Unsteady aerodynamic load estimates on turning vanes in the national full-scale aerodynamic complex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, Thomas R.
1986-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic design loads have been estimated for each of the vane sets in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). These loads include estimates of local loads over one vane section and global loads over an entire vane set. The analytical methods and computer programs used to estimate these loads are discussed. In addition, the important computer input parameters are defined and the rationale used to estimate them is discussed. Finally, numerical values are presented for both the computer input parameters and the calculated design loads for each vane set.
Sullivan, W. N.; Leonard, T. M.
1980-11-01
An important aspect of structural design of the Darrieus rotor is the determination of aerodynamic blade loads. This report describes a load generator which has been used at Sandia for quasi-static and dynamic rotor analyses. The generator is based on the single streamtube aerodynamic flow model and is constructed as a FORTRAN IV subroutine to facilitate its use in finite element structural models. Input and output characteristics of the subroutine are described and a complete listing is attached as an appendix.
Estimation of morphing airfoil shapes and aerodynamic loads using artificial hair sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, Nathan Scott
An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape, as well as the aerodynamic loads, in real time. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors (AHS) developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this study, AHS measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the AHS measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network (ANN) based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Additionally, an aerodynamic formulation based on the finite-state inflow theory has been developed to calculate the aerodynamic loads on thin airfoils with arbitrary camber deformations. Various aerodynamic properties approximated from the AHS/ANN system will be compared with the results of the finite-state inflow aerodynamic formulation in order to validate the approximation approach.
Estimation of morphing airfoil shape and aerodynamic load using artificial hair sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, Nathan S.; Su, Weihua; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Reich, Gregory W.
2016-04-01
An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape as well as the aerodynamic loads at all times. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this work, the hair sensor measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the hair sensor measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Various aerodynamic and geometrical properties approximated from the artificial hair sensor and artificial neural network system will be compared with the results of XFoil in order to validate the approximation approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bruhis, Ofer; Duval, Ronald W.; Idan, Moshe
1990-01-01
The purpose of the study is to develop and verify a methodology capable of predicting the vibration levels and estimating the aerodynamic loads and rotor impedance of a rotorcraft blade. Simulated flight test data is generated, blade airloads and elastic hub motions are estimated from the simulated data through the use of the Kalman filter/smoother, simulation upgrading and parameter identification are performed, and the ability to identify rotor impedance from a simulation by isolating the rotor model and providing a prescribed motion for the hub as rotor excitation is demonstrated. It is pointed out that the statistical estimation procedure utilized in the proposed methodology minimizes the impact of sensor noise, truncation error, and instrumentation bias on the results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waszak, Martin R.; Fung, Jimmy
1998-01-01
This report describes the development of transfer function models for the trailing-edge and upper and lower spoiler actuators of the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for application to control system analysis and design. A simple nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation approach is applied to determine transfer function parameters from frequency response data. Unconstrained quasi-Newton minimization of weighted frequency response error was employed to estimate the transfer function parameters. An analysis of the behavior of the actuators over time to assess the effects of wear and aerodynamic load by using the transfer function models is also presented. The frequency responses indicate consistent actuator behavior throughout the wind tunnel test and only slight degradation in effectiveness due to aerodynamic hinge loading. The resulting actuator models have been used in design, analysis, and simulation of controllers for the BACT to successfully suppress flutter over a wide range of conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayatana; Martin, Fred W.; Sutliff, Daniel L.
2008-01-01
At the wake of the Columbia (STS-107) accident it was decided to remove the Protuberance Aerodynamic Load (PAL) Ramp that was originally intended to protect various protuberances outside of the Space Shuttle External Tank from high buffet load induced by cross-flows at transonic speed. In order to establish the buffet load without the PAL ramp, a wind tunnel test was conducted where segments of the protuberances were instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers; and power-spectra of sectional lift and drag forces at various span-wise locations between two adjacent support brackets were measured under different cross flow angles, Mach number and other conditions. Additionally, frequency-dependent spatial correlations between the sectional forces were also established. The sectional forces were then adjusted by the correlation length to establish span-averaged spectra of normal and lateral forces that can be suitably "added" to various other unsteady forces encountered by the protuberance. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the correlation-adjusted power spectrum of the buffet load. A second part of the paper describes wind-tunnel results on the difference in the buffet load on the protuberances with and without the PAL ramp. In general when the ramp height is the same as that of the protuberance height, such as that found on the liquid Oxygen part of the tank, the ramp is found to cause significant reduction of the unsteady aerodynamic load. However, on the liquid Hydrogen part of the tank, where the Oxygen feed-line is far larger in diameter than the height of the PAL ramp, little protection is found to be available to all but the Cable Tray.
Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P
1991-10-01
Two methods can be used to determine aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade. The first is to make direct pressure measurements on the blade surface. This is a difficult process requiring costly pressure instrumentation. The second method uses measured flap bending moments in conjunction with analytical techniques to estimate airloads. This method, called ALEST, was originally developed for use on helicopter rotors and was modified for use on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. Estimating airloads using flap bending moments in much simpler and less costly because measurements can be made with conventional strain gages and equipment. This paper presents results of airload estimates obtained using both methods under a variety of operating conditions. Insights on the limitations and usefulness of the ALEST bending moment technique are also included. 10 refs., 6 figs.
An aerodynamic load criterion for airships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, D. E.
1975-01-01
A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.
Sparse Sensing of Aerodynamic Loads on Insect Wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manohar, Krithika; Brunton, Steven; Kutz, J. Nathan
2015-11-01
We investigate how insects use sparse sensors on their wings to detect aerodynamic loading and wing deformation using a coupled fluid-structure model given periodically flapping input motion. Recent observations suggest that insects collect sensor information about their wing deformation to inform control actions for maneuvering and rejecting gust disturbances. Given a small number of point measurements of the chordwise aerodynamic loads from the sparse sensors, we reconstruct the entire chordwise loading using sparsesensing - a signal processing technique that reconstructs a signal from a small number of measurements using l1 norm minimization of sparse modal coefficients in some basis. We compare reconstructions from sensors randomly sampled from probability distributions biased toward different regions along the wing chord. In this manner, we determine the preferred regions along the chord for sensor placement and for estimating chordwise loads to inform control decisions in flight.
Estimating the Collapse Pressure of an Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baginski, Frank E.; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Cruz, Juan R.
2013-01-01
The collapse pressure of an inflatable membrane is the minimum differential pressure which will sustain a specific desired shape under an applied load. In this paper, we present a method for estimating the collapse pressure of a tension-cone inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (IAD) that is subject to a static aerodynamic load. The IAD surface is modeled as an elastic membrane. For a given aerodynamic load and sufficiently high torus differential pressure, the IAD assumes a stable axisymmetric equilibrium shape. When the torus pressure is reduced sufficiently, the symmetric equilibrium state becomes unstable and we define this instance to be the critical pressure Pcr. In this paper, we will compare our predicted critical torus pressure with the corresponding observed torus collapse pressure (OTCP) for fifteen tests that were conducted by the third author and his collaborators at the NASA Glenn Research Center 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel in April 2008. One of the difficulties with these types of comparisons is establishing the instance of torus collapse and determining the OTCP from quantities measured during the experiment. In many cases, torus collapse is gradual and the OTCP is not well-defined. However, in eight of the fifteen wind tunnel tests where the OTCP is well-defined, we find that the average of the relative differences (Pcr - OTCP/Pcr) was 8.9%. For completeness, we will also discuss the seven tests where the observed torus collapse pressure is not well-defined.
The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading
Smith, T.E. ); Kadambi, J.R. )
1993-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis is presented that accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two-degree-of-freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of (1) airfoil thickness and camber and (2) steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of the steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber, or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.
1990-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.
1991-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
2003-01-01
This report summarizes the activities in aerodynamic model estimation from flight data. In addition to public presentations at the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conferences, two presentations at Boeing-Seattle were made during personal trips. These are discussed in the following: 1. Methodology of Aerodynamic Model Estimation from Flight Data. 2. Applications of F-16XL aerodynamic modeling. 3. Modeling of turbulence response. 5. Presentations at Boeing-Seattle. 6. Recommendations. and 7. References.
Modeling, Control, and Estimation of Flexible, Aerodynamic Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Cody W.
Engineers have long been inspired by nature’s flyers. Such animals navigate complex environments gracefully and efficiently by using a variety of evolutionary adaptations for high-performance flight. Biologists have discovered a variety of sensory adaptations that provide flow state feedback and allow flying animals to feel their way through flight. A specialized skeletal wing structure and plethora of robust, adaptable sensory systems together allow nature’s flyers to adapt to myriad flight conditions and regimes. In this work, motivated by biology and the successes of bio-inspired, engineered aerial vehicles, linear quadratic control of a flexible, morphing wing design is investigated, helping to pave the way for truly autonomous, mission-adaptive craft. The proposed control algorithm is demonstrated to morph a wing into desired positions. Furthermore, motivated specifically by the sensory adaptations organisms possess, this work transitions to an investigation of aircraft wing load identification using structural response as measured by distributed sensors. A novel, recursive estimation algorithm is utilized to recursively solve the inverse problem of load identification, providing both wing structural and aerodynamic states for use in a feedback control, mission-adaptive framework. The recursive load identification algorithm is demonstrated to provide accurate load estimate in both simulation and experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Arthur J.
1993-01-01
A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.
Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.
2001-01-01
This paper describes a videogram metric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.
Dynamic control of a bistable wing under aerodynamic loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilgen, Onur; Arrieta, Andres F.; Friswell, Michael I.; Hagedorn, Peter
2013-02-01
The aerodynamic evaluation of a dynamic control technique applied to a bistable unsymmetrical cross-ply composite plate with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators is presented. The plate is clamped on one end to form a low-aspect-ratio wing. A previously proposed dynamic control method, utilizing bending resonance in different stable equilibrium positions, is used to induce snap-through between the two equilibrium states. Compared to quasi-static actuation, driving the bistable plate near resonance using surface bonded piezoelectric materials requires, theoretically, a lower peak excitation voltage to achieve snap-through. First, a set of extensive wind tunnel experiments are conducted on the passive bistable wing to understand the change in the dynamic behavior under various aerodynamic conditions. The passive wing demonstrated sufficient bending stiffness to sustain its shape under aerodynamic loading while preserving the desired bistable behavior. Next, by the use of the resonant control technique, the plate is turned into an effectively monostable structure, or alternatively, both stable equilibrium positions can be reached actively from the other stable equilibrium. Dynamic forward and reverse snap-through is demonstrated in the wind tunnel which shows both the effectiveness of the piezoelectric actuation as well as the load carrying capability of both states of the bistable wing.
Ground/Flight Correlation of Aerodynamic Loads with Structural Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalam, Arun S.; Davis, Mark C.
2009-01-01
Ground and flight tests provide a basis and methodology for in-flight characterization of the aerodynamic and structural performance through the monitoring of the fluid-structure interaction. The NF-15B flight tests of the Intelligent Flight Control System program provided a unique opportunity to test the correlation of aerodynamic loads with points of flow attaching and detaching from the surface, which are also known as flow bifurcation points, as observed in a previous wind tunnel test performed at the U.S. Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado). Moreover, flight tests, along with the subsequent unsteady aerodynamic tests in the NASA Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), provide a basis using surface flow sensors as means of assessing the aeroelastic performance of flight vehicles. For the flight tests, the NF-15B tail was instrumented with hot-film sensors and strain gages for measuring root-bending strains. This data were gathered via selected sideslip maneuvers performed at level flight and subsonic speeds. The aerodynamic loads generated by the sideslip maneuver resulted in a structural response, which were then compared with the hot-film sensor signals. The hot-film sensor signals near the stagnation region were found to be highly correlated with the root-bending strains. For the TDT tests, a flexible wing section developed under the U.S. Air Force Research Lab SensorCraft program was instrumented with strain gages, accelerometers, and hot-film sensors at two span stations. The TDT tests confirmed the correlation between flow bifurcation points and the wing structural response to tunnel-generated gusts. Furthermore, as the wings structural modes were excited by the gusts, a gradual phase change between the flow bifurcation point and the structural mode occurred during a resonant condition.
Ground/Flight Correlation of Aerodynamic Loads with Structural Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalam, Arun S.; Davis, Mark C.
2009-01-01
United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) ground tests at the NASA Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and NASA flight tests provide a basis and methodology for in-flight characterization of the aeroelastic performance through the monitoring of the fluid-structure interaction using surface flow sensors. NASA NF-15B flight tests provided a unique opportunity to test the correlation of aerodynamic loads with sectional flow attachment/detachment points, also known as flow bifurcation points (FBPs), as observed in previous wind tunnel tests. The NF-15B tail was instrumented with hot-film sensors and strain gages for measuring root-bending strains. These data were gathered via selected sideslip maneuvers performed at level flight and subsonic speeds. The aerodynamic loads generated by the sideslip maneuver resulted in root-bending strains and hot-film sensor signals near the stagnation region that were highly correlated. For the TDT tests, a flexible wing section developed under the AFRL SensorCraft program was instrumented with strain gages, accelerometers, and hot-film sensors at multiple span stations. The TDT tests provided data showing a gradual phase change between the FBP and the structural mode occurred during a resonant condition as the wings structural modes were excited by the tunnel-generated gusts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stromberg, W. J.
1981-01-01
An engine was specially prepared with extensive instrumentation to monitor performance, case temperatures, and clearance changes. A special loading device was used to apply known loads on the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. These loads simulated the estimated aerodynamic pressure distributions that occur on the inlet in various segments of a typical airplane flight. Test results indicate that the engine lost 1.3 percent in take-off thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) during the course of the test effort. Permanent clearance changes due to the loads accounted for 1.1 percent; increase in low pressure compressor airfoil roughness and thermal distortion in the high pressure turbine accounted for 0.2 percent. Pretest predicted performance loss due to clearance changes was 0.9 percent in TSFC. Therefore, the agreement between measurement and prediction is considered to be excellent.
Automated Wing Twist And Bending Measurements Under Aerodynamic Load
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Martinson, S. D.
1996-01-01
An automated system to measure the change in wing twist and bending under aerodynamic load in a wind tunnel is described. The basic instrumentation consists of a single CCD video camera and a frame grabber interfaced to a computer. The technique is based upon a single view photogrammetric determination of two dimensional coordinates of wing targets with a fixed (and known) third dimensional coordinate, namely the spanwise location. The measurement technique has been used successfully at the National Transonic Facility, the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The advantages and limitations (including targeting) of the technique are discussed. A major consideration in the development was that use of the technique must not appreciably reduce wind tunnel productivity.
Aerodynamic loads and rotor performance for the Darrieus wind turbines
Paraschivoiu, I.
1981-01-01
Aerodynamic blade loads and rotor performance are studied for the Darrieus windmill by using a double-multiple streamtube model. The Darrieus is represented as a pair of actuator disks in tandem at each level of the rotor, with upstream and downstream half-cycles. An equilibrium velocity exists in the center plane, and the upwind velocity is higher than the downwind velocity lift and drag coefficients are calculated from the Reynolds number and the local angle of attack. Half-rotor torque and power are found by averaging the contributions from each streamtube at each position of the rotor in the upwind cycle. An example is provided for a 17 m Darrieus employing NACA blades. While the method is found to be suitable for predicting blade and rotor performance, the need to incorporate the effects of dynamic stall in the model is stressed as a means to improve accuracy.
Comparisons of several aerodynamic methods for application to dynamic loads analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroll, R. I.; Miller, R. D.
1976-01-01
The results of a study are presented in which the applicability at subsonic speeds of several aerodynamic methods for predicting dynamic gust loads on aircraft, including active control systems, was examined and compared. These aerodynamic methods varied from steady state to an advanced unsteady aerodynamic formulation. Brief descriptions of the structural and aerodynamic representations and of the motion and load equations are presented. Comparisons of numerical results achieved using the various aerodynamic methods are shown in detail. From these results, aerodynamic representations for dynamic gust analyses are identified. It was concluded that several aerodynamic methods are satisfactory for dynamic gust analyses of configurations having either controls fixed or active control systems that primarily affect the low frequency rigid body aircraft response.
Estimating aerodynamic resistance of rough surfaces from angular reflectance
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Current wind erosion and dust emission models neglect the heterogeneous nature of surface roughness and its geometric anisotropic effect on aerodynamic resistance, and over-estimate the erodible area by assuming it is not covered by roughness elements. We address these shortfalls with a new model wh...
Techniques for estimating Space Station aerodynamic characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Richard E.
1993-01-01
A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity and temperature distributions of molecules reflected from a surface of arbitrary momentum and energy accommodation. A system of equations, based on momentum and energy balances for the surface, incident, and reflected molecules, was solved by a numerical optimization technique. The minimization of a 'cost' function, developed from the set of equations, resulted in the determination of the defining properties of the flow reflected from the arbitrary surface. The properties used to define both the incident and reflected flows were: average temperature of the molecules in the flow, angle of the flow with respect to a vector normal to the surface, and the molecular speed ratio. The properties of the reflected flow were used to calculate the contribution of multiply reflected molecules to the force and moments on a test body in the flow. The test configuration consisted of two flat plates joined along one edge at a right angle to each other. When force and moment coefficients of this 90 deg concave wedge were compared to results that did not include multiple reflections, it was found that multiple reflections could nearly double lift and drag coefficients, with nearly a 50 percent increase in pitching moment for cases with specular or nearly specular accommodation. The cases of diffuse or nearly diffuse accommodation often had minor reductions in axial and normal forces when multiple reflections were included. There were several cases of intermediate accommodation where the addition of multiple reflection effects more than tripled the lift coefficient over the convex technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Han; Lai, Jiang; Sheng, Hong-Zhi
2014-12-01
The influences of steady aerodynamic loads on hunting stability of high-speed railway vehicles were investigated in this study. A mechanism is suggested to explain the change of hunting behavior due to actions of aerodynamic loads: the aerodynamic loads can change the position of vehicle system (consequently the contact relations), the wheel/rail normal contact forces, the gravitational restoring forces/moments and the creep forces/moments. A mathematical model for hunting stability incorporating such influences was developed. A computer program capable of incorporating the effects of aerodynamic loads based on the model was written, and the critical speeds were calculated using this program. The dependences of linear and nonlinear critical speeds on suspension parameters considering aerodynamic loads were analyzed by using the orthogonal test method, the results were also compared with the situations without aerodynamic loads. It is shown that the most dominant factors affecting linear and nonlinear critical speeds are different whether the aerodynamic loads considered or not. The damping of yaw damper is the most dominant influencing factor for linear critical speeds, while the damping of lateral damper is most dominant for nonlinear ones. When the influences of aerodynamic loads are considered, the linear critical speeds decrease with the rise of crosswind velocity, whereas it is not the case for the nonlinear critical speeds. The variation trends of critical speeds with suspension parameters can be significantly changed by aerodynamic loads. Combined actions of aerodynamic loads and suspension parameters also affect the critical speeds. The effects of such joint action are more obvious for nonlinear critical speeds.
Estimating unsteady aerodynamic forces on a cascade in a three-dimensional turbulence field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, T.; Johnson, W.
1985-01-01
An analytical method has been developed to estimate the unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by flow field turbulence on a wind tunnel turning vane cascade system (vane set). This method approximates dynamic lift and drag by linearly perturbing the appropriate steady state force equations, assuming that the dynamic loads are due only to free stream turbulence and that this turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and Gaussian. Correlation and unsteady aerodynamic effects are also incorporated into the analytical model. Using these assumptions, equations relating dynamic lift and drag to flow turbulence, mean velocity, and vane set geometry are derived. From these equations, estimates for the power spectra and rms (root mean squared value, delta) loading of both lift and drag can be determined.
Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav
2011-01-01
Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.
Effects of blade bending on aerodynamic control of fluctuating loads on teetered HAWT rotors
Eggers, A.J. Jr.; Ashley, H.; Rock, S.M.; Chaney, K.; Digumarthi, R.
1996-11-01
Active aerodynamic control, in the form of closed-loop actuation of blade-tip ailerons or all-movable blades, is investigated as a means of increasing the structural fatigue life of HAWT rotors. The rotor considered is upwind and teetered, with two blades of diameter 29.2 m., fiberglass construction and other properties representative of modern light-weight construction. The paper begins with a review of prior work which studied the problem for an essentially rigid structure. For that and the present research, two loading conditions were invoked: exposure to a Rayleigh distribution of operating winds with vertical shear and a 15 percent superimposed spectrum of turbulence; and occasional exposure to 62 m/s hurricanes. Accounted for herein is the effect of flatwise bending flexibility on the loads spectra of root flatwise bending moment, thrust, and torque (both open loop and closed loop). Using Miner`s rule, the moments are converted to fatigue lives. With aerodynamic control, RMS flatwise moments for the flexible blade in turbulence are found to be less than {1/2} of those without control. At a fixed blade weight of 540 kg when hurricane loads are added, the aileron-controlled blade is designed by that limit-load condition. In contrast, the all-movable blade can be feather controlled in the high wind so that its life is dominated by turbulent loads. Simplified fatigue analysis permits weight reductions to be estimated which yield controlled blades capable of 30 years` operation with a safety factor of 11. The resulting weights are about 400 kg for the aileron-controlled blade, and 230 kg for the all-movable blade. However, such light-weight rotors require attention to other design considerations, such as start-stop cycles. Apart from limit loads, the methods of analysis are linearized (locally for aerodynamic loads). It follows that the results are likely to be meaningful in terms of comparative, rather than absolute, values of fatigue life and weight.
Time Series Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness Fields Estimated from MODIS Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borak, Jordan S.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard D.
2005-01-01
Most land surface models used today require estimates of aerodynamic roughness length in order to characterize momentum transfer between the surface and atmosphere. The most common method of prescribing roughness is through the use of empirical look-up tables based solely on land cover class. Theoretical approaches that employ satellite-based estimates of canopy density present an attractive alternative to current look-up table approaches based on vegetation cover type that do not account for within-class variability and are oftentimes simplistic with respect to temporal variability. The current research applies Raupach s formulation of momentum aerodynamic roughness to MODIS data on a regional scale in order to estimate seasonally variable roughness and zero-plane displacement height fields using bulk land cover parameters estimated by [Jasinski, M.F., Borak, J., Crago, R., 2005. Bulk surface momentum parameters for satellite-derived vegetation fields. Agric. For. Meteorol. 133, 55-68]. Results indicate promising advances over look-up approaches with respect to characterization of vegetation roughness variability in land surface and atmospheric circulation models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Olson, Lawrence E.; Peterson, Randall L.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Ross, James C.; Norman, Thomas R.
