NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpel, M.
1994-01-01
Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques of aeroservoelastic systems require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear, time-invariant state-space form. In order to account for unsteady aerodynamics, rational function approximations must be obtained to represent them in the first order equations of the state-space formulation. A computer program, MIST, has been developed which determines minimum-state approximations of the coefficient matrices of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. The Minimum-State Method facilitates the design of lower-order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena such as the outboard-wing acceleration response to gust velocity. Engineers using this program will be able to calculate minimum-state rational approximations of the generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces. Using the Minimum-State formulation of the state-space equations, they will be able to obtain state-space models with good open-loop characteristics while reducing the number of aerodynamic equations by an order of magnitude more than traditional approaches. These low-order state-space mathematical models are good for design and simulation of aeroservoelastic systems. The computer program, MIST, accepts tabular values of the generalized aerodynamic forces over a set of reduced frequencies. It then determines approximations to these tabular data in the LaPlace domain using rational functions. MIST provides the capability to select the denominator coefficients in the rational approximations, to selectably constrain the approximations without increasing the problem size, and to determine and emphasize critical frequency ranges in determining the approximations. MIST has been written to allow two types data weighting options. The first weighting is a traditional normalization of the aerodynamic data to the maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second allows weighting the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David C.; Baker, David F.
1991-01-01
The FREEMAC program used to generate the aerodynamic coefficients, as well as associated routines that allow the results to be used in other software is described. These capabilities are applied in two numerical examples to the short-term orbit prediction of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spacecraft. Predictions using attitude-dependent aerodynamic coefficients were made on a modified version of the PC-based Ephemeris Generation Program (EPHGEN) and were compared to definitive orbit solutions obtained from actual tracking data. The numerical results show improvement in the predicted semi-major axis and along-track positions that would seem to be worth the added computational effort. Finally, other orbit and attitude analysis applications are noted that could profit from using FREEMAC-calculated aerodynamic coefficients, including orbital lifetime studies, orbit determination methods, attitude dynamics simulators, and spacecraft control system component sizing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weltner, Klaus
1990-01-01
Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)
Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, Annie Catherine
2016-01-01
In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.
Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel
2011-05-01
In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.
Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-03-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-01-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.
Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamic Forces on a Curveball
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jemmott, Colin; Utvich, Alexis; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn
2003-11-01
The physics of baseball has fascinated researchers nearly as long as the game has existed, yet research into aerodynamic forces on curveballs has often been conflicting and incomplete. A team of undergraduates used the newly completed Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel with a specially designed apparatus to quantify these forces. The coefficient of lift was found to be a non-linear function of both the dimensionless spin number and the Reynolds number, suggesting a stronger Reynolds number dependence than previously reported. The coefficient of drag was found to be primarily a function of spin number over the range of Reynolds numbers investigated and is significantly higher than that for a static baseball over the same Reynolds number range. While these findings help to quantify and interpret what pitchers know intuitively, they also motivate further investigations of both forces and the resulting flow field over a wider parameter range.
Feasibility study of a novel method for real-time aerodynamic coefficient estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurbacki, Phillip M.
In this work, a feasibility study of a novel technique for the real-time identification of uncertain nonlinear aircraft aerodynamic coefficients has been conducted. The major objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a system for parameter identification in a real-time flight environment. This system should be able to calculate aerodynamic coefficients and derivative information using typical pilot inputs while ensuring robust, stable, and rapid convergence. The parameter estimator investigated is based upon the nonlinear sliding mode control schema; one of the main advantages of the sliding mode estimator is the ability to guarantee a stable and robust convergence. Stable convergence is ensured by choosing a sliding surface and function that satisfies the Lyapunov stability criteria. After a proper sliding surface has been chosen, the nonlinear equations of motion for an F-16 aircraft are substituted into the sliding surface yielding an estimator capable of identifying a single aircraft parameter. Multiple sliding surfaces are then developed for each of the different flight parameters that will be identified. Sliding surfaces and parameter estimators have been developed and simulated for the pitching moment, lift force, and drag force coefficients of the F-16 aircraft. Comparing the estimated coefficients with the reference coefficients shows rapid and stable convergence for a variety of pilot inputs. Starting with simple doublet and sin wave commands, and followed by more complicated continuous pilot inputs, estimated aerodynamic coefficients have been shown to match the actual coefficients with a high degree of accuracy. This estimator is also shown to be superior to model reference or adaptive estimators, it is able to handle positive and negative estimated parameters and control inputs along with guaranteeing Lyapunov stability during convergence. Accurately estimating these aerodynamic parameters in real-time during a flight is essential
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley Waisang; Pak, Chan-Gi
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients [AIC] matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO(TradeMark) flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing [ATW] 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle
Improved Aerodynamic Influence Coefficients for Dynamic Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gratton, Patrice
2011-12-01
Currently at Bombardier Aerospace, aeroelastic analyses are performed using the Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) incorporated in the NASTRAN solver. This method proves to be very reliable and fast in preliminary design stages where wind tunnel experimental results are often not available. Unfortunately, the geometric simplifications and limitations of the DLM, based on the lifting surfaces theory, reduce the ability of this method to give reliable results for all flow conditions, particularly in transonic flow. Therefore, a new method has been developed involving aerodynamic data from high-fidelity CFD codes which solve the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. These new aerodynamic loads are transmitted to the NASTRAN aeroelastic module through improved aerodynamic influence coefficients (AIC). A cantilevered wing model is created from the Global Express structural model and a set of natural modes is calculated for a baseline configuration of the structure. The baseline mode shapes are then combined with an interpolation scheme to deform the 3-D CFD mesh necessary for Euler and Navier-Stokes analyses. An uncoupled approach is preferred to allow aerodynamic information from different CFD codes. Following the steady state CFD analyses, pressure differences ( DeltaCp), calculated between the deformed models and the original geometry, lead to aerodynamic loads which are transferred to the DLM model. A modal-based AIC method is applied to the aerodynamic matrices of NASTRAN based on a least-square approximation to evaluate aerodynamic loads of a different wing configuration which displays similar types of mode shapes. The methodology developed in this research creates weighting factors based on steady CFD analyses which have an equivalent reduced frequency of zero. These factors are applied to both the real and imaginary part of the aerodynamic matrices as well as all reduced frequencies used in the PK-Method which solves flutter problems. The modal-based AIC method
Force measurements in aerodynamics using piezoelectric multicomponent force transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schewe, G.
The present paper is concerned with a device for the measurement of steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces in a wind tunnel test. The paper represents a continuation of an article written by Schewe (1982) about a multicomponent balance consisting of piezoelectric force transducers for a high-pressure wind tunnel. Advantages of the piezoelectric force-measuring technique compared to other techniques are related to the high rigidity of the quartz crystal sensor elements, taking into account low interference (cross talk) for multicomponent measurements, high natural frequency, and broad dynamic range. It is pointed out that the limitations with respect to quasi-static measurements imposed by the drift of the zero point are not as extensive as generally believed, while drift correction methods improve the measurement accuracy.
Wind Tunnel Testing on Crosswind Aerodynamic Forces Acting on Railway Vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Hyeok-Bin; Nam, Seong-Won; You, Won-Hee
This study is devoted to measure the aerodynamic forces acting on two railway trains, one of which is a high-speed train at 300km/h maximum operation speed, and the other is a conventional train at the operating speed 100km/h. The three-dimensional train shapes have been modeled as detailed as possible including the inter-car, the upper cavity for pantograph, and the bogie systems. The aerodynamic forces on each vehicle of the trains have been measured in the subsonic wind tunnel with 4m×3m test section of Korea Aerospace Research Institute at Daejeon, Korea. The aerodynamic forces and moments of the train models have been plotted for various yaw angles and the characteristics of the aerodynamic coefficients has been discussed relating to the experimental conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petot, D.; Loiseau, H.
1982-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic methods adopted for the study of aeroelasticity in helicopters are considered with focus on the development of a semiempirical model of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an oscillating profile at high incidence. The successive smoothing algorithm described leads to the model's coefficients in a very satisfactory manner.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.
1987-01-01
A semi-empirical method is presented for the estimation of aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a steadily spinning (rotating) light airplane. The airplane is divided into wing, body, and tail surfaces. The effect of power is ignored. The strip theory is employed for each component of the spinning airplane to determine its contribution to the total aerodynamic coefficients. Then, increments to some of the coefficients which account for centrifugal effect are estimated. The results are compared to spin tunnel rotary balance test data.
Fluidic Control of Aerodynamic Forces on an Axisymmetric Body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari
2007-11-01
The aerodynamic forces and moments on a wind tunnel model of an axisymmetric bluff body are modified by induced local vectoring of the separated base flow. Control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jets that emanate from narrow, azimuthally-segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end within a small backward facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The model is suspended in the wind tunnel by eight thin wires for minimal support interference with the wake. Fluidic actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along the rear Coanda surface and induces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments to effect maneuvering during flight. The aerodynamic effects associated with quasi-steady and transitory differential, asymmetric activation of the Coanda effect are characterized using direct force and PIV measurements.
Bernoulli's Law and Aerodynamic Lifting Force.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weltner, Klaus
1990-01-01
Explains the lifting force based on Bernoulli's law and as a reaction force. Discusses the interrelation of both explanations. Considers accelerations in line with stream lines and perpendicular to stream lines. (YP)
Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M., E.
1974-01-01
An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.
Aerodynamics of Dragonfly in Hover: Force measurements and PIV results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xinyan; Hu, Zheng
2009-11-01
We useda pair of dynamically scaled robotic dragonfly model wings to investigate the aerodynamic effects of wing-wing interaction in dragonflies. We follow the wing kinematics of real dragonflies in hover, while systematically varied the phase difference between the forewing and hindwing. Instantaneous aerodynamic forces and torques were measured on both wings, while flow visualization and PIV results were obtained. The results show that, in hovering flight, wing-wing interaction causes force reduction for both wings at most of the phase angle differences except around 0 degree (when the wings are beating in-phase).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messina, Michael D.
1995-01-01
The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.
Aerodynamic tower shake force analysis for VAWT
Loth, J.L.
1985-02-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) are subjected to blade lift forces which vary continuously in both magnitude and direction. These blade lift forces are transmitted via the blade support arms to the tower. The resulting tower force vector is a composite of: a downwind and a crosswind average force component, rotating force vectors, and force vectors oscillating in the crosswind direction. The frequency of the rotating and oscillating forces are multiples of the product of Bw, where B is the number of blades used and ..omega.. is the rotor angular velocity. The magnitude of the largest tower shake force vector is of the same order as the average downwind force component, and may represent a serious design constraint in the calculation of the required tower stiffness. A closed-form solution for the tower force vectors has been derived, by introducing a suitable wind interference model. It shows that the magnitude of the largest tower shake force vector, using a threebladed rotor, is four times smaller than a two-bladed rotor. The Betz limit and the optimum tip speed ratio as a function of solidity has been derived by comparison with two semicylindrical actuators in series.
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1992-01-01
Research conducted during the period from July 1991 through December 1992 is covered. A method based upon the quasi-analytical approach was developed for computing the aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients of three dimensional wings in transonic and subsonic flow. In addition, the method computes for comparison purposes the aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients using the finite difference approach. The accuracy and validity of the methods are currently under investigation.
Aerodynamic force by Lamb vector integrals in compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mele, Benedetto; Tognaccini, Renato
2014-05-01
A new exact expression of the aerodynamic force acting on a body in steady high Reynolds number (laminar and turbulent) compressible flow is proposed. The aerodynamic force is obtained by integration of the Lamb vector field given by the cross product of vorticity times velocity. The result is obtained extending a theory developed for the incompressible case. A decomposition in lift and drag contribution is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The theory links the force generation to local flow properties, in particular to the Lamb vector field and to the kinetic energy. The theoretical results are confirmed analyzing numerical solutions obtained by a standard Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver. Results are discussed for the case of a two-dimensional airfoil in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic free stream conditions.
Notes on aerodynamic forces on airship hulls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuckerman, L B
1923-01-01
For a first approximation the air flow around the airship hull is assumed to obey the laws of perfect (i.e. free from viscosity) incompressible fluid. The flow is further assumed to be free from vortices (or rotational motion of the fluid). These assumptions lead to very great simplifications of the formulae used but necessarily imply an imperfect picture of the actual conditions. The value of the results depends therefore upon the magnitude of the forces produced by the disturbances in the flow caused by viscosity with the consequent production of vortices in the fluid. If these are small in comparison with the forces due to the assumed irrotational perfect fluid flow the results will give a good picture of the actual conditions of an airship in flight.
The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munk, M. M.
1979-01-01
The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.
Free-molecule-flow force and moment coefficients of the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Hinson, Edwin W.
1989-01-01
Calculated results for the aerodynamic coefficients over the range of + or - 90 deg in both pitch and yaw attitude angles for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle in free molecule flow are presented. The AFE body is described by a large number of small flat plate surface elements whose orientations are established in a wind axes coordinate system through the pitch and yaw attitude angles. Lift force, drag force, and three components of aerodynamic moment about a specified point are computed for each element. The elemental forces and moments are integrated over the entire body, and total force and moment coefficients are computed. The coefficients are calculated for the two limiting gas-surface molecular collision conditions, namely, specular and diffuse, which assume zero and full thermal accommodation of the incoming gas molecules with the surface, respectively. The individual contribution of the shear stress and pressure terms are calculated and also presented.
The aerodynamic forces and pressure distribution of a revolving pigeon wing
Usherwood, James R.
2012-01-01
The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurements applied to insect and hummingbird wing and wing models. The pigeon wing out-performed the flat card replica, reaching lift coefficients of 1.64 compared with 1.44. Both real and model wings achieved much higher maximum lift coefficients, and at much higher geometric angles of attack (43°), than would be expected from wings tested in a windtunnel simulating translating flight. It therefore appears that some high-lift mechanisms, possibly analogous to those of slow-flying insects, may be available for birds flapping with wings at high angles of attack. The net magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving pigeon wing can be determined from the differential pressure maps with a moderate degree of precision. With increasing angle of attack, variability in the pressure signals suddenly increases at an angle of attack between 33° and 38°, close to the angle of highest vertical force coefficient or lift coefficient; stall appears to be delayed compared with measurements from wings in windtunnels. PMID:22736891
The aerodynamic forces and pressure distribution of a revolving pigeon wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usherwood, James R.
The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurements applied to insect and hummingbird wing and wing models. The pigeon wing out-performed the flat card replica, reaching lift coefficients of 1.64 compared with 1.44. Both real and model wings achieved much higher maximum lift coefficients, and at much higher geometric angles of attack (43°), than would be expected from wings tested in a windtunnel simulating translating flight. It therefore appears that some high-lift mechanisms, possibly analogous to those of slow-flying insects, may be available for birds flapping with wings at high angles of attack. The net magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving pigeon wing can be determined from the differential pressure maps with a moderate degree of precision. With increasing angle of attack, variability in the pressure signals suddenly increases at an angle of attack between 33° and 38°, close to the angle of highest vertical force coefficient or lift coefficient; stall appears to be delayed compared with measurements from wings in windtunnels.
The aerodynamic forces and pressure distribution of a revolving pigeon wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usherwood, James R.
2009-05-01
The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurements applied to insect and hummingbird wing and wing models. The pigeon wing out-performed the flat card replica, reaching lift coefficients of 1.64 compared with 1.44. Both real and model wings achieved much higher maximum lift coefficients, and at much higher geometric angles of attack (43°), than would be expected from wings tested in a windtunnel simulating translating flight. It therefore appears that some high-lift mechanisms, possibly analogous to those of slow-flying insects, may be available for birds flapping with wings at high angles of attack. The net magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving pigeon wing can be determined from the differential pressure maps with a moderate degree of precision. With increasing angle of attack, variability in the pressure signals suddenly increases at an angle of attack between 33° and 38°, close to the angle of highest vertical force coefficient or lift coefficient; stall appears to be delayed compared with measurements from wings in windtunnels.
Notes on aerodynamic forces 1 : rectilinear motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munk, Max M
1922-01-01
The study of the motion of perfect fluids is of paramount importance for the understanding of the chief phenomena occurring in the air surrounding an aircraft, and for the numerical determination of their effects. The author recently successfully employed some simple methods for the investigation of the flow of a perfect fluid that have never been mentioned in connection with aeronautical problems. These methods appeal particularly to the engineer who is untrained in performing laborious mathematical computations, as they do away with these and allow one to obtain many interesting results by the mere application of some general and well-known principles of mechanics. Discussed here are the kinetic energy of moving fluids, the momentum of a body in a perfect fluid, two dimensional flow, three dimensional flow, and the distribution of the transverse forces of very elongated surfaces of revolution.
Aerodynamic forces and flow fields of a two-dimensional hovering wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lua, K. B.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.
2008-12-01
This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on a two-dimensional (2-D) wing undergoing symmetric simple harmonic flapping motion. The purpose of this investigation is to study how flapping frequency (or Reynolds number) and angular amplitude affect aerodynamic force generation and the associated flow field during flapping for Reynolds number ( Re) ranging from 663 to 2652, and angular amplitudes ( α A) of 30°, 45° and 60°. Our results support the findings of earlier studies that fluid inertia and leading edge vortices play dominant roles in the generation of aerodynamic forces. More importantly, time-resolved force coefficients during flapping are found to be more sensitive to changes in α A than in Re. In fact, a subtle change in α A may lead to considerable changes in the lift and drag coefficients, and there appears to be an optimal mean lift coefficient left( {overline {C_{{text{l}}} } } right) around α A = 45°, at least for the range of flow parameters considered here. This optimal condition coincides with the development a reverse Karman Vortex street in the wake, which has a higher jet stream than a vortex dipole at α A = 30° and a neutral wake structure at α A = 60°. Although Re has less effect on temporal force coefficients and the associated wake structures, increasing Re tends to equalize mean lift coefficients (and also mean drag coefficients) during downstroke and upstroke, thus suggesting an increasing symmetry in the mean force generation between these strokes. Although the current study deals with a 2-D hovering motion only, the unique force characteristics observed here, particularly their strong dependence on α A, may also occur in a three-dimensional hovering motion, and flying insects may well have taken advantage of these characteristics to help them to stay aloft and maneuver.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.
