Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 percent in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady aerodynamic model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -0.14 percent.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-Gi
2011-01-01
A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 % in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -.14 %.
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan
2012-02-01
In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei
1991-01-01
A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.
Semianalytic modeling of aerodynamic shapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, R. L.; Adams, M. S.
1985-01-01
Equations for the semianalytic representation of a class of surfaces that vary smoothly in cross-sectional shape are presented. Some methods of fitting together and superimposing such surfaces are described. A brief discussion is also included of the application of the theory in various contexts such as computerized lofting of aerodynamic surfaces and grid generation.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.
1992-01-01
A Fourier analysis method was developed to analyze harmonic forced-oscillation data at high angles of attack as functions of the angle of attack and its time rate of change. The resulting aerodynamic responses at different frequencies are used to build up the aerodynamic models involving time integrals of the indicial type. An efficient numerical method was also developed to evaluate these time integrals for arbitrary motions based on a concept of equivalent harmonic motion. The method was verified by first using results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional linear theories. The developed models for C sub L, C sub D, and C sub M based on high-alpha data for a 70 deg delta wing in harmonic motions showed accurate results in reproducing hysteresis. The aerodynamic models are further verified by comparing with test data using ramp-type motions.
A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2014-01-01
A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.
Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.
Aerodynamic Modeling for Aircraft in Unsteady Flight Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
2000-01-01
This report summarizes the activities in unsteady aerodynamic modeling and application of unsteady aerodynamic models to flight dynamics. A public on briefing was presented on July 21, 1999 at Langley Research Center.
Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1994-01-01
A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.
Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2011-01-01
Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward
1990-01-01
Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.
Rarefied-flow Shuttle aerodynamics model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1993-01-01
A rarefied-flow shuttle aerodynamic model spanning the hypersonic continuum to the free molecule-flow regime was formulated. The model development has evolved from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment conducted on the Orbiter since 1983. The complete model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as functions of angle-of-attack, body flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle-of-attack are presented, along with flight derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made with data from the Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book (OADDB), applicable wind-tunnel data, and recent flight data from STS-35 and STS-40. The flight-derived model aerodynamic force coefficient ratio is in good agreement with the wind-tunnel data and predicts the flight measured force coefficient ratios on STS-35 and STS-40. The model is not, however, in good agreement with the OADDB. But, the current OADDB does not predict the flight data force coefficient ratios of either STS-35 or STS-40 as accurately as the flight-derived model. Also, the OADDB differs with the wind-tunnel force coefficient ratio data.
Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1994-01-01
A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messina, Michael D.
1995-01-01
The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.
Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.
2011-01-01
Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.
Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
2003-01-01
This report summarizes the activities in aerodynamic model estimation from flight data. In addition to public presentations at the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conferences, two presentations at Boeing-Seattle were made during personal trips. These are discussed in the following: 1. Methodology of Aerodynamic Model Estimation from Flight Data. 2. Applications of F-16XL aerodynamic modeling. 3. Modeling of turbulence response. 5. Presentations at Boeing-Seattle. 6. Recommendations. and 7. References.
Reduced order models for nonlinear aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Bliss, Donald B.
1988-01-01
Reduced order models are needed for reliable, efficient and accurate prediction of aerodynamic forces to analyze fluid structure interaction problems in turbomachinery, including propfans. Here, a finite difference, time marching Navier-Stokes code is validated for unsteady airfoil motion by comparing results with those from classical potential flow. The Navier-Stokes code is then analyzed for calculation of primitive and exact estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with fluid-airfoil interaction. A variational formulation for the Euler equations and Navier-Stokes equations will be the basis for reduction of order through an eigenvector transformation.
Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.
1995-01-01
This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
Aerodynamics modeling of towed-cable dynamics
Kang, S.W.; Latorre, V.R.
1991-01-17
The dynamics of a cable/drogue system being towed by an orbiting aircraft has been investigated as a part of an LTWA project for the Naval Air Systems Command. We present here a status report on the tasks performed under Phase 1. We have accomplished the following tasks under Phase 1: A literature survey on the towed-cable motion problem has been conducted. While both static (steady-state) and dynamic (transient) analyses exist in the literature, no single, comprehensive analysis exists that directly addresses the present problem. However, the survey also reveals that, when judiciously applied, these past analyses can serve as useful building blocks for approaching the present problem. A numerical model that addresses several aspects of the towed-cable dynamic problem has been adapted from a Canadian underwater code for the present aerodynamic situation. This modified code, called TOWDYN, analyzes the effects of gravity, tension, aerodynamic drag, and wind. Preliminary results from this code demonstrate that the wind effects alone CAN generate the drogue oscillation behavior, i.e., the yo-yo'' phenomenon. This code also will serve as a benchmark code for checking the accuracy of a more general and complete R D'' model code. We have initiated efforts to develop a general R D model supercomputer code that also takes into account other physical factors, such as induced oscillations and bending stiffness. This general code will be able to evaluate the relative impacts of the various physical parameters, which may become important under certain conditions. This R D code will also enable development of a simpler operational code that can be used by the Naval Air personnel in the field.
Unsteady Nonlinear Aerodynamic Response Modeling: A Data-Priven Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemati, Maziar; Dawson, Scott; Rowley, Clarence
2014-11-01
Current real-time-capable aerodynamic modeling strategies are greatly challenged in the face of aggressive flight maneuvers, such as rapid pitching motions that lead to pronounced leading-edge vortex shedding and aerodynamic stall. The inability to accurately and robustly predict, in a low-dimensional manner, the nonlinear aerodynamic force/moment response of an aircraft to sharp maneuvers puts practical approaches for aerodynamic optimization and control out of reach. Here, we propose a parameter-varying model to approximate the response of an airfoil to arbitrarily prescribed rapid pitching kinematics. An output-minimization procedure is invoked to identify the nonlinear model from input-output data gathered from direct numerical fluid dynamics simulations. The resulting nonlinear models have noteworthy predictive capabilities for arbitrary pitching maneuvers that span a broad range of operating regimes, thus making the models especially useful for aerodynamic optimization and real-time control and simulation.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling and active aeroelastic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.
Object-Oriented MDAO Tool with Aeroservoelastic Model Tuning Capability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley; Lung, Shun-fat
2008-01-01
An object-oriented multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization (MDAO) tool has been developed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to automate the design and analysis process and leverage existing commercial as well as in-house codes to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. Once the structural analysis discipline is finalized and integrated completely into the MDAO process, other disciplines such as aerodynamics and flight controls will be integrated as well. Simple and efficient model tuning capabilities based on optimization problem are successfully integrated with the MDAO tool. More synchronized all phases of experimental testing (ground and flight), analytical model updating, high-fidelity simulations for model validation, and integrated design may result in reduction of uncertainties in the aeroservoelastic model and increase the flight safety.
Mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics in flight dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.; Schiff, L. B.
1984-01-01
Basic concepts involved in the mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic response of an aircraft to arbitrary maneuvers are reviewed. The original formulation of an aerodynamic response in terms of nonlinear functionals is shown to be compatible with a derivation based on the use of nonlinear functional expansions. Extensions of the analysis through its natural connection with ideas from bifurcation theory are indicated.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.
1992-01-01
The method based on Fourier functional analysis and indicial formulation for aerodynamic modeling as proposed by Chin and Lan is extensively examined and improved for the purpose of general applications to realistic airplane configurations. Improvement is made to automate the calculation of model coefficients, and to evaluate more accurately the indicial integral. Test data of large angle-of-attack ranges for two different models, a 70 deg. delta wing and an F-18 model, are used to further verify the applicability of Fourier functional analysis and validate the indicial formulation. The results show that the general expression for harmonic motions throughout a range of k is capable of accurately modeling the nonlinear responses with large phase lag except in the region where an inconsistent hysteresis behavior from one frequency to the other occurs. The results by the indicial formulation indicate that more accurate results can be obtained when the motion starts from a low angle of attack where hysteresis effect is not important.
Unsteady aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Chien-Chung; Lan, C. E.; Brandon, Jay
1993-01-01
Forced oscillation tests over a large angle-of-attack range for an F-18 model are conducted in the NASA Langley 12-foot low-speed tunnel. The resulting dynamic longitudinal data are analyzed with an unsteady aerodynamic modeling method based on Fourier functional analysis and the indicial formulation. The method is extensively examined and improved to automate the calculation of model coefficients, and to evaluate more accurately the indicial integral. The results indicate that the general model equation obtained from harmonic test data in a range of reduced frequency is capable of accurately modeling the nonlinear responses with large hysteresis effect, except in the region where a delayed flow reattachment occurs at low angles of attack in down strokes. The indicial formulation is used to calculate the response to harmonic motion, harmonic ramp motion, constant-rate pitching motion and smaller-amplitude harmonic motion. The results show that more accurate results can be obtained when the motion starts from a low angle of attack where hysteresis effect is not important.
Modeling Aerodynamically Generated Sound of Helicopter Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.
2002-01-01
A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and dipole source terms of the FW-H equation account for the thickness and loading noise, respectively. Bladevortex-interaction noise and broadband noise are important types of loading noise, hence much research has been directed toward the accurate modeling of these noise mechanisms. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H equation has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparisons of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems. Finally, significant progress has been made incorporating the rotor noise models into full vehicle noise prediction tools.
CFD Modeling of Launch Vehicle Aerodynamic Heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tashakkor, Scott B.; Canabal, Francisco; Mishtawy, Jason E.
2011-01-01
The Loci-CHEM 3.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle aerodynamic heating. CFD has been used to predict both ascent and stage reentry environments and has been validated against wind tunnel tests and the Ares I-X developmental flight test. Most of the CFD predictions agreed with measurements. On regions where mismatches occurred, the CFD predictions tended to be higher than measured data. These higher predictions usually occurred in complex regions, where the CFD models (mainly turbulence) contain less accurate approximations. In some instances, the errors causing the over-predictions would cause locations downstream to be affected even though the physics were still being modeled properly by CHEM. This is easily seen when comparing to the 103-AH data. In the areas where predictions were low, higher grid resolution often brought the results closer to the data. Other disagreements are attributed to Ares I-X hardware not being present in the grid, as a result of computational resources limitations. The satisfactory predictions from CHEM provide confidence that future designs and predictions from the CFD code will provide an accurate approximation of the correct values for use in design and other applications
Model-independent particle accelerator tuning
Scheinker, Alexander; Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Larry
2013-10-21
We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: 1) It has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, 2) It gives known bounds on parameter update rates, 3) We give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and 4) It has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme for uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multi-particle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of twenty two quadrupole magnets and two RF buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and RF phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.
Aerodynamic measurements concerned with a turret model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raman, K. R.
1981-01-01
An experimental investigation was carried out in the 14 by 14 ft Ames transonic wind tunnel on a turret model. The aerodynamic parameters measured were steady and unsteady pressures (static and total fluid pressures), local mean velocities, and local mean densities at selected locations along the optical beam path for the azimuth look angles of 90, 120, and 150 degrees from the turret. The test stream Mach numbers considered are 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75, and the Reynolds number per meter is in the range of 10 million. The results indicate that severe optical degradation can be expected at aft look azimuth, angles, this degradation in optical performance increases as the azimuth angle is increased. The ratio of rms static pressure to the local mean static pressure peaks in the range of 0.07 to 0.12 and the ratio of rms total pressure to the local mean total pressure peaks in the range of 0.02 to 0.04. These values depend on the Mach number and the aft look azimuth angle. The scale lengths obtained from correlation considerations are also presented.
Aerodynamic Effects and Modeling of Damage to Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, Gautam H.
2008-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to measure the aerodynamic effects of damage to lifting and stability/control surfaces of a commercial transport aircraft configuration. The modeling of such effects is necessary for the development of flight control systems to recover aircraft from adverse, damage-related loss-of-control events, as well as for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics from flight data under such conditions. Damage in the form of partial or total loss of area was applied to the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. Aerodynamic stability and control implications of damage to each surface are presented, to aid in the identification of potential boundaries in recoverable stability or control degradation. The aerodynamic modeling issues raised by the wind tunnel results are discussed, particularly the additional modeling requirements necessitated by asymmetries due to damage, and the potential benefits of such expanded modeling.
Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1997-01-01
A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.
Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1998-01-01
A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Precup, Radu-Emil
2016-05-01
This paper presents the design and experimental validation of a new model-free data-driven iterative reference input tuning (IRIT) algorithm that solves a reference trajectory tracking problem as an optimization problem with control signal saturation constraints and control signal rate constraints. The IRIT algorithm design employs an experiment-based stochastic search algorithm to use the advantages of iterative learning control. The experimental results validate the IRIT algorithm applied to a non-linear aerodynamic position control system. The results prove that the IRIT algorithm offers the significant control system performance improvement by few iterations and experiments conducted on the real-world process and model-free parameter tuning.
Model-independent particle accelerator tuning
Scheinker, Alexander; Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Larry
2013-10-21
We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: 1) It has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, 2) It gives known bounds on parameter update rates, 3) We give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and 4) It has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme formore » uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multi-particle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of twenty two quadrupole magnets and two RF buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and RF phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.« less
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.
1977-01-01
A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.
Some aerodynamic considerations related to wind tunnel model surface definition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gloss, B. B.
1980-01-01
The aerodynamic considerations related to model surface definition are examined with particular emphasis in areas of fabrication tolerances, model surface finish, and orifice induced pressure errors. The effect of model surface roughness texture on skin friction is also discussed. It is shown that at a given Reynolds number, any roughness will produce no skin friction penalty.
A Philosopher's Look at Model-Tuning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, M.
2014-12-01
Model tuning is unavoidable in climate models. This raises the question whether data used in tuning or calibration can also be used in evaluating a model's performance or skill. In the philosophical literature this question is discussed as the problem of old evidence: is a model more highly confirmed by novel evidence predicted by the model or is evidence that is accommodated by the model during model construction equally as confirmatory of the model? In this paper I present several conditions under which a weak predictivism holds—conditions under which predictive success is more highly confirmatory of a model's empirical performance than mere accommodation—and argue that these conditions are met in the case of climate modeling. In particular, I argue that predictive success can be evidence that a model has certain 'good-making' features that are 'epistemically opaque'—that is, the presence of which is difficult to detect otherwise. I also propose a Bayesian formulation of the predictivist thesis.
Aerodynamic-structural model of offwind yacht sails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mairs, Christopher M.
An aerodynamic-structural model of offwind yacht sails was created that is useful in predicting sail forces. Two sails were examined experimentally and computationally at several wind angles to explore a variety of flow regimes. The accuracy of the numerical solutions was measured by comparing to experimental results. The two sails examined were a Code 0 and a reaching asymmetric spinnaker. During experiment, balance, wake, and sail shape data were recorded for both sails in various configurations. Two computational steps were used to evaluate the computational model. First, an aerodynamic flow model that includes viscosity effects was used to examine the experimental flying shapes that were recorded. Second, the aerodynamic model was combined with a nonlinear, structural, finite element analysis (FEA) model. The aerodynamic and structural models were used iteratively to predict final flying shapes of offwind sails, starting with the design shapes. The Code 0 has relatively low camber and is used at small angles of attack. It was examined experimentally and computationally at a single angle of attack in two trim configurations, a baseline and overtrimmed setting. Experimentally, the Code 0 was stable and maintained large flow attachment regions. The digitized flying shapes from experiment were examined in the aerodynamic model. Force area predictions matched experimental results well. When the aerodynamic-structural tool was employed, the predictive capability was slightly worse. The reaching asymmetric spinnaker has higher camber and operates at higher angles of attack than the Code 0. Experimentally and computationally, it was examined at two angles of attack. Like the Code 0, at each wind angle, baseline and overtrimmed settings were examined. Experimentally, sail oscillations and large flow detachment regions were encountered. The computational analysis began by examining the experimental flying shapes in the aerodynamic model. In the baseline setting, the
Evaluation of thermographic phosphor technology for aerodynamic model testing
Cates, M.R.; Tobin, K.W.; Smith, D.B.
1990-08-01
The goal for this project was to perform technology evaluations applicable to the development of higher-precision, higher-temperature aerodynamic model testing at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahmoa, Tennessee. With the advent of new programs for design of aerospace craft that fly at higher speeds and altitudes, requirements for detailed understanding of high-temperature materials become very important. Model testing is a natural and critical part of the development of these new initiatives. The well-established thermographic phosphor techniques of the Applied Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are highly desirable for diagnostic evaluation of materials and aerodynamic shapes as studied in model tests. Combining this state-of-the-art thermographic technique with modern, higher-temperature models will greatly improve the practicability of tests for the advanced aerospace vehicles and will provide higher precision diagnostic information for quantitative evaluation of these tests. The wavelength ratio method for measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models was demonstrated in measurements made for this project. In particular, it was shown that the appropriate phosphors could be selected for the temperature range up to {approximately}700 {degree}F or higher and emission line ratios of sufficient sensitivity to measure temperature with 1% precision or better. Further, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional image- processing methods, using standard hardware, can be successfully applied to surface thermography of aerodynamic models for AEDC applications.
ON AERODYNAMIC AND BOUNDARY LAYER RESISTANCES WITHIN DRY DEPOSITION MODELS
There have been many empirical parameterizations for the aerodynamic and boundary layer resistances proposed in the literature, e.g. those of the Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model (MLM) used with the nation-wide dry deposition network. Many include arbitrary constants or par...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.
1985-01-01
The aeromechanical stability of a helicopter in ground resonance was analyzed, by incorporating five different aerodynamic models in the coupled rotor/fuselage analysis. The sensitivity of the results to changes in aerodynamic modelling was carefully examined. The theoretical results were compared with experimental data and useful conclusions are drawn regarding the role of aerodynamic modeling on this aeromechanical stability problem. The aerodynamic model which provided the best all around correlation with the experimental data was identified.
Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav
2011-01-01
Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.
Prediction of Complex Aerodynamic Flows with Explicit Algebraic Stress Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abid, Ridha; Morrison, Joseph H.; Gatski, Thomas B.; Speziale, Charles G.
1996-01-01
An explicit algebraic stress equation, developed by Gatski and Speziale, is used in the framework of K-epsilon formulation to predict complex aerodynamic turbulent flows. The nonequilibrium effects are modeled through coefficients that depend nonlinearly on both rotational and irrotational strains. The proposed model was implemented in the ISAAC Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented which clearly demonstrate that explicit algebraic stress models can predict the correct response to nonequilibrium flow.
Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlig, Daniel V.
exhibited quasi-steady effects caused by small variations in the angle of attack. The quasi-steady effects, or small unsteady effects, caused variations in the aerodynamic characteristics (particularly incrementing the lift curve), and the magnitude of the influence depended on the angle-of-attack rate. In addition to nominal gliding flight, MAVs in general are capable of flying over a wide flight envelope including agile maneuvers such as perching, hovering, deep stall and maneuvering in confined spaces. From the captured motion trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics during the numerous unsteady flights were gathered without the complexity required for unsteady wind tunnel tests. Experimental results for the MAVs show large flight envelopes that included high angles of attack (on the order of 90 deg) and high angular rates, and the aerodynamic coefficients had dynamic stall hysteresis loops and large values. From the large number of unsteady high angle-of-attack flights, an aerodynamic modeling method was developed and refined for unsteady MAV flight at high angles of attack. The method was based on a separation parameter that depended on the time history of the angle of attack and angle-of-attack rate. The separation parameter accounted for the time lag inherit in the longitudinal characteristics during dynamic maneuvers. The method was applied to three MAVs and showed general agreement with unsteady experimental results and with nominal gliding flight results. The flight tests with the MAVs indicate that modern motion tracking systems are capable of capturing the flight trajectories, and the captured trajectories can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. From the captured trajectories, low Reynolds number MAV flight is explored in both nominal gliding flight and unsteady high angle-of-attack flight. Building on the experimental results, a modeling method for the longitudinal characteristics is developed that is applicable to the full flight
A quasi-steady aerodynamic model for flapping flight with improved adaptability.
Lee, Y J; Lua, K B; Lim, T T; Yeo, K S
2016-01-01
An improved quasi-steady aerodynamic model for flapping wings in hover has been developed. The purpose of this model is to yield rapid predictions of lift generation and efficiency during the design phase of flapping wing micro air vehicles. While most existing models are tailored for a specific flow condition, the present model is applicable over a wider range of Reynolds number and Rossby number. The effects of wing aspect ratio and taper ratio are also considered. The model was validated by comparing against numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Wings with different geometries undergoing distinct kinematics at varying flow conditions were tested during validation. Generally, model predictions of mean force coefficients were within 10% of numerical simulation results, while the deviations in power coefficients could be up to 15%. The deviation is partly due to the model not taking into consideration the initial shedding of the leading-edge vortex and wing-wake interaction which are difficult to account under quasi-steady assumption. The accuracy of this model is comparable to other models in literature, which had to be specifically designed or tuned to a narrow range of operation. In contrast, the present model has the advantage of being applicable over a wider range of flow conditions without prior tuning or calibration, which makes it a useful tool for preliminary performance evaluations. PMID:27121547
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.
2013-01-01
Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.
Assessment of aerodynamic and dynamic models in a comprehensive analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1985-01-01
The history, status, and lessons of a comprehensive analysis for rotorcraft are reviewed. The development, features, and capabilities of the analysis are summarized, including the aerodynamic and dynamic models that were used. Examples of correlation of the computational results with experimental data are given, extensions of the analysis for research in several topics of helicopter technology are discussed, and the experiences of outside users are summarized. Finally, the required capabilities and approach for the next comprehensive analysis are described.
