mostly refer to the aerodynamic, different sorts of wing rock and flapping wing aerodynamics. The so-called classical topics can be found

Nagurka, Mark L.

73

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itÃ¢ÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youÃ¢ÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

2010-09-17

74

At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the 'smart' design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Roy, C; Pointer, W; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatalain, P; Englar, R; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Storms, B

2004-06-17

75

Development of aerodynamics for a solar race car

The dominant factor of a solar car is running resistance, especially aerodynamic drag; and the reduction of the CD (drag coefficient)× A (frontal projected area) value is a crucial task to maximize the performance of a solar car. This paper will introduce the aerodynamic approach of the '96 Honda solar car which participated in the World Solar Challenge, the world's

Hiroyuki Ozawa; Sumio Nishikawa; Dai Higashida

1998-01-01

76

Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used. PMID:17519203

Tucker, Paul G

2007-10-15

77

Science of Cycling: Aerodynamics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the Exploratorium, reviews the aerodynamics of cycling. Wind resistance is often one of the biggest challenges that professional and amateur cyclists face. This site has a form that lets you "Calculate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist". Use the form to calculate resistance using different inclines, velocity, weight or wind velocity. At the bottom of the page, you can find useful information and tips on reducing resistance. Check it out before your next bike ride!

2007-12-26

78

Transonic aerodynamic design experience

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancements have occurred in transonic numerical simulation that place aerodynamic performance design into a relatively well developed status. Efficient broad band operating characteristics can be reliably developed at the conceptual design level. Recent aeroelastic and separated flow simulation results indicate that systematic consideration of an increased range of design problems appears promising. This emerging capability addresses static and dynamic structural/aerodynamic coupling and nonlinearities associated with viscous dominated flows.

Bonner, E.

1989-01-01

79

A Casimir approach to dark energy

We calculate the gravitational self-energy of vacuum quantum field fluctuations using a Casimir approach. We find that the Casimir gravitational self-energy density can account for the measured dark energy density when the SUSY-breaking energy is approximately 5 TeV, in good agreement with current estimates. Furthermore, the Casimir gravitational self-energy appears to provide a quantum mechanism for the well-know geometric relation between the Planck, SUSY and cosmological constant energy scales.

Allan Rosencwaig

2006-06-26

80

The bulk aerodynamic formulation over heterogeneous surfaces

This interpretative literature survey examines problems with application of the bulk aerodynamic method to spatially averaged fluxes over heterogeneous surfaces. This task is approached by tying together concepts from a diverse range of recent studies on subgrid parameterization, the roughness sublayer, the roll of large “inactive” boundary-layer eddies, internal boundary-layer growth, the equilibrium sublayer, footprint theory and the blending height.

L. Mahrt

1996-01-01

81

Nonlinear aerodynamic modeling using multivariate orthogonal functions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was developed for global modeling of nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients using multivariate orthogonal functions based on the data. Each orthogonal function retained in the model was decomposed into an expansion of ordinary polynomials in the independent variables, so that the final model could be interpreted as selectively retained terms from a multivariable power series expansion. A predicted squared-error metric was used to determine the orthogonal functions to be retained in the model; analytical derivatives were easily computed. The approach was demonstrated on the Z-body axis aerodynamic force coefficient (Cz) wind tunnel data for an F-18 research vehicle which came from a tabular wind tunnel and covered the entire subsonic flight envelope. For a realistic case, the analytical model predicted experimental values of Cz very well. The modeling technique is shown to be capable of generating a compact, global analytical representation of nonlinear aerodynamics. The polynomial model has good predictive capability, global validity, and analytical differentiability.

Morelli, Eugene A.

1993-01-01

82

Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

1996-01-01

83

Applied computational aerodynamics

The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

Henne, P.A.

1990-01-01

84

Darrieus wind turbines are relatively simple devices. Fixed geometry blades, usually only two or three in number, rotate about a vertical axis providing power to ground mounted power conversion or absorption machinery. No yaw control or power regulation systems are required. This simplicity, however, does not extend to the rotor's aerodynamics. The blade elements travel along circular paths through air whose relative speed and direction are constantly changing. The blade elements operate both unstalled and stalled with aerodynamic stall providing the rotor's inherent power regulation. The blade elements encounter their own wakes and those generated by other elements. These features combine to cause the thorough analysis of Darrieus rotor aerodynamics to be a challenging undertaking.

Klimas, P.C.

1981-01-01

85

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A more automated process to produce wind tunnel models using existing facilities is discussed. A process was sought to more rapidly determine the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced aircraft configurations. Such aerodynamic characteristics are determined from theoretical analyses and wind tunnel tests of the configurations. Computers are used to perform the theoretical analyses, and a computer aided manufacturing system is used to fabricate the wind tunnel models. In the past a separate set of input data describing the aircraft geometry had to be generated for each process. This process establishes a common data base by enabling the computer aided manufacturing system to use, via a software interface, the geometric input data generated for the theoretical analysis. Thus, only one set of geometric data needs to be generated. Tests reveal that the process can reduce by several weeks the time needed to produce a wind tunnel model component. In addition, this process increases the similarity of the wind tunnel model to the mathematical model used by the theoretical aerodynamic analysis programs. Specifically, the wind tunnel model can be machined to within 0.008 in. of the original mathematical model. However, the software interface is highly complex and cumbersome to operate, making it unsuitable for routine use. The procurement of an independent computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system with the capability to support both the theoretical analysis and the manufacturing tasks was recommended.

See, M. J.; Cozzolongo, J. V.

1983-01-01

86

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site serves as an online aerodynamics textbook for college students. Offered by the department of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Mechatronic Engineering at the University of Sydney, the material is divided into several main categories. These include fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, gasdynamics, aircraft performance, and propulsion. Each of these sections has many specific topics that are discussed in detail. There are MATLAB, Excel, and FORTRAN files and data sheets that accompany the reading, but they are best used as reference and are not needed to understand most of the material.

1995-01-01

87

An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Spinning Missile with Dithering Canards

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generic spinning missile with dithering canards is used to demonstrate the utility of an overset structured grid approach for simulating the aerodynamics of rolling airframe missile systems. The approach is used to generate a modest aerodynamic database for the generic missile. The database is populated with solutions to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. It is used to evaluate grid resolution requirements for accurate prediction of instantaneous missile loads and the relative aerodynamic significance of angle-of-attack, canard pitching sequence, viscous effects, and roll-rate effects. A novel analytical method for inter- and extrapolation of database results is also given.

Meakin, Robert L.; Nygaard, Tor A.

2003-01-01

88

Applications of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Inviscid Transonic Aerodynamics

Two extensions to the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are considered for steady transonic aerodynamic applications. The first is to couple the POD approach with a cubic spline interpolation procedure in ...

Tan, Bui-Thanh

89

Utility of Radiometric–aerodynamic Temperature Relations for Heat Flux Estimation

In many land-surface models using bulk transfer (one-source) approaches, the application of radiometric surface temperature\\u000a observations in energy flux computations has given mixed results. This is due in part to the non-unique relationship between\\u000a the so-called aerodynamic temperature, which relates to the efficiency of heat exchange between the land surface and overlying\\u000a atmosphere, and a surface temperature measurement from a

William P. Kustas; Martha C. Anderson; John M. Norman; Fuqin Li

2007-01-01

90

Utility of Radiometric-aerodynamic Temperature Relations for Heat Flux Estimation

In many land-surface models using bulk transfer (one-source) approaches, the application of radiometric surface temperature observations in energy flux computations has given mixed results. This is due in part to the non-unique relationship between the so-called aerodynamic temperature, which relates to the efficiency of heat exchange between the land surface and overlying atmosphere, and a surface temperature measurement from a

William P. Kustas; Martha C. Anderson; John M. Norman; Fuqin Li

2007-01-01

91

Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The combined experiment

Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by such machines. The analysis showed that inflow conditions were extremely variable and that these inflows yielded three different operational regimes. Each regime produces very different aerodynamic loading conditions that must be tolerated by the turbine. The two conditions not predicted from wind tunnel data are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators.

Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Sciences

1994-08-01

92

TIMEINTEGRATION METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS

' $ TIMEÂINTEGRATION METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS Antony Jameson Department of Aeronautics methods for unsteady problems 4. Conclusions & % #12;' $ Some Examples of Aerodynamic Calculations flow & % #12;' $ Aerodynamic Flow computations AIRPLANE DENSITY from 0.6250 to 1.1000 AIRPLANE CP from

Stanford University

93

Observational approaches to understanding dark energy

Illuminating the nature of dark energy is one of the most important challenges in cosmology today. In this review I discuss several promising observational approaches to understanding dark energy, in the context of the recommendations by the U.S. Dark Energy Task Force and the ESA-ESO Working Group on Fundamental Cosmology.

Yun Wang

2007-12-01

94

Impact of computers on aerodynamics research and development

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors motivating the development of computational aerodynamics as a discipline are traced back to the limitations of the tools available to the aerodynamicist before the development of digital computers. Governing equations in exact and approximate forms are discussed together with approaches to their numerical solution. Example results obtained from the successively refined forms of the equations are presented and discussed, both in the context of levels of computer power required and the degree of the effect that their solution has on aerodynamic research and development. Factors pacing advances in computational aerodynamics are identified, including the amount of computational power required to take the next major step in the discipline. Finally, the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program - with its 1987 target of achieving a sustained computational rate of 1 billion floating-point operations per second operating on a memory of 240 million words - is briefly discussed in terms of its projected effect on the future of computational aerodynamics.

Peterson, V. L.

1984-01-01

95

Impact of computers on aerodynamics research and development

Factors motivating the development of computational aerodynamics as a discipline are traced back to the limitations of the tools available to the aerodynamicist before the development of digital computers. Governing equations in exact and approximate forms are discussed together with approaches to their numerical solution. Example results obtained from the successively refined forms of the equations are presented and discussed, both in the context of levels of computer power required and the degree of the effect that their solution has on aerodynamic research and development. Factors pacing advances in computational aerodynamics are identified, including the amount of computational power required to take the next major step in the discipline. Finally, the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program--with its 1987 target of achieving a sustained computational rate of 1 billion floating-point operations per second operating on a memory of 240 million words--is briefly discussed in terms of its projected effect on the future of computational aerodynamics.

Peterson, V.L.

1984-01-01

96

Plasma Enhanced Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Blades

A series of computer simulations was conducted to determine the optimal method for reducing the chord length of large wind turbine blades while incorporating advanced flow control to offset the resulting loss in aerodynamic performance. The dominant building trend in the wind energy industry of turbines with progressively larger diameters provided the inspiration for this study. By reducing the chord

John Cooney; Thomas Corke; Robert Nelson

2009-01-01

97

Wind turbine wake aerodynamics

The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed

L. J. Vermeer; J. N. Sørensen; A. Crespo

2003-01-01

98

AEROSPACE SCIENCES Applied aerodynamics

was made in the application of plasma flow-control concepts to practical actu- ators. Under an Air Force labs, and academia in the development of flow-control concepts, novel configuration aerodynamic and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to gather information on stability and flight control

Xu, Kun

99

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

Katz, Joseph

2006-01-01

100

Silicon carbide whiskers: Characterization and aerodynamic behaviors

Silicon carbide (SiC) whiskers are fiberlike materials with a wide range of industrial applications. Industrial hygiene samplings of the material are taken to monitor and control possible exposures to workers. This study characterizes an SiC whisker in detail, including its width-length distribution, aspect ratio, particle density, and aerodynamic size distribution. The SiC whiskers were aerosolized, and samples from a filter, cascade impactor, and aerosol centrifuge were taken. The diameter-length distribution of SiC fibers determined by electron microscopy from filter samples was found to follow the bivariate lognormal distribution. The aerodynamic size of a fiber aerosol depends not only on the particle dimension and density but also on the orientation of its axis with respect to flow. The results show that the aerodynamic size distribution obtained from the impactor was consistent with the predicted value, assuming the long axis of the fiber was parallel to the flow toward the collection substrate. On the other hand, the aerodynamic size in the aerosol centrifuge was consistent with results for a perpendicular orientation. A larger aerodynamic size (20--25%) was obtained in the case of impactor data as compared with centrifuge data. The respirable fraction estimated from the cascade impactor data was 65%, consistent with the estimate from bivariate analysis (67%) but smaller than the estimated fraction from the aerosol centrifuge (76%). The results show that the data obtained with the bivariate analysis of fiber dimensions had good correlation with the cascade impactor data, and this approach can be used to predict the aerodynamic size distribution and the size-selective fractions for fiber aerosols from filter samples.

Cheng, Y.S.; Smith, S.M.; Johnson, N.F. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Powell, Q.H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-10-01

101

Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird.

Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a variety of empirical tests. Here we provide measurements of the wake of hovering rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) obtained with digital particle image velocimetry that show force asymmetry: hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and only 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry is probably due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. The wake of hummingbird wings also reveals evidence of leading-edge vortices created during the downstroke, indicating that they may operate at Reynolds numbers sufficiently low to exploit a key mechanism typical of insect hovering. Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan. PMID:15973407

Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

2005-06-23

102

Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

Le?niewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

2014-08-01

103

The New Approach to Strategic Energy Planning

. In this new environment, improved productivity and cost-competitiveness benefits the supplier and industry alike. To place this new approach in perspective, the six key steps to strategic energy planning are reviewed....

Friedman, N. R.

104

3M's Corporate Approach to Energy Management

number of companies have recognized the benefits of developing structured approaches to improving their energy efficiency through means that are also compatible with being environmentally responsible. 3M has long been recognized as a corporate...

Schultz, S. C.; Bingham, P. R.

105

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indicial aerodynamic influence coefficients were evaluated from potential theory for a thin, flexible wing with supersonic leading and trailing edges only. The analysis is based on the use of small surface areas in which the downwash is assumed uniform. Within this limitation, the results are exact except for the restriction of linearized theory. The areas are not restricted either to square boxes or Mach boxes. A given area may be any rectangle or square which may or may not be cut by the Mach forecone, and any area can be used anywhere in the forecone without loss of accuracy.

Warner, R. W.

1975-01-01

106

Scramjet exhaust simulation technique for hypersonic aircraft nozzle design and aerodynamic tests

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current design philosophy for scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with the entire lower fuselage surface utilized as part of the propulsion system. The lower aft-end of the vehicle acts as a high expansion ratio nozzle. Not only must the external nozzle be designed to extract the maximum possible thrust force from the high energy flow at the combustor exit, but the forces produced by the nozzle must be aligned such that they do not unduly affect aerodynamic balance. The strong coupling between the propulsion system and aerodynamics of the aircraft makes imperative at least a partial simulation of the inlet, exhaust, and external flows of the hydrogen-burning scramjet in conventional facilities for both nozzle formulation and aerodynamic-force data acquisition. Aerodynamic testing methods offer no contemporary approach for such vehicle design requirements. NASA-Langley has pursued an extensive scramjet/airframe integration R&D program for several years and has recently developed a promising technique for simulation of the scramjet exhaust flow for hypersonic aircraft. Current results of the research program to develop a scramjet flow simulation technique through the use of substitute gas blends are described in this paper.

Hunt, J. L.; Talcott, N. A., Jr.; Cubbage, J. M.

1977-01-01

107

Modeling interconnected national energy systems using an energy hub approach

This paper describes an approach to model inter- connected national energy systems using the concept of energy hubs. Each country is modeled as an energy hub, characterized by the national generation infrastructures for heat and electricity, the demand for heat and electricity as well as properties detailing mobility demand. Countries are interconnected via electricity and gas networks, i.e. it is

Thilo Krause; Florian Kienzle; Yang Liu; Goran Andersson

2011-01-01

108

Motivation: A Soft Approach to Energy Management

MOTIVATION: A SOFT APPROACH TO ENERGY MANAGEMENT Timothy J. Eibes John Deere Component Works, Waterloo, Iowa INTRODUCTION In the last ten years, industrial managers have become aware of the impact that energy problems can have.... It is the question of how to motivate employees to get a particular task done. Low cost/no cost conservation is not only a logical place to begin EM, but is also a safe, practical conservation technique. Energy managers are being forced to implement...

Eibes, T. J.

1984-01-01

109

We have developed a numerical simulation methodology that is able to accurately characterize the focusing performance of aerodynamic lens systems. The commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT was used to simulate the gas flow field. Particle trajectories were tracked using the Lagrangian approach. Brownian motion of nanoparticles was successfully incorporated in our numerical simulations. This simulation tool was then

Xiaoliang Wang; Ashok Gidwani; Steven L. Girshick; Peter H. McMurry

2005-01-01

110

Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in defining the flight of a ball that is struck or thrown through the air in almost all\\u000a ball sports. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can often deviate from its initial straight path, resulting in\\u000a a curved, or sometimes an unpredictable, flight path. It is particularly fascinating that not all

Rabindra D. Mehta

111

Reliable estimates of land surface energy fluxes are essential for understanding interactions between the land surface and atmosphere. In this context, the two-layer energy balance model developed by Shuttleworth and Wallace has been widely applied to estimate surface heat fluxes in association with remotely sensed surface temperature and situ surface meteorological observations. However, in some arid and semi-arid regions, this

C. Xu; M. A. Friedl

2002-01-01

112

Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

1990-01-01

113

Aeroelastic control of stability and forced response of supersonic rotors by aerodynamic detuning

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row, is a new approach to passive flutter and forced response control. In this paper, a mathematical model for aerodynamic detuning is developed and utilized to demonstrate the aeroelastic stability enhancement due to aerodynamic detuning of supersonic blade rows. In particular, a model is developed to analyze both the torsion mode and the coupled bending-torsion mode unstalled supersonic flutter and torsion mode aerodynamically forced response characteristics of an aerodynamically detuned rotor operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus. As small solidity variations do not have a dominant effect on the steady-state performance of a rotor, the aerodynamic detuning mechanism considered is nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent blades.

Hoyniak, Daniel; Fleeter, Sanford

1987-01-01

114

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamic roughness height (Zom) is a key parameter required in several land surface hydrological models, since errors in heat flux estimation are largely dependent on optimization of this input. Despite its significance, it remains an uncertain parameter which is not readily determined. This is mostly because of non-linear relationship in Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) equations and uncertainty of vertical characteristic of vegetation in a large scale. Previous studies often determined aerodynamic roughness using a minimization of cost function over MOS relationship or linear regression over it, traditional wind profile method, or remotely sensed vegetation index. However, these are complicated procedures that require a high accuracy for several other related parameters embedded in serveral equations including MOS. In order to simplify this procedure and reduce the number of parameters in need, this study suggests a new approach to extract aerodynamic roughness parameter from single or two heat flux measurements analyzed via Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that affords non-linearity. So far, to our knowledge, no previous study has applied EnKF to aerodynamic roughness estimation, while the majority of data assimilation study have paid attention to updates of other land surface state variables such as soil moisture or land surface temperature. The approach of this study was applied to grassland in semi-arid Tibetan Plateau and maize on moderately wet condition in Italy. It was demonstrated that aerodynamic roughness parameter can be inversely tracked from heat flux EnKF final analysis. The aerodynamic roughness height estimated in this approach was consistent with eddy covariance method and literature value. Through a calibration of this parameter, this adjusted the sensible heat previously overestimated and latent heat flux previously underestimated by the original Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. It was considered that this improved heat flux estimation especially during the summer Monsoon period, based upon a comparison with precipitation and soil moisture field measurement. For an advantage of this approach over other previous methodologies, this approach is useful even when eddy covariance data are absent at a large scale and is time-variant over vegetation growth, as well as is not directly affected by saturation problem of remotely sensed vegetation index.

Lee, J. H.; Timmermans, J.; Su, Z.; Mancini, M.

2012-11-01

115

Aerodynamic database development of the ESA intermediate experimental vehicle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the aerodynamic database development of the Intermediate Experiment Vehicle. The aerodynamic analysis, carried out for the whole flight scenario, relies on computational fluid dynamics, wind tunnel test, and engineering-based design data generated during the project phases, from rarefied flow conditions, to hypersonic continuum flow up to reach subsonic speeds regime. Therefore, the vehicle aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections foreseen for the vehicle nominal re-entry. In particular, the databasing activities are developed in the light of build-up approach. This means that all aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are provided by means of a linear summation over certain number of incremental contributions such as, for example, effect of sideslip angle, aerodynamic control surface effectiveness, etc. Each force and moment coefficient is treated separately and appropriate equation is provided, in which all the pertinent contributions for obtaining the total coefficient for any selected flight conditions appear. To this aim, all the available numerical and experimental aerodynamic data are gathered in order to explicit the functional dependencies from each aerodynamic model addend through polynomial expressions obtained with the least squares method. These polynomials are function of the primary variable that drives the phenomenon whereas secondary dependencies are introduced directly into its unknown coefficients which are determined by means of best-fitting algorithms.

Pezzella, Giuseppe; Marino, Giuliano; Rufolo, Giuseppe C.

2014-01-01

116

Full-scale wind turbine rotor aerodynamics research

The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve wind turbine technology at the NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative instrumentation and data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. Data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

1994-11-01

117

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using the Adjoint Method

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using the Adjoint Method Antony Jameson Department of Aeronautics techniques based on control theory for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible optimization of transonic wing-body combinations. 1 Introduction: Aerodynamic Design The definition

Jameson, Antony

118

An Institutional Approach to Understanding Energy Transitions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, whose function is invisible to most users, 2) coordination and collective-action problems that are path dependent, and 3) difficulty in scaling up RE technologies. Because energy transitions rely on technological and social innovations, I am interested in how institutional factors can be leveraged to surmount these obstacles. The overarching question that underlies my research is: What constellation of institutional, biophysical, and social factors are essential for an energy transition? My objective is to derive a set of "design principles," that I term institutional drivers, for energy transitions analogous to Ostrom's institutional design principles. My dissertation research will analyze energy transitions using two approaches: applying the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework and a comparative case study analysis comprised of both primary and secondary sources. This dissertation includes: 1) an analysis of the world's energy portfolio; 2) a case study analysis of five countries; 3) a description of the institutional factors likely to promote a transition to renewable-energy use; and 4) an in-depth case study of Thailand's progress in replacing nonrenewable energy sources with renewable energy sources. My research will contribute to our understanding of how energy transitions at different scales can be accomplished in developing countries and what it takes for innovation to spread in a society.

Koster, Auriane Magdalena

119

Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.

Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.

1983-01-01

120

DuPont Approach to Energy Management: A System Wide Approach to Energy Efficiency

DUPONT APPROACH TO ENERGY MANAGEMENT A System Wide Approach to Energy Efficiency For presentation at Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston April 22-23, 1998 John W. Stewart DuPont Corporate Energy Leadership Team DuPont.... Achieving this goal will represent cumulative savings of $1.8 billion over the decade. From 1991 through 1996 energy utilization has been improved by more than 10% globally and savings are accruing at a rate of more than $100 million per year. The DuPont...

Stewart, J. W.

121

High-angle-of-attack aerodynamics - Lessons learned

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, the military and civil technical communities have undertaken numerous studies of the high angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics of advanced airplane and missile configurations. The method of approach and the design methodology employed have necessarily been experimental and exploratory in nature, due to the complex nature of separated flows. However, despite the relatively poor definition of many of the key aerodynamic phenomena involved for high-alpha conditions, some generic guidelines for design consideration have been identified. The present paper summarizes some of the more important lessons learned in the area of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics with examples of a number of key concepts and with particular emphasis on high-alpha stability and control characteristics of high performance aircraft. Topics covered in the discussion include the impact of design evolution, forebody flows, control of separated flows, configuration effects, aerodynamic controls, wind-tunnel flight correlation, and recent NASA research activities.