1987-01-01
Time-averaged aerodynamic loads are estimated for each of the vane sets in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). The methods used to compute global and local loads are presented. Experimental inputs used to calculate these loads are based primarily on data obtained from tests conducted in the NFAC 1/10-Scale Vane-Set Test Facility and from tests conducted in the NFAC 1/50-Scale Facility. For those vane sets located directly downstream of either the 40- by 80-ft test section or the 80- by 120-ft test section, aerodynamic loads caused by the impingement of model-generated wake vortices and model-generated jet and propeller wakes are also estimated.
Aerodynamic control of fluctuating loads on teetered HAWT rotors
Eggers, A.J. Jr.; Ashley, H.; Rock, S.M.; Chaney, K.
1995-09-01
This paper addresses the possibility of using an aerodynamic control to simultaneously reduce fluctuations in blade root flatwise bending moments, thrust and torque generated by a teetered HAWT rotor operating in turbulent winds. This possibility is suggested by both theory and field test data which indicate that the timing and direction of these fluctuations correlate, although they are of different magnitudes. Thus if an aerodynamic control system is designed to reduce one type of fluctuation, it may also serve to reduce the others. The end result would be a reduction in fatigue damage accumulation and power fluctuations experienced by HAWTs operating in turbulent winds.
Berg, Jonathan Charles; Halse, Chris; Crowther, Ashley; Barlas, Thanasis; Wilson, David Gerald; Berg, Dale E.; Resor, Brian Ray
2010-06-01
Prior work on active aerodynamic load control (AALC) of wind turbine blades has demonstrated that appropriate use of this technology has the potential to yield significant reductions in blade loads, leading to a decrease in wind cost of energy. While the general concept of AALC is usually discussed in the context of multiple sensors and active control devices (such as flaps) distributed over the length of the blade, most work to date has been limited to consideration of a single control device per blade with very basic Proportional Derivative controllers, due to limitations in the aeroservoelastic codes used to perform turbine simulations. This work utilizes a new aeroservoelastic code developed at Delft University of Technology to model the NREL/Upwind 5 MW wind turbine to investigate the relative advantage of utilizing multiple-device AALC. System identification techniques are used to identify the frequencies and shapes of turbine vibration modes, and these are used with modern control techniques to develop both Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) LQR flap controllers. Comparison of simulation results with these controllers shows that the MIMO controller does yield some improvement over the SISO controller in fatigue load reduction, but additional improvement is possible with further refinement. In addition, a preliminary investigation shows that AALC has the potential to reduce off-axis gearbox loads, leading to reduced gearbox bearing fatigue damage and improved lifetimes.
Estimating Mass of Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators Using Dimensionless Parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh, Jamshid A.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a technique for estimating mass for inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. The technique uses dimensional analysis to identify a set of dimensionless parameters for inflation pressure, mass of inflation gas, and mass of flexible material. The dimensionless parameters enable scaling of an inflatable concept with geometry parameters (e.g., diameter), environmental conditions (e.g., dynamic pressure), inflation gas properties (e.g., molecular mass), and mass growth allowance. This technique is applicable for attached (e.g., tension cone, hypercone, and stacked toroid) and trailing inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. The technique uses simple engineering approximations that were developed by NASA in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as some recent important developments. The NASA Mars Entry and Descent Landing System Analysis (EDL-SA) project used this technique to estimate the masses of the inflatable concepts that were used in the analysis. The EDL-SA results compared well with two independent sets of high-fidelity finite element analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asareh, Mohammad-Amin; Prowell, Ian; Volz, Jeffery; Schonberg, William
2016-03-01
The wide deployment of wind turbines in locations with high seismic hazard has led engineers to take into account a more comprehensive seismic design of such structures. Turbine specific guidelines usually use simplified methods and consider many assumptions to combine seismic demand with the other operational loads effecting the design of these structures. As the turbines increase in size and capacity, the interaction between seismic loads and aerodynamic loads becomes even more important. In response to the need for a computational tool that can perform coupled simulations of wind and seismic loads, a seismic module is developed for the FAST code and described in this research. This platform allows engineers working in this industry to directly consider interaction between seismic and other environmental loads for turbines. This paper details the practical application and theory of this platform and provides examples for the use of different capabilities. The platform is then used to show the suitable earthquake and operational load combination with the implicit consideration of aerodynamic damping by estimating appropriate load factors.
Aerodynamic Loads Induced by a Rotor on a Body of Revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Charles A.; Betzina, Mark D.
1986-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in which aerodynamic loads were measured on a small-scale helicopter rotor and a body of revolution located close to it as an idealized model of a fuselage. The objective was to study the aerodynamic interactions as a function of forward speed, rotor thrust, and rotor/body position. Results show that body loads, normalized by rotor thrust, are functions of the ratio between free-stream velocity and the hover-induced velocity predicted by momentum theory.
Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.
2014-06-01
A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body
ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING
This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...
Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics Load on the Blade of Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Naito, Keita; Ouchi, Yuu; Kozawa, Masayoshi
This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.
14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... prescribed in § 23.351 and § 23.423; or (2) All possible combinations of the following— (i) A yaw velocity of 2.5 radians per second; (ii) A pitch velocity of 1.0 radian per second; (iii) A normal load factor... be designed to withstand the load factors expected during combined maximum yaw and pitch...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William Machado; Pandya, Shishir Ashok; Rogers, Stuart E.
2013-01-01
Recent developments on the automation of the X-rays approach to hole-cutting in over- set grids is further improved. A fast method to compute an auxiliary wall-distance function used in providing a rst estimate of the hole boundary location is introduced. Subsequent iterations lead to automatically-created hole boundaries with a spatially-variable o set from the minimum hole. For each hole boundary location, an averaged cell attribute measure over all fringe points is used to quantify the compatibility between the fringe points and their respective donor cells. The sensitivity of aerodynamic loads to di erent hole boundary locations and cell attribute compatibilities is investigated using four test cases: an isolated re-entry capsule, a two-rocket con guration, the AIAA 4th Drag Prediction Workshop Common Research Model (CRM), and the D8 \\Double Bubble" subsonic aircraft. When best practices in hole boundary treatment are followed, only small variations in integrated loads and convergence rates are observed for different hole boundary locations.
14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... prescribed in § 23.351 and § 23.423; or (2) All possible combinations of the following— (i) A yaw velocity of... be designed to withstand the load factors expected during combined maximum yaw and pitch...
Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat
1990-01-01
The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.
Influences of Atmospheric Stability State on Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Loadings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Lavely, Adam; Brasseur, James; Paterson, Eric; Kinzel, Michael
2011-11-01
Wind turbine power and loadings are influenced by the structure of atmospheric turbulence and thus on the stability state of the atmosphere. Statistical differences in loadings with atmospheric stability could impact controls, blade design, etc. Large-eddy simulation (LES) of the neutral and moderately convective atmospheric boundary layer (NBL, MCBL) are used as inflow to the NREL FAST advanced blade-element momentum theory code to predict wind turbine rotor power, sectional lift and drag, blade bending moments and shaft torque. Using horizontal homogeneity, we combine time and ensemble averages to obtain converged statistics equivalent to ``infinite'' time averages over a single turbine. The MCBL required longer effective time periods to obtain converged statistics than the NBL. Variances and correlation coefficients among wind velocities, turbine power and blade loadings were higher in the MCBL than the NBL. We conclude that the stability state of the ABL strongly influences wind turbine performance. Supported by NSF and DOE.
Spanwise aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade
Butterfield, C.P.; Simms, D.; Musial, W.; Scott, G.
1990-10-01
Wind turbine performance and load predictions depend on accurate airfoil performance data. Wind tunnel test data are typically used which accurately describe two-dimensional airfoil performance characteristics. Usually these data are only available for a range of angles of attack from 0 to 15 deg, which excludes the stall characteristics. Airfoils on stall-controlled wind turbines operate in deep stall in medium to high winds. Therefore it is very important to know how the airfoil will perform in these high load conditions. Butterfield et al. have shown that three-dimensional effects and rotation of the blade modify the two-dimensional performance of the airfoil. These effects are modified to different degrees throughout the blade span. The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has conducted a series of tests to measure the spanwise variation of airfoil performance characteristics on a rotating wind turbine blade. Maximum lift coefficients were measured to be 200% greater than wind tunnel results at the 30% span. Stall characteristics were generally modified throughout the span. Lift characteristics were unmodified for low to medium angles of attack. This paper discusses these test results for four spanwise locations. 8 refs., 12 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaylock, Myra Louise
A fast, efficient way to control loads on industrial scale turbines is important for the growth of the wind industry. Active Aerodynamic Load Control (AALC) is one area which addresses this need. In particular, microjets, which are pneumatic jets located at the trailing edge of a wind turbine blade and blow perpendicular to the blade surface, are a possible AALC candidate. First, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver OVERFLOW is used to explore the effects of a microjet on lift, drag, and pitching moment. Then the interaction between an aerodynamic disturbance and an airfoil equipped with a microjet is modeled. The object of this dissertation is to investigate microtabs as viable AALC devices by presenting their aerodynamic properties and testing whether a proportional-integral (PI) controlled jets can alleviate loads caused by wind gusts. The use of CFD to simulate a microjet is validated by comparing the results to both previous experiments found in the literature as well as wind tunnel tests completed at UC Davis. The aerodynamic effectiveness of the jet is investigated as a function of various parameters such as Reynolds number, angle of attack, and the momentum coefficient of the jet. The effects of the microjet are found to be very similar to another AALC device, the microtab. An aerodynamic disturbance is simulated, and a control algorithm which is incorporated into the OVERFLOW code is used to activate the microjet, thus reducing the change of the blade load due to the gust. Finally, a more realistic model is made by adding both a linear and a torsional spring and damper to represent the blade movement. This two-degree of freedom system shows that during a gust the vertical blade movement is reduced when the microjets are activated. Microjets are found to work well to alleviate the changes in aerodynamic loads felt by the airfoil, and are therefore a good candidate for a practical AALC device. However, further investigation is needed in the areas of
Structural dynamics payload loads estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engels, R. C.
1982-01-01
Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.
Supersonic unstalled flutter. [aerodynamic loading of thin airfoils induced by cascade motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, J. J.; Goldstein, M. E.; Hartmann, M. J.
1978-01-01
Flutter analyses were developed to predict the onset of supersonic unstalled flutter of a cascade of two-dimensional airfoils. The first of these analyzes the onset of supersonic flutter at low levels of aerodynamic loading (i.e., backpressure), while the second examines the occurrence of supersonic flutter at moderate levels of aerodynamic loading. Both of these analyses are based on the linearized unsteady inviscid equations of gas dynamics to model the flow field surrounding the cascade. These analyses are utilized in a parametric study to show the effects of cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and backpressure on the onset of single and multi degree of freedom unstalled supersonic flutter. Several of the results are correlated against experimental qualitative observation to validate the models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.
2014-02-01
The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000
Effects of Nose Radius and Aerodynamic Loading on Leading Edge Receptivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammerton, P. W.; Kerschen, E. J.
1998-01-01
An analysis is presented of the effects of airfoil thickness and mean aerodynamic loading on boundary-layer receptivity in the leading-edge region. The case of acoustic free-stream disturbances, incident on a thin cambered airfoil with a parabolic leading edge in a low Mach number flow, is considered. An asymptotic analysis based on large Reynolds number is developed, supplemented by numerical results. The airfoil thickness distribution enters the theory through a Strouhal number based on the nose radius of the airfoil, S = (omega)tau(sub n)/U, where omega is the frequency of the acoustic wave and U is the mean flow speed. The influence of mean aerodynamic loading enters through an effective angle-of-attack parameter ti, related to flow around the leading edge from the lower surface to the upper. The variation of the receptivity level is analyzed as a function of S, mu, and characteristics of the free-stream acoustic wave. For an unloaded leading edge, a finite nose radius dramatically reduces the receptivity level compared to that for a flat plate, the amplitude of the instability waves in the boundary layer being decreased by an order of magnitude when S = 0.3. Modest levels of aerodynamic loading are found to further decrease the receptivity level for the upper surface of the airfoil, while an increase in receptivity level occurs for the lower surface. For larger angles of attack close to the critical angle for boundary layer separation, a local rise in the receptivity level occurs for the upper surface, while for the lower surface the receptivity decreases. The effects of aerodynamic loading are more pronounced at larger values of S. Oblique acoustic waves produce much higher receptivity levels than acoustic waves propagating downstream parallel to the airfoil chord.
Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia
2015-01-01
This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dudley, Michael R.
1985-01-01
The necessary information for an aerodynamic investigation requiring load cell force measurements at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is provided. Included are details of the Ames 40x80 three component load cells; typical model/load cell installation geometries; transducer signal conditioning; a description of the Ames Standard Computations Wind Tunnel Data Reduction Program for Load Cells Forces and Moments (SCELLS), and the inputs required for SCELLS. The Outdoor Aerodynamic Facilities Complex (OARF), a facility within the NFAC where three axes load cells serve as the primary balance system, is used as an example for many of the techniques, but the information applies equally well to other static and wind tunnel facilities that make use of load cell balances.
Mechanisms of Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Mace, W. Derry; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.
2016-01-01
The reduction of the aerodynamic load that acts on a generic rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active flow control was investigated in a wind tunnel test conducted on an approximately 1/3-scale powered rotorcraft model simulating forward flight. The aerodynamic mechanisms that make these reductions, in both the drag and the download, possible were examined in detail through the use of the measured surface pressure distribution on the fuselage, velocity field measurements made in the wake directly behind the ramp of the fuselage and computational simulations. The fuselage tested was the ROBIN-mod7, which was equipped with a series of eight slots located on the ramp section through which flow control excitation was introduced. These slots were arranged in a U-shaped pattern located slightly downstream of the baseline separation line and parallel to it. The flow control excitation took the form of either synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass-flux blowing, and steady blowing. The same set of slots were used for both types of excitation. The differences between the two excitation types and between flow control excitation from different combinations of slots were examined. The flow control is shown to alter the size of the wake and its trajectory relative to the ramp and the tailboom and it is these changes to the wake that result in a reduction in the aerodynamic load.
JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.
1981-01-01
This paper presents the results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.
JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.
1981-01-01
The results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance are presented. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.
Homicz, G.F.
1991-09-01
Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). A principal source of blade fatigue is thought to be the stochastic (i.e., random) aerodynamic loads created by atmospheric turbulence. This report describes the theoretical background of the VAWT Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads (VAWT-SAL) computer code, whose purpose is to numerically simulate these random loads, given the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties. A Double-Multiple-Stream Tube (DMST) analysis is employed to model the rotor's aerodynamic response. The analysis includes the effects of Reynolds number variations, different airfoil sections and chord lengths along the blade span, and an empirical model for dynamic stall effects. The mean ambient wind is assumed to have a shear profile which is described by either a power law or a logarithmic variation with height above ground. Superimposed on this is a full 3-D field of turbulence: i.e., in addition to random fluctuations in time, the turbulence is allowed to vary randomly in planes perpendicular to the mean wind. The influence of flow retardation on the convection of turbulence through the turbine is also modeled. Calculations are presented for the VAWT 34-m Test Bed currently in operation at Bushland, Texas. Predicted time histories of the loads, as well as their Fourier spectra, are presented and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the differences between so-called steady-state'' (mean wind only) predictions, and those produced with turbulence present. Somewhat surprisingly, turbulence is found to be capable of either increasing or decreasing the average output power, depending on the turbine's tip-speed ratio. A heuristic explanation for such behavior is postulated, and a simple formula is derived for predicting the magnitude of this effect without the need for a full stochastic simulation. 41 refs., 32 figs., 1 tab.
Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads
Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.
2006-01-01
Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Structural dynamics payload loads estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engels, R. C.
1980-01-01
Present analytical techniques by which design loads are predicted are very costly and time consuming. Chapter I presents the standard techniques used to analyze payload/booster systems. They are full scale methods in the sense that they all require the solution of the coupled equations of motion of the payload/booster system. Chapter II identifies several short cut methodologies. These already existing techniques do not require the solution of the coupled system equations. The potentials and shortcomings of each of these methods are discussed. Chapter III covers the favored methods accompanied by recommendations for further development, refinement, and demonstrations. An outline of a new approach is also included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav
2003-01-01
A basic problem in flight dynamics is the mathematical formulation of the aerodynamic model for aircraft. This study is part of an ongoing effort at NASA Langley to develop a more general formulation of the aerodynamic model for aircraft that includes nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics and to develop appropriate test techniques that facilitate identification of these models. A methodology for modeling and testing using wide-band inputs to estimate the unsteady form of the aircraft aerodynamic model was developed previously but advanced test facilities were not available at that time to allow complete validation of the methodology. The new model formulation retained the conventional static and rotary dynamic terms but replaced conventional acceleration terms with more general indicial functions. In this study advanced testing techniques were utilized to validate the new methodology for modeling. Results of static, conventional forced oscillation, wide-band forced oscillation, oscillatory coning, and ramp tests are presented.
Real-time estimation of aerodynamic features for ambulatory voice biofeedback
Llico, Andrés F.; Zañartu, Matías; González, Agustín J.; Wodicka, George R.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Hillman, Robert E.
2015-01-01
The development of ambulatory voice monitoring devices has the potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of voice disorders. In this proof-of-concept study, real-time biofeedback is incorporated into a smartphone-based platform that records and processes neck surface acceleration. The focus is on utilizing aerodynamic measures of vocal function as a basis for biofeedback. This is done using regressed Z-scores to compare recorded values to normative estimates based on sound pressure level and fundamental frequency. Initial results from the analysis of different voice qualities suggest that accelerometer-based estimates of aerodynamic parameters can be used for real-time ambulatory biofeedback. PMID:26233054
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batterson, J. G.
1986-01-01
The successful parametric modeling of the aerodynamics for an airplane operating at high angles of attack or sideslip is performed in two phases. First the aerodynamic model structure must be determined and second the associated aerodynamic parameters (stability and control derivatives) must be estimated for that model. The purpose of this paper is to document two versions of a stepwise regression computer program which were developed for the determination of airplane aerodynamic model structure and to provide two examples of their use on computer generated data. References are provided for the application of the programs to real flight data. The two computer programs that are the subject of this report, STEP and STEPSPL, are written in FORTRAN IV (ANSI l966) compatible with a CDC FTN4 compiler. Both programs are adaptations of a standard forward stepwise regression algorithm. The purpose of the adaptation is to facilitate the selection of a adequate mathematical model of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of an airplane from flight test data. The major difference between STEP and STEPSPL is in the basis for the model. The basis for the model in STEP is the standard polynomial Taylor's series expansion of the aerodynamic function about some steady-state trim condition. Program STEPSPL utilizes a set of spline basis functions.
ESTIMATION OF URBAN STORM-RUNOFF LOADS.
Driver, Nancy E.; Lystrom, David J.
1986-01-01
The United States was divided into three regions, on the basis of mean annual rainfall, to decrease the variability in storm-runoff constituent loads and to improve regression relations with basin and climatic characteristics. Multiple-regression analyses, in progress, are being refined to determine the best regression models for each of the storm-runoff constituent loads in each of the three regions. These techniques, when finalized, can be used to estimate storm-runoff constituent loads for gaged and ungaged urban watersheds. The preliminary standard errors of estimate for five constituents examined to date ranged from 54 to 223 percent, and the coefficients of determination (r**2) ranged from 0. 39 to 0. 94. Total storm rainfall and total contributing drainage area appear to be the most significant independent variables in the regression models. This paper is a progress report on preliminary results of estimating storm-runoff constituent loads for ungaged watersheds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyle, Karen H.
2015-01-01
Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology demonstration via flight-testing. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. This publication summarizes results comparing analytical results with test data for two concepts subjected to representative entry, static loading. The level of agreement and ability to predict the load distribution is considered sufficient to enable analytical predictions to be used in the design process.
Load estimator (LOADEST): a FORTRAN program for estimating constituent loads in streams and rivers
Runkel, Robert L.; Crawford, Charles G.; Cohn, Timothy A.
2004-01-01
LOAD ESTimator (LOADEST) is a FORTRAN program for estimating constituent loads in streams and rivers. Given a time series of streamflow, additional data variables, and constituent concentration, LOADEST assists the user in developing a regression model for the estimation of constituent load (calibration). Explanatory variables within the regression model include various functions of streamflow, decimal time, and additional user-specified data variables. The formulated regression model then is used to estimate loads over a user-specified time interval (estimation). Mean load estimates, standard errors, and 95 percent confidence intervals are developed on a monthly and(or) seasonal basis. The calibration and estimation procedures within LOADEST are based on three statistical estimation methods. The first two methods, Adjusted Maximum Likelihood Estimation (AMLE) and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), are appropriate when the calibration model errors (residuals) are normally distributed. Of the two, AMLE is the method of choice when the calibration data set (time series of streamflow, additional data variables, and concentration) contains censored data. The third method, Least Absolute Deviation (LAD), is an alternative to maximum likelihood estimation when the residuals are not normally distributed. LOADEST output includes diagnostic tests and warnings to assist the user in determining the appropriate estimation method and in interpreting the estimated loads. This report describes the development and application of LOADEST. Sections of the report describe estimation theory, input/output specifications, sample applications, and installation instructions.
Feasibility study of a novel method for real-time aerodynamic coefficient estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurbacki, Phillip M.