1976-01-01
Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Wind tunnels use scale models to characterize aerodynamic coefficients, Wind tunnel testing can be slow and costly due to high personnel overhead and intensive power utilization. Although manual curve fitting can be done, it is highly efficient to use a neural network to define the complex relationship between variables. Numerical simulation of complex vehicles on the wide range of conditions required for flight simulation requires static and dynamic data. Static data at low Mach numbers and angles of attack may be obtained with simpler Euler codes. Static data of stalled vehicles where zones of flow separation are usually present at higher angles of attack require Navier-Stokes simulations which are costly due to the large processing time required to attain convergence. Preliminary dynamic data may be obtained with simpler methods based on correlations and vortex methods; however, accurate prediction of the dynamic coefficients requires complex and costly numerical simulations. A reliable and fast method of predicting complex aerodynamic coefficients for flight simulation I'S presented using a neural network. The training data for the neural network are derived from numerical simulations and wind-tunnel experiments. The aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of the flow characteristics and the control surfaces of the vehicle. The basic coefficients of lift, drag and pitching moment are expressed as functions of angles of attack and Mach number. The modeled and training aerodynamic coefficients show good agreement. This method shows excellent potential for rapid development of aerodynamic models for flight simulation. Genetic Algorithms (GA) are used to optimize a previously built Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that reliably predicts aerodynamic coefficients. Results indicate that the GA provided an efficient method of optimizing the ANN model to predict aerodynamic coefficients. The reliability of the ANN using the GA includes prediction of aerodynamic
Training Data Requirement for a Neural Network to Predict Aerodynamic Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor); Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge
2003-01-01
Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angle of attack, speed brake deflection angle, Mach number, and side slip angle. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. We previously demonstrated that a neural network is a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients. We encountered few under fitted and/or over fitted results during prediction. The training data for the neural network are derived from wind tunnel test measurements and numerical simulations. The basic questions that arise are: how many training data points are required to produce an efficient neural network prediction, and which type of transfer functions should be used between the input-hidden layer and hidden-output layer. In this paper, a comparative study of the efficiency of neural network prediction based on different transfer functions and training dataset sizes is presented. The results of the neural network prediction reflect the sensitivity of the architecture, transfer functions, and training dataset size.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajkumar, T.; Aragon, Cecilia; Bardina, Jorge; Britten, Roy
2002-01-01
A fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. Basic aerodynamic coefficients (e.g. lift, drag, pitching moment) are modelled as functions of angle of attack and Mach number. The neural network is first trained on a relatively rich set of data from wind tunnel tests of numerical simulations to learn an overall model. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. A new set of data, which can be relatively sparse, is then supplied to the network to produce a new model consistent with the previous model and the new data. Because the new model interpolates realistically between the sparse test data points, it is suitable for use in piloted simulations. The genetic algorithm is used to choose a neural network architecture to give best results, avoiding over-and under-fitting of the test data.
Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines
Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.
1994-08-01
Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation`s energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.
Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.
1994-08-01
Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation's energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyadkin, A. A.; Khatuntseva, O. N.
2014-12-01
Analysis of experimental data shows that the nature of the oscillating motion of an aircraft does not depend uniquely on the value of the coefficients of aerodynamic damping derivatives. The present work makes an attempt to explain this phenomenon and develops a methodology to adequately characterize the oscillating motion of aircraft based on the analysis of the coefficients of aerodynamic damping derivatives.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elbanna, Hesham M.; Carlson, Leland A.
1992-01-01
The quasi-analytical approach is applied to the three-dimensional full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. Results are compared to those obtained by the direct finite difference approach and both methods are evaluated to determine their computational accuracy and efficiency. The quasi-analytical approach is shown to be accurate and efficient for large aerodynamic systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byun, Chansup; Farhangnia, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Kumar; Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Modem design requirements for an aircraft push current technologies used in the design process to their limit or sometimes require more advanced technologies to meet the requirement. New design requirements always demand to improve the operational performance. Accurate prediction of aerodynamic coefficients is essential to improve the performance. For example, in the design of an advanced subsonic civil transport, since the fluid flow at transonic regime shows strong nonlinearities, high fidelity equations, such as the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations predict flow characteristics more accurately than the linear aerodynamics, which are widely used in the current design process However, high fidelity flow equations are computationally expensive and require an order of magnitude longer time to obtain aerodynamic coefficients required in the design. Parallel computing is one possibility to cut down the computational turn-around time in using high fidelity equations so that high fidelity equations would be incorporated into the design process. By doing so, high fidelity equations would be used in the routine design process. This work will demonstrate the feasibility of using high fidelity flow equations in a design process by computing aerodynamic influence coefficients of a wing-body-empennage configuration on a multiple-instruction, multiple-data parallel computer.
Investigation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics by an experimental influence coefficient technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1988-01-01
Fundamental experiments are performed in the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade Facility to investigate the torsion mode unsteady aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade at realistic values of the reduced frequency for all interblade phase angles at a specified mean flow condition. In particular, an unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is developed and utilized in which only one airfoil in the cascade is oscillated at a time and the resulting airfoil surface unsteady pressure distribution measured on one dynamically instrumented airfoil. The unsteady aerodynamics of an equivalent cascade with all airfoils oscillating at a specified interblade phase angle are then determined through a vector summation of these data. These influence coefficient determined oscillation cascade data are correlated with data obtained in this cascade with all airfoils oscillating at several interblade phase angle values. The influence coefficients are then utilized to determine the unsteady aerodynamics of the cascade for all interblade phase angles, with these unique data subsequently correlated with predictions from a linearized unsteady cascade model.
Aerodynamic forces and vortical structures in flapping butterfly's forward flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Naoto; Senda, Kei; Iima, Makoto; Hirai, Norio
2013-02-01
Forward flights of a bilaterally symmetrically flapping butterfly modeled as a four-link rigid-body system consisting of a thorax, an abdomen, and left and right wings are numerically simulated. The joint motions of the butterflies are adopted from experimental observations. Three kinds of the simulations, distinguished by ways to determine the position and attitude of the thorax, are carried out: a tethered simulation, a prescribed simulation, and free-flight simulations. The upward and streamwise forces as well as the wake structures in the tethered simulation, where the thorax of the butterfly is fixed, reasonably agree with those in the corresponding tethered experiment. In the prescribed simulation, where the thoracic trajectories as well as the joint angles are given by those observed in a free-flight experiment, it is confirmed that the butterfly can produce enough forces to achieve the flapping flights. Moreover, coherent vortical structures in the wake and those on the wings are identified. The generation of the aerodynamic forces due to the vortical structures are also clarified. In the free-flight simulation, where only the joint angles are given as periodic functions of time, it is found that the free flight is longitudinally unstable because the butterfly cannot maintain the attitude in a proper range. Focusing on the abdominal mass, which largely varies owing to feeding and metabolizing, we have shown that the abdominal motion plays an important role in periodic flights. The necessity of control of the thoracic attitude for periodic flights and maneuverability is also discussed.
Prediction of force coefficients for labyrinth seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, O. W. K.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Czajkowski, E.
1984-01-01
The development of a linear model for the prediction of labyrinth seal forces and on its comparison to available stiffness data is presented. A discussion of the relevance of fluid damping forces and the preliminary stages of a program to obtain data on these forces are examined. Fluid-dynamic forces arising from nonuniform pressure patterns in labyrinth seal glands are known to be potentially destablizing in high power turbomachinery. A well documented case in point is that of the space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. Seal forces are also an important factor for the stability of shrouded turbines, acting in that case in conjunction with the effects of blade-tip clearance variations.
Experimental characterization of high speed centrifugal compressor aerodynamic forcing functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallier, Kirk
The most common and costly unexpected post-development gas turbine engine reliability issue is blade failure due to High Cycle Fatigue (HCF). HCF in centrifugal compressors is a coupled nonlinear fluid-structure problem for which understanding of the phenomenological root causes is incomplete. The complex physics of this problem provides significant challenges for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. Furthermore, the available literature fails to address the flow field associated with the diffuser potential field, a primary cause of forced impeller vibration. Because of the serious nature of HCF, the inadequacy of current design approaches to predict HCF, and the fundamental lack of benchmark experiments to advance the design practices, there exists a need to build a database of information specific to the nature of the diffuser generated forcing function as a foundation for understanding flow induced blade vibratory failure. The specific aim of this research is to address the fundamental nature of the unsteady aerodynamic interaction phenomena inherent in high-speed centrifugal compressors wherein the impeller exit flow field is dynamically modulated by the vaned diffuser potential field or shock structure. The understanding of this unsteady aerodynamic interaction is fundamental to characterizing the impeller forcing function. Unsteady static pressure measurement at several radial and circumferential locations in the vaneless space offer a depiction of pressure field radial decay, circumferential variation and temporal fluctuation. These pressure measurements are coupled with high density, full field measurement of the velocity field within the diffuser vaneless space at multiple spanwise positions. The velocity field and unsteady pressure field are shown to be intimately linked. A strong momentum gradient exiting the impeller is shown to extend well across the vaneless space and interact with the diffuser vane leading edge. The deterministic unsteady
Aerodynamics of Dragonfly in Forward Flight: Force measurements and PIV results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zheng; Deng, Xinyan
2009-11-01
We used a pair of dynamically scaled robotic dragonfly model wings to investigate the aerodynamic effects of wing-wing interaction in dragonflies. We follow the wing kinematics of real dragonflies in forward flight, while systematically varied the phase difference between the forewing and hindwing. Instantaneous aerodynamic forces and torques were measured on both wings, while flow visualization and PIV results were obtained. The results show that, in forward flight, wing-wing interaction always enhances the aerodynamic forces on the forewing through an upwash brought by the hindwing, while reduces the forces on the hindwing through a downwash brought by the forewing.
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1994-01-01
The primary accomplishments of the project are as follows: (1) Using the transonic small perturbation equation as a flowfield model, the project demonstrated that the quasi-analytical method could be used to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for airfoils at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic conditions for design variables such as Mach number, airfoil thickness, maximum camber, angle of attack, and location of maximum camber. It was established that the quasi-analytical approach was an accurate method for obtaining aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for airfoils at transonic conditions and usually more efficient than the finite difference approach. (2) The usage of symbolic manipulation software to determine the appropriate expressions and computer coding associated with the quasi-analytical method for sensitivity derivatives was investigated. Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, it was determined that symbolic manipulation along with a chain rule approach was extremely useful in developing a combined flowfield and quasi-analytical sensitivity derivative code capable of considering a large number of realistic design variables. (3) Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, the quasi-analytical method was applied to swept wings (i.e. three dimensional) at transonic flow conditions. (4) The incremental iterative technique has been applied to the three dimensional transonic nonlinear small perturbation flowfield formulation, an equivalent plate deflection model, and the associated aerodynamic and structural discipline sensitivity equations; and coupled aeroelastic results for an aspect ratio three wing in transonic flow have been obtained.
Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. I - Forcing functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1992-01-01
The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The measured unsteady flow fields are compared to linear-theory gust requirements. The perforated plate forcing functions closely resemble linear-theory forcing functions, with the static pressure fluctuations small and the periodic velocity vectors parallel to the downstream mean-relative flow angle over the entire periodic cycle. The airfoil forcing functions exhibit characteristics far from linear-theory gusts, with the alignment of the velocity vectors and the static pressure fluctuation amplitudes dependent on the rotor-loading condition, rotor solidity, and the inlet mean-relative flow angle. It is shown that airfoil wakes, both compressor and turbine, cannot be modeled with the boundary conditions of current state-of-the-art linear unsteady aerodynamic theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2009-01-01
Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed
Aerodynamic forces induced by controlled transitory flow on a body of revolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinehart, Christopher S.
The aerodynamic forces and moments on an axisymmetric body of revolution are controlled in a low-speed wind tunnel by induced local flow attachment. Control is effected by an array of aft-facing synthetic jets emanating from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots embedded within an axisymmetric backward facing step. The actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along a rear Coanda surface and induced asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments. The observed effects are investigated in both quasi-steady and transient states, with emphasis on parametric dependence. It is shown that the magnitude of the effected forces can be substantially increased by slight variations of the Coanda surface geometry. Force and velocity measurements are used to elucidate the mechanisms by which the synthetic jets produce asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments, demonstrating a novel method to steer axisymmetric bodies during flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heck, M. L.; Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.
1983-01-01
The Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (ACIP) is an instrument consisting of body mounted linear accelerometers, rate gyros, and angular accelerometers for measuring the Space Shuttle vehicular dynamics. The high rate recorded data are utilized for postflight aerodynamic coefficient extraction studies. Although consistent with pre-mission accuracies specified by the manufacturer, the ACIP data were found to contain detectable levels of systematic error, primarily bias, as well as scale factor, static misalignment, and temperature dependent errors. This paper summarizes the technique whereby the systematic ACIP error sources were detected, identified, and calibrated with the use of recorded dynamic data from the low rate, highly accurate Inertial Measurement Units.
Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies.
Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao
2013-12-01
Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother. PMID:24132205
Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies
Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao
2013-01-01
Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10–14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5–10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the ‘fling’ mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother. PMID:24132205
Bishop, Kristin L
2007-08-01
Gliding has often been discussed in the literature as a possible precursor to powered flight in vertebrates, but few studies exist on the mechanics of gliding in living animals. In this study I analyzed the 3D kinematics of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) during short glides in an enclosed space. Short segments of the glide were captured on video, and the positions of marked anatomical landmarks were used to compute linear distances and angles, as well as whole body velocities and accelerations. From the whole body accelerations I estimated the aerodynamic forces generated by the animals. I computed the correlations between movements of the limbs and body rotations to examine the control of orientation during flight. Finally, I compared these results to those of my earlier study on the similarly sized and distantly related southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). The sugar gliders in this study accelerated downward slightly (1.0+/-0.5 m s(-2)), and also accelerated forward (2.1+/-0.6 m s(-2)) in all but one trial, indicating that the body weight was not fully supported by aerodynamic forces and that some of the lift produced forward acceleration rather than just balancing body weight. The gliders used high angles of attack (44.15+/-3.12 degrees ), far higher than the angles at which airplane wings would stall, yet generated higher lift coefficients (1.48+/-0.18) than would be expected for a stalled wing. Movements of the limbs were strongly correlated with body rotations, suggesting that sugar gliders make extensive use of limb movements to control their orientation during gliding flight. In addition, among individuals, different limb movements were associated with a given body rotation, suggesting that individual variation exists in the control of body rotations. Under similar conditions, flying squirrels generated higher lift coefficients and lower drag coefficients than sugar gliders, yet had only marginally shallower glides. Flying squirrels have a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. Jane; Russell, David
2007-10-01
Dragonflies are four-winged insects that have the ability to control aerodynamic performance by modulating the phase lag (ϕ) between forewings and hindwings. We film the wing motion of a tethered dragonfly and compute the aerodynamic force and power as a function of the phase. We find that the out-of-phase motion as seen in steady hovering uses nearly minimal power to generate the required force to balance the weight, and the in-phase motion seen in takeoffs provides an additional force to accelerate. We explain the main hydrodynamic interaction that causes this phase dependence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji
A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.
Modal forced vibration analysis of aerodynamically excited turbosystems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elchuri, V.
1985-01-01
Theoretical aspects of a new capability to determine the vibratory response of turbosystems subjected to aerodynamic excitation are presented. Turbosystems such as advanced turbopropellers with highly swept blades, and axial-flow compressors and turbines can be analyzed using this capability. The capability has been developed and implemented in the April 1984 release of the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN. The dynamic response problem is addressed in terms of the normal modal coordinates of these tuned rotating cyclic structures. Both rigid and flexible hubs/disks are considered. Coriolis and centripetal accelerations, as well as differential stiffness effects are included. Generally non-uniform steady inflow fields and uniform flow fields arbitrarily inclined at small angles with respect to the axis of rotation of the turbosystem are considered sources of aerodynamic excitation. The spatial non-uniformities are considered to be small deviations from a principally uniform inflow. Subsonic and supersonic relative inflows are addressed, with provision for linearly interpolating transonic airloads.
The roles of aerodynamic and inertial forces on maneuverability in flapping flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vejdani, Hamid; Boerma, David; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth
2015-11-01
We investigate the relative contributions of aerodynamic and the whole-body dynamics in generating extreme maneuvers. We developed a 3D dynamical model of a body (trunk) and two rectangular wings using a Lagrangian formulation. The trunk has 6 degrees of freedom and each wing has 4 degrees of actuation (flapping, sweeping, wing pronation/supination and wing extension/flexion) and can be massless (like insect wings) or relatively massive (like bats). To estimate aerodynamic forces, we use a blade element method; drag and lift are calculated using a quasi-steady model. We validated our model using several benchmark tests, including gliding and hovering motion. To understand the roles of aerodynamic and inertial forces, we start the investigation by constraining the wing motion to flapping and wing length extension/flexion motion. This decouples the trunk degrees of freedom and affects only roll motion. For bats' dynamics (massive wings), the model is much more maneuverable than the insect dynamics case, and the effect of inertial forces dominates the behavior of the system. The role of the aerodynamic forces increases when the wings have sweeping and flapping motion, which affects the pitching motion of the body. We also analyzed the effect of all wing motions together on the behavior of the model in the presence and in the absence of aerodynamic forces.
Modeling of Aerodynamic Force Acting in Tunnel for Analysis of Riding Comfort in a Train
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikko, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Katsuya; Sakanoue, Kei; Nanba, Kouichiro
In this paper, we aimed to model the aerodynamic force that acts on a train running at high speed in a tunnel. An analytical model of the aerodynamic force is developed from pressure data measured on car-body sides of a test train running at the maximum revenue operation speed. The simulation of an 8-car train running while being subjected to the modeled aerodynamic force gives the following results. The simulated car-body vibration corresponds to the actual vibration both qualitatively and quantitatively for the cars at the rear of the train. The separation of the airflow at the tail-end of the train increases the yawing vibration of the tail-end car while it has little effect on the car-body vibration of the adjoining car. Also, the effect of the moving velocity of the aerodynamic force on the car-body vibration is clarified that the simulation under the assumption of a stationary aerodynamic force can markedly increase the car-body vibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
澤田, 秀夫
The aerodynamic performance of an AGARD-B model, as an example of a winged model, was measured in a low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the JAXA 60cm Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The flow speed was in the range between 25m/s and 35m/s, and the angle of attack and the yaw angle were in the range of [- 8, 4] and [- 3, 3] degrees, respectively. Six components of the aerodynamic force were evaluated by using the control coil currents of the MSBS. In evaluating the drag, the effect of the lift on the drag must be evaluated at MSBS when the lift is much larger than drag. A new evaluation method for drag and lift was proposed and was examined successfully by subjecting the model to the same loads as in the wind tunnel test. The drag coefficient at zero lift and the derivatives of the lift and pitching moment coefficient with respect to the angle of attack were evaluated and compared with other source data sets. The obtained data agreed well with the corresponding values of the other sources. The side force, yawing moment and rolling moment coefficients were also evaluated on the basis of corresponding calibration test results, and reasonable results were obtained, although they could not be compared due to the lack of reliable data sets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z. Jane
2013-05-01
Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card.