Chambers, J. R.

1986-01-01

122

Modular Approach to Physics: Energy and Orbits

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation-based activity relating to gravitational potential energy (GPE) as a function of satellite-earth distance. Users may adjust the speed and initial position of a satellite in earth's gravitational field. Visible vectors and energy bar graphs help the learner determine how to apply the law of energy conservation to predict the speed of an object moving in earth's gravitational field. Included in the "Help" section is a detailed lesson plan with suggested supplementary activities. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation-based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2008-08-15

123

Aeroacoustic and aerodynamic applications of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in the field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics associated with viscous flows are examined and related to developments to the understanding of specific phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. A key element of the nonequilibrium theory is the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady dissipative processes near equilibrium, and variational calculus is used to apply this principle to several examples of viscous flow. A review of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its role in fluid motion are presented. Several formulations are presented of the local entropy production rate and the local energy dissipation rate, two quantities that are of central importance to the theory. These expressions and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady viscous flows are used to identify parallel-wall channel flow and irrotational flow as having minimally dissipative velocity distributions. Features of irrotational, steady, viscous flow near an airfoil, such as the effect of trailing-edge radius on circulation, are also found to be compatible with the minimum principle. Finally, the minimum principle is used to interpret the stability of infinitesimal and finite amplitude disturbances in an initially laminar, parallel shear flow, with results that are consistent with experiment and linearized hydrodynamic stability theory. These results suggest that a thermodynamic approach may be useful in unifying the understanding of many diverse phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.

Horne, W. Clifton; Smith, Charles A.; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

1991-01-01

124

Aerodynamic design via control theory

Abstract This paper addresses the question of how to modify in aerodynamic design to improve the performance. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey is included. 1 Introduction and historical survey Computers have had a twofold impact on the science of aerodynamics. On the one

Antony Jameson

1988-01-01

125

On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

Millson, David

2000-01-01

126

Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

Cross, Rod

2007-01-01

127

Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

Steers, L.

1978-01-01

128

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

Mehta, R. D.

129

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

Mehta, R. D.

1985-01-01

130

Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

Verdon, Joseph M.

1989-01-01

131

Numerical experimental study on the 3-D flow field around a van with a dome for energy saving

This work is focused on two ways of studying the reduction of the aerodynamic resistance of a van and the energy saving for a van with a dome. The first approach is the three dimensional (3-D) numerical simulation, and the other is the wind tunnel experiment. The relationship between the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance and the geometric parameters of the

Dechang Wang; Guangsheng Du; Jingyi Wu

2005-01-01

132

The aerostatic and aerodynamic behaviors of a long-span suspension bridge are of serious engineering concern. As the span length increases, the nonlinear effects due to wind-structure interactions are becoming unnegligible in determining the aerostatic and aerodynamic behaviors of long-span suspension bridges. In this paper, an approach of three-dimensional nonlinear aerostatic and aerodynamic analysis is presented firstly, in which the nonlinearities

Xinjun Zhang; Haifan Xiang; Bingnan Sun

2002-01-01

133

Wind turbine design codes: A preliminary comparison of the aerodynamics

The National Wind Technology Center of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is comparing several computer codes used to design and analyze wind turbines. The first part of this comparison is to determine how well the programs predict the aerodynamic behavior of turbines with no structural degrees of freedom. Without general agreement on the aerodynamics, it is futile to try to compare the structural response due to the aerodynamic input. In this paper, the authors compare the aerodynamic loads for three programs: Garrad Hassan`s BLADED, their own WT-PERF, and the University of Utah`s YawDyn. This report documents a work in progress and compares only two-bladed, downwind turbines.

Buhl, M.L. Jr.; Wright, A.D.; Tangler, J.L.

1997-12-01

134

Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The analysis of field test data

Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteady aerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.

Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Sciences

1994-08-01

135

NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment phase 3 test objectives and preliminary results

The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve a wind turbine technology. One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent install controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

Simms, D.A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Butterfield, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States). Wind Technology Division

1995-09-01

136

Aerodynamic prediction techniques for hypersonic configuration design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of approximate theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at moderate hypersonic speeds was performed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to preliminary configuration design level of effort. Potential theory was examined in detail to meet this objective. Numerical pilot codes were developed for relatively simple three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with higher order solutions and experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes for values of the hypersonic similarity parameter M delta approaching one.

1981-01-01

137

Computational Approaches for Understanding Energy Metabolism

There has been a surge of interest in understanding the regulation of metabolic networks involved in disease in recent years. Quantitative models are increasingly being used to i nterrogate the metabolic pathways that are contained within this complex disease biology. At the core of this effort is the mathematical modeling of central carbon metabolism involving glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (referred to as energy metabolism). Here we discuss several approaches used to quantitatively model metabolic pathways relating to energy metabolism and discuss their formalisms, successes, and limitations. PMID:23897661

Shestov, Alexander A; Barker, Brandon; Gu, Zhenglong; Locasale, Jason W

2013-01-01

138

Aerodynamics of a rigid curved kite wing

A preliminary numerical study on the aerodynamics of a kite wing for high altitude wind power generators is proposed. Tethered kites are a key element of an innovative wind energy technology, which aims to capture energy from the wind at higher altitudes than conventional wind towers. We present the results obtained from three-dimensional finite volume numerical simulations of the steady air flow past a three-dimensional curved rectangular kite wing (aspect ratio equal to 3.2, Reynolds number equal to 3x10^6). Two angles of incidence -- a standard incidence for the flight of a tethered airfoil (6{\\deg}) and an incidence close to the stall (18{\\deg}) -- were considered. The simulations were performed by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes flow model using the industrial STAR-CCM+ code. The overall aerodynamic characteristics of the kite wing were determined and compared to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flat rectangular non twisted wing with an identical aspect ratio and section (Clark Y profil...

Maneia, Gianmauro; Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele

2013-01-01

139

Aerodynamic sensitivity analysis methods for the compressible Euler equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents a mathematical formulation developed for aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on a discretized form of the compressible 2D Euler equations. A brief motivating introduction to the aerodynamic sensitivity analysis and the reasons behind an integrated flow/sensitivity analysis for design algorithms are presented. The finite difference approach and the quasi-analytical approach are used to determine the aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients. A new flow prediction concept, which is an outcome of the direct method in the quasi-analytical approach, is developed and illustrated with an example. Surface pressure coefficient distributions of a nozzle-afterbody configuration obtained from the predicted flowfield solution are compared successfully with their corresponding values obtained from a flowfield analysis code and the experimental data.

Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

1991-01-01

140

Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

2013-01-01

141

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of rotary-wing aircraft in general is defined. The energy effectiveness of helicopters is compared with that of other static thrust generators in hover, as well as with various air and ground vehicles in forward translation. The most important aspects of rotor-blade dynamics and rotor control are reviewed. The simple physicomathematical model of the rotor offered by the momentum theory is introduced and its usefulness and limitations are assessed. The combined blade-element and momentum theory approach, which provides greater accuracy in performance predictions, is described as well as the vortex theory which models a rotor blade by means of a vortex filament or vorticity surface. The application of the velocity and acceleration potential theory to the determination of flow fields around three dimensional, non-rotating bodies as well as to rotor aerodynamic problems is described. Airfoil sections suitable for rotors are also considered.

Stepniewski, W. Z.

1979-01-01

142

Aeroelasticity consideration of supersonic vehicle using closed form analytical aerodynamic model

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of a supersonic flight vehicle flying at moderate angles of attack using global analytic nonlinear aerodynamic model. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Aeroelastic behavior of a supersonic flight vehicle flying at moderate angles of attack is considered, using nonlinear aerodynamics and linear elastodynamics and structural models. Normal force distribution coefficient

Fathi Jegarkandi Mohsen; Salezadeh Nobari Ali; Sabzehparvar Mahdi; Haddadpour Hassan; Tavakkoli Farhad

2009-01-01

143

Aerodynamic Resistance Reduction of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Progress Report, September 1978.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives, approach, and FY'78 progress and results of the Aerodynamic Resistance Reduction work element of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System R and D Project are described. The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducti...

1979-01-01

144

Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

1984-01-01

145

Improving the aerodynamics of top fuel dragsters

The standard drag race is a straight ahead quarter mile race from a standing stop. As engine technology has improved, the speeds attained at the end of the quarter mile have increased. As the speed has increased, the importance of aerodynamic effects on the dragster has also increased. Lift and drag are the two primary aerodynamic effects. Lift is produced vertically downward to increase the normal force on the rear wheels, thereby increasing the ability to transmit energy from the engine through the wheels to the racetrack. Drag is an unwanted aerodynamic effect. Drag is produced by viscous interaction between the dragster and the air, by separation causing profile drag, and as a result of the lift being produced. This paper addresses the mechanisms of lift and drag production by a high speed dragster and proposes some design changes that can decrease the drag while maintaining the necessary negative lift. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on dragster models confirm that reductions in drag can be achieved. The effects of these changes on the elapsed time and final speed are estimated using a computer simulation of a quarter mile drag race. The simulation predicts a decrease in elapsed time of almost 0.1 seconds and an increase in top speed of approximately 10 miles per hour.

Winn, R.C.; Kohlman, D.L.; Kenner, M.T.

1998-07-01

146

Explanation and discovery in aerodynamics

The purpose of this paper is to discuss and clarify the explanations commonly cited for the aerodynamic lift generated by a wing, and to then analyse, as a case study of engineering discovery, the aerodynamic revolutions which have taken place within Formula 1 in the past 40 years. The paper begins with an introduction that provides a succinct summary of the mathematics of fluid mechanics.

McCabe, G

2005-01-01

147

Explanation and discovery in aerodynamics

The purpose of this paper is to discuss and clarify the explanations commonly cited for the aerodynamic lift generated by a wing, and to then analyse, as a case study of engineering discovery, the aerodynamic revolutions which have taken place within Formula 1 in the past 40 years. The paper begins with an introduction that provides a succinct summary of the mathematics of fluid mechanics.

Gordon McCabe

2005-12-22

148

Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements can be made of drag and buoyant forces, and reasonable estimates can also be made of the Magnus force on a spinning balloon.

Cross, Rod

2007-09-01

149

Differential Evolution in Aerodynamic Optimization

Aerodynamic design algorithms require an optimization strategy to search for the best design. The objectof this paper is to compare the performance of some different strategies when used by an aerodynamicshape optimization routine which designs fan blade shapes. A recently developed genetic algorithm,Differential Evolution [1,2], outperforms more traditional techniques.IntroductionAerodynamic shape optimization involvesdesigning the most efficient shapes of bodies thatmove through...

T. Rogalsky; R. W. Derksen; S. Kocabiyik

1999-01-01

150

Effective utilization of wind energy requires systematic studies of the sites available for the location of wind energy conversion systems and careful evaluation of the type and size of machines to be used. The present paper describes an approach currently in use for the siting of wind generators. It describes also the aerodynamic features of various types of wind machines

A. A. Fejer

1978-01-01

151

Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

Aerodynamic effects in ionized gases, often neglected phenomena, have been subject of a renewed interest in recent years. After a brief historical account, we discuss a selected number of effects and unresolved problems that appear to be relevant in both aeronautic and propulsion applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Interaction between acoustic shock waves and weakly ionized gas is manifested either as plasma-induced shock wave dispersion and acceleration or as shock-wave induced double electric layer in the plasma, followed by the localized increase of the average electron energy and density, as well as enhancement of optical emission. We describe the phenomenology of these effects and discuss several experiments that still do not have an adequate interpretation. Critical for application of aerodynamic effects is the energy deposition into the flow. We classify and discuss some proposed wall-free generation schemes with respect to the efficiency of energy deposition and overall generation of the aerodynamic body force.

Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia (United States)

2006-12-01

152

A Kinematical Approach to Dark Energy Studies

We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological ''dark energy'' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all {Lambda}CDM models have j(t) = 1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Applying our model to the three best available sets of redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t) = j, we measure q{sub 0} = -0.81 {+-} 0.14 and j = 2.16{sub -0.75}{sup +0.81}, results that are consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} confidence level. A standard ''dynamical'' analysis of the same data, employing the Friedmann equations and modeling the dark energy as a fluid with an equation of state parameter, w (constant), gives {Omega}{sub m} = 0.306{sub -0.040}{sup +0.042} and w = -1.15{sub -0.18}{sup +0.14}, also consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} level. In comparison to dynamical analyses, the kinematical approach uses a different model set and employs a minimum of prior information, being independent of any particular gravity theory. The results obtained with this new approach therefore provide important additional information and we argue that both kinematical and dynamical techniques should be employed in future dark energy studies, where possible. Our results provide further interesting support for the concordance {Lambda}CDM paradigm.

Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2006-06-06

153

Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.

Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.

1986-01-01

154

Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

1999-01-01

155

ON THE AERODYNAMICS OF MOULT GAPS IN BIRDS

During the moult, birds sequentially replace their flight feathers and thus temporarily have gaps in their wings. These gaps will vary in size and position(s) during the course of the moult. We investigated the aerodynamic effects of having moult gaps in a rectangular wing by using a vortex-lattice (panel) approach, and we modelled the effect of moult gap size at

ANDERS HEDENSTRÖM; SHIGERU SUNADA

156

Identification of Parameters and Model Structure for Missile Aerodynamics

In this paper, current work on the Aerodynamic Coefficient Estimation (ACES) program for guided missiles is reviewed. A fundamental statistical approach to the problem is taken, and recent developments in the identification of model structure are used including: initial comparison of parametric model structures by subset regression using a leaps and bounds algorithm, refined comparison of different parametric model structures

W. E. Larimore; W. M. Lebow; R. K. Mehra

1985-01-01

157

Aeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities

by utilizing an example of a long span suspension bridge with aerodynamic characteristics sensitiveAeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities Xinzhong Chen for capturing the emerging concerns in bridge aerodynamics introduced by aerodynamic nonlinearities

Kareem, Ahsan

158

Aerodynamic Heating and Deceleration During Entry into Planetary Atmospheres

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic Heating and Deceleration During Entry into Planetary Atmospheres. Dr. Chapman's lecture examines the physics behind spacecraft entry into planetary atmospheres. He explains how scientists determine if a planet has an atmosphere and how scientists can compute deceleration when the atmospheric conditions are unknown. Symbols and equations used for calculations for aerodynamic heating and deceleration are provided. He also explains heat transfer in bodies approaching an atmosphere, deceleration, and the use of ablation in protecting spacecraft from high temperatures during atmospheric entry. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030962. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1962-01-01

159

Low Dimensional Modeling And Computational Analysis of Dragonfly Wing Aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key aerodynamic features and lift production of insect wings. However, the kinematics of the insect's wing and the resulting aerodynamics is highly complex, and does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is therefore needed to dissect the wing gait and gain insight into the remarkable aerodynamic performance of the insect's wing. The focus of the current investigation is on the aerodynamics of the wing of a dragonfly (Erythemis Simplicicollis) in hovering motion. The three-dimensional, time-dependent wing kinematics is obtained via a high-speed photogrammetry system. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is then applied to extract the essential features of the wing gait. The SVD spectrum shows that the first four modes capture more than 80% of the motion. Aerodynamics of wings flapping with kinematics synthesized from SVD modes will be discussed in detail.

Ren, Yan; Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo

2011-11-01

160

The aerodynamics of insect flight.

The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well as the different approaches used to model these phenomena. PMID:14581590

Sane, Sanjay P

2003-12-01

161

Aerodynamics of jet flap and rotating cylinder flap STOL concepts

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic effectiveness of various propulsive lift concepts to provide for the low speed performance and control required for short takeoff and landing aircraft is discussed. The importance of the interrelationship between the propulsion system and aerodynamic components of the aircraft is stressed. The relative effectiveness of different lift concepts was evaluated through static and wind tunnel tests of various aerodynamic models and propulsion components, simulations of aircraft, and in some cases, flight testing of research aircraft incorporating the concepts under study. Results of large scale tests of lift augmentation devices are presented. The results of flight tests of STOL research aircraft with augmented jet flaps and rotating cylinder flaps are presented to show the steeper approach flight paths at low forward speeds.

Cook, W. L.; Hickey, D. H.; Quigley, H. C.

1974-01-01

162

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Water Rocket and Stabilization of Flight Trajectory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of water rockets are analyzed experimentally by wind tunnel testing. Aerodynamic devices such as vortex generators and dimples are tested and their effectiveness to the flight performance of water rocket is discussed. Attaching vortex generators suppresses the unsteady body fluttering. Dimpling the nose reduces the drag coefficient in high angles of attack. Robust design approach is applied to water rocket design for flight stability and optimum water rocket configuration is determined. Semi-sphere nose is found to be effective for flight stability and it is desirable for the safety of landing point. Stiffed fin attachment is required for fins to work properly as aerodynamic device and it enhances the flight stability of water rockets.

Watanabe, Rikio; Tomita, Nobuyuki; Takemae, Toshiaki

163

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass seed pod in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to measure resuspension from aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms compared to that from mechanisms from mechanical resuspension resulting from the oscillatory impact of the grass hitting a stationary object. The experiment was run for deposited spherical latex particles with diameters from 2 to 8.1 ?m. Wind tunnel tests were run for wind speeds from 2 to 18.5 m s -1 and a turbulence intensity (root-mean-square fluctuation wind speed/mean wind speed) of 0.1. Our experiments showed the following: Threshold mechanical energy input rates increased from 0.04 to 0.2 ?J s -1 for resuspension of spherical polystyrene latex particles from 2 to 8.1 ?m diameter. Kinetic energy flux generated by mechanical impact of the wind-driven oscillating grass was found to be highly sensitive to slightly different placements and grass morphology. The kinetic energy input by impaction of the grass against a stationary cylinder is roughly proportional to the kinetic energy flux of the wind.

Gillette, Dale A.; Lawson, Robert E.; Thompson, Roger S.

164

Aerodynamics in air pollution modeling

The aerodynamic effects of structures, urban complexes, and significant topographic features on the mechanism of pollutant transport and dispersion processes in the atmosphere are described. Various treatments of these aerodynamic effects in air pollution modeling are discussed. In view of the complex nature of flow disturbance and pollutant dispersion over structures and terrain obstacles and the general uniqueness of each specific situation, both the reliability of the data base and the suitability of a particular air pollution model must be evaluated. Validation and calibration of models against field measurements are strongly recommended. (7 diagrams, 2 graphs, 47 references)

Wang, H.; Liu, H.

1980-03-01

165

Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

2008-01-01

166

SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS

SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS Antony Jameson Department of Mechanical into two broad categories. First there is the objective of providing reliable aerodynamic predictions of this paper is devoted to the use of computational methods for aerodynamic prediction. This is a comparatively

Jameson, Antony

167

AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC

AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC MODELS FOR AEROELASTIC CONTROL OF TURBOMACHINES K.E. Willcox, J of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 22091 #12; LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC order aerodynamic model is developed for aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines. The proper orÂ thogonal

Peraire, Jaime

168

Conformal Mapping in Wing Aerodynamics Thomas Johnson

Conformal Mapping in Wing Aerodynamics Thomas Johnson June 4, 2013 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 the first complete treatment of conformal mapping in aerodynamics. Near the beginning of the twentieth and aerodynamics. The purpose of this exposition is to give the reader an elementary intro- duction to the use

Morrow, James A.

169

Computational Aerodynamics for Aircraft Design Antony Jameson

Computational Aerodynamics for Aircraft Design Antony Jameson Abstract This article outlines some to optimize the aerodynamic performance. While computational methods for simulating fluid flow have by now to design more efficient aircraft. One route toward this goal is more precise aerodynamic design

Jameson, Antony

170

CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics

Chapter 1 CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics Laurent Dumas Abstract The car drag- ments. An overview of the main characteristics of automotive aerodynamics and a detailed presentation.dumas@upmc.fr) 1 #12;2 Laurent Dumas 1.1 Introducing Automotive Aerodynamics 1.1.1 A Major Concern for Car

Dumas, Laurent

171

AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

08/03/2007 16:39 1 AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Arlington #12;08/03/2007 16:39 2 AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING:39 3 AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT PDEs employ a

Texas at Arlington, University of

172

Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

Not Available

1986-12-01

173

Measurement and estimation of the aerodynamic resistance

Using two methods of eddy correlation system and evaporation pan to measure respectively the aerodynamic resistance over bare soil surface and maize field, this paper analyses the diurnal variation of the aerodynamic resistance and its relationship with wind speed. Based on direct measurements by eddy correlation system, an evaluation of the aerodynamic resistance models is made. These models include Thom

S. Liu; D. Mao; L. Lu

2006-01-01

174

Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

Stack, Sharon H. (compiler)

1986-01-01

175

A full scale bicycle aerodynamics testing methodology

Aerodynamically efficient sport equipment\\/accessories and athlete's body postures are considered to be the fundamental aspect to achieving better outcomes. Like any other speed sports, the aerodynamic optimization is essential in cycling. A standard full scale testing methodology for the aerodynamic optimization of a cyclist along with all accessories (bicycle, helmet, cycling suit, shoes, goggle, etc.) is not well developed and

Harun Chowdhury; Firoz Alam; David Mainwaring

2011-01-01

176

Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

2008-01-01

177

Aerodynamic Optimization of a Solar - Bio Diesel Hybrid Vehicle

Energy efficiency is the most critical aspect for a successful solar powered automobile and much can be gained from the reduction of aer odynamic drag on such a vehicle. Yet, for a solar car to be practical to the everyday driver, it has to be ergonomically feasible, financially sensible, and aesthetically pleasing. This research compares aerodynamic drag calculations produced by

Neal A. Allgood

178

Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure that is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid-point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions that are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. Practically identical optimization results are obtained that are independent of the method used to represent the surface. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process is achieved by implementing both of the design procedure improvements.

Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

1994-01-01

179

Multiprocessing on supercomputers for computational aerodynamics

Little use is made of multiple processors available on current supercomputers (computers with a theoretical peak performance capability equal to 100 MFLOPS or more) to improve turnaround time in computational aerodynamics. The productivity of a computer user is directly related to this turnaround time. In a time-sharing environment, such improvement is this speed achieved when multiple processors are used efficiently to execute an algorithm. The authors of this paper apply the concept of multiple instructions and multiple data (MIMD) through multitasking via a strategy that requires relatively minor modifications to an existing code for a single processor. This approach maps the available memory to multiple processors, exploiting the C-Fortran-Unix interface. The existing code is mapped without the need for developing a new algorithm. The procedure for building a code utilizing this approach is automated with the Unix stream editor.

Mehta, V.B.; Yarrow, M. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (US))

1991-01-01

180

The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes

A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic

1987-01-01

181

Computational Aerodynamics for Aircraft Design

This article outlines some of the principal issues in the development of numerical methods for the prediction of flows over aircraft and their use in the design process. These include the choice of an appropriate mathematical model, the design of shock-capturing algorithms, the treatment of complex geometric configurations, and shape modifications to optimize the aerodynamic performance.