In this work, a feasibility study of a novel technique for the real-time identification of uncertain nonlinear aircraft aerodynamic coefficients has been conducted. The major objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a system for parameter identification in a real-time flight environment. This system should be able to calculate aerodynamic coefficients and derivative information using typical pilot inputs while ensuring robust, stable, and rapid convergence. The parameter estimator investigated is based upon the nonlinear sliding mode control schema; one of the main advantages of the sliding mode estimator is the ability to guarantee a stable and robust convergence. Stable convergence is ensured by choosing a sliding surface and function that satisfies the Lyapunov stability criteria. After a proper sliding surface has been chosen, the nonlinear equations of motion for an F-16 aircraft are substituted into the sliding surface yielding an estimator capable of identifying a single aircraft parameter. Multiple sliding surfaces are then developed for each of the different flight parameters that will be identified. Sliding surfaces and parameter estimators have been developed and simulated for the pitching moment, lift force, and drag force coefficients of the F-16 aircraft. Comparing the estimated coefficients with the reference coefficients shows rapid and stable convergence for a variety of pilot inputs. Starting with simple doublet and sin wave commands, and followed by more complicated continuous pilot inputs, estimated aerodynamic coefficients have been shown to match the actual coefficients with a high degree of accuracy. This estimator is also shown to be superior to model reference or adaptive estimators, it is able to handle positive and negative estimated parameters and control inputs along with guaranteeing Lyapunov stability during convergence. Accurately estimating these aerodynamic parameters in real-time during a flight is essential
Estimating aerodynamic roughness over complex salt pan and sandur dust emitting surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nield, Joanna; King, James; Wiggs, Giles; Leyland, Julian; Bryant, Robert; Chiverrell, Richard; Darby, Stephen; Eckardt, Frank; Thomas, David; Vircavs, Larisa; Washington, Richard
2014-05-01
Salt pan and sandur surfaces typically consist of complex patterns of small-scale roughness which differ to more commonly studied larger roughness elements. It is important to understand how these surfaces interact with the wind as both sandar and salt pans (or playas) are potential dust emitters, and so improving our understanding of surface-atmosphere interactions over surfaces in these areas is vital. These complexly patterned surfaces are also relative flat, lack vegetation and typically have a large fetch which makes them the ideal experimental surfaces to develop empirical estimations of aerodynamic roughness from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) datasets. We investigated 20 surfaces with element heights ranging from 1 to 199mm during four field campaigns. Co-located anemometer towers at each location measured actual aerodynamic roughness to compare to a myriad of surface metrics derived from TLS datasets. Using cluster analysis height, shape, spacing and variability metric groups were compared to decipher which best estimated aerodynamic roughness. When height metrics were employed, it was found that over 90% of the variability was explained and height is a better predictor than both shape and spacing. This finding is in juxtaposition to wind erosion models that assume the spacing of larger-scale isolated roughness elements is most important in determining aerodynamic roughness. The study recognizes that when small-scale surface roughness is accurately quantified (with millimetre accuracy using TLS), height is most significance for estimating aerodynamic roughness, irrespective of comparator metric choice. This has very significant implications for the development of aerodynamic roughness predictors which are fundamental to the efficiency of wind erosion models, and, particularly, dust emission schemes in climate models.
Real-Time Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation without Air Flow Angle Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2010-01-01
A technique for estimating aerodynamic parameters in real time from flight data without air flow angle measurements is described and demonstrated. The method is applied to simulated F-16 data, and to flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Modeling results obtained with the new approach using flight data without air flow angle measurements were compared to modeling results computed conventionally using flight data that included air flow angle measurements. Comparisons demonstrated that the new technique can provide accurate aerodynamic modeling results without air flow angle measurements, which are often difficult and expensive to obtain. Implications for efficient flight testing and flight safety are discussed.
Accuracy of Aerodynamic Model Parameters Estimated from Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav
1997-01-01
An important put of building mathematical models based on measured date is calculating the accuracy associated with statistical estimates of the model parameters. Indeed, without some idea of this accuracy, the parameter estimates themselves have limited value. An expression is developed for computing quantitatively correct parameter accuracy measures for maximum likelihood parameter estimates when the output residuals are colored. This result is important because experience in analyzing flight test data reveals that the output residuals from maximum likelihood estimation are almost always colored. The calculations involved can be appended to conventional maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Monte Carlo simulation runs were used to show that parameter accuracy measures from the new technique accurately reflect the quality of the parameter estimates from maximum likelihood estimation without the need for correction factors or frequency domain analysis of the output residuals. The technique was applied to flight test data from repeated maneuvers flown on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. As in the simulated cases, parameter accuracy measures from the new technique were in agreement with the scatter in the parameter estimates from repeated maneuvers, whereas conventional parameter accuracy measures were optimistic.
Effect of Helicopter Blade Dynamics on Blade Aerodynamic and Structural Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heffernan, Ruth M.
1987-01-01
The effect of rotor blade dynamics on aerodynamic and structural loads is examined for a conventional, main- rotor helicopter using both a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CAMRAD) and night test data. The impact of blade dynamics on blade section lift-coefficient time histories is studied by comparing predictions from both a rigid blade analysis and an elastic blade analysis with helicopter flight test data. The elastic blade analysis better predicts high-frequency behavior of section lift. In addition, components of the blade angle of attack, such as elastic blade twist, blade nap rate, blade slope velocity, and inflow, are examined as a function of blade mode. Elastic blade motion affects the blade angle of attack by a few tenths of a degree, and up to the sixth rotor harmonic. A similar study of the influence of blade dynamics on bending and torsion moments was also conducted. The modal analysis of the predicted blade structural loads suggested that five elastic bending deg of freedom (four flap and one lag) and three elastic torsion deg of freedom contributed to calculations of the blade structural loads. However, when structural bending load predictions from several elastic blade analyses were compared with flight test data, an elastic blade model consisting of only three elastic bending modes (first and second flap, and first lag), and two elastic torsion modes was found to be sufficient for maximum correlation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodný, Marek; Nolz, Reinhard; Novák, Viliam; Hlaváčiková, Hana; Loiskandl, Willibald; Himmelbauer, Margarita
2016-04-01
The aim of this study was to present and validate an alternative evapotranspiration calculation procedure that includes specific expression for the aerodynamic resistance. Calculated daily potential evapotranspiration totals were compared to the results of FAO56 procedure application and to the results of measurements taken with a precision weighing lysimeter permanently grown with irrigated, short grass. For the examination period from March 17 through October 31, 2011, it was found that daily potential evapotranspiration estimates obtained by both calculation procedures fitted well to the lysimeter measurements. Potential evapotranspiration daily totals calculated with the use of the proposed aerodynamic resistance calculation procedure gave better results for days with higher evapotranspiration, compared to the FAO56 method. The most important is that the approach based on the proposed alternative aerodynamic resistance could be effectively used even for a wide variety of crops, because it is not limited to any particular crop.
Estimating a percent reduction in load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millard, Steven P.
This article extends the work of Cohn et al. [1989] on estimating constituent loads to the problem of estimating a percent reduction in load. Three estimators are considered: the maximum likelihood (MLE), a ``bias-corrected'' maximum likelihood (BCMLE), and the minimum variance unbiased (MVUE). In terms of root-mean-square error, both the MVUE and BCMLE are superior to the MLE, and for the cases considered here there is no appreciable difference between the MVUE and the BCMLE. The BCMLE is constructed from quantities computed by most regression packages and is therefore simpler to compute than the MVUE (which involves approximating an infinite series). All three estimators are applied to a case study in which an agricultural tax in the Everglades agricultural area is tied to an observed percent reduction in phosphorus load. For typical hydrological data, very large sample sizes (of the order of 100 observations each in the baseline period and after) are required to estimate a percent reduction in load with reasonable precision.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard
1994-01-01
Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. ne parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.
Analysis of aerodynamic load on straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Kawabata, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Kazuma
2014-08-01
This paper presents a wind tunnel experiment for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a small straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) depending on several values of tip speed ratio. In the present study, the wind turbine is a four-bladed VAWT. The test airfoil of blade is symmetry airfoil (NACA0021) with 32 pressure ports used for the pressure measurements on blade surface. Based on the pressure distributions which are acted on the surface of rotor blade measured during rotation by multiport pressure-scanner mounted on a hub, the power, tangential force, lift and drag coefficients which are obtained by pressure distribution are discussed as a function of azimuthally position. And then, the loads which are applied to the entire wind turbine are compared with the experiment data of pressure distribution. As a result, it is clarified that aerodynamic forces take maximum value when the blade is moving to upstream side, and become small and smooth at downstream side. The power and torque coefficients which are based on the pressure distribution are larger than that by torque meter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2010-01-01
Response surface methodology was used to estimate the longitudinal stage separation aerodynamic characteristics of a generic, bimese, winged multi-stage launch vehicle configuration at supersonic speeds in the NASA LaRC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The Mach 3 staging was dominated by shock wave interactions between the orbiter and booster vehicles throughout the relative spatial locations of interest. The inference space was partitioned into several contiguous regions within which the separation aerodynamics were presumed to be well-behaved and estimable using central composite designs capable of fitting full second-order response functions. The underlying aerodynamic response surfaces of the booster vehicle in belly-to-belly proximity to the orbiter vehicle were estimated using piecewise-continuous lower-order polynomial functions. The quality of fit and prediction capabilities of the empirical models were assessed in detail, and the issue of subspace boundary discontinuities was addressed. Augmenting the central composite designs to full third-order using computer-generated D-optimality criteria was evaluated. The usefulness of central composite designs, the subspace sizing, and the practicality of fitting lower-order response functions over a partitioned inference space dominated by highly nonlinear and possibly discontinuous shock-induced aerodynamics are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.
1974-01-01
A description of and users manual are presented for a U.S.A. FORTRAN 4 computer program which evaluates spanwise and chordwise loading distributions, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient, and other stability derivatives for thin wings in linearized, steady, subsonic flow. The program is based on a kernel function method lifting surface theory and is applicable to a large class of planforms including asymmetrical ones and ones with mixed straight and curved edges.
Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads with a constant vorticity contour free wake model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.
1991-01-01
An analytical method is presented which facilitates the study of isolated rotors with an improved approach to wake simulation. Vortex filaments are simulated along contours of constant sheet strength for the sheet of vorticity resulting from each rotor blade. Curved vortex elements comprise the filaments which can be distorted by the local velocity field. Called the Constant Vorticity Contour wake model, the approach permits the simulation of the blades' wakes corresponding to the full span of the rotor blade. The discretization of the wake of the rotor blade produces spacing and structure that are consistent with the spatial and temporal variations in the loading. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the blade is also included which introduces a finite-element structural model of the blade and consideration of the force and moment trim analysis. Results of the present version of the simulation, called RotorCRAFT, are found to correlate well with H-34 flight-test data.
ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING
This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...
Experimental research of surface roughness effects on highly-loaded compressor cascade aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-wen; Xu, Hao; Wang, Song-tao; Wang, Zhong-qi
2014-08-01
Aircraft engines deteriorate during continuous operation under the action of external factors including fouling, corrosion, and abrasion. The increased surface roughness of compressor passage walls limits airflow and leads to flow loss. However, the partial increase of roughness may also restrain flow separation and reduce flow loss. It is necessary to explore methods that will lower compressor deterioration, thereby improving the overall performance. The experimental research on the effects of surface roughness on highly loaded compressor cascade aerodynamics has been conducted in a low-speed linear cascade wind tunnel. The different levels of roughness are arranged on the suction surface and pressure surface, respectively. Ink-trace flow visualization has been used to measure the flow field on the walls of cascades, and a five-hole probe has been traversed across one pitch at the outlet. By comparing the total pressure loss coefficient, the distributions of the secondary-flow speed vector, and flow fields of various cases, the effects of surface roughness on the aerodynamics of a highly loaded compressor cascade are analyzed and discussed. The results show that adding surface roughness on the suction surface and pressure surface make the loss decrease in most cases. Increasing the surface roughness on the suction surface causes reduced flow speed near the blade, which helps to decrease mixing loss at the cascades outlet. Meanwhile, adding surface roughness on the suction surface restrains flow separation, leading to less flow loss. Various levels of surface roughness mostly weaken the flow turning capacity to various degrees, except in specific cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Deloach, Richard
2008-01-01
A collection of statistical and mathematical techniques referred to as response surface methodology was used to estimate the longitudinal stage separation aerodynamic characteristics of a generic, bimese, winged multi-stage launch vehicle configuration using data obtained on small-scale models at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The simulated Mach 3 staging was dominated by multiple shock wave interactions between the orbiter and booster vehicles throughout the relative spatial locations of interest. This motivated a partitioning of the overall inference space into several contiguous regions within which the separation aerodynamics were presumed to be well-behaved and estimable using cuboidal and spherical central composite designs capable of fitting full second-order response functions. The primary goal was to approximate the underlying overall aerodynamic response surfaces of the booster vehicle in belly-to-belly proximity to the orbiter vehicle using relatively simple, lower-order polynomial functions that were piecewise-continuous across the full independent variable ranges of interest. The quality of fit and prediction capabilities of the empirical models were assessed in detail, and the issue of subspace boundary discontinuities was addressed. The potential benefits of augmenting the central composite designs to full third order using computer-generated D-optimality criteria were also evaluated. The usefulness of central composite designs, the subspace sizing, and the practicality of fitting low-order response functions over a partitioned inference space dominated by highly nonlinear and possibly discontinuous shock-induced aerodynamics are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1995-01-01
Aerodynamic equations with unsteady effects were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom, small-amplitude, harmonic motion. These equations were used as a model for aerodynamic parameter estimation from wind tunnel oscillatory data. The estimation algorithm was based on nonlinear least squares and was applied in three examples to the oscillatory data in pitch and roll of 70 deg triangular wing and an X-31 model, and in-sideslip oscillatory data of the High Incidence Research Model 2 (HIRM 2). All three examples indicated that a model using a simple indicial function can explain unsteady effects observed in measured data. The accuracy of the estimated parameters and model verification were strongly influenced by the number of data points with respect to the number of unknown parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragni, D.; Ashok, A.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.
2009-07-01
The present investigation assesses a procedure to extract the aerodynamic loads and pressure distribution on an airfoil in the transonic flow regime from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The wind tunnel model is a two-dimensional NACA-0012 airfoil, and the PIV velocity data are used to evaluate pressure fields, whereas lift and drag coefficients are inferred from the evaluation of momentum contour and wake integrals. The PIV-based results are compared to those derived from conventional loads determination procedures involving surface pressure transducers and a wake rake. The method applied in this investigation is an extension to the compressible flow regime of that considered by van Oudheusden et al (2006 Non-intrusive load characterization of an airfoil using PIV Exp. Fluids 40 988-92) at low speed conditions. The application of a high-speed imaging system allows the acquisition in relatively short time of a sufficient ensemble size to compute converged velocity statistics, further translated in turbulent fluctuations included in the pressure and loads calculation, notwithstanding their verified negligible influence in the computation. Measurements are performed at varying spatial resolution to optimize the loads determination in the wake region and around the airfoil, further allowing us to assess the influence of spatial resolution in the proposed procedure. Specific interest is given to the comparisons between the PIV-based method and the conventional procedures for determining the pressure coefficient on the surface, the drag and lift coefficients at different angles of attack. Results are presented for the experiments at a free-stream Mach number M = 0.6, with the angle of attack ranging from 0° to 8°.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platt, Robert C
1936-01-01
This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.
Aerodynamic parameter estimation via Fourier modulating function techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearson, A. E.
1995-01-01
Parameter estimation algorithms are developed in the frequency domain for systems modeled by input/output ordinary differential equations. The approach is based on Shinbrot's method of moment functionals utilizing Fourier based modulating functions. Assuming white measurement noises for linear multivariable system models, an adaptive weighted least squares algorithm is developed which approximates a maximum likelihood estimate and cannot be biased by unknown initial or boundary conditions in the data owing to a special property attending Shinbrot-type modulating functions. Application is made to perturbation equation modeling of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a high performance aircraft using flight-test data. Comparative studies are included which demonstrate potential advantages of the algorithm relative to some well established techniques for parameter identification. Deterministic least squares extensions of the approach are made to the frequency transfer function identification problem for linear systems and to the parameter identification problem for a class of nonlinear-time-varying differential system models.
Estimating Mutation Load in Human Genomes
Henn, Brenna M.; Botigué, Laura R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Gravel, Simon
2016-01-01
Next-generation sequencing technology has facilitated the discovery of millions of variants in human genomes. A sizeable fraction of these alleles are thought to be deleterious. We review the pattern of deleterious alleles as ascertained in genomic data and ask whether human populations differ in their predicted burden of deleterious alleles, a phenomenon known as “mutation load.” We discuss three demographic models that are predicted to affect mutation load and relate these models to the evidence (or the lack thereof) for variation in the efficacy of purifying selection in diverse human genomes. We also discuss why accurate estimation of mutation load depends on assumptions regarding the distribution of dominance and selection coefficients, quantities that are poorly characterized for current genomic datasets. PMID:25963372
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Julian H
1957-01-01
An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry.
Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.
1999-01-01
A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares and mixed estimation methods. At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.
Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.
1998-01-01
A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O
1952-01-01
A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Detailed estimation methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic and supersonic speed conditions.
Error Estimates of the Ares I Computed Turbulent Ascent Longitudinal Aerodynamic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad
2012-01-01
Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on an unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. The validity of the approach to compute the associated error estimates, derived from a base grid to an extrapolated infinite-size grid, was first demonstrated on a sub-scaled wind tunnel model at representative ascent flow conditions for which the experimental data existed. Such analysis at the transonic flow conditions revealed a maximum deviation of about 23% between the computed longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid and the measured data across the entire roll angles. This maximum deviation from the wind tunnel data was associated with the computed normal force coefficient at the transonic flow condition and was reduced to approximately 16% based on the infinite-size grid. However, all the computed aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid at the supersonic flow conditions showed a maximum deviation of only about 8% with that level being improved to approximately 5% for the infinite-size grid. The results and the error estimates based on the established procedure are also presented for the flight flow conditions.
Users guide: Steady-state aerodynamic-loads program for shuttle TPS tiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerr, P. A.; Petley, D. H.
1984-01-01
A user's guide for the computer program that calculates the steady-state aerodynamic loads on the Shuttle thermal-protection tiles is presented. The main element in the program is the MITAS-II, Martin Marietta Interactive Thermal Analysis System. The MITAS-II is used to calculate the mass flow in a nine-tile model designed to simulate conditions duing a Shuttle flight. The procedures used to execute the program using the MITAS-II software are described. A list of the necessry software and data files along with a brief description of their functions is given. The format of the data file containing the surface pressure data is specified. The interpolation techniques used to calculate the pressure profile over the tile matrix are briefly described. In addition, the output from a sample run is explained. The actual output and the procedure file used to execute the program at NASA Langley Research Center on a CDC CYBER-175 are provided in the appendices.
Effect of helicopter blade dynamics on blade aerodynamic and structural loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heffernan, Ruth M.
1987-01-01
The effect of rotor blade dynamics on aerodynamic and structural loads is examined for a conventional, main-rotor helicopter using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CAMRAD) and flight-test data. The impact of blade dynamics on blade section lift-coefficient time histories is studied by comparing predictions from a rigid-blade analysis and an elastic-blade analysis with helicopter flight test data. The elastic blade analysis better predicts high-frequency behavior of section lift. In addition, components of the blade angle of attack such as elastic blade twist, blade flap rate, blade slope velocity, and inflow are examined as a function of blade mode. Elastic blade motion changed blade angle of attack by a few tenths of a degree, and up to the sixth rotor harmonic. A similar study of the influence of blade dynamics on bending and torsion moments was also conducted. A correlation study comparing predictions from several elastic-blade analyses with flight-test data revealed that an elastic-blade model consisting of only three elastic bending modes (first and second flap and first lag), and two elastic torsion modes was sufficient for good correlation.
Reduction of aerodynamic load fluctuation on wind turbine blades through active flow control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velarde, John-Michael; Coleman, Thomas; Magstadt, Andrew; Aggarwal, Somil; Glauser, Mark
2015-11-01
The current set of experiments deals with implementing active flow control on a Bergey Excel 1, 1kW turbine. The previous work in our group demonstrated successfully that implementation of a simple closed-loop controller could reduce unsteady aerodynamic load fluctuation by 18% on a vertically mounted wing. Here we describe a similar flow control method adapted to work in the rotating frame of a 2.5m diameter wind turbine. Strain gages at the base of each blade measure the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and pressure taps distributed along the span of the blades feed information to the closed-loop control scheme. A realistic, unsteady flow field has been generated by placing a cylinder upstream of the turbine to induce shedding vortices at frequencies in the bandwidth of the first structural bending mode of the turbine blades. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate closed-loop flow control as a means to reduce the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and increase the overall lifespan of the wind turbine.
Comparisons Between Pretest Prediction and Flight Test Data of Aerodynamic Loading for EFT-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwing, Alan M.
2016-01-01
Exploration Flight Test One (EFT-1) was an incredible milestone in the development NASA's Orion spacecraft. It incorporated hundreds of articles of flight test instrumentation and returned with a wealth of data. Aerodynamic surface pressures were collected during launch vehicle ascent and capsule reentry and descent. These discrete surface pressure measurements enable comparisons to computational results and ground test data. This paper details the comparisons between pre-test predictions and flight test data for the Orion MPCV Crew Module (CM) and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) during all phases of flight. Regions with strong comparisons, poor predictions, and lessons learned are discussed. 38 pressure measurements were made on the LAT during ascent. Nine of the gauges were Honeywell PPTs and the remainder were Kulite pressure transducers. In order to address bias in the Kulites, a two-point linear calibration was used and the details are discussed. Results from the flight are compared to existing database products. 44 pressure measurements were made on the CM during reentry and descent. Nine of the gauges were Honeywell PPTs and the remainder were Kulite pressure transducers. In order to address bias in the Kulites, a tare was made against the vacuum measurements as described below. Once the bias was removed from the gauges, comparisons between predicted loading and the measured results are compared.
Van Dam, C P; Nakafuji, D Y; Bauer, C; Chao, D; Standish, K
2002-11-01
A computational design and analysis of a microtab based aerodynamic loads control system is presented. The microtab consists of a small tab that emerges from a wing approximately perpendicular to its surface in the vicinity of its trailing edge. Tab deployment on the upper side of the wing causes a decrease in the lift generation whereas deployment on the pressure side causes an increase. The computational methods applied in the development of this concept solve the governing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on structured, overset grids. The application of these methods to simulate the flows over lifting surface including the tabs has been paramount in the development of these devices. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the microtab and that it is possible to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the positioning and sizing of the tabs before they are implemented in successfully controlling the aerodynamic loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halle, J. E.; Ruschak, J. T.
1975-01-01
A highly loaded, high tip-speed fan rotor was designed with multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections as a replacement for a marginally successful rotor which had precompression airfoil sections. The substitution of airfoil sections was the only aerodynamic change. Structural design of the redesigned rotor blade was guided by successful experience with the original blade. Calculated stress levels and stability parameters for the redesigned rotor are within limits demonstrated in tests of the original rotor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mennell, R. C.
1973-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.0405 scale representation of the Rockwell -89A Light Weight Space Shuttle Orbiter. The test purpose was to obtain pressure loads data in the presence of the ground for orbiter structural strength analysis. Aerodynamic force data was also recorded to allow correlation with all pressure loads information. Angles of attack from minus 3 deg to 18 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg, plus or minus 50 deg, and plus or minus 10 deg were tested in the presence of the NAAL ground plane. Static pressure bugs were used to obtain a pressure loads survey of the basic configuration, elevon deflections of 5 deg, 10 deg, 15 deg, and minus 20 deg and a rudder deflection of minus 15 deg, at a tunnel dynamic pressure of 40 psi. The test procedure was to locate a maximum of 30 static pressure bugs on the model surface at various locations calculated to prevent aerodynamic and physical interference. Then by various combinations of location the pressure bugs output was to define a complete pressure survey for the fuselages, wing, vertical tail, and main landing gear door.