Optimal flapping wing for maximum vertical aerodynamic force in hover: twisted or flat?
Phan, Hoang Vu; Truong, Quang Tri; Au, Thi Kim Loan; Park, Hoon Cheol
2016-01-01
This work presents a parametric study, using the unsteady blade element theory, to investigate the role of twist in a hovering flapping wing. For the investigation, a flapping-wing system was developed to create a wing motion of large flapping amplitude. Three-dimensional kinematics of a passively twisted wing, which is capable of creating a linearly variable geometric angle of attack (AoA) along the wingspan, was measured during the flapping motion and used for the analysis. Several negative twist or wash-out configurations with different values of twist angle, which is defined as the difference in the average geometric AoAs at the wing root and the wing tip, were obtained from the measured wing kinematics through linear interpolation and extrapolation. The aerodynamic force generation and aerodynamic power consumption of these twisted wings were obtained and compared with those of flat wings. For the same aerodynamic power consumption, the vertical aerodynamic forces produced by the negatively twisted wings are approximately 10%-20% less than those produced by the flat wings. However, these twisted wings require approximately 1%-6% more power than flat wings to produce the same vertical force. In addition, the maximum-force-producing twisted wing, which was found to be the positive twist or wash-in configuration, was used for comparison with the maximum-force-producing flat wing. The results revealed that the vertical aerodynamic force and aerodynamic power consumption of the two types of wings are almost identical for the hovering condition. The power loading of the positively twisted wing is only approximately 2% higher than that of the maximum-force-producing flat wing. Thus, the flat wing with proper wing kinematics (or wing rotation) can be regarded as a simple and efficient candidate for the development of hovering flapping-wing micro air vehicle. PMID:27387833
Analysis of the aerodynamic force in an eye-stabilized flapping flyer.
Su, Jian-Yuan; Yang, Jing-Tang
2013-12-01
Experimental methods and related theories to evaluate the lift force for a flyer are established, but one can traditionally acquire only the magnitude of that lift. We here proffer an analysis based on kinematic theory and experimental visualization of the flow to complete a treatment of the aerodynamic force affecting a hovering flyer that generates a lift force approximately equal to its weight, and remains nearly stationary in midair; the center and direction of the aerodynamic force are accordingly determined with some assumptions made. The principal condition to resolve the problem is the stabilization of the vision of a flyer, which is inspired by a hovering passerine that experiences a substantial upward swing during downstroke periods while its eye remains stabilized. Viewing the aerodynamic force with a bird's eye, we find that the center and direction of this aerodynamic force vary continuously with respect to the lift force. Our results provide practical guidance for engineers to enhance the visual stability of surveillance cameras incorporated in micro aerial vehicles. PMID:24200672
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richard, M.; Harrison, B. A.
1979-01-01
The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.
Transitory Aerodynamic Forces on a Body of Revolution using Synthetic Jet Actuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinehart, Christopher; McMichael, James; Glezer, Ari
2002-11-01
The aerodynamic forces and moments on axisymmetric bodies at subsonic speeds are controlled by exploiting local flow attachment using fluidic (synthetic jet) actuation and thereby altering the apparent aerodynamic shape of the surface. Control is effected upstream of the base of the body by an azimuthal array of individually-controlled, aft-facing synthetic jets emanating along an azimuthal Coanda surface. Actuation produces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments, with ratios of lift to average jet momentum approaching values typical of conventional jet-based circulation control on two-dimensional airfoils. Momentary forces are achieved using transient (pulsed) actuation and are accompanied by the formation and shedding of vorticity concentrations as a precursor to the turning of the outer flow into the wake region.
Determining aerodynamic coefficients from high speed video of a free-flying model in a shock tunnel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neely, Andrew J.; West, Ivan; Hruschka, Robert; Park, Gisu; Mudford, Neil R.
2008-11-01
This paper describes the application of the free flight technique to determine the aerodynamic coefficients of a model for the flow conditions produced in a shock tunnel. Sting-based force measurement techniques either lack the required temporal response or are restricted to large complex models. Additionally the free flight technique removes the flow interference produced by the sting that is present for these other techniques. Shock tunnel test flows present two major challenges to the practical implementation of the free flight technique. These are the millisecond-order duration of the test flows and the spatial and temporal nonuniformity of these flows. These challenges are overcome by the combination of an ultra-high speed digital video camera to record the trajectory, with spatial and temporal mapping of the test flow conditions. Use of a lightweight model ensures sufficient motion during the test time. The technique is demonstrated using the simple case of drag measurement on a spherical model, free flown in a Mach 10 shock tunnel condition.
Direct measurements of controlled aerodynamic forces on a wire-suspended axisymmetric body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari
2011-06-01
A novel in-line miniature force transducer is developed for direct measurements of the net aerodynamic forces and moments on a bluff body. The force transducers are integrated into each of the eight mounting wires that are utilized for suspension of an axisymmetric model in a wind tunnel having minimal wake interference. The aerodynamic forces and moments on the model are altered by induced active local attachment of the separated base flow. Fluidic control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jet actuators that emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end. The jet orifices are embedded within a small backward-facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The altered flow dynamics associated with both quasi-steady and transitory asymmetric activation of the flow control effect is characterized by direct force and PIV measurements.
Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S
2014-06-01
Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. PMID:24851830
Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report
Kale, S.R.
1987-10-01
An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roskam, J.
1972-01-01
Expressions are derived for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix for nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations. An aerodynamic influence coefficient is defined as the load in lbs. induced on a panel as a result of a unit angle of attack on another panel. Fuselage, wing and tail thickness are assumed to be small with the result that the thickness effect on the flow-field is negligible. The method for determining the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is based on the lifting solution to the small perturbation, steady potential flow equation.
Maximum Aerodynamic Force on an Ascending Space Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backman, Philip
2012-03-01
The March 2010 issue of The Physics Teacher includes a great article by Metz and Stinner on the kinematics and dynamics of a space shuttle launch. Within those pages is a brief mention of an event known in the language of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as "maximum dynamic pressure" (called simply "Max.AirPressure" in the article), where the combined effect of air density and the shuttles speed produce the greatest aerodynamic stress on the vehicle as it ascends through the atmosphere toward orbit. Official commentary during a launch2 refers to this point in the ascent with language such as "space shuttle main engines throttling back as vehicle enters area of maximum dynamic pressure" and occurs in a range between 45 and 60 s after launch. (In dealing with this stress, the space shuttles main engines reduce their thrust at approximately 45 s to reduce acceleration, and return to normal levels again some 15 s later as maximum dynamic pressure is traversed.) This paper presents an analysis, accessible to introductory-level students, that predicts the time of Max. AirPressure for a given ascending spacecraft.
Dynamic control of aerodynamic forces on a moving platform using active flow control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzozowski, Daniel P.
The unsteady interaction between trailing edge aerodynamic flow control and airfoil motion in pitch and plunge is investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a two degree-of-freedom traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the trailing edge of the airfoil using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The effect of the unsteady motion on the model-embedded flow control is assessed in both trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection maneuvers. The time-varying aerodynamic lift and pitching moment are estimated from a PIV wake survey using a reduced order model based on classical unsteady aerodynamic theory. These measurements suggest that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within 2--3 convective time scales, which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.
Asymmetric aerodynamic forces on aircraft at high angles of attack - some design guides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, G. T.; Keener, E. R.; Malcolm, G. N.
1976-01-01
Aerodynamic side forces on forebodies are considered that are produced by two types of flow: asymmetric vortices on bodies of revolution and nonuniform flow separation on square bodies with rounded corners under spinning conditions. Steady side forces that can be as large as the normal force are produced by asymmetric vortices on pointed forebodies. This side force has a large variation with Reynolds number, decreases rapidly with Mach number, and can be nearly eliminated with small nose bluntness or strakes. The angle of attack where the side force first occurs depends primarily on body geometry. The theoretical techniques to predict these side forces are necessarily semi-empirical because the basic phenomenon is not well understood. The side forces produced by nonuniform flow separation under spinning conditions depend extensively on spin rate, angle of attack, and Reynolds number. The application of simple crossflow theory to predict this side force is inadequate much below angles of attack of 90 deg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.
1979-01-01
The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.
Estimating unsteady aerodynamic forces on a cascade in a three-dimensional turbulence field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, T.; Johnson, W.
1985-01-01
An analytical method has been developed to estimate the unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by flow field turbulence on a wind tunnel turning vane cascade system (vane set). This method approximates dynamic lift and drag by linearly perturbing the appropriate steady state force equations, assuming that the dynamic loads are due only to free stream turbulence and that this turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and Gaussian. Correlation and unsteady aerodynamic effects are also incorporated into the analytical model. Using these assumptions, equations relating dynamic lift and drag to flow turbulence, mean velocity, and vane set geometry are derived. From these equations, estimates for the power spectra and rms (root mean squared value, delta) loading of both lift and drag can be determined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.
1979-01-01
The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.
Numerical Simulation of Flow and Determination of Aerodynamic Forces in the Balanced Control Valve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matas, R.; Straka, F.; Hoznedl, M.
2013-04-01
The contribution subscribes a numerical simulation of a steam flow through a balanced control valve. The influence of some parameters in simulations were tested, analyzed and discussed. As a result of the simulations a graph of aerodynamics forces for a specific turbine characteristic was obtained. The results from numerical simulations were compared with results from experiments. The experiment was performed with an air flow, but the final data were converted with a criterion to steam flow.
Method for estimating the aerodynamic coefficients of wind turbine blades at high angles of attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beans, E. W.; Jakubowski, G. S.
1983-12-01
The method is based on the hypothesis that at high angles of attack the force on an airfoil is produced by the deflection of the fluid across the lower surface. It is also hypothesized that all airfoils behave the same regardless of shape and that the effects of circulation and skin friction are small. It is pointed out that the expression for the force N normal to the airfoil due to momentum exchange can be written in terms of the component parallel to the flow (drag) and the component perpendicular to the flow (lift). A comparison of estimated values with measured values and generally accepted data indicates that the method given here estimates coefficients which are low. It is thought that the difference may derive from the persistence of circulation at high angles of attack. Low estimates are not seen as a serious limitation to the designer of wind turbines. Owing to the fifth power diameter relation, the effect of a low estimate of performance on the inner portion of the blade is minimized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandekreeke, C.; Verriere, J.; Quemard, G.
1987-01-01
The effects the single-bottom support masts used in the ONERA S1 and S4 wind tunnels have on aerodynamic data collected with scale model aircraft were examined experimentally and analytically. Systematic studies were performed on the flow characteristics around different diameters for the mounts. Scaling methods used to make data from one wind tunnel correspond to data from the other are described. Airbus 320 models were introduced into the tests and mast-body flow interactions were observed. A summary is presented of restrictions on the mast diameters, relative to cylindrical model diameters, which will minimize the effects the masts have on longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madanu, Sushma B.; Barbel, Stanley I.; Ward, Thomas
2016-06-01
In this paper, transverse vibrations of an electrostatically actuated thin flexible cantilever perturbed by low-speed air flow are studied using both experiments and numerical modeling. In the experiments, the dynamic characteristics of the cantilever are studied by supplying a DC voltage with an AC component for electrostatic forcing and a constant uniform air flow around the cantilever system for aerodynamic forcing. A range of control parameters leading to stable vibrations are established using a dimensionless operating parameter that is the ratio of the induced and the free stream velocities. Numerical results are validated with experimental data. Assuming the amplitude of vibrations are small, then a non-linear dynamic Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with viscous damping and gravitational effects is used to model the equation of motion. Aerodynamic forcing is modelled as a temporally sinusoidal and uniform force acting perpendicular to the beam length. The forcing amplitude is found to be proportional to the square of the air flow velocity. Numerical results strongly agree with the experiments predicting accurate vibration amplitude, displacement frequency, and quasi-periodic displacement of the cantilever tip.
Madanu, Sushma B; Barbel, Stanley I; Ward, Thomas
2016-06-01
In this paper, transverse vibrations of an electrostatically actuated thin flexible cantilever perturbed by low-speed air flow are studied using both experiments and numerical modeling. In the experiments, the dynamic characteristics of the cantilever are studied by supplying a DC voltage with an AC component for electrostatic forcing and a constant uniform air flow around the cantilever system for aerodynamic forcing. A range of control parameters leading to stable vibrations are established using a dimensionless operating parameter that is the ratio of the induced and the free stream velocities. Numerical results are validated with experimental data. Assuming the amplitude of vibrations are small, then a non-linear dynamic Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with viscous damping and gravitational effects is used to model the equation of motion. Aerodynamic forcing is modelled as a temporally sinusoidal and uniform force acting perpendicular to the beam length. The forcing amplitude is found to be proportional to the square of the air flow velocity. Numerical results strongly agree with the experiments predicting accurate vibration amplitude, displacement frequency, and quasi-periodic displacement of the cantilever tip. PMID:27368778
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madanu, Sushma Bala
Transverse vibrations of an electrostatically actuated thin flexible cantilever perturbed by low-speed air flow is studied using both experiments and numerical modeling. In the experiments the dynamic characteristics of the cantilever are studied by supplying a DC voltage with an AC component for electrostatic forcing and a constant uniform air flow around the cantilever system for aerodynamic forcing. The maximum voltage applied varies from 1 - 9 kV and air flow speeds range from 0.224 - 3.58 m/s (0.5 - 8 mile/hr). The Reynolds numbers for these speeds lie in the range of 1000 - 20000. A range of control parameters leading to stable vibrations are established using the Strouhal number as the operating parameter whose inverse values change from 100 - 2500. The Numerical results are validated with experimental results. Assuming the amplitude of vibrations are small, then a non-linear dynamic Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with viscous damping and gravitational effects is used to model the vibrations of the dynamical system. Aerodynamic forcing is modeled as a temporally sinusoidal and uniform force acting perpendicular to the beam length. The forcing amplitude is found to be proportional to square of air flow velocity by obtaining relationship between the experimental amplitude of vibrations and air flow velocity. Numerical results strongly agree with those of experiments predicting accurate vibration amplitudes, displacement frequency and quasi-periodic displacements of the cantilever tip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, William L.
1989-01-01
Two scaled models of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle were tested in two air wind tunnels and one CF4 tunnel. The tests were to determine the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, and shock shapes for the configuration in hypersonic continuum flow. The tests were conducted with a range of angle of attack to evaluate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds numbers, and normal shock density ratio.
Aerodynamic force variation in an inclined hovering motion by kinematic and geometric controls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon
2009-11-01
Due to the excellent flight capability with a high maneuverability, dragonfly flight has been a great interest in various fields. In the present study, we construct a one-paired dynamically scaled dragonfly wing model, perform an inclined hovering motion by wing flapping in a white-oil tank, and measure the normal and tangential forces on the wing. First, we investigate the effect of kinematic parameters of wing motion such as the attack angle (α), pitching duration, pitching timing, etc. The Reynolds number is 1,900 or 2,430 depending on the wing shape. We find that the aerodynamic forces vary greatly with these kinematic parameters. On the other hand, the corrugation on the wing surface has been found to increase the lift force in gliding flight. In this study, we investigate the effect of surface corrugation on the force of the flapping wing. With the corrugation, the drag force slightly increases during a downstroke (high α) and the lift force increases during an upstroke (small α), respectively, resulting in the increase of the mean vertical force by 10 ˜30% depending on the wing trajectory. We further investigate the force variation by kinematic and geometric controls using flow visualization and the result will be shown in the presentation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hawkins, Richard; Penland, Jim A.
1997-01-01
Observations have been made and reported that the experimental normal force coefficients at a constant angle of attack were constant with a variation of more than 2 orders of magnitude of Reynolds number at a free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) of 8.00 and more than 1 order of magnitude variation at M(sub infinity) = 6.00 on the same body-wing hypersonic cruise configuration. These data were recorded under laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer conditions with both hot-wall and cold-wall models. This report presents experimental data on 25 configurations of 17 models of both simple and complex geometry taken at M(sub infinity) = 6.00, 6.86, and 8.00 in 4 different hypersonic facilities. Aerodynamic calculations were made by computational fluid dynamics (CID) and engineering methods to analyze these data. The conclusions were that the normal force coefficients at a given altitude are constant with Reynolds numbers at hypersonic speeds and that the axial force coefficients recorded under laminar boundary-layer conditions at several Reynolds numbers may be plotted against the laminar parameter (the reciprocal of the Reynolds number to the one-half power) and extrapolated to the ordinate axis to determine the inviscid-wave-drag coefficient at the intercept.
An integrated CFD/experimental analysis of aerodynamic forces and moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Robertson, David D.; Moyer, Seth A.
1989-01-01
Aerodynamic analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is most fruitful when it is combined with a thorough program of wind tunnel testing. The understanding of aerodynamic phenomena is enhanced by the synergistic use of both analysis methods. A technique is described for an integrated approach to determining the forces and moments acting on a wind tunnel model by using a combination of experimentally measured pressures and CFD predictions. The CFD code used was FLO57 (an Euler solver) and the wind tunnel model was a heavily instrumented delta wing with 62.5 deg of leading-edge sweep. A thorough comparison of the CFD results and the experimental data is presented for surface pressure distributions and longitudinal forces and moments. The experimental pressures were also integrated over the surface of the model and the resulting forces and moments are compared to the CFD and wind tunnel results. The accurate determination of various drag increments via the combined use of the CFD and experimental pressures is presented in detail.
Investigation on the forced response of a radial turbine under aerodynamic excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Chaochen; Huang, Zhi; Qi, Mingxu
2016-04-01
Rotor blades in a radial turbine with nozzle guide vanes typically experience harmonic aerodynamic excitations due to the rotor stator interaction. Dynamic stresses induced by the harmonic excitations can result in high cycle fatigue (HCF) of the blades. A reliable prediction method for forced response issue is essential to avoid the HCF problem. In this work, the forced response mechanisms were investigated based on a fluid structure interaction (FSI) method. Aerodynamic excitations were obtained by three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with phase shifted periodic boundary conditions. The first two harmonic pressures were determined as the primary components of the excitation and applied to finite element (FE) model to conduct the computational structural dynamics (CSD) simulation. The computed results from the harmonic forced response analysis show good agreement with the predictions of Singh's advanced frequency evaluation (SAFE) diagram. Moreover, the mode superposition method used in FE simulation offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of mode response levels and resonant strength.
Aerodynamic force measurements with a strain-gage balance in a cryogenic wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyden, R. P.; Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Ferris, A. T.