Antony Jameson

1989-01-01

182

Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird

Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either

Douglas R. Warrick; Bret W. Tobalske; Donald R. Powers

2005-01-01

183

The Aerodynamics of Hummingbird Flight

(Abstract) Hummingbirds fly with their wings almost fully extended during their entire wingbeat. This pattern, associated with having proportionally short humeral bones, long distal wing elements, and assumed to be an adaptation for extended hovering flight, has lead to predictions that the aerodynamic mechanisms exploited by hummingbirds during hovering should be similar to those observed in insects. To test these

Douglas R. Warrick; Bret W. Tobalske; Donald R. Powers; Michael H. Dickinson

184

POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

2010-01-01

185

Semianalytic modeling of aerodynamic shapes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations for the semianalytic representation of a class of surfaces that vary smoothly in cross-sectional shape are presented. Some methods of fitting together and superimposing such surfaces are described. A brief discussion is also included of the application of the theory in various contexts such as computerized lofting of aerodynamic surfaces and grid generation.

Barger, R. L.; Adams, M. S.

1985-01-01

186

Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The main emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the effects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this theory has been developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to blade motions. The resulting equations consist of a system of three field equations along with conditions imposed at blade, wake and shock surfaces and in the far field. These equations can be solved to determine the fluctuations in all fluid dynamic properties throughout the required solution domain. Example solutions are presented to demonstrate several effects associated with nonuniform steady flows on the linearized unsteady aerodynamic response to prescribed blade motions.

Verdon, J. M.

1987-01-01

187

Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

Griffin, D.A. [R. Lynette & Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-04-01

188

Report of the Panel on Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in aerodynamics over the past 50 years has been evidenced by the development of increasingly sophisticated and efficient flight vehicles throughout the flight spectrum. Advances have generally arisen in an evolutionary manner from experience gained in wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and improvements in analytical and computational capabilities. As a result of this evolutionary development, both military and commercial vehicles operate at a relatively high efficiency level. This observation plus the fact that airplanes have not changed appreciably in outward appearance over recent years has led some skeptics to conclude incorrectly that aerodynamics is a mature technology, with little to be gained from further developments in the field. It is of interest to note that progress in aerodynamics has occurred without a thorough understanding of the fundamental physics of flow, turbulence, vortex dynamics, and separated flow, for example. The present understanding of transition, turbulence, and boundary layer separation is actually very limited. However, these fundamental flow phenomena provide the key to reducing the viscous drag of aircraft. Drag reduction provides the greatest potential for increased flight efficiency from the standpoint of both saving energy and maximizing performance. Recent advances have led to innovative concepts for reducing turbulent friction drag by modifying the turbulent structure within the boundary layer. Further advances in this basic area should lead to methods for reducing skin friction drag significantly. The current challenges for military aircraft open entirely new fields of investigation for the aerodynamicist. The ability through very high speed information processing technology to totally integrate the flight and propulsion controls can permit an aircraft to fly with "complete abandon," avoiding departure, buffet, and other undesirable characteristics. To utilize these new control concepts, complex aerodynamic phenomena will have to be understood, predicted, and controlled. Current requirements for military aircraft include configuration optimization through a widened envelope from subsonic to supersonic and from low to high angles of attack. This task is further complicated by requirements for control of observables. These challenging new designs do not have the luxury of a large experimental data base from which to optimize for various parameter combinations. Consequently, there exists a strong need for better techniques, both experimental and computational, to permit design optimization in a complete sense.

Bradley, Richard G.; Bushnell, Dennis

1984-01-01

189

Improved Aerodynamic Influence Coefficients for Dynamic Aeroelastic Analyses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently at Bombardier Aerospace, aeroelastic analyses are performed using the Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) incorporated in the NASTRAN solver. This method proves to be very reliable and fast in preliminary design stages where wind tunnel experimental results are often not available. Unfortunately, the geometric simplifications and limitations of the DLM, based on the lifting surfaces theory, reduce the ability of this method to give reliable results for all flow conditions, particularly in transonic flow. Therefore, a new method has been developed involving aerodynamic data from high-fidelity CFD codes which solve the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. These new aerodynamic loads are transmitted to the NASTRAN aeroelastic module through improved aerodynamic influence coefficients (AIC). A cantilevered wing model is created from the Global Express structural model and a set of natural modes is calculated for a baseline configuration of the structure. The baseline mode shapes are then combined with an interpolation scheme to deform the 3-D CFD mesh necessary for Euler and Navier-Stokes analyses. An uncoupled approach is preferred to allow aerodynamic information from different CFD codes. Following the steady state CFD analyses, pressure differences ( DeltaCp), calculated between the deformed models and the original geometry, lead to aerodynamic loads which are transferred to the DLM model. A modal-based AIC method is applied to the aerodynamic matrices of NASTRAN based on a least-square approximation to evaluate aerodynamic loads of a different wing configuration which displays similar types of mode shapes. The methodology developed in this research creates weighting factors based on steady CFD analyses which have an equivalent reduced frequency of zero. These factors are applied to both the real and imaginary part of the aerodynamic matrices as well as all reduced frequencies used in the PK-Method which solves flutter problems. The modal-based AIC method's evaluation, performed with CFD data calculated by the DLM, is essential to find the natural modes which are most influential on the flutter solutions of the different configurations. Finally, Euler and Navier-Stokes results are used to obtain improved flutter solutions for a subsonic case at Mach 0.7 and dispositions are made to accomplish the same exercise for transonic speeds.

Gratton, Patrice

190

Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

2008-08-01

191

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis of flexible-aircraft modeling techniques encompassing aerodynamic, control, and elastic-structure effects is investigated analytically, with a focus on methods which employ minimum-state approximations for the unsteady aerodynamics. Rational-function approximations to generalized aerodynamic forces are reviewed; constraints and lag-coefficient optimization are explained; the problem of physical weighting in the minimum-state equations of motion is examined; and results of typical analyses from the NASA Active Flexible Wing project (Perry et al., 1988) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The minimum-state approach is shown to produce accurate models at significantly reduced computation costs.

Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Karpel, Mordechay

1989-01-01

192

Computation of External Aerodynamics for a Canard Rotor/Wing Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic loads on a Canard Rotor/Wing vehicle are investigated using inviscid numerical simulations to understand the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle during conversion from rotorcraft to fixed wing flight. Steady numerical simulations at five azimuthal rotor indices are presented over a quarter turn of the rotor, producing 19 points during a single rotation due to symmetry. A Cartesian mesh approach is used to compute the steady flow field. All computations are done with a faired over engine inlet and exit to be consistent with the wind tunnel model geometry. Modification to the geometry is suggested and the aerodynamic effect of the modification is discussed.

Pandya, S.; Aftosmis, M. J.

2000-01-01

193

Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

Polutchko, R. J.

1974-01-01

194

Computer Simulation of Aircraft Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of Ames Research Center in conducting basic aerodynamics research through computer simulations is described. The computer facilities, including supercomputers and peripheral equipment that represent the state of the art, are described. The methodology of computational fluid dynamics is explained briefly. Fundamental studies of turbulence and transition are being pursued to understand these phenomena and to develop models that can be used in the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Four applications of computer simulations for aerodynamics problems are described: subsonic flow around a fuselage at high angle of attack, subsonic flow through a turbine stator-rotor stage, transonic flow around a flexible swept wing, and transonic flow around a wing-body configuration that includes an inlet and a tail.

Inouye, Mamoru

1989-01-01

195

Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

Fabunmi, James A.

1991-01-01

196

Modeling new approaches for electric energy efficiency

To align utilities and consumers' interests, three incentive methods have emerged to foster efficiency: shared savings, bonus return on equity, and energy service company. A fourth incentive method, virtual power plant, is being proposed by Duke Energy. (author)

Munns, Diane

2008-03-15

197

Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

2003-01-01

198

Aerodynamic resistance of coppiced poplar

The aerodynamic resistance to the transfer of heat and water vapour, of a canopy of coppiced poplar (Populustrichocarpa×deltoides) was estimated as the sum of three components; the bulk leaf boundary layer, within-canopy, and roughness-sublayer resistances. These components were calculated from measurements of wind speed and leaf area distribution. Account was taken of enhanced transfer of heat and water vapour over

Robin L Hall

2002-01-01

199

New Approaches for Energy Efficiency Market Penetration

Penetrating the energy efficiency market is a challenge anywhere in the world. Many business models have been designed and implemented. Despite the fact that energy prices are continuously on the rise, industries in most countries have maintained the practice of investing in expanding production rather than in making operations more energy efficient. The higher cost of operations is simply transferred

Ali Korakan

2009-01-01

200

The Energy Crisis: A Creative Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a school project on energy conservation, in which fifth and sixth grade students involved the town community in becoming aware of the extent of the energy shortage and considering modes of cutting down on energy usage. Included are ideas for projects and science fairs. (CS)

Murphy, Alison, E.; And Others

1977-01-01

201

Energy planning for development: Needs and approaches

The capability of developing countries to carry out comprehensive national energy planning is examined. The analytical methods or models constructed for analyzing the energy system have to take into account the specific context in which they are built to address issues of interest to development planners. Issues discussed are resource development and technology research, energy equity considerations to all peoples

V. Mubayi

1981-01-01

202

Energy management - The delayed flap approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

Bull, J. S.

1976-01-01

203

Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

1993-01-01

204

INTEGRATED DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OPTIONS - A MULTICRITERIA APPROACH

Energy planning has come a long way during the 20th century from an intuitive approach to a full-scale discipline, incorporating technological and economic dimensions. The latter include both the micro- and the macro- level, whereas the technological framework covers energy, technology, thermodynamics and thermo-economic approaches. It is only during the last two decades that the environmental aspects of energy conversion

Heracles Polatidis; Dias Haralambopoulos

2005-01-01

205

Determination of airplane aerodynamic parameters from flight data at high angles of attack

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of determining airplane aerodynamic model equations and estimating the associated parameters from flight data taken at high angles of attack is addressed. Two representations of the aerodynamic function based on the polynomial and spline representations are given. Then the technique of building an adequate model using a stepwise regression is presented with examples demonstrating the construction of the model and various approaches to model verification.

Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.

1982-01-01

206

A New Approach To Wind Energy: Opportunities And Challenges

1 A New Approach To Wind Energy: Opportunities And Challenges John O. Dabiria , Julia R. Greera, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA Abstract. Despite common characterizations of modern wind energy technology as mature, there remains a persistent disconnect between the vast global wind energy resource--which is 20

Dabiri, John O.

207

Energy planning for development - needs and approaches

The capability of developing countries to carry out comprehensive national energy planning is examined. The analytical methods or models constructed for analyzing the energy system have to take into account the specific context in which they are built to address issues of interest to development planners. Issues discussed are resource development and technology research, energy equity considerations to all peoples in a nation, the pricing policy, and the balance of payments considerations. The impartance of the availability of adequate skilled personnel and training programs to impart the requisite skill necessary to carry out the planning is discussed. Various surveys were conducted to determine the training needs for energy planners in developing countries. (MCW)

Mubayi, V

1981-01-01

208

[Transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopy for otitis media].

This study was designed to compare the efficacy of various methods of transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopy based on the examination of 60 patients presenting with acute suppurative otitis media (CSOM), chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), exudative and adhesive otitis media. Transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopy was performed with the use of otobarohydroendoscope. The results of the study demonstrate the advantages of the transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopic technique for the examination of the patients presenting with different clinical forms of otitis media. PMID:23250522

Ageenko, I V

2012-01-01

209

Computational aerodynamics applications to transport aircraft design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examples are cited in assessing the effect that computational aerodynamics has had on the design of transport aircraft. The application of computational potential flow methods to wing design and to high-lift system design is discussed. The benefits offered by computational aerodynamics in reducing design cost, time, and risk are shown to be substantial.These aerodynamic methods have proved to be particularly effective in exposing inferior or poor aerodynamic designs. Particular attention is given to wing design, where the results have been dramatic.

Henne, P. A.

1983-01-01

210

Assessment of aerodynamic and dynamic models in a comprehensive analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history, status, and lessons of a comprehensive analysis for rotorcraft are reviewed. The development, features, and capabilities of the analysis are summarized, including the aerodynamic and dynamic models that were used. Examples of correlation of the computational results with experimental data are given, extensions of the analysis for research in several topics of helicopter technology are discussed, and the experiences of outside users are summarized. Finally, the required capabilities and approach for the next comprehensive analysis are described.

Johnson, W.

1985-01-01

211

Analysis and optimization of aerodynamic noise in a centrifugal compressor

The numerical methods for the performance analysis and the noise prediction of the centrifugal compressor impeller are developed, which are coupled with the optimization design methodology consisting of response surface method, statistical approach, and genetic algorithm. Navier–Stokes equations with the two-equation (k–?) turbulence model are applied to calculate impeller aerodynamic characteristics, and Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings formulation and boundary element method are

Hyosung Sun; Hyungki Shin; Soogab Lee

2006-01-01

212

THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE

THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE by KOEN STEIN* , COLIN PALMER been limited. Here, we provide a thorough aerodynamic analysis of both genera of British kuehneosaur words: Kuehneosauridae, Diapsida, Late Triassic, glid- ing, aerodynamics. The Kuehneosauridae

Benton, Michael

213

Group Dynamics Approach to Industrial Energy Management

, be ready with estimates of the system peak demand savings in Kilowatts (KW) and the annual energy savings in Kilowatthours (KWH), based on engineering calculations and preferably, hacked up with information obtained by actually putting an electricity..., be ready with estimates of the system peak demand savings in Kilowatts (KW) and the annual energy savings in Kilowatthours (KWH), based on engineering calculations and preferably, hacked up with information obtained by actually putting an electricity...

Thomas, D. G.

214

'Quick win' approach to cutting energy use.

Among the many challenges the NHS currently faces is an urgent need to cut its burgeoning energy costs and, in specialist building management system manufacturer Trend Control Systems' words, its "massive carbon footprint". Part of the solution, the company argues, lies in making better use of existing building energy management systems (BEMS). Optimising their operation and performance can, key account manager John O'Leary explains, bring substantial savings without the need for additional investment. PMID:20527591

O'Leary, John

2010-05-01

215

Outsourced Energy Management- A Trustee Approach

of a cultural shift to focus and motivate the industrial client to support energy control measures as a normal business activity. Several major corporations have used similar programs to reduce energy consumption by at least 5%. Mobil Corporation... supply chain after the procurement. By exercising the agency rights and obligations delegated by its industrial clients, the Program manages all aspects of the supply, transportation and distribution of Natural Gas, and other fuels, for its client...

Ciarlone, D. F.; O'Connor, T. W.

216

Energy approach to considering multicomponent powder systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of formation of the structure of a dispersed multicomponent powder mixture in mixing are considered from an energy standpoint. The homogeneous state of a powder mixture is shown to be energetically more favorable than the state of its separation, since it has a lower free energy margin and a higher configurational entropy. Depending on external conditions, a mixture of homogeneous regions with different component concentrations can have a more stable state.

Minaev, A. M.; Mordasov, D. M.; Tyalina, L. N.

2013-11-01

217

Flutter and forced response of turbomachinery with frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation provides numerical studies to improve bladed disk assembly design for preventing blade high cycle fatigue failures. The analyses are divided into two major subjects. For the first subject presented in Chapter 2, the mechanisms of transonic fan flutter for tuned systems are studied to improve the shortcoming of traditional method for modern fans using a 3D time-linearized Navier-Stokes solver. Steady and unsteady flow parameters including local work on the blade surfaces are investigated. It was found that global local work monotonically became more unstable on the pressure side due to the flow rollback effect. The local work on the suction side significantly varied due to nodal diameter and flow rollback effect. Thus, the total local work for the least stable mode is dominant by the suction side. Local work on the pressure side appears to be affected by the shock on the suction side. For the second subject presented in Chapter 3, sensitivity studies are conducted on flutter and forced response due to frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry using the single family of modes approach by assuming manufacturing tolerance. The unsteady aerodynamic forces are computed using CFD methods assuming aerodynamic symmetry. The aerodynamic asymmetry is applied by perturbing the influence coefficient matrix. These aerodynamic perturbations influence both stiffness and damping while traditional frequency mistuning analysis only perturbs the stiffness. Flutter results from random aerodynamic perturbations of all blades showed that manufacturing variations that effect blade unsteady aerodynamics may cause a stable, perfectly symmetric engine to flutter. For forced response, maximum blade amplitudes are significantly influenced by the aerodynamic perturbation of the imaginary part (damping) of unsteady aerodynamic modal forces. This is contrary to blade frequency mistuning where the stiffness perturbation dominates.

Miyakozawa, Tomokazu

218

Aerodynamics modeling of towed-cable dynamics

The dynamics of a cable/drogue system being towed by an orbiting aircraft has been investigated as a part of an LTWA project for the Naval Air Systems Command. We present here a status report on the tasks performed under Phase 1. We have accomplished the following tasks under Phase 1: A literature survey on the towed-cable motion problem has been conducted. While both static (steady-state) and dynamic (transient) analyses exist in the literature, no single, comprehensive analysis exists that directly addresses the present problem. However, the survey also reveals that, when judiciously applied, these past analyses can serve as useful building blocks for approaching the present problem. A numerical model that addresses several aspects of the towed-cable dynamic problem has been adapted from a Canadian underwater code for the present aerodynamic situation. This modified code, called TOWDYN, analyzes the effects of gravity, tension, aerodynamic drag, and wind. Preliminary results from this code demonstrate that the wind effects alone CAN generate the drogue oscillation behavior, i.e., the yo-yo'' phenomenon. This code also will serve as a benchmark code for checking the accuracy of a more general and complete R D'' model code. We have initiated efforts to develop a general R D model supercomputer code that also takes into account other physical factors, such as induced oscillations and bending stiffness. This general code will be able to evaluate the relative impacts of the various physical parameters, which may become important under certain conditions. This R D code will also enable development of a simpler operational code that can be used by the Naval Air personnel in the field.

Kang, S.W.; Latorre, V.R.

1991-01-17

219

Inner workings of aerodynamic sweep

The recent trend in using aerodynamic sweep to improve the performance of transonic blading has been one of the more significant technological evolutions for compression components in turbomachinery. This paper reports on the experimental and analytical assessment of the pay-off derived from both aft and forward sweep technology with respect to aerodynamic performance and stability. The single-stage experimental investigation includes two aft-swept rotors with varying degree and type of aerodynamic sweep and one swept forward rotor. On a back-to-back test basis, the results are compared with an unswept rotor with excellent performance and adequate stall margin. Although designed to satisfy identical design speed requirements as the unswept rotor, the experimental results reveal significant variations in efficiency and stall margin with the swept rotors. At design speed, all the swept rotors demonstrated a peak stage efficiency level that was equal to that of the unswept rotor. However, the forward-swept rotor achieved the highest rotor-alone peak efficiency. At the same time, the forward-swept rotor demonstrated a significant improvement in stall margin relative to the already satisfactory level achieved by the unswept rotor. Increasing the level of aft sweep adversely affected the stall margin. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis was used to assist in the interpretation of the data. The reduced shock/boundary layer interaction, resulting from reduced axial flow diffusion and less accumulation of centrifuged blade surface boundary layer at the tip, was identified as the prime contributor to the enhanced performance with forward sweep. The impact of tip clearance on the performance and stability for one of the aft-swept rotors was also assessed.

Wadia, A.R.; Szucs, P.N.; Crall, D.W. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1998-10-01

220

A method for the reduction of aerodynamic drag of road vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is proposed for the reduction of the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies, particularly for application to road transport vehicles. This technique consists of installation of panels on the forward surface of the vehicle facing the airstream. With the help of road tests, it was demonstrated that the attachment of proposed panels can reduce aerodynamic drag of road vehicles and result in significant fuel cost savings and conservation of energy resources.

Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Larry W.; Leary, Terrance O.

1990-01-01

221

Aerodynamics. [Numerical simulation using supercomputers

A projection is made of likely improvements in the economics of commercial aircraft operation due to developments in aerodynamics in the next half-century. Notable among these improvements are active laminar flow control techniques' application to third-generation SSTs, in order to achieve an L/D value of about 20; this is comparable to current subsonic transports, and has the further consequence of reducing cabin noise. Wave-cancellation systems may also be used to eliminate sonic boom overpressures, and rapid-combustion systems may be able to eliminate all pollutants from jet exhausts other than CO/sub 2/.

Graves, R.A. Jr.

1988-01-01

222

Aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressors

Saving money with an efficient pipeline system design depends on accurately predicting compressor performance and ensuring that it meets the manufacturer's guaranteed levels. When shop testing with the actual gas is impractical, an aerodynamic test can ascertain compressor efficiency, but the accuracy and consistency of data acquisition in such tests is critical. Low test-pressure levels necessitate accounting for the effects of Reynolds number and heat transfer. Moreover, the compressor user and manufacturer must agree on the magnitude of the corrections to be applied to the test data.

Sayyed, S.

1981-12-01

223

Recent progress in flapping wing aerodynamics and aeroelasticity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro air vehicles (MAVs) have the potential to revolutionize our sensing and information gathering capabilities in areas such as environmental monitoring and homeland security. Flapping wings with suitable wing kinematics, wing shapes, and flexible structures can enhance lift as well as thrust by exploiting large-scale vortical flow structures under various conditions. However, the scaling invariance of both fluid dynamics and structural dynamics as the size changes is fundamentally difficult. The focus of this review is to assess the recent progress in flapping wing aerodynamics and aeroelasticity. It is realized that a variation of the Reynolds number (wing sizing, flapping frequency, etc.) leads to a change in the leading edge vortex (LEV) and spanwise flow structures, which impacts the aerodynamic force generation. While in classical stationary wing theory, the tip vortices (TiVs) are seen as wasted energy, in flapping flight, they can interact with the LEV to enhance lift without increasing the power requirements. Surrogate modeling techniques can assess the aerodynamic outcomes between two- and three-dimensional wing. The combined effect of the TiVs, the LEV, and jet can improve the aerodynamics of a flapping wing. Regarding aeroelasticity, chordwise flexibility in the forward flight can substantially adjust the projected area normal to the flight trajectory via shape deformation, hence redistributing thrust and lift. Spanwise flexibility in the forward flight creates shape deformation from the wing root to the wing tip resulting in varied phase shift and effective angle of attack distribution along the wing span. Numerous open issues in flapping wing aerodynamics are highlighted.

Shyy, W.; Aono, H.; Chimakurthi, S. K.; Trizila, P.; Kang, C.-K.; Cesnik, C. E. S.; Liu, H.

2010-10-01

224

Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also contributed to energy efficiency convergence analysis employing the delta-convergence and unconditional & conditional beta-convergence concepts, investigating economic energy efficiency differences across the four US sectors using panel data models. The results show that, in terms of technical and allocative energy efficiency, the energy-intensive sectors, SCG and textile mill products, tend to catch the energy extensive sectors, the Com and furniture & fixtures, being conditional on sector-specific characteristics. Conditional convergence results indicate that technology, capital and energy are crucial factors in determining energy efficiency differences across the US sectors, implying that environmental or energy policies, and technological changes should be industry specific across the US sectors. The main finding is that the marginal value measure conveys information on both technical and allocative energy efficiency and accounts for all costs and benefits of energy consumption including environmental and externality costs.