Estimating Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Seasonal Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sauber, Jeanne
2015-01-01
Scientists have been making summer--time geodetic measurements in south central Alaska for decades to estimate the rate at which a continental--ocean terrane is accreting to the North American continent. Southern Alaska has big earthquakes every century and large, rapidly changing glaciers. In the last decade, primarily as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, continuous GPS measurements have recorded the response of sites such as the near--coastal geodetic site, AB35 to competing processes: uplift and movement to the northwest due to tectonic forces and the response of the solid Earth to seasonal and longer--term changes in the cryosphere (snow and ice) surrounding the site. Which process causes the largest displacements of the site? Figure 1 (Blewitt, Nevada Geodetic Lab, 2015) shows the Northward, Eastward, and Upward motion of AB35 between 2007 and 2015. The site is moving rapidly to the north and west reflecting the tectonic convergence of site toward interior Alaska but there is small wiggle on the North component reflecting seasonal displacements of the site associated with snow loading and unloading. However, the Up component, shows a large seasonal signal due to snow loading in the winter (down) and ice and snow melting in the warmer months (site goes up). Between 2007 and the present, the site position is slowly moving upward, due to tectonic forcing but probably associated with longer-- term ice melting as well. We are using the CIG finite element modeling (FEM) program Pylith to estimate the surface displacements and stresses associated with seasonal loading changes (top figure and Figure 2 far right) for water year 2012, 2011.8 - 2012.8) and the longer--term retreat of the surrounding glaciers.
A New Formulation of the Filter-Error Method for Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation in Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2015-01-01
A new formulation of the filter-error method for estimating aerodynamic parameters in nonlinear aircraft dynamic models during turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses an estimate of the measurement noise covariance to identify the model parameters, their uncertainties, and the process noise covariance, in a relaxation method analogous to the output-error method. Prior information on the model parameters and uncertainties can be supplied, and a post-estimation correction to the uncertainty was included to account for colored residuals not considered in the theory. No tuning parameters, needing adjustment by the analyst, are used in the estimation. The method was demonstrated in simulation using the NASA Generic Transport Model, then applied to the subscale T-2 jet-engine transport aircraft flight. Modeling results in different levels of turbulence were compared with results from time-domain output error and frequency- domain equation error methods to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads
Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.
2012-05-01
This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.
Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.
Deflection-Based Aircraft Structural Loads Estimation with Comparison to Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.
2005-01-01
Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. With a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system this technique was examined. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.
Deflection-Based Structural Loads Estimation From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.
2005-01-01
Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. This technique was examined using a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.
Estimating Nitrogen Loads, BMPs, and Target Loads Exceedance Risks
The Wabash River (WR) watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state’s 92 counties and has primarily agricultural land use. The nutrient and sediment loads of the WR significantly increase loads of the Ohio River ultimately polluting the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study...
Evaluation of Rotor Structural and Aerodynamic Loads using Measured Blade Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jung, Sung N.; You, Young-Hyun; Lau, Benton H.; Johnson, Wayne; Lim, Joon W.
2012-01-01
The structural properties of Higher harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART I) blades have been measured using the original set of blades tested in the wind tunnel in 1994. A comprehensive rotor dynamics analysis is performed to address the effect of the measured blade properties on airloads, blade motions, and structural loads of the rotor. The measurements include bending and torsion stiffness, geometric offsets, and mass and inertia properties of the blade. The measured properties are correlated against the estimated values obtained initially by the manufacturer of the blades. The previously estimated blade properties showed consistently higher stiffnesses, up to 30% for the flap bending in the blade inboard root section. The measured offset between the center of gravity and the elastic axis is larger by about 5% chord length, as compared with the estimated value. The comprehensive rotor dynamics analysis was carried out using the measured blade property set for HART I rotor with and without HHC (Higher Harmonic Control) pitch inputs. A significant improvement on blade motions and structural loads is obtained with the measured blade properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.
1982-01-01
This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowe, W. S.; Sebastian, J. D.; Petrarca, J. R.
1979-01-01
Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, B., III; Greene, G. C.
1975-01-01
Results from a wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale externally blown flap model are presented. The model was equipped with four turbofan engines, a triple-slotted flap system, and a T-tail. The wing had a quarter-chord sweep of 25 deg, an aspect ratio of 7.28, and a taper ratio of 0.4. Aerodynamic loads and load distributions were determined from a total of 564 static pressure orifices located on the upper and lower surfaces of the slat, wing, and flaps. Loads are presented for variations of angle of attack, engine thrust setting, and flap deflection angle. In addition, the experimental results are compared with analytical results calculated by using a potential flow analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petrarca, J. R.; Harrison, B. A.; Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.
1979-01-01
A digital computer program was developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge and trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges were extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation of collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accomodated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, D. B.
1991-01-01
A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.
Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban
2016-05-01
Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.
Nutrient Load Estimates for Lake Erie 2005
Evaluation of phosphorus loads to Lake Erie is in progress for multiple uses in the Lake Erie ECOFORE Program. Emphasis is being placed on phosphorus loadings in 1976, 2005, and 2007 for model calibration and other purposes. This presentation focuses on an overview of temporal ...
EVALUATION OF RIVER LOAD ESTIMATION METHODS FOR TOTAL PHOSPHORUS
Accurate estimates of pollutant loadings to the Great Lakes are required for trend detection, model development, and planning. On many major rivers, infrequent sampling of most pollutants makes these estimates difficult. However, most large rivers have complete daily flow records...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heffernan, Ruth M.; Gaubert, Michel
1986-01-01
A flight test program was conducted to obtain data from an upgraded Gazelle helicopter with an advanced geometry, three bladed rotor. Data were acquired on upper and lower surface chordwise blade pressure, blade bending and torsion moments, and fuselage structural loads. Results are presented from 16 individual flight conditions, including level flights ranging from 10 to 77 m/sec at 50 to 3000 m altitude, turning flights up to 2.0 g, and autorotation. Rotor aerodynamic data include information from 51 pressure transducers distributed chordwise at 75, 88, and 97% radial stations. Individual tranducer pressure coefficients and airfoil section lift and pitching moment coefficients are presented, as are steady state flight condition parameters and time dependence rotor loads. All dynamic data are presented as harmonic analysis coefficients.
Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.
1990-01-01
Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.
Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.
1989-01-01
Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.
Improved estimation of random vibration loads in launch vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R.; Erwin, E.; Suryanarayan, S.; Krishna, Murali M. R.
1993-01-01
Random vibration induced load is an important component of the total design load environment for payload and launch vehicle components and their support structures. The current approach to random vibration load estimation is based, particularly at the preliminary design stage, on the use of Miles' equation which assumes a single degree-of-freedom (DOF) system and white noise excitation. This paper examines the implications of the use of multi-DOF system models and response calculation based on numerical integration using the actual excitation spectra for random vibration load estimation. The analytical study presented considers a two-DOF system and brings out the effects of modal mass, damping and frequency ratios on the random vibration load factor. The results indicate that load estimates based on the Miles' equation can be significantly different from the more accurate estimates based on multi-DOF models.
Heat Load Estimator for Smoothing Pulsed Heat Loads on Supercritical Helium Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoa, C.; Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Michel, F.
Superconducting magnets for fusion are subjected to large variations of heat loads due to cycling operation of tokamaks. The cryogenic system shall operate smoothly to extract the pulsed heat loads by circulating supercritical helium into the coils and structures. However the value of the total heat loads and its temporal variation are not known before the plasma scenario starts. A real-time heat load estimator is of interest for the process control of the cryogenic system in order to anticipate the arrival of pulsed heat loads to the refrigerator and finally to optimize the operation of the cryogenic system. The large variation of the thermal loads affects the physical parameters of the supercritical helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) so those signals can be used for calculating instantaneously the loads deposited into the loop. The methodology and algorithm are addressed in the article for estimating the heat load deposition before it reaches the refrigerator. The CEA patented process control has been implemented in a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and has been successfully validated on the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. This heat load estimator is complementary to pulsed load smoothing strategies providing an estimation of the optimized refrigeration power. It can also effectively improve the process control during the transient between different operating modes by adjusting the refrigeration power to the need. This way, the heat load estimator participates to the safe operation of the cryogenic system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pei, Jing; Wall, John
2013-01-01
This paper describes the techniques involved in determining the aerodynamic stability derivatives for the frequency domain analysis of the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. Generally for launch vehicles, determination of the derivatives is fairly straightforward since the aerodynamic data is usually linear through a moderate range of angle of attack. However, if the wind tunnel data lacks proper corrections then nonlinearities and asymmetric behavior may appear in the aerodynamic database coefficients. In this case, computing the derivatives becomes a non-trivial task. Errors in computing the nominal derivatives could lead to improper interpretation regarding the natural stability of the system and tuning of the controller parameters, which would impact both stability and performance. The aerodynamic derivatives are also provided at off nominal operating conditions used for dispersed frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, results are shown to illustrate that the effects of aerodynamic cross axis coupling can be neglected for the SLS configuration studied
Aerodynamic Loads on Tails at High Angles of Attack and Sideslip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polhamus, E. C.; Spahr, J. R.
1957-01-01
Results are presented for the loads and moments acting on the individual tail surfaces of a body-tail combination over a wide range of angles of attack and sideslip. The effects of forebody length and panel-panel interference on the characteristics are included. It is shown that large nonlinear variations in these loads and moments, which occur at some combinations of angle of attack and sideslip, cannot be predicted by low-angle theory. A relatively simple, but general, theoretical method for calculating these load and moment characteristics is described, and the results from this method are found to be in good agreement with experiment provided the initial positions of the forebody vortices are known. It is shown that a simple application of slender-body theory can be used to predict the side loads due to sideslip that are contributed by a vertical tail on a wide variety of wing-body-tail combinations at low angles of attack. For several configurations, changes are indicated which reduced the vertical-tail loads per unit yawing moment of each complete configuration at large angles of attack. Some results are presented on the effect of high angle of attack on the induced-flow field and tail loads due to a wing at supersonic speed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1996-01-01
A nonlinear least squares algorithm for aircraft parameter estimation from flight data was developed. The postulated model for the analysis represented longitudinal, short period motion of an aircraft. The corresponding aerodynamic model equations included indicial functions (unsteady terms) and conventional stability and control derivatives. The indicial functions were modeled as simple exponential functions. The estimation procedure was applied in five examples. Four of the examples used simulated and flight data from small amplitude maneuvers to the F-18 HARV and X-31A aircraft. In the fifth example a rapid, large amplitude maneuver of the X-31 drop model was analyzed. From data analysis of small amplitude maneuvers ft was found that the model with conventional stability and control derivatives was adequate. Also, parameter estimation from a rapid, large amplitude maneuver did not reveal any noticeable presence of unsteady aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.
2015-01-01
A rotorcraft fuselage is typically designed with an emphasis on operational functionality with aerodynamic efficiency being of secondary importance. This results in a significant amount of drag during high-speed forward flight that can be a limiting factor for future high-speed rotorcraft designs. To enable higher speed flight, while maintaining a functional fuselage design (i.e., a large rear cargo ramp door), the NASA Rotary Wing Project has conducted both experimental and computational investigations to assess active flow control as an enabling technology for fuselage drag reduction. This paper will evaluate numerical simulations of a flow control system on a generic rotorcraft fuselage with a rotor in forward flight using OVERFLOW, a structured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver developed at NASA. The results are compared to fuselage forces, surface pressures, and PN flow field data obtained in a wind tunnel experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel where significant drag and download reductions were demonstrated using flow control. This comparison showed that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver was unable to predict the fuselage forces and pressure measurements on the ramp for the baseline and flow control cases. While the CFD was able to capture the flow features, it was unable to accurately predict the performance of the flow control.
Initial dynamic load estimates during configuration design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, Daniel
1987-01-01
This analysis includes the structural response to shock and vibration and evaluates the maximum deflections and material stresses and the potential for the occurrence of elastic instability, fatigue and fracture. The required computations are often performed by means of finite element analysis (FEA) computer programs in which the structure is simulated by a finite element model which may contain thousands of elements. The formulation of a finite element model can be time consuming, and substantial additional modeling effort may be necessary if the structure requires significant changes after initial analysis. Rapid methods for obtaining rough estimates of the structural response to shock and vibration are presented for the purpose of providing guidance during the initial mechanical design configuration stage.
Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J.; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi
2013-01-01
Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight. PMID:24278243
Estimating Nitrogen Load Resulting from Biofuel Mandates.
Alshawaf, Mohammad; Douglas, Ellen; Ricciardi, Karen
2016-01-01
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 were enacted to reduce the U.S. dependency on foreign oil by increasing the use of biofuels. The increased demand for biofuels from corn and soybeans could result in an increase of nitrogen flux if not managed properly. The objectives of this study are to estimate nitrogen flux from energy crop production and to identify the catchment areas with high nitrogen flux. The results show that biofuel production can result in an increase of nitrogen flux to the northern Gulf of Mexico from 270 to 1742 thousand metric tons. Using all cellulosic (hay) ethanol or biodiesel to meet the 2022 mandate is expected to reduce nitrogen flux; however, it requires approximately 25% more land when compared to other scenarios. Producing ethanol from switchgrass rather than hay results in three-times more nitrogen flux, but requires 43% less land. Using corn ethanol for 2022 mandates is expected to have double the nitrogen flux when compared to the EISA-specified 2022 scenario; however, it will require less land area. Shifting the U.S. energy supply from foreign oil to the Midwest cannot occur without economic and environmental impacts, which could potentially lead to more eutrophication and hypoxia. PMID:27171101
Estimating Nitrogen Load Resulting from Biofuel Mandates
Alshawaf, Mohammad; Douglas, Ellen; Ricciardi, Karen
2016-01-01
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 were enacted to reduce the U.S. dependency on foreign oil by increasing the use of biofuels. The increased demand for biofuels from corn and soybeans could result in an increase of nitrogen flux if not managed properly. The objectives of this study are to estimate nitrogen flux from energy crop production and to identify the catchment areas with high nitrogen flux. The results show that biofuel production can result in an increase of nitrogen flux to the northern Gulf of Mexico from 270 to 1742 thousand metric tons. Using all cellulosic (hay) ethanol or biodiesel to meet the 2022 mandate is expected to reduce nitrogen flux; however, it requires approximately 25% more land when compared to other scenarios. Producing ethanol from switchgrass rather than hay results in three-times more nitrogen flux, but requires 43% less land. Using corn ethanol for 2022 mandates is expected to have double the nitrogen flux when compared to the EISA-specified 2022 scenario; however, it will require less land area. Shifting the U.S. energy supply from foreign oil to the Midwest cannot occur without economic and environmental impacts, which could potentially lead to more eutrophication and hypoxia. PMID:27171101
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackwell, Mark W.; Tutty, Owen R.; Rogers, Eric; Sandberg, Richard D.
2016-01-01
The inclusion of smart devices in wind turbine rotor blades could, in conjunction with collective and individual pitch control, improve the aerodynamic performance of the rotors. This is currently an active area of research with the primary objective of reducing the fatigue loads but mitigating the effects of extreme loads is also of interest. The aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine blade contain periodic and non-periodic components and one approach is to consider the application of iterative learning control algorithms. In this paper, the control design is based on a simple, in relative terms, computational fluid dynamics model that uses non-linear wake effects to represent flow past an airfoil. A representation for the actuator dynamics is included to undertake a detailed investigation into the level of control possible and on how performance can be effectively measured.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd
1987-01-01
A comprehensive static aerodynamic simulation model of the 8 by 8 by 20 ft MILVAN cargo container is determined by combining the wind tunnel data from a 1972 NASA Ames Research Center study taken over the restricted domain (0 is less than or equal to phi is less than or equal to 90 degrees; 0 is less than or equal to alpha is less than or equal to 45 degrees) with extrapolation relations derived from the geometric symmetry of rectangular boxes. It is found that the aerodynamics of any attitude can be defined from the aerodynamics at an equivalent attitude in the restricted domain (0 is less than phi is less than 45 degrees; 0 is less than alpha is less than 90 degrees). However, a similar comprehensive equivalence with the domain spanned by the data is not available; in particular, about two-thirds of the domain with the absolute value of alpha is greater than 45 degrees is unrelated to the data. Nevertheless, as estimate can be defined for this region consistent with the measured or theoretical values along its boundaries and the theoretical equivalence of points within the region. These descrepancies are assumed to be due to measurement errors. Data from independent wind tunnel studies are reviewed; these are less comprehensive than the NASA Ames Research Center but show good to fair agreement with both the theory and the estimate given here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Queijo, M. J.; Wells, W. R.; Keskar, D. A.
1979-01-01
A simple vortex system, used to model unsteady aerodynamic effects into the rigid body longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft, is described. The equations are used in the development of a parameter extraction algorithm. Use of the two parameter-estimation modes, one including and the other omitting unsteady aerodynamic modeling, is discussed as a means of estimating some acceleration derivatives. Computer generated data and flight data, used to demonstrate the use of the parameter-extraction algorithm are studied.
Flight software memory sizing and CPU loading estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
Estimates of the AP101 memory and central processing unit (CPU) requirements for the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The resource estimates reflect OASCAB approved change requests for Release 18 and Release 19. Memory sizes are presented in 32 bit full words, CPU loading is listed by percentage. Memory and CPU information was obtained from actual AP101 code where available, and from estimates provided by flight software development programmers.
Recovering Aerodynamic Side Loads on Rocket Nozzles using Quasi-Static Strain-Gage Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Andrew; Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.
2009-01-01
During over-expanded operation of rocket nozzles, which is defined to be when the exit pressure is greater than internal pressure over some part of the nozzle, the nozzle will experience a transverse forcing function due to the pressure differential across the nozzle wall. Over-expansion occurs during the nozzle start-up and shutdown transient, even in high-altitude engines, because most test facilities cannot completely reproduce the near-vacuum pressures at those altitudes. During this transient, the pressure differential moves axially down the nozzle as it becomes pressurized, but this differential is never perfectly symmetric circumferentially. The character of the forcing function is highly complex and defined by a series of restricted and free shock separations. The subject of this paper is the determination of the magnitude of this loading during sub-scale testing via measurement of the structural dynamic response of the nozzle and its support structure. An initial attempt at back-calculating this load using the inverse of the transfer function was performed, but this attempt was shown to be highly susceptible to numerical error. The final method chosen was to use statically calibrated strain data and to filter out the system fundamental frequency such that the measured response yields close to the correct dynamic loading function. This method was shown to capture 93% of the pressure spectral energy using controlled load shaker testing. This method is one of the only practical ways for the inverse determination of the forcing function for non-stationary excitations, and, to the authors' knowledge, has not been described in the literature to date.
Shen, Jian; Zhao, Yuan
2010-01-01
Nonpoint source load estimation is an essential part of the development of the bacterial total maximum daily load (TMDL) mandated by the Clean Water Act. However, the currently widely used watershed-receiving water modeling approach is usually associated with a high level of uncertainty and requires long-term observational data and intensive training effort. The load duration curve (LDC) method recommended by the EPA provides a simpler way to estimate bacteria loading. This method, however, does not take into consideration the specific fate and transport mechanisms of the pollutant and cannot address the uncertainty. In this study, a Bayesian statistical approach is applied to the Escherichia coli TMDL development of a stream on the Eastern Shore of Virginia to inversely estimate watershed bacteria loads from the in-stream monitoring data. The mechanism of bacteria transport is incorporated. The effects of temperature, bottom slope, and flow on allowable and existing load calculations are discussed. The uncertainties associated with load estimation are also fully described. Our method combines the merits of LDC, mechanistic modeling, and Bayesian statistics, while overcoming some of the shortcomings associated with these methods. It is a cost-effective tool for bacteria TMDL development and can be modified and applied to multi-segment streams as well. PMID:19781737
Zorgani, Youssef Agrebi; Koubaa, Yassine; Boussak, Mohamed
2016-03-01
This paper presents a novel method for estimating the load torque of a sensorless indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC) induction motor drive based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) scheme. As a matter of fact, this method is meant to inter-connect a speed estimator with the load torque observer. For this purpose, a MRAS has been applied to estimate the rotor speed with tuned load torque in order to obtain a high performance ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in the stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme in an attempt to estimate the speed of the measured terminal voltages and currents. The load torque is estimated by means of a Luenberger observer defined throughout the mechanical equation. Every observer state matrix depends on the mechanical characteristics of the machine taking into account the vicious friction coefficient and inertia moment. Accordingly, some simulation results are presented to validate the proposed method and to highlight the influence of the variation of the inertia moment and the friction coefficient on the speed and the estimated load torque. The experimental results, concerning to the sensorless speed with a load torque estimation, are elaborated in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The complete sensorless ISFOC with load torque estimation is successfully implemented in real time using a digital signal processor board DSpace DS1104 for a laboratory 3 kW induction motor. PMID:26775088
Climatic indicators for estimating residential heating and cooling loads
Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Chang, L.
1986-11-01
An extensive data base of residential energy use generated with the DOE-2.1A simulation code provides an opportunity for correlating building loads predicted by an hourly simulation model to commonly used climatic parameters such as heating and cooling degree-days, and to newer parameters such as insolation-days and latent enthalpy-days. The identification of reliable climatic parameters for estimating cooling loads and the incremental loads for individual building components, such as changing ceiling and wall R-values, infiltration rates or window areas is emphasized.
Estimation of Local Bone Loads for the Volume of Interest.
Kim, Jung Jin; Kim, Youkyung; Jang, In Gwun
2016-07-01
Computational bone remodeling simulations have recently received significant attention with the aid of state-of-the-art high-resolution imaging modalities. They have been performed using localized finite element (FE) models rather than full FE models due to the excessive computational costs of full FE models. However, these localized bone remodeling simulations remain to be investigated in more depth. In particular, applying simplified loading conditions (e.g., uniform and unidirectional loads) to localized FE models have a severe limitation in a reliable subject-specific assessment. In order to effectively determine the physiological local bone loads for the volume of interest (VOI), this paper proposes a novel method of estimating the local loads when the global musculoskeletal loads are given. The proposed method is verified for the three VOI in a proximal femur in terms of force equilibrium, displacement field, and strain energy density (SED) distribution. The effect of the global load deviation on the local load estimation is also investigated by perturbing a hip joint contact force (HCF) in the femoral head. Deviation in force magnitude exhibits the greatest absolute changes in a SED distribution due to its own greatest deviation, whereas angular deviation perpendicular to a HCF provides the greatest relative change. With further in vivo force measurements and high-resolution clinical imaging modalities, the proposed method will contribute to the development of reliable patient-specific localized FE models, which can provide enhanced computational efficiency for iterative computing processes such as bone remodeling simulations. PMID:27109554
Estimation of forest fuel load from radar remote sensing
Saatchi, S.; Halligan, K.; Despain, D.G.; Crabtree, R.L.