Comparison of two numerical techniques for aerodynamic model identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verhaegen, M. H.
1987-01-01
An algorithm, called the Minimal Residual QR algorithm, is presented to solve subset regression problems. It is shown that this scheme can be used as a numerically reliable implementation of the stepwise regression technique, which is widely used to identify an aerodynamic model from flight test data. This capability as well as the numerical superiority of this scheme over the stepwise regression technique is demonstrated in an experimental simulation study.
An evaluation of aerodynamics modeling of spinning light airplanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pamadi, B. N.; Taylor, L. W., Jr.
1983-01-01
This paper extends the application of the modified strip theory for wing body combination of a spinning light airplane reported earlier. In addition, to account for the contribution of the tail plane, the shielding effect on vertical tail under steady state spin condition is modeled from basic aerodynamic considerations. The results of this combined analysis, presented for some light airplane configurations, are shown to be in good agreement with spin tunnel rotary balance test data.
Computational fluid dynamics framework for aerodynamic model assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallespin, D.; Badcock, K. J.; Da Ronch, A.; White, M. D.; Perfect, P.; Ghoreyshi, M.
2012-07-01
This paper reviews the work carried out at the University of Liverpool to assess the use of CFD methods for aircraft flight dynamics applications. Three test cases are discussed in the paper, namely, the Standard Dynamic Model, the Ranger 2000 jet trainer and the Stability and Control Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle. For each of these, a tabular aerodynamic model based on CFD predictions is generated along with validation against wind tunnel experiments and flight test measurements. The main purpose of the paper is to assess the validity of the tables of aerodynamic data for the force and moment prediction of realistic aircraft manoeuvres. This is done by generating a manoeuvre based on the tables of aerodynamic data, and then replaying the motion through a time-accurate computational fluid dynamics calculation. The resulting forces and moments from these simulations were compared with predictions from the tables. As the latter are based on a set of steady-state predictions, the comparisons showed perfect agreement for slow manoeuvres. As manoeuvres became more aggressive some disagreement was seen, particularly during periods of large rates of change in attitudes. Finally, the Ranger 2000 model was used on a flight simulator.
How Bumps on Whale Flippers Delay Stall: An Aerodynamic Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Nierop, Ernst A.; Alben, Silas; Brenner, Michael P.
2008-02-01
Wind tunnel experiments have shown that bumps on the leading edge of model humpback whale flippers cause them to “stall” (i.e., lose lift dramatically) more gradually and at a higher angle of attack. Here we develop an aerodynamic model which explains the observed increase in stall angle. The model predicts that as the amplitude of the bumps is increased, the lift curve flattens out, leading to potentially desirable control properties. We find that stall delay is insensitive to the wavelength of the bumps, in accordance with experimental observations.
Modeling of turbulent separated flows for aerodynamic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1983-01-01
Steady, high speed, compressible separated flows modeled through numerical simulations resulting from solutions of the mass-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on benchmark flows that represent simplified (but realistic) aerodynamic phenomena. These include impinging shock waves, compression corners, glancing shock waves, trailing edge regions, and supersonic high angle of attack flows. A critical assessment of modeling capabilities is provided by comparing the numerical simulations with experiment. The importance of combining experiment, numerical algorithm, grid, and turbulence model to effectively develop this potentially powerful simulation technique is stressed.
Unsteady aerodynamic models for agile flight at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunton, Steven L.
This work develops low-order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a wing in response to agile maneuvers at low Reynolds number. Model performance is assessed on the basis of accuracy across a range of parameters and frequencies as well as of computational efficiency and compatibility with existing control techniques and flight dynamic models. The result is a flexible modeling procedure that yields accurate, low-dimensional, state-space models. The modeling procedures are developed and tested on direct numerical simulations of a two-dimensional flat plate airfoil in motion at low Reynolds number, Re=100, and in a wind tunnel experiment at the Illinois Institute of Technology involving a NACA 0006 airfoil pitching and plunging at Reynolds number Re=65,000. In both instances, low-order models are obtained that accurately capture the unsteady aerodynamic forces at all frequencies. These cases demonstrate the utility of the modeling procedure developed in this thesis for obtaining accurate models for different geometries and Reynolds numbers. Linear reduced-order models are constructed from either the indicial response (step response) or realistic input/output maneuvers using a flexible modeling procedure. The method is based on identifying stability derivatives and modeling the remaining dynamics with the eigensystem realization algorithm. A hierarchy of models is developed, based on linearizing the flow at various operating conditions. These models are shown to be accurate and efficient for plunging, pitching about various points, and combined pitch and plunge maneuvers, at various angle of attack and Reynolds number. Models are compared against the classical unsteady aerodynamic models of Wagner and Theodorsen over a large range of Strouhal number and reduced frequency for a baseline comparison. Additionally, state-space representations are developed for Wagner's and Theodorsen's models, making them compatible with modern control-system analysis. A number of
Turbulence modeling in aerodynamic shear flows - Status and problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.
1991-01-01
This paper briefly summarizes the status and problems of turbulence modeling for aerodynamical applications. For complex flows the 'approach of choice' is (increasingly) full second-order (Reynolds stress equation) closure. These closures have not yet developed to anywhere near their full potential, significant further research is required especially regarding length-scale equations, representation of pressure-strain correlations, and wall region treatments. Recent developments in computer capability, algorithms, numerical simulations, theory and quantitative flow visualization should assist in and hasten this research. Several problem areas such as shock interaction and discrete dynamic instabilities of turbulent flows may require mega-to-large eddy simulation or theoretical adjuncts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian
2015-01-01
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.
Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.
2016-01-01
Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.
1999-01-01
The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.
Reduced-Order Aerodynamic Model and Its Application to a Nonlinear Aeroelastic System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Deman; Conner, Mark D.; Dowell, Earl H.
1998-01-01
Starting from a finite state model for a two-dimensional aerodynamic flow over an airfoil, the eigenmodes of the aerodynamic flow are determined. Using a small number of these aerodynamic eigenmodes, ie., a reduced-order model, the aeroelastic model is formed by coupling them to a typical section structural model with a trailing-edge flap. A free-play nonlinearity is modeled. Results are shown from the finite state model, the reduced-order model, and previous theoretical and experimental work. All results are in good agreement.
Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brentner, Kenneth S.
2000-01-01
A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Modeling in Roll for the NASA Generic Transport Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Frink, Neal T.
2012-01-01
Reducing the impact of loss-of-control conditions on commercial transport aircraft is a primary goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. One aspect in developing the supporting technologies is to improve the aerodynamic models that represent these adverse conditions. Aerodynamic models appropriate for loss of control conditions require a more general mathematical representation to predict nonlinear unsteady behaviors. In this paper, a more general mathematical model is proposed for the subscale NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) that covers both low and high angles of attack. Particular attention is devoted to the stall region where full-scale transports have demonstrated a tendency for roll instability. The complete aerodynamic model was estimated from dynamic wind-tunnel data. Advanced computational methods are used to improve understanding and visualize the flow physics within the region where roll instability is a factor.
Modeling the Launch Abort Vehicle's Subsonic Aerodynamics from Free Flight Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartman, Christopher L.
2010-01-01
An investigation into the aerodynamics of the Launch Abort Vehicle for NASA's Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle in the subsonic, incompressible flow regime was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. Time histories of center of mass position and Euler Angles are captured using photogrammetry. Time histories of the wind tunnel's airspeed and dynamic pressure are recorded as well. The primary objective of the investigation is to determine models for the aerodynamic yaw and pitch moments that provide insight into the static and dynamic stability of the vehicle. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC) is used to determine the aerodynamic model structure and estimate model parameters. Aerodynamic models for the aerodynamic body Y and Z force coefficients, and the pitching and yawing moment coefficients were identified.
Model-based fault detection and identification with online aerodynamic model structure selection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombaerts, T.
2013-12-01
This publication describes a recursive algorithm for the approximation of time-varying nonlinear aerodynamic models by means of a joint adaptive selection of the model structure and parameter estimation. This procedure is called adaptive recursive orthogonal least squares (AROLS) and is an extension and modification of the previously developed ROLS procedure. This algorithm is particularly useful for model-based fault detection and identification (FDI) of aerospace systems. After the failure, a completely new aerodynamic model can be elaborated recursively with respect to structure as well as parameter values. The performance of the identification algorithm is demonstrated on a simulation data set.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laub, G. H.; Kodani, H. M.
1972-01-01
Wind tunnel tests were conducted on scale models of three rectangular shaped cargo containers to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of these typical externally-suspended helicopter cargo configurations. Tests were made over a large range of pitch and yaw attitudes at a nominal Reynolds number per unit length of 1.8 x one million. The aerodynamic data obtained from the tests are presented.
The Benchmark Active Controls Technology Model Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, Robert C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Durham, Michael H.
1997-01-01
The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model is a part of the Benchmark Models Program (BMP). The BMP is a NASA Langley Research Center program that includes a series of models which were used to study different aeroelastic phenomena and to validate computational fluid dynamics codes. The primary objective of BACT testing was to obtain steady and unsteady loads, accelerations, and aerodynamic pressures due to control surface activity in order to calibrate unsteady CFD codes and active control design tools. Three wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) have been completed. The first and parts of the second and third tests focused on collecting open-loop data to define the model's aeroservoelastic characteristics, including the flutter boundary across the Mach range. It is this data that is being presented in this paper. An extensive database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. This database includes steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, including pressure distributions, control surface hinge moments, and overall model loads due to deflections of a trailing edge control surface and upper and lower surface
Correlation-based Transition Modeling for External Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medida, Shivaji
Conventional turbulence models calibrated for fully turbulent boundary layers often over-predict drag and heat transfer on aerodynamic surfaces with partially laminar boundary layers. A robust correlation-based model is developed for use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations to predict laminar-to-turbulent transition onset of boundary layers on external aerodynamic surfaces. The new model is derived from an existing transition model for the two-equation k-omega Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model, and is coupled with the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The transition model solves two transport equations for intermittency and transition momentum thickness Reynolds number. Experimental correlations and local mean flow quantities are used in the model to account for effects of freestream turbulence level and pressure gradients on transition onset location. Transition onset is triggered by activating intermittency production using a vorticity Reynolds number criterion. In the new model, production and destruction terms of the intermittency equation are modified to improve consistency in the fully turbulent boundary layer post-transition onset, as well as ensure insensitivity to freestream eddy viscosity value specified in the SA model. In the original model, intermittency was used to control production and destruction of turbulent kinetic energy. Whereas, in the new model, only the production of eddy viscosity in SA model is controlled, and the destruction term is not altered. Unlike the original model, the new model does not use an additional correction to intermittency for separation-induced transition. Accuracy of drag predictions are improved significantly with the use of the transition model for several two-dimensional single- and multi-element airfoil cases over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The new model is able to predict the formation of stable and long laminar separation bubbles on low-Reynolds number airfoils that
Modeling and simulation of coaxial helicopter rotor aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gecgel, Murat
A framework is developed for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of a series of helicopter rotor flowfields in hover and in forward flight. The methodology is based on the unsteady solutions of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations recast in a rotating frame of reference. The simulations are carried out by solving the developed mathematical model on hybrid meshes that aim to optimally exploit the benefits of both the structured and the unstructured grids around complex configurations. The computer code is prepared for parallel processing with distributed memory utilization in order to significantly reduce the computational time and the memory requirements. The developed model and the simulation methodology are validated for single-rotor-in-hover flowfields by comparing the present results with the published experimental data. The predictive merit of different turbulence models for complex helicopter aerodynamics are tested extensively. All but the kappa-o and LES results demonstrate acceptable agreement with the experimental data. It was deemed best to use the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for the subsequent rotor flowfield computations. First, the flowfield around a single rotor in forward flight is simulated. These time---accurate computations help to analyze an adverse effect of increasing the forward flight speed. A dissymmetry of the lift on the advancing and the retreating blades is observed for six different advance ratios. Since the coaxial rotor is proposed to mitigate the dissymmetry, it is selected as the next logical step of the present investigation. The time---accurate simulations are successfully obtained for the flowfields generated by first a hovering then a forward-flying coaxial rotor. The results for the coaxial rotor in forward flight verify the aerodynamic balance proposed by the previously published advancing blade concept. The final set of analyses aims to investigate if the gap between the
Fabrication and tuning of the SNS CCL hot model
Bultman, N. K.; Billen, J. H.; Chen, Z.; Richards, D. R.; Young, L. M.; Hopkins, S. M.
2003-01-01
A full-scale powered model of the SNS CCL was completed in August 2001. The manufacturing processes and tuning procedures used in the CCL Hot Model formed the basis of the main manufacturing contract for the SNS CCL system later placed in private industry. In this paper we summarize the design basis for the CCL and the manufacturing and process steps required to fabricate and of the various tooling and lifting and handling fixtures utilized in the process at the various machining, brazing, welding, and tuning steps. The tooling utilized in the fabrication and tuning process is discussed in detail. The ultimate successful testing of the CCL hot model has key to development of a manufacturing plan for the CCL system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian
2015-01-01
An overview of pre-flight aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a large helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. The first flight test (SFDT-1) delivered a 6 meter diameter robotic mission class decelerator (SIAD-R) to several seconds of flight on June 28, 2014, and was successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R. The trajectory was off-nominal, however, lofting to over 8 km higher than predicted in flight simulations. Comparisons between reconstructed flight data and aerodynamic models show that SIAD-R aerodynamic performance was in good agreement with pre-flight predictions. Similar comparisons of powered ascent phase aerodynamics show that the pre-flight model overpredicted TV pitch stability, leading to underprediction of trajectory peak altitude. Comparisons between pre-flight aerodynamic models and reconstructed flight data are shown, and changes to aerodynamic models using improved fidelity and knowledge gained from SFDT-1 are discussed.
Tuning the Model Predictive Control of a Crude Distillation Unit.
Yamashita, André Shigueo; Zanin, Antonio Carlos; Odloak, Darci
2016-01-01
Tuning the parameters of the Model Predictive Control (MPC) of an industrial Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) is considered here. A realistic scenario is depicted where the inputs of the CDU system have optimizing targets, which are provided by the Real Time Optimization layer of the control structure. It is considered the nominal case, in which both the CDU model and the MPC model are the same. The process outputs are controlled inside zones instead of at fixed set points. Then, the tuning procedure has to define the weights that penalize the output error with respect to the control zone, the weights that penalize the deviation of the inputs from their targets, as well as the weights that penalize the input moves. A tuning approach based on multi-objective optimization is proposed and applied to the MPC of the CDU system. The performance of the controller tuned with the proposed approach is compared through simulation with the results of an existing approach also based on multi-objective optimization. The simulation results are similar, but the proposed approach has a computational load significantly lower than the existing method. The tuning effort is also much lower than in the conventional practical approaches that are usually based on ad-hoc procedures. PMID:26549567
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.
Reduced-Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.
1999-01-01
This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.
Reduced Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.
1999-01-01
This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of an RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.
Analysis of holographic interferograms of aerodynamic models in a wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, R. L.
1985-01-01
Holographic interferometry provides a non-invasive technique for estimating variations in the air density distribution around aerodynamic models in wind tunnels. The testing of this technique has been underway for some time and has been reported previously for a two dimensional aerodynamic model. Results obtained from tests using three dimensional aerodynamic models are summarized. Holograms were made of aerodynamic models in a wind tunnel. Interferograms were made from these holograms. The interference fringes in these holographic interferograms were digitized and this information was entered into the HOLOFT program. The HOLOFT program successfully calculated the known stagnation air density at the nose of a model and the known air density distribution across the cross section passing through the stagnation point for the axisymmetrical case of this model at a Mach number of 0.8. Thus the technique of holographic interferometry does work.The HOLOFT program stands for HOLOgraphic Inversion by 2-D Fourier Transform.
Low Dimensional Modeling And Computational Analysis of Dragonfly Wing Aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yan; Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team
2011-11-01
High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key aerodynamic features and lift production of insect wings. However, the kinematics of the insect's wing and the resulting aerodynamics is highly complex, and does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is therefore needed to dissect the wing gait and gain insight into the remarkable aerodynamic performance of the insect's wing. The focus of the current investigation is on the aerodynamics of the wing of a dragonfly (Erythemis Simplicicollis) in hovering motion. The three-dimensional, time-dependent wing kinematics is obtained via a high-speed photogrammetry system. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is then applied to extract the essential features of the wing gait. The SVD spectrum shows that the first four modes capture more than 80% of the motion. Aerodynamics of wings flapping with kinematics synthesized from SVD modes will be discussed in detail. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1055949.
Aerodynamics of a Gulfstream G550 Nose Landing Gear Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neuhart, Dan H.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss detailed steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a Gulfstream G550 nose landing gear model. The quarter-scale, high-fidelity model includes part of the lower fuselage and the gear cavity. The full model configuration allowed for removal of various gear components (e.g. light cluster, steering mechanism, hydraulic lines, etc.) in order to document their effects on the local flow field. The measurements were conducted at a Reynolds number of 7.3 x 10(exp 4) based on the shock strut (piston) diameter and a freestream Mach number of 0.166. Additional data were also collected at lower Mach numbers of 0.12 and 0.145 and correspondingly lower Reynolds numbers. The boundary layer on the piston was tripped to enable turbulent flow separation, so as to better mimic the conditions encountered during flight. Steady surface pressures were gathered from an extensive number of static ports on the wheels, door, fuselage, and within the gear cavity. To better understand the resultant flow interactions between gear components, surface pressure fluctuations were collected via sixteen dynamic pressure sensors strategically placed on various subcomponents of the gear. Fifteen of the transducers were flush mounted on the gear surface at fixed locations, while the remaining one was a mobile transducer that could be placed at numerous varying locations. The measured surface pressure spectra are mainly broadband in nature, lacking any local peaks associated with coherent vortex shedding. This finding is in agreement with off-surface flow measurements using PIV that revealed the flow field to be a collection of separated shear layers without any dominant vortex shedding processes.
Not Available
1993-01-01
In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasanth, Ravi K.; Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Mehra, Raman K.
2005-01-01
This paper describes model structures and parameter estimation algorithms suitable for the identification of unsteady aerodynamic models from input-output data. The model structures presented are state space models and include linear time-invariant (LTI) models and linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. They cover a wide range of local and parameter dependent identification problems arising in unsteady aerodynamics and nonlinear flight dynamics. We present a residue algorithm for estimating model parameters from data. The algorithm can incorporate apriori information and is described in detail. The algorithms are evaluated on the F-16XL wind-tunnel test data from NAS Langley Research Center. Results of numerical evaluation are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion major issues and directions for future work.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batterson, J. G.
1986-01-01
The successful parametric modeling of the aerodynamics for an airplane operating at high angles of attack or sideslip is performed in two phases. First the aerodynamic model structure must be determined and second the associated aerodynamic parameters (stability and control derivatives) must be estimated for that model. The purpose of this paper is to document two versions of a stepwise regression computer program which were developed for the determination of airplane aerodynamic model structure and to provide two examples of their use on computer generated data. References are provided for the application of the programs to real flight data. The two computer programs that are the subject of this report, STEP and STEPSPL, are written in FORTRAN IV (ANSI l966) compatible with a CDC FTN4 compiler. Both programs are adaptations of a standard forward stepwise regression algorithm. The purpose of the adaptation is to facilitate the selection of a adequate mathematical model of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of an airplane from flight test data. The major difference between STEP and STEPSPL is in the basis for the model. The basis for the model in STEP is the standard polynomial Taylor's series expansion of the aerodynamic function about some steady-state trim condition. Program STEPSPL utilizes a set of spline basis functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maksimov, F. A.; Churakov, D. A.; Shevelev, Yu. D.
2011-02-01
Complex-geometry design and grid generation are addressed. The gasdynamic equations are solved, and the numerical results are compared with experimental data. For aerodynamic problems, a suite of mathematical and information technology tools is proposed for the support and management of geometric models of actual objects. Based on the mathematical modeling methods developed, numerical experiments can be performed for a wide class of geometric forms and the aerodynamic properties of aircraft can be predicted with allowance for the viscosity effects.
A-Priori Tuning of Modified Magnussen Combustion Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, A. T.
2016-01-01
In the application of CFD to turbulent reacting flows, one of the main limitations to predictive accuracy is the chemistry model. Using a full or skeletal kinetics model may provide good predictive ability, however, at considerable computational cost. Adding the ability to account for the interaction between turbulence and chemistry improves the overall fidelity of a simulation but adds to this cost. An alternative is the use of simple models, such as the Magnussen model, which has negligible computational overhead, but lacks general predictive ability except for cases that can be tuned to the flow being solved. In this paper, a technique will be described that allows the tuning of the Magnussen model for an arbitrary fuel and flow geometry without the need to have experimental data for that particular case. The tuning is based on comparing the results of the Magnussen model and full finite-rate chemistry when applied to perfectly and partially stirred reactor simulations. In addition, a modification to the Magnussen model is proposed that allows the upper kinetic limit for the reaction rate to be set, giving better physical agreement with full kinetic mechanisms. This procedure allows a simple reacting model to be used in a predictive manner, and affords significant savings in computational costs for simulations.