Khademvatani, Asgar

225

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

226

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st century new we focused on the case of un- conventional natural gas recovery from the Marcellus shale In addition

Walter, M.Todd

227

Approaches for biological and biomimetic energy conversion

This article highlights areas of research at the interface of nanotechnology, the physical sciences, and biology that are related to energy conversion: specifically, those related to photovoltaic applications. Although much ongoing work is seeking to understand basic processes of photosynthesis and chemical conversion, such as light harvesting, electron transfer, and ion transport, application of this knowledge to the development of fully synthetic and/or hybrid devices is still in its infancy. To develop systems that produce energy in an efficient manner, it is important both to understand the biological mechanisms of energy flow for optimization of primary structure and to appreciate the roles of architecture and assembly. Whether devices are completely synthetic and mimic biological processes or devices use natural biomolecules, much of the research for future power systems will happen at the intersection of disciplines. PMID:16567648

LaVan, David A.; Cha, Jennifer N.

2006-01-01

228

A Lyapunov based approach to energy maximization in renewable energy technologies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the design and implementation of Lyapunov-based control strategies for the maximization of the power captured by renewable energy harnessing technologies such as (i) a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine, (ii) a variable speed wind turbine coupled to a doubly fed induction generator, and (iii) a solar power generating system charging a constant voltage battery. First, a torque control strategy is presented to maximize wind energy captured in variable speed, variable pitch wind turbines at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy applies control torque to the wind turbine pitch and rotor subsystems to simultaneously control the blade pitch and tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the capture efficiency is maximum. The control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact knowledge of the wind turbine model. A series of numerical results show that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve maximum energy capture. Next, a control strategy is proposed to maximize the wind energy captured in a variable speed wind turbine, with an internal induction generator, at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy controls the tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the efficiency constant (or power coefficient) is maximal for a particular blade pitch angle and wind speed by using the generator rotor voltage as a control input. This control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact wind turbine model knowledge. Representative numerical results demonstrate that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve near maximum energy capture. Finally, a power system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) array panel, dc-to-dc switching converter, charging a battery is considered wherein the environmental conditions are time-varying. A backstepping PWM controller is developed to maximize the power of the solar generating system. The controller tracks a desired array voltage, designed online using an incremental conductance extremum-seeking algorithm, by varying the duty cycle of the switching converter. The stability of the control algorithm is demonstrated by means of Lyapunov analysis. Representative numerical results demonstrate that the grid power system can be controlled to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic array panel in varying atmospheric conditions. Additionally, the performance of the proposed strategy is compared to the typical maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method of perturb and observe (P&O), where the converter dynamics are ignored, and is shown to yield better results.

Iyasere, Erhun

229

Numerical Analysis of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics

Flapping-wing aerodynamics recently has generated a great deal of interest and increasing research effort because of the potential application in micro-air vehicles. The objective of this study is to critically review the recent progress of CFD analysis of flapping- wing aerodynamics. Critical parameters like flapping modes, frequency and amplitude for optimal thrust generation and propulsive efficiency are identified. Current gaps

M. A. Ashraf; J. C. S. Lai; J. Young

230

Aerodynamic considerations of blended wing body aircraft

In this paper, we present a progressive aerodynamic study of a blended wing body (BWB) configuration within a European project, MOB (A computational design engine incorporating multi-disciplinary design and optimisation for blended wing body configuration). The paper starts with an overview of various blended wing body aircraft design projects in relation to their aerodynamic behaviour. After a theoretical assessment of

N. Qin; A. Vavalle; A. Le Moigne; M. Laban; K. Hackett; P. Weinerfelt

2004-01-01

231

Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

1978-01-01

232

Linearized unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications

The unsteady aerodynamic analyses developed for turbomachinery aeroelastic predictions must be appliable to the moderate through high frequency unsteady flows that are excited by structural motions and aerodynamic interactions between adjacent blade rows and occur over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, because of the large number of controlling parameters involved, there is a stringent requirement on computational

Joseph M. Verdon

1992-01-01

233

Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

2011-01-01

234

Review of aerodynamic design in the Netherlands

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic design activities in the Netherlands, which take place mainly at Fokker, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and Delft University of Technology (TUD), are discussed. The survey concentrates on the development of the Fokker 100 wing, glider design at TUD, and research at NLR in the field of aerodynamic design. Results are shown to illustrate these activities.

Labrujere, Th. E.

1991-01-01

235

Dynamic stall and aerodynamic damping

A dynamic stall model is used to analyze and reproduce open air blade section measurements as well as wind tunnel measurements. The dynamic stall model takes variations in both angle of attack and flow velocity into account. The paper gives a brief description of the dynamic stall model and presents results from analyses of dynamic stall measurements for a variety of experiments with different airfoils in wind tunnel and on operating rotors. The wind tunnel experiments comprises pitching as well as plunging motion of the airfoils. The dynamic stall model is applied for derivation of aerodynamic damping characteristics for cyclic motion of the airfoils in flapwise and edgewise direction combined with pitching. The investigation reveals that the airfoil dynamic stall characteristics depend on the airfoil shape, and the type of motion (pitch, plunge). The aerodynamic damping characteristics, and thus the sensitivity to stall induced vibrations, depend highly on the relative motion of the airfoil in flapwise and edgewise direction, and on a possibly coupled pitch variation, which is determined by the structural characteristics of the blade.

Rasmussen, F.; Petersen, J.T.; Madsen, H.A.

1999-08-01

236

Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

237

Aerodynamics of electrically driven freight pipeline system

This paper examines the aerodynamic characteristics of a freight pipeline system in which freight capsules are individually propelled by electrical motors. The fundamental difference between this system and the more extensively studied pneumatic capsule pipeline is the different role played by aerodynamic forces. In a driven system the propelled capsules are resisted by aerodynamic forces and, in reaction, pump air through the tube. In contrast, in a pneumatically propelled system external blowers pump air through the tubes, and this provides the thrust for the capsules. An incompressible transient analysis is developed to study the aerodynamics of multiple capsules in a cross-linked two-bore pipeline. An aerodynamic friction coefficient is used as a cost parameter to compare the effects of capsule blockage and headway and to assess the merits of adits and vents. The authors conclude that optimum efficiency for off-design operation is obtained with long platoons of capsules in vented or adit connected tubes.

Lundgren, T.S.; Zhao, Y.

2000-06-01

238

Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.

Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1995-01-01

239

The 727 approach energy management system avionics specification (preliminary)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware and software requirements for an Approach Energy Management System (AEMS) consisting of an airborne digital computer and cockpit displays are presented. The displays provide the pilot with a visual indication of when to manually operate the gear, flaps, and throttles during a delayed flap approach so as to reduce approach time, fuel consumption, and community noise. The AEMS is an independent system that does not interact with other navigation or control systems, and is compatible with manually flown or autopilot coupled approaches. Operational use of the AEMS requires a DME ground station colocated with the flight path reference.

Jackson, D. O.; Lambregts, A. A.

1976-01-01

240

Analytical approach to backscattering of low-energy electrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The backscattered flux and energy of electrons when a monoenergetic electron is incident in a gas at any pitch angle are calculated using an approach based on spatial yield spectra. The four-dimensional yield spectrum function is defined and the equations for calculating the backscattered flux and energy are derived. The calculated backscattered flux and energy are compared to the data of Mantas and Walker (1976) and the data correlate well.

Haider, S. A.; Singhal, R. P.

1986-12-01

241

A Casimir approach for radiative self-energy

We apply a Casimir energy approach to evaluate the self-energy or one-photon radiative correction for an electron in a hydrogen orbital. This linking of the Lamb shift to the Casimir effect is obtained by treating the hydrogen orbital as a one-electron shell and including the probability of the electron being at a particular radius in that orbital and the probability that the electron will interact with a virtual photon of a given energy.

Allan Rosencwaig

2006-06-21

242

Energy Aware Paradigm for Energy Efficient ICT: a Systemic Approach Sergio Ricciardi

Energy Aware Paradigm for Energy Efficient ICT: a Systemic Approach Sergio Ricciardi Technical) Jordi Girona 3 08034 Barcelona, Spain +34 93 4016982 pareta@ac.upc.edu ABSTRACT Energy is imposing as the new constraint in the ICT sector and the problem of energy efficient in ICT has consequently arisen

PolitÃ¨cnica de Catalunya, Universitat

243

Aerodynamic force by Lamb vector integrals in compressible flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new exact expression of the aerodynamic force acting on a body in steady high Reynolds number (laminar and turbulent) compressible flow is proposed. The aerodynamic force is obtained by integration of the Lamb vector field given by the cross product of vorticity times velocity. The result is obtained extending a theory developed for the incompressible case. A decomposition in lift and drag contribution is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The theory links the force generation to local flow properties, in particular to the Lamb vector field and to the kinetic energy. The theoretical results are confirmed analyzing numerical solutions obtained by a standard Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver. Results are discussed for the case of a two-dimensional airfoil in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic free stream conditions.

Mele, Benedetto; Tognaccini, Renato

2014-05-01

244

Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies conceptually and practically integrate urban spatial and energy planning approaches. The combined modelling approach that will be developed based on the described sectorial models holds the potential to represent hybrid energy systems coupling distributed generation of electricity with thermal conversion systems.

Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.

2013-09-01

245

Post-Stall Aerodynamic Modeling and Gain-Scheduled Control Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multidisciplinary research e.ort that combines aerodynamic modeling and gain-scheduled control design for aircraft flight at post-stall conditions is described. The aerodynamic modeling uses a decambering approach for rapid prediction of post-stall aerodynamic characteristics of multiple-wing con.gurations using known section data. The approach is successful in bringing to light multiple solutions at post-stall angles of attack right during the iteration process. The predictions agree fairly well with experimental results from wind tunnel tests. The control research was focused on actuator saturation and .ight transition between low and high angles of attack regions for near- and post-stall aircraft using advanced LPV control techniques. The new control approaches maintain adequate control capability to handle high angle of attack aircraft control with stability and performance guarantee.

Wu, Fen; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Kim, Sungwan

2005-01-01

246

On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.

The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

2012-01-01

247

High angle of attack: Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to predict high angle of attack, nonlinear, aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles, including aircraft, has made significant progress in the last 25 years using computational tools and analyses. The key technological element which has made these analyses possible is the ability to account for the influence of the shed vortical flow, prevalent in this angle of attack range, on geometries of interest. Using selected analysis techniques, applications have also been made to wing design in order to improve their high speed maneuver performance. Various techniques, associated with different levels of accuracy, exist to model this vortical flow influence. The ones included in this paper cover: suction analogy with extensions; free vortex filaments; free vortex sheet modeling; and Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions. Associated relevant features of vortices are also addressed, including: the wing and flow conditions which cause vortex formation; and how the vortex strength varies with angle of attack and wing sweep.

Lamar, John E.

1992-01-01

248

On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

Pindado, Santiago; Perez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

2012-01-01

249

System for determining aerodynamic imbalance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is provided for determining tracking error in a propeller or rotor driven aircraft by determining differences in the aerodynamic loading on the propeller or rotor blades of the aircraft. The system includes a microphone disposed relative to the blades during the rotation thereof so as to receive separate pressure pulses produced by each of the blades during the passage thereof by the microphone. A low pass filter filters the output signal produced by the microphone, the low pass filter having an upper cut-off frequency set below the frequency at which the blades pass by the microphone. A sensor produces an output signal after each complete revolution of the blades, and a recording display device displays the outputs of the low pass filter and sensor so as to enable evaluation of the relative magnitudes of the pressure pulses produced by passage of the blades by the microphone during each complete revolution of the blades.

Churchill, Gary B. (inventor); Cheung, Benny K. (inventor)

1994-01-01

250

Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

Riabov, Vladimir V.

2011-05-01

251

AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

09/03/2007 10:42 1 AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Engineering DepartmentMechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Aerodynamic Research CenterAerodynamic AssociateGraduate Research Associate #12;09/03/2007 10:42 2 AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER MECHANICAL

Texas at Arlington, University of

252

The External Aerodynamics of Canine Olfaction Gary S. Settles*

The External Aerodynamics of Canine Olfaction Gary S. Settles* , Douglas A. Kester** , Lori J Literature on the External Aerodynamics of Olfaction B. Precedent Literature on Aerodynamic Sampling Technology III. Canine Olfaction Experiments IV. The Design of an Aerodynamic Sniffer A. Background B

Settles, Gary S.

253

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Techniques Based On Control Theory

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Techniques Based On Control Theory Antony Jameson1 and Luigi for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible flow. The theory is applied to a system optimization of complex configurations. 1 Introduction: Aerodynamic Design The definition of the aerodynamic

Jameson, Antony

254

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Aircraft Design Antony Jameson

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Aircraft Design Antony Jameson Department of Aeronautics for Aircraft Design #12;#12; Aerodynamic Design Tradeoffs A good first estimate of performance is provided/55 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Aircraft Design #12;#12; Aerodynamic Design Tradeoffs The drag coefficient

Stanford University

255

Calculation of free energy landscapes: A Histogram Reweighted Metadynamics approach

We present an efficient method for the calculation of free energy landscapes. Our approach involves a history dependent bias potential which is evaluated on a grid. The corresponding free energy landscape is constructed via a histogram reweighting procedure a posteriori. Due to the presence of the bias potential, it can be also used to accelerate rare events. In addition, the calculated free energy landscape is not restricted to the actual choice of collective variables and can in principle be extended to auxiliary variables of interest without further numerical effort. The applicability is shown for several examples. We present numerical results for the alanine dipeptide and the Met-Enkephalin in explicit solution to illustrate our approach. Furthermore we derive an empirical formula that allows the prediction of the computational cost for the ordinary metadynamics variant in comparison to our approach which is validated by a dimensionless representation.

Jens Smiatek; Andreas Heuer

2010-06-22

256

Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.

Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

1993-01-01

257

Performance aerodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting the performance aerodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles was developed based on techniques that were used in the aerodynamic databook of the Space Shuttle orbiter and theories from the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. The method spans the entire flight profile of the aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles from the extreme high altitude non-continuum regime to the highly viscous continuum regime. Results from this method are compared with flight data from the Shuttle orbiter, Apollo Capsule, and the Viking Aeroshell. Finally, performance aerodynamics are estimated for three aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles that range from low to high lift-to-drag ratio configurations.

Wilhite, A. W.; Arrington, J. P.; Mccandless, R. S.

1984-01-01

258

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

259

Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.

Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav

2011-01-01

260

Integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is used to minimize blade weight and 4 per rev vertical hub shear for a rotor blade in forward flight. The coupling of aerodynamics and dynamics is accomplished through the inclusion of airloads which vary with the design variables during the optimization process. Both single and multiple objective functions are used in the optimization formulation. The Global Criteria Approach is used to formulate the multiple objective optimization and results are compared with those obtained by using single objective function formulations. Constraints are imposed on natural frequencies, autorotational inertia, and centrifugal stress. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade aerodynamic and dynamic analyses, and the program CONMIN is used for the optimization. Since the spanwise and the azimuthal variations of loading are responsible for most rotor vibration and noise, the vertical airload distributions on the blade, before and after optimization, are compared. The total power required by the rotor to produce the same amount of thrust for a given area is also calculated before and after optimization. Results indicate that integrated optimization can significantly reduce the blade weight, the hub shear and the amplitude of the vertical airload distributions on the blade and the total power required by the rotor.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.; Riley, Michael F.

1989-01-01

261

Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account for design considerations. In addition, the benefits of this approach for wind turbine design and future efforts are discussed.

Dey, Soumitr

262

Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.

Rose McCallen, Dan Flowers, Tim Dunn; Jerry Owens; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J. T. Heineck, David Driver; James Bell; Steve Walker; Gregory Zilliac

2000-06-19

263

Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase V: Test Configuration and Available Data Campaigns

The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating-blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models, which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic-stall regimes. Much of the effort in the first phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phase V of the experiment is contained in this report.

Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.

2001-08-30

264

Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phases II-IV Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns

The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines. To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic stall regimes. Much of the effort in the earlier phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phases II-IV of the experiment is contained in this report.

Simms, D. A.; Hand, M. M.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.

1999-08-19

265

Integrated aerodynamic fin and stowable TVC vane system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerodynamic fin and stowable jet vane system preferably for rocket motor missile applications to control roll, pitch, and yaw, in either the aerodynamic or thrust flight control conditions, has a retractable and stowable aerodynamic vane integrated with a stowable aerodynamic vane integrated with a stowable thrust vector reaction steering system on a common support. The integrated aerodynamic fins and thrust vector control reduce the overall missile mainframe dimensions and are mounted on a single, space saving support.

Danielson, Arnold O.

1994-06-01

266

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

267

Rudolf Hermann, wind tunnels and aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rudolf Hermann was born on December 15, 1904 in Leipzig, Germany. He studied at the University of Leipzig and at the Aachen Institute of Technology. His involvement with wind tunnels began in 1934 when Professor Carl Wieselsberger engaged him to work at Aachen on the development of a supersonic wind tunnel. On January 6, 1936, Dr. Wernher von Braun visited Dr. Hermann to arrange for use of the Aachen supersonic wind tunnel for Army problems. On April 1, 1937, Dr. Hermann became Director of the Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the Army installation at Peenemunde. Results from the Aachen and Peenemunde wind tunnels were crucial in achieving aerodynamic stability for the A-4 rocket, later designated as the V-2. Plans to build a Mach 10 'hypersonic' wind tunnel facility at Kochel were accelerated after the Allied air raid on Peenemunde on August 17, 1943. Dr. Hermann was director of the new facility. Ignoring destruction orders from Hitler as WWII approached an end in Europe, Dr. Hermann and his associates hid documents and preserved wind tunnel components that were acquired by the advancing American forces. Dr. Hermann became a consultant to the Air Force at its Wright Field in November 1945. In 1951, he was named professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Minnesota. In 1962, Dr. Hermann became the first Director of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), a position he held until he retired in 1970.

Lundquist, Charles A.; Coleman, Anne M.

2008-04-01

268

Aerodynamic gas gates for flare units

Layouts are described for the most productive aerodynamic gates for flare unit pipes with the minimum dimensions. Parameters\\u000a are analyzed for patented gates of two types noted for their structural simplicity.

V. I. Panchenko; Ya. F. Magaril; A. A. Nazarov; Ya. S. Shpaner; R. G. Gimranov

2009-01-01

269

Electromyographic responses to aerodynamic vs. drop handlebars

differences not revealed by metabolic testing. In this study the electromyography of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and low back were recorded during cycling with both aerodynamic handlebars and drop handlebars, Although...

Layne, Donald Jodel

2012-06-07

270

Aerodynamics of a rolling airframe missile

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For guidance-related reasons, there is considerable interest in rolling missiles having single-plane steering capability. To aid the aerodynamic design of these airframes, a unique investigation into the aerodynamics of a rolling, steering missile has been carried out. It represents the first known attempt to measure in a wind tunnel the aerodynamic forces and moments that act on a spinning body-canard-tail configuration that exercises canard steering in phase with body roll position. Measurements were made with the model spinning at steady-state roll rates ranging from 15 to 40 Hz over an angle-of-attack range up to about 16 deg. This short, exploratory investigation has demonstrated that a better understanding and a more complete definition of the aerodynamics of rolling, steering vehicles can be developed by way of simulative wind-tunnel testing.

Tisserand, L. E.

1981-05-01

271

Twenty years' progress in steam turbine aerodynamics

This paper presents a history of the progress made in power plant capacities. The role of aerodynamics in steam turbine development is discussed. The workings of an air research laboratory and a steam research laboratory are explained.

Wallon, M.; Vincent de Paul, M. (Alsthom, Le Bourget (FR)); Anis, A. (Alsthom International, Inc., New York, NY (US))

1989-01-01

272

Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Insights using Eigenanalysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.

Heeg, Jennifer; Dowell, Earl H.

1999-01-01

273

Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, Jhn A.

2011-01-01

274

Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Insights using Eigenanalysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.

Heeg, Jennifer; Dowell, Earl H.

2004-01-01

275

Device for Reducing Vehicle Aerodynamic Resistance.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality ...

S. C. Graham

2004-01-01

276

Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

Sazonov, V. V.

1983-01-01

277

The aerodynamics of the beautiful game

We consider the aerodynamics of football, specifically, the interaction between a ball in flight and the ambient air. Doing so allows one to account for the characteristic range and trajectories of balls in flight, as well ...

Bush, John W. M.

2013-01-01

278

HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

1999-01-01

279

16.100 Aerodynamics, Fall 2002

This course extends fluid mechanic concepts from Unified Engineering to the aerodynamic performance of wings and bodies in sub/supersonic regimes. 16.100 generally has four components: subsonic potential flows, including ...

Darmofal, David L.

280

Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

281

Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.

1975-01-01

282

Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, part 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers given at the conference present the results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include two-dimensional configurations, three-dimensional configurations, transonic aircraft, and the space shuttle.

1975-01-01

283

Atmospheric tests of trailing-edge aerodynamic devices

An experiment was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable-span, trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. The goal of the investigation was to directly compare results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were used to define effective changes in the aerodynamic and hinge-moment coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans (7.5%, 15%, and 22.5%) and configurations (Spoiler-Flap, vented sileron, and unvented aileron). Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (about a 30% reduction from infinite-span) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

Miller, L.S.; Huang, S. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)] [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Quandt, G.A.

1998-01-01

284

Improvement of vehicle aerodynamics by wake control

The rear-end shape of a car is one of the most important parts from the view point of aerodynamics. It governs the aerodynamic characteristics of the car, especially drag and rear lift. However, a rear-end shape like a spoiler often increases drag on recent low-drag cars. In this paper, the relation of rear-end shape to drag and lift is studied

Hitoshi Fukuda; Kazuo Yanagimoto; Hiroshi China; Kunio Nakagawa

1995-01-01

285

MAC New Approach to Design Energy Consumption Minimized

MAC , O , , New Approach to Design Energy Consumption Minimized Wireless sensor network MAC Protocols Wooguil Pak, Seongsu Lim O , and Saewoong Bahk School of Electrical Engineering}@netlab.snu.ac.kr duty cycle . MAC duty cycle 0.1~5% duty cycle . MAC

Bahk, Saewoong

286

ENERGY AWARE APPROACH FOR HPC Robert Basmadjian1

CHAPTER 1 ENERGY AWARE APPROACH FOR HPC SYSTEMS Robert Basmadjian1 , Georges Da Costa2 , Ghislain for actors involved in the devel- opment and operation of HPC systems is no longer the number of PFlops, tremendous efforts are being undertaken by HPC operators from multi- ple levels to make supercomputers

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

287

Darrieus rotor aerodynamics in turbulent wind

The earlier aerodynamic models for studying vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT`s) are based on constant incident wind conditions and are thus capable of predicting only periodic variations in the loads. The purpose of the present study is to develop a model capable of predicting the aerodynamic loads on the Darrieus rotor in a turbulent wind. This model is based on the double-multiple streamtube method (DMS) and incorporates a stochastic wind model. The method used to simulate turbulent velocity fluctuations is based on the power spectral density. The problem consists in generating a region of turbulent flow with a relevant spectrum and spatial correlation. The first aerodynamic code developed is based on a one-dimensional turbulent wind model. However, since this model ignores the structure of the turbulence in the crossflow plane, an extension to three dimensions has been made. The computer code developed, CARDAAS, has been used to predict aerodynamic loads for the Sandia-17m rotor and compared to CARDAAV results and experimental data. Results have shown that the computed aerodynamic loads have been improved by including stochastic wind into the aerodynamic model.