2007-01-01
Understanding fire behavior characteristics and planning for fire management require maps showing the distribution of wildfire fuel loads at medium to fine spatial resolution across large landscapes. Radar sensors from airborne or spaceborne platforms have the potential of providing quantitative information about the forest structure and biomass components that can be readily translated to meaningful fuel load estimates for fire management. In this paper, we used multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired over a large area of the Yellowstone National Park by the Airborne SAR sensor to estimate the distribution of forest biomass and canopy fuel loads. Semiempirical algorithms were developed to estimate crown and stem biomass and three major fuel load parameters, namely: 1) canopy fuel weight; 2) canopy bulk density; and 3) foliage moisture content. These estimates, when compared directly to measurements made at plot and stand levels, provided more than 70% accuracy and, when partitioned into fuel load classes, provided more than 85% accuracy. Specifically, the radar-generated fuel parameters were in good agreement with the field-based fuel measurements, resulting in coefficients of determination of R2 = 85 for the canopy fuel weight, R 2 = 0.84 for canopy bulk density, and R2 =0.78 for the foliage biomass. ?? 2007 IEEE.
Tube-Load Model Parameter Estimation for Monitoring Arterial Hemodynamics
Zhang, Guanqun; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna
2011-01-01
A useful model of the arterial system is the uniform, lossless tube with parametric load. This tube-load model is able to account for wave propagation and reflection (unlike lumped-parameter models such as the Windkessel) while being defined by only a few parameters (unlike comprehensive distributed-parameter models). As a result, the parameters may be readily estimated by accurate fitting of the model to available arterial pressure and flow waveforms so as to permit improved monitoring of arterial hemodynamics. In this paper, we review tube-load model parameter estimation techniques that have appeared in the literature for monitoring wave reflection, large artery compliance, pulse transit time, and central aortic pressure. We begin by motivating the use of the tube-load model for parameter estimation. We then describe the tube-load model, its assumptions and validity, and approaches for estimating its parameters. We next summarize the various techniques and their experimental results while highlighting their advantages over conventional techniques. We conclude the review by suggesting future research directions and describing potential applications. PMID:22053157
Estimation of Forest Fuel Load from Radar Remote Sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saatchi, Sassan; Despain, Don G.; Halligan, Kerry; Crabtree, Robert
2007-01-01
Understanding fire behavior characteristics and planning for fire management require maps showing the distribution of wildfire fuel loads at medium to fine spatial resolution across large landscapes. Radar sensors from airborne or spaceborne platforms have the potential of providing quantitative information about the forest structure and biomass components that can be readily translated to meaningful fuel load estimates for fire management. In this paper, we used multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery acquired over a large area of the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) by the AIRSAR sensor, to estimate the distribution of forest biomass and canopy fuel loads. Semi-empirical algorithms were developed to estimate crown and stem biomass and three major fuel load parameters, canopy fuel weight, canopy bulk density, and foliage moisture content. These estimates when compared directly to measurements made at plot and stand levels, provided more than 70% accuracy, and when partitioned into fuel load classes, provided more than 85% accuracy. Specifically, the radar generated fuel parameters were in good agreement with the field-based fuel measurements, resulting in coefficients of determination of R(sup 2) = 85 for the canopy fuel weight, R(sup 2)=.84 for canopy bulk density and R(sup 2) = 0.78 for the foliage biomass.
High-Tip-Speed, Low-Loading Transonic Fan Stage. Part 1: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, L. C.; Vitale, N. G.; Ware, T. C.; Erwin, J. R.
1973-01-01
A high-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 1.5 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86 percent. The design flow per unit annulus area is 42.0 pounds per square foot. The fan features a hub/tip ratio of 0.46, a tip diameter of 28.74 in. and operates at a design tip speed of 1600 fps. For these design conditions, the rotor blade tip region operates with supersonic inlet and supersonic discharge relative velocities. A sophisticated quasi-three-dimensional characteristic section design procedure was used for the all-supersonic sections and the inlet of the midspan transonic sections. For regions where the relative outlet velocities are supersonic, the blade operates with weak oblique shocks only.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.
1991-01-01
Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, D. B.; McColgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.
1991-05-01
Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the
Consideration of sample size for estimating contaminant load reductions using load duration curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Karthikeyan, R.
2009-06-01
SummaryIn Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) programs, load duration curves are often used to estimate reduction of contaminant loads in a watershed. A popular method for calculating these load reductions involves estimation of the 90th percentiles of monitored contaminant concentrations during different hydrologic conditions. However, water quality monitoring is expensive and can pose major limitations in collecting enough data. Availability of scarce water quality data can, therefore, deteriorate the precision in the estimates of the 90th percentiles, which, in turn, affects the accuracy of estimated load reductions. This paper proposes an adaptive sampling strategy that the data collection agencies can use for not only optimizing their collection of new samples across different hydrologic conditions, but also ensuring that newly collected samples provide opportunity for best possible improvements in the precision of the estimated 90th percentile with minimum sampling costs. The sampling strategy was used to propose sampling plans for Escherichia coli monitoring in an actual stream and different sampling procedures of the strategy were tested for hypothetical stream data. Results showed that improvement in precision using the proposed distributed sampling procedure is much better and faster than that attained via the lumped sampling procedure, for the same sampling cost. Hence, it is recommended that when agencies have a fixed sampling budget, they should collect samples in consecutive monitoring cycles as proposed by the distributed sampling procedure, rather than investing all their resources in only one monitoring cycle.
Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Saraceno, John F.; Frederick, C. Paul; Downing, Bryan D.; Murphy, Jennifer C.
2014-01-01
Accurately quantifying nitrate (NO3–) loading from the Mississippi River is important for predicting summer hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and targeting nutrient reduction within the basin. Loads have historically been modeled with regression-based techniques, but recent advances with high frequency NO3– sensors allowed us to evaluate model performance relative to measured loads in the lower Mississippi River. Patterns in NO3– concentrations and loads were observed at daily to annual time steps, with considerable variability in concentration-discharge relationships over the two year study. Differences were particularly accentuated during the 2012 drought and 2013 flood, which resulted in anomalously high NO3– concentrations consistent with a large flush of stored NO3– from soil. The comparison between measured loads and modeled loads (LOADEST, Composite Method, WRTDS) showed underestimates of only 3.5% across the entire study period, but much larger differences at shorter time steps. Absolute differences in loads were typically greatest in the spring and early summer critical to Gulf hypoxia formation, with the largest differences (underestimates) for all models during the flood period of 2013. In additional to improving the accuracy and precision of monthly loads, high frequency NO3– measurements offer additional benefits not available with regression-based or other load estimation techniques.
Pellerin, Brian A; Bergamaschi, Brian A; Gilliom, Robert J; Crawford, Charles G; Saraceno, JohnFranco; Frederick, C Paul; Downing, Bryan D; Murphy, Jennifer C
2014-11-01
Accurately quantifying nitrate (NO3-) loading from the Mississippi River is important for predicting summer hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and targeting nutrient reduction within the basin. Loads have historically been modeled with regression-based techniques, but recent advances with high frequency NO3- sensors allowed us to evaluate model performance relative to measured loads in the lower Mississippi River. Patterns in NO3- concentrations and loads were observed at daily to annual time steps, with considerable variability in concentration-discharge relationships over the two year study. Differences were particularly accentuated during the 2012 drought and 2013 flood, which resulted in anomalously high NO3- concentrations consistent with a large flush of stored NO3- from soil. The comparison between measured loads and modeled loads (LOADEST, Composite Method, WRTDS) showed underestimates of only 3.5% across the entire study period, but much larger differences at shorter time steps. Absolute differences in loads were typically greatest in the spring and early summer critical to Gulf hypoxia formation, with the largest differences (underestimates) for all models during the flood period of 2013. In additional to improving the accuracy and precision of monthly loads, high frequency NO3- measurements offer additional benefits not available with regression-based or other load estimation techniques. PMID:25310505
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryson, Christopher; Hussain, Fazle; Barhorst, Alan
2015-11-01
Optimization of wind turbine torque as a function of angle of attack - over the entire speed range from start-up to cut-off - is studied by considering the full trigonometric relations projecting lift and drag to thrust and torque. Since driving force and thrust are geometrically constrained, one cannot be changed without affecting the other. Increasing lift to enhance torque simultaneously increases thrust, which subsequently reduces the inflow angle with respect to the rotor plane via an increased reduction in inflow velocity. Reducing the inflow angle redirects the lift force away from the driving force generating the torque, which may reduce overall torque. Similarly, changes in the tip-speed ratio (TSR) affect the inflow angle and thus the optimal torque. Using the airfoil data from the NREL 5 MW reference turbine, the optimal angle of attack over the operational TSR range (4 to 15) was computed using a BEM model to incorporate the dynamic coupling, namely the interdependency of blade loading and inflow angle. The optimal angle of attack is close to minimum drag during start-up phase (high TSR) and continuously increases toward maximum lift at high wind speeds (low TSR).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearson, H A
1936-01-01
An empirical method is given for estimating the aerodynamic effect of ordinary and split flaps on airfoils similar to the Clark Y. The method is based on a series of charts that have been derived from an analysis of existing wind-tunnel data. Factors are included by which such variables as flap location, flap span, wing aspect ratio, and wing taper may be taken into account. A series of comparisons indicate that the method would be suitable for use in making preliminary performance calculations and in structural design.
Estimated Muscle Loads During Squat Exercise in Microgravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fregly, Christopher D.; Kim, Brandon T.; Li, Zhao; DeWitt, John K.; Fregly, Benjamin J.
2012-01-01
Loss of muscle mass in microgravity is one of the primary factors limiting long-term space flight. NASA researchers have developed a number of exercise devices to address this problem. The most recent is the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), which is currently used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to emulate typical free-weight exercises in microgravity. ARED exercise on the ISS is intended to reproduce Earth-level muscle loads, but the actual muscle loads produced remain unknown as they cannot currently be measured directly. In this study we estimated muscle loads experienced during squat exercise on ARED in microgravity conditions representative of Mars, the moon, and the ISS. The estimates were generated using a subject-specific musculoskeletal computer model and ARED exercise data collected on Earth. The results provide insight into the capabilities and limitations of the ARED machine.
Concise Formulas for the Standard Errors of Component Loading Estimates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogasawara, Haruhiko
2002-01-01
Derived formulas for the asymptotic standard errors of component loading estimates to cover the cases of principal component analysis for unstandardized and standardized variables with orthogonal and oblique rotations. Used the formulas with a real correlation matrix of 355 subjects who took 12 psychological tests. (SLD)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Curran, J.; Padfield, G. D.; Owen, I.
2011-04-01
This paper describes the design, calibration and application of an instrument that measures the effects of unsteady air flow (airwake) on a helicopter in flight. The instrument is a 1/54th-scale model helicopter that is mounted on a six-component dynamic force balance to measure the forces and moments that an airwake imposes onto the helicopter; it is therefore an 'Airwake Dynamometer' to which we have given the name AirDyn. The AirDyn has been designed, in particular, to measure the effect of a ship airwake on a helicopter translating over the ship's landing deck. The AirDyn, which has been implemented in a water tunnel, in preference to a wind tunnel, senses the integrated effect of a turbulent airwake on the helicopter, and the resulting unsteady forces and moments are an indication of the workload the pilot would need to exert to counteract these effects in a real helicopter. Binocular sensing elements and semiconductor strain gauges have been adopted to achieve high sensitivity and relatively high stiffness. The compact strain gauge balance is fitted into the helicopter fuselage, and protective coatings and a flexible bellows are used to seal the balance and protect it from the water. The coefficient matrix of the AirDyn has been obtained by static calibrations, while impulse excitation tests have confirmed that its frequency response is suitable for the measurements of unsteady loads. The application of the instrument is illustrated by using it to quantify the effect that a bulky ship mast has on the airwake and thus on a helicopter as it lands onto a simplified ship in a scaled 50 knot headwind.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad
2011-01-01
Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on the unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver USM3D, with an assumption that the flow is fully turbulent over the entire vehicle. This effort was designed to complement the prior computational activities conducted over the past five years in support of the Ares I Project with the emphasis on the vehicle s last design cycle designated as the A106 configuration. Due to a lack of flight data for this particular design s outer mold line, the initial vehicle s aerodynamic predictions and the associated error estimates were first assessed and validated against the available experimental data at representative wind tunnel flow conditions pertinent to the ascent phase of the trajectory without including any propulsion effects. Subsequently, the established procedures were then applied to obtain the longitudinal aerodynamic predictions at the selected flight flow conditions. Sample computed results and the correlations with the experimental measurements are presented. In addition, the present analysis includes the relevant data to highlight the balance between the prediction accuracy against the grid size and, thus, the corresponding computer resource requirements for the computations at both wind tunnel and flight flow conditions. NOTE: Some details have been removed from selected plots and figures in compliance with the sensitive but unclassified (SBU) restrictions. However, the content still conveys the merits of the technical approach and the relevant results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogallo, Vernon L; Yaggy, Paul F; Mccloud, John L , III
1956-01-01
A simplified procedure is shown for calculating the once-per-revolution oscillating aerodynamic thrust loads on propellers of tractor airplanes at zero yaw. The only flow field information required for the application of the procedure is a knowledge of the upflow angles at the horizontal center line of the propeller disk. Methods are presented whereby these angles may be computed without recourse to experimental survey of the flow field. The loads computed by the simplified procedure are compared with those computed by a more rigorous method and the procedure is applied to several airplane configurations which are believed typical of current designs. The results are generally satisfactory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Commo, Sean A. (Inventor); Lynn, Keith C. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor); Acheson, Michael J. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An In-Situ Load System for calibrating and validating aerodynamic properties of scaled aircraft in ground-based aerospace testing applications includes an assembly having upper and lower components that are pivotably interconnected. A test weight can be connected to the lower component to apply a known force to a force balance. The orientation of the force balance can be varied, and the measured forces from the force balance can be compared to applied loads at various orientations to thereby develop calibration factors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Soon-Onn; Holsen, Thomas M.; Han, Young-Ji; Hopke, Philip P.; Yi, Seung-Muk; Blanchard, Pierrette; Pagano, James J.; Milligan, Michael
Atmospheric mercury (Hg) loadings to Lake Ontario were estimated using data measured at two land-based sites: Sterling, NY and Point Petre, Ont., as part of the Lake Ontario air deposition study (LOADS) between April 2002 and March 2003. These loadings were compared with those estimated using intensive data measured onboard the R/V Lake Guardian in April 2002, September 2002, and July 2003 (each approximately one week). Measured concentrations and modeled mass transfer coefficients of elemental mercury (Hg 0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hg (p)) in air and total Hg in precipitation were incorporated into a total deposition model including wet deposition, air-water gas exchange and particle dry deposition. Urban/rural Hg concentration ratios were assumed based on literature values. Assuming that 10% of the lake was influenced by urban areas, the annual net Hg atmospheric loadings of wet deposition, net air-water gas exchange of Hg 0 (deposition=300 kg yr -1 and emission=410 kg yr -1) and RGM, and Hg (p) dry deposition to Lake Ontario were estimated to be 170, -110, 68, and 20 kg, respectively, resulting in a net loading of 150 kg yr -1. Net Hg loadings were largest in the fall (46 kg) and smallest in the summer (20 kg). Hg 0, wet, RGM and Hg (p) deposition contributed 55%, 30%, 12%, and 3.6% of the total Hg deposition, respectively. The net loading was found to be most sensitive to the assumed urban/rural concentration ratios, wind speed, DGM concentration and Hg 0 transfer velocity. An increase in the influence of urban areas from 0% to 30% resulted in a 90% increase in the total loading demonstrating the complexity and non-linearity of the atmospheric deposition of mercury to Lake Ontario and the importance of quantifying the urban footprint.
Sediment load estimation using statistical distributions with streamflow dependent parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mailhot, A.; Rousseau, A. N.; Talbot, G.; Quilbé, R.
2005-12-01
The classical approaches to estimate sediment and chemical loads are all deterministic: averaging methods, ratio estimators, regression methods (rating curves) and planning level load estimation methods. However, none of these methods is satisfactory since they are often inaccurate and do not take into account nor quantify uncertainty. To fill this gap, statistical methods have to be investigated. This presentation proposes a new statistical method in which sediment concentration is assimilated to a random variable and is described by distribution functions. Three types of distributions are considered: Log-Normal, Gamma and Weibull distributions. Correlation between sediment concentrations and streamflows is integrated to the model by assuming that distribution parameters (mean and coefficient of variation) are related to streamflow using several different functional forms: exponential, quadratic and power law forms for the mean, constant and linear for the coefficient of variation. Parameter estimation is realized through maximization of the likelihood function. This approach is applied on a data set (1989 to 2004) from the Beaurivage River (Quebec, Canada) with weekly to monthly sampling for sediment concentration. A comparison of different models (selection of a distribution function with functional forms relating the mean and the coefficient of variation to streamflow) shows that the Log-Normal distribution with power law mean and coefficient of variation independent of streamflow provides the best result. When comparing annual load results with those obtained using deterministic methods, we observe that ratio estimators values are rarely within the [0.1, 0.9] quantile interval. For the 1997-2004 period, ratio estimator values are almost systematically smaller than the 0.1 quantile. This could presumably be due to the small number of sediment concentration samples for these years. This study suggests that, if deterministic methods such as the ratio estimator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
澤田, 秀夫
The aerodynamic performance of an AGARD-B model, as an example of a winged model, was measured in a low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the JAXA 60cm Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The flow speed was in the range between 25m/s and 35m/s, and the angle of attack and the yaw angle were in the range of [- 8, 4] and [- 3, 3] degrees, respectively. Six components of the aerodynamic force were evaluated by using the control coil currents of the MSBS. In evaluating the drag, the effect of the lift on the drag must be evaluated at MSBS when the lift is much larger than drag. A new evaluation method for drag and lift was proposed and was examined successfully by subjecting the model to the same loads as in the wind tunnel test. The drag coefficient at zero lift and the derivatives of the lift and pitching moment coefficient with respect to the angle of attack were evaluated and compared with other source data sets. The obtained data agreed well with the corresponding values of the other sources. The side force, yawing moment and rolling moment coefficients were also evaluated on the basis of corresponding calibration test results, and reasonable results were obtained, although they could not be compared due to the lack of reliable data sets.
Operational load estimation of a smart wind turbine rotor blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Rumsey, Mark A.
2009-03-01
Rising energy prices and carbon emission standards are driving a fundamental shift from fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy such as biofuel, solar, wind, clean coal and nuclear. In 2008, the U.S. installed 8,358 MW of new wind capacity increasing the total installed wind power by 50% to 25,170 MW. A key technology to improve the efficiency of wind turbines is smart rotor blades that can monitor the physical loads being applied by the wind and then adapt the airfoil for increased energy capture. For extreme wind and gust events, the airfoil could be changed to reduce the loads to prevent excessive fatigue or catastrophic failure. Knowledge of the actual loading to the turbine is also useful for maintenance planning and design improvements. In this work, an array of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers was integrally manufactured into a 9m smart rotor blade. DC type accelerometers were utilized in order to estimate the loading and deflection from both quasi-steady-state and dynamic events. A method is presented that designs an estimator of the rotor blade static deflection and loading and then optimizes the placement of the sensor(s). Example results show that the method can identify the optimal location for the sensor for both simple example cases and realistic complex loading. The optimal location of a single sensor shifts towards the tip as the curvature of the blade deflection increases with increasingly complex wind loading. The framework developed is practical for the expansion of sensor optimization in more complex blade models and for higher numbers of sensors.
Charts Showing Relations Among Primary Aerodynamic Variables for Helicopter-performance Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talkin, Herbert W
1947-01-01
In order to facilitate solutions of the general problem of helicopter selection, the aerodynamic performance of rotors is presented in the form of charts showing relations between primary design and performance variables. By the use of conventional helicopter theory, certain variables are plotted and other variables are considered fixed. Charts constructed in such a manner show typical results, trends, and limits of helicopter performance. Performance conditions considered include hovering, horizontal flight, climb, and ceiling. Special problems discussed include vertical climb and the use of rotor-speed-reduction gears for hovering.
Field assessment of alternative bed-load transport estimators
Gaeuman, G.; Jacobson, R.B.
2007-01-01
Measurement of near-bed sediment velocities with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) is an emerging approach for quantifying bed-load sediment fluxes in rivers. Previous investigations of the technique have relied on conventional physical bed-load sampling to provide reference transport information with which to validate the ADCP measurements. However, physical samples are subject to substantial errors, especially under field conditions in which surrogate methods are most needed. Comparisons between ADCP bed velocity measurements with bed-load transport rates estimated from bed-form migration rates in the lower Missouri River show a strong correlation between the two surrogate measures over a wide range of mild to moderately intense sediment transporting conditions. The correlation between the ADCP measurements and physical bed-load samples is comparatively poor, suggesting that physical bed-load sampling is ineffective for ground-truthing alternative techniques in large sand-bed rivers. Bed velocities measured in this study became more variable with increasing bed-form wavelength at higher shear stresses. Under these conditions, bed-form dimensions greatly exceed the region of the bed ensonified by the ADCP, and the magnitude of the acoustic measurements depends on instrument location with respect to bed-form crests and troughs. Alternative algorithms for estimating bed-load transport from paired longitudinal profiles of bed topography were evaluated. An algorithm based on the routing of local erosion and deposition volumes that eliminates the need to identify individual bed forms was found to give results similar to those of more conventional dune-tracking methods. This method is particularly useful in cases where complex bed-form morphology makes delineation of individual bed forms difficult. ?? 2007 ASCE.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hallissy, J. B.; Harris, C. D.
1974-01-01
Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted at Mach numbers of 0.85, 0.88, and 0.90 to determine the aerodynamic load distribution for the 39 deg swept-wing configuration of a variable-wing-sweep fighter airplane with a NASA supercritical airfoil. Chordwise pressure distributions were measured at two wing stations. Also measured were the overall longitudinal aerodynamic force and moment characteristics and the buffet characteristics. The analysis indicates that localized regions of shock-induced flow separation may exist on the rearward portions of the supercritical wing at high subsonic speeds, and caution must be exercised in the prediction of buffet onset when using variations in trailing-edge pressure coefficients at isolated locations.
Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.
2015-11-01
Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.
Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor
Swift, D C
2008-11-25
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.
Nutrient load estimates for Manila Bay, Philippines using population data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotto, Lara Patricia A.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bouwman, Lex F.; Jacinto, Gil S.
2015-06-01
A major source of nutrient load to periodically hypoxic Manila Bay is the urban nutrient waste water flow from humans and industries to surface water. In Manila alone, the population density is as high as 19,137 people/km2. A model based on a global point source model by Morée et al. (2013) was used to estimate the contribution of the population to nitrogen and phosphorus emissions which was then used in a water transport model to estimate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to Manila Bay. Seven scenarios for 2050 were tested, with varying degrees and amounts for extent of sewage treatment, and population growth rates were also included. In scenario 1, the sewage connection and treatment remains the same as 2010; in scenario 2, sewage connection is improved but the treatment is the same; in scenario 3, the sewage connection as well as treatment is improved (70% tertiary); and in scenario 4, a more realistic situation of 70% primary treatment achieved with 100% connection to pipes is tested. Scenarios 5, 6, and 7 have the same parameters as 1, 2, and 3 respectively, but with the population growth rate per province reduced to half of what was used in 1, 2, and 3. In all scenarios, a significant increase in N and P loads was observed (varying from 27% to 469% relative to 2010 values). This was found even in scenario 3 where 70% of the waste water undergoes tertiary treatment which removes 80% N and 90% P. However, the lowest increase in N and P load into the bay was achieved in scenarios 5 to 7 where population growth rate is reduced to half of 2010 values. The results suggest that aside from improving sewage treatment, the continued increase of the human population in Manila at current growth rates will be an important determinant of N and P load into Manila Bay.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Washburn, K. E.; Gloss, B. B.
1978-01-01
Wind tunnel studies are reported on both the canard and wing surfaces of a model that is geometrically identical to one used in several force and moment tests to provide insight into the various aerodynamic interference effects. In addition to detailed pressures measurements, the pressures were integrated to illustrate the effects of Mach number, canard location, and canard-wing interference on various aerodynamic parameters. Transonic pressure tunnel Mach numbers ranged from 0.70 to 1.20 for data taken from 0 deg to approximately 16 deg angle-of-attack at 0 deg sideslip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemsch, M. J.; Nielsen, J. N.
1982-01-01
A method has been developed for estimating the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of missile wing and control surfaces. The method is based on the following assumption: if a fin on a body has the same normal-force coefficient as a wing alone composed of two of the same fins joined together at their root chords, then the other force and moment coefficients of the fin and the wing alone are the same including the nonlinearities. The method can be used for deflected fins at arbitrary bank angles and at high angles of attack. In the paper, a full derivation of the method is given, its accuracy demonstrated and its use in extending missile data bases is shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.
1975-01-01
A digital computer program has been developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge or trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges have been extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation by collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accommodated.
Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.
1994-08-01
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.
1994-08-01
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norton, J. M.; Tari, U.; Weber, R. M.
1979-01-01
A quasi three dimensional design system and multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections were used to design a fan rotor. An axisymmetric intrablade flow field calculation modeled the shroud of an isolated splitter and radial distribution. The structural analysis indicates that the design is satisfactory for evaluation of aerodynamic performance of the fan stage in a test facility.
Determining the Accuracy of Aerodynamic Model Parameters Estimated from Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav
1995-01-01
An important part of building mathematical models based on measured data is calculating the accuracy associated with statistical estimates of the model parameters. Indeed, without some idea of this accuracy, the parameter estimates themselves have limited value. In this work, an expression for computing quantitatively correct parameter accuracy measures for maximum likelihood parameter estimates with colored residuals is developed and validated. This result is important because experience in analyzing flight test data reveals that the output residuals from maximum likelihood estimation are almost always colored. The calculations involved can be appended to conventional maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Monte Carlo simulation runs were used to show that parameter accuracy measures from the new technique accurately reflect the quality of the parameter estimates from maximum likelihood estimation without the need for correction factors or frequency domain analysis of the output residuals. The technique was applied to flight test data from repeated maneuvers flown on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). As in the simulated cases, parameter accuracy measures from the new technique were in agreement with the scatter in the parameter estimates from repeated maneuvers, while conventional parameter accuracy measures were optimistic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filatyev, A. S.; Yanova, O. V.
2013-12-01
A problem of through optimization of fail-safe branched trajectories of launchers in view of aerodynamic load constraints and restrictions on ground impact areas of separated parts (SP) is considered. The failsafety is regarded to the possibility of a recoverable vehicle (RV) to return from any point of the ascent trajectory to landing points without excess of allowable g-loads. So, the purpose is determination of the launcher optimal control in view of constraints on all trajectory branches: the main, corresponding to an active injection leg, and side branches, corresponding to SP fall trajectories and imaginary RV emergency trajectories, which form a continuum. The problem solution is based on the Pontryagin maximum principle (PMP).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, G. A.; Cronvich, L. L.
1979-01-01
Individual wing panel aerodynamic characteristics are provided for rectangular wings with aspect ratios of 0.25, 0.75, and 1.00 each panel at Mach numbers if 1.5 and 2.0 for angles of attack to 23 degrees. Data plots produced from reports of wind tunnel tests show normal force coefficients, and the spanwise and chordwise center of pressure locations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Eric J.; Cruz, Josue; Lung, Shun-Fat; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Lu, Kerr-Jia; Flick, Pete
2016-01-01
A seamless adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap was demonstrated in flight on a Gulfstream III aircraft at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The trailing edge flap was deflected between minus 2 deg up and plus 30 deg down in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The interface hardware instrumentation layout and load calibration are discussed. Twenty-one applied calibration test load cases were developed for each individual fitting. The 2-sigma residual errors for the hinge moment was calculated to be 2.4 percent, and for normal force was calculated to be 7.3 percent. The hinge moment and normal force generated by the ACTE flap with a hinge point located at 26-percent wing chord were measured during steady state and symmetric pitch maneuvers. The loads predicted from analysis were compared to the loads observed in flight. The hinge moment loads showed good agreement with the flight loads while the normal force loads calculated from analysis were over-predicted by approximately 20 percent. Normal force and hinge moment loads calculated from the pressure sensors located on the ACTE showed good agreement with the loads calculated from the installed strain gages.
Method for estimating the aerodynamic coefficients of wind turbine blades at high angles of attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beans, E. W.; Jakubowski, G. S.
1983-12-01
The method is based on the hypothesis that at high angles of attack the force on an airfoil is produced by the deflection of the fluid across the lower surface. It is also hypothesized that all airfoils behave the same regardless of shape and that the effects of circulation and skin friction are small. It is pointed out that the expression for the force N normal to the airfoil due to momentum exchange can be written in terms of the component parallel to the flow (drag) and the component perpendicular to the flow (lift). A comparison of estimated values with measured values and generally accepted data indicates that the method given here estimates coefficients which are low. It is thought that the difference may derive from the persistence of circulation at high angles of attack. Low estimates are not seen as a serious limitation to the designer of wind turbines. Owing to the fifth power diameter relation, the effect of a low estimate of performance on the inner portion of the blade is minimized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.
1988-01-01
Extensive correlations of computer code results with experimental data are employed to illustrate the use of linearized theory attached flow methods for the estimation and optimization of the aerodynamic performance of simple hinged flap systems. Use of attached flow methods is based on the premise that high levels of aerodynamic efficiency require a flow that is as nearly attached as circumstances permit. A variety of swept wing configurations are considered ranging from fighters to supersonic transports, all with leading- and trailing-edge flaps for enhancement of subsonic aerodynamic efficiency. The results indicate that linearized theory attached flow computer code methods provide a rational basis for the estimation and optimization of flap system aerodynamic performance at subsonic speeds. The analysis also indicates that vortex flap design is not an opposing approach but is closely related to attached flow design concepts. The successful vortex flap design actually suppresses the formation of detached vortices to produce a small vortex which is restricted almost entirely to the leading edge flap itself.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.
1994-01-01
EGADS is a comprehensive preliminary design tool for estimating the performance of light, single-engine general aviation aircraft. The software runs on the Apple Macintosh series of personal computers and assists amateur designers and aeronautical engineering students in performing the many repetitive calculations required in the aircraft design process. The program makes full use of the mouse and standard Macintosh interface techniques to simplify the input of various design parameters. Extensive graphics, plotting, and text output capabilities are also included.
Fatigue Life Estimation under Cumulative Cyclic Loading Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalluri, Sreeramesh; McGaw, Michael A; Halford, Gary R.
1999-01-01
The cumulative fatigue behavior of a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 was investigated at 760 C in air. Initially strain-controlled tests were conducted on solid cylindrical gauge section specimens of Haynes 188 under fully-reversed, tensile and compressive mean strain-controlled fatigue tests. Fatigue data from these tests were used to establish the baseline fatigue behavior of the alloy with 1) a total strain range type fatigue life relation and 2) the Smith-Wastson-Topper (SWT) parameter. Subsequently, two load-level multi-block fatigue tests were conducted on similar specimens of Haynes 188 at the same temperature. Fatigue lives of the multi-block tests were estimated with 1) the Linear Damage Rule (LDR) and 2) the nonlinear Damage Curve Approach (DCA) both with and without the consideration of mean stresses generated during the cumulative fatigue tests. Fatigue life predictions by the nonlinear DCA were much closer to the experimentally observed lives than those obtained by the LDR. In the presence of mean stresses, the SWT parameter estimated the fatigue lives more accurately under tensile conditions than under compressive conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Jope, J.
1976-01-01
General guidelines are given for the design of diffusers, contractions, corners, and the inlets and exits of non-return tunnels. A system of equations, reflecting the current technology, has been compiled and assembled into a computer program (a user's manual for this program is included) for determining the total pressure losses. The formulation presented is applicable to compressible flow through most closed- or open-throat, single-, double-, or non-return wind tunnels. A comparison of estimated performance with that actually achieved by several existing facilities produced generally good agreement.
Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest
Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L.E.; Soyeux, E.
2009-01-01
Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, R. L.
1974-01-01
The aerodynamic heating and loading distributions within large cavities exposed by surface openings to hypersonic flow were determined in the 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel. Cone and cone-cylinder-flare models with cavities having regular and irregular surface-opening shapes were aerothermally tested at various angles of attack up to 30 deg. Tests were conducted at a Mach number of 6.7, a total temperature of 1800 K, a dynamic pressure of 80 kPa, and a stream unit Reynolds number of 6,000,000 per meter. The results showed that the heating rates at internal reattachment were generally lower but of the same order as the corresponding external heating rates; however, other internal heating rates were an order of magnitude lower. The internal flow showed characteristics of being funneled into jets or being dispersed dependent upon the internal surface contour.
Grismer, M E
2013-09-01
Total maximum daily load (TMDL) programs utilize pollutant load reductions as the primary strategy to restore adversely affected waters of the USA. Accurate and defensible "crediting" for TMDL reductions of sediment and nutrients requires stream monitoring programs capable of quantitative assessment of soil erosivity and the "connectivity" between erosive areas and stream channels across the watershed. Using continuous (15-min) stream monitoring information from typical alpine, snowmelt-driven watersheds [Ward (2,521 ha), Blackwood (2,886 ha), and Homewood (260 ha, Homewood Mountain Resort--HMR) Creeks] on the west shore of the Lake Tahoe Basin, daily sediment (and nutrient for HMR) loads are determined and compared with those developed from estimated load-flow relationships developed from grab sampling data. Compared to the previously estimated sediment load-discharge relationships, measured curves were slightly below those estimated, though not significantly so at Blackwood and Ward Creeks in the period 1997-2002. Based on average daily flowrates determined from calibrated hydrologic modeling during the period 1994-2004, average daily flowrate frequency distributions per year are determined from which load reduction "crediting" towards TMDL targets can be evaluated. Despite seemingly similar estimated and measured sediment load-flow relationships, annual "estimated" loads exceeded those "measured" by about 40 % for Ward and Blackwood Creeks and over 300 times for HMR Creek. Similarly, though less dramatic, estimated annual nutrient loads at HMR Creek exceeded those measured by 1.7 and 6 times for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Such results indicate that actual measured load-flow relationships are likely necessary for realistic quantitative and defensible TMDL crediting. PMID:23435852
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vepa, R.
1976-01-01
The general behavior of unsteady airloads in the frequency domain is explained. Based on this, a systematic procedure is described whereby the airloads, produced by completely arbitrary, small, time-dependent motions of a thin lifting surface in an airstream, can be predicted. This scheme employs as raw materials any of the unsteady linearized theories that have been mechanized for simple harmonic oscillations. Each desired aerodynamic transfer function is approximated by means of an appropriate Pade approximant, that is, a rational function of finite degree polynomials in the Laplace transform variable. Although these approximations have many uses, they are proving especially valuable in the design of automatic control systems intended to modify aeroelastic behavior.
Computed and estimated pollutant loads, West Fork Trinity River, Fort Worth, Texas, 1997
McKee, Paul W.; McWreath, Harry C.
2001-01-01
In 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Trinity River Authority, did a study to estimate storm-runoff pollutant loads using two models?a deterministic model and a statistical model; the estimated loads were compared to loads computed from measured data for a large (118,000 acres) basin in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan area. Loads were computed and estimated for 12 properties and constituents in runoff from two 1997 storms at streamflow-gaging station 08048543 West Fork Trinity River at Beach Street in Fort Worth. Each model uses rainfall as a primary variable to estimate pollutant load. In addition to using point rainfall at the Beach Street station to estimate pollutant loads, areal-averaged rainfall for the basin was computed to obtain a more representative estimate of rainfall over the basin. Loads estimated by the models for the two storms, using both point and areal-averaged rainfall, generally did not compare closely to computed loads for the 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Both models overestimated loads more frequently than they underestimated loads. The models tended to yield similar estimates for the same property or constituent. In general, areal-averaged rainfall data yielded better estimates of loads than point rainfall data for both models. Neither the deterministic model nor the statistical model (both using areal-averaged rainfall) was consistently better at estimating loads. Several factors could account for the inability of the models to estimate loads closer to computed loads. Chief among them is the fact that neither model was designed for the specific application of this study.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Jack N.
1988-01-01
The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowe, W. S.; Petrarca, J. R.
1980-01-01
Changes to be made that provide increased accuracy and increased user flexibility in prediction of unsteady loadings caused by control surface motions are described. Analysis flexibility is increased by reducing the restrictions on the location of the downwash stations relative to the leading edge and the edges of the control surface boundaries. Analysis accuracy is increased in predicting unsteady loading for high Mach number analysis conditions through use of additional chordwise downwash stations. User guideline are presented to enlarge analysis capabilities of unusual wing control surface configurations. Comparative results indicate that the revised procedures provide accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reductions of 40 to 75 percent in computer usage cost required by previous versions of this program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Thomas C.
1961-01-01
Aerodynamic loads results have been obtained in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 for a 1/10-scale model of the upper three stages of the Scout vehicle. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range from -8 deg to 8 deg at an average test Reynolds number per foot of about 4.0 x 10(exp 6). Results indicated that the peak negative pressures associated with expansion corners at the nose and transition flare exhibit sizeable variations which occur over a relatively small Mach number range. The magnitude of the variations may cause the critical local loading condition for the full-scale vehicle to occur at a Mach number considerably lower than that at which the maximum dynamic pressure occurs in flight. The addition of protuberances simulating antennas and wiring conduits had slight, localized effects. The lift carryover from the nose and transition flare on the cylindrical portions of the model generally increased with an increase in Mach number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strasser, Matthew N.
Structural loading produced by an impacting vortex is a hazardous phenomenon that is encountered in numerous applications ranging from the destruction of residences by tornados to the chopping of tip vortices by rotors. Adequate design of structures to resist vortex-induced structural loading necessitates study of the phenomenon that control the structural loading produced by an impacting vortex. This body of work extends the current knowledge base of vortex-structure interaction by evaluating the influence of the relative vortex-to-structure size on the structural loading that the vortex produces. A computer model is utilized to directly simulate the two-dimensional impact of an impinging vortex with a slender, cylindrical structure. The vortex's tangential velocity profile (TVP) is defined by a normalization of the Vatistas analytical (TVP) which realistically replicates the documented spectrum of measured vortex TVPs. The impinging vortex's maximum tangential velocity is fixed, and the vortex's critical radius is incremented from one to one-hundred times the structure's diameter. When the impinging vortex is small, it interacts with vortices produced on the structure by the free stream, and maximum force coefficient amplitudes vary by more than 400% when the impinging vortex impacts the structure at different times. Maximum drag and lift force coefficient amplitudes reach asymptotic values as the impinging vortex's size increases that are respectively 94.77% and 10.66% less than maximum force coefficients produced by an equivalent maximum velocity free stream. The vortex produces maximum structural loading when its path is shifted above the structure's centerline, and maximum drag and lift force coefficients are respectively up to 4.80% and 34.07% greater than maximum force coefficients produced by an equivalent-velocity free stream. Finally, the dynamic load factor (DLF) concept is used to develop a generalized methodology to assess the dynamic amplification of
Not Available
1993-01-01
In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.
Using regression methods to estimate stream phosphorus loads at the Illinois River, Arkansas
Haggard, B.E.; Soerens, T.S.; Green, W.R.; Richards, R.P.
2003-01-01
The development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) requires evaluating existing constituent loads in streams. Accurate estimates of constituent loads are needed to calibrate watershed and reservoir models for TMDL development. The best approach to estimate constituent loads is high frequency sampling, particularly during storm events, and mass integration of constituents passing a point in a stream. Most often, resources are limited and discrete water quality samples are collected on fixed intervals and sometimes supplemented with directed sampling during storm events. When resources are limited, mass integration is not an accurate means to determine constituent loads and other load estimation techniques such as regression models are used. The objective of this work was to determine a minimum number of water-quality samples needed to provide constituent concentration data adequate to estimate constituent loads at a large stream. Twenty sets of water quality samples with and without supplemental storm samples were randomly selected at various fixed intervals from a database at the Illinois River, northwest Arkansas. The random sets were used to estimate total phosphorus (TP) loads using regression models. The regression-based annual TP loads were compared to the integrated annual TP load estimated using all the data. At a minimum, monthly sampling plus supplemental storm samples (six samples per year) was needed to produce a root mean square error of less than 15%. Water quality samples should be collected at least semi-monthly (every 15 days) in studies less than two years if seasonal time factors are to be used in the regression models. Annual TP loads estimated from independently collected discrete water quality samples further demonstrated the utility of using regression models to estimate annual TP loads in this stream system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paris, Alfonso Christopher
1997-11-01
This research is focused on parameter identification for the NASA F/A-18 HARV. The HARV is currently used in the high alpha research program at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. In this study the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability derivatives are estimated from flight data using the Maximum Likelihood method coupled with a Newton-Raphson minimization technique. The estimated aerodynamic model describes the aircraft dynamics over a range of angle of attack from 10sp° to 60sp°. The mathematical model is built using the traditional static and dynamic derivative buildup. Flight data examined in this analysis are from a variety of maneuvers including large amplitude multiple doublets, optimal inputs, pilot pitch stick inputs, and pilot stick and rudder inputs. Estimated trends are discussed and compared with available wind tunnel data. The resulting aerodynamic model from this study was used to create a full 6 degree of freedom F/A-18 HARV flight software simulation supporting pilot stick, rudder, and throttle inputs. This simulation is a central tool for a second study which examines the feasibility of employing Neural Networks to act as aircraft total normal force coefficient generators. A preliminary investigation is also made into the application of this technique to actual flight data collected during the F/A-18 HARV flight testing activities. These Neural Networks are trained with the Extended Back-Propagation Algorithm to predict aircraft total normal force coefficients based upon known control surface positions and appropriate aircraft states. Overall, these studies indicate the ability of Neural Networks to successfully model nonlinear aerodynamic functions as well as generalize when presented with flight telemetry never before encountered during the training process.
A revised load estimation procedure for the Susquehanna, Potomac, Patuxent, and Choptank rivers
Yochum, Steven E.
2000-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey?s Chesapeake Bay River Input Program has updated the nutrient and suspended-sediment load data base for the Susquehanna, Potomac, Patuxent, and Choptank Rivers using a multiple-window, center-estimate regression methodology. The revised method optimizes the seven-parameter regression approach that has been used historically by the program. The revised method estimates load using the fifth or center year of a sliding 9-year window. Each year a new model is run for each site and constituent, the most recent year is added, and the previous 4 years of estimates are updated. The fifth year in the 9-year window is considered the best estimate and is kept in the data base. The last year of estimation shows the most change from the previous year?s estimate and this change approaches a minimum at the fifth year. Differences between loads computed using this revised methodology and the loads populating the historical data base have been noted but the load estimates do not typically change drastically. The data base resulting from the application of this revised methodology is populated by annual and monthly load estimates that are known with greater certainty than in the previous load data base.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shuang; Lu, Huawei; Chen, Fu; Wu, Chuijie
2013-07-01
Effects of inlet boundary layer suction on the vortex structure and cascade loss in a highly loaded compressor cascade were investigated experimentally. Ink-track visualization was undertaken on cascade endwall and the blade surface. Ten traverse planes from upstream to downstream of the cascade in a rectangular wind tunnel were measured by an L-shaped five-hole probe. These tested planes revealed the process of emergence, development and decline of several principal vortices as well as the corresponding additional losses. Details of ink-track visualization displaying the secondary flow behavior of boundary layer upon endwall and blade surface assist to make judgment on vortex evolution. Inspection of the vortex structure revealed that highly loaded compressor was characterized by large-scale vortices in the endwall region. After suction, these vortices are all well organized and under control. Among all of them, passage vortex is most sensitive to the variation of the inlet boundary layer, and its main function is to spread low-energy fluid rather than to produce loss. On the other hand, a wall vortex and a concentrated shedding vortex take place inside and after the cascade, respectively, and engender considerable accompanying loss as they dissipate. The effects of inlet boundary layer suction on them are correspondingly weaker. About one forth of the total loss in the baseline cascade was eliminated when boundary layer suction flow rate reaches 2.5 % of the inlet mass flow. The feasibility of simplifying the suction system is also verified through this work.
Improved Aerodynamic Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Conceptual Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gern, Frank H.