1983-01-01
Aerodynamic force measurements on a generalized 75 deg delta wing model with sharp leading edges were made with a three component internal strain gage balance in a cryogenic wind tunnel at stagnation temperatures of 300 K, 200 K, and 110 K. The feasibility of using a strain gage balance without thermal control in a cryogenic environment as well as the use of electrical resistance heaters, an insulator between the model and the balance, and a convection shield on the balance was investigated. Force and moment data on the delta wing model as measured by the balance are compared at the different temperatures while holding constant either the Reynolds number or the tunnel stagnation pressure. Tests were made at Mach numbers of 0.3 and 0.5 and at angles of attack up to 29 deg. The results indicate that it is feasible to acquire accurate force and moment data while operating at steady state thermal conditions in a cryogenic wind tunnel, either with or without electrical heaters on the balance. Within the limits of the balance accuracy, there were no apparent Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamic results for the delta wind model.
Aerodynamic design of a Coanda induced force and thruster anti-torque system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Velkoff, Henry R.; Tung, Chee
1991-01-01
A general method of analysis of the external and internal aerodynamics of a generic Coanda induced circulation anti-torque system is presented. The technique gives moment about the yaw axis and download induced on the boom as well as the force developed by an aft jet. The external flows including downwash, wake swirl and the boom circulation are considered. The internal flow and losses through the duct, fan, blown slots, cascades and nozzle are considered on a step-by-step basis. Limited comparison is made with open data where available.
Analysis of preflutter and postflutter characteristics with motion-matched aerodynamic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, H. J.
1978-01-01
The development of the equations of dynamic equilibrium for a lifting surface from Lagrange's equation is reviewed and restated for general exponential growing and decaying oscillatory motion. Aerodynamic forces for this motion are obtained from the three-dimensional supersonic kernel function that is newly generalized to complex reduced frequencies. Illustrative calculations were made for two flutter models at supersonic Mach numbers. Preflutter and postflutter motion isodecrement curves were obtained. This type of analysis can be used to predict preflutter behavior during flutter testing and to predict postflutter behavior for use in the design of flutter suppression systems.
Simultaneous measurement of aerodynamic forces and kinematics in flapping wings of tethered locust.
Shkarayev, Sergey; Kumar, Rajeev
2015-12-01
Aerodynamic and inertial forces and corresponding kinematics of flapping wings of locusts, Schistocerca americana, were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. The experimental setup included live locusts mounted on microbalance synchronized with a high-speed video system. Simultaneous measurements of wing kinematics and forces were carried out on three locusts at 7° angle of attack and velocities of 0 m s(-1) and 4 m s(-1). Time variations of flapping and pitching angles exhibit similar patterns in fore- and hindwings and among the animals. Significant tip to root variations in pitching angle are found in both wings. The locusts have much larger flapping and pitching amplitudes in still air causing larger oscillations in inertial forces. Inertial forces are added to the lift and thrust on one part of the stroke, resulting in higher reaction forces and subtracted on the other part. Plots of the lift demonstrate similar trends with and without the wind. The global maxima and peak-to-peak amplitudes in lift are about the same in both tests. However, local minima are significantly lower in still air, resulting in much smaller stroke-averaged lift. Amplitudes of thrust force oscillations are much higher in still air; consequently, the stroke-averaged thrust is higher compared to the non-zero freestream velocity case. PMID:26496206
Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.
2012-01-01
Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. L.; Suit, W. T.
1974-01-01
A parameter-extraction algorithm was used to determine the lateral aerodynamic derivatives from flight data for the F-8 aircraft with supercritical wing. The flight data used were the recorded responses to aileron or rudder pulses for Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.90, and 0.98. Results of this study showed that a set of derivatives were determined which yielded a calculated aircraft response almost identical with the response measured in flight. Derivatives extracted from motion resulting from rudder inputs were somewhat different from those resulting from aileron inputs. It was found that the derivatives obtained from the rudder-input data were highly correlated in some instances. Those from the aileron input had very low correlations and appeared to be the more reliable.
Generalize aerodynamic coefficient table storage, checkout and interpolation for aircraft simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neuman, F.; Warner, N.
1973-01-01
The set of programs described has been used for rapidly introducing, checking out and very efficiently using aerodynamic tables in complex aircraft simulations on the IBM 360. The preprocessor program reads in tables with different names and dimensions and stores then on disc storage according to the specified dimensions. The tables are read in from IBM cards in a format which is convenient to reduce the data from the original graphs. During table processing, new auxiliary tables are generated which are required for table cataloging and for efficient interpolation. In addition, DIMENSION statements for the tables as well as READ statements are punched so that they may be used in other programs for readout of the data from disc without chance of programming errors. A quick data checking graphical output for all tables is provided in a separate program.
Analysis of Dragonfly Take-off Mechanism: Initial Impulse Generated by Aerodynamic Forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ruijie; Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Team
2013-11-01
Take-off is a critical part of insect flight due to not only that every single flight initiates from take-off, but also that the take-off period, despite its short duration, accounts for a relatively large fraction of the total energy consumption. Thus, studying the mechanism of insect take-off will help to improve the design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) in two major properties, the success rate and the energy efficiency of take-off. In this work, we study 20 cases in which dragonflies (species including Pachydiplax longipennis, Epitheca Cynosura, Epitheca princeps etc.) take off from designed platform. By high-speed photogrammetry, 3-d reconstruction and numerical simulation, we explore how dragonflies coordinate different body parts to help take-off. We evaluate how aerodynamic forces generated by wing flapping create the initial impulse, and how these forces help save energy consumption. Supported by NSF CBET-1343154.
Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bingham, G. J.; Chen, A. W.
1972-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient. The design maximum lift coefficient was 2.1 at a Reynolds number of 9.7 million. The airfoil with a smooth surface and with surface roughness was tested at angles of attack from 6 deg to 26 deg, Reynolds numbers (based on airfoil chord) from 2.0 million to 12.9 million, and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.35. The experimental results are compared with values predicted by theory. The experimental pressure distributions observed at angles of attack up to at least 12 deg were similar to the theoretical values except for a slight increase in the experimental upper-surface pressure coefficients forward of 26 percent chord and a more severe gradient just behind the minimum-pressure-coefficient location. The maximum lift coefficients were measured with the model surface smooth and, depending on test conditions, varied from 1.5 to 1.6 whereas the design value was 2.1.
Hovering flight in the honeybee Apis mellifera: kinematic mechanisms for varying aerodynamic forces.
Vance, Jason T; Altshuler, Douglas L; Dickson, William B; Dickinson, Michael H; Roberts, Stephen P
2014-01-01
During hovering flight, animals can increase the wing velocity and therefore the net aerodynamic force per stroke by increasing wingbeat frequency, wing stroke amplitude, or both. The magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces are also influenced by the geometric angle of attack, timing of wing rotation, wing contact, and pattern of deviation from the primary stroke plane. Most of the kinematic data available for flying animals are average values for wing stroke amplitude and wingbeat frequency because these features are relatively easy to measure, but it is frequently suggested that the more subtle and difficult-to-measure features of wing kinematics can explain variation in force production for different flight behaviors. Here, we test this hypothesis with multicamera high-speed recording and digitization of wing kinematics of honeybees (Apis mellifera) hovering and ascending in air and hovering in a hypodense gas (heliox: 21% O2, 79% He). Bees employed low stroke amplitudes (86.7° ± 7.9°) and high wingbeat frequencies (226.8 ± 12.8 Hz) when hovering in air. When ascending in air or hovering in heliox, bees increased stroke amplitude by 30%-45%, which yielded a much higher wing tip velocity relative to that during simple hovering in air. Across the three flight conditions, there were no statistical differences in the amplitude of wing stroke deviation, minimum and stroke-averaged geometric angle of attack, maximum wing rotation velocity, or even wingbeat frequency. We employed a quasi-steady aerodynamic model to estimate the effects of wing tip velocity and geometric angle of attack on lift and drag. Lift forces were sensitive to variation in wing tip velocity, whereas drag was sensitive to both variation in wing tip velocity and angle of attack. Bees utilized kinematic patterns that did not maximize lift production but rather maintained lift-to-drag ratio. Thus, our data indicate that, at least for honeybees, the overall time course of wing angles is
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1991-01-01
The three dimensional quasi-analytical sensitivity analysis and the ancillary driver programs are developed needed to carry out the studies and perform comparisons. The code is essentially contained in one unified package which includes the following: (1) a three dimensional transonic wing analysis program (ZEBRA); (2) a quasi-analytical portion which determines the matrix elements in the quasi-analytical equations; (3) a method for computing the sensitivity coefficients from the resulting quasi-analytical equations; (4) a package to determine for comparison purposes sensitivity coefficients via the finite difference approach; and (5) a graphics package.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, F. J.
1975-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1988-01-01
The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1992-01-01
The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady period flow field is generated by rotating flows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chordwise pressure response of a downstream low solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristics of a linear-theory gust, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. When the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory gust characteristics, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic response of the downstream stators was much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. It is shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.
Bimbard, Gaëlle; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Bouteleux, Olivier; Casas, Jérôme; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro
2013-09-15
Up to now, the take-off stage has remained an elusive phase of insect flight that was relatively poorly explored compared with other maneuvers. An overall assessment of the different mechanisms involved in force production during take-off has never been explored. Focusing on the first downstroke, we have addressed this problem from a force balance perspective in butterflies taking off from the ground. In order to determine whether the sole aerodynamic wing force could explain the observed motion of the insect, we have firstly compared a simple analytical model of the wing force with the acceleration of the insect's center of mass estimated from video tracking of the wing and body motions. Secondly, wing kinematics were also used for numerical simulations of the aerodynamic flow field. Similar wing aerodynamic forces were obtained by the two methods. However, neither are sufficient, nor is the inclusion of the ground effect, to predict faithfully the body acceleration. We have to resort to the leg forces to obtain a model that best fits the data. We show that the median and hind legs display an active extension responsible for the initiation of the upward motion of the insect's body, occurring before the onset of the wing downstroke. We estimate that legs generate, at various times, an upward force that can be much larger than all other forces applied to the insect's body. The relative timing of leg and wing forces explains the large variability of trajectories observed during the maneuvers. PMID:23788714
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guiot, R.; Wunnenberg, H.
1980-01-01
The methods by which aerodynamic coefficients are determined and discussed. These include: calculations, wind tunnel experiments and experiments in flight for various prototypes of the Alpha Jet. A comparison of obtained results shows good correlation between expectations and in-flight test results.
Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol
2013-09-01
The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff
Harloff, G.J.
1985-09-01
A theoretical aerodynamic model of lift and drag forces on a flat plate at angle of attack and at hypersonic speeds is presented. Real gas effects and friction drag are accounted for. Theoretical results are presented as a function of the viscous interaction parameter. The performance for two geometries is presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Linear force coefficients for squeeze-film dampers
Szeri, A.Z.; Giron-Duarte, A.; Raimondi, A.A.
1982-10-01
This paper presents a simplifed analysis of viscous squeeze-film damper behavior. It makes use of the notation of averaged inertia and calculates linear velocity and inertia coeffcients. These coefficients are shown to be accurate at practical values of the length/diameter ratio and the gap Reynolds number of the viscous damper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, C. G., III
1982-01-01
Pressure distributions, aerodynamic coefficients, and shock shapes were measured on blunt bodies of revolution in Mach 6 CF4 and in Mach 6 and Mach 10 air. The angle of attack was varied from 0 deg to 20 deg in 4 deg increments. Configurations tested were a hyperboloid with an asymptotic angle of 45 deg, a sonic-corner paraboloid, a paraboloid with an angle of 27.6 deg at the base, a Viking aeroshell generated in a generalized orthogonal coordinate system, and a family of cones having a 45 deg half-angle with spherical, flattened, concave, and cusp nose shapes. Real-gas effects were simulated for the hperboloid and paraboloid models at Mach 6 by testing at a normal-shock density ratio of 5.3 in air and 12 CF4. Predictions from simple theories and numerical flow field programs are compared with measurement. It is anticipated that the data presented in this report will be useful for verification of analytical methods for predicting hypersonic flow fields about blunt bodies at incidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falk, Eric Andrew
Aerodynamic forcing experiments were performed within the single-stage axial compressor of an AlliedSignal F109 turbofan engine. Unsteady velocity was measured both forward and aft of the F109 fan at several locations, with unsteady surface pressure also measured along sixteen, transducer-instrumented stator vanes. Three fan RPM were considered, with time-resolution of the unsteady data obtained through a photoelectric sensor coupled to the fan rotation. The velocity data collected forward of the fan exhibited evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances in the engine inlet flow, where these disturbances were potential in nature, emanating from the fan, and traveling acoustically in a helical pattern. The disturbance peak-to-peak unsteady amplitudes, in the swirl direction, reached nearly 50% of the mean-axial velocity at the fan face, dropping to 2--5% at one blade chord upstream. Such large velocity fluctuations may be important in terms of component high-cycle-fatigue, particularly in closely spaced, axial compressor stages. Aft of the fan, the average unsteady velocity waveforms measured across five azimuthal locations demonstrated characteristics indicative of a strong vortical and potential disturbance interaction, where the interacting disturbances had the same forcing frequency, but different amplitudes and propagation speeds. Further reduction of the fan-aft velocity data also produced evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances. These disturbances were found to be potential in nature and emanating from the F109 stator vanes; thus creating a cumulative, unsteady aerodynamic field upstream of the stators comprised of multiple interacting disturbances. The amplitudes of the stator-induced disturbances were on the order of 20--40% of the measured, downstream-propagating vortical wake amplitudes. Finally, results from stator-vane surface-pressure measurements compared favorably in both magnitude and phase to similar results collected in previous cascade
Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1985-01-01
An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamically detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus is analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.
Force Coefficients on Surging Rigid and Flexible Wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael
2013-11-01
This study considers an aspect ratio 4 rigid flat plate and an aspect ratio 4.5 flexible wing, undergoing rectilinear motion in a water tunnel over several chord lengths at a Reynolds number of 20,000. Varying incidence angle, Reynolds number, and acceleration profile led to an extensive parameter study for both wings. Acceleration regions were linear with time and varied with distances of 0.25 to 6.0 chord-lengths. Measurements include lift and drag histories along with flow visualization of leading and trailing edge vortices throughout the entire motion by fluorescent dye injection illuminated by a laser sheet. A non-circulatory bump in lift coefficient at the end of the acceleration region was observed for each rigid wing case. The rigid wing also experienced a significant decrease in lift shortly after the wing reached its terminal velocity. This dip was followed by a second peak in lift around 6 chords traveled for every case, although the magnitudes differed among the acceleration profiles. Conversely, the flexible wing exhibited little to no non-circulatory peak at the end of acceleration and did not experience this dip and rise in lift. This study explores the influence of planform and chordwise flexibility on leading edge vortex formation, retention, and shedding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji; Ido, Atsushi
As the maximum speed of high-speed trains increases, flow-induced vibration of trains in tunnels has become a subject of discussion in Japan. In this paper, we report the result of a study on use of modifications of train shapes as a countermeasure for reducing an unsteady aerodynamic force by on-track tests and a wind tunnel test. First, we conduct a statistical analysis of on-track test data to identify exterior parts of a train which cause the unsteady aerodynamic force. Next, we carry out a wind tunnel test to measure the unsteady aerodynamic force acting on a train in a tunnel and examined train shapes with a particular emphasis on the exterior parts identified by the statistical analysis. The wind tunnel test shows that fins under the car body are effective in reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. Finally, we test the fins by an on-track test and confirmed its effectiveness.
Sullivan, W. N.; Leonard, T. M.
1980-11-01
An important aspect of structural design of the Darrieus rotor is the determination of aerodynamic blade loads. This report describes a load generator which has been used at Sandia for quasi-static and dynamic rotor analyses. The generator is based on the single streamtube aerodynamic flow model and is constructed as a FORTRAN IV subroutine to facilitate its use in finite element structural models. Input and output characteristics of the subroutine are described and a complete listing is attached as an appendix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Santiago Duran, Oscar Cesar
Experimental identification of fluid film bearing parameters is vital to validate predictions from often restrictive computational fluid film bearing models and is also promising for condition monitoring and troubleshooting. This dissertation presents the analytical bases of two procedures for bearing supports parameter identification with potential for in-situ implementation. Bearing support coefficients are derived from measurements of rotor responses to impact loads and due to calibrated imbalances in characteristic planes. Subsequent implementation of the procedures to measurements performed in a rigid massive rotor traversing two critical speeds provides force coefficients for a novel bearing support comprising a tilting pad bearing (TPJB ) in series with an integral squeeze film damper (SFD). At a constant rotor speed, the first method requires impacts loads exerted along two lateral planes for identification of frequency-dependent force coefficients. Simulation numerical examples show the method is reliable with a reduced sensitivity to noise as the number of impacts increases (frequency averaging). In the experiments, an ad-hoc fixture delivers impacts to the rotor middle disk at speeds of 2,000 and 4,000 rpm. The experimentally identified force coefficients are in close agreement with predicted coefficients for the series support TPJB-SFD. In particular, damping coefficients are best identified around the system first natural frequency. Bearing stiffness are correctly identified in the low frequency range, but show a marked reduction at higher frequencies apparently due to inertial effects not accounted for in the model. Measurements of rotor response to calibrated imbalances allow identification of speed-dependent force coefficients. The procedure requires a minimum of two different imbalance distributions for identification of force coefficients from the two bearing supports. The rotor responses show minimal cross-coupling effects, as also predicted by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Chin-Chou; Chang, Chien C.; Hsieh, Chen-Ta
2009-11-01
The lift and thrust associated with insect flight strongly depend on the complex wake patterns produced by wing-wing and wing-wake interactions. We propose to investigate the aerodynamics of dragonfly using a simplified wing-wing model from the perspective of many-body force decomposition (JFM 600, p95) and the associated force elements. The aerodynamic force, lift or thrust, of the wing-wing system is analyzed in terms of its four constituent components, each of which is directly related to a physical effect. These force components for each individual wing include two potential contributions credited to the wing motion itself, contribution from the vorticity within the flow, and contributions from the surface vorticity on its and other wing's surfaces. The potential contribution due to added-mass effect is often non-negligible. Nevertheless, the major contribution to the forces comes from the vorticity within the flow. The relative importance of these components relies heavily on the motions of the two wings such as the respective angles of attack, the amplitude and speed of translational motions, and the amplitude and speed of wing rotations. In addition to the dynamic stall vortex, several important mechanisms of high lift or thrust are also identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T. (Compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
Reynolds number effects on the transonic aerodynamics of a slender wing-body configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, James M.; Fox, Charles H., Jr.; Cundiff, Jeffrey S.