Integrating Cache Performance Modeling and Tuning Support in Parallelization Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
With the resurgence of distributed shared memory (DSM) systems based on cache-coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (ccNUMA) architectures and increasing disparity between memory and processors speeds, data locality overheads are becoming the greatest bottlenecks in the way of realizing potential high performance of these systems. While parallelization tools and compilers facilitate the users in porting their sequential applications to a DSM system, a lot of time and effort is needed to tune the memory performance of these applications to achieve reasonable speedup. In this paper, we show that integrating cache performance modeling and tuning support within a parallelization environment can alleviate this problem. The Cache Performance Modeling and Prediction Tool (CPMP), employs trace-driven simulation techniques without the overhead of generating and managing detailed address traces. CPMP predicts the cache performance impact of source code level "what-if" modifications in a program to assist a user in the tuning process. CPMP is built on top of a customized version of the Computer Aided Parallelization Tools (CAPTools) environment. Finally, we demonstrate how CPMP can be applied to tune a real Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application.
An automatic and effective parameter optimization method for model tuning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T.; Li, L.; Lin, Y.; Xue, W.; Xie, F.; Xu, H.; Huang, X.
2015-11-01
Physical parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs), having various uncertain parameters, greatly impact model performance and model climate sensitivity. Traditional manual and empirical tuning of these parameters is time-consuming and ineffective. In this study, a "three-step" methodology is proposed to automatically and effectively obtain the optimum combination of some key parameters in cloud and convective parameterizations according to a comprehensive objective evaluation metrics. Different from the traditional optimization methods, two extra steps, one determining the model's sensitivity to the parameters and the other choosing the optimum initial value for those sensitive parameters, are introduced before the downhill simplex method. This new method reduces the number of parameters to be tuned and accelerates the convergence of the downhill simplex method. Atmospheric GCM simulation results show that the optimum combination of these parameters determined using this method is able to improve the model's overall performance by 9 %. The proposed methodology and software framework can be easily applied to other GCMs to speed up the model development process, especially regarding unavoidable comprehensive parameter tuning during the model development stage.
Experimental evaluation of a flapping-wing aerodynamic model for MAV applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Han, Jae-Hung
2008-03-01
In the preliminary design phase of the bio-inspired flapping-wing MAV (micro air vehicle), it is necessary to predict the aerodynamic forces around the flapping-wing under flapping-wing motion at cruising flight. In this study, the efficient quasi-steady flapping-wing aerodynamic model for MAV application is explained and it is experimentally verified. The flapping-wing motion is decoupled to the plunging and pitching motion, and the plunging-pitching motion generator with load cell assembly is developed. The compensation of inertial forces from the measured lift and thrust is studied to measure the pure aerodynamic loads on the flapping-wing. Advanced ratio is introduced to evaluate the unsteadiness of the flow and to make an application range of flapping-wing aerodynamic model.
Evaluation and modeling of aerodynamic properties of mung bean seeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazi, Feizollah
2015-01-01
Aerodynamic properties of solid materials have long been used to convey and separate seeds and grains during post harvest operations. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of mung bean seeds as a function of moisture content and two grades referred to above and below a cut point of 4.8 mm in length. The results showed that as the moisture content increased from 7.8 to 25% (w.b.), the terminal velocity of seeds increased following a polynomial relationship, from 7.28 to 8.79 and 6.02 to 7.12 m s-1, for grades A and B, respectively. Seeds at grade A had terminal velocities with a mean value of 8.05 m s-1, while at grade B had a mean value of 6.46 m s-1. The Reynolds number of both grades increased linearly with the increase of seeds moisture content, while the drag coefficient decreased with the increase of moisture content. Mathematical relationships were developed to relate the change in seeds moisture content with the obtained values of aerodynamic properties. The analysis of variance showed that moisture content had a significant effect, at 1% probability level, on all the aerodynamics properties of mung beans.
Mathematical modeling of the aerodynamics of high-angle-of-attack maneuvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.; Tobak, M.; Malcolm, G. N.
1980-01-01
This paper is a review of the current state of aerodynamic mathematical modeling for aircraft motions at high angles of attack. The mathematical model serves to define a set of characteristic motions from whose known aerodynamic responses the aerodynamic response to an arbitrary high angle-of-attack flight maneuver can be predicted. Means are explored of obtaining stability parameter information in terms of the characteristic motions, whether by wind-tunnel experiments, computational methods, or by parameter-identification methods applied to flight-test data. A rationale is presented for selecting and verifying the aerodynamic mathematical model at the lowest necessary level of complexity. Experimental results describing the wing-rock phenomenon are shown to be accommodated within the most recent mathematical model by admitting the existence of aerodynamic hysteresis in the steady-state variation of the rolling moment with roll angle. Interpretation of the experimental results in terms of bifurcation theory reveals the general conditions under which aerodynamic hysteresis must exist.
An automatic and effective parameter optimization method for model tuning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T.; Li, L.; Lin, Y.; Xue, W.; Xie, F.; Xu, H.; Huang, X.
2015-05-01
Physical parameterizations in General Circulation Models (GCMs), having various uncertain parameters, greatly impact model performance and model climate sensitivity. Traditional manual and empirical tuning of these parameters is time consuming and ineffective. In this study, a "three-step" methodology is proposed to automatically and effectively obtain the optimum combination of some key parameters in cloud and convective parameterizations according to a comprehensive objective evaluation metrics. Different from the traditional optimization methods, two extra steps, one determines parameter sensitivity and the other chooses the optimum initial value of sensitive parameters, are introduced before the downhill simplex method to reduce the computational cost and improve the tuning performance. Atmospheric GCM simulation results show that the optimum combination of these parameters determined using this method is able to improve the model's overall performance by 9%. The proposed methodology and software framework can be easily applied to other GCMs to speed up the model development process, especially regarding unavoidable comprehensive parameters tuning during the model development stage.
Modeling aerodynamic discontinuities and the onset of chaos in flight dynamical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.; Uenal, A.
1986-01-01
Various representations of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equation of motion are shown to be compatible within the common assumption of their Frechet differentiability. Three forms of invalidating Frechet differentiality are identified, and the mathematical model is amended to accommodate their occurrence. Some of the ways in which chaotic behavior may emerge are discussed, first at the level of the aerodynamic contribution to the equation of motion, and then at the level of the equations of motion themselves.
The DaveMLTranslator: An Interface for DAVE-ML Aerodynamic Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Melissa A.; Jackson, E. Bruce
2007-01-01
It can take weeks or months to incorporate a new aerodynamic model into a vehicle simulation and validate the performance of the model. The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) has been proposed as a means to reduce the time required to accomplish this task by defining a standard format for typical components of a flight dynamic model. The purpose of this paper is to describe an object-oriented C++ implementation of a class that interfaces a vehicle subsystem model specified in DAVE-ML and a vehicle simulation. Using the DaveMLTranslator class, aerodynamic or other subsystem models can be automatically imported and verified at run-time, significantly reducing the elapsed time between receipt of a DAVE-ML model and its integration into a simulation environment. The translator performs variable initializations, data table lookups, and mathematical calculations for the aerodynamic build-up, and executes any embedded static check-cases for verification. The implementation is efficient, enabling real-time execution. Simple interface code for the model inputs and outputs is the only requirement to integrate the DaveMLTranslator as a vehicle aerodynamic model. The translator makes use of existing table-lookup utilities from the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++). The design and operation of the translator class is described and comparisons with existing, conventional, C++ aerodynamic models of the same vehicle are given.
Calculation of the Aerodynamic Behavior of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) in the DNW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne
2001-01-01
Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 1/4-scale V- 22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance and airloads for helicopter mode operation, as well as calculated induced and profile power. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.
MAESTRO -- A Model and Expert System Tuning Resource for Operators
Lager, D.L.; Brand, H.R.; Maurer, W.J.; Coffield, F.E.; Chambers, F.
1989-01-01
We have developed MAESTRO, a Model And Expert System Tuning Resource for Operators. It provides a unified software environment for optimizing the performance of large, complex machines, in particular the Advanced Test Accelerator and Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system incorporates three approaches to tuning: a mouse-based manual interface to select and control magnets and to view displays of machine performance; an automation based on cloning the operator'' by implementing the strategies and reasoning used by the operator; an automation based on a simulator model which, when accurately matched to the machine, allows downloading of optimal sets of parameters and permits diagnosing errors in the beamline. The latter two approaches are based on the Artificial Intelligence technique known as Expert Systems. 4 refs., 4 figs.
Numerical weather prediction model tuning via ensemble prediction system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvinen, H.; Laine, M.; Ollinaho, P.; Solonen, A.; Haario, H.
2011-12-01
This paper discusses a novel approach to tune predictive skill of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. NWP models contain tunable parameters which appear in parameterizations schemes of sub-grid scale physical processes. Currently, numerical values of these parameters are specified manually. In a recent dual manuscript (QJRMS, revised) we developed a new concept and method for on-line estimation of the NWP model parameters. The EPPES ("Ensemble prediction and parameter estimation system") method requires only minimal changes to the existing operational ensemble prediction infra-structure and it seems very cost-effective because practically no new computations are introduced. The approach provides an algorithmic decision making tool for model parameter optimization in operational NWP. In EPPES, statistical inference about the NWP model tunable parameters is made by (i) generating each member of the ensemble of predictions using different model parameter values, drawn from a proposal distribution, and (ii) feeding-back the relative merits of the parameter values to the proposal distribution, based on evaluation of a suitable likelihood function against verifying observations. In the presentation, the method is first illustrated in low-order numerical tests using a stochastic version of the Lorenz-95 model which effectively emulates the principal features of ensemble prediction systems. The EPPES method correctly detects the unknown and wrongly specified parameters values, and leads to an improved forecast skill. Second, results with an atmospheric general circulation model based ensemble prediction system show that the NWP model tuning capacity of EPPES scales up to realistic models and ensemble prediction systems. Finally, a global top-end NWP model tuning exercise with preliminary results is published.
Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian
2016-01-01
An overview of aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign test vehicle is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. Test flights conducted in June of 2014 (SFDT-1) and 2015 (SFDT-2) each successfully delivered a 6 meter diameter decelerator (SIAD-R) to test conditions and several seconds of flight, and were successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R technology. Aerodynamic models and uncertainties developed for the SFDT campaign are presented, including the methods used to generate them and their implementation within an aerodynamic database (ADB) routine for flight simulations. Pre- and post-flight aerodynamic models are compared against reconstructed flight data and model changes based upon knowledge gained from the flights are discussed. The pre-flight powered phase model is shown to have a significant contribution to off-nominal SFDT trajectory lofting, while coast and SIAD phase models behaved much as predicted.
Application of CFD techniques toward the validation of nonlinear aerodynamic models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.; Katz, J.
1985-01-01
Applications of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the regimes of applicability of nonlinear models describing the unsteady aerodynamic responses to aircraft flight motions are described. The potential advantages of computational methods over experimental methods are discussed and the concepts underlying mathematical modeling are reviewed. The economic and conceptual advantages of the modeling procedure over coupled, simultaneous solutions of the gasdynamic equations and the vehicle's kinematic equations of motion are discussed. The modeling approach, when valid, eliminates the need for costly repetitive computation of flow field solutions. For the test cases considered, the aerodynamic modeling approach is shown to be valid.
Application of CFD techniques toward the validation of nonlinear aerodynamic models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.; Katz, J.
1985-01-01
Applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the regimes of applicability of nonlinear models describing the unsteady aerodynamic responses to aircraft flight motions are described. The potential advantages of computational methods over experimental methods are discussed and the concepts underlying mathematical modeling are reviewed. The economic and conceptual advantages of the modeling procedure over coupled, simultaneous solutions of the gas dynamic equations and the vehicle's kinematic equations of motion are discussed. The modeling approach, when valid, eliminates the need for costly repetitive computation of flow field solutions. For the test cases considered, the aerodynamic modeling approach is shown to be valid.
Real-Time Onboard Global Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2014-01-01
Flight test and modeling techniques were developed to accurately identify global nonlinear aerodynamic models onboard an aircraft. The techniques were developed and demonstrated during piloted flight testing of an Aermacchi MB-326M Impala jet aircraft. Advanced piloting techniques and nonlinear modeling techniques based on fuzzy logic and multivariate orthogonal function methods were implemented with efficient onboard calculations and flight operations to achieve real-time maneuver monitoring and analysis, and near-real-time global nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and prediction validation testing in flight. Results demonstrated that global nonlinear aerodynamic models for a large portion of the flight envelope were identified rapidly and accurately using piloted flight test maneuvers during a single flight, with the final identified and validated models available before the aircraft landed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.
1980-01-01
The component detail design drawings of the one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed demonstrator exhaust syatem tested are presented. Also provided are the basic acoustic and aerodynamic data acquired during the experimental model tests. The model drawings, an index to the acoustic data, an index to the aerodynamic data, tabulated and graphical acoustic data, and the tabulated aerodynamic data and graphs are discussed.
Real-Time Global Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling for Learn-To-Fly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2016-01-01
Flight testing and modeling techniques were developed to accurately identify global nonlinear aerodynamic models for aircraft in real time. The techniques were developed and demonstrated during flight testing of a remotely-piloted subscale propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft using flight test maneuvers designed to simulate a Learn-To-Fly scenario. Prediction testing was used to evaluate the quality of the global models identified in real time. The real-time global nonlinear aerodynamic modeling algorithm will be integrated and further tested with learning adaptive control and guidance for NASA Learn-To-Fly concept flight demonstrations.
Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling From Flight Data Using Advanced Piloted Maneuvers and Fuzzy Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
Results of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Seedling Project Phase I research project entitled "Nonlinear Aerodynamics Modeling using Fuzzy Logic" are presented. Efficient and rapid flight test capabilities were developed for estimating highly nonlinear models of airplane aerodynamics over a large flight envelope. Results showed that the flight maneuvers developed, used in conjunction with the fuzzy-logic system identification algorithms, produced very good model fits of the data, with no model structure inputs required, for flight conditions ranging from cruise to departure and spin conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Springer, Anthony M.
1998-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of two similar models of a lifting body configuration were run in two transonic wind tunnels, one a 16 foot the other a 14-inch and are compared. The 16 foot test used a 2% model while the 14-inch test used a 0.7% scale model. The wind tunnel model configurations varied only in vertical tail size and an aft sting shroud. The results from these two tests compare the effect of tunnel size, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure and blockage on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The data accuracy and uncertainty are also presented. It was concluded from these tests that the data resultant from a small wind tunnel compares very well to that of a much larger wind tunnel in relation to total vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.
A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping wing aerodynamics
Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao; Bomphrey, Richard J.
2016-01-01
Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimisation is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into the quasi-steady forces and parameterised based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power with the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterised on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. It demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned air systems. PMID:27346891
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandekreeke, C.; Verriere, J.; Quemard, G.
1987-01-01
The effects the single-bottom support masts used in the ONERA S1 and S4 wind tunnels have on aerodynamic data collected with scale model aircraft were examined experimentally and analytically. Systematic studies were performed on the flow characteristics around different diameters for the mounts. Scaling methods used to make data from one wind tunnel correspond to data from the other are described. Airbus 320 models were introduced into the tests and mast-body flow interactions were observed. A summary is presented of restrictions on the mast diameters, relative to cylindrical model diameters, which will minimize the effects the masts have on longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability data.
Simulation and Big Data Challenges in Tuning Building Energy Models
Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan
2013-01-01
EnergyPlus is the flagship building energy simulation software used to model whole building energy consumption for residential and commercial establishments. A typical input to the program often has hundreds, sometimes thousands of parameters which are typically tweaked by a buildings expert to get it right . This process can sometimes take months. Autotune is an ongoing research effort employing machine learning techniques to automate the tuning of the input parameters for an EnergyPlus input description of a building. Even with automation, the computational challenge faced to run the tuning simulation ensemble is daunting and requires the use of supercomputers to make it tractable in time. In this proposal, we describe the scope of the problem, the technical challenges faced and overcome, the machine learning techniques developed and employed, and the software infrastructure developed/in development when taking the EnergyPlus engine, which was primarily designed to run on desktops, and scaling it to run on shared memory supercomputers (Nautilus) and distributed memory supercomputers (Frost and Titan). The parametric simulations produce data in the order of tens to a couple of hundred terabytes.We describe the approaches employed to streamline and reduce bottlenecks in the workflow for this data, which is subsequently being made available for the tuning effort as well as made available publicly for open-science.
Modeling of Aerodynamic Force Acting in Tunnel for Analysis of Riding Comfort in a Train
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikko, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Katsuya; Sakanoue, Kei; Nanba, Kouichiro
In this paper, we aimed to model the aerodynamic force that acts on a train running at high speed in a tunnel. An analytical model of the aerodynamic force is developed from pressure data measured on car-body sides of a test train running at the maximum revenue operation speed. The simulation of an 8-car train running while being subjected to the modeled aerodynamic force gives the following results. The simulated car-body vibration corresponds to the actual vibration both qualitatively and quantitatively for the cars at the rear of the train. The separation of the airflow at the tail-end of the train increases the yawing vibration of the tail-end car while it has little effect on the car-body vibration of the adjoining car. Also, the effect of the moving velocity of the aerodynamic force on the car-body vibration is clarified that the simulation under the assumption of a stationary aerodynamic force can markedly increase the car-body vibration.
Taking image quality factor into the OPC model tuning flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo
2007-03-01
All OPC model builders are in search of a physically realistic model that is adequately calibrated and contains the information that can be used for process predictions and analysis of a given process. But there still are some unknown physics in the process and wafer data sets are not perfect. Most cases even using the average values of different empirical data sets will still take inaccurate measurements into the model fitting process, which makes the fitting process more time consuming and also may cause losing convergence and stability. The Image quality is one of the most worrisome obstacles faced by next-generation lithography. Nowadays, considerable effort is devoted to enhance the contrast, as well as understanding its impact on devices. It is a persistent problem for 193nm micro-lithography and will carry us for at least three generations, culminating with immersion lithography. This work is to weight different wafer data points with a weighting function. The weighting function is dependent on the Normal image log slope (NILS), which can reflect the image quality. Using this approach, we can filter wrong information of the process and make the OPC model more accurate. CalibreWorkbench is the platform we used in this study, which has been proven to have an excellent performance on 0.13um, 90nm and 65nm production and development models setup. Leveraging its automatic optical-tuning function, we practiced the best weighting approach to achieve the most efficient and convergent tuning flow.
Analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle wind-tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cao, Jichang; Garrett, Frederick, Jr.; Hoffman, Eric; Stalford, Harold
1990-01-01
A 6 DOF analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle is derived. The derivation is based on wind-tunnel model data valid in the altitude-Mach flight envelope centered at 15,000 ft altitude and 0.6 Mach number with Mach range between 0.3 and 0.9. The analytical models of the aerodynamics coefficients are nonlinear functions of alpha with all control variable and other states fixed. Interpolation is required between the parameterized nonlinear functions. The lift and pitching moment coefficients have unsteady flow parts due to the time range of change of angle-of-attack (alpha dot). The analytical models are plotted and compared with their corresponding wind-tunnel data. Piloted simulated maneuvers of the wind-tunnel model are used to evaluate the analytical model. The maneuvers considered are pitch-ups, 360 degree loaded and unloaded rolls, turn reversals, split S's, and level turns. The evaluation finds that (1) the analytical model is a good representation at Mach 0.6, (2) the longitudinal part is good for the Mach range 0.3 to 0.9, and (3) the lateral part is good for Mach numbers between 0.6 and 0.9. The computer simulations show that the storage requirement of the analytical model is about one tenth that of the wind-tunnel model and it runs twice as fast.
A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 3: Program manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1980-01-01
The computer program for a comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics is described. This analysis is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; the helicopter vibration and gust response; the flight dynamics and handling qualities; and the system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is a combination of structural, inertial, and aerodynamic models that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1980-01-01
Structural, inertia, and aerodynamic models were combined to form a comprehensive model of rotor aerodynamics and dynamics that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. A digital computer program is used to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft, and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.
Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.
2009-01-01
Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.
Post-Stall Aerodynamic Modeling and Gain-Scheduled Control Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Fen; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Kim, Sungwan
2005-01-01
A multidisciplinary research e.ort that combines aerodynamic modeling and gain-scheduled control design for aircraft flight at post-stall conditions is described. The aerodynamic modeling uses a decambering approach for rapid prediction of post-stall aerodynamic characteristics of multiple-wing con.gurations using known section data. The approach is successful in bringing to light multiple solutions at post-stall angles of attack right during the iteration process. The predictions agree fairly well with experimental results from wind tunnel tests. The control research was focused on actuator saturation and .ight transition between low and high angles of attack regions for near- and post-stall aircraft using advanced LPV control techniques. The new control approaches maintain adequate control capability to handle high angle of attack aircraft control with stability and performance guarantee.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petot, D.; Loiseau, H.
1982-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic methods adopted for the study of aeroelasticity in helicopters are considered with focus on the development of a semiempirical model of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an oscillating profile at high incidence. The successive smoothing algorithm described leads to the model's coefficients in a very satisfactory manner.
Structural Verification and Modeling of a Tension Cone Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanner, Christopher L.; Cruz, Juan R.; Braun, Robert D.