2012-01-01
This paper provides an overview of ongoing efforts to develop, evaluate, and validate different tools for improved aerodynamic modeling and systems analysis of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configurations. Results are being presented for the evaluation of different aerodynamic tools including panel methods, enhanced panel methods with viscous drag prediction, and computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on proper prediction of aerodynamic loads for structural sizing as well as viscous drag prediction to develop drag polars for HWB conceptual design optimization. Data from transonic wind tunnel tests at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used as a reference data set in order to evaluate the accuracy of the aerodynamic tools. Triangularized surface data and Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) models of an X-48B 2% scale wind tunnel model were used to generate input and model files for the different analysis tools. In support of ongoing HWB scaling studies within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, an improved finite element based structural analysis and weight estimation tool for HWB center bodies is currently under development. Aerodynamic results from these analyses are used to provide additional aerodynamic validation data.
McNulty, Steven G; Cohen, Erika C; Moore Myers, Jennifer A; Sullivan, Timothy J; Li, Harbin
2007-10-01
Concern regarding the impacts of continued nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ecosystem health has prompted the development of critical acid load assessments for forest soils. A critical acid load is a quantitative estimate of exposure to one or more pollutants at or above which harmful acidification-related effects on sensitive elements of the environment occur. A pollutant load in excess of a critical acid load is termed exceedance. This study combined a simple mass balance equation with national-scale databases to estimate critical acid load and exceedance for forest soils at a 1-km(2) spatial resolution across the conterminous US. This study estimated that about 15% of US forest soils are in exceedance of their critical acid load by more than 250eqha(-1)yr(-1), including much of New England and West Virginia. Very few areas of exceedance were predicted in the western US. PMID:17629382
Estimating Critical Nitrogen Loads for a California Grassland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, S. B.
2007-12-01
Rigorously established critical nitrogen loads to protect biodiversity can be effective policy tools for addressing the insidious impacts of atmospheric N-deposition on ecosystems. This presentation describes methods for determining critical N-loads to a California grassland ecosystem by careful examination of the continuum from emissions, transport, atmospheric chemistry, deposition, ecosystem response, and impacts on biodiversity. Nutrient-poor soils derived from serpentinite bedrock support diverse native grasslands with dazzling wildflower displays and numerous threatened and endangered species, including the Bay checkerspot butterfly. Under moderate atmospheric N-deposition, these sites are rapidly invaded by introduced nitrophilous annual grasses in the absence of appropriate grazing or other management. Critical loads to this ecosystem have been approached by measurements of atmospheric concentrations of reactive N gases using Ogawa passive samplers and seasonally averaged deposition velocities. A regional-scale pollution gradient was complemented by a very local-scale pollution gradient extending a few hundred meters downwind of a heavily traveled road in a relatively unpolluted area. The local gradient suggests a critical load of 5 kg-N ha-1 a-1 or less. The passive monitor calculations largely agree with deposition calculated with the CMAQ model at 4 km scale. Emissions of NH3 from catalytic converters are the dominant N-source at the roadway site, and are a function of traffic volume and speed. Plant tissue N-content and 15N gradients support the existence of N-deposition gradients. The complexities of more detailed calculations and measurements specific to this ecosystem include seasonal changes in LAI, temporal coincidence of traffic emissions and stomatal conductance, surface moisture, changes in oxidized versus reduced N sources, and annual weather variation. The concept of a "critical cumulative load" may be appropriate over decadal time scales in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.
1981-01-01
The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed, based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis, and is verified against experimental data. The tile-gap pressure field is derived from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass-flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculation. Analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions and a possible shuttle TPS hardware modification are recommended.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.
1981-10-01
The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed, based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis, and is verified against experimental data. The tile-gap pressure field is derived from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass-flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculation. Analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions and a possible shuttle TPS hardware modification are recommended.
Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Pindado, Santiago; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel
2014-01-01
Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect. PMID:25544954
Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel
2014-01-01
Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect. PMID:25544954
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spangler, R. H.
1974-01-01
Tests were conducted in wind tunnels during April and May 1973, on a 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration and the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -8 degrees to +8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from -15 degrees to +40 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated. Tabulated pressure data were obtained for upper and lower wing surfaces and left and right vertical tail surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spangler, R. H.
1973-01-01
Tests were conducted in the NASA/ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels during April and May 1973, on an 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests IA9A, B and C on the integrated (launch) configuration and tests OA12A and C on the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -8 degrees to +8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from -15 degrees to +40 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees to as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spangler, R. H.
1974-01-01
Tests were conducted, during April and May 1973, on an 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration, and on the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -8 degrees to +8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from -15 degrees to +40 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effect of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spangler, R. H.
1973-01-01
Tests were conducted in wind tunnels during April and May 1973, on an 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration and on the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from minus 8 degrees to +8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from minus 15 degrees to +40 degrees and angles of sideslip from minus 10 degrees to +10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spangler, R. H.
1973-01-01
Tests were conducted in unitary plan wind tunnels on an 0.030-scale replica of the space shuttle vehicle configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration and tests on the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from minus 8 deg to plus 8 deg. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from minus 15 deg to plus 40 deg and angles of sideslip from minus 10 deg to plus 10 deg are dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.
2013-05-01
Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system- or site-specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian neural network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regard to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli load estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (load estimator (LOADEST), U.S. Geological Survey) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli load estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli load estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (threefold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that 6 of 13 factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; and biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that
Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote,Sila
2008-01-01
Both Federal and California state policymakers areincreasingly interested in developing more standardized and consistentapproaches to estimate and verify the load impacts of demand responseprograms and dynamic pricing tariffs. This study describes a statisticalanalysis of the performance of different models used to calculate thebaseline electric load for commercial buildings participating in ademand-response (DR) program, with emphasis onthe importance of weathereffects. During a DR event, a variety of adjustments may be made tobuilding operation, with the goal of reducing the building peak electricload. In order to determine the actual peak load reduction, an estimateof what the load would have been on the day of the event without any DRactions is needed. This baseline load profile (BLP) is key to accuratelyassessing the load impacts from event-based DR programs and may alsoimpact payment settlements for certain types of DR programs. We testedseven baseline models on a sample of 33 buildings located in California.These models can be loosely categorized into two groups: (1) averagingmethods, which use some linear combination of hourly load values fromprevious days to predict the load on the event, and (2) explicit weathermodels, which use a formula based on local hourly temperature to predictthe load. The models were tested both with and without morningadjustments, which use data from the day of the event to adjust theestimated BLP up or down.Key findings from this study are: - The accuracyof the BLP model currently used by California utilities to estimate loadreductions in several DR programs (i.e., hourly usage in highest 3 out of10 previous days) could be improved substantially if a morning adjustmentfactor were applied for weather-sensitive commercial and institutionalbuildings. - Applying a morning adjustment factor significantly reducesthe bias and improves the accuracy of all BLP models examined in oursample of buildings. - For buildings with low load
Estimation of Contaminant Loads from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to San Francisco Bay.
David, N; Gluchowski, D C; Leatherbarrow, J E; Yee, D; McKee, L J
2015-04-01
Contaminant concentrations from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River watershed were determined in water samples mainly during flood flows in an ongoing effort to describe contaminant loads entering San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Calculated PCB and total mercury loads during the 6-year observation period ranged between 3.9 and 19 kg/yr and 61 and 410 kg/yr, respectively. Long-term average PCB loads were estimated at 7.7 kg/yr and total mercury loads were estimated at 200 kg/yr. Also monitored were PAHs, PBDEs (two years of data), and dioxins/furans (one year of data) with average loads of 392, 11, and 0.15/0.014 (OCDD/OCDF) kg/yr, respectively. Organochlorine pesticide loads were estimated at 9.9 kg/yr (DDT), 1.6 kg/yr (chlordane), and 2.2 kg/yr (dieldrin). Selenium loads were estimated at 16 300 kg/yr. With the exception of selenium, all average contaminant loads described in the present study were close to or below regulatory load allocations established for North San Francisco Bay. PMID:26462078
Estimation of nonpoint source loadings of phosphorus for lakes in the Puget Sound region, Washington
Gilliom, Robert J.
1983-01-01
Control of eutrophication of lakes in watersheds undergoing development is facilitated by estimates of the amounts of phosphorus (P) that reach the lakes from areas under various types of land use. Using a mass-balance model, the author calculated P loadings from present-day P concentrations measured in lake water and from other easily measured physical characteristics in a total of 28 lakes in drainage basins that contain only forest and residential land. The loadings from background sources (forest-land drainage and bulk precipitation) to each of the lakes were estimated by methods developed in a previous study. Differences between estimated present-day P loadings and loadings from background sources were attributed to changes in land use. The mean increase in annual P yield resulting from conversion of forest to residential land use was 7 kilograms per square kilometer, not including septic tank system contributions. Calculated loadings from septic systems were found to correlate best with the number of near-shore dwellings around each lake in 1940. The regression equation expressing this relationship explained 36 percent of the sample variance. There was no significant correlation between estimated septic tank system P loadings and number of dwellings present in 1960 or 1970. The evidence indicates that older systems might contribute more phosphorus to lakes than newer systems, and that there may be substantial time lags between septic system installation and significant impacts on lake-water P concentrations. For lakes in basins that contain agricultural land, the P loading attributable to agriculture can be calculated as the difference between the estimated total loading and the sum of estimated loadings from nonagricultural sources. A comprehensive system for evaluating errors in all loading estimates is presented. The empirical relationships developed allow preliminary approximations of the cumulative impact development has had on P loading and the amounts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran
2013-01-01
This report presents a new method for estimating operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, and torques) acting on slender aerospace structures using distributed surface strains (unidirectional strains). The surface strain-sensing stations are to be evenly distributed along each span-wise strain-sensing line. A depth-wise cross section of the structure along each strain-sensing line can then be considered as an imaginary embedded beam. The embedded beam was first evenly divided into multiple small domains with domain junctures matching the strain-sensing stations. The new method is comprised of two steps. The first step is to determine the structure stiffness (bending or torsion) using surface strains obtained from a simple bending (or torsion) loading case, for which the applied bending moment (or torque) is known. The second step is to use the strain-determined structural stiffness (bending or torsion), and a new set of surface strains induced by any other loading case to calculate the associated operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, or torques). Performance of the new method for estimating operational loads was studied in light of finite-element analyses of several example structures subjected to different loading conditions. The new method for estimating operational loads was found to be fairly accurate, and is very promising for applications to the flight load monitoring of flying vehicles with slender wings.
Analysis for Regression Model Behavior by Sampling Strategy for Annual Pollutant Load Estimation.
Park, Youn Shik; Engel, Bernie A
2015-11-01
Water quality data are typically collected less frequently than streamflow data due to the cost of collection and analysis, and therefore water quality data may need to be estimated for additional days. Regression models are applicable to interpolate water quality data associated with streamflow data and have come to be extensively used, requiring relatively small amounts of data. There is a need to evaluate how well the regression models represent pollutant loads from intermittent water quality data sets. Both the specific regression model and water quality data frequency are important factors in pollutant load estimation. In this study, nine regression models from the Load Estimator (LOADEST) and one regression model from the Web-based Load Interpolation Tool (LOADIN) were evaluated with subsampled water quality data sets from daily measured water quality data sets for N, P, and sediment. Each water quality parameter had different correlations with streamflow, and the subsampled water quality data sets had various proportions of storm samples. The behaviors of the regression models differed not only by water quality parameter but also by proportion of storm samples. The regression models from LOADEST provided accurate and precise annual sediment and P load estimates using the water quality data of 20 to 40% storm samples. LOADIN provided more accurate and precise annual N load estimates than LOADEST. In addition, the results indicate that avoidance of water quality data extrapolation and availability of water quality data from storm events were crucial in annual pollutant load estimation using pollutant regression models. PMID:26641336
Glysson, G.D.; Gray, J.R.; Schwarz, G.E.
2001-01-01
This paper presents the results to-date from a continuing investigation into the differences between total suspended solids (TSS) and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data and the ramifications of using each type of data to estimate sediment loads. It compares estimates of annual suspended-sediment loads that were made using regression equations developed from paired TSS and SSC data, to annual loads computed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) using traditional techniques and SSC data. Load estimates were compared for 10 stations where sufficient TSS and SSC paired data were available to develop sediment-transport curves for the same time period that daily suspended-sediment records were available. Results of these analyses indicate that as the time frame over which the estimates were made increases, the overall errors associated with the estimates decreases with respect to loads computed using traditional USGS techniques. Using SSC data to compute loads tends to produce estimates closer to those computed by traditional techniques than those computed from TSS data. Loads computed from TSS data tend to be negatively biased with respect to those computed by traditional USGS techniques.
Bayesian inference of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandhu, Rimple; Poirel, Dominique; Pettit, Chris; Khalil, Mohammad; Sarkar, Abhijit
2016-07-01
A Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation algorithm is applied to investigate the influence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic loads on the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of a pitching airfoil in the transitional Reynolds number regime. At small angles of attack, laminar boundary layer trailing edge separation causes negative aerodynamic damping leading to the LCO. The fluid-structure interaction of the rigid, but elastically mounted, airfoil and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics is represented by two coupled nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations containing uncertain parameters and model approximation errors. Several plausible aerodynamic models with increasing complexity are proposed to describe the aeroelastic system leading to LCO. The likelihood in the posterior parameter probability density function (pdf) is available semi-analytically using the extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of the coupled nonlinear structural and unsteady aerodynamic model. The posterior parameter pdf is sampled using a parallel and adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior probability of each model is estimated using the Chib-Jeliazkov method that directly uses the posterior MCMC samples for evidence (marginal likelihood) computation. The Bayesian algorithm is validated through a numerical study and then applied to model the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads using wind-tunnel test data at various Reynolds numbers.
Estimating nutrient loadings using chemical mass balance approach.
Jain, C K; Singhal, D C; Sharma, M K
2007-11-01
The river Hindon is one of the important tributaries of river Yamuna in western Uttar Pradesh (India) and carries pollution loads from various municipal and industrial units and surrounding agricultural areas. The main sources of pollution in the river include municipal wastes from Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Ghaziabad urban areas and industrial effluents of sugar, pulp and paper, distilleries and other miscellaneous industries through tributaries as well as direct inputs. In this paper, chemical mass balance approach has been used to assess the contribution from non-point sources of pollution to the river. The river system has been divided into three stretches depending on the land use pattern. The contribution of point sources in the upper and lower stretches are 95 and 81% respectively of the total flow of the river while there is no point source input in the middle stretch. Mass balance calculations indicate that contribution of nitrate and phosphate from non-point sources amounts to 15.5 and 6.9% in the upper stretch and 13.1 and 16.6% in the lower stretch respectively. Observed differences in the load along the river may be attributed to uncharacterized sources of pollution due to agricultural activities, remobilization from or entrainment of contaminated bottom sediments, ground water contribution or a combination of these sources. PMID:17616829
Bawden, W.F.; Moosavi, M.; Hyett, A.J.
1996-12-01
In this paper a numerical formulation is presented for determination of the axial load along a cable bolt for a prescribed distribution of rock mass displacement. Results using the program CABLE indicate that during excavation, the load distribution that develops along an untensioned fully grouted cable bolt depends on three main factors: (i) the properties of the cable itself, (ii) the shear force that develops due to bond at the cable-grout interface (i.e. bond stiffness), and (iii) the distribution of rock mass displacement along the cable bolt length. in general, the effect of low modulus rock and mining induced stress decreases in reducing bond strength as determined from short embedment length tests, is reflected in the development of axial loads significantly less than the ultimate tensile capacity even for long cable bolts. However, the load distribution is also dependent on the deformation distribution in the reinforced rock mass. Higher cable bolt loads will be developed for a rock mass that behaves as a discontinuum, with deformation concentrated on a few fractures, than for one which behaves as a continuum, either due to a total lack of fractures or a very high fracture density. This result suggests that the stiffness of a fully grouted cable bolt is not simply a characteristic of the bolt and grout used, but also of the deformation behavior of the ground. In other words, the same combination of bolt and grout will be stiffer if the rock behaves as a discontinuum than if it behaves as a continuum. This paper also explains the laboratory test program used to determine the constitutive behavior of the Garford bulb and Nutcase cables bolts. Details of the test setup as well as the obtained results are summarized and discussed.
Nutrients and suspended sediments in streams and large rivers are two major issues facing state and federal agencies. Accurate estimates of nutrient and sediment loads are needed to assess a variety of important water-quality issues including total maximum daily loads, aquatic ec...
Distribution system load estimation and service restoration using a fuzzy set approach
Hanching Kuo; Yuanyih, Hsu . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)
1993-10-01
An approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed to estimate the loads in a distribution system and to devise a proper service restoration plan following a fault. To estimate the loads on branching points without real-time meters, typical hourly load patterns for several types of days are established for commercial, industrial, and residential customers. These load patterns are characterized by some linguistic variables using fuzzy set notations. The load of a branching point is estimated through fuzzy set operations. With the estimated loads at hand, a heuristic search method is proposed in order to reach a restoration plan with minimal number of switching operations in a short time. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy approach, load estimation and service restoration on a distribution system within the service area of Taipei West District Office of Taiwan Power Company are examined. It is found that, following a fault event, a proper restoration plan can be reached very efficiently. Therefore, the proposed approach can provide valuable information to distribution system operators in reaching a service restoration plan.
Tsai, M.F.; Tzou, Y.Y.
1997-03-01
In this paper, the authors design and implement an adaptive speed controller that can estimate load torque for ac induction motor drives employing a transputer-based parallel processing technique. The adaptive speed controller, which precedes the field-oriented control loop, consists of a two-degree-of-freedom controller and a feedforward load-torque compensator. The two-degree-of-freedom controller is designed by a pole-placement technique with polynomial manipulations. Its parameters are adjusted adaptively in terms of estimated model parameters. Estimating the model parameters entails a second-order least-squares estimator with constant trace to avoid estimator windup. The design of the feedforward compensator is based on an estimated load-torque model. Estimating the load torque entails a first-order least-squares estimator with variable forgetting factor and covariance resetting, the purposes of which are to detect any slow or sudden changes of torque disturbance, respectively. The resulting adaptive controller is implemented in parallel by IMS T800-20 transputers. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method in contending with varying load and torque disturbance.
Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance
Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke
2008-08-01
Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.
1985-01-01
The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.
Analysis of lake-bottom sediment to estimate historical nonpoint-source phosphorus loads
Juracek, K.E.
1998-01-01
Bottom sediment in Hillsdale Lake, Kansas, was analyzed to estimate the annual load of total phosphorus deposited in the lake from nonpoint sources. Topographic, bathymetric, and sediment-core data were used to estimate the total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment. Available streamflow and water-quality data were used to compute the mean annual mass of phosphorus (dissolved plus suspended) exiting the lake. The mean annual load of phosphorus added to the lake from point sources was estimated from previous studies. A simple mass balance then was used to compute the mean annual load of phosphorus from nonpoint sources. The total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment was estimated to be 924,000 kg, with a mean annual load of 62,000 kg. The mean annual mass of phosphorus exiting in the lake outflow was estimated to be about 8,000 kg. The mean annual loads of phosphorus added to the lake from point and nonpoint sources were estimated to be 5,000 and 65,000 kg, respectively. Thus, the contribution to the total mean annual phosphorus load in Hillsdale Lake is about 7 percent from point sources and about 93 percent from nonpoint sources.
Frost, L.R.; Mansue, L.J.
1984-01-01
A hydrograph-shifting method for estimating monthly and annual suspended-sediment loads was applied to suspended-sediment records for 12 streams in Illinois. Transport equations for each station were developed and synthetic sediment-discharge hydrographs were then generated by using these transport equations and records of daily streamflow. Hydrographs were shifted to measured values of daily sediment discharge selected to represent weekly, biweekly, and monthly sampling frequencies. Estimates of monthly suspended-sediment load ranged from 16 to 326 percent of measured values. Estimates of annual suspended-sediment loads ranged from 41 to 136 percent of measured values. (The method provides a reasonable means of estimating annual loads for most sites.) An experiment designed to measure the subjectivity of the method showed it to be more dependent on the particular days selected as control points than on the person applying the method. An evaluation of the effect of the length of record used to develop transport equations was not conclusive. Although standard errors of estimate showed no improvement, the comparison of estimated loads with measured loads showed slight improvement when 1 or 2 years of data were added to the data used to develop transport equations. (USGS)
Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.
2013-01-01
Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system or site specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regards to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli loads estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (LOADEST, USGS) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli loads estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli loads estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (three-fold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that six of thirteen factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that the LOADEST model
Gilliom, Robert J.
1980-01-01
For lakes in watersheds that include developed land, evaluation of eutrophication is facilitated by knowledge of changes in the lakes ' phosphorus concentration since development. A method is described for estimating background phosphorus concentration in lakes of the Puget Sound lowland, Washington. Using a mass-balance ' Vollenweider-type ' model, phosphorus loadings were calculated from present-day phosphorus concentrations measured in lake water and from easily measured physical characteristics for 24 lakes in undeveloped, or insignificantly developed, watersheds. Phosphorus loading from forest (undeveloped) land was derived for each lake as the difference between the calculated phosphorus loading directly to the lake 's surface and loading by bulk precipitation (estimated from other studies). Forest-land loading to each lake was converted to the yield (mass per unit area) of the forested part of the watershed. The phosphorus yield from forest land was related to annual runoff, and the regression equation expressing this relationship explained 73% of the sample variance. By applying that regression equation to the appropriate annual-runoff data, the yield of phosphorus from forest land can be estimated for any lake in the study area. Phosphorus loading from forested land then can be added to direct loading by bulk precipitation to estimate background phosphorus loading for each lake. By applying the mass-balance model to calculated background loadings, background total-phosphorus concentration can also be calculated for all lakes in the study area that have stable thermal stratification during the summer. The standard error of estimate for calculated background loadings and concentrations averages about 25%. (USGS)
Nonlinear applications of slender-body theory to missile aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemsch, M. J.
1985-01-01
An evaluation is made of six diverse examples of nonlinear treatments of slender body theory for the prediction of missile aerodynamic behavior. The cases in question are the application of area rule to store carriage design in the drag rise region, the estimation of destabilizing pitching moments associated with transonic projectiles, the pressure loadings on elliptical missile airframes, nonlinear control characteristics, roll control effectiveness in canard missile configurations, and novel approaches for vortex flow modeling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diederich, Franklin W; Foss, Kenneth A
1953-01-01
Charts and approximate formulas are presented for the estimation of aeroelastic effects on the spanwise lift distribution, lift-curve slope, aerodynamic center, and damping in roll of swept and unswept wings at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Some design considerations brought out by the results of this report are discussed.
Sensorless load torque estimation and passivity based control of buck converter fed DC motor.