1989-01-01
Aerodynamic forces and moments for a slender wing-body configuration are summarized from an investigation in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The results include both longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic properties as well as slideslip derivatives. Results were selected to emphasize Reynolds number effects at a transonic speed although some lower speed results are also presented for context. The data indicate nominal Reynolds number effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients and more pronounced effects for the lateral-directional aerodynamic coefficients. The Reynolds number sensitivities for the lateral-directional coefficients were limited to high angles of attack.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Weigel, Robert
2016-07-01
Atmospheric drag is the strongest force perturbing the motion of satellites in low Earth orbits LEO, and could cause re-entry of satellites, difficulty in identifying and tracking of the satellites and other space objects, manuvering and prediction of lifetime and re-entry. Solar activities influence the temperature, density and composition of the upper atmosphere. These effects thus strongly depend on the phase of a solar cycle. The frequency of intense flares and storms increase during solar maximum. Heating up of the atmosphere causes its expansion eventually leading to accelerated drag of orbiting satellites, especially those in LEO. In this paper, we present the model of the atmospheric drag effect on the trajectory of hypothetical LEO satellites of different ballistic coefficients. We investigate long-term trend of atmospheric drag on LEO satellites due to solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations and heating at different phases of the solar cycle, and during interval of strong geomagnetic disturbances or storms. We show the dependence of orbital decay on severity of both the solar cycle and phase, and the extent of geomagnetic perturbations. The result of the model compares well with the observed decay profile of existing LEO satellites and provides a better understanding of the issue of the orbital decay. Our result may also be useful for selection of launch window of satellites for an extended lifetime in the orbit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.
1974-01-01
Concepts from the theory of functionals are used to develop nonlinear formulations of the aerodynamic force and moment systems acting on bodies in large-amplitude, arbitrary motions. The analysis, which proceeds formally once the functional dependence of the aerodynamic reactions upon the motion variables is established, ensures the inclusion, within the resulting formulation, of pertinent aerodynamic terms that normally are excluded in the classical treatment. Applied to the large-amplitude, slowly varying, nonplanar motion of a body, the formulation suggests that the aerodynamic moment can be compounded of the moments acting on the body in four basic motions: steady angle of attack, pitch oscillations, either roll or yaw oscillations, and coning motion. Coning, where the nose of the body describes a circle around the velocity vector, characterizes the nonplanar nature of the general motion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, B. A.; Richard, M.
1979-01-01
The information necessary for execution of the digital computer program L216 on the CDC 6600 is described. L216 characteristics are based on the doublet lattice method. Arbitrary aerodynamic configurations may be represented with combinations of nonplanar lifting surfaces composed of finite constant pressure panel elements, and axially summetric slender bodies composed of constant pressure line elements. Program input consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic field (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mennell, R. C.
1973-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.0405 scale representation of the Rockwell -89A Light Weight Space Shuttle Orbiter. The test purpose was to obtain pressure loads data in the presence of the ground for orbiter structural strength analysis. Aerodynamic force data was also recorded to allow correlation with all pressure loads information. Angles of attack from minus 3 deg to 18 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg, plus or minus 50 deg, and plus or minus 10 deg were tested in the presence of the NAAL ground plane. Static pressure bugs were used to obtain a pressure loads survey of the basic configuration, elevon deflections of 5 deg, 10 deg, 15 deg, and minus 20 deg and a rudder deflection of minus 15 deg, at a tunnel dynamic pressure of 40 psi. The test procedure was to locate a maximum of 30 static pressure bugs on the model surface at various locations calculated to prevent aerodynamic and physical interference. Then by various combinations of location the pressure bugs output was to define a complete pressure survey for the fuselages, wing, vertical tail, and main landing gear door.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, R. D.
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
X-43A Flight-Test-Determined Aerodynamic Force and Moment Characteristics at Mach 7.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Mark C.; White, J. Terry
2008-01-01
The second flight of the Hyper-X program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets, frequency sweeps, and pushover-pullup maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent. Maneuvers were conducted at Mach numbers of 6.80-0.95 and at altitudes from 92,000 ft mean sea level to sea level. The dynamic pressure varied from 1300 to 400 psf with the angle of attack ranging from 0 to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with preflight predictions based on wind-tunnel test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10-15%higher than prediction. Underpredictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers above 4.0, the flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger-than-predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5 in. forward along the x-axis center of gravity at Mach 6.0. This condition would result in less static margin in pitch. The predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle of sideslip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Mark C.; White, J. Terry
2006-01-01
The second flight of the HYPER-X Program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe integrated scramjet powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets, frequency sweeps, and pull-up/push-over maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent phase. The subject flight research maneuvers were conducted in a Mach number range of 6.8 to 0.95 at altitudes from 92,000 ft to sea level. In this flight regime, the dynamic pressure varied from 1300 psf to 400 psf with angle-of-attack ranging from 0 deg to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with pre-flight predictions based on wind tunnel test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10 to 15 percent higher than prediction. Under-predictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers greater than 4, the X-43A flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger than predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5-inches forward along the X(CG) at Mach 6. This would result in less static margin in pitch. The X-43A predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle-of-sideslip.
Flight-Test-Determined Aerodynamic Force and Moment Characteristics of the X-43A at Mach 7.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis. Marl C.; White, J. Terry
2006-01-01
The second flight of the Hyper-X program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets; frequency sweeps; and pushover-pullup maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent. Maneuvers were conducted at Mach numbers of 6.80 to 0.95 and altitudes from 92,000 ft msl to sea level. The dynamic pressure varied from 1300 psf to 400 psf with the angle of attack ranging from 0 deg to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with preflight predictions based on wind-tunnel-test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10 percent to 15 percent higher than prediction. Under-predictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers above 4.0, the flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger-than-predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5 in. forward along the x-axis center of gravity at Mach 6.0. This condition would result in less static margin in pitch. The predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle of sideslip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomson, Robert G.
1959-01-01
A study has been made of the effects of varying the shape, solidity, and heat-transfer coefficient of thin wings with regard to their influence on the torsional-stiffness reduction induced by aerodynamic heating. The variations in airfoil shape include blunting, flattening, and combined blunting and flattening of a solid wing of symmetrical double-wedge cross section. Hollow double-wedge wings of constant skin thickness with and without internal webs also are considered. The effects of heat-transfer coefficients appropriate for laminar and turbulent flow are investigated in addition to a step transition along the chord from a lower to a higher constant value of heat-transfer coefficient. From the results given it is concluded that the flattening of a solid double wedge decreases the reduction in torsional stiffness while slight degrees of blunting increase the loss. The influence of chordwise variations in heat-transfer coefficient due to turbulent and laminar boundary-layer flow on the torsional stiffness of solid wings is negligible. The effect of a step transition in heat-transfer coefficient along the chord of a solid wing can, however, become appreciable. The torsional-stiffness reduction of multiweb and hollow double-wedge wings is substantially less than that calculated for a solid wing subjected to the same heating conditions.
Effects of fluid inertia and turbulence on force coefficients for squeeze film dampers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andres, L. S.; Vance, J. M.
1984-01-01
The effects of fluid inertia and turbulence on the force coefficients of squeeze film dampers are investigated analytically. Both the convective and the temporal terms are included in the analysis of inertia effects. The analysis of turbulence is based on friction coefficients currently found in the literature for Poiseuille flow. The effect of fluid inertia on the magnitude of the radial direct inertia coefficient (i.e., to produce an apparent added mass at small eccentricity ratios, due to the temporal terms) is found to be completely reversed at large eccentricity ratios. The reversal is due entirely to the inclusion of the convective inertia terms in the analysis. Turbulence is found to produce a large effect on the direct damping coefficient at high eccentricity ratios. For the long or sealed squeeze film damper at high eccentricity ratios, the damping prediction with turbulence included is an order of magnitude higher than the laminar solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bamber, M J; Zimmerman, C H
1935-01-01
The aerodynamic forces and moments on a 1/12-scale model of the F4B-2 airplane were measured with the spinning balance in nine spinning attitudes with three sets of tail surfaces, namely, F4B-2 surfaces; F4B-4 fin and rudder with rectangular stabilizer; and with all tail surfaces removed. In one of these attitudes measurements were made to determine the effect upon the forces and moments of independent and of simultaneous displacement of the rudder and elevator for two of the sets of tail surfaces. Additional measurements were made for a comparison of model and full-scale data for six attitudes that were determined from flight tests with various control settings. The characteristics were found to vary in the usual manner with angle of attack and sideslip. The F4B-2 surfaces were quite ineffective as a source of yawing moments. The F4B-4 fin and F4B-2 stabilizer gave a greater damping yawing moment when controls were against the spin than did the F4B-2 surfaces but otherwise there was little difference. Substitution of a rectangular stabilizer for the F4B-2 stabilizer made no appreciable difference in the coefficient. Further comparisons with other airplane types are necessary before final conclusions can be drawn as to the relations between model and full-scale spin measurements.
Rarefied-flow Shuttle aerodynamics model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1993-01-01
A rarefied-flow shuttle aerodynamic model spanning the hypersonic continuum to the free molecule-flow regime was formulated. The model development has evolved from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment conducted on the Orbiter since 1983. The complete model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as functions of angle-of-attack, body flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle-of-attack are presented, along with flight derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made with data from the Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book (OADDB), applicable wind-tunnel data, and recent flight data from STS-35 and STS-40. The flight-derived model aerodynamic force coefficient ratio is in good agreement with the wind-tunnel data and predicts the flight measured force coefficient ratios on STS-35 and STS-40. The model is not, however, in good agreement with the OADDB. But, the current OADDB does not predict the flight data force coefficient ratios of either STS-35 or STS-40 as accurately as the flight-derived model. Also, the OADDB differs with the wind-tunnel force coefficient ratio data.
The effect of in-line spacing of two cylinder groups on the Morison force coefficients
Smith, D.J.; Haritos, N.
1996-12-31
This paper describes some results from an experimental study undertaken in the University of Melbourne`s Michell Laboratory which has investigated the interference effect associated with closely spaced cylinder groups on the in-line Morison force coefficients. Previous experimental studies undertaken at the University of Melbourne identified that the closely spaced cylinder range, (spacing to diameter ratio less than 3), is critical to the determination of the Morison force coefficients for tandem cylinders. The current research extends the previous work conducted in the department by investigating in more detail the closely spaced cylinder regime whilst extending results into the drag dominant regime (Keulegan-Carpenter number > 20). Results presented herein are limited to the exploration of the effect of varying the spacing of two cylinder groups oriented in-line to the direction of the uni-directional waves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elchuri, V.; Pamidi, P. R.
1985-01-01
This report is a supplemental NASTRAN document for a new capability to determine the vibratory response of turbosystems subjected to aerodynamic excitation. Supplements of NASTRAN Theoretical, User's, Programmer's, and Demonstration Manuals are included. Turbosystems such as advanced turbopropellers with highly swept blades, and axial-flow compressors and turbines can be analyzed using this capability, which has been developed and implemented in the April 1984 release of the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN. The dynamic response problem is addressed in terms of the normal modal coordinates of these tuned rotating cyclic structures. Both rigid and flexible hubs/disks are considered. Coriolis and centripetal accelerations, as well as differential stiffness effects are included. Generally nonuniform steady inflow fields and uniform flow fields arbitrarily inclined at small angles with respect to the axis of rotation of the turbosystem are considered as the sources of aerodynamic excitation. The spatial nonuniformities are considered to be small deviations from a principally uniform inflow. Subsonic relative inflows are addressed, with provision for linearly interpolating transonic airloads.
Flathers, M.B.; Bache, G.E.
1999-10-01
Radial loads and direction of a centrifugal gas compressor containing a high specific speed mixed flow impeller and a single tongue volute were determined both experimentally and computationally at both design and off-design conditions. The experimental methodology was developed in conjunction with a traditional ASME PTC-10 closed-loop test to determine radial load and direction. The experimental study is detailed in Part 1 of this paper (Moore and Flathers, 1998). The computational method employs a commercially available, fully three-dimensional viscous code to analyze the impeller and the volute interaction. An uncoupled scheme was initially used where the impeller and volute were analyzed as separate models using a common vaneless diffuser geometry. The two calculations were then repeated until the boundary conditions at a chosen location in the common vaneless diffuser were nearly the same. Subsequently, a coupled scheme was used where the entire stage geometry was analyzed in one calculation, thus eliminating the need for manual iteration of the two independent calculations. In addition to radial load and direction information, this computational procedure also provided aerodynamic stage performance. The effect of impeller front face and rear face cavities was also quantified. The paper will discuss computational procedures, including grid generation and boundary conditions, as well as comparisons of the various computational schemes to experiment. The results of this study will show the limitations and benefits of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for determination of radial load, direction, and aerodynamic stage performance.
Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei
1991-01-01
A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.
A finite-volume numerical method to calculate fluid forces and rotordynamic coefficients in seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.
1992-01-01
A numerical method to calculate rotordynamic coefficients of seals is presented. The flow in a seal is solved by using a finite-volume formulation of the full Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate turbulence models. The seal rotor is perturbed along a diameter such that the position of the rotor is a sinusoidal function of time. The resulting flow domain changes with time, and the time-dependent flow in the seal is solved using a space conserving moving grid formulation. The time-varying fluid pressure reaction forces are then linked with the rotor center displacement, velocity and acceleration to yield the rotordynamic coefficients. Results for an annular seal are presented, and compared with experimental data and other more simplified numerical methods.
The prediction of normal force and rolling moment coefficients for a spinning wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccormick, B. W.
1981-01-01
Nonlinear airfoil section data for angles of attack from 0 to 180 deg were used in a small computer code to numerically integrate the section normal force coefficients along the span as a function of the local velocity and angle of attack resulting from the combined spinning and descending motion. A correction was developed to account for the radial pressure gradient in the separated, rotating flow region above the wing. This correction was found to be necessary in order to obtain agreement, both in form and magnitude, with rotary balance test data.
Effect of solidity and inclination on propeller-nacelle force coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Dunham, Dana Morris; Takallu, M. A.
1991-01-01
A series of wind tunnel experiments were conducted to study the effect of propeller solidity and thrust axis inclination on the propeller normal force coefficient. Experiments were conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot Subsonic Tunnel with a sting mounted, counterrotation, scale model propeller and nacelle. Configurations had two rows of blades with combinations of 4 and 8 blades per hub. The solidity was varied by changing the number of blades on both rows. Tests were conducted for blade pitch setting of 31.34 deg, 36.34 deg, and 41.34 deg over a range of angle of attack from -10 deg to 90 deg and range of advance ratio from 0.8 to 1.4. The increase in propeller normal force with angle of attack is greater for propellers with higher solidity.
Calculation of non-stationary aerodynamic forces in the near sonic range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teipel, I.
1988-01-01
The development of a mathematical method for calculating nonstationary supersonic flow in the near-sonic range is described. A perturbation formula is derived based on the exact stationary values; it is applicable to the equation for potential. The problem can thus be divided into stationary and nonstationary fields. The pressure distribution in an oscillating profile is determined, based on hyperbolic differential equations. It is shown that there are important corollaries concerning the application of linear theory. With suitable extrapolations, linear theory can be used up to about Mach 0.8. Linear theory is not applicable, however, when determining the moment coefficients; for this case, a special technique is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dag, Yusuf
Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0
The Aerodynamic Forces on Slender Plane- and Cruciform-Wing and Body Combinations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spreiter, John R
1950-01-01
The load distribution, forces, and moments are calculated theoretically for inclined slender wing-body combinations consisting of a slender body of revolution and either a plane or cruciform arrangement of low-aspect-ratio pointed wings. The results are applicable at subsonic and transonic speeds, and at supersonic speeds, provided the entire wing-body combination lies near the center of the Mach cone.
Moore, J.J.; Flathers, M.B.
1998-04-01
Net radial loading arising from asymmetric pressure fields in the volutes of centrifugal pumps during off-design operation is well known and has been studied extensively. In order to achieve a marked improvement in overall efficiency in centrifugal gas compressors, vaneless volute diffusers are matched to specific impellers to yield improved performance over a wide application envelope. As observed in centrifugal pumps, nonuniform pressure distributions that develop during operation above and below the design flow create static radial loads on the rotor. In order to characterize these radial forces, a novel experimental measurement and post-processing technique is employed that yields both the magnitude and direction of the load by measuring the shaft centerline locus in the tilt-pad bearings. The method is applicable to any turbomachinery operating on fluid film radial bearings equipped with proximity probes. The forces are found to be a maximum near surge and increase with higher pressures and speeds. The results are nondimensionalized, allowing the radial loading for different operating conditions to be predicted.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.
1971-01-01
The development of a nonplanar lifting surface method having a continuous distribution of singularities and satisfying the tangent flow boundary condition on the mean camber surface is given. The method predicts some incompressible longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients of rectangular wings which have circular-arc camber. The solution method is of the integral-equation type and the resulting surface integrals are evaluated by either using numerical or analytical techniques, as are appropriate. Applications are made and the results compared with those from an exact two-dimensional circular-arc camber solution, a three-dimensional flat-wing solution which represents the camber by a projected slope onto the flat surface, and a flat-wing experiment. From these comparisons, the present method is found to predict well the flat-wing experiment and limiting values, in addition to the center of pressure variation at an angle of attack of zero for any camber. For wings having camber ratios larger than about 1.25% and moderate to high aspect ratios, the results deterioriate due to the inadequacy of lifting pressure modes employed.
An analytical technique for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the time domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunn, H. J.
1980-01-01
An analytical technique is presented for approximating unsteady aerodynamic forces in the time domain. The order of elements of a matrix Pade approximation was postulated, and the resulting polynomial coefficients were determined through a combination of least squares estimates for the numerator coefficients and a constrained gradient search for the denominator coefficients which insures stable approximating functions. The number of differential equations required to represent the aerodynamic forces to a given accuracy tends to be smaller than that employed in certain existing techniques where the denominator coefficients are chosen a priori. Results are shown for an aeroelastic, cantilevered, semispan wing which indicate a good fit to the aerodynamic forces for oscillatory motion can be achieved with a matrix Pade approximation having fourth order numerator and second order denominator polynomials.