Brahimi, M.T.; Paraschivoiu, I. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-05-01

288

Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

1991-01-01

289

The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes

A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic wind tunnel data on hemisflo and 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes behind several forebody shapes and diameters are discussed. Test techniques were derived which avoided many of the opportunities to obtain erroneous supersonic parachute drag data in wind tunnels. Preliminary correlations of supersonic parachute drag with Mach number, forebody shape and diameter, canopy porosity, inflated canopy diameter and stability are presented. Supersonic parachute design considerations are discussed and applied to a M = 2 parachute system designed and tested at Sandia. It is shown that the performance of parachutes in supersonic flows is a strong function of parachute design parameters and their interactions with the payload wake.

Peterson, C.W.

1987-06-01

290

Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

2012-06-01

291

Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.

Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.

2005-01-01

292

A modeling approach to energy savings of flying Canada geese using computational fluid dynamics.

A flapping flight mechanism of the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) was estimated using a two-jointed arm model in unsteady aerodynamic performance to examine how much energy can be saved in migration. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate airflow fields around the wing and in the wake. From the distributions of velocity and pressure on the wing, it was found that about 15% of goose flight energy could be saved by drag reduction from changing the morphology of the wing. From the airflow field in the wake, it was found that a pair of three-dimensional spiral flapping advantage vortices (FAV) was alternately generated. We quantitatively deduced that the optimal depth (the distance along the flight path between birds) was around 4m from the wing tip of a goose ahead, and optimal wing tip spacing (WTS, the distance between wing tips of adjacent birds perpendicular to the flight path) ranged between 0 and -0.40m in the spanwise section. It was found that a goose behind can save about 16% of its energy by induced power from FAV in V-formation. The phase difference of flapping between the goose ahead and behind was estimated at around 90.7° to take full aerodynamic benefit caused by FAV. PMID:23261397

Maeng, Joo-Sung; Park, Jae-Hyung; Jang, Seong-Min; Han, Seog-Young

2013-03-01

293

Estimating aerodynamic roughness over complex surface terrain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

roughness plays a key role in determining aerodynamic roughness length (zo) and shear velocity, both of which are fundamental for determining wind erosion threshold and potential. While zo can be quantified from wind measurements, large proportions of wind erosion prone surfaces remain too remote for this to be a viable approach. Alternative approaches therefore seek to relate zo to morphological roughness metrics. However, dust-emitting landscapes typically consist of complex small-scale surface roughness patterns and few metrics exist for these surfaces which can be used to predict zo for modeling wind erosion potential. In this study terrestrial laser scanning was used to characterize the roughness of typical dust-emitting surfaces (playa and sandar) where element protrusion heights ranged from 1 to 199 mm, over which vertical wind velocity profiles were collected to enable estimation of zo. Our data suggest that, although a reasonable relationship (R2 > 0.79) is apparent between 3-D roughness density and zo, the spacing of morphological elements is far less powerful in explaining variations in zo than metrics based on surface roughness height (R2 > 0.92). This finding is in juxtaposition to wind erosion models that assume the spacing of larger-scale isolated roughness elements is most important in determining zo. Rather, our data show that any metric based on element protrusion height has a higher likelihood of successfully predicting zo. This finding has important implications for the development of wind erosion and dust emission models that seek to predict the efficiency of aeolian processes in remote terrestrial and planetary environments.

Nield, Joanna M.; King, James; Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Leyland, Julian; Bryant, Robert G.; Chiverrell, Richard C.; Darby, Stephen E.; Eckardt, Frank D.; Thomas, David S. G.; Vircavs, Larisa H.; Washington, Richard

2013-12-01

294

Aerodynamic Design on Unstructured Grids for Turbulent Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerodynamic design algorithm for turbulent flows using unstructured grids is described. The current approach uses adjoint (costate) variables for obtaining derivatives of the cost function. The solution of the adjoint equations is obtained using an implicit formulation in which the turbulence model is fully coupled with the flow equations when solving for the costate variables. The accuracy of the derivatives is demonstrated by comparison with finite-difference gradients and a few example computations are shown. In addition, a user interface is described which significantly reduces the time required for setting up the design problems. Recommendations on directions of further research into the Navier Stokes design process are made.

Anderson, W. Kyle; Bonhaus, Daryl L.

1997-01-01

295

Integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is used to minimize blade weight and 4/rev vertical shear of a rotor blade in forward flight. Both single and multiple objective functions are used, with constraints imposed on the first four coupled natural frequencies (elastic modes only), the blade aerorotational inertia, and the centrifugal stress. The global criteria approach is used for the multiple objective formulation, and the results are compared with those obtained from single objective function formulations. Optimum designs are compared against a reference blade, and it is shown that optimum results can be obtained in 7-10 cycles.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.; Riley, Michael F.

1989-01-01

296

Multiparticle production in nuclear collisions using effective-energy approach

The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The study is based on the earlier proposed model, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics and shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. The effective energy approach is shown to reveal a similarity in the energy dependence for the most central and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC...

Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sarkisyan, Edward K G; Sakharov, Alexander S

2014-01-01

297

UPWIND, Aerodynamics and aero-elasticity Rotor aerodynamics in atmospheric shear flow

with zero shear over the rotor disc. In the present work, time true simulations of a rotor in an atmospheric of shear over the rotor disc is typically observed during nights with strongly stable boundary layersUPWIND, Aerodynamics and aero-elasticity Rotor aerodynamics in atmospheric shear flow Niels N

298

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

299

Spring 2011 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound

Spring 2011 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound Instructor theory of acoustics; they will serve as an introduction to acoustics for those new to the subject. Great care will be taken to discuss underlying fluid mechanical and acoustic concepts. A considerable number

300

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

1999-01-01

301

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers

2014-01-01

302

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

303

Time Series Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness Fields Estimated from MODIS Observations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most land surface models used today require estimates of aerodynamic roughness length in order to characterize momentum transfer between the surface and atmosphere. The most common method of prescribing roughness is through the use of empirical look-up tables based solely on land cover class. Theoretical approaches that employ satellite-based estimates of canopy density present an attractive alternative to current look-up table approaches based on vegetation cover type that do not account for within-class variability and are oftentimes simplistic with respect to temporal variability. The current research applies Raupach s formulation of momentum aerodynamic roughness to MODIS data on a regional scale in order to estimate seasonally variable roughness and zero-plane displacement height fields using bulk land cover parameters estimated by [Jasinski, M.F., Borak, J., Crago, R., 2005. Bulk surface momentum parameters for satellite-derived vegetation fields. Agric. For. Meteorol. 133, 55-68]. Results indicate promising advances over look-up approaches with respect to characterization of vegetation roughness variability in land surface and atmospheric circulation models.

Borak, Jordan S.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard D.

2005-01-01

304

Exploring Discretization Error in Simulation-Based Aerodynamic Databases

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work examines the level of discretization error in simulation-based aerodynamic databases and introduces strategies for error control. Simulations are performed using a parallel, multi-level Euler solver on embedded-boundary Cartesian meshes. Discretization errors in user-selected outputs are estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals and we use adaptive mesh refinement to reduce these errors to specified tolerances. Using this framework, we examine the behavior of discretization error throughout a token database computed for a NACA 0012 airfoil consisting of 120 cases. We compare the cost and accuracy of two approaches for aerodynamic database generation. In the first approach, mesh adaptation is used to compute all cases in the database to a prescribed level of accuracy. The second approach conducts all simulations using the same computational mesh without adaptation. We quantitatively assess the error landscape and computational costs in both databases. This investigation highlights sensitivities of the database under a variety of conditions. The presence of transonic shocks or the stiffness in the governing equations near the incompressible limit are shown to dramatically increase discretization error requiring additional mesh resolution to control. Results show that such pathologies lead to error levels that vary by over factor of 40 when using a fixed mesh throughout the database. Alternatively, controlling this sensitivity through mesh adaptation leads to mesh sizes which span two orders of magnitude. We propose strategies to minimize simulation cost in sensitive regions and discuss the role of error-estimation in database quality.

Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

2010-01-01

305

Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.

Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.

2012-01-01

306

Reynolds number and thus body size may potentially limit aerodynamic force production in flying insects due to relative changes of viscous forces on the beating wings. By comparing four different species of fruit flies similar in shape but with different body mass, we have investigated how small insects cope with changes in fluid mechanical constraints on power requirements for flight and the efficiency with which chemical energy is turned into aerodynamic flight forces. The animals were flown in a flight arena in which stroke kinematics, aerodynamic force production, and carbon dioxide release were measured within the entire working range of the flight motor. The data suggest that during hovering performance mean lift coefficient for flight is higher in smaller animals than in their larger relatives. This result runs counter to predictions based on conventional aerodynamic theory and suggests subtle differences in stroke kinematics between the animals. Estimates in profile power requirements based on high drag coefficient suggest that among all tested species of fruit flies elastic energy storage might not be required to minimize energetic expenditures during flight. Moreover, muscle efficiency significantly increases with increasing body size whereas aerodynamic efficiency tends to decrease with increasing size or Reynolds number. As a consequence of these two opposite trends, total flight efficiency tends to increase only slightly within the 6-fold range of body sizes. Surprisingly, total flight efficiency in fruit flies is broadly independent of different profile power estimates and typically yields mean values between 2-4%. PMID:16351878

Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

2002-01-01

307

A systematic listing is made of several dozen possible combinations of plants which a spacecraft can encounter in flights to the asteroids, passing near Venus up to four times and near the other planets up to twice. Taking the orbits of the planets as circular at first, and allowing only for the inclination of the asteroids' orbit, they analyze the individual impulses (for departure from Earth orbit, intermediate impulses, for reducing the velocity of approach to the asteroid, and for the velocity of launch toward earth) and their sum, and the total duration of flight to the asteroid for the best courses, as function of the semimajor axis and inclination of the asteroid's orbit. Courses with twofold perturbational or aerodynamic maneuvers near Mars are more advantageous for reaching asteroids closer to the Earth and to the ecliptic plane. Several courses are advantageous for reaching both closer and more distant asteroids, including an Earth-Mars (four-impulse bielliptic maneuver)-asteroid course, and courses with perturbational maneuvers: Earth-Venus-Earth-asteroid, Earth-Mars-Earth-Earth-asteroid, and Earth-Venus-Earth-Mars-asteroid courses, if the orbital inclinations of the targets are small. When the inclinations are more than 10/sup 0/, Earth-impulse at aphelion-Earth (about two years later)-Jupiter-asteroid, Earth-Mars-Earth (about two years later)-Jupiter-asteroid, and Earth-Venus-Earth-Mars-Jupiter-asteroid courses are more advantageous. The approximate calculations are compared with calculations for elliptical noncoplanar orbits in the period of 1970-2000 as applied to Earth-Mars-asteroids Nos. 4, 8, and 20 courses with perturbational or aerodynamic maneuvers, and the correctness of the approximate calculation is shown. Methods of calculating the energy consumed in the perturbational maneuver, choosing the frequently visited asteroids, and calculating the aerodynamic maneuver are described.

Livanov, L.B.

1987-01-01

308

Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.

Reddy, C. Subba

1993-01-01

309

Techniques for estimating Space Station aerodynamic characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity and temperature distributions of molecules reflected from a surface of arbitrary momentum and energy accommodation. A system of equations, based on momentum and energy balances for the surface, incident, and reflected molecules, was solved by a numerical optimization technique. The minimization of a 'cost' function, developed from the set of equations, resulted in the determination of the defining properties of the flow reflected from the arbitrary surface. The properties used to define both the incident and reflected flows were: average temperature of the molecules in the flow, angle of the flow with respect to a vector normal to the surface, and the molecular speed ratio. The properties of the reflected flow were used to calculate the contribution of multiply reflected molecules to the force and moments on a test body in the flow. The test configuration consisted of two flat plates joined along one edge at a right angle to each other. When force and moment coefficients of this 90 deg concave wedge were compared to results that did not include multiple reflections, it was found that multiple reflections could nearly double lift and drag coefficients, with nearly a 50 percent increase in pitching moment for cases with specular or nearly specular accommodation. The cases of diffuse or nearly diffuse accommodation often had minor reductions in axial and normal forces when multiple reflections were included. There were several cases of intermediate accommodation where the addition of multiple reflection effects more than tripled the lift coefficient over the convex technique.

Thomas, Richard E.

1993-01-01

310

Near Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage Approach For Off-Shore Wind Energy using an Open Air Energy Storage Approach For Off-Shore Wind Energy using an Open Accumulator Contact: Prof. Perry: Â· Constant pressure Â· Liquid port -> high power/low energy path Â· Air port

Li, Perry Y.

311

An object-oriented approach to energy-economic modeling

In this paper, the authors discuss the experiences in creating an object-oriented economic model of the U.S. energy and agriculture markets. After a discussion of some central concepts, they provide an overview of the model, focusing on the methodology of designing an object-oriented class hierarchy specification based on standard microeconomic production functions. The evolution of the model from the class definition stage to programming it in C++, a standard object-oriented programming language, will be detailed. The authors then discuss the main differences between writing the object-oriented program versus a procedure-oriented program of the same model. Finally, they conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the object-oriented approach based on the experience in building energy-economic models with procedure-oriented approaches and languages.

Wise, M.A.; Fox, J.A.; Sands, R.D.

1993-12-01

312

Take-off aerodynamics in ski jumping.

The effect of aerodynamic forces on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping take-off was examined in a wind tunnel. Vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the wind tunnel floor. The jumpers performed take-offs in non-wind conditions and in various wind conditions (21-33 m s(-1)). EMGs of the important take-off muscles were recorded from one jumper. The dramatic decrease in take-off time found in all jumpers can be considered as the result of the influence of aerodynamic lift. The loss in impulse due to the shorter force production time with the same take-off force is compensated with the increase in lift force, resulting in a higher vertical velocity (V(v)) than is expected from the conventional calculation of V(v) from the force impulse. The wind conditions emphasized the explosiveness of the ski jumping take-off. The aerodynamic lift and drag forces which characterize the aerodynamic quality of the initial take-off position (static in-run position) varied widely even between the examined elite ski jumpers. According to the computer simulation these differences can decisively affect jumping distance. The proper utilization of the prevailing aerodynamic forces before and during take-off is a very important prerequisite for achieving a good flight position. PMID:11266669

Virmavirta, M; Kivekäs, J; Komi, P V

2001-04-01

313

NONLINEAR AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BRIDGES UNDER TURBULENT WINDS: THE NEW FRONTIER IN BRIDGE

with the conventional linear approach is made through response analysis of a long-span suspension bridge. KEYWORDSNONLINEAR AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BRIDGES UNDER TURBULENT WINDS: THE NEW FRONTIER IN BRIDGE. In this study, a time domain analysis framework for predicting the flutter and buffeting responses of bridges

Kareem, Ahsan

314

An efficient approach for ab initio energy calculation of biopolymers

We present a new method for efficient total-energy calculation of biopolymers using the density-matrix (DM) scheme based on the molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (MFCC) approach. In this MFCC-DM method, a biopolymer such as a protein is partitioned into properly capped fragments whose density matrices are calculated by conventional ab initio methods which are then assembled to construct the full

Xihua Chen; Yingkai Zhang; John Z. H. Zhang

2005-01-01

315

AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 7th, Seattle, WA, July 31-Aug. 2, 1989, Technical Papers

The present conference discusses the comparative aerodynamic behavior of half-span and full-span delta wings, TRANAIR applications to engine/airframe integration, a zonal approach to V/STOL vehicle aerodynamics, an aerodynamic analysis of segmented aircraft configurations in high-speed flight, unstructured grid generation and FEM flow solvers, surface grid generation for flowfields using B-spline surfaces, the use of chimera in supersonic viscous calculations for the F-15, and hypersonic vehicle forebody design studies. Also discussed are the aerothermodynamics of projectiles at hypersonic speeds, flow visualization of wing-rock motion in delta wings, vortex interaction over delta wings at high alpha, the analysis and design of dual-rotation propellers, unsteady pressure loads from plunging airfoils, the effects of riblets on the wake of an airfoil, inverse airfoil design with Navier-Stokes methods, flight testing for a 155-mm base-burn projectile, experimental results on rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interactions, the high-alpha aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and elliptic wings, and the effects of free vortices on lifting surfaces.

Not Available

1989-01-01

316

Helicopter rotor blade aerodynamic optimization by mathematical programming

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formal mathematical programing was applied to the aerodynamic rotor blade design process. The approach is to couple hover and forward flight analysis programs with the general-purpose optimization program CONMIN to determine the blade taper ratio, percent taper, twist distribution, and solidity which minimize the horsepower required at hover while meeting constraints on forward flight performance. Designs obtained using this approach for the blade of a representative Army helicopter compare well with those obtained using a conventional approach involving personnel-intensive parametric studies. Results from the present method can be obtained in 2 days as compared to 5 weeks required by the conventional procedure. Also the systematic manipulation of the design variables by the optimization procedure minimizes the need for the researcher to have a vast body of past experience and data in determining the influence of a design change on the performance.

Walsh, J. L.; Bingham, G. J.; Riley, M. F.

1984-01-01

317

Computation of External Aerodynamics for a Canard Rotor/Wing Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic loads on a Canard Rotor/Wing vehicle are investigated using inviscid numerical simulations in order to understand the flight characteristics of the vehicle during conversion from rotor craft to fixed-wing flight. A series of numerical simulations at seven azimuthal rotor indices are presented covering a quarter turn of the rotor With symmetry arguments, these simulations produce 25 data points for a complete rotation. A Cartesian mesh approach is used to compute the flow field about a configuration with faired-over engine inlet and exhaust that matches the wind tunnel geometry. These simulations were performed using meshes with approximately nine Million Cartesian cells. To better understand the aerodynamic effects of the rotor hub on the configuration, the same set of simulations were repeated for a hub-less geometry. Overall loads for both configurations are similar but are due to somewhat different aerodynamic mechanisms.

Pandya, S. A.; Aftosmis, M. J.

2001-01-01

318

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of selected measurement techniques used in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of aerospace vehicles operating at supersonic speeds. A broad definition of a measurement technique is adopted in this paper and is any qualitative or quantitative experimental approach that provides information leading to the improved understanding of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics. On surface and off-surface measurement techniques used to obtain discrete (point) and global (field) measurements and planar and global flow visualizations are described, and examples of all methods are included. The discussion is limited to recent experiences in the UPWT and is. therefore, not an exhaustive review of existing experimental techniques. The diversity and high quality of the measurement techniques and the resultant data illustrate the capabilities of a around-based experimental facility and the key role that it plays in the advancement of our understanding, prediction, and control of supersonic aerodynamics.

Erickson, Gary E.

2000-01-01

319

Aerodynamics of sounding rockets at supersonic speeds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents a practical and low cost method of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles such as sounding rockets, high speed bombs, projectiles and guided missiles in supersonic flight. The vehicle configuration consists of a slender axisymmetric body with a conical or ogive noise, cylinders, shoulders and boattails, if any, and have sets of two, three or four fins. Geometry of the fin cross section can be single wedge, double wedge, modified single wedge or modified double wedge. First the aerodynamics of the fins and the body are analyzed separately; then fin body and fore and aft fin interferences are accounted for when they are combined to form the total vehicle. Results and formulas documented in this work are the basis of the supersonic portion of the Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program operating at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Vira, N. R.

320

Physics of badminton shuttlecocks. Part 1 : aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally shuttlecocks dynamics. In this part we show that shuttlecock trajectory is highly different from classical parabola. When one takes into account the aerodynamic drag, the flight of the shuttlecock quickly curves downwards and almost reaches a vertical asymptote. We solve the equation of motion with gravity and drag at high Reynolds number and find an analytical expression of the reach. At high velocity, this reach does not depend on velocity anymore. Even if you develop your muscles you will not manage to launch the shuttlecock very far because of the ``aerodynamic wall.'' As a consequence you can predict the length of the field. We then discuss the extend of the aerodynamic wall to other projectiles like sports balls and its importance.

Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

2011-11-01

321

Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

1972-01-01

322

Aerodynamic properties of spherical balloon wind sensors.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first-order theory of the fluctuating lift and drag coefficients associated with the aerodynamically induced motions of rising and falling spherical wind sensors is developed. The equations of motion of a sensor are perturbed about an equilibrium state in which the buoyancy force balances the mean vertical drag force. It is shown that, to within first order in perturbation quantities, the aerodynamic lift force is confined to the horizontal, and the fluctuating drag force associated with fluctuations in the drag coefficient acts along the vertical. The perturbation equations are transformed with Fourier-Stieltjes integrals. The resulting equations lead to relationships between the power spectra of the aerodynamically induced velocity components and the spectra of the fluctuating lift and drag coefficients.

Fichtl, G. H.; Demandel, R. E.; Krivo, S. J.

1972-01-01

323

High-lift aerodynamics: Prospects and plans

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of high-lift aerodynamics is reviewed as one of the key technologies to the development of future subsonic transport aircraft. Airport congestion, community noise, economic competitiveness, and safety - the drivers that make high-lift an important technology - are discussed. Attention is given to the potentially synergistic integration of high-lift aerodynamics with two other advanced technologies: ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engines and hybrid laminar flow control. A brief review of the ongoing high-lift research program at Ames Research Center is presented. Suggestions for future research directions are made with particular emphasis on the development and validation of computational codes and design methods. It is concluded that the technology of high-lift aerodynamics analysis and design should move boldly into the realm of high Reynolds number, three-dimensional flows.

Olson, Lawrence E.

1992-01-01

324

Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.

Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary

2002-01-01

325

Aerodynamic collection efficiency of fog water collectors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fog water collectors (FWC) can provide water to arid zones with persistent advection and orographic fog. A key feature of any FWC is the mesh used to capture fog droplets. Two relevant mesh characteristics are its shade coefficient and the characteristics of the fibers used to weave or knit the mesh. This paper develops a simple superposition model to analyze the effect of these factors on the Aerodynamic Collection Efficiency (ACE) of FWCs. Due to the simplicity of the model it cannot be directly applied to actual FWC meshes, and serve only for guidance on the order of magnitude of the optimum shade coefficient and the corresponding ACE. The model shows that there is a maximum ACE of the order of 20-24.5% for shade coefficients between 0.5 and 0.6, for the particular mesh simulated. Aerodynamic collection efficiency can be increased by making the FWC concave and improving the aerodynamics of the mesh fibers.

Rivera, Juan de Dios

2011-11-01

326

History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.

Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.

1987-01-01

327

Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor. PMID:22617112

de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

2012-06-01

328

Fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is described for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance and dynamic analyses with a general purpose optimizer. The procedure minimizes a linear combination of power required (in hover, forward flight, and maneuver) and vibratory hub shear. The design variables include pretwist, taper initiation, taper ratio, root chord, blade stiffnesses, tuning masses, and tuning mass locations. Aerodynamic constraints consist of limits on power required in hover, forward flight and maneuvers; airfoil section stall; drag divergence Mach number; minimum tip chord; and trim. Dynamic constraints are on frequencies, minimum autorotational inertia, and maximum blade weight. The procedure is demonstrated for two cases. In the first case, the objective function involves power required (in hover, forward flight and maneuver) and dynamics. The second case involves only hover power and dynamics. The designs from the integrated procedure are compared with designs from a sequential optimization approach in which the blade is first optimized for performance and then for dynamics. In both cases, the integrated approach is superior.