2010-01-01
Verification analyses were conducted on membrane structures pertaining to a tension cone inflatable aerodynamic decelerator using the analysis code LS-DYNA. The responses of three structures - a cylinder, torus, and tension shell - were compared against linear theory for various loading cases. Stress distribution, buckling behavior, and wrinkling behavior were investigated. In general, agreement between theory and LS-DYNA was very good for all cases investigated. These verification cases exposed the important effects of using a linear elastic liner in membrane structures under compression. Finally, a tension cone wind tunnel test article is modeled in LS-DYNA for which preliminary results are presented. Unlike data from supersonic wind tunnel testing, the segmented tension shell and torus experienced oscillatory behavior when subjected to a steady aerodynamic pressure distribution. This work is presented as a work in progress towards development of a fluid-structures interaction mechanism to investigate aeroelastic behavior of inflatable aerodynamic decelerators.
System Dynamic Analysis of a Wind Tunnel Model with Applications to Improve Aerodynamic Data Quality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehrle, Ralph David
1997-01-01
The research investigates the effect of wind tunnel model system dynamics on measured aerodynamic data. During wind tunnel tests designed to obtain lift and drag data, the required aerodynamic measurements are the steady-state balance forces and moments, pressures, and model attitude. However, the wind tunnel model system can be subjected to unsteady aerodynamic and inertial loads which result in oscillatory translations and angular rotations. The steady-state force balance and inertial model attitude measurements are obtained by filtering and averaging data taken during conditions of high model vibrations. The main goals of this research are to characterize the effects of model system dynamics on the measured steady-state aerodynamic data and develop a correction technique to compensate for dynamically induced errors. Equations of motion are formulated for the dynamic response of the model system subjected to arbitrary aerodynamic and inertial inputs. The resulting modal model is examined to study the effects of the model system dynamic response on the aerodynamic data. In particular, the equations of motion are used to describe the effect of dynamics on the inertial model attitude, or angle of attack, measurement system that is used routinely at the NASA Langley Research Center and other wind tunnel facilities throughout the world. This activity was prompted by the inertial model attitude sensor response observed during high levels of model vibration while testing in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The inertial attitude sensor cannot distinguish between the gravitational acceleration and centrifugal accelerations associated with wind tunnel model system vibration, which results in a model attitude measurement bias error. Bias errors over an order of magnitude greater than the required device accuracy were found in the inertial model attitude measurements during dynamic testing of two model systems. Based on a theoretical modal
Preliminary subsonic aerodynamic model for simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, E. Bruce; Cruz, Christopher I.
1992-01-01
A nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model for an early version of the HL-20 lifting body is described and compared with wind tunnel data upon which it is based. Polynomial functions describing most of the aerodynamic parameters are given and tables of these functions are presented. Techniques used to arrive at these functions are described. Basic aerodynamic coefficients were modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip. Vehicle lateral symmetry was assumed. Compressibility (Mach) effects were ignored. Control-surface effectiveness was assumed to vary linearly with angle of deflection and was assumed to be invariant with the angle of sideslip. Dynamic derivatives were obtained from predictive aerodynamic codes. Landing-gear and ground effects were scaled from Space Shuttle data. The model described is provided to support pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies of the HL-20. By providing the data in tabular format, the model is suitable for the data interpolation architecture of many existing engineering simulation facilities. Because of the preliminary nature of the data, however, this model is not recommended for study of the absolute performance of the HL-20.
Peformance Tuning and Evaluation of a Parallel Community Climate Model
Drake, J.B.; Worley, P.H.; Hammond, S.
1999-11-13
The Parallel Community Climate Model (PCCM) is a message-passing parallelization of version 2.1 of the Community Climate Model (CCM) developed by researchers at Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the early to mid 1990s. In preparation for use in the Department of Energy's Parallel Climate Model (PCM), PCCM has recently been updated with new physics routines from version 3.2 of the CCM, improvements to the parallel implementation, and ports to the SGIKray Research T3E and Origin 2000. We describe our experience in porting and tuning PCCM on these new platforms, evaluating the performance of different parallel algorithm options and comparing performance between the T3E and Origin 2000.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, L. A.; Lillie, D.; McCluer, M.; Yamauchi, G. K.; Derby, M. R.
2001-01-01
A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics. This work was conducted in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex's (NFAC) 40-by-80 Foot Wind Tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, on the Full-Span Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The full-span TRAM wind tunnel test stand is nominally based on a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 aircraft. The data acquired will enable the refinement of analytical tools for the prediction of tiltrotor aeromechanics and aeroacoustics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.
2016-07-01
We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.
Modeling, Control, and Estimation of Flexible, Aerodynamic Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Cody W.
Engineers have long been inspired by nature’s flyers. Such animals navigate complex environments gracefully and efficiently by using a variety of evolutionary adaptations for high-performance flight. Biologists have discovered a variety of sensory adaptations that provide flow state feedback and allow flying animals to feel their way through flight. A specialized skeletal wing structure and plethora of robust, adaptable sensory systems together allow nature’s flyers to adapt to myriad flight conditions and regimes. In this work, motivated by biology and the successes of bio-inspired, engineered aerial vehicles, linear quadratic control of a flexible, morphing wing design is investigated, helping to pave the way for truly autonomous, mission-adaptive craft. The proposed control algorithm is demonstrated to morph a wing into desired positions. Furthermore, motivated specifically by the sensory adaptations organisms possess, this work transitions to an investigation of aircraft wing load identification using structural response as measured by distributed sensors. A novel, recursive estimation algorithm is utilized to recursively solve the inverse problem of load identification, providing both wing structural and aerodynamic states for use in a feedback control, mission-adaptive framework. The recursive load identification algorithm is demonstrated to provide accurate load estimate in both simulation and experiment.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Application of the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) Model using land surface temperature (LST) requires aerodynamic resistance parameterizations for the flux exchange above the canopy layer, within the canopy air space and at the soil/substrate surface. There are a number of aerodynamic resistance f...
Development of a droplet breakup model considering aerodynamic and droplet collision effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wert, K. L.; Jacobs, H. R.
1993-01-01
A model is currently under development to predict the occurrence and outcome of spray droplet breakup induced by aerodynamic forces and droplet collisions. It is speculated that these phenomena may be significant in determining the droplet size distribution in a spray subjected to acoustic velocity fluctuations. The goal is to integrate this breakup model into a larger spray model in order to examine the effects of combustion instabilities on liquid rocket motor fuel sprays. The model is composed of three fundamental components: a dynamic equation governing the deformation of the droplet, a criterion for breakage based on the amount of deformation energy stored in the droplet and an energy balance based equation to predict the Sauter mean diameter of the fragments resulting from breakup. Comparison with published data for aerodynamic breakup indicates good agreement in terms of predicting the occurrence of breakup. However, the model significantly over predicts the size of the resulting fragments. This portion of the model is still under development.
Development of a droplet breakup model considering aerodynamic and droplet collision effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wert, K. L.; Jacobs, H. R.
1993-11-01
A model is currently under development to predict the occurrence and outcome of spray droplet breakup induced by aerodynamic forces and droplet collisions. It is speculated that these phenomena may be significant in determining the droplet size distribution in a spray subjected to acoustic velocity fluctuations. The goal is to integrate this breakup model into a larger spray model in order to examine the effects of combustion instabilities on liquid rocket motor fuel sprays. The model is composed of three fundamental components: a dynamic equation governing the deformation of the droplet, a criterion for breakage based on the amount of deformation energy stored in the droplet and an energy balance based equation to predict the Sauter mean diameter of the fragments resulting from breakup. Comparison with published data for aerodynamic breakup indicates good agreement in terms of predicting the occurrence of breakup. However, the model significantly over predicts the size of the resulting fragments. This portion of the model is still under development.
Evaluating cloud tuning in a climate model with satellite observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, K.; Golaz, J.; Stephens, G. L.
2013-12-01
Climate model representation of the aerosol indirect effect is largely dependent on how to tune uncertain parameters in the models. The threshold particle radius triggering the warm rain formation, among others, is one particular 'tunable knob' that severely affects the indirect radiative forcing. Alternate values of the model's particular parameter within uncertainty have been shown to produce severely different historical temperature tends due to differing magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing. This study examines the validity of three different threshold radii assumed in GFDL CM3 with satellite observations in an attempt to constrain which value is more plausible than others. For this purpose, the methodologies developed to analyze multi-sensor satellite observations are employed to construct the statistics that fingerprint process-level signatures of the warm rain formation. The statistics are then used as observation-based metrics and compared between the model and satellite observations to examine how the alternate model configurations lead to different microphysical characteristics and to evaluate how they compare to satellite observations. The results show that the threshold radius that best reproduces satellite-observed microphysical statistics leads to the historical temperature trend that worst matches to observed trend and vice-versa. This inconsistency between the 'bottom-up' process-based constraint and the 'top-down' temperature trend constraint implies the presence of compensating errors in the model. This study underscores the importance of observation-based, process-level constraints on model microphysics uncertainties for more reliable predictions of aerosol indirect forcing.
Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.
2014-06-01
A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1995-01-01
Aerodynamic equations with unsteady effects were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom, small-amplitude, harmonic motion. These equations were used as a model for aerodynamic parameter estimation from wind tunnel oscillatory data. The estimation algorithm was based on nonlinear least squares and was applied in three examples to the oscillatory data in pitch and roll of 70 deg triangular wing and an X-31 model, and in-sideslip oscillatory data of the High Incidence Research Model 2 (HIRM 2). All three examples indicated that a model using a simple indicial function can explain unsteady effects observed in measured data. The accuracy of the estimated parameters and model verification were strongly influenced by the number of data points with respect to the number of unknown parameters.
Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J
2014-05-01
This paper introduces a generic, transparent and compact model for the evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of insect-like flapping wings in hovering flight. The model is generic in that it can be applied to wings of arbitrary morphology and kinematics without the use of experimental data, is transparent in that the aerodynamic components of the model are linked directly to morphology and kinematics via physical relationships and is compact in the sense that it can be efficiently evaluated for use within a design optimization environment. An important aspect of the model is the method by which translational force coefficients for the aerodynamic model are obtained from first principles; however important insights are also provided for the morphological and kinematic treatments that improve the clarity and efficiency of the overall model. A thorough analysis of the leading-edge suction analogy model is provided and comparison of the aerodynamic model with results from application of the leading-edge suction analogy shows good agreement. The full model is evaluated against experimental data for revolving wings and good agreement is obtained for lift and drag up to 90° incidence. Comparison of the model output with data from computational fluid dynamics studies on a range of different insect species also shows good agreement with predicted weight support ratio and specific power. The validated model is used to evaluate the relative impact of different contributors to the induced power factor for the hoverfly and fruitfly. It is shown that the assumption of an ideal induced power factor (k = 1) for a normal hovering hoverfly leads to a 23% overestimation of the generated force owing to flapping. PMID:24554578
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, R. S.; Nelson, D. P.; Stevens, B. S.
1979-01-01
Five co-annular nozzle models, covering a systematic variation of nozzle geometry, were tested statically over a range of exhaust conditions including inverted velocity profile (IVP) (fan to primary stream velocity ratio 1) and non IVP profiles. Fan nozzle pressure ratio (FNPR) was varied from 1.3 to 4.1 at primary nozzle pressure ratios (PNPR) of 1.53 and 2.0. Fan stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R) and 1089 K(1960 deg R) were tested with primary stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R), 811 K (1460 deg R), and 1089 K (1960 deg R). At fan and primary stream velocities of 610 and 427 m/sec (2000 and 1400 ft/sec), respectively, increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced peak perceived noise level (PNL) 3 dB, and an increase in primary radius ratio from 0 to 0.81 (fan radius ratio constant at 0.83) reduced peak PNL an additional 1.0 dB. There were no noise reductions at a fan stream velocity of 853 m/sec (2800 ft/sec). Increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced nozzle thrust coefficient 1.2 to 1.5% at a PNPR of 1.53, and 1.7 to 2.0% at a PNPR of 2.0. The developed acoustic prediction procedure collapsed the existing data with standard deviation varying from + or - 8 dB to + or - 7 dB. The aerodynamic performance prediction procedure collapsed thrust coefficient measurements to within + or - .004 at a FNPR of 4.0 and a PNPR of 2.0.
Scalable tuning of building models to hourly data
Garrett, Aaron; New, Joshua Ryan
2015-03-31
Energy models of existing buildings are unreliable unless calibrated so they correlate well with actual energy usage. Manual tuning requires a skilled professional, is prohibitively expensive for small projects, imperfect, non-repeatable, non-transferable, and not scalable to the dozens of sensor channels that smart meters, smart appliances, and cheap/ubiquitous sensors are beginning to make available today. A scalable, automated methodology is needed to quickly and intelligently calibrate building energy models to all available data, increase the usefulness of those models, and facilitate speed-and-scale penetration of simulation-based capabilities into the marketplace for actualized energy savings. The "Autotune'' project is a novel, model-agnostic methodology which leverages supercomputing, large simulation ensembles, and big data mining with multiple machine learning algorithms to allow automatic calibration of simulations that match measured experimental data in a way that is deployable on commodity hardware. This paper shares several methodologies employed to reduce the combinatorial complexity to a computationally tractable search problem for hundreds of input parameters. Furthermore, accuracy metrics are provided which quantify model error to measured data for either monthly or hourly electrical usage from a highly-instrumented, emulated-occupancy research home.
Scalable tuning of building models to hourly data
Garrett, Aaron; New, Joshua Ryan
2015-03-31
Energy models of existing buildings are unreliable unless calibrated so they correlate well with actual energy usage. Manual tuning requires a skilled professional, is prohibitively expensive for small projects, imperfect, non-repeatable, non-transferable, and not scalable to the dozens of sensor channels that smart meters, smart appliances, and cheap/ubiquitous sensors are beginning to make available today. A scalable, automated methodology is needed to quickly and intelligently calibrate building energy models to all available data, increase the usefulness of those models, and facilitate speed-and-scale penetration of simulation-based capabilities into the marketplace for actualized energy savings. The "Autotune'' project is a novel, model-agnosticmore » methodology which leverages supercomputing, large simulation ensembles, and big data mining with multiple machine learning algorithms to allow automatic calibration of simulations that match measured experimental data in a way that is deployable on commodity hardware. This paper shares several methodologies employed to reduce the combinatorial complexity to a computationally tractable search problem for hundreds of input parameters. Furthermore, accuracy metrics are provided which quantify model error to measured data for either monthly or hourly electrical usage from a highly-instrumented, emulated-occupancy research home.« less
Flap noise and aerodynamic results for model QCSEE over-the-wing configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, W.; Burns, R.; Groesbeck, D. E.
1977-01-01
Noise spectra in three dimensions and aerodynamic data were measured for a model of the NASA quiet clean short-haul experimental engine (QCSEE) over-the-wing configuration. The effects of flap length, nozzle exhaust velocity, and nozzle geometry were determined using a single nozzle and wing-flap segment. The scaled-up model data is representative of full scale flap noise with the QCSEE engine.
Aerodynamic flow simulation using a pressure-based method and a two-equation turbulence model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Y. G. J.; Przekwas, A. J.; So, R. M. C.
1993-07-01
In the past, most aerodynamic flow calculations were carried out with density-based numerical methods and zero-equation turbulence models. However, pressure-based methods and more advanced turbulence models have been routinely used in industry for many internal flow simulations and for incompressible flows. Unfortunately, their usefulness in calculating aerodynamic flows is still not well demonstrated and accepted. In this study, an advanced pressure-based numerical method and a recently proposed near-wall compressible two-equation turbulence model are used to calculate external aerodynamic flows. Several TVD-type schemes are extended to pressure-based method to better capture discontinuities such as shocks. Some improvements are proposed to accelerate the convergence of the numerical method. A compressible near-wall two-equation turbulence model is then implemented to calculate transonic turbulent flows over NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils with and without shocks. The calculated results are compared with wind tunnel data as well as with results obtained from the Baldwin-Lomax model. The performance of the two-equation turbulence model is evaluated and its merits or lack thereof are discussed.
Validation of DYSTOOL for unsteady aerodynamic modeling of 2D airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, A.; Gomez-Iradi, S.; Munduate, X.
2014-06-01
From the point of view of wind turbine modeling, an important group of tools is based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory using 2D aerodynamic calculations on the blade elements. Due to the importance of this sectional computation of the blades, the National Renewable Wind Energy Center of Spain (CENER) developed DYSTOOL, an aerodynamic code for 2D airfoil modeling based on the Beddoes-Leishman model. The main focus here is related to the model parameters, whose values depend on the airfoil or the operating conditions. In this work, the values of the parameters are adjusted using available experimental or CFD data. The present document is mainly related to the validation of the results of DYSTOOL for 2D airfoils. The results of the computations have been compared with unsteady experimental data of the S809 and NACA0015 profiles. Some of the cases have also been modeled using the CFD code WMB (Wind Multi Block), within the framework of a collaboration with ACCIONA Windpower. The validation has been performed using pitch oscillations with different reduced frequencies, Reynolds numbers, amplitudes and mean angles of attack. The results have shown a good agreement using the methodology of adjustment for the value of the parameters. DYSTOOL have demonstrated to be a promising tool for 2D airfoil unsteady aerodynamic modeling.
Jenkins, J.E.
1994-12-31
Development of mathematical models that retain adequate fidelity to the physics of airframe aerodynamic and kinematic interactions has not kept pace with flight envelope expansion. Chapman and Yates, in an invited survey paper provide a succinct statement of the problem: {open_quote}With the advent of nonlinear aerodynamic parameter estimation came the question as to what nonlinear representation is {open_quotes}best{close_quotes}... which terms are required or allowed... ? (This question) has to do with fluid physics ... and has received very little attention in the literature on parameter estimation or model structure identification. ...In reviewing the literature on the general subject of nonlinear aerodynamic model identification and parameter estimation, most attention seems to be directed towards the algorithm with little attention paid to the correctness of the model.{close_quotes} There are many reasons for this situation. Two that are particularly important are: (1) model structures based on a sufficiently general theoretical framework are lacking and (2) there have been very few experiments explicitly designed to allow identification of valid model structures for some nonlinear flight regimes.
Development of the Dual Aerodynamic Nozzle Model for the NTF Semi-Span Model Support System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Greg S.; Milholen, William E., II; Goodliff, Scott L.
2011-01-01
The recent addition of a dual flow air delivery system to the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility was experimentally validated with a Dual Aerodynamic Nozzle semi-span model. This model utilized two Stratford calibration nozzles to characterize the weight flow system of the air delivery system. The weight flow boundaries for the air delivery system were identified at mildly cryogenic conditions to be 0.1 to 23 lbm/sec for the high flow leg and 0.1 to 9 lbm/sec for the low flow leg. Results from this test verified system performance and identified problems with the weight-flow metering system that required the vortex flow meters to be replaced at the end of the test.
An aerodynamic model for one and two degree of freedom wing rock of slender delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, John
1993-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamic effects due to the separated flow around slender delta wings in motion were analyzed. By combining the unsteady flow field solution with the rigid body Euler equations of motion, self-induced wing rock motion is simulated. The aerodynamic model successfully captures the qualitative characteristics of wing rock observed in experiments. For the one degree of freedom in roll case, the model is used to look into the mechanisms of wing rock and to investigate the effects of various parameters, like angle of attack, yaw angle, displacement of the separation point, and wing inertia. To investigate the roll and yaw coupling for the delta wing, an additional degree of freedom is added. However, no limit cycle was observed in the two degree of freedom case. Nonetheless, the model can be used to apply various control laws to actively control wing rock using, for example, the displacement of the leading edge vortex separation point by inboard span wise blowing.
Special methods for aerodynamic-moment calculations from parachute FSI modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Boswell, Cody; Tsutsui, Yuki; Montel, Kenneth
2015-06-01
The space-time fluid-structure interaction (STFSI) methods for 3D parachute modeling are now at a level where they can bring reliable, practical analysis to some of the most complex parachute systems, such as spacecraft parachutes. The methods include the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST method as the core computational technology, and a good number of special FSI methods targeting parachutes. Evaluating the stability characteristics of a parachute based on how the aerodynamic moment varies as a function of the angle of attack is one of the practical analyses that reliable parachute FSI modeling can deliver. We describe the special FSI methods we developed for this specific purpose and present the aerodynamic-moment data obtained from FSI modeling of NASA Orion spacecraft parachutes and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) subscale parachutes.
Harinath, Eranda; Mann, George K I
2008-06-01
This paper describes a design and two-level tuning method for fuzzy proportional-integral derivative (FPID) controllers for a multivariable process where the fuzzy inference uses the inference of standard additive model. The proposed method can be used for any n x n multi-input-multi-output process and guarantees closed-loop stability. In the two-level tuning scheme, the tuning follows two steps: low-level tuning followed by high-level tuning. The low-level tuning adjusts apparent linear gains, whereas the high-level tuning changes the nonlinearity in the normalized fuzzy output. In this paper, two types of FPID configurations are considered, and their performances are evaluated by using a real-time multizone temperature control problem having a 3 x 3 process system. PMID:18558531
Bird Flight as a Model for a Course in Unsteady Aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacob, Jamey; Mitchell, Jonathan; Puopolo, Michael
2014-11-01
Traditional unsteady aerodynamics courses at the graduate level focus on theoretical formulations of oscillating airfoil behavior. Aerodynamics students with a vision for understanding bird-flight and small unmanned aircraft dynamics desire to move beyond traditional flow models towards new and creative ways of appreciating the motion of agile flight systems. High-speed videos are used to record kinematics of bird flight, particularly barred owls and red-shouldered hawks during perching maneuvers, and compared with model aircraft performing similar maneuvers. Development of a perching glider and associated control laws to model the dynamics are used as a class project. Observations are used to determine what different species and sizes of birds share in their methods to approach a perch under similar conditions. Using fundamental flight dynamics, simplified models capable of predicting position, attitude, and velocity of the flier are developed and compared with the observations. By comparing the measured data from the videos and predicted and measured motions from the glider models, it is hoped that the students gain a better understanding of the complexity of unsteady aerodynamics and aeronautics and an appreciation for the beauty of avian flight.
Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.
Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic State-Space Models from CFD-Based Pulse Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Raveh, Daniella E.
2001-01-01
A method for computing discrete-time state-space models of linearized unsteady aerodynamic behavior directly from aeroelastic CFD codes is presented. The method involves the treatment of CFD-based pulse responses as Markov parameters for use in a system identification /realization algorithm. Results are presented for the AGARD 445.6 Aeroelastic Wing with four aeroelastic modes at a Mach number of 0.96 using the EZNSS Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver with aeroelastic capability. The System/Observer/Controller Identification Toolbox (SOCIT) algorithm, based on the Ho-Kalman realization algorithm, is used to generate 15th- and 32nd-order discrete-time state-space models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of the wing over the entire frequency range of interest.
Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simão Ferreira, C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.
2014-06-01
Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple streamtube model, a double-multiple streamtube model, the actuator cylinder model, a 2D potential flow panel model, a 3D unsteady lifting line model, and a 2D conformal mapping unsteady vortex model. The comparison covers rotor configurations with two NACA0015 blades, for several tip speed ratios, rotor solidity and fixed pitch angle, included heavily loaded rotors, in inviscid flow. The results show that the streamtube models are inaccurate, and that correct predictions of rotor power and rotor thrust are an effect of error cancellation which only occurs at specific configurations. The other four models, which explicitly model the wake as a system of vorticity, show mostly differences due to the instantaneous or time averaged formulation of the loading and flow, for which further research is needed.
A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 2: User's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1980-01-01
The use of a computer program for a comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics is described. The program calculates the loads and motion of helicopter rotors and airframe. First the trim solution is obtained, then the flutter, flight dynamics, and/or transient behavior can be calculated. Either a new job can be initiated or further calculations can be performed for an old job.
Turbulence Modeling and Computation of Turbine Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakshminarayana, B.; Luo, J.
1996-01-01
The objective of the present research is to develop improved turbulence models for the computation of complex flows through turbomachinery passages, including the effects of streamline curvature, heat transfer and secondary flows. Advanced turbulence models are crucial for accurate prediction of rocket engine flows, due to existance of very large extra strain rates, such as strong streamline curvature. Numerical simulation of the turbulent flows in strongly curved ducts, including two 180-deg ducts, one 90-deg duct and a strongly concave curved turbulent boundary layer have been carried out with Reynolds stress models (RSM) and algebraic Reynolds stress models (ARSM). An improved near-wall pressure-strain correlation has been developed for capturing the anisotropy of turbulence in the concave region. A comparative study of two modes of transition in gas turbine, the by-pass transition and the separation-induced transition, has been carried out with several representative low-Reynolds number (LRN) k-epsilon models. Effects of blade surface pressure gradient, freestream turbulence and Reynolds number on the blade boundary layer development, and particularly the inception of transition are examined in detail. The present study indicates that the turbine blade transition, in the presence of high freestream turbulence, is predicted well with LRN k-epsilon models employed. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes procedure developed by the present authors has been used to compute the three-dimensional viscous flow through the turbine nozzle passage of a single stage turbine. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon model and a zonal k-epsilon/ARSM (algebraic Reynolds stress model) are utilized for turbulence closure. An assessment of the performance of the turbulence models has been carried out. The two models are found to provide similar predictions for the mean flow parameters, although slight improvement in the prediction of some secondary flow quantities has been obtained by the
Uncovering the aerodynamics of the smallest insects using numerical and physical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Laura
2011-11-01
A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The smallest flying insects have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, three-dimensional direct numerical simulations are used to compute the lift and drag forces generated by flexible wings to reveal the aerodynamics of these tiny fliers. Results are validated against dynamically scaled physical models. At the lowest Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, the relative forces required to rotate the wings and fling them apart become substantially greater. Wing flexibility can reduce these forces and improve efficiency in some situations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shortis, Mark R.; Robson, Stuart; Jones, Thomas W.; Goad, William K.; Lunsford, Charles B.
2016-06-01
Aerospace engineers require measurements of the shape of aerodynamic surfaces and the six degree of freedom (6DoF) position and orientation of aerospace models to analyse structural dynamics and aerodynamic forces. The measurement technique must be non-contact, accurate, reliable, have a high sample rate and preferably be non-intrusive. Close range photogrammetry based on multiple, synchronised, commercial-off-the-shelf digital cameras can supply surface shape and 6DoF data at 5-15Hz with customisable accuracies. This paper describes data acquisition systems designed and implemented at NASA Langley Research Center to capture surface shapes and 6DoF data. System calibration and data processing techniques are discussed. Examples of experiments and data outputs are described.
Esophageal aerodynamics in an idealized experimental model of tracheoesophageal speech
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erath, Byron D.; Hemsing, Frank S.
2016-03-01
Flow behavior is investigated in the esophageal tract in an idealized experimental model of tracheoesophageal speech. The tracheoesophageal prosthesis is idealized as a first-order approximation using a straight, constant diameter tube. The flow is scaled according to Reynolds, Strouhal, and Euler numbers to ensure dynamic similarity. Flow pulsatility is produced by a driven orifice that approximates the kinematics of the pharyngoesophageal segment during tracheoesophageal speech. Particle image velocimetry data are acquired in three orthogonal planes as the flow exits the model prosthesis and enters the esophageal tract. Contrary to prior investigations performed in steady flow with the prosthesis oriented in-line with the flow direction, the fluid dynamics are shown to be highly unsteady, suggesting that the esophageal pressure field will be similarly complex. A large vortex ring is formed at the inception of each phonatory cycle, followed by the formation of a persistent jet. This vortex ring appears to remain throughout the entire cycle due to the continued production of vorticity resulting from entrainment between the prosthesis jet and the curved esophageal walls. Mean flow in the axial direction of the esophagus produces significant stretching of the vortex throughout the phonatory cycle. The stagnation point created by the jet impinging on the esophageal wall varies throughout the cycle due to fluctuations in the jet trajectory, which most likely arises due to flow separation within the model prosthesis. Applications to tracheoesophageal speech, including shortcomings of the model and proposed future plans, are discussed.
Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Modeling for High Lift Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, P. A.
1998-01-01
This phase is discussed in ('Non linear kappa - epsilon - upsilon(sup 2) modeling with application to high lift', Application of the kappa - epsilon -upsilon(sup 2) model to multi-component airfoils'). Further results are presented in 'Non-linear upsilon(sup 2) - f modeling with application to high-lift' The ADI solution method in the initial implementation was very slow to converge on multi-zone chimera meshes. I modified the INS implementation to use GMRES. This provided improved convergence and less need for user intervention in the solution process. There were some difficulties with implementation into the NASA compressible codes, due to their use of approximate factorization. The Helmholtz equation for f is not an evolution equation, so it is not of the form assumed by the approximate factorization method. Although The Kalitzin implementation involved a new solution algorithm ('An implementation of the upsilon(sup 2) - f model with application to transonic flows'). The algorithm involves introducing a relaxation term in the f-equation so that it can be factored. The factorization can be into a plane and a line, with GMRES used in the plane. The NASA code already evaluated coefficients in planes, so no additional memory is required except that associated the the GMRES algorithm. So the scope of this project has expanded via these interactions. . The high-lift work has dovetailed into turbine applications.
Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael
2013-11-01
This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.
CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rege, Alok Ashok
The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better
Analytical modeling of circuit aerodynamics in the new NASA Lewis wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, C. E.; Povinelli, L. A.; Kunik, W. G.; Muramoto, K. K.; Hughes, C. E.; Levy, R.
1985-01-01
Rehabilitation and extention of the capability of the altitude wind tunnel (AWT) was analyzed. The analytical modeling program involves the use of advanced axisymmetric and three dimensional viscous analyses to compute the flow through the various AWT components. Results for the analytical modeling of the high speed leg aerodynamics are presented; these include: an evaluation of the flow quality at the entrance to the test section, an investigation of the effects of test section bleed for different model blockages, and an examination of three dimensional effects in the diffuser due to reentry flow and due to the change in cross sectional shape of the exhaust scoop.
Analytical modeling of circuit aerodynamics in the new NASA Lewis Altitude Wind Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, C. E.; Povinelli, L. A.; Kunik, W. G.; Muramoti, K. K.; Hughes, C. E.; Levy, R.
1985-01-01
Rehabilitation and extention of the capability of the altitude wind tunnel (AWT) was analyzed. The analytical modelling program involves the use of advanced axisymmetric and three dimensional viscous analyses to compute the flow through the various AWT components. Results for the analytical modelling of the high speed leg aerodynamics are presented; these include: an evaluation of the flow quality at the entrance to the test section, an investigation of the effects of test section bleed for different model blockages, and an examination of three dimensional effects in the diffuser due to reentry flow and due to the change in cross sectional shape of the exhaust scoop.
Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.
Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab
2013-02-01
Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200
Calibrated Blade-Element/Momentum Theory Aerodynamic Model of the MARIN Stock Wind Turbine: Preprint
Goupee, A.; Kimball, R.; de Ridder, E. J.; Helder, J.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.
2015-04-02
In this paper, a calibrated blade-element/momentum theory aerodynamic model of the MARIN stock wind turbine is developed and documented. The model is created using open-source software and calibrated to closely emulate experimental data obtained by the DeepCwind Consortium using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. The provided model will be useful for those interested in validating interested in validating floating wind turbine numerical simulators that rely on experiments utilizing the MARIN stock wind turbine—for example, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30’s Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continued, with Correlation project.
Aerodynamics on a transport aircraft type wing-body model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitt, V.
1982-01-01
The DFLR-F4 wing-body combination is studied. The 1/38 model is formed by a 9.5 aspect ratio transonic wing and an Airbus A 310 fuselage. The F4 wing geometrical characteristics are described and the main experimental results obtained in the S2MA wind tunnel are discussed. Both wing-fuselage interferences and viscous effects, which are important on the wing due to a high rear loading, are investigated by performing 3D calculations. An attempt is made to find their limitations.
A finite element model of the tuning slot of labial organ pipes.
Rucz, Péter; Augusztinovicz, Fülöp; Angster, Judit; Preukschat, Tim; Miklós, András
2015-03-01
An acoustic model suitable for the characterization of tuning slots of labial organ pipes is presented in this paper. Since the tuning slot arrangement is similar (but not identical) to that of toneholes in woodwind instruments, the adaptability of the well-established tonehole model for the specific problem is examined. A numerical model utilizing the finite element (FE) and perfectly matched layer techniques is set up for the simulation of tuning slots with design parameters varying over a wide range. Analytical tonehole models and the proposed numerical tuning slot model are both combined with analytical one-dimensional waveguide models to predict the acoustic behavior of tuning slot pipes. Comparison to measurements carried out on experimental pipes proves that the hybrid waveguide/FE model can predict the most important properties of the tuning slot pipe with good accuracy. The finite element method (FEM) also overcomes the limitations of traditional tonehole models relying on the equivalent T-circuit approximation. By means of the FE model the eigenfrequency-structure and its impact on the character of the sound can be foretold in the design phase, by which a more efficient scaling of tuning slot pipes can be achieved. PMID:25786936
Accuracy of Aerodynamic Model Parameters Estimated from Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav
1997-01-01
An important put of building mathematical models based on measured date is calculating the accuracy associated with statistical estimates of the model parameters. Indeed, without some idea of this accuracy, the parameter estimates themselves have limited value. An expression is developed for computing quantitatively correct parameter accuracy measures for maximum likelihood parameter estimates when the output residuals are colored. This result is important because experience in analyzing flight test data reveals that the output residuals from maximum likelihood estimation are almost always colored. The calculations involved can be appended to conventional maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Monte Carlo simulation runs were used to show that parameter accuracy measures from the new technique accurately reflect the quality of the parameter estimates from maximum likelihood estimation without the need for correction factors or frequency domain analysis of the output residuals. The technique was applied to flight test data from repeated maneuvers flown on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. As in the simulated cases, parameter accuracy measures from the new technique were in agreement with the scatter in the parameter estimates from repeated maneuvers, whereas conventional parameter accuracy measures were optimistic.
Assessment of CFD-based Response Surface Model for Ares I Supersonic Ascent Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanke, Jeremy L.
2011-01-01
The Ascent Force and Moment Aerodynamic (AFMA) Databases (DBs) for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) were typically based on wind tunnel (WT) data, with increments provided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for aspects of the vehicle that could not be tested in the WT tests. During the Design Analysis Cycle 3 analysis for the outer mold line (OML) geometry designated A106, a major tunnel mishap delayed the WT test for supersonic Mach numbers (M) greater than 1.6 in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, and the test delay pushed the final delivery of the A106 AFMA DB back by several months. The aero team developed an interim database based entirely on the already completed CFD simulations to mitigate the impact of the delay. This CFD-based database used a response surface methodology based on radial basis functions to predict the aerodynamic coefficients for M > 1.6 based on only the CFD data from both WT and flight Reynolds number conditions. The aero team used extensive knowledge of the previous AFMA DB for the A103 OML to guide the development of the CFD-based A106 AFMA DB. This report details the development of the CFD-based A106 Supersonic AFMA DB, constructs a prediction of the database uncertainty using data available at the time of development, and assesses the overall quality of the CFD-based DB both qualitatively and quantitatively. This assessment confirms that a reasonable aerodynamic database can be constructed for launch vehicles at supersonic conditions using only CFD data if sufficient knowledge of the physics and expected behavior is available. This report also demonstrates the applicability of non-parametric response surface modeling using radial basis functions for development of aerodynamic databases that exhibit both linear and non-linear behavior throughout a large data space.
Progressive Aerodynamic Model Identification From Dynamic Water Tunnel Test of the F-16XL Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Szyba, Nathan M.
2004-01-01
Development of a general aerodynamic model that is adequate for predicting the forces and moments in the nonlinear and unsteady portions of the flight envelope has not been accomplished to a satisfactory degree. Predicting aerodynamic response during arbitrary motion of an aircraft over the complete flight envelope requires further development of the mathematical model and the associated methods for ground-based testing in order to allow identification of the model. In this study, a general nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic model is presented, followed by a summary of a linear modeling methodology that includes test and identification methods, and then a progressive series of steps suggesting a roadmap to develop a general nonlinear methodology that defines modeling, testing, and identification methods. Initial steps of the general methodology were applied to static and oscillatory test data to identify rolling-moment coefficient. Static measurements uncovered complicated dependencies of the aerodynamic coefficient on angle of attack and sideslip in the stall region making it difficult to find a simple analytical expression for the measurement data. In order to assess the effect of sideslip on the damping and unsteady terms, oscillatory tests in roll were conducted at different values of an initial offset in sideslip. Candidate runs for analyses were selected where higher order harmonics were required for the model and where in-phase and out-of-phase components varied with frequency. From these results it was found that only data in the angle-of-attack range of 35 degrees to 37.5 degrees met these requirements. From the limited results it was observed that the identified models fit the data well and both the damping-in-roll and the unsteady term gain are decreasing with increasing sideslip and motion amplitude. Limited similarity between parameter values in the nonlinear model and the linear model suggest that identifiability of parameters in both terms may be a
Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi
2007-01-01
The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.
Effective Inflow Conditions for Turbulence Models in Aerodynamic Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2007-01-01
The selection of inflow values at boundaries far upstream of an aircraft is considered, for one- and two-equation turbulence models. Inflow values are distinguished from the ambient values near the aircraft, which may be much smaller. Ambient values should be selected first, and inflow values that will lead to them after the decay second; this is not always possible, especially for the time scale. The two-equation decay during the approach to the aircraft is shown; often, the time scale has been set too short for this decay to be calculated accurately on typical grids. A simple remedy for both issues is to impose floor values for the turbulence variables, outside the viscous sublayer, and it is argued that overriding the equations in this manner is physically justified. Selecting laminar ambient values is easy, if the boundary layers are to be tripped, but a more common practice is to seek ambient values that will cause immediate transition in boundary layers. This opens up a wide range of values, and selection criteria are discussed. The turbulent Reynolds number, or ratio of eddy viscosity to laminar viscosity has a huge dynamic range that makes it unwieldy; it has been widely mis-used, particularly by codes that set upper limits on it. The value of turbulent kinetic energy in a wind tunnel or the atmosphere is also of dubious value as an input to the model. Concretely, the ambient eddy viscosity must be small enough to preserve potential cores in small geometry features, such as flap gaps. The ambient frequency scale should also be small enough, compared with shear rates in the boundary layer. Specific values are recommended and demonstrated for airfoil flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, K.; Komuro, T.; Tanno, H.; Ueda, S.; Itoh, K.; Kuchiishi, S.; Watanabe, S.
Force measurement of a standard model HB-2 was performed in high enthalpy shock tunnel HIEST to study its aerodynamic characteristics. The force measurement results were compared with that obtained in conventional 1.27m hypersonic wind tunnel HWT1. The comparison showed that HIEST results agreed well with that of HWT1 in case of low enthalpy condition. The real gas effect on aerodynamic characteristics was also studied in case of high enthalpy condition.
Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saberi, H. A.
1983-01-01
The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Turbomachinery Aeroelastic and Aeroacoustic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Ayer, Timothy C.
1995-01-01
Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows of axial-flow turbomachines. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of the blading. The emphasis has been placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, high Reynolds number flows driven by small amplitude unsteady excitations have been considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations and lead to a better understanding of the relevant flow physics. In addition, they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for use in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies. Under the present effort, inviscid interaction and linearized inviscid unsteady flow models have been formulated, and inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic steady and unsteady cascade flows have been developed. In this report, we describe the linearized inviscid unsteady analysis, LINFLO, the steady inviscid/viscid interaction analysis, SFLOW-IVI, and the unsteady viscous layer analysis, UNSVIS. These analyses are demonstrated via application to unsteady flows through compressor and turbine cascades that are excited by prescribed vortical and acoustic excitations and by prescribed blade vibrations. Recommendations are also given for the future research needed for extending and improving the foregoing asymptotic analyses, and to meet the goal of providing efficient inviscid/viscid interaction capabilities for subsonic and transonic unsteady cascade flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Lanza, Luca; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda
2016-04-01
Accurate rainfall measurement is a fundamental requirement in a broad range of applications including flood risk and water resource management. The most widely used method of measuring rainfall is the rain gauge, which is often also considered to be the most accurate. In the context of hydrological modelling, measurements from rain gauges are interpolated to produce an areal representation, which forms an important input to drive hydrological models and calibrate rainfall radars. In each stage of this process another layer of uncertainty is introduced. The initial measurement errors are propagated through the chain, compounding the overall uncertainty. This study looks at the fundamental source of error, in the rainfall measurement itself; and specifically addresses the largest of these, the systematic 'wind-induced' error. Snowfall is outside the scope. The shape of a precipitation gauge significantly affects its collection efficiency (CE), with respect to a reference measurement. This is due to the airflow around the gauge, which causes a deflection in the trajectories of the raindrops near the gauge orifice. Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to evaluate the time-averaged airflows realized around the EML ARG100, EML SBS500 and EML Kalyx-RG rain gauges, when impacted by wind. These gauges have a similar aerodynamic profile - a shape comparable to that of a champagne flute - and they are used globally. The funnel diameter of each gauge, respectively, is 252mm, 254mm and 127mm. The SBS500 is used by the UK Met Office and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of comparison are provided by the results obtained for standard rain gauge shapes manufactured by Casella and OTT which, respectively, have a uniform and a tapered cylindrical shape. The simulations were executed for five different wind speeds; 2, 5, 7, 10 and 18 ms-1. Results indicate that aerodynamic gauges have a different impact on the time-averaged airflow patterns
Validation of aerodynamic parameters at high angles of attack for RAE high incidence research models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, A. Jean; Edwards, Geraldine F.; Klein, Vladislav; Batterson, James G.
1987-01-01
Two series of free-flight tests have been conducted for combat aircraft configuration research models in order to investigate flight behavior near departure conditions as well as to obtain response data from which aerodynamic characteristics can be derived. The structure of the mathematical model and values for the mathematical derivatives have been obtained through an analysis of the first series, using stepwise regression. The results thus obtained are the bases of the design of active control laws. Flight test results for a novel configuration are compared with predicted responses.
Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2014-01-01
Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.
Actuator and aerodynamic modeling for high-angle-of-attack aeroservoelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brenner, Martin J.
1993-01-01
Accurate prediction of airframe/actuation coupling is required by the imposing demands of modern flight control systems. In particular, for agility enhancement at high angle of attack and low dynamic pressure, structural integration characteristics such as hinge moments, effective actuator stiffness, and airframe/control surface damping can have a significant effect on stability predictions. Actuator responses are customarily represented with low-order transfer functions matched to actuator test data, and control surface stiffness is often modeled as a linear spring. The inclusion of the physical properties of actuation and its installation on the airframe is therefore addressed in this paper using detailed actuator models which consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation. The aeroservoelastic analysis procedure is described in which the actuators are modeled as detailed high-order transfer functions and as approximate low-order transfer functions. The impacts of unsteady aerodynamic modeling on aeroservoelastic stability are also investigated in this paper by varying the order of approximation, or number of aerodynamic lag states, in the analysis. Test data from a thrust-vectoring configuration of an F/A-18 aircraft are compared to predictions to determine the effects on accuracy as a function of modeling complexity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhlman, J. M.
1979-01-01
The aerodynamic design of a wind-tunnel model of a wing representative of that of a subsonic jet transport aircraft, fitted with winglets, was performed using two recently developed optimal wing-design computer programs. Both potential flow codes use a vortex lattice representation of the near-field of the aerodynamic surfaces for determination of the required mean camber surfaces for minimum induced drag, and both codes use far-field induced drag minimization procedures to obtain the required spanloads. One code uses a discrete vortex wake model for this far-field drag computation, while the second uses a 2-D advanced panel wake model. Wing camber shapes for the two codes are very similar, but the resulting winglet camber shapes differ widely. Design techniques and considerations for these two wind-tunnel models are detailed, including a description of the necessary modifications of the design geometry to format it for use by a numerically controlled machine for the actual model construction.
Actuator and aerodynamic modeling for high-angle-of-attack aeroservoelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brenner, Martin J.
1993-01-01
Accurate prediction of airframe/actuation coupling is required by the imposing demands of modern flight control systems. In particular, for agility enhancement at high angle of attack and low dynamic pressure, structural integration characteristics such as hinge moments, effective actuator stiffness, and airframe/control surface damping can have a significant effect on stability predictions. Actuator responses are customarily represented with low-order transfer functions matched to actuator test data, and control surface stiffness is often modeled as a linear spring. The inclusion of the physical properties of actuation and its installation on the airframe is therefore addressed using detailed actuator models which consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation. The aeroservoelastic analysis procedure is described in which the actuators are modeled as detailed high-order transfer functions and as approximate low-order transfer functions. The impacts of unsteady aerodynamic modeling on aeroservoelastic stability are also investigated by varying the order of approximation, or number of aerodynamic lag states, in the analysis. Test data from a thrust-vectoring configuration of an F/A-l8 aircraft are compared to predictions to determine the effects on accuracy as a function of modeling complexity.
Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.
2005-01-01
A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research aircraft was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW aircraft and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.
Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Shah, Gautam H.; Murphy, Patrick C.
2012-01-01
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5 percent scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from alpha = -5deg to 85deg and beta = -45 deg to 45 deg at a Reynolds number of 0.24 x10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5 percent scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5 percent scale GTM. The addition of the large, glaze-horn type ice shapes did result in an increase in airplane drag coefficient but had little effect on the lift and pitching moment. The lateral-directional characteristics showed mixed results with a small effect of the ice shapes observed in some cases. The flow visualization images revealed the presence and evolution of a spanwise-running vortex on the wing that was the dominant feature of the flowfield for both clean and iced configurations. The lack of ice-induced performance and flowfield effects observed in this effort was likely due to Reynolds number effects for the clean configuration. Estimates of full-scale baseline performance were included in this analysis to illustrate the potential icing effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesnik, C. E. S.; Opoku, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.; Cheng, T.
2004-06-01
An active aeroelastic and aeroacoustic analysis of helicopter rotor systems is presented in this paper. It is a tightly coupled computational aeroelastic code that interfaces a particle-wake panel method code with an active nonlinear mixed variational intrinsic beam element code. In addition, a Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equation-based acoustic component is incorporated to complete the numerical implementation. The theory behind each component is summarized here as well as the method for coupling the aerodynamic and structural components. Sample acoustic and aeroelastic results are given for different model-scale rotors. Comparisons with available (passive) results show very good agreement. Preliminary study with an active twist rotor is also shown.
PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishita, Sadao
2010-02-01
The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan
2016-01-01
The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).
Flight testing a V/STOL aircraft to identify a full-envelope aerodynamic model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnally, B. David; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.
1988-01-01
Flight-test techniques are being used to generate a data base for identification of a full-envelope aerodynamic model of a V/STOL fighter aircraft, the YAV-8B Harrier. The flight envelope to be modeled includes hover, transition to conventional flight and back to hover, STOL operation, and normal cruise. Standard V/STOL procedures such as vertical takeoff and landings, and short takeoff and landings are used to gather data in the powered-lift flight regime. Long (3 to 5 min) maneuvers which include a variety of input types are used to obtain large-amplitude control and response excitations. The aircraft is under continuous radar tracking; a laser tracker is used for V/STOL operations near the ground. Tracking data are used with state-estimation techniques to check data consistency and to derive unmeasured variables, for example, angular accelerations. A propulsion model of the YAV-8B's engine and reaction control system is used to isolate aerodynamic forces and moments for model identification. Representative V/STOL flight data are presented. The processing of a typical short takeoff and slow landing maneuver is illustrated.
Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, Christopher E.
2001-01-01
The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.
Simplified Aerodynamic and Structural Modeling for Oblique All-Wing Aircraft. Phase 2: Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroo, Ilan (Principal Investigator)
1994-01-01
Any aircraft preliminary design study requires a structural model of the proposed configuration. The model must be capable of estimating the structural weight of a given configuration, and of predicting the deflections which will result from foreseen flight and ground loads. The present work develops such a model for the proposed Oblique All Wing airplane. The model is based on preliminary structural work done by Jack Williams and Peter Rudolph at Mdng, and is encoded in a FORTRAN program. As a stand-alone application, the program can calculate the weight CG location, and several types of structural deflections; used in conjunction with an aerodynamics model, the program can be used for mission analysis or sizing studies.
Modeling of Longitudinal Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-Tail Combination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav
1999-01-01
Aerodynamic equations for the longitudinal motion of an aircraft with a horizontal tail were developed. In this development emphasis was given on obtaining model structure suitable for model identification from experimental data. The resulting aerodynamic models included unsteady effects in the form of linear indicial functions. These functions represented responses in the lift on the wing and tail alone, and interference between those two lifting surfaces. The effect of the wing on the tail was formulated for two different expressions concerning the downwash angle at the tail. The first expression used the Cowley-Glauert approximation known-as "lag-in-downwash," the second took into account growth of the wing circulation and delay in the development of the lift on the tail. Both approaches were demonstrated in two examples using the geometry of a fighter aircraft and a large transport. It was shown that the differences in the two downwash formulations would increase for an aircraft with long tail arm performing low-speed, rapid maneuvers.
Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cozzolongo, J. V.
1984-01-01
The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.
Flow Quality Measurements in an Aerodynamic Model of NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canacci, Victor A.; Gonsalez, Jose C.
1999-01-01
As part of an ongoing effort to improve the aerodynamic flow characteristics of the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), a modular scale model of the facility was fabricated. This 1/10th-scale model was used to gain further understanding of the flow characteristics in the IRT. The model was outfitted with instrumentation and data acquisition systems to determine pressures, velocities, and flow angles in the settling chamber and test section. Parametric flow quality studies involving the insertion and removal of a model of the IRT's distinctive heat exchanger (cooler) and/or of a honeycomb in the settling chamber were performed. These experiments illustrate the resulting improvement or degradation in flow quality.
Moving-model technique used in automobile aerodynamics for measurement of ground effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papenfuss, H. D.; Kronast, M.
1991-05-01
Efforts are currently underway in many laboratories to simulate correctly the ground effects which occur in windtunnels used for studies in automobile aerodynamics. An experimental approach which is sometimes used, the moving belt technique, is both complicated and expensive. On the other hand, if the model is rapidly accelerated along a stationary rail by a pneumatic launch system, the relative motion between the car and the road is simulated in an optimum manner with less effort and lower costs. The practical advantages and disadvantages of the moving-model technique in comparison with the moving belt in a windtunnel are discussed. Using a two-dimensional model car, the effect of the ground on the body pressure distribution was investigated. In addition, the distribution of the pressure on the surface of the ground board and the velocity profiles underneath the model were measured.
A simple analytical aerodynamic model of Langley Winged-Cone Aerospace Plane concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pamadi, Bandu N.
1994-01-01
A simple three DOF analytical aerodynamic model of the Langley Winged-Coned Aerospace Plane concept is presented in a form suitable for simulation, trajectory optimization, and guidance and control studies. The analytical model is especially suitable for methods based on variational calculus. Analytical expressions are presented for lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and angles of attack up to +/- 20 deg. This analytical model has break points at Mach numbers of 1.0, 1.4, 4.0, and 6.0. Across these Mach number break points, the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are made continuous but their derivatives are not. There are no break points in angle of attack. The effect of control surface deflection is not considered. The present analytical model compares well with the APAS calculations and wind tunnel test data for most angles of attack and Mach numbers.
Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.
2014-06-01
Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.
SUSY models under siege: LHC constraints and electroweak fine-tuning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Mickelson, Dan; Padeffke-Kirkland, Maren
2014-06-01
Recent null results from LHC8 supersymmetry (SUSY) searches along with the discovery of a standard model (SM)-like Higgs boson with mass mh≃125.5 GeV indicates sparticle masses in the TeV range, causing tension with conventional measures of electroweak fine-tuning. We propose a simple fine-tuning rule which should be followed under any credible evaluation of fine-tuning. We believe that overestimates of electroweak fine-tuning by conventional measures all arise from violations of this rule. We show that to gain accord with the fine-tuning rule, then both the Higgs mass and the traditional ΔBG fine-tuning measures reduce to the model-independent electroweak fine-tuning measure ΔEW. This occurs by combining dependent contributions to mZ or mh into independent units. Then, using ΔEW, we evaluate EW fine-tuning for a variety of SUSY models including mSUGRA, NUHM1, NUHM2, mGMSB, mAMSB, hyper-charged AMSB, gaugino AMSB and nine cases of mixed moduli-anomaly (mirage) mediated SUSY breaking models while respecting LHC Higgs mass and B-decay constraints (we do not impose LHC8 sparticle mass constraints due to the possibility of compressed spectra within many of these models). We find mSUGRA, mGMSB and the AMSB models all to be highly fine-tuned. The NUHM1 model is moderately fine-tuned while NUHM2 which allows for radiatively driven naturalness (RNS) allows for fine-tuning at a meager 10% level in the case where m(Higgsinos)˜100-200 GeV and the TeV-scale top squarks are well mixed. Models with RNS may or may not be detectable at LHC14. A √s ˜500 GeV e+e- collider will be required to make a definitive search for the requisite light Higgsinos.
Aerodynamic analysis of natural flapping flight using a lift model based on spanwise flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alford, Lionel D., Jr.
This study successfully described the mechanics of flapping hovering flight within the framework of conventional aerodynamics. Additionally, the theory proposed and supported by this research provides an entirely new way of looking at animal flapping flight. The mechanisms of biological flight are not well understood, and researchers have not been able to describe them using conventional aerodynamic forces. This study proposed that natural flapping flight can be broken down into a simplest model, that this model can then be used to develop a mathematical representation of flapping hovering flight, and finally, that the model can be successfully refined and compared to biological flapping data. This paper proposed a unique theory that the lift of a flapping animal is primarily the result of velocity across the cambered span of the wing. A force analysis was developed using centripetal acceleration to define an acceleration profile that would lead to a spanwise velocity profile. The force produced by the spanwise velocity profile was determined using a computational fluid dynamics analysis of flow on the simplified wing model. The overall forces on the model were found to produce more than twice the lift required for hovering flight. In addition, spanwise lift was shown to generate induced drag on the wing. Induced drag increased both the model wing's lift and drag. The model allowed the development of a mathematical representation that could be refined to account for insect hovering characteristics and that could predict expected physical attributes of the fluid flow. This computational representation resulted in a profile of lift and drag production that corresponds to known force profiles for insect flight. The model of flapping flight was shown to produce results similar to biological observation and experiment, and these results can potentially be applied to the study of other flapping animals. This work provides a foundation on which to base further exploration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murch, Austin M.; Foster, John V.
2007-01-01
A simulation study was conducted to investigate aerodynamic modeling methods for prediction of post-stall flight dynamics of large transport airplanes. The research approach involved integrating dynamic wind tunnel data from rotary balance and forced oscillation testing with static wind tunnel data to predict aerodynamic forces and moments during highly dynamic departure and spin motions. Several state-of-the-art aerodynamic modeling methods were evaluated and predicted flight dynamics using these various approaches were compared. Results showed the different modeling methods had varying effects on the predicted flight dynamics and the differences were most significant during uncoordinated maneuvers. Preliminary wind tunnel validation data indicated the potential of the various methods for predicting steady spin motions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, J. J.
1999-01-01
This paper presents the terms of an Educational grant for Model Building 101. The terms of the grant includes the following: 1) 4 Training sessions of one week each (5 days/6 nights) at: Dryden, Langley, Lewis, and the California Museum of Science and Industry; 2) The sessions were to be attended by local educators, solicited and secured by NASA; 3) The cooperative program of MB101 and NASA was to set up a course for middle school students to learn aerodynamics through the building and flying of specialized small model airplanes. This program was already operating successfully on a local level through MB101 in Marietta, Georgia and was published monthly in Model Builder Magazine. MB101 supplies information for schools and groups throughout the country; and 4) Video and art department facilities of NASA were promised to be made available to MB101 for the preparation of instructional videos and preparation of training manuals.
Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads with a constant vorticity contour free wake model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.
1991-01-01
An analytical method is presented which facilitates the study of isolated rotors with an improved approach to wake simulation. Vortex filaments are simulated along contours of constant sheet strength for the sheet of vorticity resulting from each rotor blade. Curved vortex elements comprise the filaments which can be distorted by the local velocity field. Called the Constant Vorticity Contour wake model, the approach permits the simulation of the blades' wakes corresponding to the full span of the rotor blade. The discretization of the wake of the rotor blade produces spacing and structure that are consistent with the spatial and temporal variations in the loading. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the blade is also included which introduces a finite-element structural model of the blade and consideration of the force and moment trim analysis. Results of the present version of the simulation, called RotorCRAFT, are found to correlate well with H-34 flight-test data.
Srygley, Robert B.
2004-01-01
Bates hypothesized that some butterfly species that are palatable gain protection from predation by appearing similar to distasteful butterflies. When undisturbed, distasteful butterflies fly slowly and in a straight line, and palatable Batesian mimics also adopt this nonchalant behaviour. When seized by predators, distasteful butterflies are defended by toxic or nauseous chemicals. Lacking chemical defences, Batesian mimics depend on flight to escape attacks. Here, I demonstrate that flight in warning-coloured mimetic butterflies and their distasteful models is more costly than in closely related non-mimetic butterflies. The increased cost is the result of differences in both wing shape and kinematics. Batesian mimics and their models slow the angular velocity of their wings to enhance the colour signal but at an aerodynamic cost. Moreover, the design for flight in Batesian mimics has an additional energetic cost over that of its models. The added cost may cause Batesian mimics to be rare, explaining a general pattern that Bates first observed. PMID:15156916
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, Jay M.; Foster, John V.
1998-01-01
As airplane designs have trended toward the expansion of flight envelopes into the high angle of attack and high angular rate regimes, concerns regarding modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation have arisen. Most current modeling methods still rely on traditional body axis damping coefficients that are measured using techniques which were intended for relatively benign flight conditions. This paper presents recent wind tunnel results obtained during large-amplitude pitch, roll and yaw testing of several fighter airplane configurations. A review of the similitude requirements for applying sub-scale test results to full-scale conditions is presented. Data is then shown to be a strong function of Strouhal number - both the traditional damping terms, but also the associated static stability terms. Additionally, large effects of sideslip are seen in the damping parameter that should be included in simulation math models. Finally, an example of the inclusion of frequency effects on the data in a simulation is shown.
Computational modeling of orientation tuning dynamics in monkey primary visual cortex.
Pugh, M C; Ringach, D L; Shapley, R; Shelley, M J
2000-01-01
In the primate visual pathway, orientation tuning of neurons is first observed in the primary visual cortex. The LGN cells that comprise the thalamic input to V1 are not orientation tuned, but some V1 neurons are quite selective. Two main classes of theoretical models have been offered to explain orientation selectivity: feedforward models, in which inputs from spatially aligned LGN cells are summed together by one cortical neuron; and feedback models, in which an initial weak orientation bias due to convergent LGN input is sharpened and amplified by intracortical feedback. Recent data on the dynamics of orientation tuning, obtained by a cross-correlation technique, may help to distinguish between these classes of models. To test this possibility, we simulated the measurement of orientation tuning dynamics on various receptive field models, including a simple Hubel-Wiesel type feedforward model: a linear spatiotemporal filter followed by an integrate-and-fire spike generator. The computational study reveals that simple feedforward models may account for some aspects of the experimental data but fail to explain many salient features of orientation tuning dynamics in V1 cells. A simple feedback model of interacting cells is also considered. This model is successful in explaining the appearance of Mexican-hat orientation profiles, but other features of the data continue to be unexplained. PMID:10798599
A parametric model and estimation techniques for the inharmonicity and tuning of the piano.
Rigaud, François; David, Bertrand; Daudet, Laurent
2013-05-01
Inharmonicity of piano tones is an essential property of their timbre that strongly influences the tuning, leading to the so-called octave stretching. It is proposed in this paper to jointly model the inharmonicity and tuning of pianos on the whole compass. While using a small number of parameters, these models are able to reflect both the specificities of instrument design and tuner's practice. An estimation algorithm is derived that can run either on a set of isolated note recordings, but also on chord recordings, assuming that the played notes are known. It is applied to extract parameters highlighting some tuner's choices on different piano types and to propose tuning curves for out-of-tune pianos or piano synthesizers. PMID:23654413
Improving the fine tuning in models of low energy gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agashe, K.; Graesser, M.
1997-02-01
The fine tuning in models of low energy gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking required to btain the correct Z mass is quantified. To alleviate the fine tuning problem, a model with split ( 5 + overline5) messenger fields is presented. This model has additional triplets in the low energy theory which get a mass of O(500) GeV from a coupling to a singlet. The improvement in fine tuning is quantified and the spectrum in this model is discussed. The same model with the above singlet coupled to the Higgs doublets to generate the μ term is also discussed. A Grand Unified version of the model is constructed and a known doublet-triplet splitting mechanism is used to split the messenger (5 + overline5)' s. A complete model is presented and some phenomenological constraints are discussed.
A method of infrared imaging missile's aerodynamic heating modeling and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Chunqin; Xiang, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Weiqiang
2013-09-01
The infrared (IR) imaging missile's dome will be heated when fly at high speed in the atmosphere because of the friction of the air flow blocking. The detector's performance will be decline if the dome surface is heated to a certain temperature. In this paper, we find a right way to evaluate the aerothermal effects in the imaging and information processing algorithm. Which have three steps including the aerothermal radiation calculation, quantization and image reconstruction. Firstly, the aerothermal radiation is calculated by using a combination of both methods of theoretical analysis and experiment data. Secondly, the relationship between aerothermal radiation and IR images background mean gray and noise can be calculated through the analysis of the experiment data. At last, we can rebuild an aerodynamic heating effect of infrared images fusion with target and decoy, which can be used for virtual prototyping platform missile trajectory simulation. It can be found that the above constructed images have good agreements with the actual image according to comparison between the simulation data and experiment data. It is an economic method that can solve the lab aerodynamic heating simulation and modeling problems.
Modeling and Simulation of Aerodynamic Single Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, Dmitri; Font, Gabriel
2008-11-01
This work presents different approaches to modeling of the plasma actuator, an electrical flow control device, which is now widely used in aerodynamics for separation control, lift enhancement, drag reduction and flight control without moving surfaces. Study of the physics of the discharge in air at atmospheric pressure was performed using particle (PIC-DSMC) and fluid plasma simulations. Based on the experimentally obtained data electro-static and lumped-element circuit models were developed for engineering purposes. Numerical flow simulations were performed to study the effect of the plasma body force on the neutral fluid. The results agreed well with the experiments. An application of the plasma actuators to the leading-edge separation control on the NACA 0021 airfoil was studied numerically. The results were obtained for a range of angles of attack. Improvement in the airfoil characteristics was observed in numerical simulations at high angles of attack in cases with plasma actuation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. G., Jr.
1975-01-01
The low-speed aerodynamic characteristics are investigated of a general research model - a swept-wing, jet-powered STOL transport with externally blown flaps. The model was tested with four-engine simulators mounted on pylons under the 9.3-percent-thick supercritical airfoil wing. Two sets of air ejectors were used to provide data with large and small engines. Tests were conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel over an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 22 deg and a thrust-coefficient range from 0 to approximately 4. The effects are described of power, wing leading-edge slat configuration, T-tail and low horizontal-tail positions, and double-slotted flap deflection. Additional untrimmed and trimmed engine-out data and tail-body data are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladeinde, Foluso; Alabi, Ken; Li, Wenhai
2015-11-01
The problem of generating design data for the operation of a farm of wind turbines for clean energy production is quite complicated, if properly done. Potential flow theories provide some models, but these are not suitable for the massive aerodynamic separation and turbulence that characterize many realistic wind turbine applications. Procedures, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can potentially resolve some of the accuracy problems with the purely theoretical approach, are quite expensive to use, and often prohibit real-time design and control. In our work, we seek affordable and acceptably-accurate models derived from the foregoing approaches. The simulation used in our study is based on high-fidelity CFD, meaning that we use high-order (compact-scheme based), mostly large-eddy simulation methods, with due regards for the proper treatment of the stochastic inflow turbulence data. Progress on the project described herein will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Jack N.
1988-01-01
The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.
CFD modelling of the aerodynamic effect of trees on urban air pollution dispersion.
Amorim, J H; Rodrigues, V; Tavares, R; Valente, J; Borrego, C
2013-09-01
The current work evaluates the impact of urban trees over the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by road traffic, due to the induced modification of the wind flow characteristics. With this purpose, the standard flow equations with a kε closure for turbulence were extended with the capability to account for the aerodynamic effect of trees over the wind field. Two CFD models were used for testing this numerical approach. Air quality simulations were conducted for two periods of 31h in selected areas of Lisbon and Aveiro, in Portugal, for distinct relative wind directions: approximately 45° and nearly parallel to the main avenue, respectively. The statistical evaluation of modelling performance and uncertainty revealed a significant improvement of results with trees, as shown by the reduction of the NMSE from 0.14 to 0.10 in Lisbon, and from 0.14 to 0.04 in Aveiro, which is independent from the CFD model applied. The consideration of the plant canopy allowed to fulfil the data quality objectives for ambient air quality modelling established by the Directive 2008/50/EC, with an important decrease of the maximum deviation between site measurements and CFD results. In the non-aligned wind situation an average 12% increase of the CO concentrations in the domain was observed as a response to the aerodynamic action of trees over the vertical exchange rates of polluted air with the above roof-level atmosphere; while for the aligned configuration an average 16% decrease was registered due to the enhanced ventilation of the street canyon. These results show that urban air quality can be optimised based on knowledge-based planning of green spaces. PMID:23751336
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Dibin; Roberts, Stephen; Mouille, Thomas; Tudor, Michael J.; Beeby, Stephen P.
2012-10-01
This paper presents a general model and its experimental validation for electrically tunable electromagnetic energy harvesters. Electrical tuning relies on the adjustment of the electrical load so that the maximum output power of the energy harvester occurs at a frequency which is different from the mechanical resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Theoretical analysis shows that for this approach to be feasible the electromagnetic vibration energy harvester’s coupling factor must be maximized so that its resonant frequency can be tuned with the minimum decrease of output power. Two different-sized electromagnetic energy harvesters were built and tested to validate the model. Experimentally, the micro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 0.0035 and an untuned resonant frequency of 70.05 Hz. When excited at 30 mg, it was tuned by 0.23 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 4000 nF its effective tuning range is 0.15 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1500 nF. The macro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 552.25 and an untuned resonant frequency of 95.1 Hz and 95.5 Hz when excited at 10 mg and 25 mg, respectively. When excited at 10 mg, it was tuned by 3.8 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of 3.5 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1200 nF. When excited at 25 mg, its resonant frequency was tuned by 4.2 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of about 5 Hz. Experimental results were found to agree with the theoretical analysis to within 10%.
Partitioning of flight data for aerodynamic modeling of aircraft at high angles of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batterson, James G.; Klein, Vladislav
1987-01-01
It is sometimes necessary to determine aerodynamic model structure and estimate associated stability and control derivatives for airplanes from flight data that cover a large range of angle of attack or sideslip. One method of dealing with that problem is through data partitioning. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of a data partitioning procedure and its application and to discuss both the power and limitations of that procedure for the analysis of large maneuvers of aircraft. The partitioning methodology is shown to provide estimates for coefficients of those regressors that are well excited in the aircraft motion. In particular, primary lateral stability and damping derivatives are identified throughout the maneuver ranges.
Harloff, G.J.
1985-09-01
A theoretical aerodynamic model of lift and drag forces on a flat plate at angle of attack and at hypersonic speeds is presented. Real gas effects and friction drag are accounted for. Theoretical results are presented as a function of the viscous interaction parameter. The performance for two geometries is presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Low dimensional state-space representations for classical unsteady aerodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunton, Steven L.; Rowley, Clarence W.
2010-11-01
This work develops reduced order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a small wing in response to agile maneuvers and gusts. In particular, the classical unsteady models of Wagner and Theodorsen are cast into a low-dimensional state-space framework. Low order state-space models are more computationally efficient than the classical formulations, and are well suited for modification with nonlinear dynamics and the application of control techniques. Reduced order models are obtained using the eigensystem realization algorithm on force data from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a pitching or plunging 2D flat plate at Reynolds numbers between 100 and 1000. Models are tested on rapid pitch and plunge maneuvers with a range of effective angle-of-attack. We evaluate the performance of the models based on agreement with results from DNS, in particular, the ability to reproduce lift forces over a range of pitching and plunging frequencies. Bode plots of the reduced order models, Wagner's and Theodorsen's methods, and DNS provide a concise assessment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgrath, Brian E.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Oneil, Pat
1994-01-01
A flat-plate wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter configuration was tested in the NASA LaRC Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel and the 16- by 24-inch Water Tunnel. The test objectives were to obtain and evaluate the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a candidate configuration for the integration of several new innovative wing designs. The flat plate test allowed for the initial evaluation of the candidate planform and was designated as the baseline planform for the innovative wing design study. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of freestream dynamic pressures from 7.5 psf to 30 psf (M = 0.07 to M = 0.14) and angles-of-attack from 0 to 40 deg. The aerodynamic data are presented in coefficient form for the lift, induced drag, and pitching moment. Flow-visualization results obtained were photographs of the flow pattern over the flat plate model in the water tunnel for angles-of-attack from 10 to 40 deg. The force and moment coefficients and the flow-visualization photographs showed the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics due to attached flow and vortical flow over the flat plate model. Comparison between experiment and linear theory showed good agreement for the lift and induced drag; however, the agreement was poor for the pitching moment.
Does inflation solve the hot big bang model's fine-tuning problems?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCoy, C. D.
2015-08-01
Cosmological inflation is widely considered an integral and empirically successful component of contemporary cosmology. It was originally motivated (and usually still is) by its solution of certain so-called fine-tuning problems of the hot big bang model, particularly what are known as the horizon problem and the flatness problem. Although the physics behind these problems is clear enough, the nature of the problems depends on the sense in which the hot big bang model is fine-tuned and how the alleged fine-tuning is problematic. Without clear explications of these, it remains unclear precisely what problems inflationary theory is meant to be solving and whether it does in fact solve them. I analyze the structure of these problems and consider various interpretations that may substantiate the alleged fine-tuning. On the basis of this analysis I argue that at present there is no unproblematic interpretation available for which it can be said that inflation solves the big bang model's alleged fine-tuning problems.
Effect of longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Jooha; Kim, Heesu; Lee, Sang-Im; Choi, Haecheon
2012-11-01
Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are known as the fastest swimmer and the deepest diver in the open ocean among marine turtles. Unlike other marine turtles, leatherback sea turtles have five longitudinal ridges on their carapace. To investigate the effect of these longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model, the experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 1.0 × 105 - 1.4 × 106 (including that of real leatherback turtle in cruising condition) based on the model length. We measure the drag and lift forces on the leatherback turtle model with and without longitudinal ridges. The presence of longitudinal ridges increases both the lift and drag forces on the model, but increases the lift-to-drag ratio by 15 - 40%. We also measure the velocity field around the model with and without the ridges using particle image velocimetry. More details will be shown in the presentation. Supported by the NRF program (2011-0028032).
Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin
2014-01-01
We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.
2012-01-01
Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear
Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control.
Mountcastle, A M; Daniel, T L
2010-12-01
Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles. PMID:21098955
Identification of an unsteady aerodynamic model up to high angle of attack regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yigang
1997-12-01
The harmonic oscillatory tests for a fighter aircraft configuration using the Dynamic Plunge-Pitch-Roll (DyPPiR) model mount at Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel are described and analyzed. The corresponding data reduction methods are developed on the basis of multirate digital signal processing techniques. Since the model is sting-mounted to the support system of DyPPiR, the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is first used to identify the frequencies of the elastic modes of sting. Then the sampling rate conversion systems are built up in digital domain to resample the data at a lower rate without introducing distortions to the signals of interest. Finally linear-phase Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are designed by Remez exchange algorithm to extract the aerodynamic characteristics responses to the programmed motions from the resampled measurements. These data reduction procedures are also illustrated through examples. The results obtained from the harmonic oscillatory tests are then illustrated and the associated flow mechanisms are discussed. Since no significant hysteresis loops are observed for the lift and the drag coefficients for the current angle of attack range and the tested reduced frequencies, the dynamic lags of separated and vortex flow effects are small in the current oscillatory tests. However, large hysteresis loops are observed for pitch moment coefficient in the current tests. This observation suggests that at current flow conditions, pitch moment has large pitch rate dotalpha dependencies. Then the nondimensional maximum pitch rate \\ qsb{max} is introduced to characterize these harmonic oscillatory motions. It is found that at current flow conditions, all the hysteresis loops of pitch moment coefficient with same \\ qsb{max} are tangential to one another at both top and bottom of the loops, implying approximately same maximum offset of these loops from static values. Several cases are also illustrated. Based on the results obtained and
On aerodynamic modelling of an insect-like flapping wing in hover for micro air vehicles.
Zbikowski, Rafał
2002-02-15
This theoretical paper discusses recent advances in the fluid dynamics of insect and micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and considers theoretical analyses necessary for their future development. The main purpose is to propose a new conceptual framework and, within this framework, two analytic approaches to aerodynamic modelling of an insect-like flapping wing in hover in the context of MAVs. The motion involved is periodic and is composed of two half-cycles (downstroke and upstroke) which, in hover, are mirror images of each other. The downstroke begins with the wing in the uppermost and rearmost position and then sweeps forward while pitching up and plunging down. At the end of the half-cycle, the wing flips, so that the leading edge points backwards and the wing's lower surface becomes its upper side. The upstroke then follows by mirroring the downstroke kinematics and executing them in the opposite direction. Phenomenologically, the interpretation of the flow dynamics involved, and adopted here, is based on recent experimental evidence obtained by biologists from insect flight and related mechanical models. It is assumed that the flow is incompressible, has low Reynolds number and is laminar, and that two factors dominate: (i) forces generated by the bound leading-edge vortex, which models flow separation; and (ii) forces due to the attached part of the flow generated by the periodic pitching, plunging and sweeping. The first of these resembles the analogous phenomenon observed on sharp-edged delta wings and is treated as such. The second contribution is similar to the unsteady aerodynamics of attached flow on helicopter rotor blades and is interpreted accordingly. Theoretically, the fluid dynamic description is based on: (i) the superposition of the unsteady contributions of wing pitching, plunging and sweeping; and (ii) adding corrections due to the bound leading-edge vortex and wake distortion. Viscosity is accounted for indirectly by imposing the Kutta condition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carros, R. J.; Boissevain, A. G.; Aoyagi, K.
1975-01-01
Data are presented from an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of large-scale wind tunnel aircraft model that utilized a hybrid-upper surface blown flap to augment lift. The hybrid concept of this investigation used a portion of the turbofan exhaust air for blowing over the trailing edge flap to provide boundary layer control. The model, tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel, had a 27.5 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 8 and 4 turbofan engines mounted on the upper surface of the wing. The lift of the model was augmented by turbofan exhaust impingement on the wind upper-surface and flap system. Results were obtained for three flap deflections, for some variation of engine nozzle configuration and for jet thrust coefficients from 0 to 3.0. Six-component longitudinal and lateral data are presented with four engine operation and with the critical engine out. In addition, a limited number of cross-plots of the data are presented. All of the tests were made with a downwash rake installed instead of a horizontal tail. Some of these downwash data are also presented.
Computational modeling of aerodynamics in the fast forward flight of hummingbirds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Tobalske, Bret; Hedrick, Tyson
2015-11-01
Computational models of the hummingbird at flight speed 8.3 m/s is built based on high-speed imaging of the real bird flight in the wind tunnel. The goal is to understand the lift and thrust production of the wings at the high advance ratio (flight speed to the average wingtip speed) around 1. Both the full 3D CFD model based on an immersed-boundary method and the blade-element model based on quasi-steady flow assumption were adopted to analyze the aerodynamics. The result shows that while the weight support is generated during downstroke, little negative weight support is produced during upstroke. On the other hand, thrust is generated during both downstroke and upstroke, which allows the bird to overcome drag induced at fast flight. The lift and thrust characteristics are closely related to the instantaneous wing position and motion. In addition, the flow visualization shows that the leading-edge vortex is stable during most of the wing-beat, which may have contributed to the lift and thrust enhancement. NSF CBET-0954381.
Analysis of VAWT aerodynamics and design using the Actuator Cylinder flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madsen, H. Aa; Paulsen, U. S.; Vitae, L.
2014-12-01
The actuator cylinder (AC) flow model is defined as the ideal VAWT rotor. Radial directed volume forces are applied on the circular path of the VAWT rotor airfoil and constitute an energy conversion in the flow. The power coefficient for the ideal as well as the real energy conversion is defined. The describing equations for the two-dimensional AC model are presented and a solution method splitting the final solution in a linear and non-linear part is briefly described. A family of loadforms approaching the uniform loading is used to study the ideal energy conversion indicating that the maximum power coefficient for the ideal energy conversion of a VAWT could exceed the Betz limit. The real energy conversion of the 5MW DeepWind rotor is simulated with the AC flow model in combination with the blade element analysis. Aerodynamic design aspects are discussed on this basis revealing that the maximum obtainable power coefficient for a fixed pitch VAWT is constrained by the fundamental cyclic variation of inflow angle and relative velocity leading to a loading that deviates considerably from the uniform loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinehart, Taylor Jay
Wind turbine sizes have been steadily increasing to reduce the cost of generating electricity using wind energy. The increased wind turbine blade size has led to increased interest in the accurate prediction of the aerodynamics of large wind turbine blades. In this work, two-dimensional simulations of wind turbine airfoils and three-dimensional simulations of the Sandia 100 m wind turbine blade were conducted. The focus of the simulations was to evaluate improvements in turbulence modeling for wind turbine applications. The flow field was modeled using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver. The turbulence model included transition modeling to capture the significant regions of laminar flow found on wind turbine airfoils and wind turbine blades. The turbulence model was also modified to increase sensitivity to adverse pressure gradients. The effects of modifying the turbulence modeling were quantified using lift and drag for two-dimensional simulations while wind turbine thrust and power were used as metrics for three-dimensional simulations. The two-dimensional studies showed that the adverse pressure gradient correction lowered lift predictions post-stall by about 13%, significantly reducing lift over-prediction and bringing simulations closer to experimental results. Transition modeling lowered drag predictions by 30% to 50% at low angles of attack bringing the predicted values into good agreement with experimental results. The addition of transition modeling in the three-dimensional simulations increased the predicted thrust by 1% to 3% and predicted power by 3% to 6%. The extent of laminar flow was visualized using intermittency. Laminar flow was observed on large portions of the Sandia 100 m blade at normal operating conditions. A preliminary study on the effects of leading edge tubercles on the Sandia 100 m blade was performed, no significant changes in wind turbine performance were observed at nominal operating conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoliker, Patrick C.; Bosworth, John T.; Georgie, Jennifer
1997-01-01
The X-31A aircraft has a unique configuration that uses thrust-vector vanes and aerodynamic control effectors to provide an operating envelope to a maximum 70 deg angle of attack, an inherently nonlinear portion of the flight envelope. This report presents linearized versions of the X-31A longitudinal and lateral-directional control systems, with aerodynamic models sufficient to evaluate characteristics in the poststall envelope at 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg angle of attack. The models are presented with detail sufficient to allow the reader to reproduce the linear results or perform independent control studies. Comparisons between the responses of the linear models and flight data are presented in the time and frequency domains to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of the ability to predict high-angle-of-attack flight dynamics using linear models. The X-31A six-degree-of-freedom simulation contains a program that calculates linear perturbation models throughout the X-31A flight envelope. The models include aerodynamics and flight control system dynamics that are used for stability, controllability, and handling qualities analysis. The models presented in this report demonstrate the ability to provide reasonable linear representations in the poststall flight regime.
Model-Based Self-Tuning Multiscale Method for Combustion Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le, Dzu, K.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.
2006-01-01
A multi-scale representation of the combustor dynamics was used to create a self-tuning, scalable controller to suppress multiple instability modes in a liquid-fueled aero engine-derived combustor operating at engine-like conditions. Its self-tuning features designed to handle the uncertainties in the combustor dynamics and time-delays are essential for control performance and robustness. The controller was implemented to modulate a high-frequency fuel valve with feedback from dynamic pressure sensors. This scalable algorithm suppressed pressure oscillations of different instability modes by as much as 90 percent without the peak-splitting effect. The self-tuning logic guided the adjustment of controller parameters and converged quickly toward phase-lock for optimal suppression of the instabilities. The forced-response characteristics of the control model compare well with those of the test rig on both the frequency-domain and the time-domain.
Evolutionary Tuning of Building Models to Monthly Electrical Consumption
Garrett, Aaron; New, Joshua Ryan; Chandler, Theodore
2013-01-01
Building energy models of existing buildings are unreliable unless calibrated so they correlate well with actual energy usage. Calibrating models is costly because it is currently an art which requires significant manual effort by an experienced and skilled professional. An automated methodology could significantly decrease this cost and facilitate greater adoption of energy simulation capabilities into the marketplace. The Autotune project is a novel methodology which leverages supercomputing, large databases of simulation data, and machine learning to allow automatic calibration of simulations to match measured experimental data on commodity hardware. This paper shares initial results from the automated methodology applied to the calibration of building energy models (BEM) for EnergyPlus (E+) to reproduce measured monthly electrical data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, D. P.
1981-01-01
Tabulated aerodynamic data from coannular nozzle performance tests are given for test runs 26 through 37. The data include nozzle thrust coefficient parameters, nozzle discharge coefficients, and static pressure tap measurements.
Han, Jong-Seob; Kim, Joong-Kwan; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung
2015-08-01
A quasi-steady aerodynamic model in consideration of the center of pressure (C.P.) was developed for insect flight. A dynamically scaled-up robotic hawkmoth wing was used to obtain the translational lift, drag, moment and rotational force coefficients. The translational force coefficients were curve-fitted with respect to the angles of attack such that two coefficients in the Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy model were obtained. The rotational force coefficient was also compared to that derived by the standard Kutta-Joukowski theory. In order to build the accurate pitching moment model, the locations of the C.Ps. and its movements depending on the pitching velocity were investigated in detail. We found that the aerodynamic moment model became suitable when the rotational force component was assumed to act on the half-chord. This implies that the approximation borrowed from the conventional airfoil concept, i.e., the 'C.P. at the quarter-chord' may lead to an incorrect moment prediction. In the validation process, the model showed excellent time-course force and moment estimations in comparison with the robotic wing measurement results. A fully nonlinear multibody flight dynamic simulation was conducted to check the effect of the traveling C.P. on the overall flight dynamics. This clearly showed the importance of an accurate aerodynamic moment model. PMID:26226478
The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.
2016-06-01
Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, W. B., III
1976-01-01
Jet exhaust, nozzle installation, and model support interference effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter model were determined. Realistic jet exhaust nozzle configurations and a reference configuration with a simulated vertical-tail support were tested. Free-stream Mach number was varied from 0.6 to 1.2, and model angle of attack from 0 deg to 9 deg. The jet exhaust affected drag more than it affected lift and pitching moment. The largest effects occurred at a Mach number of 0.9 and for the afterburning mode of exhaust nozzle operation. The combined differences between the aerodynamic characteristics of the realistic and reference configurations (which were due to afterbody and nozzle contours, jet operation, and simulated reference support interference) were considerably different from those for the jet interference alone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, YuGuang; Yang, Kai; Sun, DongKe; Zhang, YuGuang; Kennedy, David; Williams, Fred; Gao, XiaoWei
2013-02-01
This paper focuses on numerical simulations of bluff body aerodynamics with three-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modeling, where a computational scheme for fluid-structure interactions is implemented. The choice of an appropriate turbulence model for the computational modeling of bluff body aerodynamics using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD numerical simulations is also considered. An efficient mesh control method which employs the mesh deformation technique is proposed to achieve better simulation results. Several long-span deck sections are chosen as examples which were stationary and pitching at a high Reynolds number. With the proposed CFD method and turbulence models, the force coefficients and flutter derivatives thus obtained are compared with the experimental measurement results and computed values completely from commercial software. Finally, a discussion on the effects of oscillation amplitude on the flutter instability of a bluff body is carried out with extended numerical simulations. These numerical analysis results demonstrate that the proposed three-dimensional CFD method, with proper turbulence modeling, has good accuracy and significant benefits for aerodynamic analysis and computational FSI studies of bluff bodies.
Acoustic and aerodynamic testing of a scale model variable pitch fan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jutras, R. R.; Kazin, S. B.
1974-01-01
A fully reversible pitch scale model fan with variable pitch rotor blades was tested to determine its aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics. The single-stage fan has a design tip speed of 1160 ft/sec (353.568 m/sec) at a bypass pressure ratio of 1.5. Three operating lines were investigated. Test results show that the blade pitch for minimum noise also resulted in the highest efficiency for all three operating lines at all thrust levels. The minimum perceived noise on a 200-ft (60.96 m) sideline was obtained with the nominal nozzle. At 44% of takeoff thrust, the PNL reduction between blade pitch and minimum noise blade pitch is 1.8 PNdB for the nominal nozzle and decreases with increasing thrust. The small nozzle (6% undersized) has the highest efficiency at all part thrust conditions for the minimum noise blade pitch setting; although, the noise is about 1.0 PNdB higher for the small nozzle at the minimum noise blade pitch position.
High-order Method for Modeling of Aerodynamics of Flapping Wings: Airfoil-Gust Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopalan, Harish; Povitsky, Alex
2011-11-01
The use of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) with flapping wing motion has received considerable attention in the recent years due to their great potential in military and commercial applications. A number of analytical, experimental, and computational studies have been performed to investigate the aerodynamic performance of MAV. However, most of these studies have been performed under idealized operating conditions. Hence, there is a lack of detailed knowledge on the operation of MAV in complex flow environments including flights in wind gust and near obstacles. The current numerical study investigates the performance of a rigid MAV in the presence of periodic gust for two different kinematic motions: plunge and pitch. Two-dimensional rigid airfoils are taken as prototypes of MAVs wings. The gust is assumed to be sinusoidal and modeled as a source term in the Navier-Stokes equations to avoid the implementation of special boundary conditions. The investigation showed a significant drop in the average lift force for the plunging motion in the presence of the gust compared to the pitching motion.
Acoustic and aerodynamic study of a pusher-propeller aircraft model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soderman, Paul T.; Horne, W. Clifton
1990-01-01
An aerodynamic and acoustic study was made of a pusher-propeller aircraft model in the NASA-Ames 7 x 10 ft Wind Tunnel. The test section was changed to operate as an open jet. The 591 mm diameter unswept propeller was operated alone and in the wake of three empennages: an I tail, Y tail, and a V tail. The radiated noise and detailed wake properties were measured. Results indicate that the unsteady blade loading caused by the blade interactions with the wake mean velocity distribution had a strong effect on the harmonics of blade passage noise. The blade passage harmonics above the first were substantially increased in all horizontal directions by the empennage/propeller interaction. Directivity in the plane of the propeller was maximum perpendicular to the blade surface. Increasing the tail loading caused the propeller harmonics to increase 3 to 5 dB for an empennage/propeller spacing of 0.38 mean empennage chords. The interaction noise became weak as empennage propeller spacing was increased beyond 1.0 mean empennage chord lengths. Unlike the mean wake deficit, the wake turbulence had only a small effect on the propeller noise, that effect being a small increase in the broadband noise.
Bailly, Lucie; Henrich, Nathalie; Pelorson, Xavier
2010-05-01
Occurrences of period-doubling are found in human phonation, in particular for pathological and some singing phonations such as Sardinian A Tenore Bassu vocal performance. The combined vibration of the vocal folds and the ventricular folds has been observed during the production of such low pitch bass-type sound. The present study aims to characterize the physiological correlates of this acoustical production and to provide a better understanding of the physical interaction between ventricular fold vibration and vocal fold self-sustained oscillation. The vibratory properties of the vocal folds and the ventricular folds during phonation produced by a professional singer are analyzed by means of acoustical and electroglottographic signals and by synchronized glottal images obtained by high-speed cinematography. The periodic variation in glottal cycle duration and the effect of ventricular fold closing on glottal closing time are demonstrated. Using the detected glottal and ventricular areas, the aerodynamic behavior of the laryngeal system is simulated using a simplified physical modeling previously validated in vitro using a larynx replica. An estimate of the ventricular aperture extracted from the in vivo data allows a theoretical prediction of the glottal aperture. The in vivo measurements of the glottal aperture are then compared to the simulated estimations. PMID:21117769
Tuning algorithms for fractional order internal model controllers for time delay processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muresan, Cristina I.; Dutta, Abhishek; Dulf, Eva H.; Pinar, Zehra; Maxim, Anca; Ionescu, Clara M.
2016-03-01
This paper presents two tuning algorithms for fractional-order internal model control (IMC) controllers for time delay processes. The two tuning algorithms are based on two specific closed-loop control configurations: the IMC control structure and the Smith predictor structure. In the latter, the equivalency between IMC and Smith predictor control structures is used to tune a fractional-order IMC controller as the primary controller of the Smith predictor structure. Fractional-order IMC controllers are designed in both cases in order to enhance the closed-loop performance and robustness of classical integer order IMC controllers. The tuning procedures are exemplified for both single-input-single-output as well as multivariable processes, described by first-order and second-order transfer functions with time delays. Different numerical examples are provided, including a general multivariable time delay process. Integer order IMC controllers are designed in each case, as well as fractional-order IMC controllers. The simulation results show that the proposed fractional-order IMC controller ensures an increased robustness to modelling uncertainties. Experimental results are also provided, for the design of a multivariable fractional-order IMC controller in a Smith predictor structure for a quadruple-tank system.
Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan
2010-08-26
This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports. PMID:20488446
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lummus, J. R.; Joyce, G. T.; Omalley, C. D.
1980-01-01
The ability of current methodologies to accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics identified as uncertainties was evaluated for two aircraft configurations. The two wind tunnel models studied horizontal altitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter aircraft derivatives.
Kalivas, John H; Héberger, Károly; Andries, Erik
2015-04-15
Most multivariate calibration methods require selection of tuning parameters, such as partial least squares (PLS) or the Tikhonov regularization variant ridge regression (RR). Tuning parameter values determine the direction and magnitude of respective model vectors thereby setting the resultant predication abilities of the model vectors. Simultaneously, tuning parameter values establish the corresponding bias/variance and the underlying selectivity/sensitivity tradeoffs. Selection of the final tuning parameter is often accomplished through some form of cross-validation and the resultant root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) values are evaluated. However, selection of a "good" tuning parameter with this one model evaluation merit is almost impossible. Including additional model merits assists tuning parameter selection to provide better balanced models as well as allowing for a reasonable comparison between calibration methods. Using multiple merits requires decisions to be made on how to combine and weight the merits into an information criterion. An abundance of options are possible. Presented in this paper is the sum of ranking differences (SRD) to ensemble a collection of model evaluation merits varying across tuning parameters. It is shown that the SRD consensus ranking of model tuning parameters allows automatic selection of the final model, or a collection of models if so desired. Essentially, the user's preference for the degree of balance between bias and variance ultimately decides the merits used in SRD and hence, the tuning parameter values ranked lowest by SRD for automatic selection. The SRD process is also shown to allow simultaneous comparison of different calibration methods for a particular data set in conjunction with tuning parameter selection. Because SRD evaluates consistency across multiple merits, decisions on how to combine and weight merits are avoided. To demonstrate the utility of SRD, a near infrared spectral data set and a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Queijo, M. J.; Wells, W. R.; Keskar, D. A.
1979-01-01
A simple vortex system, used to model unsteady aerodynamic effects into the rigid body longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft, is described. The equations are used in the development of a parameter extraction algorithm. Use of the two parameter-estimation modes, one including and the other omitting unsteady aerodynamic modeling, is discussed as a means of estimating some acceleration derivatives. Computer generated data and flight data, used to demonstrate the use of the parameter-extraction algorithm are studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aiken, T. N.
1973-01-01
An investigation was made of the static, wind-on aerodynamic and static noise characteristics of an augmentor wing having lobe type nozzles. The study was made in the Ames 7-by 10-Foot No. 1 Wind Tunnel using a small-scale, quasi-two-dimensional model. Several configurations of lobe nozzles as well as a normal slot nozzle were tested. Results indicate that lobe nozzles offer improved static and wind-on aerodynamics and reduced static noise relative to slot nozzles. Best wind-on performance was obtained when the tertiary gap was closed even though the static thrust augmentation was maximum with the gap open. Static thrust augmentation, wind-on lift and drag, and static noise directivity are presented as well as typical static and wind-on exit velocity profiles, surface pressure distributions and noise spectrums. The data are presented with limited discussion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raskin, Boris
Scaled wind tunnel models are necessary for the development of aircraft and spacecraft to simulate aerodynamic behavior. This allows for testing multiple iterations of a design before more expensive full-scale aircraft and spacecraft are built. However, the cost of building wind tunnel models can still be high because they normally require costly subtractive manufacturing processes, such as machining, which can be time consuming and laborious due to the complex surfaces of aerodynamic models. Rapid prototyping, commonly known as 3D printing, can be utilized to save on wind tunnel model manufacturing costs. A rapid prototype multi-material wind tunnel model was manufactured for this thesis to investigate the possibility of using PolyJet 3D printing to create a model that exhibits aeroelastic behavior. The model is of NASA's Adaptable Deployable entry and Placement (ADEPT) aerodynamic decelerator, used to decelerate a spacecraft during reentry into a planet's atmosphere. It is a 60° cone with a spherically blunted nose that consists of a 12 flexible panels supported by a rigid structure of nose, ribs, and rim. The novel rapid prototype multi-material model was instrumented and tested in two flow conditions. Quantitative comparisons were made of the average forces and dynamic forces on the model, demonstrating that the model matched expected behavior for average drag, but not Strouhal number, indicating that there was no aeroelastic behavior in this particular case. It was also noted that the dynamic properties (e.g., resonant frequency) associated with the mounting scheme are very important and may dominate the measured dynamic response.
Aerodynamic Modeling of Oscillating Wing in Hypersonic Flow: a Numerical Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jian; Hou, Ying-Yu; Ji, Chen; Liu, Zi-Qiang
2016-06-01
Various approximations to unsteady aerodynamics are examined for the unsteady aerodynamic force of a pitching thin double wedge airfoil in hypersonic flow. Results of piston theory, Van Dyke’s second-order theory, Newtonian impact theory, and CFD method are compared in the same motion and Mach number effects. The results indicate that, for this thin double wedge airfoil, Newtonian impact theory is not suitable for these Mach number, while piston theory and Van Dyke’s second-order theory are in good agreement with CFD method for Ma<7.
The HIGGS Boson Mass at 2 Loops in the Finely Tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model
Binger, M
2004-09-08
The mass of the Higgs boson in the finely tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model is calculated. All 1 loop threshold effects are included, in addition to the full RG running of the Higgs quartic coupling through 2 loops. The 2 loop corrections are very small, typically less than 1GeV. The 1 loop threshold corrections to the top yukawa coupling and the Higgs mass generally push the Higgs mass down a few GeV.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Testing Using the Dynamic Plunge Pitch and Roll Model Mount
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lutze, Frederick H.; Fan, Yigang
1999-01-01
A final report on the DyPPiR tests that were run are presented. Essentially it consists of two parts, a description of the data reduction techniques and the results. The data reduction techniques include three methods that were considered: 1) signal processing of wind on - wind off data; 2) using wind on data in conjunction with accelerometer measurements; and 3) using a dynamic model of the sting to predict the sting oscillations and determining the aerodynamic inputs using an optimization process. After trying all three, we ended up using method 1, mainly because of its simplicity and our confidence in its accuracy. The results section consists of time history plots of the input variables (angle of attack, roll angle, and/or plunge position) and the corresponding time histories of the output variables, C(sub L), C(sub D), C(sub m), C(sub l), C(sub m), C(sub n). Also included are some phase plots of one or more of the output variable vs. an input variable. Typically of interest are pitch moment coefficient vs. angle of attack for an oscillatory motion where the hysteresis loops can be observed. These plots are useful to determine the "more interesting" cases. Samples of the data as it appears on the disk are presented at the end of the report. The last maneuver, a rolling pull up, is indicative of the unique capabilities of the DyPPiR, allowing combinations of motions to be exercised at the same time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McKann, Robert E.; Blanchard, Ulysse J.; Pearson, Albin O.
1960-01-01
The hydrodynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a multijet water-based Mach 2.0 aircraft equipped with hydrofoils have been determined. Takeoff stability and spray characteristics were very good, and sufficient excess thrust was available for takeoff in approximately 32 seconds and 4,700 feet at a gross weight of 225,000 pounds. Longitudinal and lateral stability during smooth-water landings were good. Lateral stability was good during rough-water landings, but forward location of the hydrofoils or added pitch damping was required to prevent diving. Hydrofoils were found to increase the aerodynamic lift-curve slope and to increase the aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transonic speed range, and the maximum lift-drag ratio decreased from 7.6 to 7.2 at the cruise Mach number of 0.9. The hydrofoils provided an increment of positive pitching moment over the Mach number range of the tests (0.6 to 1.42) and reduced the effective dihedral and directional stability.
Effects of atmospheric models on space shuttle trajectories and aerodynamic heating.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, O. E.; Redus, J. R.; Forney, J. A.; Dash, M. J.
1972-01-01
Review of the respective contributions from the atmospheric physicist, trajectory analyst, and aerothermodynamist to the design problem underlying the selection of the space-shuttle booster mode to be developed, i.e., either expendable booster, recoverable booster, or flyback booster, and the configuration and composite configuration. The interrelationships between atmospheric variables, trajectory parameters, and aerodynamic heating loads are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemsch, Michael J. (Editor); Nielsen, Jack N. (Editor)
1986-01-01
The present conference on tactical missile aerodynamics discusses autopilot-related aerodynamic design considerations, flow visualization methods' role in the study of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, low aspect ratio wing behavior at high angle-of-attack, supersonic airbreathing propulsion system inlet design, missile bodies with noncircular cross section and bank-to-turn maneuvering capabilities, 'waverider' supersonic cruise missile concepts and design methods, asymmetric vortex sheding phenomena from bodies-of-revolution, and swept shock wave/boundary layer interaction phenomena. Also discussed are the assessment of aerodynamic drag in tactical missiles, the analysis of supersonic missile aerodynamic heating, the 'equivalent angle-of-attack' concept for engineering analysis, the vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking, paneling methods with vorticity effects and corrections for nonlinear compressibility, the application of supersonic full potential method to missile bodies, Euler space marching methods for missiles, three-dimensional missile boundary layers, and an analysis of exhaust plumes and their interaction with missile airframes.
Min, Kyuengbo; Shin, Duk; Lee, Jongho; Kakei, Shinji
2013-01-01
Muscle activity is the final signal for motion control from the brain. Based on this biological characteristic, Electromyogram (EMG) signals have been applied to various systems that interface human with external environments such as external devices. In order to use EMG signals as input control signal for this kind of system, the current EMG driven torque estimation models generally employ the mathematical model that estimates the nonlinear transformation function between the input signal and the output torque. However, these models need to estimate too many parameters and this process cause its estimation versatility in various conditions to be poor. Moreover, as these models are designed to estimate the joint torque, the input EMG signals are tuned out of consideration for the physiological synergetic contributions of multiple muscles for motion control. To overcome these problems of the current models, we proposed a new tuning model based on the synergy control mechanism between multiple muscles in the cortico-spinal tract. With this synergetic tuning model, the estimated contribution of multiple muscles for the motion control is applied to tune the EMG signals. Thus, this cortico-spinal control mechanism-based process improves the precision of torque estimation. This system is basically a forward dynamics model that transforms EMG signals into the joint torque. It should be emphasized that this forward dynamics model uses a musculo-skeletal model as a constraint. The musculo-skeletal model is designed with precise musculo-skeletal data, such as origins and insertions of individual muscles or maximum muscle force. Compared with the mathematical model, the proposed model can be a versatile model for the torque estimation in the various conditions and estimates the torque with improved accuracy. In this paper, we also show some preliminary experimental results for the discussion about the proposed model. PMID:24110476
Model-based auralizations of violin sound trends accompanying plate-bridge tuning or holding.
Bissinger, George; Mores, Robert
2015-04-01
To expose systematic trends in violin sound accompanying "tuning" only the plates or only the bridge, the first structural acoustics-based model auralizations of violin sound were created by passing a bowed-string driving force measured at the bridge of a solid body violin through the dynamic filter (DF) model radiativity profile "filter" RDF(f) (frequency-dependent pressure per unit driving force, free-free suspension, anechoic chamber). DF model auralizations for the more realistic case of a violin held/played in a reverberant auditorium reveal that holding the violin greatly diminishes its low frequency response, an effect only weakly compensated for by auditorium reverberation. PMID:25920880
Modelling the tuned criticality in stick-slip friction during metal cutting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Q.; Lu, C.; Ye, G. G.; Dai, L. H.
2015-07-01
Cutting is a ubiquitous process in nature and man-made systems. Here we demonstrate that, based on morphological patterns observed in experiments, the friction behaviour of metal cutting exhibits a criticality with cutting speed as a tuned parameter. The corresponding stick-slip events can be described by a power law distribution. A dynamic thermo-mechanical model is developed to investigate how such a tuned criticality occurs. It is shown that, in terms of the linear stability analysis, stick-slip friction is due to the thermo-mechanical instability and dynamical interaction between shear dissipation and nonlinear friction. Moreover, there is a secondary transition from a criticality state to a limit cycle that is dominated by the inertia effect, which is similar to the frequency lock phenomenon in a forced Duffing oscillator.
The Aerodynamic Drag of Flying-boat Hull Model as Measured in the NACA 20-foot Wind Tunnel I.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartman, Edwin P
1935-01-01
Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.
Quasi-steady aerodynamic model of clap-and-fling flapping MAV and validation using free-flight data.
Armanini, S F; Caetano, J V; Croon, G C H E de; Visser, C C de; Mulder, M
2016-01-01
Flapping-wing aerodynamic models that are accurate, computationally efficient and physically meaningful, are challenging to obtain. Such models are essential to design flapping-wing micro air vehicles and to develop advanced controllers enhancing the autonomy of such vehicles. In this work, a phenomenological model is developed for the time-resolved aerodynamic forces on clap-and-fling ornithopters. The model is based on quasi-steady theory and accounts for inertial, circulatory, added mass and viscous forces. It extends existing quasi-steady approaches by: including a fling circulation factor to account for unsteady wing-wing interaction, considering real platform-specific wing kinematics and different flight regimes. The model parameters are estimated from wind tunnel measurements conducted on a real test platform. Comparison to wind tunnel data shows that the model predicts the lift forces on the test platform accurately, and accounts for wing-wing interaction effectively. Additionally, validation tests with real free-flight data show that lift forces can be predicted with considerable accuracy in different flight regimes. The complete parameter-varying model represents a wide range of flight conditions, is computationally simple, physically meaningful and requires few measurements. It is therefore potentially useful for both control design and preliminary conceptual studies for developing new platforms. PMID:27359331
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farjoud, Alireza; Taylor, Russell; Schumann, Eric; Schlangen, Timothy
2014-02-01
This paper is focused on modelling, design, and testing of semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) engine and transmission mounts used in the automotive industry. The purpose is to develop a complete analysis, synthesis, design, and tuning tool that reduces the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory and field tests. A detailed mathematical model of such devices is developed using multi-physics modelling techniques for physical systems with various energy domains. The model includes all major features of an MR mount including fluid dynamics, fluid track, elastic components, decoupler, rate-dip, gas-charged chamber, MR fluid rheology, magnetic circuit, electronic driver, and control algorithm. Conventional passive hydraulic mounts can also be studied using the same mathematical model. The model is validated using standard experimental procedures. It is used for design and parametric study of mounts; effects of various geometric and material parameters on dynamic response of mounts can be studied. Additionally, this model can be used to test various control strategies to obtain best vibration isolation performance by tuning control parameters. Another benefit of this work is that nonlinear interactions between sub-components of the mount can be observed and investigated. This is not possible by using simplified linear models currently available.
Linearized aerodynamic and control law models of the X-29A airplane and comparison with flight data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bosworth, John T.
1992-01-01
Flight control system design and analysis for aircraft rely on mathematical models of the vehicle dynamics. In addition to a six degree of freedom nonlinear simulation, the X-29A flight controls group developed a set of programs that calculate linear perturbation models throughout the X-29A flight envelope. The models include the aerodynamics as well as flight control system dynamics and were used for stability, controllability, and handling qualities analysis. These linear models were compared to flight test results to help provide a safe flight envelope expansion. A description is given of the linear models at three flight conditions and two flight control system modes. The models are presented with a level of detail that would allow the reader to reproduce the linear results if desired. Comparison between the response of the linear model and flight measured responses are presented to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of the linear models' ability to predict flight dynamics.
Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.
1973-01-01
The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.
Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A Airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.
2005-01-01
A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A airplane used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research airplane was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW airplane and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhlman, J. M.
1983-01-01
Wind tunnel test results have been presented herein for a subsonic transport type wing fitted with winglets. Wind planform was chosen to be representative of wings used on current jet transport aircraft, while wing and winglet camber surfaces were designed using two different linear aerodynamic design methods. The purpose of the wind tunnel investigation was to determine the effectiveness of these linear aerodynamic design computer codes in designing a non-planar transport configuration which would cruise efficiently. The design lift coefficient was chosen to be 0.4, at a design Mach number of 0.8. Force and limited pressure data were obtained for the basic wing, and for the wing fitted with the two different winglet designs, at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80 over an angle of attack range of -2 to +6 degrees, at zero sideslip. The data have been presented without analysis to expedite publication.