Yu, Xin; Gao, Yi-Tian; Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Ying
2011-05-01
Under investigation is a generalized variable-coefficient forced Korteweg-de Vries equation in fluids and other fields. From the bilinear form of such equation, the N-soliton solution and a type of analytic solution are constructed with symbolic computation. Analytic analysis indicates that: (1) dispersive and dissipative coefficients affect the solitonic velocity; (2) external-force term affects the solitonic velocity and background; (3) line-damping coefficient and some parameters affect the solitonic velocity, background, and amplitude. Solitonic propagation and interaction can be regarded as the combination of the effects of various variable coefficients. According to a constraint among the nonlinear, dispersive, and line-damping coefficients in this paper, the possible applications of our results in the real world are also discussed in three aspects, i.e., solution with the constraint, solution without the constraint, and approximate solution. PMID:21728676
Sensitivity of aerodynamic forces in laminar and turbulent flow past a square cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meliga, Philippe; Boujo, Edouard; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, François
2014-10-01
We use adjoint-based gradients to analyze the sensitivity of the drag force on a square cylinder. At Re = 40, the flow settles down to a steady state. The quantity of interest in the adjoint formulation is the steady asymptotic value of drag reached after the initial transient, whose sensitivity is computed solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of the stable base solution. At Re = 100, the flow develops to the time-periodic, vortex-shedding state. The quantity of interest is rather the time-averaged mean drag, whose sensitivity is computed integrating backwards in time an unsteady adjoint problem from knowledge of the entire history of the vortex-shedding solution. Such theoretical frameworks allow us to identify the sensitive regions without computing the actually controlled states, and provide a relevant and systematic guideline on where in the flow to insert a secondary control cylinder in the attempt to reduce drag, as established from comparisons with dedicated numerical simulations of the two-cylinder system. For the unsteady case at Re = 100, we also compute an approximation to the mean drag sensitivity solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of only the mean flow solution, and show the approach to carry valuable information in view of guiding relevant control strategy, besides reducing tremendously the related numerical effort. An extension of this simplified framework to turbulent flow regime is examined revisiting the widely benchmarked flow at Reynolds number Re = 22 000, the theoretical predictions obtained in the frame of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling being consistent with experimental data from the literature. Application of the various sensitivity frameworks to alternative control objectives such as increasing the lift and reducing the fluctuating drag and lift is also discussed and illustrated with a few selected examples.
Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.
2015-11-01
Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.
Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1994-01-01
A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, L. T.
1975-01-01
A general method for analyzing aerodynamic flows around complex configurations is presented. By applying the Green function method, a linear integral equation relating the unknown, small perturbation potential on the surface of the body, to the known downwash is obtained. The surfaces of the aircraft, wake and diaphragm (if necessary) are divided into small quadrilateral elements which are approximated with hyperboloidal surfaces. The potential and its normal derivative are assumed to be constant within each element. This yields a set of linear algebraic equations and the coefficients are evaluated analytically. By using Gaussian elimination method, equations are solved for the potentials at the centroids of elements. The pressure coefficient is evaluated by the finite different method; the lift and moment coefficients are evaluated by numerical integration. Numerical results are presented, and applications to flutter are also included.
Aerodynamic characteristics of the Scout 133R vehicle determined from wind tunnel tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramson, F. B.; Muir, T. G., Jr.; Simmons, H. L.
1972-01-01
Bending moments and other associated parameters were measured on a Scout vehicle during a launch through high velocity horizontal winds. Comparison of the measured data with predictions revealed some unexplained discrepancies. Possible sources of error in the experimental data and predictions were considered; one of which is the predicted aerodynamic characteristics. A wind tunnel investigation was initiated, including supersonic force and pressure tests, to better define the aerodynamics. In addition to basic aerodynamic coefficients from the force test, detailed pressure and load distributions along the body were established from the pressure test. Pressure coefficients were integrated to determine normal load distributions, total normal force, and total pitching moment of the body. Comparison of the normal forces from pressure and force tests resulted in agreement within 15%. Comparison of pitching moment data from the two tests resulted in larger differences.
Modeling the Launch Abort Vehicle's Subsonic Aerodynamics from Free Flight Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartman, Christopher L.
2010-01-01
An investigation into the aerodynamics of the Launch Abort Vehicle for NASA's Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle in the subsonic, incompressible flow regime was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. Time histories of center of mass position and Euler Angles are captured using photogrammetry. Time histories of the wind tunnel's airspeed and dynamic pressure are recorded as well. The primary objective of the investigation is to determine models for the aerodynamic yaw and pitch moments that provide insight into the static and dynamic stability of the vehicle. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC) is used to determine the aerodynamic model structure and estimate model parameters. Aerodynamic models for the aerodynamic body Y and Z force coefficients, and the pitching and yawing moment coefficients were identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jung, S. Y.; Sanandres, Luis A.; Vance, J. M.
1991-01-01
Measurements of pressure distributions and force coefficients were carried out in two types of squeeze film dampers, executing a circular centered orbit, an open-ended configuration, and a partially sealed one, in order to investigate the effect of fluid inertia and cavitation on pressure distributions and force coefficients. Dynamic pressure measurements were carried out for two orbit radii, epsilon 0.5 and 0.8. It was found that the partially sealed configuration was less influenced by fluid inertia than the open ended configuration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zilz, D. E.
1985-01-01
A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 2 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Force and Moment Data Report.
Projectiles and Aerodynamic Forces.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armstrong, H. L.
1984-01-01
Discusses the air resistance on projectiles, examining (in separate sections) air resistance less than gravity and air resistance greater than gravity. Also considers an approximation in which a trajectory is divided into two parts, the first part neglecting gravity and the second part neglecting the air resistance. (JN)
Aerodynamics of Satellites on a Super Low Earth Orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Kazuhisa; Noda, Atsushi
2008-12-01
The Super Low Altitude Test Satellite is an engineering test satellite currently under development in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in an attempt to open a new frontier of space utilization on extremely low earth orbits. In the presence of aerodynamic forces acting on the satellite, the altitude and attitude of the satellite are maintained by ion engines so that the aerodynamic drag can be canceled. Thus, it is of primary importance to accurately assess the aerodynamics characteristics of the satellite prior to flight. In this article, the aerodynamic coefficients of the satellite are calculated for orbital altitudes from 160 to 300 km, taking into account the Maxwell accommodation of particles on the satellite surface and the free stream chemical composition. The activated atomic oxygen fluence rate on the surface, which is expected to cause considerable damages on the surface material, is estimated as well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian
2015-01-01
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, D. W.
1983-01-01
An improved theory for the prediction of the rotordynamic coefficients of turbulent annular seals was developed. Predictions from the theory are compared to the experimental results and an approach for the direct calculation of empirical turbulent coefficients from test data are introduced. An improved short seal solution is shown to do a better job of calculating effective stiffness and damping coefficients than either the original short seal solution or a finite length solution. However, the original short seal solution does a much better job of predicting equivalent added mass coefficient.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paine, A. A.
1972-01-01
The input data required to execute the computer program AIC/INT (aerodynamic influence coefficients with interference) are presented. The purpose of the computer program is to generate aerodynamic forces for a pair of plane and interfering nearly parallel, non-coplanar wings at supersonic Mach numbers. A finite element technique has been employed. Planforms are described by triangular elements and diaphragm regions are generated automatically.
Norberg, U M
1976-08-01
The kinematics, aerodynamics, and energetics of Plecotus auritus in slow horizontal flight, 2-35 m s-1, are analysed. At this speed the inclination of the stroke path is ca. 58 degrees to the horizontal, the stroke angle ca. 91 degrees, and the stroke frequency ca. 11-9 Hz. A method, based on steady-state aerodynamic and momenthum theories, is derived to calculate the lift and drag coefficients as averaged over the whole wing the whole wing-stroke for horizontal flapping flight. This is a further development of Pennycuick's (1968) and Weis-Fogh's (1972) expressions for calculating the lift coefficient. The lift coefficient obtained varies between 1-4 and 1-6, the drag coefficient between 0-4 and 1-2, and the lift:drag ratio between 1-2 and 4-0. The corresponding, calculated, total specific mechanical power output of the wing muscles varies between 27-0 and 40-4 W kg-1 body mass. A maximum estimate of mechanical efficiency is 0-26. The aerodynamic efficiency varies between 0-07 and 0-10. The force coefficient, total mechanical power output, and mechanical and aerodynamic efficiencies are all plausible, demonstrating that the slow flapping flight of Plecotus is thus explicable by steady-state aerodynamics. The downstroke is the power stroke for the vertical upward forces and the upstroke for the horizontal forward forces. PMID:993701
Investigation of the transient aerodynamic phenomena associated with passing manoeuvres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noger, C.; Regardin, C.; Széchényi, E.
2005-11-01
Passing manoeuvres and crosswind can have significant effects on the stability of road vehicles. The transient aerodynamics, which interacts with suspension, steering geometry and driver reaction is not well understood. When two vehicles overtake or cross, they mutually influence the flow field around each other, and under certain conditions, can generate severe gust loads that act as additional forces on both vehicles. The transient forces acting on them are a function of the longitudinal and transverse spacings and of the relative velocity between the two vehicles. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted in one of the automotive wind tunnels of the Institut Aérotechnique of Saint-Cyr l’École to simulate the transient overtaking process between two models of a simple generic automobile shape. The tests were designed to study the effects of various parameters such as the longitudinal and transverse spacing, the relative velocity and the crosswind on the aerodynamic forces and moments generated on the overtaken and overtaking vehicles. Test results characterize the transient aerodynamic side force as well as the yawing moment coefficients in terms of these parameters. Measurements of the drag force coefficient as well as the static pressure distribution around the overtaken vehicle complete the understanding. The main results indicate the aerodynamic coefficients of the overtaken vehicle to be velocity independent within the limit of the test parameters, while unsteady aerodynamic effects appear in the case of an overtaking vehicle. The mutual interference effects between the vehicles vary as a linear function of the transverse spacing and the crosswind does not really generate any new unsteady behaviour.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd
1987-01-01
A comprehensive static aerodynamic simulation model of the 8 by 8 by 20 ft MILVAN cargo container is determined by combining the wind tunnel data from a 1972 NASA Ames Research Center study taken over the restricted domain (0 is less than or equal to phi is less than or equal to 90 degrees; 0 is less than or equal to alpha is less than or equal to 45 degrees) with extrapolation relations derived from the geometric symmetry of rectangular boxes. It is found that the aerodynamics of any attitude can be defined from the aerodynamics at an equivalent attitude in the restricted domain (0 is less than phi is less than 45 degrees; 0 is less than alpha is less than 90 degrees). However, a similar comprehensive equivalence with the domain spanned by the data is not available; in particular, about two-thirds of the domain with the absolute value of alpha is greater than 45 degrees is unrelated to the data. Nevertheless, as estimate can be defined for this region consistent with the measured or theoretical values along its boundaries and the theoretical equivalence of points within the region. These descrepancies are assumed to be due to measurement errors. Data from independent wind tunnel studies are reviewed; these are less comprehensive than the NASA Ames Research Center but show good to fair agreement with both the theory and the estimate given here.
Impact of high-alpha aerodynamics on dynamic stability parameters of aircraft and missiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malcolm, G. N.
1981-01-01
The aerodynamic phenomena associated with high angles of attack and their effects on the dynamic stability characteristics of airplane and missile configurations are examined. Information on dynamic effects is limited. Steady flow phenomena and their effects on the forces and moments are reviewed. The effects of asymmetric vortices and of vortex bursting on the dynamic response of flight vehicles are reviewed with respect to their influence on: (1) nonlinearity of aerodynamic coefficients with attitude, rates, and accelerations; (2) cross coupling between longitudinal and lateral directional models of motion; (3) time dependence and hysteresis effects; (4) configuration dependencey; and (5) mathematical modeling of the aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, C. D.; Mcghee, R. J.; Allison, D. O.
1980-01-01
The low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14 percent thick supercritical airfoil are documented. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The effects of varying chord Reynolds number from 2,000,000 to 18,000,000 at a Mach number of 0.15 and the effects of varying Mach number from 0.10 to 0.32 at a Reynolds number of 6,000,000 are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, B.
1978-01-01
Displacement results of plane boundary collocation analysis are given for various locations on the inner boundaries of radially cracked ring segments (C-shaped specimens) subject to two complementary types of loading. Results are presented for ratios of outer to inner radius in the range of 1.1 to 2.5 and ratios a/W in the range 0.1 to 0.8, where a is the crack length for a specimen of wall thickness W. By combination of these results the resultant displacement coefficient or the corresponding influence coefficient can be obtained for any practical load line location of a pin-loaded specimen.
Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward
1989-01-01
Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.
Comparison of Force and Moment Coefficients for the Same Test Article in Multiple Wind Tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deloach, Richard
2013-01-01
This paper compares the results of force and moment measurements made on the same test article and with the same balance in three transonic wind tunnels. Comparisons are made for the same combination of Reynolds number, Mach number, sideslip angle, control surface configuration, and angle of attack range. Between-tunnel force and moment differences are quantified. An analysis of variance was performed at four unique sites in the design space to assess the statistical significance of between-tunnel variation and any interaction with angle of attack. Tunnel to tunnel differences too large to attribute to random error were detected were observed for all forces and moments. In some cases these differences were independent of angle of attack and in other cases they changed with angle of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, B.
1977-01-01
Displacement results of plane boundary collocation analysis are given for various locations on the inner boundaries of radially cracked ring segments (C-shaped specimens) subject to two complementary types of loading. Results are presented for ratios of outer to inner radius R sub o/R sub i in the range of 1.1 to 2.5, and ratios a/W in the range 0.1 to 0.8 where a is the crack length for a specimen of wall thickness W. By combination of these results the resultant displacement coefficient delta or the corresponding influence coefficient, can be obtained for any practical load line location of a pin loaded specimen.
Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.
2014-08-01
Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.
Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.
Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.
Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William
2011-09-01
When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance. PMID:21936289
Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Rod
2007-01-01
It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Jack N.
1988-01-01
The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palazzolo, Alan; Bhattacharya, Avijit; Athavale, Mahesh; Venkataraman, Balaji; Ryan, Steve; Funston, Kerry
1997-01-01
This paper highlights bulk flow and CFD-based models prepared to calculate force and leakage properties for seals and shrouded impeller leakage paths. The bulk flow approach uses a Hir's based friction model and the CFD approach solves the Navier Stoke's (NS) equation with a finite whirl orbit or via analytical perturbation. The results show good agreement in most instances with available benchmarks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villegas Vaquero, Arturo
Aerodynamic unsteady forces in stationary and rotating wings are analyzed in this dissertation by using a combination of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) techniques. Recent progress in experimental measurements has demonstrated the use of TR-PIV to calculate forces by applying the integral conservation of momentum equation in its different forms. However, a more accurate and robust method is needed for unsteady forces calculations. With this in mind, a modified pressure Poisson method is developed and applied in this work, showing its superior behavior compared to other methodologies described in the past. The independence of the calculated forces shows the robustness and stability of the method. Whereas force calculations have been recently considered, the role of flow structures in force fluctuations has not been revealed yet and it is the main focus of this study. To elucidate these relations, a hybrid PIV-POD analysis is applied to reconstruct the velocity field from the most energetic modes of the flow. A model describing the vortex-force relations is proposed in terms of lift and drag variations during the vortex shedding process. A spectral analysis of the calculated forces suggests symmetric periodic lift, drag and circulation variations at the shedding frequency. Moreover, lift, drag and circulation signals are in phase, which supports lift-circulation proportionality. However, non-symmetric drag fluctuations are found at double the shedding frequency within a shedding cycle. For instance, when a positive or negative circulation vortex detaches, different values in the maximum and minimum drag are obtained. The data and physical relations obtained in this work such as main frequencies, vortex-force fluctuations and behavior of reduced-order models can aid in the development of CFD applications at low Re. The methodology described can be applied to any moving or stationary wing at different Reynolds
Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo
2015-01-01
The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.
A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 4: Test cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.
1980-01-01
An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. Representative test cases and associated program output are presented.
Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1990-01-01
The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.
Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S
2013-03-01
Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60-125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight. PMID:23256188
Bahlman, Joseph W.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.
2013-01-01
Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60–125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight. PMID:23256188
Estimate of the Damping Force Exponential Coefficient for an Oscillating Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bullock, S. Ray; Collins$$, W. Eugene; Mickens, Ronald E.
2012-03-01
For many dynamic systems damping/dissipative forces (DDF) are important. These forces are generally modeled in the equations of motion by terms linear in the ``velocity." An example is the standard damped, linear harmonic oscillator. However, for complex systems a broader range of functional forms is required for the associated DDF. If the fact that such systems only oscillate in a finite number of cycles is taken into account, then the leading term of the DDF is proportional to v^α, where α lies in the interval (0,1). We present preliminary experimental results, for a vibrating beam, implying that α˜0.9. To obtain this value we derive a theoretical relationship between the damping time and the ``initial amplitude" of the beam, a relationship which does not depend on knowing a priori the exact equations of motion. Our findings are relevant for the study and analysis of vibrations in carbon nano-tubes and graphene sheets.
Li, Zhigang; Wang, Hai
2003-12-01
The transport of small particles in the free-molecule regime is investigated on the basis of gas kinetic theory. Drag force formulations were derived in two limiting collision models-namely, specular and diffuse scattering-by considering the potential force of interactions between the particle and fluid molecules. A parametrized drag coefficient equation is proposed and accounts for the transition from specular to diffuse scattering as particle size exceeds a critical value. The resulting formulations are shown to be consistent with the Chapman-Enskog theory of molecular diffusion. In the limit of rigid-body interactions, these formulations can be simplified also to Epstein's solutions [P. S. Epstein, Phys. Rev. 23, 710 (1924)]. PMID:14754191
Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1997-01-01
A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.
Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1998-01-01
A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.
Exploring the aerodynamic drag of a moving cyclist
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher
2016-01-01
Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power consumption of cycling. We use an energy-based approach to model the power input for driving a bike at a constant speed. This approach uses a numerical simulation of the slowing down of a bike moving without pedaling which is implementable with standard spreadsheet software. The simulation can be compared directly to simple measurements with real bikes as well as to an analytic solution of the underlying differential equation. It is possible to derive realistic values for the aerodynamic drag coefficient {{c}\\text{D}} and the total power consumption within a secondary physics course. We also report experiences from teaching such a course to class 8 students.
LTSTAR- SUPERSONIC WING NON-LINEAR AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, H. W.