Walsh, Joanne L.; Lamarsh, William J., II; Adelman, Howard M.

1992-01-01

329

AERODYNAMIC NOISE CONTROL BY OPTIMAL SHAPE A DISSERTATION

AERODYNAMIC NOISE CONTROL BY OPTIMAL SHAPE DESIGN A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT of the aerodynamic noise propagated to the far field. The optimization method is a tailored version of the surrogate

Marsden, Alison L.

330

Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics Vladimir V. Riabov

Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics Vladimir V. Riabov Department of Mathematics Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near. Keywords: DSMC method, aerodynamic coefficients, hypersonic flows, similarity parameters, torus, spinning

Riabov, Vladimir V.

331

Visualization of aerodynamic flow fields using photorefractive crystals

Visualization of aerodynamic flow fields using photorefractive crystals A. Hafiz, R. Magnusson, J holographyinphotorefractive crystals isapplied for visualization of aerodynamic flow fields. The interferograms obtained presented are obtained using ahigh-powercwargon laserand iron dopedlithium niobate crystals

Texas at Arlington, University of

332

Aerodynamic Heating Measurements on Hypersonic Flight Exoerunebt (HYFLEX) Vehicle.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerodynamic heating on the Hypersonic Flight Experiment vehicle was measured using newly developed sensors, calibrated by lamp heating tests. These sensors were shown to be of sue for flight measurement purposes. The results of the aerodynamic heating mea...

K. Fujii, S. Watanabe, M. Shirouzu, Y. Inoue, T. Kurotaki, T. Koyama, S. Tsuda, N. Hirabayashi

2000-01-01

333

A Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations

The ability of widely used sampling methods, such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo, to explore complex free energy landscapes is severely hampered by the presence of kinetic bottlenecks. A large number of solutions have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Many are based on the introduction of a bias potential which is a function of a small number of collective variable. However constructing such a bias is not simple. Here we introduce a functional of the bias potential and an associated variational principle. The bias that minimizes the functional relates in a simple way to the free energy surface. This variational principle can be turned into a practical, efficient and flexible sampling method. A number of numerical examples are presented which include the determination of a three dimensional free energy surface. We argue that, beside being numerically advantageous, our variational approach provides a convenient standpoint for looking with novel eyes at the sampling problem.

Valsson, Omar

2014-01-01

334

Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of widely used sampling methods, such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations, to explore complex free energy landscapes is severely hampered by the presence of kinetic bottlenecks. A large number of solutions have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Many are based on the introduction of a bias potential which is a function of a small number of collective variables. However constructing such a bias is not simple. Here we introduce a functional of the bias potential and an associated variational principle. The bias that minimizes the functional relates in a simple way to the free energy surface. This variational principle can be turned into a practical, efficient, and flexible sampling method. A number of numerical examples are presented which include the determination of a three-dimensional free energy surface. We argue that, beside being numerically advantageous, our variational approach provides a convenient and novel standpoint for looking at the sampling problem.

Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

2014-08-01

335

Variational approach to enhanced sampling and free energy calculations.

The ability of widely used sampling methods, such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations, to explore complex free energy landscapes is severely hampered by the presence of kinetic bottlenecks. A large number of solutions have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Many are based on the introduction of a bias potential which is a function of a small number of collective variables. However constructing such a bias is not simple. Here we introduce a functional of the bias potential and an associated variational principle. The bias that minimizes the functional relates in a simple way to the free energy surface. This variational principle can be turned into a practical, efficient, and flexible sampling method. A number of numerical examples are presented which include the determination of a three-dimensional free energy surface. We argue that, beside being numerically advantageous, our variational approach provides a convenient and novel standpoint for looking at the sampling problem. PMID:25215968

Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

2014-08-29

336

A Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations

The ability of widely used sampling methods, such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo, to explore complex free energy landscapes is severely hampered by the presence of kinetic bottlenecks. A large number of solutions have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Many are based on the introduction of a bias potential which is a function of a small number of collective variable. However constructing such a bias is not simple. Here we introduce a functional of the bias potential and an associated variational principle. The bias that minimizes the functional relates in a simple way to the free energy surface. This variational principle can be turned into a practical, efficient and flexible sampling method. A number of numerical examples are presented which include the determination of a three dimensional free energy surface. We argue that, beside being numerically advantageous, our variational approach provides a convenient standpoint for looking with novel eyes at the sampling problem.

Omar Valsson; Michele Parrinello

2014-07-02

337

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface albedo and aerodynamic roughness length, which partition surface net radiation into energy fluxes, are critical land surface properties for biosphere-atmosphere interactions and climate variability. Previous climate model studies on the impacts of land cover changes such as deforestation have indicated that these properties are key functional land factors in affecting boundary conditions in global climate simulations. However, these parameters are in general not easy to measure; also their explicit functional relations with other commonly measured land surface properties were seldom reported in literature. Thus their specification in climate models is traditionally based on prescribed look-up tables according to a rough classification of dominant vegetation types. This approach may not be sufficiently precise for climate modeling application considering large spatial heterogeneity involved at the global scale, and dynamic vegetation transition in the interannual to decadal timescales. In this study, we explore theoretical and empirical relationship between aerodynamic roughness length and albedo by means of canopy structural parameters (i.e. frontal area index, rugosity, leaf area index and canopy height), using the empirical data from 49 measurement sites worldwide covering various vegetated surfaces. Base on these data, an inverse nonlinear relationship between roughness length and albedo is found. It is shown that this observed relationship can be empirically related to vegetation structure parameters such as leaf area index and canopy height, which are relatively easier to be measured. The obtained relationship has the implication for enhancing the satellite-based estimate of land surface parameters (especially roughness length) and for improving land surface parameterization in climate models.

Cho, J.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Miyazaki, S.; Oki, T.; Kanae, S.; Kim, W.

2009-04-01

338

Direct use of linear time-domain aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis: Aerodynamic model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented here is the first part of a continuing effort to expand existing capabilities in aeroelasticity by developing the methodology which is necessary to utilize unsteady time-domain aerodynamics directly in aeroservoelastic design and analysis. The ultimate objective is to define a fully integrated state-space model of an aeroelastic vehicle's aerodynamics, structure and controls which may be used to efficiently determine the vehicle's aeroservoelastic stability. Here, the current status of developing a state-space model for linear or near-linear time-domain indicial aerodynamic forces is presented.

Woods, J. A.; Gilbert, Michael G.

1990-01-01

339

Method of reducing drag in aerodynamic systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present method, boundary layer thickening is combined with laminar flow control to reduce drag. An aerodynamic body is accelerated enabling a ram turbine on the body to receive air at velocity V sub 0. The discharge air is directed over an aft portion of the aerodynamic body producing boundary layer thickening. The ram turbine also drives a compressor by applying torque to a shaft connected between the ram turbine and the compressor. The compressor sucks in lower boundary layer air through inlets in the shell of the aircraft producing laminar flow control and reducing drag. The discharge from the compressor is expanded in a nozzle to produce thrust.

Hrach, Frank J. (inventor)

1993-01-01

340

Influence of aerodynamic forces in ice shedding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stresses in accreted ice on a typical airfoil impact ice caused by aerodynamic forces have been studied using finite element analyses. The objective of this study is to determine the significance of these stresses relative to values needed to cause ice shedding. In the case studied, stresses are not significant (less than 10 percent) when compared to the fracture value for airspeeds below a Mach number of 0.45. Above this velocity, the influence of aerodynamic forces on impact ice stresses should be considered in analyses of ice shedding.

Scavuzzo, R. J.; Chu, M. L.; Ananthaswamy, V.

1991-01-01

341

Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.

1975-01-01

342

Aerodynamic: Applications of Force and Flow

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Although there is a great deal of historical information about aerodynamics that could be discussed here, we purposely narrowed the stream of resources to those that encourage students to experiment with technological design and function. Given these learning experiences, student should be prepared to articulate preferences in vehicle design and understand how the principles of aerodynamics influence vehicle performance.

Briggs, Quentin

2005-03-01

343

Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.

Mavriplis, D. J.

1992-01-01

344

OUTLINE FOR Chapter 3 AERODYNAMICS (W2-1-1)

2013/4/22 1 OUTLINE FOR Chapter 3 AERODYNAMICS (W2-1-1) BERNOULLI'S EQUATION & integration AERODYNAMICS (W2-1-2) BERNOULLI'S EQUATION #12;2013/4/22 2 BERNOULLI'S EQUATION FOR AN IRROTATION FLOW AERODYNAMICS (W2-1-2.1) VENTURI TUBE AERODYNAMICS (W2-1-3) #12;2013/4/22 3 PITOT-STATIC TUBE for subsonic

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

345

Advanced High-Temperature Flexible TPS for Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Typical entry vehicle aeroshells are limited in size by the launch vehicle shroud. Inflatable aerodynamic decelerators allow larger aeroshell diameters for entry vehicles because they are not constrained to the launch vehicle shroud diameter. During launch, the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) is packed in a stowed configuration. Prior to atmospheric entry, the HIAD is deployed to produce a drag device many times larger than the launch shroud diameter. The large surface area of the inflatable aeroshell provides deceleration of high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. Even for these low ballistic coefficients there is still appreciable heating, requiring the HIAD to employ a thermal protection system (TPS). This TPS must be capable of surviving the heat pulse, and the rigors of fabrication handling, high density packing, deployment, and aerodynamic loading. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of flexible TPS tests and results, conducted over the last three years. This paper also includes an overview of each test facility, the general approach for testing flexible TPS, the thermal analysis methodology and results, and a comparison with 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel, Laser-Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory, and Panel Test Facility test data. Results are presented for a baseline TPS layup that can withstand a 20 W/cm2 heat flux, silicon carbide (SiC) based TPS layup, and polyimide insulator TPS layup. Recent work has focused on developing material layups expected to survive heat flux loads up to 50 W/cm2 (which is adequate for many potential applications), future work will consider concepts capable of withstanding more than 100 W/cm2 incident radiant heat flux. This paper provides an overview of the experimental setup, material layup configurations, facility conditions, and planned future flexible TPS activities.

DelCorso, Joseph A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

2011-01-01

346

Enhanced ground-based vibration testing for aerodynamic environments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical methods of replicating aerodynamic environments in the laboratory are generally poor. A structure which flies "freely" in its normal operating environment, excited over its entire external surface by aerodynamic forces and in all directions simultaneously, is then subjected to a vibration test in the laboratory whilst rigidly attached to a high impedance shaker and excited by forces applied through a few attachment points and in one direction only. The two environments could hardly be more different. The majority of vibration testing is carried out at commercial establishments and it is understandable that little has been published which demonstrates the limitations with the status quo. The primary objective of this research is to do just that with a view to identifying significant improvements in vibration testing in light of modern technology. In this paper, case studies are presented which highlight some of the limitations with typical vibration tests showing that they can lead to significant overtests, sometimes by many orders of magnitude, with the level of overtest varying considerably across a wide range of frequencies. This research shows that substantial benefits can be gained by "freely" suspending the structure in the laboratory and exciting it with a relatively small number of electrodynamic shakers using Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) control technology. The shaker configuration can be designed to excite the modes within the bandwidth utilising the inherent amplification of the resonances to achieve the desired response levels. This free-free MIMO vibration test approach is shown to result in substantial benefits that include extremely good replication of the aerodynamic environment and significant savings in time as all axes are excited simultaneously instead of the sequential X, Y and Z testing required with traditional vibration tests. In addition, substantial cost savings can be achieved by replacing some expensive large shaker systems with a few relatively small shaker systems.

Daborn, P. M.; Ind, P. R.; Ewins, D. J.

2014-12-01

347

When studying air quality it is often necessary to measure the aerodynamic size distribution of particles. True aerodynamic diameter must be measured using a gravitational settling method, which is impractical. Other methods exist that use other...

McClure, Joshua Wayne

2012-06-07

348

International collaborative research in wind turbine rotor aerodynamics

Five organizations from four countries are collaborating to conduct detailed wind turbine aerodynamic test programs. Fullscale atmospheric testing will be conducted on turbines configured to measure aerodynamic forces on rotating airfoils. The purpose of these test programs is to come to a better understanding of the steady and unsteady aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine rotors, and provide information needed to

D. A. Simms; C. P. Butterfield

1993-01-01

349

Index for aerodynamic data from the Bumblebee program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bumblebee program, was designed to provide a supersonic guided missile. The aerodynamics program included a fundamental research effort in supersonic aerodynamics as well as a design task in developing both test vehicles and prototypes of tactical missiles. An index of aerodynamic missile data developed in this program is presented.

Cronvich, L. L.; Barnes, G. A.

1978-01-01

350

APPLIED AERODYNAMICS Instructor: Prof. T.S. Leu ()

1 APPLIED AERODYNAMICS Instructor: Prof. T.S. Leu () Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Course goals : (1) (2) (3) (4)(4) (5) #12;2 Textbook Anderson, J D Jr., "Fundamentals of Aerodynamics" 5: Fundamental Principle Introduction to Aerodynamics Fundamental Principle and Equations of Fluid Mechanmics

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

351

A Genetic Algorithm for Multiobjective Design Optimization in Aerodynamics and

A Genetic Algorithm for Multiobjective Design Optimization in Aerodynamics and Electromagnetics R. The objective functions in the optimization problem measure the aerodynamic feasibilÂ ity based on the drag been optimized with respect to only one discipline such as aerodynamics or electromagnetics. Although

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

352

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 90 (2002) 639642

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 90 (2002) 639Â642 Discussion Discussion; accepted 27 December 2001 Abstract The authors (J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodynam. 89 (2001) 341) presented a time domain framework for predicting the buffeting response of slender structures utilizing aerodynamic

Chen, Xinzhong

353

AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION BASED ON THE EULER AND NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS USING

AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION BASED ON THE EULER AND NAVIERÂSTOKES EQUATIONS USING UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS Graduate Committee #12; Aerodynamic Optimization Based on the Euler and NavierÂStokes Equations Using Abstract The overall problem area addressed is that of efficient aerodynamic shape design through the use

Peraire, Jaime

354

System Identification of Post Stall Aerodynamics for UAV Perching

System Identification of Post Stall Aerodynamics for UAV Perching Warren Hoburg and Russ Tedrake. The relevant transient aerodynamics at high angle of attack are not addressed today by control-accessible aerodynamic models. In this work, we present a set of physically-inspired basis functions which have enabled

Tedrake, Russ

355

Aerodynamics simulation of operating rooms N. El Gharbi*

Aerodynamics simulation of operating rooms N. El Gharbi* A. Benzaoui*R. Bennacer** * Faculty. Keywords: Operating room, aerodynamics simulation, turbulent model, comfort, Airflow, Indoor air quality distribution scheme. To ensure these optimal conditions, a study of the aerodynamics flow in a conditioned

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

356

Fifty Years of Aerodynamics: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

Fifty Years of Aerodynamics: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities T.E. Nelson * D.W. Zingg, Canada. E-mail: tnelson@dehavilland.ca ** Senior Canada Research Chair in Computational Aerodynamics-mail: dwz@oddjob.utias.utoronto.ca Received 22 January 2004. PART I: AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMENT, AERODYNAMIC

Zingg, David W.

357

Aerodynamic and Acoustic Optimization for Fan Flow Deflection

Aerodynamic and Acoustic Optimization for Fan Flow Deflection Andrew D. Johnson1 , Juntao Xiong2 reduction of noise perceived by the community while minimizing aerodynamic losses. An adjoint method employs aerodynamic deflectors to direct the fan flow of a separate-flow nozzle downward with respect

Papamoschou, Dimitri

358

COPYRIGHT 2003 by ASME AERODYNAMICS OF TIP LEAKAGE FLOWS

COPYRIGHT 2003 by ASME 1 AERODYNAMICS OF TIP LEAKAGE FLOWS NEAR PARTIAL SQUEALER RIMS IN AN AXIAL of aerodynamic characteristics of full and partial-length squealer rims in a turbine stage. Full and partial of these "partial squealer tips" and their chordwise position are varied to find an optimal aerodynamic tip

Camci, Cengiz

359

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 91 (2003) 15111528

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 91 (2003) 1511Â1528 New frontiers in aerodynamic tailoring of long span bridges: an advanced analysis framework Xinzhong Chen*, Ahsan Kareem Nat analysis have been made utilizing realistic aerodynamic force modeling for bridges with bluff sections

Chen, Xinzhong

360

Body Force Model for the Aerodynamics of Inclined Perforated Surfaces

Body Force Model for the Aerodynamics of Inclined Perforated Surfaces Juntao Xiong, Andrew Johnson.2514/1.J051699 This is a joint experimental and computational research effort on the aerodynamics aspects of the aerodynamics of wedge FFDs. The following sections present the experimental

Papamoschou, Dimitri

361

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 89 (2001) 13351350

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 89 (2001) 1335Â1350 Nonlinear response. The nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic forces are modeled based on static force coefficients, flutter derivatives incorporates frequency dependent parameters of unsteady aerodynamic forces by utilizing a rational function

Chen, Xinzhong

362

Robust Multi-Objective Optimization in Aerodynamics using MGDA

Robust Multi-Objective Optimization in Aerodynamics using MGDA Daigo Maruyama NÂ° 8428-00919215,version1-16Dec2013 #12;Robust Multi-Objective Optimization in Aerodynamics using MGDA Daigo: This study deals with robust design optimization strategies in aerodynamics

Boyer, Edmond

363

Aerodynamic Admittance Function of Tall Buildings Ahsan Kareemb

Aerodynamic Admittance Function of Tall Buildings Yin Zhoua Ahsan Kareemb a Malouf Engineering Int, Notre Dame, USA ABSTRACT: The aerodynamic admittance function (AAF) has been widely invoked to relate in the high frequency range were noted. KEYWORDS: Aerodynamic admittance function; Wind effects; Tall

Kareem, Ahsan

364

NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE AERODYNAMICS OF

NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE AERODYNAMICS OF DRAGONFLY FLIGHT. A Dissertation is in the public domain. #12;NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE AERODYNAMICS OF DRAGONFLY FLIGHT direction very rapidly. Exactly how they use their wings to generate aerodynamic forces remains unknown

Wang, Z. Jane

365

Aerodynamic Optimization Under a Range of Operating Conditions

Aerodynamic Optimization Under a Range of Operating Conditions David W. Zingg and Samy Elias University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6, Canada DOI: 10.2514/1.23658 In aerodynamic design, good developed that can ef ciently perform aerodynamic shape optimization [1Â6]. The designer speci es

Zingg, David W.

366

Ris-R-1543(EN) Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on

RisÃ¸-R-1543(EN) Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades using CFD Jeppe of the aerodynamics around a wind turbine blade with a winglet using Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD. Five winglets Johansen and Niels N. SÃ¸rensen Title: Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades using

367

14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371...Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount...designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the...

2010-01-01

368

14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371...Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount...designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the...

2011-01-01

369

14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371...Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount...designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the...

2012-01-01

370

14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371...Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount...designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the...

2013-01-01

371

Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists

The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists.

Juan García-López; José Antonio Rodríguez-Marroyo; Carl-Etienne Juneau; José Peleteiro; Alfredo Córdova Martínez; José Gerardo Villa

2008-01-01

372

Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke. PMID:14555745

Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

2003-11-01

373

Projection Operator Approach to the Self-Energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feshbach's projection operator formalism is extended to the description of the self-energy. This necessitates the introduction of "extended'' projection operators. They act within an "extended'' Hilbert space in which the number of nucleons is not fixed. The compact formula derived for the self-energy is formally similar to Feshbach's original expression of the "generalized'' optical-model potential. The theory is formulated in the nuclear case, but it also applies to atomic systems. It covers both the "retarded'' and the "time-ordered'' Green's ?functions, and the "proper'' and "improper'' self-energies. It is first worked out in a stationary formalism, in order to better exhibit its analogy with Feshbach's original theory of the generalized optical-model potential. The main results are then also derived in a time- dependent framework; since the number of nucleons is not fixed, the definition of the Møller operators requires due caution. It is shown that, in finite systems, Dyson's equation does not uniquely determine the self-energy, in contrast to common assumption. However, the difference between the various possibilities has little practical consequence. We exhibit the relationship between the present approach and a recent "configuration interaction formulation of the Dyson equation.'' Contact is also established with the "linked-cluster'' perturbation expansion of the self-energy in powers of the strength of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.

Capuzzi, F.; Mahaux, C.

1996-01-01

374

Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

2011-10-01

375

Aerodynamic Performance of Fan-Flow Deflectors for Jet-Noise Reduction

Aerodynamic Performance of Fan-Flow Deflectors for Jet-Noise Reduction Juntao Xiong, Feng Liu used for reducing jet noise from a supersonic turbofan exhaust with bypass ratio of 2.7. The numerical for jet noise k = turbulent kinetic energy L = lift force M = Mach number p = static pressure q = dynamic

Papamoschou, Dimitri

376

A back-reaction approach to dark energy

This thesis is mainly about how to set up and carry out in a physically meaningful way the idea of back-reaction, according to which dark energy could be an effective source. There are, broadly speaking, two distinct approaches. One is focused on how cosmological observables are affected by inhomogeneities, while the other is focused on a theoretical description of the inhomogeneous universe by means of a mean-field description. Both approaches, however, share the idea of smoothing out inhomogeneities. We developed this duality in the interpretation of the back-reaction by means of toy models based on the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. In particular we focused on voids expanding faster than the background solution.

Valerio Marra

2008-03-21

377

On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been provEn effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. Several approaches that have proven effective for other evolutionary algorithms are modified and implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for standard test optimization problems and for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

Madavan, Nateri K.

2004-01-01

378

Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization procedures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure which is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit (ADI) methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions which are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process was achieved by implementing both of the design improvements.

Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

1992-01-01

379

Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding Pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the Pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide Pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

Holst, Terry L.

2005-01-01

380

Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective optimization problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

Holst, Terry L.

2004-01-01

381

Finding the Force -- Consistent Particle Seeding for Satellite Aerodynamics

When calculating satellite trajectories in low-earth orbit, engineers need to adequately estimate aerodynamic forces. But to this day, obtaining the drag acting on the complicated shapes of modern spacecraft suffers from many sources of error. While part of the problem is the uncertain density in the upper atmosphere, this works focuses on improving the modeling of interacting rarified gases and satellite surfaces. The only numerical approach that currently captures effects in this flow regime---like self-shadowing and multiple molecular reflections---is known as test-particle Monte Carlo. This method executes a ray-tracing algorithm to follow particles that pass through a control volume containing the spacecraft and accumulates the momentum transfer to the body surfaces. Statistical fluctuations inherent in the approach demand particle numbers in the order of millions, often making this scheme too costly to be practical. This work presents a parallel test-particle Monte Carlo method that takes advantage of b...

Parham, J Brent

2013-01-01

382

Team Software Development for Aerothermodynamic and Aerodynamic Analysis and Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collaborative approach to software development is described. The approach employs the agile development techniques: project retrospectives, Scrum status meetings, and elements of Extreme Programming to efficiently develop a cohesive and extensible software suite. The software product under development is a fluid dynamics simulator for performing aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis and design. The functionality of the software product is achieved both through the merging, with substantial rewrite, of separate legacy codes and the authorship of new routines. Examples of rapid implementation of new functionality demonstrate the benefits obtained with this agile software development process. The appendix contains a discussion of coding issues encountered while porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95, software design principles, and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

Alexandrov, N.; Atkins, H. L.; Bibb, K. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Carpenter, M. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Hammond, D. P.; Jones, W. T.; Kleb, W. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.