Kumar, S Ganesh; Thilagar, S Hosimin
2015-01-01
Passivity based control of DC motor in sensorless configuration is proposed in this paper. Exact tracking error dynamics passive output feedback control is used for stabilizing the speed of Buck converter fed DC motor under various load torques such as constant type, fan type, propeller type, and unknown load torques. Under load conditions, sensorless online algebraic approach is proposed, and it is compared with sensorless reduced order observer approach. The former produces better response in estimating the load torque. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to select the appropriate control variables. Simulation and experimental results fully confirm the superiority of the proposed approach suggested in this paper. PMID:25893208
Sensorless Load Torque Estimation and Passivity Based Control of Buck Converter Fed DC Motor
Kumar, S. Ganesh; Thilagar, S. Hosimin
2015-01-01
Passivity based control of DC motor in sensorless configuration is proposed in this paper. Exact tracking error dynamics passive output feedback control is used for stabilizing the speed of Buck converter fed DC motor under various load torques such as constant type, fan type, propeller type, and unknown load torques. Under load conditions, sensorless online algebraic approach is proposed, and it is compared with sensorless reduced order observer approach. The former produces better response in estimating the load torque. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to select the appropriate control variables. Simulation and experimental results fully confirm the superiority of the proposed approach suggested in this paper. PMID:25893208
The composite method: An improved method for stream-water solute load estimation
Aulenbach, Brent T.; Hooper, R.P.
2006-01-01
The composite method is an alternative method for estimating stream-water solute loads, combining aspects of two commonly used methods: the regression-model method (which is used by the composite method to predict variations in concentrations between collected samples) and a period-weighted approach (which is used by the composite method to apply the residual concentrations from the regression model over time). The extensive dataset collected at the outlet of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) near Atlanta, Georgia, USA, was used in data analyses for illustrative purposes. A bootstrap (subsampling) experiment (using the composite method and the PMRW dataset along with various fixed-interval and large storm sampling schemes) obtained load estimates for the 8-year study period with a magnitude of the bias of less than 1%, even for estimates that included the fewest number of samples. Precisions were always <2% on a study period and annual basis, and <2% precisions were obtained for quarterly and monthly time intervals for estimates that had better sampling. The bias and precision of composite-method load estimates varies depending on the variability in the regression-model residuals, how residuals systematically deviated from the regression model over time, sampling design, and the time interval of the load estimate. The regression-model method did not estimate loads precisely during shorter time intervals, from annually to monthly, because the model could not explain short-term patterns in the observed concentrations. Load estimates using the period-weighted approach typically are biased as a result of sampling distribution and are accurate only with extensive sampling. The formulation of the composite method facilitates exploration of patterns (trends) contained in the unmodelled portion of the load. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fitzwater, LeRoy M.
2004-01-01
An estimate of the distribution of fatigue ranges or extreme loads for wind turbines may be obtained by separating the problem into two uncoupled parts, (1) a turbine specific portion, independent of the site and (2) a site-specific description of environmental variables. We consider contextually appropriate probability models to describe the turbine specific response for extreme loads or fatigue. The site-specific portion is described by a joint probability distribution of a vector of environmental variables, which characterize the wind process at the hub-height of the wind turbine. Several approaches are considered for combining the two portions to obtain an estimate of the extreme load, e.g., 50-year loads or fatigue damage. We assess the efficacy of these models to obtain accurate estimates, including various levels of epistemic uncertainty, of the turbine response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, Alexander; van de Boer, Anneke; Moene, Arnold; Vereecken, Harry
2014-05-01
We applied three approaches to estimate the zero-plane displacement through the aerodynamic measurement height (with and being the measurement height above the surface), and the aerodynamic roughness length , from single-level eddy covariance data. Two approaches (one iterative and one regression-based) were based on the universal function in the logarithmic wind profile and yielded an inherently simultaneous estimation of both and . The third approach was based on flux-variance similarity, where estimation of and consecutive estimation of are independent steps. Each approach was further divided into two methods differing either with respect to the solution technique (profile approaches) or with respect to the variable (variance of vertical wind and temperature, respectively). All methods were applied to measurements above a large, growing wheat field where a uniform canopy height and its frequent monitoring provided plausibility limits for the resulting estimates of time-variant and . After applying, for each approach, a specific data filtering that accounted for the range of conditions (e.g. stability) for which it is valid, five of the six methods were able to describe the temporal changes of roughness parameters associated with crop growth and harvest, and four of them agreed on to within 0.3 m most of the time. Application of the same methods to measurements with a more heterogeneous footprint consisting of fully-grown sugarbeet and a varying contribution of adjacent harvested fields exhibited a plausible dependence of the roughness parameters on the sugarbeet fraction. It also revealed that the methods producing the largest outliers can differ between site conditions and stability. We therefore conclude that when determining for canopies with unknown properties from single-level measurements, as is increasingly done, it is important to compare the results of a number of methods rather than rely on a single one. An ensemble average or median of the results
Estimation of a Historic Mercury Load Function for Lake Michigan using Dated Sediment Cores
Box cores collected between 1994 and 1996 were used to estimate historic mercury loads to Lake Michigan. Based on a kriging spatial interpolation of 54 Pb-210 dated cores, 228 metric tons of mercury are stored in the lake’s sediments (excluding Green Bay). To estimate the time ...
Assessment of uncertainty in constructed wetland treatment performance and load estimation methods.
Eskelinen, Riku; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn
2016-06-01
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are commonly established to reduce pollution load from different sources. In environmental permits, the load remaining after CW purification is typically estimated through concentration and flow measurements. This load monitoring is often carried out using long water quality sampling intervals, which causes uncertainty in load estimation. In this study, a large suspended solids (SSs) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dataset was used to quantify the uncertainty in load estimation at the inlet and outlet of a CW with different sampling frequencies (sampling every 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks). A method to reduce the uncertainty by dividing the CW flow duration curve (FDC) into four equal categories and assigning mean/median concentration for each category according to the measured concentrations was also tested. The results showed that estimated SS load was associated with considerable uncertainty and that this uncertainty increased with lower sampling frequency. The FDC method was able to decrease the uncertainty, but much still remained, especially when concentrations of the measured variable showed great variation. In such cases, sensor technology might be a feasible option for further reducing the uncertainty. PMID:27220504
Load Capacity Estimation of Foil Air Journal Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.
2000-01-01
This paper introduces a simple "Rule of Thumb" (ROT) method to estimate the load capacity of foil air journal bearings, which are self-acting compliant-surface hydrodynamic bearings being considered for Oil-Free turbo-machinery applications such as gas turbine engines. The ROT is based on first principles and data available in the literature and it relates bearing load capacity to the bearing size and speed through an empirically based load capacity coefficient, D. It is shown that load capacity is a linear function of bearing surface velocity and bearing projected area. Furthermore, it was found that the load capacity coefficient, D, is related to the design features of the bearing compliant members and operating conditions (speed and ambient temperature). Early bearing designs with basic or "first generation" compliant support elements have relatively low load capacity. More advanced bearings, in which the compliance of the support structure is tailored, have load capacities up to five times those of simpler designs. The ROT enables simplified load capacity estimation for foil air journal bearings and can guide development of new Oil-Free turbomachinery systems.
Methods for Estimating Annual Wastewater Nutrient Loads in the Southeastern United States
McMahon, Gerard; Tervelt, Larinda; Donehoo, William
2007-01-01
This report describes an approach for estimating annual total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads from point-source dischargers in the southeastern United States. Nutrient load estimates for 2002 were used in the calibration and application of a regional nutrient model, referred to as the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model. Loads from dischargers permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System were calculated using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System database and individual state databases. Site information from both state and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency databases, including latitude and longitude and monitored effluent data, was compiled into a project database. For sites with a complete effluent-monitoring record, effluent-flow and nutrient-concentration data were used to develop estimates of annual point-source nitrogen and phosphorus loads. When flow data were available but nutrient-concentration data were missing or incomplete, typical pollutant-concentration values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were used to estimate load. In developing typical pollutant-concentration values, the major factors assumed to influence wastewater nutrient-concentration variability were the size of the discharger (the amount of flow), the season during which discharge occurred, and the Standard Industrial Classification code of the discharger. One insight gained from this study is that in order to gain access to flow, concentration, and location data, close communication and collaboration are required with the agencies that collect and manage the data. In addition, the accuracy and usefulness of the load estimates depend on the willingness of the states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance and review for at least a subset of the load estimates that may be problematic.
Aulenbach, Brent T.
2013-01-01
A regression-model based approach is a commonly used, efficient method for estimating streamwater constituent load when there is a relationship between streamwater constituent concentration and continuous variables such as streamwater discharge, season and time. A subsetting experiment using a 30-year dataset of daily suspended sediment observations from the Mississippi River at Thebes, Illinois, was performed to determine optimal sampling frequency, model calibration period length, and regression model methodology, as well as to determine the effect of serial correlation of model residuals on load estimate precision. Two regression-based methods were used to estimate streamwater loads, the Adjusted Maximum Likelihood Estimator (AMLE), and the composite method, a hybrid load estimation approach. While both methods accurately and precisely estimated loads at the model’s calibration period time scale, precisions were progressively worse at shorter reporting periods, from annually to monthly. Serial correlation in model residuals resulted in observed AMLE precision to be significantly worse than the model calculated standard errors of prediction. The composite method effectively improved upon AMLE loads for shorter reporting periods, but required a sampling interval of at least 15-days or shorter, when the serial correlations in the observed load residuals were greater than 0.15. AMLE precision was better at shorter sampling intervals and when using the shortest model calibration periods, such that the regression models better fit the temporal changes in the concentration–discharge relationship. The models with the largest errors typically had poor high flow sampling coverage resulting in unrepresentative models. Increasing sampling frequency and/or targeted high flow sampling are more efficient approaches to ensure sufficient sampling and to avoid poorly performing models, than increasing calibration period length.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Napolitano, Marcello R.
1996-01-01
This progress report presents the results of an investigation focused on parameter identification for the NASA F/A-18 HARV. This aircraft was used in the high alpha research program at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. In this study the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability derivatives are estimated from flight data using the Maximum Likelihood method coupled with a Newton-Raphson minimization technique. The objective is to estimate an aerodynamic model describing the aircraft dynamics over a range of angle of attack from 5 deg to 60 deg. The mathematical model is built using the traditional static and dynamic derivative buildup. Flight data used in this analysis were from a variety of maneuvers. The longitudinal maneuvers included large amplitude multiple doublets, optimal inputs, frequency sweeps, and pilot pitch stick inputs. The lateral-directional maneuvers consisted of large amplitude multiple doublets, optimal inputs and pilot stick and rudder inputs. The parameter estimation code pEst, developed at NASA Dryden, was used in this investigation. Results of the estimation process from alpha = 5 deg to alpha = 60 deg are presented and discussed.
Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel
2014-11-01
The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.
Contributions of nitrogen to the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary: Updated loading estimates
Wieben, Christine M.; Baker, Ronald J.
2009-01-01
Based on the most recent and most accurate data available through 2008, the total load of nitrogen to the Barnegat Bay‐Little Egg Harbor (BB‐LEH) estuary from the most substantial sources (surface water, including surface‐water discharge and direct storm runoff; ground‐water discharge; and atmospheric deposition) is estimated to be 650,000 kilograms of nitrogen per year (kg N/yr). Surface water contributes 66 percent (431,000 kg N/yr), direct ground‐ water discharge accounts for 12 percent (78,000 kg N/yr), and atmospheric deposition accounts for 22 percent (141,000 kg N/yr). This new loading estimate was compared to a previously published estimate produced by using similar methodology but less current data through 1997. Findings of the present study include a substantially lower estimate of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the estuary compared to the previous estimate. The study results also offer further support of the relation between land use and nitrogen levels, and indicate that the Toms and Metedeconk River basins account for more than 60 percent of the nitrogen load to the estuary from surface‐water discharge. Differences between the two estimates can be attributed to both the use of more accurate and more recent data in the revised estimate, and actual changes in the magnitude of nitrogen loads from various sources. Gaps in available water‐quality and hydrologic data are documented, and additional analysis and monitoring that may improve the reliability of future nitrogen loading estimates are presented.
Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins.
He, Bin; Oki, Kazuo; Wang, Yi; Oki, Taikan
2009-01-01
Land cover changes around river basins have caused serious environmental degradation in global surface water areas, in which the direct monitoring and numerical modeling is inherently difficult. Prediction of pollutant loads is therefore crucial to river environmental management under the impact of climate change and intensified human activities. This research analyzed the relationship between land cover types estimated from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery and the potential annual pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. Then an empirical approach, which estimates annual pollutant loads directly from satellite imagery and hydrological data, was investigated. Six water quality indicators were examined, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The pollutant loads of TN, TP, SS, BOD, COD, and DO were then estimated for 30 river basins in Japan. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. These results may be useful in establishing total maximum annual pollutant loads and developing best management strategies for surface water pollution at river basin scale. PMID:19844047
Ocean tide loading effects on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penna, N. T.; Stewart, M. P.
2003-04-01
GPS data from continuously operating GPS receivers are usually made available on a daily basis in 24 hour data files, so it is convenient for the user to adopt 24 hour data processing sessions. Time series are often then formed from the discrete 24 hour solutions, used for such applications as crustal deformation monitoring or high quality coordinate determination. When heights are estimated, ocean tide loading is a systematic error source that must be considered. Since the principal ocean tide loading effects have periods close to 12 and 24 hours respectively, it has been suggested from previous works that if models for ocean tide loading are not applied when processing GPS data as 24 hour sessions, at worst a small increase in the variance of the height time series will result. This paper further investigates the effects of ocean tide loading on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series, by considering a year of both simulated and real data from sites in Australia, at which the ocean tide loading effects differ substantially. The effect of each of the individual constituents is also considered. The role of the tropospheric delay mitigation strategy is addressed, regarding the effect on the height estimates when ocean tide loading effects are modelled or ignored.
A method for variable pressure load estimation in spur and helical gear pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battarra, M.; Mucchi, E.
2016-08-01
A systematic procedure is proposed to determine variable excitation loads coming from pressure evolution inside tooth spaces in external gear pumps. Pressure force and torque are estimated with respect to the angular position of the gears, taking into account the phenomena that occur during the meshing course. In particular, the paper proposes a general methodology aiming at determining pressure force and torque components along the three coordinate axes and suitable to be applied on both spur and helical gear configuration. Firstly, the method to calculate pressure loads acting on a single tooth space during a complete revolution is given, then the total pressure force and torque loading each gear is obtained. Particular attention is addressed on the description of the helical gear scenario. As an example, the method is applied to a tandem gear pump, characterized by the presence of two stages, one with spur gears and one with helical gears. An experimentally assessed model to calculate the pressure ripple inside the tandem pump is described and the proposed procedure for pressure load estimation is applied. Eventually, the pressure loads estimated with the present procedure are compared with other estimation methods already described in the literature. The comparison shows that the present methodology is able to describe a wider range of phenomena involved in the meshing evolution and to determine all the pressure force and torque components applied to helical gears. The method gives suitable results to study the balancing and the dynamic behavior of gear pumps.
14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...
14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spangler, R. H.
1973-01-01
Tests were conducted in Unitary Plan wind tunnels on a 0.30 scale model of the space shuttle. Tests were conducted on the integrated configuration and on the isolated orbiter. The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from minus 8 degrees to plus 8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from minus 15 degrees to plus 40 degrees and angles of sideslip from minus 10 degrees to plus 10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were investigated.
Estimation of historic flows and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay, 1849-2011
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moftakhari, H. R.; Jay, D. A.; Talke, S. A.; Schoellhamer, D. H.
2015-10-01
River flow and sediment transport in estuaries influence morphological development over decadal and century time scales, but hydrological and sedimentological records are typically too short to adequately characterize long-term trends. In this study, we recover archival records and apply a rating curve approach to develop the first instrumental estimates of daily delta inflow and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay (1849-1929). The total sediment load is constrained using sedimentation/erosion estimated from bathymetric survey data to produce continuous daily sediment transport estimates from 1849 to 1955, the time period prior to sediment load measurements. We estimate that ∼55% (45-75%) of the ∼1500 ± 400 million tons (Mt) of sediment delivered to the estuary between 1849 and 2011 was the result of anthropogenic alteration in the watershed that increased sediment supply. Also, the seasonal timing of sediment flux events has shifted because significant spring-melt floods have decreased, causing estimated springtime transport (April 1st to June 30th) to decrease from ∼25% to ∼15% of the annual total. By contrast, wintertime sediment loads (December 1st to March 31st) have increased from ∼70% to ∼80%. A ∼35% reduction of annual flow since the 19th century along with decreased sediment supply has resulted in a ∼50% reduction in annual sediment delivery. The methods developed in this study can be applied to other systems for which unanalyzed historic data exist.
Estimation of nitrogen yields and loads from basins draining to Long Island Sound, 1988-98
Mullaney, J.R.; Schwarz, G.E.; Trench, E.C.T.
2002-01-01
Monitoring data on total nitrogen concentrations and streamflow were used to estimate annual nonpoint nitrogen loads for 1988?98 at 28 monitoring sites and 26 unmonitored basins that drain to Long Island Sound. The estimated total nitrogen yields at monitoring sites were used with basin characteristics and ancillary data to develop a multiple-linear regression equation to estimate nonpoint nitrogen yields from monitored and unmonitored basins. The estimated nonpoint nitrogen load to Long Island Sound from the basins studied ranged from 21 million pounds in water year 1995 to 50 million pounds in water year 1990. Statistically significant regression variables include time, population density, annual mean runoff (minus wastewater return flow), pointsource nitrogen yields, percentage of basin area classified as urban/recreational grasses, percentage of the basin classified as agricultural land, and the ratio of deciduous to total forest area. Nonpoint nitrogen loads from monitored and unmonitored basins were computed using the regression equation by setting the point-source nitrogen yields and wastewater return variables to zero, and incorporating streamflow information from index stations in or near unmonitored basins. Nonpoint nitrogen load information obtained through use of this equation was summarized by six Long Island Sound management zones. Estimates of nonpoint nitrogen loads from these basins can be improved by additional sampling, and by developing data on nitrogen loads from municipal wastewater-treatment facilities outside of Connecticut, compiling information on annual interbasin diversions of flow, studying instream losses of nitrogen, and analyzing the processing and storage of atmospheric nitrogen in different forest types.
PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishita, Sadao
2010-02-01
The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the
Confidence interval in estimating solute loads from a small forested catchment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tada, A.; Tanakamaru, H.
2007-12-01
The evaluation of uncertainty in estimating mass flux (load) from catchments plays the important role in the evaluation of chemical weathering, TMDLs implementation, and so on. Loads from catchments are estimated with many methods such as weighted average, rating curve, regression model, ratio estimator, and composite method, considering the appropriate sampling strategy. Total solute loads for 10 months from a small forested catchment were calculated based on the high-temporal resolution data and used in evaluating the validity of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of estimated loads. The effect of employing random and flow-stratified sampling methods on 95% CIs was also evaluated. Water quality data of the small forested catchment (12.8 ha) in Japan was collected every 15 minutes during 10 months in 2004 to acquire the 'true values' of solute loads. Those data were measured by the monitoring equipment using FIP (flow injection potentiometry) method with ion-selective electrodes. Measured indices were sodium, potassium, and chloride ion in the stream water. Water quantity (discharge rate) data were measured continuously by the V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. The Beale ratio estimator was employed as the estimation method of solute loads because it was known as unbiased estimator. The bootstrap method was also used for calculating the 95% confidence intervals of solute loads with 2,000 bootstrap replications. Both flow-stratified and random sampling was adopted as sampling strategy which extracted sample data sets from the entire observations. Discharge rate seemed to be a dominant factor of solute concentration because the catchment was almost undisturbed. The validity of 95% CIs were evaluated using the number of inclusion of 'true value' inside CIs out of 1,000 estimations derived from independently and iteratively extracted sample data sets. The number of samples in each data set was set to 5,500, 950, 470, 230, 40, and 20, equivalent to hourly, 6-hourly, 12
Estimation of heat load in waste tanks using average vapor space temperatures
Crowe, R.D.; Kummerer, M.; Postma, A.K.
1993-12-01
This report describes a method for estimating the total heat load in a high-level waste tank with passive ventilation. This method relates the total heat load in the tank to the vapor space temperature and the depth of waste in the tank. Q{sub total} = C{sub f} (T{sub vapor space {minus}} T{sub air}) where: C{sub f} = Conversion factor = (R{sub o}k{sub soil}{sup *}area)/(z{sub tank} {minus} z{sub surface}); R{sub o} = Ratio of total heat load to heat out the top of the tank (function of waste height); Area = cross sectional area of the tank; k{sub soil} = thermal conductivity of soil; (z{sub tank} {minus} z{sub surface}) = effective depth of soil covering the top of tank; and (T{sub vapor space} {minus} T{sub air}) = mean temperature difference between vapor space and the ambient air at the surface. Three terms -- depth, area and ratio -- can be developed from geometrical considerations. The temperature difference is measured for each individual tank. The remaining term, the thermal conductivity, is estimated from the time-dependent component of the temperature signals coming from the periodic oscillations in the vapor space temperatures. Finally, using this equation, the total heat load for each of the ferrocyanide Watch List tanks is estimated. This provides a consistent way to rank ferrocyanide tanks according to heat load.
Estimation of loads on human lumbar spine: A review of in vivo and computational model studies.
Dreischarf, Marcel; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Arjmand, Navid; Rohlmann, Antonius; Schmidt, Hendrik
2016-04-11
Spinal loads are recognized to play a causative role in back disorders and pain. Knowledge of lumbar spinal loads is required in proper management of various spinal disorders, effective risk prevention and assessment in the workplace, sports and rehabilitation, realistic testing of spinal implants as well as adequate loading in in vitro studies. During the last few decades, researchers have used a number of techniques to estimate spinal loads by measuring in vivo changes in the intradiscal pressure, body height, or forces and moments transmitted via instrumented vertebral implants. In parallel, computational models have been employed to estimate muscle forces and spinal loads under various static and dynamic conditions. Noteworthy is the increasing growth in latter computational investigations. This paper aims to review, compare and critically evaluate the existing literature on in vivo measurements and computational model studies of lumbar spinal loads to lay the foundation for future biomechanical studies. Towards this goal, the paper reviews in separate sections models dealing with static postures (standing, sitting, lying) as well as slow and fast dynamic activities (lifting, sudden perturbations and vibrations). The findings are helpful in many areas such as work place safety design and ergonomics, injury prevention, performance enhancement, implant design and rehabilitation management. PMID:26873281