1994-01-01
The Supersonic Wing Nonlinear Aerodynamics computer program, LTSTAR, was developed to provide for the estimation of the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of a wing at supersonic speeds. This corrected linearized-theory method accounts for nonlinearities in the variation of basic pressure loadings with local surface slopes, predicts the degree of attainment of theoretical leading-edge thrust forces, and provides an estimate of detached leading-edge vortex loadings that result when the theoretical thrust forces are not fully realized. Comparisons of LTSTAR computations with experimental results show significant improvements in detailed wing pressure distributions, particularly for large angles of attack and for regions of the wing where the flow is highly three-dimensional. The program provides generally improved predictions of the wing overall force and moment coefficients. LTSTAR could be useful in design studies aimed at aerodynamic performance optimization and for providing more realistic trade-off information for selection of wing planform geometry and airfoil section parameters. Input to the LTSTAR program includes wing planform data, freestream conditions, wing camber, wing thickness, scaling options, and output options. Output includes pressure coefficients along each chord, section normal and axial force coefficients, and the spanwise distribution of section force coefficients. With the chordwise distributions and section coefficients at each angle of attack, three sets of polars are output. The first set is for linearized theory with and without full leading-edge thrust, the second set includes nonlinear corrections, and the third includes estimates of attainable leading-edge thrust and vortex increments along with the nonlinear corrections. The LTSTAR program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 150K (octal) of 60 bit words. The LTSTAR
Coefficients of an analytical aerosol forcing equation determined with a Monte-Carlo radiation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Taufiq; Moosmüller, H.; Chung, Chul E.
2015-10-01
Simple analytical equations for global-average direct aerosol radiative forcing are useful to quickly estimate aerosol forcing changes as function of key atmosphere, surface and aerosol parameters. The surface and atmosphere parameters in these analytical equations are the globally uniform atmospheric transmittance and surface albedo, and have so far been estimated from simplified observations under untested assumptions. In the present study, we take the state-of-the-art analytical equation and write the aerosol forcing as a linear function of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and replace the average upscatter fraction with the asymmetry parameter (ASY). Then we determine the surface and atmosphere parameter values of this equation using the output from the global MACR (Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation) model, as well as testing the validity of the equation. The MACR model incorporated spatio-temporally varying observations for surface albedo, cloud optical depth, water vapor, stratosphere column ozone, etc., instead of assuming as in the analytical equation that the atmosphere and surface parameters are globally uniform, and should thus be viewed as providing realistic radiation simulations. The modified analytical equation needs globally uniform aerosol parameters that consist of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth), SSA, and ASY. The MACR model is run here with the same globally uniform aerosol parameters. The MACR model is also run without cloud to test the cloud effect. In both cloudy and cloud-free runs, the equation fits in the model output well whether SSA or ASY varies. This means the equation is an excellent approximation for the atmospheric radiation. On the other hand, the determined parameter values are somewhat realistic for the cloud-free runs but unrealistic for the cloudy runs. The global atmospheric transmittance, one of the determined parameters, is found to be around 0.74 in case of the cloud-free conditions and around 1.03 with cloud. The surface
Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nathan, Alan
2009-11-01
Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.
Drag force, diffusion coefficient, and electric mobility of small particles. II. Application.
Li, Zhigang; Wang, Hai
2003-12-01
We propose a generalized treatment of the drag force of a spherical particle due to its motion in a laminar fluid media. The theory is equally applicable to analysis of particle diffusion and electric mobility. The focus of the current analysis is on the motion of spherical particles in low-density gases with Knudsen number Kn>1. The treatment is based on the gas-kinetic theory analysis of drag force in the specular and diffuse scattering limits obtained in a preceding paper [Z. Li and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E., 68, 061206 (2003)]. Our analysis considers the influence of van der Waals interactions on the momentum transfer upon collision of a gas molecule with the particle and expresses this influence in terms of an effective, reduced collision integral. This influence is shown to be significant for nanosized particles. In the present paper, the reduced collision integral values are obtained for specular and diffuse scattering, using a Lennard-Jones-type potential energy function suitable for the interactions of a gas molecule with a particle. An empirical formula for the momentum accommodation function, used to determine the effective, reduced collision integral, is obtained from available experimental data. The resulting treatment is shown to be accurate for interpreting the mobility experiments for particles as small as approximately 1 nm in radius. The treatment is subsequently extended to the entire range of the Knudsen number, following a semiempirical, gas-kinetic theory analysis. We demonstrate that the proposed formula predicts very well Millikan's oil-droplet experiments [R. A. Millikan, Philos. Mag. 34, 1 (1917); Phys. Rev. 22, 1 (1923)]. The rigorous theoretical foundation of the proposed formula in the Kn>1 limit makes the current theory far more general than the semiempirical Stokes-Cunningham formula in terms of the particle size and condition of the fluid and, therefore, more attractive than the Stokes-Cunningham formula. PMID:14754192
Drag force, diffusion coefficient, and electric mobility of small particles. II. Application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhigang; Wang, Hai
2003-12-01
We propose a generalized treatment of the drag force of a spherical particle due to its motion in a laminar fluid media. The theory is equally applicable to analysis of particle diffusion and electric mobility. The focus of the current analysis is on the motion of spherical particles in low-density gases with Knudsen number Kn≫1. The treatment is based on the gas-kinetic theory analysis of drag force in the specular and diffuse scattering limits obtained in a preceding paper [Z. Li and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E., 68, 061206 (2003)]. Our analysis considers the influence of van der Waals interactions on the momentum transfer upon collision of a gas molecule with the particle and expresses this influence in terms of an effective, reduced collision integral. This influence is shown to be significant for nanosized particles. In the present paper, the reduced collision integral values are obtained for specular and diffuse scattering, using a Lennard-Jones-type potential energy function suitable for the interactions of a gas molecule with a particle. An empirical formula for the momentum accommodation function, used to determine the effective, reduced collision integral, is obtained from available experimental data. The resulting treatment is shown to be accurate for interpreting the mobility experiments for particles as small as ˜1 nm in radius. The treatment is subsequently extended to the entire range of the Knudsen number, following a semiempirical, gas-kinetic theory analysis. We demonstrate that the proposed formula predicts very well Millikan’s oil-droplet experiments [R. A. Millikan, Philos. Mag. 34, 1 (1917); Phys. Rev. 22, 1 (1923)]. The rigorous theoretical foundation of the proposed formula in the Kn≫1 limit makes the current theory far more general than the semiempirical Stokes-Cunningham formula in terms of the particle size and condition of the fluid and, therefore, more attractive than the Stokes-Cunningham formula.
Not Available
1993-01-01
In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Eric J.; Cruz, Josue; Lung, Shun-Fat; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Lu, Kerr-Jia; Flick, Pete
2016-01-01
A seamless adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap was demonstrated in flight on a Gulfstream III aircraft at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The trailing edge flap was deflected between minus 2 deg up and plus 30 deg down in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The interface hardware instrumentation layout and load calibration are discussed. Twenty-one applied calibration test load cases were developed for each individual fitting. The 2-sigma residual errors for the hinge moment was calculated to be 2.4 percent, and for normal force was calculated to be 7.3 percent. The hinge moment and normal force generated by the ACTE flap with a hinge point located at 26-percent wing chord were measured during steady state and symmetric pitch maneuvers. The loads predicted from analysis were compared to the loads observed in flight. The hinge moment loads showed good agreement with the flight loads while the normal force loads calculated from analysis were over-predicted by approximately 20 percent. Normal force and hinge moment loads calculated from the pressure sensors located on the ACTE showed good agreement with the loads calculated from the installed strain gages.
Force and moment rotordynamic coefficients for pump-impeller shroud surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Dara W.
1987-01-01
Governing equations of motion are derived for a bulk-flow model of the leakage path between an impeller shroud and a pump housing. The governing equations consist of a path-momentum, a circumferential - momentum, and a continuity equation. The fluid annulus between the impeller shroud and pump housing is assumed to be circumferentially symmetric when the impeller is centered; i.e., the clearance can vary along the pump axis but does not vary in the circumferential direction. A perturbation expansion of the governing equations in the eccentricity ratio yields a set of zeroth and first-order governing equations. The zeroth-order equations define the leaking rate and the circumferential and path velocity distributions and pressure distributions for a centered impeller position. The first-order equations define the perturbations in the velocity and pressure distributions due to either a radial-displacement perturbation or a tilt perturbation of the impeller. Integration of the perturbed pressure and shear-stress distribution acting on the rotor yields the reaction forces and moments acting on the impeller face.
Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings
Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.
2010-01-01
Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jung, S. Y.; Sanandres, Luis A.; Vance, J. M.
1991-01-01
Experimental results from a partially sealed squeeze film damper (SFD) test rig, executing a circular centered orbit are presented and discussed. A serrated piston ring is installed at the damper exit. This device involves a new sealing concept which produces high damping values while allowing for oil flow to cool the damper. In the partially sealed damper, large cavitation regions are observed in the pressure fields at orbit radii epsilon equals 0.5 and epsilon equals 0.8. The cavitated pressure distributions and the corresponding force coefficients are compared with a cavitated bearing solution. The experimental results show the significance of fluid inertia and vapor cavitation in the operation of squeeze film dampers. Squeeze film Reynolds numbers tested reach up to Re equals 50, spanning the range of contemporary applications.
Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.
2005-01-01
A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.
Moučka, Filip; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, William R
2015-04-14
We describe a computationally efficient molecular simulation methodology for calculating the concentration dependence of the chemical potentials of both solute and solvent in aqueous electrolyte solutions, based on simulations of the salt chemical potential alone. We use our approach to study the predictions for aqueous NaCl solutions at ambient conditions of these properties by the recently developed polarizable force fields (FFs) AH/BK3 of Kiss and Baranyai (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 204507) and AH/SWM4-DP of Lamoureux and Roux (J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 3308 - 3322) and by the nonpolarizable JC FF of Joung and Cheatham tailored to SPC/E water (J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 9020 - 9041). We also consider their predictions of the concentration dependence of the electrolyte activity coefficient, the crystalline solid chemical potential, the electrolyte solubility, and the solution specific volume. We first highlight the disagreement in the literature concerning calculations of solubility by means of molecular simulation in the case of the JC FF and provide strong evidence of the correctness of our methodology based on recent independently obtained results for this important test case. We then compare the predictions of the three FFs with each other and with experiment and draw conclusions concerning their relative merits, with particular emphasis on the salt chemical potential and activity coefficient vs concentration curves and their derivatives. The latter curves have only previously been available from Kirkwood-Buff integrals, which require approximate numerical integrations over system pair correlation functions at each concentration. Unlike the case of the other FFs, the AH/BK3 curves are nearly parallel to the corresponding experimental curves at moderate and higher concentrations. This leads to an excellent prediction of the water chemical potential via the Gibbs-Duhem equation and enables the activity coefficient curve to be brought into excellent agreement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, A. P.; Feik, R. A.
1983-12-01
This memo presents a preliminary study of a proposed method of measuring the aerodynamic forces on a supported model in an intermittent very short duration wind tunnel with a relatively high airflow dynamic pressure (of the orders of 200 microsec and 1/3 atmosphere respectively). A semiconductor strain gauged cantilever beam balance is used to record strain time histories associated with model displacement in response to aerodynamic force. The practical feasibility of obtaining sufficiently resolvable strains for the prescribed tunnel conditions with the given strain gauge configuration is established. The proposed method uses a system identification procedure to determine the system dynamic response characteristics using a known calibration force input. Subsequently, aerodynamic forces during a tunnel run follow from the recorded strain gauge time histories. The procedure has been demonstrated successfully using simulated data. However, the experimental situation did not lead to a successful analysis in the way proposed. Reasons for this are discussed and recommendations made for improvements. A brief series of shots in the ANU free piston shock tunnel also highlights the need to isolate as much as possible the model/balance from external vibrations.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of High Speed Trains under Cross Wind Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, W.; Wu, S. P.; Zhang, Y.
2011-09-01
Numerical simulation for the two models in cross-wind was carried out in this paper. The three-dimensional compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations(RANS), combined with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model, were solved on multi-block hybrid grids by second order upwind finite volume technique. The impact of fairing on aerodynamic characteristics of the train models was analyzed. It is shown that, the flow separates on the fairing and a strong vortex is generated, the pressure on the upper middle car decreases dramatically, which leads to a large lift force. The fairing changes the basic patterns around the trains. In addition, formulas of the coefficient of aerodynamic force at small yaw angles up to 24° were expressed.
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan
2012-02-01
In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Jennifer Hansen
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.
Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.
2012-06-01
The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alford, William J; King, Thomas, Jr
1957-01-01
An investigation was made at high subsonic speeds in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the static aerodynamic forces and moments on a missile model during simulated launching from the midsemispan location of a 45 degree sweptback wing-fuselage-pylon combination. The results indicated significant variations in all the aerodynamic components with changes in chordwise location of the missile. Increasing the angle of attack caused increases in the induced effects on the missile model because of the wing-fuselage-pylon combination. Increasing the Mach number had little effect on the variations of the missile aerodynamic characteristics with angle of attack except that nonlinearities were incurred at smaller angles of attack for the higher Mach numbers. The effects of finite wing thickness on the missile characteristics, at zero angle of attack, increase with increasing Mach number. The effects of the pylon on the missile characteristics were to causeincreases in the rolling-moment variation with angle of attack and a negative displacement of the pitching-moment curves at zero angle of attack. The effects of skewing the missile in the lateral direction relative to and sideslipping the missile with the wing-fuselage-pylon combination were to cause additional increments in side force at zero angle of attack. For the missile yawing moments the effects of changes in skew or sideslip angles were qualitatively as would be expected from consideration of the isolated missile characteristics, although there existed differences in theyawing-moment magnitudes.
Aerodynamic laboratory at Cuatro Vientos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
JUBERA
1922-01-01
This report presents a listing of the many experiments in aerodynamics taking place at Cuatro Vientos. Some of the studies include: testing spheres, in order to determine coefficients; mechanical and chemical tests of materials; and various tests of propeller strength and flexibility.
Techniques for estimating Space Station aerodynamic characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Richard E.
1993-01-01
A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity and temperature distributions of molecules reflected from a surface of arbitrary momentum and energy accommodation. A system of equations, based on momentum and energy balances for the surface, incident, and reflected molecules, was solved by a numerical optimization technique. The minimization of a 'cost' function, developed from the set of equations, resulted in the determination of the defining properties of the flow reflected from the arbitrary surface. The properties used to define both the incident and reflected flows were: average temperature of the molecules in the flow, angle of the flow with respect to a vector normal to the surface, and the molecular speed ratio. The properties of the reflected flow were used to calculate the contribution of multiply reflected molecules to the force and moments on a test body in the flow. The test configuration consisted of two flat plates joined along one edge at a right angle to each other. When force and moment coefficients of this 90 deg concave wedge were compared to results that did not include multiple reflections, it was found that multiple reflections could nearly double lift and drag coefficients, with nearly a 50 percent increase in pitching moment for cases with specular or nearly specular accommodation. The cases of diffuse or nearly diffuse accommodation often had minor reductions in axial and normal forces when multiple reflections were included. There were several cases of intermediate accommodation where the addition of multiple reflection effects more than tripled the lift coefficient over the convex technique.
Han, Jong-Seob; Kim, Joong-Kwan; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung
2015-08-01
A quasi-steady aerodynamic model in consideration of the center of pressure (C.P.) was developed for insect flight. A dynamically scaled-up robotic hawkmoth wing was used to obtain the translational lift, drag, moment and rotational force coefficients. The translational force coefficients were curve-fitted with respect to the angles of attack such that two coefficients in the Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy model were obtained. The rotational force coefficient was also compared to that derived by the standard Kutta-Joukowski theory. In order to build the accurate pitching moment model, the locations of the C.Ps. and its movements depending on the pitching velocity were investigated in detail. We found that the aerodynamic moment model became suitable when the rotational force component was assumed to act on the half-chord. This implies that the approximation borrowed from the conventional airfoil concept, i.e., the 'C.P. at the quarter-chord' may lead to an incorrect moment prediction. In the validation process, the model showed excellent time-course force and moment estimations in comparison with the robotic wing measurement results. A fully nonlinear multibody flight dynamic simulation was conducted to check the effect of the traveling C.P. on the overall flight dynamics. This clearly showed the importance of an accurate aerodynamic moment model. PMID:26226478
A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping wing aerodynamics
Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao; Bomphrey, Richard J.
2016-01-01
Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimisation is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into the quasi-steady forces and parameterised based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power with the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterised on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. It demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned air systems. PMID:27346891
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batterson, J. G.
1986-01-01
The successful parametric modeling of the aerodynamics for an airplane operating at high angles of attack or sideslip is performed in two phases. First the aerodynamic model structure must be determined and second the associated aerodynamic parameters (stability and control derivatives) must be estimated for that model. The purpose of this paper is to document two versions of a stepwise regression computer program which were developed for the determination of airplane aerodynamic model structure and to provide two examples of their use on computer generated data. References are provided for the application of the programs to real flight data. The two computer programs that are the subject of this report, STEP and STEPSPL, are written in FORTRAN IV (ANSI l966) compatible with a CDC FTN4 compiler. Both programs are adaptations of a standard forward stepwise regression algorithm. The purpose of the adaptation is to facilitate the selection of a adequate mathematical model of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of an airplane from flight test data. The major difference between STEP and STEPSPL is in the basis for the model. The basis for the model in STEP is the standard polynomial Taylor's series expansion of the aerodynamic function about some steady-state trim condition. Program STEPSPL utilizes a set of spline basis functions.
The influence of neighboring blade rows on the unsteady aerodynamic response of cascades
Hall, K.C.; Silkowski, P.D.
1997-01-01
In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the unsteady aerodynamic response of cascades due to incident gusts (the forced response problem) or blade vibration (the flutter problem) when the cascade is part of a multistage fan, compressor, or turbine. Most current unsteady aerodynamic models assume the cascade to be isolated in an infinitely long duct. This assumption, however, neglects the potentially important influence of neighboring blade rows. They present an elegant and computationally efficient method to model these neighboring blade row effects. In the present method, they model the unsteady aerodynamic response due to so-called spinning modes (pressure and vorticity waves), with each mode corresponding to a different circumferential wave number and frequency. Then, for each mode, they compute the reflection and transmission coefficients for each blade row. These coefficients can be obtained from any of the currently available unsteady linearized aerodynamic models of isolated cascades. A set of linear equations is then constructed that couples together the various spinning modes, and the linear equations are solved via LU decomposition. Numerical results are presented for both the gust response and blade vibration problems. To validate the model, the authors compare their results to other analytical models, and to a multistage vortex lattice model. They show that the effect of neighboring blade rows on the aerodynamic damping of vibrating cascades is significant, but nevertheless can be modeled with a small number of modes.
PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishita, Sadao
2010-02-01
The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.
1976-01-01
An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This user's manual contains a description of the system, an explanation of its usage, the input definition, and example output.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.
1975-01-01
An integrated system of computer programs has been developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This part presents a general description of the system and describes the theoretical methods used.
Aerodynamic influence coefficient method using singularity splines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, J. E.; Weber, J. A.; Lesferd, E. P.
1973-01-01
A new numerical formulation with computed results, is presented. This formulation combines the adaptability to complex shapes offered by paneling schemes with the smoothness and accuracy of the loading function methods. The formulation employs a continuous distribution of singularity strength over a set of panels on a paneled wing. The basic distributions are independent, and each satisfies all of the continuity conditions required of the final solution. These distributions are overlapped both spanwise and chordwise (termed 'spline'). Boundary conditions are satisfied in a least square error sense over the surface using a finite summing technique to approximate the integral.
Aerodynamic influence coefficient method using singularity splines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, J. E.; Weber, J. A.; Lesferd, E. P.
1974-01-01
A numerical lifting surface formulation, including computed results for planar wing cases is presented. This formulation, referred to as the vortex spline scheme, combines the adaptability to complex shapes offered by paneling schemes with the smoothness and accuracy of loading function methods. The formulation employes a continuous distribution of singularity strength over a set of panels on a paneled wing. The basic distributions are independent, and each satisfied all the continuity conditions required of the final solution. These distributions are overlapped both spanwise and chordwise. Boundary conditions are satisfied in a least square error sense over the surface using a finite summing technique to approximate the integral. The current formulation uses the elementary horseshoe vortex as the basic singularity and is therefore restricted to linearized potential flow. As part of the study, a non planar development was considered, but the numerical evaluation of the lifting surface concept was restricted to planar configurations. Also, a second order sideslip analysis based on an asymptotic expansion was investigated using the singularity spline formulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, J. D.; Braddock, W. F.
1975-01-01
A test of a model of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) was performed in a 14 x 14 inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments imposed on the nozzle of the SRB during reentry. The model, with scale dimensions equal to 0.5479 of the actual SRB dimensions, was instrumented with a six-component force balance attached to the model nozzle so that only forces and moments acting on the nozzle were measured. A total of 137 runs (20 deg pitch polars) were performed during this test. The angle of attack ranged from 60 to 185 deg, the Reynolds number from 5.2 million to 7.6 million. The Mach numbers investigated were 1.96, 2.74, and 3.48. Five external protuberances were simulated. The effective roll angle simulated was 180 deg. The effects of three different heat shield configurations were investigated.
Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, D. W.
1979-01-01
An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.
Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades
Migliore, P.G.; Walters, R.E.; Wolfe, W.P.
1983-03-01
An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were corrected to section coefficients for comparison to published rectilinear flow data. Although the airfoil sections were symmetrical, moment coefficients were not zero and the lift and drag curves were asymmetrical about zero lift coefficient and angle of attack. These features verified the predicted virtual camber and incidence phenomena. Boundary-layer centrifugal effects were manifested by discontinuous lift curves and large differences in the angle of zero lift between th NACA 0015 and elliptical airfoils. It was concluded that rectilinear flow aerodynamic data are not applicable to Darrieus turbine blades, even for small chord-to-radius ratios.
Aerodynamics of a golf ball with grooves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jooha; Son, Kwangmin; Choi, Haecheon
2009-11-01
It is well known that the drag on a dimpled ball is much lower than that on smooth ball. Choi et al. (Phys. Fluids, 2006) showed that turbulence is generated through the instability of shear layer separating from the edge of dimples and delays flow separation. Based on this mechanism, we devise a new golf ball with grooves on the surface but without any dimples. To investigate the aerodynamic performance of this new golf ball, an experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at the Reynolds numbers of 0.5 x10^5 - 2.7 x10^5 and the spin ratios (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of α=0 - 0.5, which are within the ranges of real golf-ball velocity and spin rate. We measure the drag and lift forces on the grooved ball and compare them with those of smooth ball. At zero spin, the drag coefficient on the grooved ball shows a rapid fall-off at a critical Reynolds number and maintains a minimum value which is lower by 50% than that on smooth ball. At non-zero α, the drag coefficient on the grooved ball increases with increasing α, but is still lower by 40% than that on smooth ball. The lift coefficient on the grooved ball increases with increasing α, and is 100% larger than that on smooth ball. The aerodynamic characteristics of grooved ball is in general quite similar to that of dimpled ball. Some more details will be discussed in the presentation.
Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.
1983-01-01
A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, J. A.; Pittman, J. L.
1985-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of wing leading edge sweep and wing translation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing body configuration at a free stream Mach number of about 6 and Reynolds number (based on body length) of 17.9 x 10 to the 6th power. Seven wings with leading edge sweep angles from -20 deg to 60 deg were tested on a common body over an angle of attack range from -12 deg to 10 deg. All wings had a common span, aspect ratio, taper ratio, planform area, and thickness ratio. Wings were translated longitudinally on the body to make tests possible with the total and exposed mean aerodynamic chords located at a fixed body station. Aerodynamic forces were found to be independent of wing sweep and translation, and pitching moments were constant when the exposed wing mean aerodynamic chord was located at a fixed body station. Thus, the Hypersonic Isolation Principle was verified. Theory applied with tangent wedge pressures on the wing and tangent cone pressures on the body provided excellent predictions of aerodynamic force coefficients but poor estimates of moment coefficients.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gamble, Reed
1989-01-01
Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)
Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao
2015-03-01
We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.
Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlig, Daniel V.
Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics
Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.
2013-12-01
This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rege, Alok Ashok
Insect flight comes with a lot of intricacies that cannot be explained by conventional aerodynamics. Even with their small-size, insects have the ability to generate the required aerodynamic forces using high frequency flapping motion of their wings to perform different maneuvers. The maneuverability obtained by these flyers using flapping motion belies the classical aerodynamics theory and calls for a new approach to study this highly unsteady aerodynamics. Research is on to find new ways to realize the flight capabilities of these insects and engineer a micro-flyer which would have various applications, ranging from autonomous pollination of crop fields and oil & gas exploration to area surveillance and detection & rescue missions. In this research, a parametric study of flapping trajectories is performed using a two-dimensional wing to identify the factors that affect the force production. These factors are then non-dimensionalized and used in a design of experiments set-up to conduct sensitivity analysis. A procedure to determine an aerodynamic model comprising cycle-averaged force coefficients is described. This aerodynamic model is then used in a nonlinear dynamics framework to perform flight dynamics analysis using a micro-flyer with model properties based on Drosophila. Stability analysis is conducted to determine different steady state flight conditions that could achieved by the micro-flyer with the given model properties. The effect of scaling the mass properties is discussed. An LQR design is used for closed-loop control. Open and closed-loop simulations are performed. The results show that nonlinear dynamics framework can be used to determine values for model properties of a micro-flyer that would enable it to perform different flight maneuvers.
Haritos, N.; Smith, D.J.
1995-12-31
This paper provides some results from an experimental study currently being carried out in the Michell laboratory at the University of Melbourne. The principal purpose of the study is to investigate the Morison in-line hydrodynamic force characteristics of slender surface-piercing multi-cylinder structures. The test program has been tailored to provide more detailed observations within the close-spaced region (Separation/Diameter ratio, s/D < 2) of the group interference effect in such multi-cylinder structures over the Keulegan Carpenter range 0 < KC < 20 which encompasses the inertia force dominant Morison regime (KC < 5), as well as the so-called troublesome region (5 < KC < 15) where both drag and inertia force components are significant. Results currently in hand for the side-by-side two-cylinder group configuration are presented which clearly depict the characteristics of this interference effect.
Flow Induced Spring Coefficients of Labyrinth Seals for Application in Rotor Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benckert, H.; Wachter, J.
1980-01-01
Flow induced aerodynamic spring coefficients of labyrinth seals are discussed and the restoring force in the deflection plane of the rotor and the lateral force acting perpendicularly to it are also considered. The effects of operational conditions on the spring characteristics of these components are examined, such as differential pressure, speed, inlet flow conditions, and the geometry of the labyrinth seals. Estimation formulas for the lateral forces due to shaft rotation and inlet swirl, which are developed through experiments, are presented. The utilization of the investigations is explained and results of stability calculations, especially for high pressure centrifugal compressors, are added. Suggestions are made concerning the avoidance of exciting forces in labyrinths.
Hydraulic forces on a centrifugal impeller undergoing synchronous whirl
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allaire, P. E.; Sato, C. J.; Branagan, L. A.
1984-01-01
High speed centrifugal rotating machinery with large vibrations caused by aerodynamic forces on impellers was examined. A method to calculate forces in a two dimensional orbiting impeller in an unbounded fluid with nonuniform entering flow was developed. A finite element model of the full impeller is employed to solve the inviscid flow equations. Five forces acting on the impeller are: Coriolis forces, centripetal forces, changes in linear momentum, changes in pressure due to rotation and pressure changes due to linear momentum. Both principal and cross coupled stiffness coefficients are calculated for the impeller.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julia, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Hibiki, T.; Mondragón, R.; Segarra, C.; Jarque, J. C.
2012-11-01
Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Re<105). Maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement (300%) and pressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.
Estimation of morphing airfoil shapes and aerodynamic loads using artificial hair sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, Nathan Scott
An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape, as well as the aerodynamic loads, in real time. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors (AHS) developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this study, AHS measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the AHS measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network (ANN) based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Additionally, an aerodynamic formulation based on the finite-state inflow theory has been developed to calculate the aerodynamic loads on thin airfoils with arbitrary camber deformations. Various aerodynamic properties approximated from the AHS/ANN system will be compared with the results of the finite-state inflow aerodynamic formulation in order to validate the approximation approach.
CFD Simulations in Support of Shuttle Orbiter Contingency Abort Aerodynamic Database Enhancement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papadopoulos, Periklis E.; Prabhu, Dinesh; Wright, Michael; Davies, Carol; McDaniel, Ryan; Venkatapathy, E.; Wercinski, Paul; Gomez, R. J.
2001-01-01
Modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques were used to compute aerodynamic forces and moments of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in specific portions of contingency abort trajectory space. The trajectory space covers a Mach number range of 3.5-15, an angle-of-attack range of 20deg-60deg, an altitude range of 100-190 kft, and several different settings of the control surfaces (elevons, body flap, and speed brake). Presented here are details of the methodology and comparisons of computed aerodynamic coefficients against the values in the current Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Data Book (OADB). While approximately 40 cases have been computed, only a sampling of the results is provided here. The computed results, in general, are in good agreement with the OADB data (i.e., within the uncertainty bands) for almost all the cases. However, in a limited number of high angle-of-attack cases (at Mach 15), there are significant differences between the computed results, especially the vehicle pitching moment, and the OADB data. A preliminary analysis of the data from the CFD simulations at Mach 15 shows that these differences can be attributed to real-gas/Mach number effects. The aerodynamic coefficients and detailed surface pressure distributions of the present simulations are being used by the Shuttle Program in the evaluation of the capabilities of the Orbiter in contingency abort scenarios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.
1985-01-01
The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.
External aerodynamics of heavy ground vehicles: Computations and wind tunnel testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayraktar, Ilhan
Aerodynamic characteristics of a ground vehicle affect vehicle operation in many ways. Aerodynamic drag, lift and side forces have influence on fuel efficiency, vehicle top speed and acceleration performance. In addition, engine cooling, air conditioning, wind noise, visibility, stability and crosswind sensitivity are some other tasks for vehicle aerodynamics. All of these areas benefit from drag reduction and changing the lift force in favor of the operating conditions. This can be achieved by optimization of external body geometry and flow modification devices. Considering the latter, a thorough understanding of the airflow is a prerequisite. The present study aims to simulate the external flow field around a ground vehicle using a computational method. The model and the method are selected to be three dimensional and time-dependent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method. The Renormalization Group (RNG) k-epsilon model was elected for closure of the turbulent quantities. Initially, the aerodynamics of a generic bluff body is studied computationally and experimentally to demonstrate a number of relevant issues including the validation of the computational method. Experimental study was conducted at the Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel using pressure probes and force measurement equipment. Experiments and computations are conducted on several geometric configurations. Results are compared in an attempt to validate the computational model for ground vehicle aerodynamics. Then, the external aerodynamics of a heavy truck is simulated using the validated computational fluid dynamics method, and the external flow is presented using computer visualization. Finally, to help the estimation of the error due to two commonly practiced engineering simplifications, a parametric study on the tires and the moving ground effect are conducted on full-scale tractor-trailer configuration. Force and pressure coefficients and velocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, G. A.; Cronvich, L. L.
1979-01-01
Individual wing panel aerodynamic characteristics are provided for rectangular wings with aspect ratios of 0.25, 0.75, and 1.00 each panel at Mach numbers if 1.5 and 2.0 for angles of attack to 23 degrees. Data plots produced from reports of wind tunnel tests show normal force coefficients, and the spanwise and chordwise center of pressure locations.
Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun
2011-01-01
A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.
2011-01-01
The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed exposé of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim
1992-01-01
The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George
1990-01-01
Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Appa, K.; Smith, G. C. C.
1973-01-01
The analytical development of unsteady supersonic aerodynamic influence coefficients for isolated and nearly parallel interfering coplanar and noncoplanar wings is described. Numerical formulations based on triangular discretizations of wings and diaphragms are handled in a kinematically consistent manner. Examples of isolated wing cases are compared with respect to aerodynamic influence coefficients and flutter boundaries. Aerodynamic influence coefficients for interfering wings are compared where corresponding results are available.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhlman, J. M.
1983-01-01
Wind tunnel test results have been presented herein for a subsonic transport type wing fitted with winglets. Wind planform was chosen to be representative of wings used on current jet transport aircraft, while wing and winglet camber surfaces were designed using two different linear aerodynamic design methods. The purpose of the wind tunnel investigation was to determine the effectiveness of these linear aerodynamic design computer codes in designing a non-planar transport configuration which would cruise efficiently. The design lift coefficient was chosen to be 0.4, at a design Mach number of 0.8. Force and limited pressure data were obtained for the basic wing, and for the wing fitted with the two different winglet designs, at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80 over an angle of attack range of -2 to +6 degrees, at zero sideslip. The data have been presented without analysis to expedite publication.
Viking entry aerodynamics and heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polutchko, R. J.
1974-01-01
The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.
Haas, Kevin R; Yang, Haw; Chu, Jhih-Wei
2013-12-12
The dynamics of a protein along a well-defined coordinate can be formally projected onto the form of an overdamped Lagevin equation. Here, we present a comprehensive statistical-learning framework for simultaneously quantifying the deterministic force (the potential of mean force, PMF) and the stochastic force (characterized by the diffusion coefficient, D) from single-molecule Förster-type resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments. The likelihood functional of the Langevin parameters, PMF and D, is expressed by a path integral of the latent smFRET distance that follows Langevin dynamics and realized by the donor and the acceptor photon emissions. The solution is made possible by an eigen decomposition of the time-symmetrized form of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation coupled with photon statistics. To extract the Langevin parameters from photon arrival time data, we advance the expectation-maximization algorithm in statistical learning, originally developed for and mostly used in discrete-state systems, to a general form in the continuous space that allows for a variational calculus on the continuous PMF function. We also introduce the regularization of the solution space in this Bayesian inference based on a maximum trajectory-entropy principle. We use a highly nontrivial example with realistically simulated smFRET data to illustrate the application of this new method. PMID:23937300
Error Estimates of the Ares I Computed Turbulent Ascent Longitudinal Aerodynamic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad
2012-01-01
Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on an unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. The validity of the approach to compute the associated error estimates, derived from a base grid to an extrapolated infinite-size grid, was first demonstrated on a sub-scaled wind tunnel model at representative ascent flow conditions for which the experimental data existed. Such analysis at the transonic flow conditions revealed a maximum deviation of about 23% between the computed longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid and the measured data across the entire roll angles. This maximum deviation from the wind tunnel data was associated with the computed normal force coefficient at the transonic flow condition and was reduced to approximately 16% based on the infinite-size grid. However, all the computed aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid at the supersonic flow conditions showed a maximum deviation of only about 8% with that level being improved to approximately 5% for the infinite-size grid. The results and the error estimates based on the established procedure are also presented for the flight flow conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pototzky, Anthony S.
2008-01-01
A simple matrix polynomial approach is introduced for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the s-plane and ultimately, after combining matrix polynomial coefficients with matrices defining the structure, a matrix polynomial of the flutter equations of motion (EOM) is formed. A technique of recasting the matrix-polynomial form of the flutter EOM into a first order form is also presented that can be used to determine the eigenvalues near the origin and everywhere on the complex plane. An aeroservoelastic (ASE) EOM have been generalized to include the gust terms on the right-hand side. The reasons for developing the new matrix polynomial approach are also presented, which are the following: first, the "workhorse" methods such as the NASTRAN flutter analysis lack the capability to consistently find roots near the origin, along the real axis or accurately find roots farther away from the imaginary axis of the complex plane; and, second, the existing s-plane methods, such as the Roger s s-plane approximation method as implemented in ISAC, do not always give suitable fits of some tabular data of the unsteady aerodynamics. A method available in MATLAB is introduced that will accurately fit generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients in a tabular data form into the coefficients of a matrix polynomial form. The root-locus results from the NASTRAN pknl flutter analysis, the ISAC-Roger's s-plane method and the present matrix polynomial method are presented and compared for accuracy and for the number and locations of roots.
Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.
1995-01-01
This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.
Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.
1994-08-01
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.
1994-08-01
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, D. P.
1981-01-01
Tabulated aerodynamic data from coannular nozzle performance tests are given for test runs 26 through 37. The data include nozzle thrust coefficient parameters, nozzle discharge coefficients, and static pressure tap measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Utvich, Alexis; Jemmott, Colin; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn
2003-11-01
A team of undergraduate students has performed experiments on Wiffle balls in the Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel facility. Wiffle balls are of particular interest because they can attain a curved trajectory with little or no pitcher-imparted spin. The reasons behind this have not previously been quantified formally. A strain gauge device was designed and constructed to measure the lift and drag forces on the Wiffle ball; a second device to measure lift and drag on a spinning ball was also developed. Experiments were conducted over a range of Reynolds numbers corresponding to speeds of roughly 0-40 mph. Lift forces of up to 0.2 N were measured for a Wiffle ball at 40 mph. This is believed to be due to air flowing into the holes on the Wiffle ball in addition to the effect of the holes on external boundary layer separation. A fog-based flow visualization system was developed in order to provide a deeper qualitative understanding of what occurred in the flowfield surrounding the ball. The data and observations obtained in this study support existing assumptions about Wiffle ball aerodynamics and begin to elucidate the mechanisms involved in Wiffle ball flight.
An aerodynamic load criterion for airships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, D. E.
1975-01-01
A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.