2003-01-01

383

AERODYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS WITH AEROSOL CENTRIFUGES

The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. he sites of deposition in the human respiratory system are primarily related to the mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhaled particle siz...

384

Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles

A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dykhuizen, Ronald C. (Albuquerque, NM); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

385

Aerodynamic Properties of Spherical Balloon Wind Sensors

A first-order theory of the fluctuating lift and drag coefficients associated with the aerodynamically induced motions of rising and falling spherical wind sensors is developed. The equations of motion of a sensor are perturbed about an equilibrium state in which the buoyancy force balances the mean vertical drag force. It is shown that, to within first order in perturbation quantities,

George H. Fichtl; R. E. Demandel; S. J. Krivo

1972-01-01

386

Nonlinear aerodynamic modeling using multivariate orthogonal functions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem to be addressed in this work is that of modeling nondimensional force and moment aerodynamic coefficients over the entire subsonic envelope. The particular application discussed here is the Z force coefficient for the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV).

Morelli, Eugene A.

1993-01-01

387

Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

2005-01-01

388

Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

Morelli, Eugene A.

2012-01-01

389

A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.

Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

2014-01-01

390

Pressure-sensitive paint in aerodynamic testing

Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is a relatively new aerodynamic measurement tool with the unique capability of providing a field measurement of pressure over a test surface. An introductory review of this technology is presented, which is confined to the application of the PSP method to aircraft development wind tunnel testing. This is at present the primary application area and thus the

B. G. McLachlan; J. H. Bell

1995-01-01

391

Recent Experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).

Ackeret, J

1925-01-01

392

Device for Reducing Vehicle Aerodynamic Resistance.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pa...

S. C. Graham

2004-01-01

393

User's guide to program FLEXSTAB. [aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual is presented for correctly submitting program runs in aerodynamics on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system. All major program modules are included. Control cards are documented for the user's convenience, and card parameters are included in order to provide some idea as to reasonable time estimates for the program modules.

Cavin, R. K., III; Colunga, D.

1975-01-01

394

Aerodynamic characteristics of an oscillating airfoil

Results are reported from wind tunnel tests to study the effects of dynamic aerodynamics on the efficiency of a NACA 0018 airfoil used on a Darreius vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The topic is of interest because of uncontrolled pitching which occurs during operation and which produces stall, turbulence and separation effects that reduce efficiency. Present stream-tube theory and axial

R. H. Wickens

1986-01-01

395

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using the Adjoint Method

These Lecture Notes review the formulation and application of optimization techniques based on control theory for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible o w. The theory is applied to a system dened by the partial dieren tial equations of the o w, with the boundary shape acting as the control. The Frechet derivative of the cost function

Antony Jameson

396

Complex energy approaches for calculating isobaric analogue states

Two methods the complex energy shell model (CXSM) and the complex scaling (CS) approach were used for calculating isobaric analog resonances (IAR) in the Lane model. The IAR parameters calculated by the CXSM and the CS methods were checked against the parameters extracted from the direct numerical solution of the coupled channel Lane equations (CC). The agreement with the CC results was generally better than 1 keV for both methods and for each partial waves concerned. Similarities and differences of the CXSM and the CS methods are discussed. CXSM offers a direct way to study the configurations of the IAR wave function in contrast to the CS method.

R. Id Betan; A. T. Kruppa; T. Vertse

2008-06-30

397

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

THE INSIDE-OUT APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AND WASTE REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES Kelly Traditional approaches for reducing energy and waste in industrial processes typically focus on improving and more apparent to us. In our experience, this approach for reducing energy use and waste generation

Kissock, Kelly

398

Helping students understand “chemical energy” is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk about chemical energy (which is also the way we talk about energy in everyday life); 2) the macroscopic approach to energy concepts that is common in physics and physical sciences; and 3) the failure of chemistry courses to explicitly link molecular with macroscopic energy ideas. From a constructivist perspective, it is unlikely that students can, without a coherent understanding of such a central concept, attain a robust and accurate understanding of new concepts. However, changes are on the horizon, guided by the increasing understanding that difficult concepts require coherent, well-designed learning progressions and the new National Research Council Framework for K–12 Science Education. We provide supporting evidence for our assertions and suggestions for an interdisciplinary learning progression designed to better approach the concept of bond energies, a first step in an understanding chemical energy and behavior of reaction systems that is central to biological systems. PMID:23737636

Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

2013-01-01

399

Dynamic energy budget approaches for modelling organismal ageing

Ageing is a complex multifactorial process involving a progressive physiological decline that, ultimately, leads to the death of an organism. It involves multiple changes in many components that play fundamental roles under healthy and pathological conditions. Simultaneously, every organism undergoes accumulative ‘wear and tear’ during its lifespan, which confounds the effects of the ageing process. The scenario is complicated even further by the presence of both age-dependent and age-independent competing causes of death. Various manipulations have been shown to interfere with the ageing process. Calorie restriction, for example, has been reported to increase the lifespan of a wide range of organisms, which suggests a strong relation between energy metabolism and ageing. Such a link is also supported within the main theories for ageing: the free radical hypothesis, for instance, links oxidative damage production directly to energy metabolism. The Dynamic Energy Budgets (DEB) theory, which characterizes the uptake and use of energy by living organisms, therefore constitutes a useful tool for gaining insight into the ageing process. Here we compare the existing DEB-based modelling approaches and, then, discuss how new biological evidence could be incorporated within a DEB framework. PMID:20921044

van Leeuwen, Ingeborg M. M.; Vera, Julio; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

2010-01-01

400

Predicted and experimental aerodynamic forces on the Darrieus rotor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper compares the aerodynamic loads predicted by a double-multiple-streamtube model with wind tunnel measurements for a straight-bladed Darrieus rotor. Thus the CARDAA computer code uses two constant-interference factors in the induced velocity for estimating the aerodynamic loads. This code has been improved by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the blade position, and, in this case, the CARDAAV code is used. The Boeing-Vertol dynamic-stall model is incorporated in both the CARDAA and CARDAAV codes, and a better approach is obtained. The transient normal- and tangential-force coefficients predicted with and without dynamic-stall effects are compared with wind tunnel data for one and two NACA 0018 straight-bladed rotors. The results are given for a rotor with a large solidity (chord-to-radius ratio of 0.20) at two tip-speed ratios (X = 1.5 and 3.0) and at a low Reynolds number of 3.8 x 10 to the 4th. The comparisons between experimental data and theoretical results show the CARDAAV predictions to be more accurate than those estimated by the CARDAA code.

Paraschivoiu, I.

1983-12-01

401

Structural optimization of rotor blades with integrated dynamics and aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades with integrated dynamic and aerodynamic design considerations is addressed. Results of recent optimization work on rotor blades for minimum weight with constraints on multiple coupled natural flap-lag frequencies, blade autorotational inertia and centrifugal stress has been reviewed. A strategy has been defined for the ongoing activities in the integrated dynamic/aerodynamic optimization of rotor blades. As a first step, the integrated dynamic/airload optimization problem has been formulated. To calculate system sensitivity derivatives necessary for the optimization recently developed, Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) are being investigated. A need for multiple objective functions for the integrated optimization problem has been demonstrated and various techniques for solving the multiple objective function optimization are being investigated. The method called the Global Criteria Approach has been applied to a test problem with the blade in vacuum and the blade weight and the centrifugal stress as the multiple objectives. The results indicate that the method is quite effective in solving optimization problems with conflicting objective functions.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

1988-01-01

402

Structural optimization of rotor blades with integrated dynamics and aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades with integrated dynamic and aerodynamic design considerations is addressed. Results of recent optimization work on rotor blades for minimum weight with constraints on multiple coupled natural flap-lag frequencies, blade autorotational inertia and centrifugal stress has been reviewed. A strategy has been defined for the ongoing activities in the integrated dynamic/aerodynamic optimization of rotor blades. As a first step, the integrated dynamic/airload optimization problem has been formulated. To calculate system sensitivity derivatives necessary for the optimization recently developed, Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) are being investigated. A need for multiple objective functions for the integrated optimization problem has been demonstrated and various techniques for solving the multiple objective function optimization are being investigated. The method called the Global Criteria Approach has been applied to a test problem with the blade in vacuum and the blade weight and the centrifugal stress as the multiple objectives. The results indicate that the method is quite effective in solving optimization problems with conflicting objective functions.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

1989-01-01

403

Marketing: an approach to successful energy-conservation information programs

This monograph shows how the adoption of a marketing approach can improve the quality of the development and delivery of energy-conservation programs. Several factors make the use of such a marketing approach to conservation particularly beneficial, namely: (1) goals of conservation programs can be quantified (e.g., specified amount of energy to be saved); in addition, intermediate effects necessary for program success are also measureable (e.g., knowledge, attitude change, etc); (2) there is an apparent and increasing need for conservation by different parts (or sectors) of the population; however, it is clear that the desire for conservation is not the same for all sectors; (3) conservation programs can be thought of in much the same way as products with benefits and costs; this necessitates an understanding of how the population makes conservation decisions so that the program can fit into that decision process; (4) the need to tailor programs to the needs of the population is heightened by the general competition for the consumer dollar; it is necessary to design and present programs in a way that the individual will view conservation as an attractive choice among many (e.g., bank savings, buying clothes, furniture, car, etc.); and (5) the population's response to, and need for conservation is constantly changing; consequently, it is important to realize that these changes may need to be reflected in the conservation programs themselves (both ongoing and new).

Hutton, R. B.; McNeill, D. L.

1980-08-01

404

Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products intended to further improve efficiency, lower costs, and enhance durability. Resulting products demonstrated a 30% efficiency improvement in full scale wind tunnel tests. The fuel savings of our most promising product, the “Belly Fairing” increased from 4% to 6% in scientific track and operational tests. The project successfully demonstrated the economic feasibility of trailer aerodynamics and positioned the technology to realize significant public benefits. Scientific testing conducted with partners such as the EPA Smartway program and Transport Canada clearly validated the fuel and emission saving potential of the technology. The Smartway program now recommends trailer aerodynamics as a certified fuel saving technology and is offering incentives such as low interest loans. Trailer aerodynamics can save average trucks over 1,100 gallons of fuel an 13 tons of emissions every 100,000 miles, a distance many trucks travel annually. These fuel savings produce a product return on investment period of one to two years in average fleet operations. The economic feasibility of the products was validated by participating fleets, several of which have since completed large implementations or demonstrated an interest in volume orders. The commercialization potential of the technology was also demonstrated, resulting in a national distribution and manufacturing partnership with a major industry supplier, Carrier Transicold. Consequently, Freight Wing is well positioned to continue marketing trailer aerodynamics to the trucking industry. The participation of leading fleets in this project served to break down the market skepticism that represents a primary barrier to widespread industry utilization. The benefits of widespread utilization of the technology could be quite significant for both the transportation industry and the public. Trailer aerodynamics could potentially save the U.S. trucking fleet over a billion gallons of fuel and 20 million tons of emissions annually.

Sean Graham

2007-10-31

405

Final Report 02-ERD-056 Active Load Control& Mitigation Using Microtabs: A Wind Energy Application

With public concern over the security and reliability of our existing electricity infrastructure and the resurgence of wind energy, the wind industry offers an immediate, first point of entry for the application and demonstration of an active load control technology. An innovative microtab approach is being investigated and demonstrated for active aerodynamic load control applications under the mid-year LDRD (June-Sept.

Nakafuji

2003-01-01

406

Aerodynamic method for obtaining the soil water retention curve

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the rapid plotting of the soil water retention curve (SWRC) has been proposed that considers the soil water as an environment limited by the soil solid phase on one side and by the soil air on the other side. Both contact surfaces have surface energies, which play the main role in water retention. The use of an idealized soil model with consideration for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic laws and the aerodynamic similarity principles allows us to estimate the volumetric specific surface areas of soils and, using the proposed pedotransfer function (PTF), to plot the SWRC. The volumetric specific surface area of the solid phase, the porosity, and the specific free surface energy at the water-air interface are used as the SWRC parameters. Devices for measuring the parameters are briefly described. The differences between the proposed PTF and the experimental data have been analyzed using the statistical processing of the data.

Alekseev, V. V.; Maksimov, I. I.

2013-07-01

407

Circular plate analysis by finite differences; Energy approach

A numerical method of elastic analysis of thin circular plates under various axisymmetric loading and support conditions is presented. The method of analysis is based on the finite-difference procedure in the variational formulation (energy approach) and can be regarded as being equivalent to the finite-element method. A simple computer program was developed and tested on a number of illustrative examples. In most cases the obtained results exhibited a much higher level of accuracy as compared to those obtained from the finite-element analysis. And, most importantly, in each of the cases considered the number of unknowns involved is only half of that employed in the particular finite-element procedure (using the simplest finite element).

Melerski, E. (Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (AU))

1989-06-01

408

Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

Doig, G.

2014-08-01

409

Aerodynamic shape optimization of arbitrary hypersonic vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method was developed to optimize, in terms of aerodynamic wave drag minimization, arbitrary (nonaxisymmetric) hypersonic vehicles in modified Newtonian flow, while maintaining the initial volume and length of the vehicle. This new method uses either a surface fitted Fourier series to represent the vehicle's geometry or an independent point motion algorithm. In either case, the coefficients of the Fourier series or the spatial locations of the points defining each cross section were varied and a numerical optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton gradient search concept was used to determine the new optimal configuration. Results indicate a significant decrease in aerodynamic wave drag for simple and complex geometries at relatively low CPU costs. In the case of a cone, the results agreed well with known analytical optimum ogive shapes. The procedure is capable of accepting more complex flow field analysis codes.

Dulikravich, George S.; Sheffer, Scott G.

1991-01-01

410

Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

1995-04-01

411

High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

Ryan, James S.

1994-01-01

412

CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

Ryan, James S.

1995-01-01

413

Aerodynamics of missiles with slotted fin configurations

Subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data for missiles with solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations are presented. Free-flight aeroballistic tests to obtain this data were conducted at atmospheric pressure over a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.6. The aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives presented were extracted from the position-attitude-time histories of the experimentally measured trajectories using non-linear numerical integration data reduction routines. Results of this testing and analysis show the static and dynamic stability variations for solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations. The presence of a side moment dependent on pitch angle, inherent to wrap around fin configurations, is measured for both configurations. Results indicate a reduction in the magnitude of this side-moment for missiles with slotted fins. Also, roll dependence with Mach number effects are not present with the slotted fin configurations. Designers should consider these factors whenever wrap around fins are utilized. 14 refs.

Abate, G.L.; Winchenbach, G.L. (USAF, Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB, FL (USA))

1991-01-01

414

Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

Morelli, Eugene A.

2011-01-01

415

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

Salari, K; Ortega, J

2010-12-13

416

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining the computational fluid dynamics-based numerical simulation with the forced vibration technique for extraction of aerodynamic derivatives, an approach for calculating the aerodynamic derivatives and the critical flutter wind speed for long-span bridges is presented in this paper. The RNG k-? turbulent model is introduced to establish the governing equations, including the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations, for solving the wind flow field around a two-dimensional bridge section. To illustrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach, a simple application to the Hume Bridge in China is provided, and the numerical results show that the aerodynamic derivatives and the critical flutter wind speed obtained agree well with the wind tunnel test results.

Xin, Dabo; Ou, Jinping

2007-06-01

417

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was conducted to investigate aerodynamic modeling methods for prediction of post-stall flight dynamics of large transport airplanes. The research approach involved integrating dynamic wind tunnel data from rotary balance and forced oscillation testing with static wind tunnel data to predict aerodynamic forces and moments during highly dynamic departure and spin motions. Several state-of-the-art aerodynamic modeling methods were evaluated and predicted flight dynamics using these various approaches were compared. Results showed the different modeling methods had varying effects on the predicted flight dynamics and the differences were most significant during uncoordinated maneuvers. Preliminary wind tunnel validation data indicated the potential of the various methods for predicting steady spin motions.

Murch, Austin M.; Foster, John V.

2007-01-01

418

Flight-Test Fixture For Aerodynamic Research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Second-generation flight-test fixture (FTF-II) developed to be used as generic test bed for research in aerodynamics and fluid mechanics. Highly instrumented finlike structure mounted on lower fuselage surface of F-15B airplane. Modular configuration makes possible to modify FTF-II to satisfy variety of flight-test requirements. Fixture used at airspeeds up to mach 2.0.

Richwine, David M.; Del Frate, John H.

1995-01-01

419

New aspects of subsonic aerodynamic noise theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of aerodynamic noise is presented which differs from Lighthill's theory primarily in the way in which convection of the noise sources is treated. The sound directivity pattern obtained from the present theory agrees better with jet-noise directivity data than does that obtained from Lighthill's theory. The results imply that the shear-noise contribution to jet noise is smaller than previously expected.

Goldstein, M. E.; Howes, W. L.

1973-01-01

420

Unsteady Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook is a collection of technical papers that were presented at the 10th International Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics, and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines held September 8-11, 2003 at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. The papers represent the latest in state of the art research in the areas of aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, computational methods, experimental testing related to flow instabilities, flutter, forced response, multistage, and rotor-stator effects for turbomachinery.

Hall, Kenneth C.; Kielb, Robert E.; Thomas, Jeffrey P.

421

The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight costs. PMID:15939772

Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

2005-06-01

422

Aerodynamic design of propfan powered transports

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case study is presented of the design of efficient propfan transport aircraft configurations, employing standard subsonic and transonic computed codes that have been modified to account for slipstream effects. After numerically simulating the aerodynamics of the interaction of the wing/nacelle configuration with the swirling slipstream, interference effects are assessed and design procedures are provided which may reduce adverse interference phenomena. These procedures are demonstrated for the case of the design of a Mach 0.8-cruise turboprop aircraft.

Aljabri, A. S.

1983-01-01

423

Smart morphable surfaces for aerodynamic drag control.

Smart Morphable Surfaces enable switchable and tunable aerodynamic drag reduction of bluff bodies. Their topography, resembling the morphology of golf balls, can be custom-generated through a wrinkling instability on a curved surface. Pneumatic actuation of these patterns results in the control of the drag coefficient of spherical samples by up to a factor of two, over a range of flow conditions. PMID:24956072

Terwagne, Denis; Brojan, Miha; Reis, Pedro M

2014-10-01

424

Aerodynamics of High-Speed Trains

This review highlights the differences between the aerodynamics of high-speed trains and other types of transportation vehicles. The emphasis is on modern, high-speed trains, including magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains. Some of the key differences are derived from the fact that trains operate near the ground or a track, have much greater length-to-diameter ratios than other vehicles, pass close to each

Joseph A. Schetz

2001-01-01

425

Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic breakup of liquid sheets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of hydrodynamic, aerodynamic and liquid surface forces on the mean drop diameter of water sprays that are produced by the breakup of nonswirling and swirling water sheets in quiescent air and in airflows similar to those encountered in gas turbine combustors is investigated. The mean drop diameter is used to characterize fuel sprays and it is a very important factor in determining the performance and exhaust emissions of gas turbine combustors.

Ingebo, R.

1982-01-01

426

Recent Improvements in Aerodynamic Design Optimization on Unstructured Meshes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent improvements in an unstructured-grid method for large-scale aerodynamic design are presented. Previous work had shown such computations to be prohibitively long in a sequential processing environment. Also, robust adjoint solutions and mesh movement procedures were difficult to realize, particularly for viscous flows. To overcome these limiting factors, a set of design codes based on a discrete adjoint method is extended to a multiprocessor environment using a shared memory approach. A nearly linear speedup is demonstrated, and the consistency of the linearizations is shown to remain valid. The full linearization of the residual is used to precondition the adjoint system, and a significantly improved convergence rate is obtained. A new mesh movement algorithm is implemented and several advantages over an existing technique are presented. Several design cases are shown for turbulent flows in two and three dimensions.

Nielsen, Eric J.; Anderson, W. Kyle

2000-01-01

427

Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

1993-01-01

428

Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

2000-01-01

429

Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

2002-01-01

430

The Aerodynamics of a Flying Sports Disc

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flying sports disc is a spin-stabilised axi-symmetric wing of quite remarkable design. A typical disc has an approximate elliptical cross-section and hollowed out under-side cavity, such as the Frisbee(TM) disc. An experimental study of flying disc aerodynamics, including both spinning and non-spinning tests, has been carried out in the wind tunnel. Load measurements, pressure data and flow visualisation techniques have enabled an explanation of the flow physics and provided data for free-flight simulations. A computer simulation that predicts free-flight trajectories from a given set of initial conditions was used to investigate the dynamics of a flying disc. This includes a six-degree of freedom mathematical model of disc flight mechanics, with aerodynamic coefficients derived from experimental data. A flying sports disc generates lift through forward velocity just like a conventional wing. The lift contributed by spin is insignificant and does not provide nearly enough down force to support hover. Without spin, the disc tumbles ground-ward under the influence of an unstable aerodynamic pitching moment. From a backhand throw however, spin is naturally given to the disc. The unchanged pitching moment now results in roll, due to gyroscopic precession, stabilising the disc in free-flight.

Potts, Jonathan R.; Crowther, William J.

2001-11-01

431

Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

Pinier, Jeremy T

2012-01-01

432

Integrated aerodynamic-structural-control wing design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic-structural-control design of a forward-swept composite wing for a high subsonic transport aircraft is considered. The structural analysis is based on a finite-element method. The aerodynamic calculations are based on a vortex-lattice method, and the control calculations are based on an output feedback control. The wing is designed for minimum weight subject to structural, performance/aerodynamic and control constraints. Efficient methods are used to calculate the control-deflection and control-effectiveness sensitivities which appear as second-order derivatives in the control constraint equations. To suppress the aeroelastic divergence of the forward-swept wing, and to reduce the gross weight of the design aircraft, two separate cases are studied: (1) combined application of aeroelastic tailoring and active controls; and (2) aeroelastic tailoring alone. The results of this study indicated that, for this particular example, aeroelastic tailoring is sufficient for suppressing the aeroelastic divergence, and the use of active controls was not necessary.

Rais-Rohani, M.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Unger, E. R.

1992-01-01

433

Evaporation of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet: An Experimental Study

The extremely high particle transmission efficiency of aerodynamic lens inlets resulted in their wide use in aerosol mass spectrometers. One of the consequences of a transport of particles from high ambient pressure into the vacuum is that it is accompanied by a rapid drop in relative humidity (RH). Since many atmospheric particles exist in the form of hygroscopic water droplets, a drop in RH may result in a significant loss of water and even a change in phase. To predict how much water will be evaporated is not feasible. Because water loss can effect in addition to particle size, its transmission efficiency, ionization probability and mass spectrum it is imperative to provide definitive experimental data that can serve to guide the field to a reasonable and uniform sampling approach. In this study we present the results of a number of carefully conducted measurements that provide the first experimentally determined benchmark of water evaporation from a range of particles, during their transport through an aerodynamic lens inlet. We conclude that the only sure way to avoid ambiguities during measurements of aerodynamic diameter in instruments that utilize low pressure aerodynamic lens inlets is to dry the particles prior to sampling.

Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan G.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A.

2006-10-01

434

Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a dynamic unstructured grid high-order accurate spectral difference (SD) method for the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and its applications in flapping-wing aerodynamics are carried out in this work. Grid deformation is achieved via an algebraic blending strategy to save computational cost. The Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) is imposed to ensure that grid deformation will not contaminate the flow physics. A low Mach number preconditioning procedure is conducted in the developed solver to handle the bio-inspired flow. The capability of the low Mach number preconditioned SD solver is demonstrated by a series of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations of the unsteady vortex dominated flow. Several topics in the flapping wing aerodynamics are numerically and experimentally investigated in this work. These topics cover some of the cutting-edge issues in flapping wing aerodynamics, including the wake structure analysis, airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performances, vortex structure analysis around 3D flapping wings and the kinematics optimization. Wake structures behind a sinusoidally pitching NACA0012 airfoil are studied with both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments are carried out with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and two types of wake transition processes, namely the transition from a drag-indicative wake to a thrust-indicative wake and that from the symmetric wake to the asymmetric wake are distinguished. The numerical results from the developed SD solver agree well with the experimental results. It is numerically found that the deflective direction of the asymmetric wake is determined by the initial conditions, e.g. initial phase angle. As most insects use thin wings (i. e., wing thickness is only a few percent of the chord length) in flapping flight, the effects of airfoil thickness on thrust generation are numerically investigated by simulating the flow fields around a series of plunging NACA symmetric airfoils with thickness ratio ranging from 4.0% to 20.0% of the airfoil chord length. The contribution of viscous force to flapping propulsion is accessed and it is found that viscous force becomes thrust producing, instead of drag producing, and plays a non-negligible role in thrust generation for thin airfoils. This is closely related to the variations of the dynamics of the unsteady vortex structures around the plunging airfoils. As nature flyers use complex wing kinematics in flapping flight, kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performance with different airfoil thicknesses are numerically studied by using a series of NACA symmetric airfoils. It is found that the combined plunging and pitching motion can outperform the pure plunging or pitching motion by sophisticatedly adjusting the airfoil gestures during the oscillation stroke. The thin airfoil better manipulates leading edge vortices (LEVs) than the thick airfoil (NACA0030) does in studied cases, and there exists an optimal thickness for large thrust generation with reasonable propulsive efficiency. With the present kinematics and dynamic parameters, relatively low reduced frequency is conducive for thrust production and propulsive efficiency for all tested airfoil thicknesses. In order to obtain the optimal kinematics parameters of flapping flight, a kinematics optimization is then performed. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is coupled with a second-order SD Navier-Stokes solver to search for the optimal kinematics of a certain airfoil undergoing a combined plunging and pitching motion. Then a high-order SD scheme is used to verify the optimization results and reveal the detailed vortex structures associated with the optimal kinematics of the flapping flight. It is found that for the case with maximum propulsive efficiency, there exists no leading edge separation during most of the oscillation cycle. In order to provide constructive suggestions to the design of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), 3D simulations of the flapping wings are carrie

Yu, Meilin

435

Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ?CDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.

Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Park, Minjoon; Watson, Scott

2013-08-01

436

Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues. PMID:19596394

Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

2009-09-15

437

A large-scale computer facility for computational aerodynamics

The combination of computer system technology and numerical modeling have advanced to the point that computational aerodynamics has emerged as an essential element in aerospace vehicle design methodology. To provide for further advances in modeling of aerodynamic flow fields, NASA has initiated at the Ames Research Center the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program. The objective of the Program is to develop a leading-edge, large-scale computer facility, and make it available to NASA, DoD, other Government agencies, industry and universities as a necessary element in ensuring continuing leadership in computational aerodynamics and related disciplines. The Program will establish an initial operational capability in 1986 and systematically enhance that capability by incorporating evolving improvements in state-of-the-art computer system technologies as required to maintain a leadership role. This paper briefly reviews the present and future requirements for computational aerodynamics and discusses the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans.

Bailey, F.R.; Balhaus, W.F.

1985-02-01

438

Aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.

Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.

1977-01-01

439

Heuristic Approaches to Energy-Efficient Network Design Problem Cigdem Sengul Robin Kravets

Heuristic Approaches to Energy-Efficient Network Design Problem Cigdem Sengul Robin Kravets@cs.uiuc.edu Abstract Energy management remains a critical problem in wire- less networks since battery technology cannot keep up with rising communication expectations. Current approaches to energy conservation reduce

Kravets, Robin

440

SMART SCHOOLS SYMPOSIUM 2013 A HOLISTIC APPROACH IN REDUCTION OF ENERGY

SCHOOL How daylighting and lighting systems can help reduce energy consumption #12;SMART SCHOOLS APPROACH IN REDUCTION OF ENERGY LOADS AT HILLVIEW MIDDLE SCHOOL Â· Daylighting and Lighting Systems SYMPOSIUM 2013 A HOLISTIC APPROACH IN REDUCTION OF ENERGY LOADS AT HILLVIEW MIDDLE SCHOOL Â· Daylighting

California at Davis, University of

441

Residential Energy Simulation and Scheduling: A Case Study Approach Jagannathan Venkatesh, Baris, baksanli, tajana}@ucsd.edu Abstract-- Residential energy contributes to 38% of the total energy consumption or by providing energy information to consumers. Industrial innovations are focused on energy efficiency

Simunic, Tajana

442

The streamlined site assessment methodology: A new approach for wind energy site assessment

This research develops superior approaches to the traditional site assessment process, as well as novel strategies that offer a distinct advantage over the traditional process. Two major contributions are presented: new analysis approaches for site assessment, and new technical approaches to wind resource monitoring. Two new analysis approaches for wind energy site assessment are developed. The first is a method

Matthew A. Lackner

2008-01-01

443

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 4 of 4: Final Report- Summary.

Zilz, D. E.; Wallace, H. W.; Hiley, P. E.

1985-01-01

444

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation via flighttesting. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the sensitivity analysis of the structural response of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). HIAD architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during re-entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. In the example presented here, the structural parameters of an existing HIAD model have been varied to illustrate the design approach utilizing uncertainty-based methods. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense several orders of magnitude. The suitability of the design is based on assessing variation in the resulting cone angle. The acceptable cone angle variation would rely on the aerodynamic requirements.

Lyle, Karen H.

2014-01-01

445

Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

1999-12-31

446

Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Flight Test Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the activities in aerodynamic model estimation from flight data. In addition to public presentations at the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conferences, two presentations at Boeing-Seattle were made during personal trips. These are discussed in the following: 1. Methodology of Aerodynamic Model Estimation from Flight Data. 2. Applications of F-16XL aerodynamic modeling. 3. Modeling of turbulence response. 5. Presentations at Boeing-Seattle. 6. Recommendations. and 7. References.

Lan, C. Edward

2003-01-01

447

Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore, Maryland

Urbanization changes the radiative, thermal, hydrologic, and aerodynamic properties of the Earth's surface. Knowledge of these surface characteristics, therefore, is essential to urban climate analysis. Aerodynamic or surface roughness of urban areas is not well documented, however, because of practical constraints in measuring the wind profile in the presence of large buildings. Using an empirical method designed by Lettau, and an analysis of variance of surface roughness values calculated for 324 samples averaging 0.8 hectare (ha) of land use and land cover sample in Baltimore, Md., a strong statistical relation was found between aerodynamic roughness and urban land use and land cover types. Assessment of three land use and land cover systems indicates that some of these types have significantly different surface roughness characteristics. The tests further indicate that statistically significant differences exist in estimated surface roughness values when categories (classes) from different land use and land cover classification systems are used as surrogates. A Level III extension of the U.S. Geological Survey Level II land use and land cover classification system provided the most reliable results. An evaluation of the physical association between the aerodynamic properties of land use and land cover and the surface climate by numerical simulation of the surface energy balance indicates that changes in surface roughness within the range of values typical of the Level III categories induce important changes in the surface climate.

Nicholas, F.W.; Lewis, J.E., Jr.

1980-01-01

448

Advanced Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex Aerodynamic Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach for distribution of grid points on the surface and in the volume has been developed and implemented in the NASA unstructured grid generation code VGRID. In addition to the point and line sources of prior work, the new approach utilizes surface and volume sources for automatic curvature-based grid sizing and convenient point distribution in the volume. A new exponential growth function produces smoother and more efficient grids and provides superior control over distribution of grid points in the field. All types of sources support anisotropic grid stretching which not only improves the grid economy but also provides more accurate solutions for certain aerodynamic applications. The new approach does not require a three-dimensional background grid as in the previous methods. Instead, it makes use of an efficient bounding-box auxiliary medium for storing grid parameters defined by surface sources. The new approach is less memory-intensive and more efficient computationally. The grids generated with the new method either eliminate the need for adaptive grid refinement for certain class of problems or provide high quality initial grids that would enhance the performance of many adaptation methods.

Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

2008-01-01

449

Advanced Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex Aerodynamic Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach for distribution of grid points on the surface and in the volume has been developed. In addition to the point and line sources of prior work, the new approach utilizes surface and volume sources for automatic curvature-based grid sizing and convenient point distribution in the volume. A new exponential growth function produces smoother and more efficient grids and provides superior control over distribution of grid points in the field. All types of sources support anisotropic grid stretching which not only improves the grid economy but also provides more accurate solutions for certain aerodynamic applications. The new approach does not require a three-dimensional background grid as in the previous methods. Instead, it makes use of an efficient bounding-box auxiliary medium for storing grid parameters defined by surface sources. The new approach is less memory-intensive and more efficient computationally. The grids generated with the new method either eliminate the need for adaptive grid refinement for certain class of problems or provide high quality initial grids that would enhance the performance of many adaptation methods.

Pirzadeh, Shahyar

2010-01-01

450

PrandtlPlane High–Lift System Preliminary Aerodynamic Design.

??An analysis of low-speed aerodynamics for an unconventional aircraft configuration has been carried out. This configuration, named Prandtlplane, implements Prandtl's Best Wing System for low… (more)

Iezzi, Giuseppe

2006-01-01

451

Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.

Gregory, T. J. (editor); Ashbaugh, J. (editor)

1980-01-01

452

A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamic contrails are defined in this paper as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data, first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Finally we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally we give an argument for our believe that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

2013-06-01

453

Fundamental Aspects of the Aerodynamics of Turbojet Engine Combustors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic considerations in the design of high performance combustors for turbojet engines are discussed. Aerodynamic problems concerning the preparation of the fuel-air mixture, the recirculation zone where primary combustion occurs, the secondary combustion zone, and the dilution zone were examined. An aerodynamic analysis of the entire primary chamber ensemble was carried out to determine the pressure drop between entry and exit. The aerodynamics of afterburn chambers are discussed. A model which can be used to investigate the evolution of temperature, pressure, and rate and efficiency of combustion the length of the chamber was developed.

Barrere, M.

1978-01-01

454

Flipperons for Improved Aerodynamic Performance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, piezoelectrically actuated bending flight-control surfaces have shown promise as means of actively controlling airflows to improve the performances of transport airplanes. These bending flight-control surfaces are called flipperons because they look somewhat like small ailerons, but, unlike ailerons, are operated in an oscillatory mode reminiscent of the actions of biological flippers. The underlying concept of using flipperons and other flipperlike actuators to impart desired characteristics to flows is not new. Moreover, elements of flipperon-based active flow-control (AFC) systems for aircraft had been developed previously, but it was not until the development reported here that the elements have been integrated into a complete, controllable prototype AFC system for wind-tunnel testing to enable evaluation of the benefits of AFC for aircraft. The piezoelectric actuator materials chosen for use in the flipperons are single- crystal solid solutions of lead zinc niobate and lead titanate, denoted generically by the empirical formula (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] (where x<1) and popularly denoted by the abbreviation PZN-PT. These are relatively newly recognized piezoelectric materials that are capable of strain levels exceeding 1 percent and strain-energy densities 5 times greater than those of previously commercially available piezoelectric materials. Despite their high performance levels, (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] materials have found limited use until now because, relative to previously commercially available piezoelectric materials, they tend to be much more fragile.

Mabe, James H.

2008-01-01

455

MEMS Applications in Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embodies the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible bulk and surface micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including microsensors and microactuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about 100 microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. For aerodynamic measurements, it is preferred that sensors be small so as to approximate measurement at a point, and in fact, MEMS pressure sensors, wall shear-stress sensors, heat flux sensors and micromachined hot wires are nearing application. For the envisioned application to wind tunnel models, MEMS sensors can be placed on the surface or in very shallow grooves. MEMS devices have often been fabricated on stiff, flat silicon substrates, about 0.5 mm thick, and therefore were not easily mounted on curved surfaces. However, flexible substrates are now available and heat-flux sensor arrays have been wrapped around a curved turbine blade. Electrical leads can also be built into the flexible substrate. Thus MEMS instrumented wind tunnel models do not require deep spanwise grooves for tubes and leads that compromise the strength of conventionally instrumented models. With MEMS, even the electrical leads can potentially be eliminated if telemetry of the signals to an appropriate receiver can be implemented. While semiconductor silicon is well known for its electronic properties, it is also an excellent mechanical material for MEMS applications. However, silicon electronics are limited to operations below about 200 C, and silicon's mechanical properties start to diminish above 400 C. In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the leading material candidate for applications in high temperature environments and can be used for high-temperature MEMS applications. With SiC, diodes and more complex electronics have been shown to operate to about 600 C, while the mechanical properties of SiC are maintained to much higher temperatures. Even when MEMS devices show benefits in the laboratory, there are many packaging challenges for any aeronautics application. Incorporating MEMS into these applications requires new approaches to packaging that goes beyond traditional integrated circuit (IC) packaging technologies. MEMS must interact mechanically, as well as electrically with their environment, making most traditional chip packaging and mounting techniques inadequate. Wind tunnels operate over wide temperature ranges in an environment that is far from being a 'clean-room.' In flight, aircraft are exposed to natural elements (e.g. rain, sun, ice, insects and dirt) and operational interferences(e.g. cleaning and deicing fluids, and maintenance crews). In propulsion systems applications, MEMS devices will have to operate in environments containing gases with very high temperatures, abrasive particles and combustion products. Hence deployment and packaging that maintains the integrity of the MEMS system is crucial. This paper presents an overview of MEMS fabrication and materials, descriptions of available sensors with more details on those being developed in our laboratories, and a discussion of sensor deployment options for wind tunnel and flight applications.

Reshotko, E.; Mehregany, M.; Bang, C.

1998-01-01

456

An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary accomplishments of the project are as follows: (1) Using the transonic small perturbation equation as a flowfield model, the project demonstrated that the quasi-analytical method could be used to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for airfoils at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic conditions for design variables such as Mach number, airfoil thickness, maximum camber, angle of attack, and location of maximum camber. It was established that the quasi-analytical approach was an accurate method for obtaining aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for airfoils at transonic conditions and usually more efficient than the finite difference approach. (2) The usage of symbolic manipulation software to determine the appropriate expressions and computer coding associated with the quasi-analytical method for sensitivity derivatives was investigated. Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, it was determined that symbolic manipulation along with a chain rule approach was extremely useful in developing a combined flowfield and quasi-analytical sensitivity derivative code capable of considering a large number of realistic design variables. (3) Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, the quasi-analytical method was applied to swept wings (i.e. three dimensional) at transonic flow conditions. (4) The incremental iterative technique has been applied to the three dimensional transonic nonlinear small perturbation flowfield formulation, an equivalent plate deflection model, and the associated aerodynamic and structural discipline sensitivity equations; and coupled aeroelastic results for an aspect ratio three wing in transonic flow have been obtained.

Carlson, Leland A.

1994-01-01

457

DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER

DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH CENTER Donald R. Wilson+ The University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, Texas 76019 Abstract The Aerodynamics Research Center (ARC research and educational programs in experimental aerodynamics, aerothernlodynamics and propulsion. When

Texas at Arlington, University of

458

Molecular correlation energy: Density functional and quantum field approaches

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of Local Correlation Functions has been analyzed in the context of Density Functional Theory, and compared to the related g-Hartree Theory. Both theories have been shown to relate to the Generalized (Exchange) Local Spin Density Theories, which have been extended, by introducing new, orbital dependent correlation factors, to give, as an alternative, the Local Correlation Spin Density Theory. A novel approach to the electron correlation problem has been consequently formulated, on the basis of all three classes of Functional Theories, and its feasibility has been demonstrated. Next, the Second Quantization formalism, and generalized coherent states have been used to give, through the path integral formalism, an expansion of electronic interaction which leads to the Dyson equation. The mass operator has been connected with the time-dependent fluctuation fields, which consequently yield an effective potential that differs from the 'classical' single-well potential, and originates from spontaneous symmetry breaking. This is responsible for ground state correlations. The Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation has been shown suitable to describe the physics, where the particle-hole interactions account for the electron correlation energy correction.

Suba, Slaven L.

459

The evaluation of emissions from new energy sources has stimulated the development of new comparative approaches to health assessment studies. All energy sources that result in incomplete combustion are known to emit carcinogenic and mutagenic polynuclear aromatic compounds. Ther...

460

Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of hovering droneflies.

The time courses of wing and body kinematics of three freely hovering droneflies (Eristalis tenax) were measured using 3D high-speed video, and the morphological parameters of the wings and body of the insects were also measured. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insects. The time courses of the geometrical angle of attack and the deviation angle of the wing are considerably different from that of fruit flies recently measured using the same approach. The angle of attack is approximately constant in the mid portions of a half-stroke (a downstroke or upstroke) and varies rapidly during the stroke reversal. The deviation angle is relatively small and is higher at the beginning and the end of a half-stroke and lower at the middle of the half-stroke, giving a shallow U-shaped wing-tip trajectory. For all three insects considered, the computed vertical force is approximately equal to the insect weight (the difference is less than 6% of the weight) and the computed horizontal force and pitching moment about the center of mass of the insect are approximately zero. The computed results satisfying the equilibrium flight conditions, especially the moment balance condition, validate the computation model. The lift principle is mainly used to produce the weight-supporting vertical force, unlike the fruit flies who use both lift and drag principles to generate the vertical force; the vertical force is mainly due to the delayed stall mechanism. The magnitude of the inertia power is larger than that of the aerodynamic power, and the largest possible effect of elastic storage amounts to a reduction of flight power by around 40%, much larger than in the case of the fruit fly. PMID:18552290

Liu, Yanpeng; Sun, Mao

2008-07-01

461

Joint computational and experimental aerodynamics research on a reentry vehicle

This paper seeks to improve the synergism between computational aerodynamics and wind tunnel experimentation. In this paper, experimental and computational results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. Comparisons are made between experimental and computational results in order to improve the accuracy of both approaches. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. The half-angle of the cone is 10 deg. and the ratio of spherical nose radius to base radius in 10%. Onto the slice portion of the vehicle can be attached flaps with three different deflection angles; 10, 20, and 30 deg. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia Mach 8 long duration, blow-down, hypersonic wind tunnel. Flow visualization results include surface oil flow, spark schlieren, and liquid crystal photographs and video. The liquid crystals were used as an aid in verifying that a laminar boundary layer existed over the entire body. An extensive uncertainty analysis was conducted to estimate quantitatively the accuracy of the measurement. Computational aerodynamic force and moment predictions are compared with the wind tunnel data. The Sandia Parabolized Navier-Stokes code is used to generate solutions for the sliced vehicle (no flap) and partial solutions for the flapped vehicle. For the geometry with the flap, an axially separated flow occurs and a time iterative Navier-Stokes code is used to provide comparisons with the data. This paper presents a portion of the results given in earlier works and also discusses new experimental results with this configuration.

Not Available

1991-01-01

462

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.

Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.

1976-01-01

463

A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

2013-11-01

464

Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not adequately removed prior to takeoff. Throughout this review, important voids in the available database are highlighted, as are instances where previous lessons learned have tended to be overlooked.

Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

2001-11-01

465

Aerodynamic and functional consequences of wing compliance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence indicates that a majority of insects experience some degree of wing deformation during flight. With no musculature distal to the wing base, the instantaneous shape of an insect wing is dictated by the interaction of aerodynamic forces with the inertial and elastic forces that arise from periodic accelerations of the wing. Passive wing deformation is an unavoidable feature of flapping flight for many insects due to the inertial loads that accompany rapid stroke reversals—loads that well exceed the mean aerodynamic force. Although wing compliance has been implicated in a few lift-enhancing mechanisms (e.g., favorable camber), the direct aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation remain generally unresolved. In this paper, we present new experimental data on how wing compliance may affect the overall induced flow in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Real moth wings were subjected to robotic actuation in their dominant plane of rotation at a natural wing beat frequency of 25 Hz. We used digital particle image velocimetry at exceptionally high temporal resolution (2,100 fps) to assess the influence of wing compliance on the mean advective flows, relying on a natural variation in wing stiffness to alter the amount of emergent deformation (freshly extracted wings are flexible and exhibit greater compliance than those that are desiccated). We find that flexible wings yield mean advective flows with substantially greater magnitudes and orientations more beneficial to lift than those of stiff wings. Our results confirm that wing compliance plays a critical role in the production of flight forces.

Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Daniel, Thomas L.

466

Aerodynamic and functional consequences of wing compliance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence indicates that a majority of insects experience some degree of wing deformation during flight. With no musculature distal to the wing base, the instantaneous shape of an insect wing is dictated by the interaction of aerodynamic forces with the inertial and elastic forces that arise from periodic accelerations of the wing. Passive wing deformation is an unavoidable feature of flapping flight for many insects due to the inertial loads that accompany rapid stroke reversals—loads that well exceed the mean aerodynamic force. Although wing compliance has been implicated in a few lift-enhancing mechanisms (e.g., favorable camber), the direct aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation remain generally unresolved. In this paper, we present new experimental data on how wing compliance may affect the overall induced flow in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Real moth wings were subjected to robotic actuation in their dominant plane of rotation at a natural wing beat frequency of 25 Hz. We used digital particle image velocimetry at exceptionally high temporal resolution (2,100 fps) to assess the influence of wing compliance on the mean advective flows, relying on a natural variation in wing stiffness to alter the amount of emergent deformation (freshly extracted wings are flexible and exhibit greater compliance than those that are desiccated). We find that flexible wings yield mean advective flows with substantially greater magnitudes and orientations more beneficial to lift than those of stiff wings. Our results confirm that wing compliance plays a critical role in the production of flight forces.

Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Daniel, Thomas L.

2009-05-01

467

Formulas are obtained for determining the energy generation and dissipation rates of random (turbulent and pseudoturbulent) motion of particles due their collisions and the effect of the aerodynamic drag force. The averaged force of interparticle interaction, pseudoturbulent transfer coefficients for the {open_quotes}gas{close_quotes} of particles, and other quantities are calculated which are necessary to complete the set of equations describing the aerodynamics of the pneumatic transport zone of a circulating fluidized bed reactor.

Rokhman, B.B.; Shraiber, A.A. [Institute for Power Supply Problems, Kiev (Ukraine)

1994-08-01

468

Aerodynamics of High-Speed Trains

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review highlights the differences between the aerodynamics of high-speed trains and other types of transportation vehicles. The emphasis is on modern, high-speed trains, including magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains. Some of the key differences are derived from the fact that trains operate near the ground or a track, have much greater length-to-diameter ratios than other vehicles, pass close to each other and to trackside structures, are more subject to crosswinds, and operate in tunnels with entry and exit events. The coverage includes experimental techniques and results and analytical and numerical methods, concentrating on the most recent information available.

Schetz, Joseph A.

469

Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed.