Sample records for aerodynamic noise

  1. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  2. A new technique for aerodynamic noise calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Pope, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation is presented. The method involves first solving for the time-dependent incompressible flow for the given geometry. This fully nonlinear method that is tailored to extract the relevant acoustic fluctuations seems to be an efficient approach to the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation.

  3. New aspects of subsonic aerodynamic noise theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Howes, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A theory of aerodynamic noise is presented which differs from Lighthill's theory primarily in the way in which convection of the noise sources is treated. The sound directivity pattern obtained from the present theory agrees better with jet-noise directivity data than does that obtained from Lighthill's theory. The results imply that the shear-noise contribution to jet noise is smaller than previously expected.

  4. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Zorumski; D. S. Weir

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next

  5. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorumski, W. E.; Weir, D. S.

    1986-06-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  6. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E. (editor); Weir, D. S. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  7. Prediction of aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anupam; Chen, Hsuan-nien

    2013-08-01

    A numerical approach for predicting tonal aerodynamic noise from "open rotors" is presented. "Open rotor" refers to an engine architecture with a pair of counter-rotating propellers. Typical noise spectra from an open rotor consist of dominant tones, which arise due to both the steady loading/thickness and the aerodynamic interaction between the two bladerows. The proposed prediction approach utilizes Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to obtain near-field description of the noise sources. The near-to-far-field propagation is then carried out by solving the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Since the interest of this paper is limited to tone noise, a linearized, frequency domain approach is adopted to solve the wake/vortex-blade interaction problem.This paper focuses primarily on the speed scaling of the aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors. Even though there is no theoretical mode cut-off due to the absence of nacelle in open rotors, the far-field noise is a strong function of the azimuthal mode order. While the steady loading/thickness noise has circumferential modes of high order, due to the relatively large number of blades (?10-12), the interaction noise typically has modes of small orders. The high mode orders have very low radiation efficiency and exhibit very strong scaling with Mach number, while the low mode orders show a relatively weaker scaling. The prediction approach is able to capture the speed scaling (observed in experiment) of the overall aerodynamic noise very well.

  8. Spectral decomposition of the aerodynamic noise generated by rotating sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Bongiovì; Andrea Cattanei

    2011-01-01

    A method is posed for separating the noise emitted by an aerodynamic source from propagation effects using spectral decomposition. This technique is applied to the power spectra of a fan measured at several rotational speeds. Although it has been conceived for rotating sources as turbomachinery rotors, the method may be easily applied to low speed stationary sources such as jets

  9. Evaluation of Aerodynamic Noise Generation by a Generic Side Mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiping Wang; Zhengqi Gu; Weiping Li; Xiaohui Lin

    2010-01-01

    The aerodynamic noise radiation from a side view mirror (SVM) in the high-speed airflow is calculated by the combination of unsteady incompressible fluid flow analysis and acoustic analysis. The transient flow past the generic SVM is simulated with variable turbulence model, namely DES Detached Eddy Simulation and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). Detailed velocity vectors and contour plots of the time-varying

  10. Application of Hybrid Method for Aerodynamic Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Song, W. P.

    2011-09-01

    A hybrid prediction method for aerodynamic noise is performed using high order accuracy method in this paper. The method combines a two-dimensional Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes(URANS) solver with the acoustic analogy method using Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds). Tandem cylinders are chosen to validate the prediction method. The computations are conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 based on the cylinder diameter. Both the aerodynamic and acoustic results show good agreement with the experimental data, showing a successful application of the hybrid prediction method using two-dimensional URANS simulation.

  11. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise radiated by a three-dimensional bluff body

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise radiated by a three-dimensional bluff body J.fischer@univ-poitiers.fr Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 2335 #12;Aerodynamic. The present work is an experimental study of the aerodynamic noise radiated by a three-dimensional simplified

  12. Analysis and optimization of aerodynamic noise in a centrifugal compressor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyosung Sun; Hyungki Shin; Soogab Lee

    2006-01-01

    The numerical methods for the performance analysis and the noise prediction of the centrifugal compressor impeller are developed, which are coupled with the optimization design methodology consisting of response surface method, statistical approach, and genetic algorithm. Navier–Stokes equations with the two-equation (k–?) turbulence model are applied to calculate impeller aerodynamic characteristics, and Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings formulation and boundary element method are

  13. Aerodynamics of Fan Flow Deflectors for Jet Noise Suppression Dimitri Papamoschou

    E-print Network

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Aerodynamics of Fan Flow Deflectors for Jet Noise Suppression Dimitri Papamoschou and Feng Liu-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier­Stokes investigation of the impact on nozzle aerodynamic performance of deflector

  14. Studies in a transonic rotor aerodynamics and noise facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, S. E.; Lee, D. J.; Crosby, W.

    1984-01-01

    The design, construction and testing of a transonic rotor aerodynamics and noise facility was undertaken, using a rotating arm blade element support technique. This approach provides a research capability intermediate between that of a stationary element in a moving flow and that of a complete rotating blade system, and permits the acoustic properties of blade tip elements to be studied in isolation. This approach is an inexpensive means of obtaining data at high subsonic and transonic tip speeds on the effect of variations in tip geometry. The facility may be suitable for research on broad band noise and discrete noise in addition to high-speed noise. Initial tests were conducted over the Mach number range 0.3 to 0.93 and confirmed the adequacy of the acoustic treatment used in the facility to avoid reflection from the enclosure.

  15. An anechoic chamber facility for investigating aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic noise facility was designed to be used primarily for investigating the noise-generating mechanisms of high-temperature supersonic and subsonic jets. The facility consists of an anechoic chamber, an exhaust jet silencer, instrumentation equipment, and an air heater with associated fuel and cooling systems. Compressed air, when needed for jet noise studies, is provided by the wind tunnel compressor facility on a continuous basis. The chamber is 8.1 m long, 5.0 m wide, and 3.0 m high. Provisions have been made for allowing outside air to be drawn into the anechoic chamber in order to replenish the air that is entrained by the jet as it flows through the chamber. Also, openings are provided in the walls and in the ceiling for the purpose of acquiring optical measurements. Calibration of the chamber for noise reflections from the wall was accomplished in octave bands between 31.2 Hz and 32 kHz.

  16. Analysis and optimization of aerodynamic noise in a centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hyosung; Shin, Hyungki; Lee, Soogab

    2006-02-01

    The numerical methods for the performance analysis and the noise prediction of the centrifugal compressor impeller are developed, which are coupled with the optimization design methodology consisting of response surface method, statistical approach, and genetic algorithm. Navier-Stokes equations with the two-equation ( k- ?) turbulence model are applied to calculate impeller aerodynamic characteristics, and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation and boundary element method are used to predict the impeller aerodynamic noise on the basis of impeller flow field results. The computational codes are verified through the comparison of measured data. The quadratic response surface model with D-optimal three-level factorial experimental design points is constructed to optimize the impeller geometry for the advanced centrifugal compressor, and it is shown that the quadratic model exhibits a reasonable fitting quality resulting in the impeller blade design with the high performance and the low far-field noise level. The influences of selected design variables and their mutual interactions as well as the effects of various objective functions and constraints on the impeller performance and the impeller noise are also examined as a result of the optimization process.

  17. Experimental Characterization of Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemanson, Megan Lynn

    Wind turbine noise at low frequencies less than 300Hz is not only annoying to humans but has been proven to cause serious health issues. Additionally, animals are severely affected by wind turbines because a small increase in ambient noise (as is produced by wind turbines) significantly reduces their listening ability. In an attempt to better understand and characterize the aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades, experimental testing was completed on PowerWorks 100kW and GudCraft WG700 blade specimens in the University of California, Davis Transportation Noise Control Center's anechoic chamber. Experimental testing and data analysis proved approximately 4.0dB to 6.0dB was produced due to the blades' geometric design for both blade specimens at low frequencies. This noise was maximized at the blades' leading edge along the central portion of the blades' radius. Theoretical prediction models have been used to determine that, for typical wind speeds and low frequencies, noise generated due to the tip passing frequency is clearly predominant.

  18. Aerodynamic Performance Measurements for a Forward Swept Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    One source of noise in high tip speed turbofan engines, caused by shocks, is called multiple pure tone noise (MPT's). A new fan, called the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), showed reduced noise over the part speed operating range, which includes MPT's. The QHSF showed improved performance in most respects relative to a baseline fan; however, a partspeed instability discovered during testing reduced the operating range below acceptable limits. The measured QHSF adiabatic efficiency on the fixed nozzle acoustic operating line was 85.1 percent and the baseline fan 82.9 percent, a 2.2 percent improvement. The operating line pressure rise at design point rotational speed and mass flow was 1.764 and 1.755 for the QHSF and baseline fan, respectively. Weight flow at design point speed was 98.28 lbm/sec for the QHSF and 97.97 lbm/sec for the baseline fan. The operability margin for the QHSF approached 0 percent at the 75 percent speed operating condition. The baseline fan maintained sufficient margin throughout the operating range as expected. Based on the stage aerodynamic measurements, this concept shows promise for improved performance over current technology if the operability limitations can be solved.

  19. Spectral decomposition of the aerodynamic noise generated by rotating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovì, Alessandro; Cattanei, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A method is posed for separating the noise emitted by an aerodynamic source from propagation effects using spectral decomposition. This technique is applied to the power spectra of a fan measured at several rotational speeds. Although it has been conceived for rotating sources as turbomachinery rotors, the method may be easily applied to low speed stationary sources such as jets and flows in stators and about isolated airfoils. Based on the similarity theory, a clear description of the structure of the power spectrum of the received noise is given and the effect of rotational speed variations is considered as a means to obtain a data set suitable to perform the spectral decomposition. The problem is analyzed in order to clarify possibilities and limitations of the method and then an algorithm is presented which is based on the solution of the derived equations. Particular care is devoted to both the numerical details and the operative aspects. The validation of the algorithm is performed by means of numerically generated input data. Next, in order to verify the ability of the method in separating scattered from emitted sound, an automotive cooling fan has been tested in the DIMSET hemi-anechoic room in a free-field configuration and with a shielded microphone. These two apparently distinct spectra collapse to within less than 2 dB after the spectral decomposition has been performed. The tests prove the ability of the method despite the modest quantity of input data.

  20. Aerodynamics of Wedge-Shaped Deflectors for Jet Noise Reduction Dimitri Papamoschou*

    E-print Network

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Aerodynamics of Wedge-Shaped Deflectors for Jet Noise Reduction Dimitri Papamoschou* , An Vu , and Andrew Johnson . University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-3975 A wedge-shaped deflector placed the wedge. The aerodynamics of the fan flow deflector (FFD) wedge are investigated with pressure surveys

  1. Aerodynamic Performance of Fan-Flow Deflectors for Jet-Noise Reduction

    E-print Network

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Aerodynamic Performance of Fan-Flow Deflectors for Jet-Noise Reduction Juntao Xiong, Feng Liu This paper presents a computational study on the aerodynamic effectiveness of vane-type fan-flow deflectors configurations using deflector vanes of variable number, airfoil section, azimuthal mounting, and angle of attack

  2. Influence of low-speed aerodynamic performance on airport community noise

    E-print Network

    March, Andrew I. (Andrew Irving)

    2008-01-01

    Properly assessing proposed aviation policies requires a thorough trade study of noise, emissions, fuel consumption, and cost. Aircraft low-speed aerodynamic performance is an important driver of all these impacts, and ...

  3. Effects of Nozzle Geometry and Intermittent Injection of Aerodynamic Tab on Supersonic Jet Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikiya Araki; Takayuki Sano; Masayuki Fukuda; Takayuki Kojima; Hideyuki Taguchi; Seiichi Shiga; Tomio Obokata

    2008-01-01

    Effects of the nozzle geometry and intermittent injection of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for an HST (Hypersonic transport) is planned. A 1\\/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle is manufactured, and the noise reduction performance of aerodynamic tabs, which is small

  4. Numerical simulation for prediction of aerodynamic noise characteristics on a HAWT of NREL phase VI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang-Oh Mo; Young-Ho Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to numerically predict the characteristics of aerodynamic noise generated from rotating wind\\u000a turbine blades according to wind speeds using commercial CFD code, FLUENT. The near-field flow around a HAWT of NREL Phase\\u000a VI is simulated directly by LES, whereas the far-field aerodynamic noise for frequencies below 500 Hz is modeled using FW-H\\u000a analogy. As

  5. Aerodynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâ??s the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. If youâ??ve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics.The first site (1) provides some general information on aerodynamics. For those wanting a little more on the theory of aerodynamics, the University of Sydney has published this web textbook, Aerodynamics for Students (2). When people think of aerodynamics, they generally think of aviation and flight, which is explained on this site (3). Aerodynamics also has applications in sports, such as tennis, sailing and cycling. This website provides explanations for sports applications whether you are a beginner in the study of aerodynamics or an instructor (4). The next website reviews the aerodynamics of cycling and has a form that lets you Calculate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist (5). The last site, AeroNet (6), is an interactive site designed to provide information about topics involved with aviation in a fun way for anyone casually interested in flight, someone thinking about aviation as a profession, or a student doing research for physics class.

  6. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Fan-Flow Deflectors for Noise Reduction Using Adjoint Method

    E-print Network

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Fan-Flow Deflectors for Noise Reduction Using Adjoint Method of deflector vanes installed in the fan nozzle of a turbofan engine. The purpose of the vanes is to reduce jet the bypass stream with fan flow deflectors of a turbofan engine to reduce jet noise was proposed

  7. Interaction of aerodynamic noise with laminar boundary layers in supersonic wind tunnels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Schopper

    1984-01-01

    The interaction between incoming aerodynamic noise and the supersonic laminar boundary layer is studied. The noise field is modeled as a Mach wave radiation field consisting of discrete waves emanating from coherent turbulent entities moving downstream within the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. The individual disturbances are likened to miniature sonic booms and the laminar boundary layer is staffed by the

  8. Aerodynamic performance and noise characteristics of a centrifugal compressor with modified vaned diffusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Ohta; Yasuhiko Okutsu; Takashi Goto; Eisuke Outa

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of aerodynamic performance and reduction of interaction tone noise of a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffusers\\u000a are discussed by experiments and visualization techniques using a colored oil-film method. The focus of the research is concentrated\\u000a on the leading edge shape of diffuser vanes that are deeply related to the generation mechanism of the interaction tone noise.\\u000a The compressor-radiated noise

  9. Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab

    2013-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200

  10. Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise and Airload Prediction Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.

  11. Dominance of radiated aerodynamic noise on boundary-layer transition in supersonic-hypersonic wind tunnels. Theory and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Pate

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of radiated aerodynamic-noise on boundary-layer transition in supersonic-hypersonic wind tunnels. It is conclusively shown that the aerodynamic noise (pressure fluctuations associated with sound waves), which radiates from the tunnel wall, turbulent boundary layer, will dominate the transition process on sharp flat places and sharp slender cones at zero incidence.

  12. Effects of Nozzle Geometry and Intermittent Injection of Aerodynamic Tab on Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Shiga, Seiichi; Obokata, Tomio

    Effects of the nozzle geometry and intermittent injection of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for an HST (Hypersonic transport) is planned. A 1/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle is manufactured, and the noise reduction performance of aerodynamic tabs, which is small air jet injection from the nozzle wall, was investigated. Compressed air is injected through the rectangular plug nozzle into the atmosphere at the nozzle pressure ratio of 2.7, which corresponds to the take-off condition of the vehicle. Aerodynamic tabs were installed at the sidewall ends, and 4 kinds of round nozzles and 2 kinds of wedge nozzles were applied. Using a high-frequency solenoid valve, intermittent gas injection is also applied. It is shown that, by use of wedge nozzles, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL (Overall sound pressure level), decreases by 29% when compared with round nozzles. It is also shown that, by use of intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL, decreases by about 40% when compared with steady injection. By combination of wedge nozzles and intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate significantly decreases by 57% when compared with the conventional strategy.

  13. Aerodynamic loads and blade vortex interaction noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schaffar; J. Haertig; P. Gnemmi

    1990-01-01

    The vortex lattice method is described and applied in order to predict the aerodynamic loads on a thin two-bladed rotor. A local conformal mapping for each position in span is used to transform the thin rotor into a thick one. The pressure coefficients obtained for the thick rotor are fed into an acoustic code which is based on the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings

  14. Diagnostic techniques for measurement of aerodynamic noise in free field and reverberant environment of wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Sum, H. M. A.; Mawardi, O. K.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques for studying aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms without disturbing the flow in a free field, and in the reverberation environment of the ARC wind tunnel were investigated along with the design and testing of an acoustic antenna with an electronic steering control. The acoustic characteristics of turbojet as a noise source, detection of direct sound from a source in a reverberant background, optical diagnostic methods, and the design characteristics of a high directivity acoustic antenna. Recommendations for further studies are included.

  15. Numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise radiated from cross flow fan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anbang Chen; Song Li; Dongtao Huang

    2008-01-01

    The flow field in a cross flow fan was simulated by solving the 2-D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The\\u000a calculated pressure fluctuations of the blades, the vortex wall, and the rear wall were then used as noise sources to calculate\\u000a the sound field. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation was employed to predict the noise field caused by these sources.\\u000a The

  16. AERODYNAMICS OF FAN FLOW DEFLECTORS FOR JET NOISE SUPPRESSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Murayama; Dimitri Papamoschou; Feng Liu

    2005-01-01

    The present work describes a three-dimensional RANS investigation of the flow around de- flector vanes for noise suppression in separate-flow turbofan engines. The vanes are installed in the bypass duct and deflect the bypass plume downward relative to the core plume. This paper considers a single pair of vanes, with NACA0012 airfoil section, installed in a realis- tically shaped nozzle

  17. The flow and aerodynamic noise calculation of a generic side mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Xiaohui; Wang Yiping; Chen Zhifu; Dong Guangping; Gu Zhengqi

    2010-01-01

    The flow and aerodynamic noise of a generic side mirror in high-speed is evaluated using numerical simulation and experiment. The Reynolds number is Re = 5.2 × 105 basing on the mirror diameter. Transient flow field is analyzed by Large Eddy Simulation (LES), two different sub-grid scale (SGS) models named Smagorinsky-Lilly (SL) and Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE) are used to

  18. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  19. Aerodynamic performance and noise characteristics of a centrifugal compressor with modified vaned diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yutaka; Okutsu, Yasuhiko; Goto, Takashi; Outa, Eisuke

    2006-12-01

    Improvement of aerodynamic performance and reduction of interaction tone noise of a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffusers are discussed by experiments and visualization techniques using a colored oil-film method. The focus of the research is concentrated on the leading edge shape of diffuser vanes that are deeply related to the generation mechanism of the interaction tone noise. The compressor-radiated noise can be reduced by more than ten decibels by using modified diffuser vanes which have 3-D tapered shapes on both pressure and suction surfaces of the leading edge. Furthermore, by adopting the proposed modified diffuser vanes, the secondary flow which is considered to be an obstruction of diffuser pressure recovery can be suppressed, and also the pressure decrease observed in the throat part of the diffuser flow passage is reducible. Thus, the proposed diffuser vanes show a favorable result for both noise and the aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal compressor, and offer a few basic guidelines for the diffuser vane design.

  20. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 2: Aerodynamic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data from static tests of a two-stage advanced technology fan designed to minimize noise are presented. Fan design conditions include delivery of 209.1kg/sec/sq m (42.85 lbm/sec/sq ft) specific corrected flow at an overall pressure ratio of 1.9 and an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent. The 0.836m (2.74ft) diameter first stage rotor has a hub/tip ratio of 0.4 and 365.8m/sec (1200ft/sec) design tip speed. In addition to the moderate tip speed and pressure rise per stage, other noise control design features involve widely spaced blade rows and proper selection of blade-vane ratios. Aerodynamic data are presented for tests with unifrom and with hub and tip radially distorted inlet flow. Aerodynamic data are also presented for tests of this fan with acoustic treatments, including acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic ring, and a translating centerbody sonic inlet device. A complete tabulation of the overall performance data, the blade element data, and the power spectral density information relating to turbulence levels generated by the sonic inlet obtained during these tests is included. For vol. 1, see N74-33789.

  1. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression: Plume, Aerodynamic and Acoustic Data. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Baker, V. David; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft per s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASE's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude and also noise in the reference frame of the nozzle. This volume is divided into three parts: in the first two parts, we collate the plume survey data in graphical form (line, contour and surface plots) and analyze it; in part 3, we tabulate the aerodynamic data for the acoustics tests and the acoustic data in one-third octave band levels.

  2. Interaction of aerodynamic noise with laminar boundary layers in supersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopper, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction between incoming aerodynamic noise and the supersonic laminar boundary layer is studied. The noise field is modeled as a Mach wave radiation field consisting of discrete waves emanating from coherent turbulent entities moving downstream within the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. The individual disturbances are likened to miniature sonic booms and the laminar boundary layer is staffed by the waves as the sources move downstream. The mean, autocorrelation, and power spectral density of the field are expressed in terms of the wave shapes and their average arrival rates. Some consideration is given to the possible appreciable thickness of the weak shock fronts. The emphasis in the interaction analysis is on the behavior of the shocklets in the noise field. The shocklets are shown to be focused by the laminar boundary layer in its outer region. Borrowing wave propagation terminology, this region is termed the caustic region. Using scaling laws from sonic boom work, focus factors at the caustic are estimated to vary from 2 to 6 for incoming shocklet strengths of 1 to .01 percent of the free stream pressure level. The situation regarding experimental evidence of the caustic region is reviewed.

  3. Computation of interactional aerodynamics for noise prediction of heavy lift rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Christopher C.

    Many computational tools are used when developing a modern helicopter. As the design space is narrowed, more accurate and time-intensive tools are brought to bear. These tools are used to determine the effect of a design decision on the performance, handling, stability and efficiency of the aircraft. One notable parameter left out of this process is acoustics. This is due in part to the difficulty in making useful acoustics calculations that reveal the differences between various design configurations. This thesis presents a new approach designed to bridge the gap in prediction capability between fast but low-fidelity Lagrangian particle methods, and slow but high-fidelity Eulerian computational fluid dynamics simulations. A multi-pronged approach is presented. First, a simple flow solver using well-understood and tested flow solution methodologies is developed specifically to handle bodies in arbitrary motion. To this basic flow solver two new technologies are added. The first is an Immersed Boundary technique designed to be tolerant of geometric degeneracies and low-resolution grids. This new technique allows easy inclusion of complex fuselage geometries at minimal computational cost, improving the ability of a solver to capture the complex interactional aerodynamic effects expected in modern rotorcraft design. The second new technique is an extension of a concept from flow visualization where the motion of tip vortices are tracked through the solution using massless particles convecting with the local flow. In this extension of that concept, the particles maintain knowledge of the expected and actual vortex strength. As a post-processing step, when the acoustic calculations are made, these particles are used to augment the loading noise calculation and reproduce the highly-impulsive character of blade-vortex interaction noise. In combination these new techniques yield a significant improvement to the state of the art in rotorcraft blade-vortex interaction noise prediction.

  4. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  5. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 3: Application of theory for blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the predictions with data from tests at NASA-Lewis. Steady aerodyanmic performance, unsteady blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing and boundary layer shielding are examined.

  6. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  7. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from the smallest to the largest nozzle was 12.9 percent of the baseline nozzle area. The results will show that there are significant changes in aerodynamic performance and farfield acoustics as the fan nozzle area is increased. The weight flow through the fan model increased between 7 and 9 percent, the fan and stage pressure dropped between 8 and 10 percent, and the adiabatic efficiency increased between 2 and 3 percent--the magnitude of the change dependent on the fan speed. Results from force balance measurements of fan and outlet guide vane thrust will show that as the nozzle exit area is increased the combined thrust of the fan and outlet guide vanes together also increases, between 2 and 3.5 percent, mainly due to the increase in lift from the outlet guide vanes. In terms of farfield acoustics, the overall sound power level produced by the fan stage dropped nearly linearly between 1 dB at takeoff condition and 3.5 dB at approach condition, mainly due to a decrease in the broadband noise levels. Finally, fan swirl angle survey and Laser Doppler Velocimeter mean velocity and turbulence data obtained in the fan wake will show that the swirl angles and turbulence levels within the wake decrease as the fan nozzle area increases, which helps to explain the drop in the fan broadband noise at all fan speeds.

  8. Prediction of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise from 2-D aerodynamic calculations and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplot, M.; Haertig, J.

    The aerodynamic analysis used by the present numerical and experimental study of blade-vortex interactions is based on the computation of the velocity potential in a two-dimensional, incompressible, inviscid and unsteady flow. The pressure, lift, and drag coefficients deduced from theoretical instantaneous velocity field results obtained around a lifting Joukowski airfoil under the action of an incident vortex are compared with water tunnel measurements; good agreement is noted. Two-dimensional data are transformed in order to study the case of a helicopter rotor's parallel blade-vortex interaction.

  9. Influence of Low-speed Aerodynamic Performance on Airport Community Noise

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    ABSTRACT Properly assessing proposed aviation policies requires a thorough trade study of noise, emissions publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole or in part. Signature of Author

  10. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 2: Development of theory for wing shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amiet, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.

  11. High frequency green function for aerodynamic noise in moving media. I - General theory. II - Noise from a spreading jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown how a high frequency analysis can be made for general problems involving flow-generated noise. In the parallel shear flow problem treated by Balsa (1976) and Goldstein (1982), the equation governing sound propagation in the moving medium could be transformed into a wave equation for a stationary medium with an inhomogeneous index of refraction. It is noted that the procedure of Avila and Keller (1963) was then used to construct a high frequency Green function. This procedure involves matching a solution valid in an inner region around the point source to an outer, ray-acoustics solution. This same procedure is used here to construct the Green function for a source in an arbitrary mean flow. In view of the fact that there is no restriction to parallel flow, the governing equations cannot be transformed into a wave equation; the analysis therefore proceeds from the equations of motion themselves.

  12. Two stage low noise advanced technology fan. 1: Aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, H. E.; Ruschak, J. T.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A two-stage fan was designed to reduce noise 20 db below current requirements. The first-stage rotor has a design tip speed of 365.8 m/sec and a hub/tip ratio of 0.4. The fan was designed to deliver a pressure ratio of 1.9 with an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent at a specific inlet corrected flow of 209.2kg/sec/sq m. Noise reduction devices include acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic splitter, a translating centerbody sonic inlet device, widely spaced blade rows, and the proper ratio of blades and vanes. Multiple-circular-arc rotor airfoils, resettable stators, split outer casings, and capability to go to close blade-row spacing are also included.

  13. Aerodynamic noise propagation simulation using immersed boundary method and finite volume optimized prefactored compact scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Liu; Keqi Wu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the immersed boundary method (IBM) and the finite volume optimized pre-factored compact (FVOPC) scheme, a numerical\\u000a simulation of noise propagation inside and outside the casing of a cross flow fan is established. The unsteady linearized\\u000a Euler equations are solved to directly simulate the aero-acoustic field. In order to validate the FVOPC scheme, a simulation\\u000a case: one dimensional linear

  14. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menthe, R. W.; McColgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.

    1991-05-01

    The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.

  15. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

  16. Research on the Noise Barrier Height Change of the Monoline Viaduct Affecting the Aerodynamic Characteristic of High Speed Train

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianbin Luo; Zhigang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Viaducts are widely used in the modern high speed railway construction. In order to ensure the high speed train running safely, passenger's comfort and environment protecting, it is essential that the aerodynamic characteristic of the high speed train moving on the viaduct will been researched. These researches will provide some engineering reference for the high speed railway construction. The studying

  17. Aerodynamic potpourri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Wilson

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the

  18. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  19. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Menthe; C. J. McColgan; R. M. Ladden

    1991-01-01

    The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible

  20. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 5: Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of tone noise propagation through a boundary layer and fuselage scattering effects was derived. This analysis is a three dimensional and the complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The outer wave field is constructed analytically from an incident wave appropriate to the source and a scattered wave in the standard Hankel function form. For the incident wave, an existing function - domain propeller noise radiation theory is used. In the boundary layer region, the wave equation is solved by numerical methods. The theoretical analysis is embodied in a computer program which allows the calculation of correction factors for the fuselage scattering and boundary layer refraction effects. The effects are dependent on boundary layer profile, flight speed, and frequency. Corrections can be derived for any point on the fuselage, including those on the opposite side from the source. The theory was verified using limited cases and by comparing calculations with available measurements from JetStar tests of model prop-fans. For the JetStar model scale, the boundary layer refraction effects produce moderate fuselage pressure reinforcements aft of and near the plane of rotation and significant attenuation forward of the plane of rotation at high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds, the calculated boundary layer effects result in moderate amplification over the fuselage area of interest. Apparent amplification forward of the plane of rotation is a result of effective changes in the source directivity due to boundary layer refraction effects. Full scale effects are calculated to be moderate, providing fuselage pressure amplification of about 5 dB at the peak noise location. Evaluation using available noise measurements was made under high-speed, high-altitude flight conditions. Comparisons of calculations made of free field noise, using a current frequency-domain propeller noise prediction method, and fuselage effects using this new procedure show good agreement with fuselage measurements over a wide range of flight speeds and frequencies. Correction factors for the JetStar measurements made on the fuselage are provided in an Appendix.

  1. Single-stage, low-noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 4: Fan aerodynamics. Section 1: Results and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Silverman, I.; Little, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Test results at design speed show fan total pressure ratio, weight flow, and adiabatic efficiency to be 2.2, 2.9, and 1.8% lower than design goal values. The hybrid acoustic inlet (which utilizes a high throat Mach number and acoustic wall treatment for noise suppression) demonstrated total pressure recoveries of 98.9% and 98.2% at takeoff and approach. Exhaust duct pressure losses differed between the hardwall duct and treated duct with splitter by about 0.6% to 2.0% in terms of fan exit average total pressure (depending on operating condition). When the measured results were used to estimate pressure losses, a cruise sfc penalty of 0.68%, due to the acoustically treated duct, was projected.

  2. Inlet noise on 0.5-meter-diameter NASA QF1 fan as measured in an unmodified compressor aerodynamic test facility and in an anechoic chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Gelder; R. F. Soltis

    1975-01-01

    Narrowband analysis revealed grossly similar sound pressure level spectra in each facility. Blade passing frequency (BPF) noise and multiple pure tone (MPT) noise were superimposed on a broadband (BB) base noise. From one-third octave bandwidth sound power analyses the BPF noise (harmonics combined), and the MPT noise (harmonics combined, excepting BPF's) agreed between facilities within 1.5 db or less over

  3. Animation aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

    1991-01-01

    Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

  4. Awesome Aerodynamics!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn about the role of scientific research in the design of competition suits for athletes in the Winter Olympics. Students will also explore and research the concept of aerodynamics, and conduct their own scientific experiment to gain an understanding of this concept.

  5. Noisy Aerodynamic Response And Smooth Approximations In Hsct Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Giunta; Jane M. Dudley; Robert Narducci; Bernard Grossman; Raphael T. Haftka; William H. Mason; Layne T. Watson

    1994-01-01

    Convergence difficulties were encountered in our recentefforts toward a combined aerodynamic-structuraloptimization of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The underlying causes of the convergence problemswere traced to numerical noise in the calculationof aerodynamic drag components for the aircraft. Twotechniques were developed to circumvent the obstaclesto convergence. The first technique employed a sequentialapproximate optimization method which usedlarge initial move limits on...

  6. Coupled 2-dimensional cascade theory for noise and unsteady aerodynamics of blade row interaction in turbofans. Volume 1: Theory development and parametric studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is concluded that the new features of this analysis - unsteady coupling, frequency scattering, and flow turning between rotor and stator - have a profound effect on noise generation caused by rotor/stator interaction. Treating rotors and stators as isolated cascades is not adequate for noise analysis and prediction.

  7. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  8. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  9. Aerodynamics Antony Jameson

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    Chapter 11 Aerodynamics Antony Jameson Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA 1 Focus Multidimensional Domains 359 6 Time-stepping Schemes 365 7 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization 379 8 Related Chapters 400 Acknowledgment 400 References 400 1 FOCUS AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.1 Classical aerodynamics

  10. On Sound Generated Aerodynamically. II. Turbulence as a Source of Sound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Lighthill

    1954-01-01

    The theory of sound generated aerodynamically is extended by taking into account the statistical properties of turbulent airflows, from which the sound radiated (without the help of solid boundaries) is called aerodynamic noise. The theory is developed with special reference to the noise of jets, for which a detailed comparison with experiment is made (section 7 for subsonic jets, section

  11. 5th International Meeting Wind Turbine Noise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 5th International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise Denver 28 ­ 30 August 2013 Wind Turbine Noise Broadband noise generated aerodynamically is the dominant noise source for a modern wind turbine(Brooks et, clean energy. While profiting from wind energy, the noise produced by a modern wind turbine becomes

  12. Propeller noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Zorumski

    1983-01-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the

  13. Aerodynamics for Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those wanting a little more on the theory of aerodynamics, the University of Sydney has published this web textbook, "Aerodynamics for Students". In addition to information on fluid dynamics, flight theory, gas dynamics, propulsion, aircraft performance, and aeroelasticity, the textbook also includes data tables, computer programs, and simulations to aid in the study and understanding of aerodynamics. This textbook is a great resource for undergraduates studying engineering.

  14. Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA's "Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics" provides some general information on the basics of aerodynamics. The site allows users to explore at their own pace and level of interest. Some of the topics that are available here are: equations of motion, free falling, air resistance, force, gas properties, and atmosphere. Movies, reading materials, and activities are all available to accommodate a variety of different learning styles. This is an excellent resource, with great reference materials for anyone interested in learning more about aerodynamics.

  15. Wind-turbine aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Wilson

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamics of wind turbines is reviewed starting with effects of lift and drag on translating devices and proceeding through the performance aerodynamics of the horizontal-axis and vertical-axis machines currently in service. Horizontal-axis rotor aerodynamics is outlined and the performance limits are presented along with key assumptions and problem areas. The Darrieus rotor multiple streamtube analysis is developed and compared

  16. The causes and unwanted results of aerodynamic system effect

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderburgh, C.R. (BVA Systems Ltd., Scarborough, Ontario (Canada). Vibro-Acoustics Div.); Paulauskis, J.A. (Hospital Building and Equipment Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Aerodynamic system effect (commonly abbreviated as system effect) and its impact on fan performance and noise are poorly understood and often neglected. What system effect is, what causes it in a typical fan-duct system, and how it adversely affects the flow performance and noise output of the fan are described in this article. Also discussed is code testing of fan and duct components and why code testing gives no insight into the often very adverse nature of system effect. The cumulative impact of aerodynamic system effect in a fan-duct system can substantially reduce system performance while causing excess noise.

  17. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.

  18. Modeling aerodynamically generated sound of helicopter rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    2003-04-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and dipole source terms of the FW-H equation account for the thickness and loading noise, respectively. Blade-vortex-interaction noise and broadband noise are important types of loading noise, hence much research has been directed toward the accurate modeling of these noise mechanisms. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H equation has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparisons of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems. Finally, significant progress has been made incorporating the rotor noise models into full vehicle noise prediction tools.

  19. HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.

  20. Topic in Depth - Aerodynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâ??s the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youâ??ve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

  1. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  2. Science of Cycling: Aerodynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, from the Exploratorium, reviews the aerodynamics of cycling. Wind resistance is often one of the biggest challenges that professional and amateur cyclists face. This site has a form that lets you "Calculate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist". Use the form to calculate resistance using different inclines, velocity, weight or wind velocity. At the bottom of the page, you can find useful information and tips on reducing resistance. Check it out before your next bike ride!

  3. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  4. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  5. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

    2000-01-01

    Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

  6. Darrieus rotor aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Darrieus wind turbines are relatively simple devices. Fixed geometry blades, usually only two or three in number, rotate about a vertical axis providing power to ground mounted power conversion or absorption machinery. No yaw control or power regulation systems are required. This simplicity, however, does not extend to the rotor's aerodynamics. The blade elements travel along circular paths through air whose relative speed and direction are constantly changing. The blade elements operate both unstalled and stalled with aerodynamic stall providing the rotor's inherent power regulation. The blade elements encounter their own wakes and those generated by other elements. These features combine to cause the thorough analysis of Darrieus rotor aerodynamics to be a challenging undertaking.

  7. High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

  8. Aerodynamics for Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site serves as an online aerodynamics textbook for college students. Offered by the department of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Mechatronic Engineering at the University of Sydney, the material is divided into several main categories. These include fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, gasdynamics, aircraft performance, and propulsion. Each of these sections has many specific topics that are discussed in detail. There are MATLAB, Excel, and FORTRAN files and data sheets that accompany the reading, but they are best used as reference and are not needed to understand most of the material.

  9. Entry aerodynamics and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the problems of entry aerodynamics and heating is given with emphasis on survival of the probe, predictability of performance, and reliability of performance. Technological challenges to performance prediction are considered and include: turbulent heat transfer, radiation blockage, chemical state of the shock layer, afterbody heat transfer, asymmetric ablation, and real-gas aerodynamics. It is indicated that various obstacles must be overcome in order to achieve technology readiness. These obstacles are considered to be: extrapolations from ground tests to flight; lack of flight experience; lack of parametric data; and uncertain knowledge of atmospherics.

  10. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  11. Wind turbine wake aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Vermeer; J. N. Sørensen; A. Crespo

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed

  12. Precision and accuracy of jet noise measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Savell

    1977-01-01

    Statistical methods of analyzing the accuracy and precision of acoustic measurements are developed and demonstrated in evaluating glossial, anechoic chamber jet noise facility. Errors introduced by: contamination from a nonjet noise sources; inaccuracies in aerodynamic measurement; air attenuation inaccuracies from an inadequate attenuation model, ambient gradients and inaccurate meteorological measurements; deviation from a freefield arena; and contamination from electronic noise

  13. Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1986-08-12

    An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

  14. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica (Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA); Simley, Eric (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  15. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  16. HYSHOT-2 Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.

    2005-02-01

    The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.

  17. High speed helicopter noise sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A.

    1977-01-01

    The state-of-the art of helicopter rotor impulsive noise is reviewed. A triangulation technique for locating impulsive noise sources is developed using once-per-rev index signals as time references. A computer program (INSL) was written implementing this technique. Applying triangulation to the full-scale UH-1 noise data of NASA/Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel, three different noise sources are found on the rotor disk. The primary sources of thickness noise are in the second quadrant and on the advancing side of rotor disk. Two aerodynamic sources due to blade/vortex interaction are found in the first quadrant.

  18. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

  19. Static Aerodynamic Performance Investigation of a Fluid Shield Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balan, C.; Askew, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    In pursuit of an acoustically acceptable, high performance exhaust system capable of meeting Federal Aviation Regulation 36 Stage 3 noise goals for the High Speed Civil Transport application, General Electric Aircraft Engines conducted a design study to incorporate a fluid shield into a 36-chute suppressor exhaust-nozzle system. After a full scale preliminary mechanical design of the resulting fluid shield exhaust system, scale model aerodynamic performance tests and acoustic tests were conducted to establish both aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics. Data are presented as thrust coefficients, discharge coefficients, chute-base pressure drags, and plug static pressure distributions.

  20. OPTIMALLY DESIGNED PROPELLERS CONSTRAINED BY NOISE (BLADE, SOUND, AIRCRAFT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER JOHN MILLER

    1984-01-01

    A design tool is developed that will produce an optimum geometry for a given trade-off between noise and performance. A vortex lattice model is used for the aerodynamics and a subsonic compact source model for the noise analysis. Optimizing the twist, chord and sweep distributions produced blades with favorable tradeoffs between noise and performance. The techniques used for noise reduction

  1. Calculation of the rotation noise of a single propeller with blades of arbitrary shape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Ganabov; A. G. Munin

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method is proposed for calculating the rotation noise of a propeller with blades of arbitrary planform, including saber-shaped blades. The calculation procedure uses the specified geometrical and aerodynamical characteristics of the propeller determined at the stage of preliminary aerodynamic design. The aerodynamic load is prescribed over the entire surface of the blade. An expression is obtained for determining

  2. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  3. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.

  4. Aerodynamics: The Mathematical Implications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smikle, Hermine E.

    2000-03-11

    This unit from the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute is "an attempt to develop a unit in mathematics that will provide topics for students interested in the aviation trades." The unit can be used to cover all areas of mathematics from areas in geometry sectors to basic addition of fraction and decimal numbers. These general math concepts will be introduced using aerodynamics and aviation language and it is hoped that students will begin "to understand the applicability of some of the mathematics concepts they have learned." This curriculum unit also includes sample lesson plans and references.

  5. Propeller noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the actual noise prediction, based on data from the first group. Deterministic predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are made using Farassat's time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by the semi-empirical Schlinker-Amiet method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressures include the effects of boundary layer refraction and (for a cylinder) scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects. Experimental data from subsonic and transonic propellers are compared and NASA's future direction is propeller noise technology development are indicated.

  6. Propeller noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1983-05-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the actual noise prediction, based on data from the first group. Deterministic predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are made using Farassat's time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by the semi-empirical Schlinker-Amiet method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressures include the effects of boundary layer refraction and (for a cylinder) scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects. Experimental data from subsonic and transonic propellers are compared and NASA's future direction is propeller noise technology development are indicated.

  7. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  8. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony Jameson

    1988-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses the question of how to modify in aerodynamic design to improve the performance. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey is included. 1 Introduction and historical survey Computers have had a twofold impact on the science of aerodynamics. On the one

  9. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  10. Aerodynamics of runback ice accretions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Whalen

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of simulated runback ice accretions has been performed in order to describe their aerodynamic performance penalties and investigate their scaling for use in sub-scale aerodynamic testing. Runback ice accretions corresponding to three flight conditions, warm hold, cold hold and descent, were simulated and tested on the NACA 23012 and NACA 3415. The ice shapes

  11. Inner workings of aerodynamic sweep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Wadia; P. N. Szucs; D. W. Crall

    1998-01-01

    The recent trend in using aerodynamic sweep to improve the performance of transonic blading has been one of the more significant technological evolutions for compression components in turbomachinery. This paper reports on the experimental and analytical assessment of the pay-off derived from both aft and forward sweep technology with respect to aerodynamic performance and stability. The single-stage experimental investigation includes

  12. Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

  13. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  14. Aerodynamics of Mars Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, Naruhisa; Wilmoth, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Direct Simulation Monte Carlo and free-molecular analyses were used to provide aerothermodynamic characteristics of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The results of these analyses were used to develop an aerodynamic database that was used extensively for the pre-flight planning and in-flight execution for the aerobraking phase of the Mars Odyssey mission. During aerobraking operations, the database was used to reconstruct atmospheric density profiles during each pass. The reconstructed data was used to update the atmospheric model, which was used to determine the strategy for subsequent aerobraking maneuvers. The aerodynamic database was also used together with data obtained from on-board accelerometers to reconstruct the spacecraft attitudes throughout each aerobraking pass. The reconstructed spacecraft attitudes are in good agreement with those determined by independent on-board inertial measurements for all aerobraking passes. The differences in the pitch attitudes are significantly less than the preflight uncertainties of +/-2.9%. The differences in the yaw attitudes are influenced by zonal winds. When latitudinal gradients of density are small, the differences in the yaw attitudes are significantly less than the preflight uncertainties.

  15. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  16. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  17. Flap noise generation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chestnutt, D.; Maglieri, D. J.; Hayden, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of aerodynamic noise generated by the interaction of an airstream with a flap surface are discussed. The location and behavior of various noise sources were investigated to determine optimal quieting techniques. A schematic diagram of the jet-flap concepts being considered for integrated-powered-lift systems for short takeoff aircraft is shown. Each of the concepts has in common high velocity turbulent air flowing over relatively rigid surfaces with resultant production of interaction noise. The nature, location, and control of noise sources which involve the interactions of air flows with airfoil surfaces are examined.

  18. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  19. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  20. Modelling and Simulation in Aerodynamic Design

    E-print Network

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    Modelling and Simulation in Aerodynamic Design In different kinds of aerodynamic design elements is too complex. Aerodynamic properties of different airfoils are found from either numerical turbine blade, two design features are important. The aerodynamic design attempts to optimize the blade

  1. Efficient aerodynamic shape optimization in MDO context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Fazzolari; Nicolas R. Gauger; Joel Brezillon

    2007-01-01

    Multidisciplinary analysis is necessary to reach physically meaningful optimum designs. For aero-structural shape optimization this means coupling two disciplines—aerodynamics and structural mechanics. In this paper, the sensitivity evaluation for aerodynamic shape optimization is considered, while taking into account the static aeroelastic effects introduced by the variations in the aerodynamic forces, which are associated with changes in the aerodynamic shape. Due

  2. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  3. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  4. Aerodynamics at the Particle Level

    E-print Network

    Charles A. Crummer

    2012-09-23

    This paper is intended to clarify some of the rather well-known aerodynamic phenomena. It is also intended to pique the interest of the layman as well as the professional. All aerodynamic forces on a surface are caused by collisions of fluid particles with the surface. While the standard approach to fluid dynamics, which is founded on the fluid approximation, is effective in providing a means of calculating various behavior and properties, it begs the question of causality. The determination of the causes of many of the most important aerodynamic effects requires a microscopic examination of the fluid and of the surface with which it interacts. The Kutta-Joukowski theorem is investigated from first physical principles. It is noted that the circulation does not arise as a physical phenomenon. Various aerodynamic devices are discussed, e.g. rocket engine exhaust diffuser and the perfume atomizer.

  5. Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Allan E.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems is examined. It is presumed that the underlying model can be arranged into an input/output (I/O) differential operator equation of a generic form. The algorithm estimation is especially efficient since the equation error can be integrated exactly given any I/O pair to obtain an algebraic function of the parameters. The algorithm for parameter identification was extended to the order determination problem for linear differential system. The degeneracy in a least squares estimate caused by feedback was addressed. A method of frequency analysis for determining the transfer function G(j omega) from transient I/O data was formulated using complex valued Fourier based modulating functions in contrast with the trigonometric modulating functions for the parameter estimation problem. A simulation result of applying the algorithm is given under noise-free conditions for a system with a low pass transfer function.

  6. Plotting Program For Aerodynamical Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigren, L. J.; Lovely, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Panel Method Aerodynamic Plotting Program (PMAPP) written to plot results of aerodynamical analyses (flow data) from PMARC (ARC-12642), program for computation of three-dimensional flow by low-order panel method. PMAPP is interactive, color-capable graphics program designed to work with variety of computer terminals and printers. Also used to plot data from other programs, provided files containing those data defined according to PMARC conventions. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  7. Explanation and discovery in aerodynamics

    E-print Network

    Gordon McCabe

    2005-12-22

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and clarify the explanations commonly cited for the aerodynamic lift generated by a wing, and to then analyse, as a case study of engineering discovery, the aerodynamic revolutions which have taken place within Formula 1 in the past 40 years. The paper begins with an introduction that provides a succinct summary of the mathematics of fluid mechanics.

  8. Differential Evolution in Aerodynamic Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rogalsky; R. W. Derksen; S. Kocabiyik

    1999-01-01

    Aerodynamic design algorithms require an optimization strategy to search for the best design. The objectof this paper is to compare the performance of some different strategies when used by an aerodynamicshape optimization routine which designs fan blade shapes. A recently developed genetic algorithm,Differential Evolution [1,2], outperforms more traditional techniques.IntroductionAerodynamic shape optimization involvesdesigning the most efficient shapes of bodies thatmove through...

  9. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  10. Computation of minimum noise aircraft landing trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, G.

    1978-01-01

    Efforts to reduce aircraft noise perceived by residents during landing are reported. Steps in the development of the aircraft aerodynamic model, noise model, population model, performance index, and optimization procedure are reviewed. The optimal trajectories from the three main near-terminal entry points are presented via tables and graphs. The recommendation is that these minimal noise trajectories be tested as reference trajectories for the terminally configured aircraft to fly along.

  11. Aerodynamics of Wiffle Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utvich, Alexis; Jemmott, Colin; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn

    2003-11-01

    A team of undergraduate students has performed experiments on Wiffle balls in the Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel facility. Wiffle balls are of particular interest because they can attain a curved trajectory with little or no pitcher-imparted spin. The reasons behind this have not previously been quantified formally. A strain gauge device was designed and constructed to measure the lift and drag forces on the Wiffle ball; a second device to measure lift and drag on a spinning ball was also developed. Experiments were conducted over a range of Reynolds numbers corresponding to speeds of roughly 0-40 mph. Lift forces of up to 0.2 N were measured for a Wiffle ball at 40 mph. This is believed to be due to air flowing into the holes on the Wiffle ball in addition to the effect of the holes on external boundary layer separation. A fog-based flow visualization system was developed in order to provide a deeper qualitative understanding of what occurred in the flowfield surrounding the ball. The data and observations obtained in this study support existing assumptions about Wiffle ball aerodynamics and begin to elucidate the mechanisms involved in Wiffle ball flight.

  12. Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Paul G

    2007-10-15

    The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used. PMID:17519203

  13. Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

  14. Tandem cylinder aerodynamic sound control using porous coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanru; Azarpeyvand, Mahdi; Wei, Jinjia; Qu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with the application of porous coatings as a passive flow control method for reducing the aerodynamic sound from tandem cylinders. The aim here is to perform a parametric proof-of-concept study to investigate the effectiveness of porous treatment on bare tandem cylinders to control and regularize the vortex shedding and flow within the gap region between the two bluff bodies, and thereby control the aerodynamic sound generation mechanism. The aerodynamic simulations are performed using 2D transient RANS approach with k - ? turbulence model, and the acoustic computations are carried out using the standard Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy. Numerical flow and acoustic results are presented for bare tandem cylinders and porous-covered cylinders, with different porosities and thicknesses. Experimental flow and acoustic data are also provided for comparison. Results show that the proper use of porous coatings can lead to stabilization of the vortex shedding within the gap region, reduction of the vortex shedding interaction with the downstream body, and therefore the generation of tonal and broadband noise. It has also been observed that the magnitude and the frequency of the primary tone reduce significantly as a result of the flow regularization. The proposed passive flow-induced noise and vibration control method can potentially be used for other problems involving flow interaction with bluff bodies.

  15. The aerodynamics of ship superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, J. V.

    1991-11-01

    After 70 years of naval aviation, a belated understanding of the aerodynamics of ships is slowly emerging. The lack of understanding, and undoubtedly other reasons, has led to superstructure configurations that are unsuited to adjacent helicopter flight. This has resulted in severely limited safe operating envelopes, danger to pilots and ship personnel and blade strikes that occasionally result in the complete loss of a helicopter. The air flows around ships abound with recirculating zones, bounded by shear layers that emanate from the sharp edges of the superstructures. These zones vary enormously in size in an intermittent manner, giving rise to flows with extreme velocity gradients and turbulence intensity levels that are too high to be measured with hot wire anemometers. This complicates the situation because, at the present time, a data base for simulation can be established only via measurement. The essential ingredients for the aerodynamic design of new ships are proposed and some suggestions for the improvement of the aerodynamics of existing ships are made. Correcting an aerodynamically poor ship is no substitute for the incorporation of aerodynamics into the ship design process.

  16. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445 Section...Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When...significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as...

  17. An Assessment of NASA Glenn's Aeroacoustic Experimental and Predictive Capabilities for Installed Cooling Fans. Part 1; Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Koch, L. Danielle; Wernet, Mark P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    Driven by the need for low production costs, electronics cooling fans have evolved differently than the bladed components of gas turbine engines which incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Drawing upon NASA Glenn's experience in the measurement and prediction of gas turbine engine aeroacoustic performance, tests have been conducted to determine if these tools and techniques can be extended for application to the aerodynamics and acoustics of electronics cooling fans. An automated fan plenum installed in NASA Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory was used to map the overall aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a spaceflight qualified 80 mm diameter axial cooling fan. In order to more accurately identify noise sources, diagnose performance limiting aerodynamic deficiencies, and validate noise prediction codes, additional aerodynamic measurements were recorded for two operating points: free delivery and a mild stall condition. Non-uniformities in the fan s inlet and exhaust regions captured by Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, and rotor blade wakes characterized by hot wire anemometry measurements provide some assessment of the fan aerodynamic performance. The data can be used to identify fan installation/design changes which could enlarge the stable operating region for the fan and improve its aerodynamic performance and reduce noise emissions.

  18. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  19. Electromyographic responses to aerodynamic vs. drop handlebars 

    E-print Network

    Layne, Donald Jodel

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic Handlebars were developed to increase the competitive cyclists aerodynamic advantage. They place the cyclist in a laid out position with the hands stretched out in front similar to a down hill skier "tuck" ...

  20. Special opportunities in helicopter aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic research relating to modern helicopters includes the study of three dimensional, unsteady, nonlinear flow fields. A selective review is made of some of the phenomenon that hamper the development of satisfactory engineering prediction techniques, but which provides a rich source of research opportunities: flow separations, compressibility effects, complex vortical wakes, and aerodynamic interference between components. Several examples of work in progress are given, including dynamic stall alleviation, the development of computational methods for transonic flow, rotor-wake predictions, and blade-vortex interactions.

  1. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  2. Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account. PMID:20968337

  3. The Airframe Noise Reduction Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA goal of reducing external aircraft noise by 10 dB in the near-term presents the acoustics community with an enormous challenge. This report identifies technologies with the greatest potential to reduce airframe noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic effects will be discussed, along with the likelihood of industry accepting and implementing the different technologies. We investigate the lower bound, defined as noise generated by an aircraft modified with a virtual retrofit capable of eliminating all noise associated with the high lift system and landing gear. However, the airframe noise of an aircraft in this 'clean' configuration would only be about 8 dB quieter on approach than current civil transports. To achieve the NASA goal of 10 dB noise reduction will require that additional noise sources be addressed. Research shows that energy in the turbulent boundary layer of a wing is scattered as it crosses trailing edge. Noise generated by scattering is the dominant noise mechanism on an aircraft flying in the clean configuration. Eliminating scattering would require changes to much of the aircraft, and practical reduction devices have yet to receive serious attention. Evidence suggests that to meet NASA goals in civil aviation noise reduction, we need to employ emerging technologies and improve landing procedures; modified landing patterns and zoning restrictions could help alleviate aircraft noise in communities close to airports.

  4. CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics

    E-print Network

    Dumas, Laurent

    Chapter 1 CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics Laurent Dumas Abstract The car drag- ments. An overview of the main characteristics of automotive aerodynamics and a detailed presentation.dumas@upmc.fr) 1 #12;2 Laurent Dumas 1.1 Introducing Automotive Aerodynamics 1.1.1 A Major Concern for Car

  5. Challenges and Complexity of Aerodynamic Wing

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    Chapter 1 Challenges and Complexity of Aerodynamic Wing Design Kasidit Leoviriyakit and Antony@stanford.edu and jameson@baboon.stanford.edu This paper focuses on aerodynamic design methodology. It discusses challenges and complexity of aerodynamic wing design for a transonic aircraft, which arise from the complex nature of flow

  6. ME421. Foundations of Aerodynamics. Victor Yakhot

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xi

    ME421. Foundations of Aerodynamics. Victor Yakhot Syllabus. Spring 2014 . 1/16, 21. Fluids;Books. 1. D. Wilcox, "Basic Fluid Mechanics". 2. J. Anderson, Fundamentals of aerodynamics. 3. V.Yakhot,, ME421. Fluid Mechanics and aerodynamics. My lecture notes. 4. I. Abbott and A. Doenhoff, Theory

  7. ME421. Foundations of Aerodynamics. Victor Yakhot

    E-print Network

    ME421. Foundations of Aerodynamics. Victor Yakhot Syllabus. Spring 2013 . 1/17, 22. Fluids Mechanics". 2. J. Anderson, Fundamentals of aerodynamics. 3. V.Yakhot,, ME421. Fluid Mechanics and aerodynamics. My lecture notes. 4. I. Abbott and A. Doenhoff, Theory of wing sections, Dover Publications, NY

  8. Toward Practical Aerodynamic Design Through Numerical Optimization

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    Toward Practical Aerodynamic Design Through Numerical Optimization David W. Zingg, and Laura6, Canada A Newton-Krylov algorithm for aerodynamic optimization is applied to the multipoint design aerodynamic design. I. Introduction Beginning with the work of Hicks et al.1 and Hicks and Henne,2 numerical

  9. Conformal Mapping in Wing Aerodynamics Thomas Johnson

    E-print Network

    Morrow, James A.

    Conformal Mapping in Wing Aerodynamics Thomas Johnson June 4, 2013 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 the first complete treatment of conformal mapping in aerodynamics. Near the beginning of the twentieth and aerodynamics. The purpose of this exposition is to give the reader an elementary intro- duction to the use

  10. Rotorcraft Aerodynamics Models for a Comprehensive Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments of the aerodynamics models for the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II are described, particularly the unsteady aerodynamic models and dynamic stall models, and the free wake geometry calculation. Three models for the unsteady aerodynamic loads in attached flow are implemented: from incompressible thin-airfoil theory, from ONERA EDLIN, and from Leishman-Beddoes. Five dynamic stall models are implemented: from Johnson, Boeing,

  11. Low Noise Exhaust Nozzle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Balan, C.; Mengle, V.; Brausch, J. F.; Shin, H.; Askew, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry have been assessing the economic viability and environmental acceptability of a second-generation supersonic civil transport, or High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Development of a propulsion system that satisfies strict airport noise regulations and provides high levels of cruise and transonic performance with adequate takeoff performance, at an acceptable weight, is critical to the success of any HSCT program. The principal objectives were to: 1. Develop a preliminary design of an innovative 2-D exhaust nozzle with the goal of meeting FAR36 Stage III noise levels and providing high levels of cruise performance with a high specific thrust for Mach 2.4 HSCT with a range of 5000 nmi and a payload of 51,900 lbm, 2. Employ advanced acoustic and aerodynamic codes during preliminary design, 3. Develop a comprehensive acoustic and aerodynamic database through scale-model testing of low-noise, high-performance, 2-D nozzle configurations, based on the preliminary design, and 4. Verify acoustic and aerodynamic predictions by means of scale-model testing. The results were: 1. The preliminary design of a 2-D, convergent/divergent suppressor ejector nozzle for a variable-cycle engine powered, Mach 2.4 HSCT was evolved, 2. Noise goals were predicted to be achievable for three takeoff scenarios, and 3. Impact of noise suppression, nozzle aerodynamic performance, and nozzle weight on HSCT takeoff gross weight were assessed.

  12. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  13. Aerodynamics of a Dimpled Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2010-11-01

    Automobiles consume approximately two billion barrels of fuel each year throughout the United States. A significant portion of this fuel is used to overcome aerodynamic drag at highway speeds. As a result, even small improvements made to the aerodynamics of automobiles can result in sizeable fuel savings. Since the shape of a vehicle is often dictated by design, economics, and function, aerodynamic improvements by means of obvious body streamlining are not always possible. However, minor modifications can be made to the vehicle, such as changing the behavior of the boundary layer to delay flow separation or installing small components either to reduce underbody flow or to mitigate induced drag. In this study, we examine the effect that dimples have upon the aerodynamics of a simplified vehicle. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are performed on a full-scale Ahmed body at a Reynolds number of 9.5e6 based upon the vehicle length. The dimples, which have a uniform diameter of 0.1 m and a dimple depth-to-diameter ratio of 0.14, are distributed across the vehicle surface. The results of the simulations demonstrate that the dimples modify both the recirculation zone and the strength and location of the counter-rotating vortex pair in the vehicle wake. Although an increase in base pressure can occur for a dimpled configuration, the net drag change is sensitive to both the number and placement of the dimples on the vehicle body.

  14. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

  15. AIAA 20033498 Viscous Aerodynamic Shape

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    design tool, but as an aid to analyze the fluid flow. The design process has still been done by trial for aerodynamic shape design in viscous compressible flow mod- eled by the Navier-Stokes equations. It extends, a Pareto front is captured, broadening the design range of optimal shapes. INTRODUCTION CFD has played

  16. The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic

  17. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  18. Shuttle reentry aerodynamic heating test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, J. E.; Mccormick, P. O.; Smith, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    The research for determining the space shuttle aerothermal environment is reported. Brief summaries of the low Reynolds number windward side heating test, and the base and leeward heating and high Reynolds number heating test are included. Also discussed are streamline divergence and the resulting effect on aerodynamic heating, and a thermal analyzer program that is used in the Thermal Environment Optimization Program.

  19. Aerodynamics of runback ice accretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    An experimental study of the effects of simulated runback ice accretions has been performed in order to describe their aerodynamic performance penalties and investigate their scaling for use in sub-scale aerodynamic testing. Runback ice accretions corresponding to three flight conditions, warm hold, cold hold and descent, were simulated and tested on the NACA 23012 and NACA 3415. The ice shapes were simulated on two levels of fidelity. Medium-fidelity simulations captured the chordwise location, cross-section, height distribution and chordwise extent of the ice accretion. Low-fidelity simulations captured their height and chordwise location. Two scaling methods were also employed. Each simulation was scaled based upon the ratio of the aerodynamic model chord to the full-scale icing model, called geometric scaling. The warm hold simulations were also scaled based upon the ratio of the local, clean-model boundary-layer thickness on the aerodynamic model to that of the icing model, called boundary-layer scaling. This method was employed because the geometrically-scaled simulations were found to be on the order of the boundary-layer thickness as the model approached stall. Following aerodynamic performance testing, fluorescent-oil flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry were used to investigate the flowfield resulting from the low-fidelity warm hold simulations. Results for this work have shown that runback ice accretions can cause significant aerodynamic performance penalties. In general, the NACA 23012 experienced greater aerodynamic performance penalties due to the runback simulations than did the NACA 3415. Low-fidelity simulations of the cold hold case agreed quite well with their medium fidelity counterparts. In the descent case, the level of variation in ice accretion height was too small for there to be a distinction between the low- and medium-fidelity cases. Low-fidelity simulations of the warm hold accretion did not agree well with the medium-fidelity simulation. In fact, the geometrically-scaled simulation was observed to increase the maximum lift and stalling angle-of-attack of the NACA 3415. Flowfield investigations using fluorescent-oil flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry showed that the simulations that were similar in height to the clean-model local boundary-layer thickness acted to stabilize the recovering boundary layer, delaying stall past the stalling angle-of-attack of the clean case.

  20. Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.

    2002-01-01

    Ohio State University developed a new spectrally filtered light-scattering apparatus based on a diode laser injected-locked titanium: sapphire laser and rubidium vapor filter at 780.2 nm. When the device was combined with a stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirror, the realizable peak attenuation of elastic scattering interferences exceeded 105. The potential of the system was demonstrated by performing Thomson scattering measurements. Under USAF-NASA funding, West Virginia University developed a Doppler global velocimetry system using inexpensive 8-bit charged coupled device cameras and digitizers and a CW argon ion laser. It has demonstrated a precision of +/- 2.5 m/sec in a swirling jet flow. Low-noise silicon-micromachined microphones developed and incorporated in a novel two-tier, hybrid packaging scheme at the University of Florida used printed circuit board technology to realize a MEMS-based directional acoustic array. The array demonstrated excellent performance relative to conventional sensor technologies and provides scaling technologies that can reduce cost and increase speed and mobility.

  1. Estimation of transport airplane aerodynamics using multiple stepwise regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keskar, D. A.; Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an application of multiple stepwise regression to the flight test data of a typical transport airplane. The flight test data was carefully preprocessed to eliminate aliasing, time skews and high frequency noise. The data consisted both of basic certification maneuvers, such as wind-up-turns and maneuvers suitable for parameter estimation, such as responses to elevator pulses and doublets. It is shown that the results of multiple stepwise regression techniques compare favorably with the results obtained from maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, it is concluded that multiple stepwise regression could be a fast economical way to estimate transport airplane aerodynamics.

  2. Calculation of the rotation noise of a single propeller with blades of arbitrary shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganabov, V. I.; Munin, A. G.

    An analytical method is proposed for calculating the rotation noise of a propeller with blades of arbitrary planform, including saber-shaped blades. The calculation procedure uses the specified geometrical and aerodynamical characteristics of the propeller determined at the stage of preliminary aerodynamic design. The aerodynamic load is prescribed over the entire surface of the blade. An expression is obtained for determining the acoustic pressure level in the near and far fields. The results obtained are compared with experimental data.

  3. A Investigation of Surface Generated Flow Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Chung Liu

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic sound generated by a small scale wing model interacting with a 4-inch jet has been investigated experimentally in NASA-AMES Anechoic Chamber. The investigation consisted of two parts. The first part was concentrated on the shear layer\\/wing interaction noise. The second part was the study of noise associated with separated flow. Cross -correlation techniques were used to discriminate against

  4. The radiated noise from isotropic turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey M. Lilley; Jay C. Hardin

    1994-01-01

    The noise radiated from isotropic turbulence at low Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers, as derived by Proudman (1952), was the first application of Lighthill's “Theory of Aerodynamic Noise” to a complete flow field. The theory presented by Proudman involves the assumption of the neglect of retarded-time differences and so replaces the second-order retarded-time and space covariance of Lighthill's stress

  5. Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polutchko, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

  6. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

  7. Experimental and analytical, transonic aerodynamic and acoustic results for rectangular and swept rotor blade tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, J.; Lafon, P.; Caplot, M.; Desopper, A.

    This paper presents some experimental and theoretical studies dealing with both acoustics and aerodynamics of helicopter rotor blades in high-speed forward flight. Experimental results in S2Ch acoustically treated wind tunnel concern a comparison between a rectangular blade tip and a parabolic sweptback one, with an anhedral effect, named PF1. They show an increase in aerodynamic performances for the PF1 blades, which is due to a decrease of the transonic flow intensity on the advancing blade side. These results are confirmed by calculation with a transonic small disturbance code. Acoustic measurements show a noise reduction for the PF1 blades. This tendency appears also through calculation. An analytical study evaluates the influence of blade tip shape on the generated thickness noise. Assessment of compressibility effects by quadrupolar noise calculations for several blade tips is presented; the limitations of the use of the Lighthill's acoustic analogy are discussed.

  8. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  9. The compressible aerodynamics of rotating blades based on an acoustic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    An acoustic formula derived for the calculation of the noise of moving bodies is applied to aerodynamic problems. The acoustic formulation is a time domain result suitable for slender wings and bodies moving at subsonic speeds. A singular integral equation is derived in terms of the surface pressure which must then be solved numerically for aerodynamic purposes. However, as the 'observer' is moved onto the body surface, the divergent integrals in the acoustic formulation are semiconvergent. The procedure for regularization (or taking principal values of divergent integrals) is explained, and some numerical examples for ellipsoids, wings, and lifting rotors are presented. The numerical results show good agreement with available measured surface pressure data.

  10. A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 3: Program manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program for a comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics is described. This analysis is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; the helicopter vibration and gust response; the flight dynamics and handling qualities; and the system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is a combination of structural, inertial, and aerodynamic models that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

  11. Aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a contracting cowl high throat Mach number inlet installed on NASA quiet engine C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blommer, H. E.; Schaefer, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and takeoff performance was evaluated of a contracting cowl variable geometry design inlet installed on a high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine. The design was finalized after consideration of aerodynamic, acoustic, and mechanical factors which would lead to a viable flight worthy concept. The aerodynamic results are presented in terms of inlet recovery and distortion parameter as functions of throat Mach number, and acoustic results in terms of Perceived Noise Level. The contracting cowl high throat Mach number inlet is shown to be an attractive means to reduce forward radiated noise from a high bypass ratio turbofan engine.

  12. Low-Noise Rotorcraft Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Blades of helicopter rotors, tilt rotors, and like reshaped to reduce noise, according to proposal. Planform features combination of rearward and forward sweep. Forward sweep over large outer portion of blade constitutes primary noise-reduction feature. Relieves some of compressive effect in tip region, with consequent reduction of noise from compressive sources. Performance at high advance ratio improved. Cabin vibration and loading noise reduced by load-averaging effect of double-sweep planform. Aft-swept section provides balancing of aerodynamic and other dynamic forces on blade along 1/4-chord line of straight inboard section and along projection of line to outermost blade radius. Possible for hub-hinge forces and moments to remain within practical bounds. Provides stabilizing blade forces and moments to counteract any instability caused by forward sweep.

  13. Computerized aerodynamic design of a transonically 'quiet' blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The high noise levels produced by helicopters are major sources of concern. There are many sources of the noise, but during high-speed forward flight, impulsive noise dominates the noise spectrum. The cause of the high-speed impulsive noise is the propagation into the far field of shock waves that form on the advancing blade. This mechanism has been labeled 'delocalization'. It has been shown, however, that by judicious design of the blade-tip planform, delocalization can be prevented. The objective of the present study is to illustrate how blade-tip configurations (both planform and airfoil shape) can be systematically varied to identify shapes that avoid delocalization and simultaneously improve aerodynamic performance. This has been done using the latest version of the ROT22 transonic, full-potential, quasi-steady, rotor flow-field code. A hypothetical modern rotor blade was postulated, and tip modifications consisting of taper, sweep, and airfoil section alterations were investigated. Planform modifications were found to be most effective in eliminating delocalization.

  14. [Transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopy for otitis media].

    PubMed

    Ageenko, I V

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of various methods of transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopy based on the examination of 60 patients presenting with acute suppurative otitis media (CSOM), chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), exudative and adhesive otitis media. Transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopy was performed with the use of otobarohydroendoscope. The results of the study demonstrate the advantages of the transmeatal aerodynamical otoendoscopic technique for the examination of the patients presenting with different clinical forms of otitis media. PMID:23250522

  15. Investigation of pump hydraulic noise by unsteady aerodynamic measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Godefroi; J. Tourret; M. Bertinier; M. Pluviose

    1990-01-01

    An experimental method is developed to further understand the physical mechanisms of acoustic wave generation in centrifugal flow turbine engines. This method measures the complete unsteady pressure field throughout the engine and its variations with rotor position or airflow. Time pressure signals are obtained synchronously by using a large number of fixed and rotating transducers. These time signal values are

  16. Numerical and analytical modelling of entropy noise in a supersonic nozzle with a shock

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Over the last five decades, jet and external aerodynamic noises of aircraft have been substantially rNumerical and analytical modelling of entropy noise in a supersonic nozzle with a shock M. Leyko and numerical assessments of the indirect noise generated through a nozzle are presented. The configuration

  17. Introduction to Generalized Functions with Applications in Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.

    1994-01-01

    Generalized functions have many applications in science and engineering. One useful aspect is that discontinuous functions can be handled as easily as continuous or differentiable functions and provide a powerful tool in formulating and solving many problems of aerodynamics and acoustics. Furthermore, generalized function theory elucidates and unifies many ad hoc mathematical approaches used by engineers and scientists. We define generalized functions as continuous linear functionals on the space of infinitely differentiable functions with compact support, then introduce the concept of generalized differentiation. Generalized differentiation is the most important concept in generalized function theory and the applications we present utilize mainly this concept. First, some results of classical analysis, are derived with the generalized function theory. Other applications of the generalized function theory in aerodynamics discussed here are the derivations of general transport theorems for deriving governing equations of fluid mechanics, the interpretation of the finite part of divergent integrals, the derivation of the Oswatitsch integral equation of transonic flow, and the analysis of velocity field discontinuities as sources of vorticity. Applications in aeroacoustics include the derivation of the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces, the noise from moving surfaces, and shock noise source strength based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.

  18. USB noise reduction by nozzle and flap modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The development of concepts for reducing upper surface blown flap noise at the source through flap modifications and special nozzles is reviewed. In particular, recent results obtained on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of flaps with porous surfaces near the trailing edge and multi-slotted nozzles are reviewed. Considerable reduction (6-10 db) of the characteristic low frequency peak is shown. The aerodynamic performance is compared with conventional systems, and prospects for future improvements are discussed.

  19. Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry

    E-print Network

    Dumas, Laurent

    Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry Freedeerique Muyl April 2003; accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract An aerodynamic shape optimization tool for complex industrial reasons, concerns car manufacturers. Consequently, the improvement of the aerodynamics of car shapes, more

  20. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics Vladimir V. Riabov

    E-print Network

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics Vladimir V. Riabov Department of Mathematics, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific. Keywords: DSMC method, aerodynamic coefficients, hypersonic flows, similarity parameters, torus, spinning

  1. Inner workings of aerodynamic sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, A.R.; Szucs, P.N.; Crall, D.W. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The recent trend in using aerodynamic sweep to improve the performance of transonic blading has been one of the more significant technological evolutions for compression components in turbomachinery. This paper reports on the experimental and analytical assessment of the pay-off derived from both aft and forward sweep technology with respect to aerodynamic performance and stability. The single-stage experimental investigation includes two aft-swept rotors with varying degree and type of aerodynamic sweep and one swept forward rotor. On a back-to-back test basis, the results are compared with an unswept rotor with excellent performance and adequate stall margin. Although designed to satisfy identical design speed requirements as the unswept rotor, the experimental results reveal significant variations in efficiency and stall margin with the swept rotors. At design speed, all the swept rotors demonstrated a peak stage efficiency level that was equal to that of the unswept rotor. However, the forward-swept rotor achieved the highest rotor-alone peak efficiency. At the same time, the forward-swept rotor demonstrated a significant improvement in stall margin relative to the already satisfactory level achieved by the unswept rotor. Increasing the level of aft sweep adversely affected the stall margin. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis was used to assist in the interpretation of the data. The reduced shock/boundary layer interaction, resulting from reduced axial flow diffusion and less accumulation of centrifuged blade surface boundary layer at the tip, was identified as the prime contributor to the enhanced performance with forward sweep. The impact of tip clearance on the performance and stability for one of the aft-swept rotors was also assessed.

  2. Noise suppression by flexible fan silencers

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, J. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Kelly, T.R.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results on noise testing of a fan only, as well as the results of a steel silencer and of flexible silencers that were connected directly to a fan. On-site facilities and free-field method set by the British Standards Institution were used to measure and then compare the fan only and different practical silencer configuration setups. In order to determine the fan-silencer combination that would give the maximum noise attenuation, total noise intensity, noise contributed to by the fan motor only, as well as aerodynamical noise created through air interacting with the fan parts were considered to obtain decibel readings for the octave bands. Subsequently, the optimal configuration found was the setup with flexible silencers on the fan inlet and the fan outlet. If only one silencer is used, it should be installed on the fan inlet. The aerodynamic noise affects the low frequencies. The flow noise is then overtaken at 1 kHz by the mechanical noise.

  3. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  4. Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.

    1991-01-01

    The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.

  5. Aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Sayyed, S.

    1981-12-01

    Saving money with an efficient pipeline system design depends on accurately predicting compressor performance and ensuring that it meets the manufacturer's guaranteed levels. When shop testing with the actual gas is impractical, an aerodynamic test can ascertain compressor efficiency, but the accuracy and consistency of data acquisition in such tests is critical. Low test-pressure levels necessitate accounting for the effects of Reynolds number and heat transfer. Moreover, the compressor user and manufacturer must agree on the magnitude of the corrections to be applied to the test data.

  6. Aerodynamic considerations of blended wing body aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Qin; A. Vavalle; A. Le Moigne; M. Laban; K. Hackett; P. Weinerfelt

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a progressive aerodynamic study of a blended wing body (BWB) configuration within a European project, MOB (A computational design engine incorporating multi-disciplinary design and optimisation for blended wing body configuration). The paper starts with an overview of various blended wing body aircraft design projects in relation to their aerodynamic behaviour. After a theoretical assessment of

  7. Review of aerodynamic design in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrujere, Th. E.

    1991-01-01

    Aerodynamic design activities in the Netherlands, which take place mainly at Fokker, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and Delft University of Technology (TUD), are discussed. The survey concentrates on the development of the Fokker 100 wing, glider design at TUD, and research at NLR in the field of aerodynamic design. Results are shown to illustrate these activities.

  8. Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

  9. AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    the stability boundaries of the compressor by altering the aerodynamic or struc­ tural properties of the blades ten per blade passage, making it appropriate for con­ trol applications. The aerodynamic model is coupled with a simple structural model that has two degrees of freedom for each blade. Results

  10. Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of Dynamics and Control of Aircraft and simulation of aircraft, yet other aerodynamics models exist that can provide more accurate results derivatives and other low fidelity models are frequently used in the design and flight simulation of aircraft

  11. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  12. Aerodynamic models for a Darrieus wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fraunie; C. Beguier; I. Paraschivoiu; F. Delclaux

    1982-01-01

    Various models proposed for the aerodynamics of Darrieus wind turbines are reviewed. The magnitude of the L\\/D ratio for a Darrieus rotor blade is dependent on the profile, the Re, boundary layer characteristics, and the three-dimensional flow effects. The aerodynamic efficiency is theoretically the Betz limit, and the interference of one blade with another is constrained by the drag force

  13. Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Migliore; R. E. Walters; W. P. Wolfe

    1983-01-01

    An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were

  14. Aerodynamics of Sounding-Rocket Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical aerodynamics program TAD predicts aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding-rocket configurations. These slender, Axisymmetric finned vehicles have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high-speed armament. TAD calculates characteristics of separate portions of vehicle, calculates interference between portions, and combines results to form total vehicle solution.

  15. Applied aerodynamics of wind power machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Wilson; P. B. S. Lissaman

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamics of various types of wind power machines, and advantages and disadvantages of various schemes for obtaining power from the wind are reviewed. Simple, one-dimensional models for various power producing machines are given along with their performance characteristics, and presented as a function of their elementary aerodynamic and kinematic characteristics. Propeller type wind turbine theory is reviewed to level of

  16. Noise transmission and attenuation by stiffened panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.; Chang, M. T.

    1980-06-01

    An analytical study of noise transmission into semi-cylindrical and rectangular acoustic enclosures due to turbulent boundary layer pressure and propeller noise (prop-fan) is presented. The structural noise transmission models include a single panel, discretely stiffened elastic panel and stiffened viscoelastic sandwich panel. Response characteristics of the stiffened panels are evaluated using a transfer matrix procedure. The interior noise field is determined by a Galerkin-like method. The effect on interior noise due to aerodynamic surface flow, cavity back-up pressure, pressurization, mass, stiffness, and damping addition to the structure is investigated. It is shown that stiffened viscoelastic sandwich panels, while providing the same stiffening benefits as an equivalent elastic panel, could significantly reduce vibration levels and subsequently give similar benefits for interior noise control.

  17. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  18. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

  19. Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability

    E-print Network

    Courtney, Elya R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by the experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The experiments reported here also demonstrate a decrease in aerodynamic drag near Sg = 1.23 +/- 0.02. It is hypothesized that this decrease in drag over a narrow band of Sg values is due to a rapid damping of coning motions (precession and nutation). Observation of this drag decrease at a consistent value of Sg demonstrates the relati...

  20. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ? 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394

  1. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  2. Flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Lasagna, P. L.; Maglieri, D. J.; Olsen, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Externally-blown-flap noise research can be summarized by the following remarks: With lower-surface blowing, the sources of the flap noise are begining to be understood and the noise scaling laws have been established. Further, progress has been made on suppressing the flap interaction noise at the large flap deflections used during landing. Recent small-scale noise tests of configurations using external upper-surface blowing indicate that engine-over-the-wing configurations may be promising.

  3. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

  4. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to capture the complete decay in the spanwise correlation, thereby producing reasonable noise radiation levels.

  5. MULTITARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Ralf

    MULTI­TARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS RALF HARTMANN # Abstract. Important quantities in aerodynamic flow simulations are the aerodynamic force coe subject classifications. 65N12,65N15,65N30 1. Introduction. In aerodynamic computations like compressible

  6. Aeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Aeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities Xinzhong Chen for capturing the emerging concerns in bridge aerodynamics introduced by aerodynamic nonlinearities/or with aerodynamic characteristics sensitive to the effective angle of incidence. This paper presents a nonlinear

  7. MULTITARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Ralf

    MULTITARGET ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY IN AERODYNAMIC FLOW SIMULATIONS RALF HARTMANN Abstract. Important quantities in aerodynamic flow simulations are the aerodynamic force coefficients including Navier-Stokes equations AMS subject classifications. 65N12,65N15,65N30 1. Introduction. In aerodynamic

  8. Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.

  9. The importance of aerodynamics on dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of aerodynamic phenomena on helicopter structural dynamics are examined, reviewing the results of recent theoretical and experimental investigations. A schematic diagram of a dynamic analysis is presented and discussed, noting the numerous aerodynamic inputs, and numerical data are presented in graphs. Consideration is given to forcing functions, aerodynamic damping, aeroelastic coupling, negative damping, apparent coriolis coupling, periodic coefficients, inverse damping, additional degrees of freedom, flap-lag stability, and dynamic inflow. The need for theoretical models which account for the dynamic loop between blade lift and induced flow (permitting blade motion to dynamically alter the flowfield during transients) is indicated.

  10. Rarefied aerodynamic measurements in hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, K.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the feasibility of space missions, the prediction accuracy of rarefied aerodynamics is one of the important factors. To improve rarefied aerodynamic predictions, the determination of accommodation coefficients and direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamic forces are crucial. Thus, at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, a hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel has been developed for rarefied aerodynamic measurements. In this work, we have utilized both experimental and numerical approaches for rarefied hypersonic aerodynamic measurements, and the measurement schemes have been developed by using pendulous models for accommodation coefficients and for aeroshell aerodynamic characteristics. Consequently, we have successfully demonstrated measurements of accommodation coefficients and rarefied aerodynamic characteristics for an aeroshell.

  11. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  12. Using the HARV simulation aerodynamic model to determine forebody strake aerodynamic coefficients from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.

  13. Wind induced interior and far field radiated exterior noise from automobiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Dobrzynski

    1986-01-01

    Aerodynamically induced interior noise in passenger cars was investigated. Surface pressure and resulting interior noise were measured on a full-scale automobile in wind tunnel tests. Both quantities are interrelated theoretically; corresponding interior noise predictions are compared to measured data. Results show that high surface-pressure originating even from highly localized flow separations on the car-body tend to dominate interior noise. Far

  14. Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

  15. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  16. Anisotropic Grid Adaptation for Multiple Aerodynamic Outputs

    E-print Network

    Venditti, David A.

    Anisotropic grid–adaptive strategies are presented for viscous flow simulations in which the accurate prediction of multiple aerodynamic outputs (such as the lift, drag, and moment coefficients) is required from a single ...

  17. Review of Aerodynamics for Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snel, Herman

    2003-07-01

    This article reviews the state of the art of wind turbine rotor aerodynamics. It addresses present uncertainties in rotor design and load calculations, recent modelling efforts to reduce these uncertainties, and validation activities regarding the modelling and results thereof.

  18. Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.

  19. Aerodynamics and performance testing of the VAWT

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Early investigations suggest that reductions in cost of energy (COE) and increases in reliability for VAWT systems may be brought about through relatively inexpensive changes to the current aerodynamic design. This design uses blades of symmetrical cross-section mounted such that the radius from the rotating tower centerline is normal to the blade chord at roughly the 40% chord point. The envisioned changes to this existing design are intended to: (1) lower cut-in windspeed; (2) increase maximum efficiency; (3) limit maximum aerodynamic power; and (4) limit peak aerodynamic torques. This paper describes certain experiments designed to both better understand the aerodynamics of a section operating in an unsteady, curvilinear flowfield and achieve some of the desired changes in section properties. The common goal of all of these experiments is to lower VAWT COE and increase system reliability.

  20. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

  1. 16.100 Aerodynamics, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Darmofal, David L.

    This course extends fluid mechanic concepts from Unified Engineering to the aerodynamic performance of wings and bodies in sub/supersonic regimes. 16.100 generally has four components: subsonic potential flows, including ...

  2. SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    of aerodynamic configurations was the wind tunnel. Experimental aerodynamicists could arrive at efficient shapes through the introduction of a velocity potential. This reduction led to the first major advance

  3. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  4. Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Schatzle; P. C. Klimas; H. R. Spahr

    1981-01-01

    The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex\\/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the

  5. Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Schatzle; P. C. Klimas; H. R. Spahr

    1980-01-01

    The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex\\/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the

  6. Aerodynamics as a subway design parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric sensitivity study has been performed on the system operational energy requirement in order to guide subway design strategy. Aerodynamics can play a dominant or trivial role, depending upon the system characteristics. Optimization of the aerodynamic parameters may not minimize the total operational energy. Isolation of the station box from the tunnel and reduction of the inertial power requirements pay the largest dividends in terms of the operational energy requirement.

  7. Effects of perforation number of blade on aerodynamic performance of dual-rotor small axial flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Guoqi; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-04-01

    Compared with single rotor small axial flow fans, dual-rotor small axial flow fans is better regarding the static characteristics. But the aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans is worse than that of single rotor small axial flow fans. In order to improve aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans, the pre-stage blades with different perforation numbers are designed in this research. The RANS equations and the standard k-? turbulence model as well as the FW-H noise model are used to simulate the flow field within the fan. Then, the aerodynamic performance of the fans with different perforation number is compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Compared to the prototype fan, the noise of fans with perforation blades is reduced. Additionally, the noise of the fans decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (2) The vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades of perforated fans is reduced. It is found that the vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (3) Compared to the prototype fan, the total pressure rising and efficiency of the fans with perforation blades drop slightly.

  8. CAMRAD - A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYTICAL MODEL OF ROTORCRAFT AERODYNAMICS AND DYNAMICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics, CAMRAD, program is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is a consistent combination of structural, inertial, and aerodynamic models applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. The CAMRAD analysis can be applied to articulated, hingeless, gimballed, and teetering rotors with an arbitrary number of blades. The rotor degrees of freedom included are blade/flap bending, rigid pitch and elastic torsion, and optionally gimbal or teeter motion. General two-rotor aircrafts can be modeled. Single main-rotor and tandem helicopter and sideby-side tilting proprotor aircraft configurations can be considered. The case of a rotor or helicopter in a wind tunnel can also be modeled. The aircraft degrees of freedom included are the six rigid body motion, elastic airframe motions, and the rotor/engine speed perturbations. CAMRAD calculates the load and motion of helicopters and airframes in two stages. First the trim solution is obtained; then the flutter, flight dynamics, and/or transient behavior can be calculated. The trim operating conditions considered include level flight, steady climb or descent, and steady turns. The analysis of the rotor includes nonlinear inertial and aerodynamic models, applicable to large blade angles and a high inflow ratio, The rotor aerodynamic model is based on two-dimensional steady airfoil characteristics with corrections for three-dimensional and unsteady flow effects, including a dynamic stall model. In the flutter analysis, the matrices are constructed that describe the linear differential equations of motion, and the equations are analyzed. In the flight dynamics analysis, the stability derivatives are calculated and the matrices are constructed that describe the linear differential equations of motion. These equations are analyzed. In the transient analysis, the rigid body equations of motion are numerically integrated, for a prescribed transient gust or control input. The CAMRAD program product is available by license for a period of ten years to domestic U.S. licensees. The licensed program product includes the CAMRAD source code, command procedures, sample applications, and one set of supporting documentation. Copies of the documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. CAMRAD is written in FORTRAN 77 for the DEC VAX under VMS 4.6 with a recommended core memory of 4.04 megabytes. The DISSPLA package is necessary for graphical output. CAMRAD was developed in 1980.

  9. Aerodynamic performances of three fan stator designs operating with rotor having tip speed of 337 meters per second and pressure ratio of 1.54. 1: Experimental performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic performances of four stator-blade rows are presented and evaluated. The aerodynamic designs of two of these stators were compromised to reduce noise, a third design was not. On a calculated operating line passing through the design point pressure ratio, the best stator had overall pressure-ratio and efficiency decrements of 0.031 and 0.044, respectively, providing a stage pressure ratio of 1.483 and efficiency of 0.865. The other stators showed some correctable deficiencies due partly to the design compromises for noise. In the end-wall regions blade-element losses were significantly less for the shortest chord studied.

  10. Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

  11. Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.

    2005-01-01

    A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.

  12. Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability

    E-print Network

    Elya R. Courtney; Michael W. Courtney

    2014-10-16

    This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The relationship between Sg and drag may be used to test the applicability of existing gyroscopic stability formulas for given bullet designs and to evaluate the accuracy of alternate formulas in cases where the existing stability formulas are not as accurate. The most definitive test of formulas predicting stability will always be observation of whether bullets tumble under given conditions. However, observations of drag changes provide valuable supplemental information because they suggest changes in stability as conditions change. Use of a continuous variable (drag) rather than a binary variable (tumbling) allows insight into stability over a range of conditions where the binary variable does not change.

  13. The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1987-06-01

    A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic wind tunnel data on hemisflo and 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes behind several forebody shapes and diameters are discussed. Test techniques were derived which avoided many of the opportunities to obtain erroneous supersonic parachute drag data in wind tunnels. Preliminary correlations of supersonic parachute drag with Mach number, forebody shape and diameter, canopy porosity, inflated canopy diameter and stability are presented. Supersonic parachute design considerations are discussed and applied to a M = 2 parachute system designed and tested at Sandia. It is shown that the performance of parachutes in supersonic flows is a strong function of parachute design parameters and their interactions with the payload wake.

  14. Performance and noise generation studies of supersonic air ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the aerodynamic performance and noise generation characteristics of five ejectors having subsonic secondary flow. Primary nozzles with equal exit area for Mach numbers 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 produced a variety of noise and pumping effects. The pumping capacity, specific power, and noise generation of the Mach 1 nozzle was the highest and its mass augmentation was the lowest among the nozzles tested. The Mach 3 nozzle was found superior in mass augmentation and it also produced the lowest noise, however its pumping capacity and specific power was the lowest.

  15. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  16. Spring 2011 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound

    E-print Network

    Spring 2011 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound Instructor theory of acoustics; they will serve as an introduction to acoustics for those new to the subject. Great care will be taken to discuss underlying fluid mechanical and acoustic concepts. A considerable number

  17. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  18. Noise of the 10-bladed 60 deg swept SR5 propeller in a wind tunnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Dittmar; G. L. Stefko; R. J. Jeracki

    1983-01-01

    Noise generated by supersonic helical tip speed propellers is a possible cabin environment problem for future airplanes powered by these propellers. Noise characteristics of one of these propellers, designated SR-5, are presented. A matrix of tests was conducted to provide as much acoustic information as possible. During aerodynamic testing it was discovered that the propeller had an aeroelastic instability which

  19. A preliminary analysis of the audible noise of constant speed, horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Keast; R. C. Potter

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary analytical procedure developed for calculating certain aerodynamic sound levels produced by large, horizontal axis wind turbine generators (WTG's) such as the DOE\\/NASA Mods- O, OA, 1, and 22. It postulates a noise component due to the (constant) rotation of the blades of the WTG, plus a wake-noise component that increases with the square of the power produced by

  20. Active twist smart rotor technology for blade-vortex interaction noise reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Chen; James D. Baeder; Robert A. Evans; Jack Niemczuk; Paul A. Ross

    1999-01-01

    The results of this feasibility study suggest that active blade twist technology is a viable means to reduce blade- vortex interaction (BVI) noise in rotorcraft systems. A linearized unsteady aerodynamics analysis was formulated and successfully validated with computation fluid dynamics analysis. A simple control scheme with three control points was found to be effective for active BVI noise reduction. Based

  1. Assessing Bicyclist and Pedestrian Exposure to Ultrafine Particles: Passive1 Shielding with Noise Barriers2

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    traveling4 in near-road areas with high concentrations of UFP often have high respiration rates that make exposure to2 ultrafine particles (UFP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 µm, physical6 noise barriers border high-volume roads to reduce noise pollution. Non-motorized facilities may

  2. Near-field frequency - Domain theory for propeller noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Hanson

    1983-01-01

    Near-field noise equations are developed from the author's helicoidal surface theory for propeller aerodynamics and noise. Thickness, steady loading, and quadrupole sources are included. Apart from the thin blade approximation and neglect of radial source terms, the equations are exact. In a comparison with the previously published far-field theory, it is shown that several valuable features of the far-field equations

  3. Noise Prediction of NASA SR2 Propeller in Transonic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele De Gennaro; Domenico Caridi; Carlo De Nicola

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a numerical approach for noise prediction of high-speed propellers for Turboprop applications. It is based on a RANS approach for aerodynamic simulation coupled with Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) Acoustic Analogy for propeller noise prediction. The test-case geometry adopted for this study is the 8-bladed NASA SR2 transonic cruise propeller, and simulated Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) have

  4. Noise of fan designed to reduce stator lift fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    An existing fan stage was redesigned to reduce stator lift fluctuations and was acoustically tested at three nozzle sizes for reduced noise generation. The lift fluctuations on the stator were reduced by increasing the stator cord, adjusting incidence angles, and adjusting the rotor velocity diagrams. Broadband noise levels were signficantly reduced in the middle to high frequencies. Blade passage tone sound power was not lessened, but decreases in the harmonics were observed. Aerodynamic improvements in both performance and efficiency were obtained.

  5. Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.

  6. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intrieri, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.

  7. Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.

  8. Aerodynamic loading and magnetic bearing controller robustness using a gain-scheduled Kalman filter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Weldon, W.F.; Traver, A.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Modeling or predicting aerodynamic loading effects on rotating equipment has been a source of concern to those who wish to examine stability or response of critical components. The rotordynamic model of the system employed for such examination assumes greater importance for active bearings than for passive ones, if only because of the additional potential for instability introduced by the controller. For many systems, aerodynamic loading may vary widely over the range of operation of the bearings, and may depend on extended system variables. Thus, potential controllers for active magnetic bearings require sufficient robustness or adaptation to changes in critical aerodynamic loading parameters, as might be embodied in cross-coupled stiffness terms for compressor impellers. Furthermore, the presence of plant or measurement noise provides additional sources of complication. Here, the previous development of a nonlinear controller for a hypothetical single-stage centrifugal gas compressor is extended by comparing the compensator performance using a multivariable Luenberger observer against that of a stationary Kalman filter, both gain-scheduled for rotational speed. For the postulated system, it was found that the slower poles of the Kalman filter did not observably detract from controller convergence and stability, while predictably smoothing out the simulated sensor noise.

  9. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  10. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  11. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  12. Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.

  13. Aerodynamic Flow Control using Distributed Active Bleed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, John M.; Glezer, Ari

    2010-11-01

    The aerodynamic effects of large-area air bleed that is driven through surface openings by pressure differences across a lifting airfoil and regulated by addressable, arrays of integrated louvers have been investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Time-dependent interactions between the bleed and cross flows alter the apparent aerodynamic shape of the lifting surface and consequently the distributions of aerodynamic forces and moments. The lift and pitching moment can be significantly altered over a wide range of angles of attack from pre- to post-stall by independently-controlled bleed near the leading (LE) and trailing (TE) edges. While TE bleed effects nearly-linear variation of the pitching moment with minimal changes in lift, LE bleed leads to large variations in lift and pitching moment with minimal drag penalty. Phase-locked PIV shows the effects of the bleed on the flow on the suction surface and in the near wake. Supported by AFOSR

  14. Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Walters, R.E.; Wolfe, W.P.

    1983-03-01

    An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were corrected to section coefficients for comparison to published rectilinear flow data. Although the airfoil sections were symmetrical, moment coefficients were not zero and the lift and drag curves were asymmetrical about zero lift coefficient and angle of attack. These features verified the predicted virtual camber and incidence phenomena. Boundary-layer centrifugal effects were manifested by discontinuous lift curves and large differences in the angle of zero lift between th NACA 0015 and elliptical airfoils. It was concluded that rectilinear flow aerodynamic data are not applicable to Darrieus turbine blades, even for small chord-to-radius ratios.

  15. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  16. Experimental investigation of transonic oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1989-01-01

    Fundamental experiments are performed in the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade Facility to investigate the subsonic and transonic aerodynamics of cascaded airfoils executing torsion mode oscillations at realistic values of reduced frequency. In particular, an unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is developed and utilized. In this technique, only one airfoil in the cascade is oscillated at a time, with the resulting airfoil surface unsteady pressure distribution measured on one dynamically instrumented reference airfoil. The unsteady aerodynamics of an equivalent cascade with all airfoils oscillating at any specified interblade phase angle are then determined through a vector summation of these data. These influence coefficient determined oscillating cascade data were correlated with: (1) data obtained in this cascade with all airfoils oscillating at several interblade phase angle values; and (2) predictions from a classical linearized unsteady cascade model.

  17. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    A Fourier analysis method was developed to analyze harmonic forced-oscillation data at high angles of attack as functions of the angle of attack and its time rate of change. The resulting aerodynamic responses at different frequencies are used to build up the aerodynamic models involving time integrals of the indicial type. An efficient numerical method was also developed to evaluate these time integrals for arbitrary motions based on a concept of equivalent harmonic motion. The method was verified by first using results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional linear theories. The developed models for C sub L, C sub D, and C sub M based on high-alpha data for a 70 deg delta wing in harmonic motions showed accurate results in reproducing hysteresis. The aerodynamic models are further verified by comparing with test data using ramp-type motions.

  18. History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.

  19. Noise Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alper Demir; Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    \\u000a To reach the final goal of simulating and characterizing the effect of noise on the performance of an electronic circuit or\\u000a system, we first need to investigate the actual noise sources in the system and develop models for these noise sources in\\u000a the framework of the theory of signals and systems we will be operating with. The models we are

  20. An analysis of blade vortex interaction aerodynamics and acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The impulsive noise associated with helicopter flight due to Blade-Vortex Interaction, sometimes called blade slap is analyzed especially for the case of a close encounter of the blade-tip vortex with a following blade. Three parts of the phenomena are considered: the tip-vortex structure generated by the rotating blade, the unsteady pressure produced on the following blade during the interaction, and the acoustic radiation due to the unsteady pressure field. To simplify the problem, the analysis was confined to the situation where the vortex is aligned parallel to the blade span in which case the maximum acoustic pressure results. Acoustic radiation due to the interaction is analyzed in space-fixed coordinates and in the time domain with the unsteady pressure on the blade surface as the source of chordwise compact, but spanwise non-compact radiation. Maximum acoustic pressure is related to the vortex core size and Reynolds number which are in turn functions of the blade-tip aerodynamic parameters. Finally noise reduction and performance are considered.

  1. Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; Mccallum, Duncan

    1994-01-01

    A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

  2. Acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of ejectives in Amharic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier

    2001-05-01

    This paper invetsigates the main phonetic characteristics that distinguishes ejectives from pulmonic sounds in Amharic. In this language, there are five ejectives that can be phonemically singleton or geminate. Duration measurements have been made in intervocalic position for pulmonic stops and for each type of ejective, taking into account the overall duration and VOT. Results show that ejective stops have a higher amplitude burst than pulmonic stops. The duration of the noise is shorter for ejective fricatives compared to pulmonic fricatives. At the end of ejective fricatives, there is a 30-ms glottal lag that is not present in pulmonic fricatives. Geminate ejectives are realized by delaying the elevation of the larynx. This can be observed on the spectrographic data by an increase of the noise at the end of the geminate ejectives. Aerodynamic data have been collected in synchronization with the acoustic recordings. The main observations are that pharyngeal pressures values are much higher than what is usually assumed (up to 40 CmH2O for velars) and that the delayed command in the elevation of the larynx of geminate ejectives is shown by two phases in the rise of pharyngeal pressure.

  3. Visualization of aerodynamic flow fields using photorefractive crystals

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Visualization of aerodynamic flow fields using photorefractive crystals A. Hafiz, R. Magnusson, J holographyinphotorefractive crystals isapplied for visualization of aerodynamic flow fields. The interferograms obtained include aerody- namics, plasma diagnostics, and heat transfer. Holo- graphic interferometry allowsthe

  4. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its...

  5. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its...

  6. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its...

  7. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its...

  8. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371 Section 23.371 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its...

  9. Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1985-01-01

    An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamically detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus is analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.

  10. Silicon carbide whiskers: characterization and aerodynamic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Powell, Q H; Smith, S M; Johnson, N F

    1995-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) whiskers are fiberlike materials with a wide range of industrial applications. Industrial hygiene samplings of the material are taken to monitor and control possible exposures to workers. This study characterizes an SiC whisker in detail, including its width-length distribution, aspect ratio, particle density, and aerodynamic size distribution. The SiC whiskers were aerosolized, and samples from a filter, cascade impactor, and aerosol centrifuge were taken. The diameter-length distribution of SiC fibers determined by electron microscopy from filter samples was found to follow the bivariate lognormal distribution. The aerodynamic size of a fiber aerosol depends not only on the particle dimension and density but also on the orientation of its axis with respect to flow. The results show that the aerodynamic size distribution obtained from the impactor was consistent with the predicted value, assuming the long axis of the fiber was parallel to the flow toward the collection substrate. On the other hand, the aerodynamic size in the aerosol centrifuge was consistent with results for a perpendicular orientation. A larger aerodynamic size (20-25%) was obtained in the case of impactor data as compared with centrifuge data. The respirable fraction estimated from the cascade impactor data was 65%, consistent with the estimate from bivariate analysis (67%) but smaller than the estimated fraction from the aerosol centrifuge (76%). The results show that the data obtained with the bivariate analysis of fiber dimensions had good correlation with the cascade impactor data, and this approach can be used to predict the aerodynamic size distribution and the size-selective fractions for fiber aerosols from filter samples. PMID:7572614

  11. Aerodynamic/acoustic performance of YJ101/double bypass VCE with coannular plug nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vdoviak, J. W.; Knott, P. R.; Ebacker, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test and a Coannular Nozzle test performed on a YJ101 Double Bypass Variable Cycle Engine are reported. These components are intended for use on a Variable Cycle Engine. The forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test demonstrated the mode shifting capability between single and double bypass operation with less than predicted aerodynamic losses in the bypass duct. The acoustic nozzle test demonstrated that coannular noise suppression was between 4 and 6 PNdB in the aft quadrant. The YJ101 VCE equipped with the forward VABI and the coannular exhaust nozzle performed as predicted with exhaust system aerodynamic losses lower than predicted both in single and double bypass modes. Extensive acoustic data were collected including far field, near field, sound separation/ internal probe measurements as Laser Velocimeter traverses.

  12. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petkovi?, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method. PMID:25075621

  13. Aerodynamic: Applications of Force and Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Quentin Briggs

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Although there is a great deal of historical information about aerodynamics that could be discussed here, we purposely narrowed the stream of resources to those that encourage students to experiment with technological design and function. Given these learning experiences, student should be prepared to articulate preferences in vehicle design and understand how the principles of aerodynamics influence vehicle performance.

  14. Aerodynamic and acoustic behavior of a YF-12 inlet at static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, L. H.; Feltz, E. P.; Godby, L. A.; Miller, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    An aeroacoustic test program to determine the cause of YF-12 inlet noise suppression was performed with a YF-12 aircraft at ground static conditions. Data obtained over a wide range of engine speeds and inlet configurations are reported. Acoustic measurements were made in the far field and aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were made inside the inlet. The J-58 test engine was removed from the aircraft and tested separately with a bellmouth inlet. The far field noise level was significantly lower for the YF-12 inlet than for the bellmouth inlet at engine speeds above 5500 rpm. There was no evidence that noise suppression was caused by flow choking. Multiple pure tones were reduced and the spectral peak near the blade passing frequency disappeared in the region of the spike support struts at engine speeds between 6000 and 6600 rpm.

  15. Comparison of the Coulter Multisizer and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer for obtaining the aerodynamic particle size of irregularly shaped dust 

    E-print Network

    McClure, Joshua Wayne

    2002-01-01

    When studying air quality it is often necessary to measure the aerodynamic size distribution of particles. True aerodynamic diameter must be measured using a gravitational settling method, which is impractical. Other methods exist that use other...

  16. Comparison of the Coulter Multisizer and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer for obtaining the aerodynamic particle size of irregularly shaped dust

    E-print Network

    McClure, Joshua Wayne

    2002-01-01

    When studying air quality it is often necessary to measure the aerodynamic size distribution of particles. True aerodynamic diameter must be measured using a gravitational settling method, which is impractical. Other methods exist that use other...

  17. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an Adaptive Morphing Trailing Edge Wing

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an Adaptive Morphing Trailing Edge Wing Zhoujie Lyu Joaquim R. R morphing trailing edge wings have the potential to reduce the fuel burn of transport air- craft. In this paper, we quantify the aerodynamic performance benefits of a morphing trailing using aerodynamic design

  18. Advances in Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Antony Jameson1

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    1 Advances in Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Antony Jameson1 Stanford University, Stanford, CA to aerodynamic design. This shift has been mainly motivated by the availability of high performance comput- ing by J.L. Lions [1]. The method was first used for aerodynamic design by Jameson in 1988 [2, 3]. Since

  19. POLE ASSIGNMENT FOR A VIBRATING SYSTEM WITH AERODYNAMIC EFFECT

    E-print Network

    Lin, Wen-Wei

    POLE ASSIGNMENT FOR A VIBRATING SYSTEM WITH AERODYNAMIC EFFECT J. N. WANG, S. H. CHOU, Y. C. CHEN feedback control arising from a one-dimensional vibrating system with aerodynamic effect. On the practical real axis. Key words. vibrating system, aerodynamic effect, state feedback control, pole assignment AMS

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Aerodynamic and functional consequences of wing compliance

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Tom

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Aerodynamic and functional consequences of wing compliance Andrew M. Mountcastle Æ, the instantaneous shape of an insect wing is dictated by the interaction of aerodynamic forces with the inertial rever- sals--loads that well exceed the mean aerodynamic force. Although wing compliance has been

  1. Single-and Multi-Point Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    Single- and Multi-Point Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using A Parallel Newton-Krylov Approach, Ontario, M3H 5T6, Canada A Newton-Krylov algorithm for aerodynamic shape optimization in three dimensions the capabilities and efficiency of the approach. I. Introduction In the aerodynamic design of aircraft, there have

  2. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann, Joachim Held-oriented mesh refinement for single and multiple aerodynamic force coefficients as well as residual-based mesh refinement applied to various three-dimensional lam- inar and turbulent aerodynamic test cases defined

  3. Numerical Aerodynamic Optimization Incorporating Laminar-Turbulent Transition Prediction

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    Numerical Aerodynamic Optimization Incorporating Laminar-Turbulent Transition Prediction J. Driver-dimensional Newton­Krylov aerodynamic shape optimization algorithm is applied to several optimization problems a striking demonstration of the capability of the Newton­ Krylov aerodynamic optimization algorithm to design

  4. On Aerodynamic Optimization Under a Range of Operating Conditions

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    On Aerodynamic Optimization Under a Range of Operating Conditions David W. Zingg, and Samy Elias In aerodynamic design, good performance is generally required under a range of oper- ating conditions, including aerodynamic shape optimization.1­6 The designer specifies an objective, operating conditions, constraints

  5. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 91 (2003) 15111528

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    2003-01-01

    Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 91 (2003) 1511­1528 New frontiers in aerodynamic tailoring of long span bridges: an advanced analysis framework Xinzhong Chen*, Ahsan Kareem Nat analysis have been made utilizing realistic aerodynamic force modeling for bridges with bluff sections

  6. AIAA Paper 2001-0870 Re-engineering Aerodynamics Education

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    AIAA Paper 2001-0870 Re-engineering Aerodynamics Education David Darmofal, Earll Murman Aeronautics Paper 2001-0870 Re-engineering Aerodynamics Education David Darmofal* , Earll Murman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael Love Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company Abstract Aerodynamics curriculum

  7. Unsteady aerodynamic models for agile flight at low Reynolds numbers

    E-print Network

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    Unsteady aerodynamic models for agile flight at low Reynolds numbers Steven L. Brunton , Clarence W for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a small wing in response to agile maneuvers and gusts. In a previous study, it was shown that Theodorsen's and Wagner's unsteady aerodynamic models agree with force data from DNS

  8. Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Ryan Jantzen

    E-print Network

    Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Maneuvers Ryan Jantzen and Kunihiko Taira Florida, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH We report on the development of an aerodynamic force model for a flat focus is placed on examining the influence of large-amplitude wing motion on the unsteady aerodynamics

  9. Fifty Years of Aerodynamics: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    Fifty Years of Aerodynamics: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities T.E. Nelson * D.W. Zingg, Canada. E-mail: tnelson@dehavilland.ca ** Senior Canada Research Chair in Computational Aerodynamics-mail: dwz@oddjob.utias.utoronto.ca Received 22 January 2004. PART I: AIRCRAFT DEVELOPMENT, AERODYNAMIC

  10. POLE ASSIGNMENT FOR A VIBRATING SYSTEM WITH AERODYNAMIC EFFECT #

    E-print Network

    Chou, So-Hsiang

    POLE ASSIGNMENT FOR A VIBRATING SYSTEM WITH AERODYNAMIC EFFECT # J. N. WANG + , S. H. CHOU # , Y. C­input state feedback control arising from a one­dimensional vibrating system with aerodynamic e real axis. Key words. vibrating system, aerodynamic e#ect, state feedback control, pole assignment AMS

  11. Ris-R-1543(EN) Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on

    E-print Network

    Risø-R-1543(EN) Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades using CFD Jeppe Johansen and Niels N. Sørensen Title: Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades using of the aerodynamics around a wind turbine blade with a winglet using Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD. Five winglets

  12. Optimum Aerodynamic Design using the Navier--Stokes Equations

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Niles A.

    Optimum Aerodynamic Design using the Navier--Stokes Equations A. JAMESON \\Lambda ; N.A. PIERCE y factors such as aerodynamic effi­ ciency, structural weight, stability and control, and the volume the disciplines. The development of accurate and efficient methods for aerodynamic shape optimization represents

  13. A Genetic Algorithm for Multiobjective Design Optimization in Aerodynamics and

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    A Genetic Algorithm for Multiobjective Design Optimization in Aerodynamics and Electromagnetics R. The objective functions in the optimization problem measure the aerodynamic feasibil­ ity based on the drag been optimized with respect to only one discipline such as aerodynamics or electromagnetics. Although

  14. Robust Multi-Objective Optimization in Aerodynamics using MGDA

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Robust Multi-Objective Optimization in Aerodynamics using MGDA Daigo Maruyama N° 8428-00919215,version1-16Dec2013 #12;Robust Multi-Objective Optimization in Aerodynamics using MGDA Daigo: This study deals with robust design optimization strategies in aerodynamics

  15. Managing Approximate Models in Evolutionary Aerodynamic Design Optimization

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Managing Approximate Models in Evolutionary Aerodynamic Design Optimization Yaochu Jin yaochu jin­ mization problems that are discontinuous, multi­modal and multi­objective [1, 2]. Aerodynamic structural to high complexity of the aerodynamic analysis and large number of evaluations needed in the evolutionary

  16. An Evolutionary Geometry Parametrization for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    An Evolutionary Geometry Parametrization for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Xiaocong Han and David, M3H 5T6, Canada An evolutionary geometry parametrization is presented for aerodynamic shape optimiza, unconventional aerodynamic configurations. Based on improvements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and high

  17. Strategies for Solving High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Problems

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Strategies for Solving High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Problems Zhoujie Lyu Aerodynamic shape optimization based on high-fidelity models is a computational intensive endeavor. The techniques are tested using the Common Research Model wing benchmark defined by the Aerodynamic Design

  18. Crackling noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Sethna; Karin A. Dahmen; Christopher R. Myers

    2001-01-01

    Crackling noise arises when a system responds to changing external conditions through discrete, impulsive events spanning a broad range of sizes. A wide variety of physical systems exhibiting crackling noise have been studied, from earthquakes on faults to paper crumpling. Because these systems exhibit regular behaviour over a huge range of sizes, their behaviour is likely to be independent of

  19. Global Design Optimization for Aerodynamics and Rocket Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Modern computational and experimental tools for aerodynamics and propulsion applications have matured to a stage where they can provide substantial insight into engineering processes involving fluid flows, and can be fruitfully utilized to help improve the design of practical devices. In particular, rapid and continuous development in aerospace engineering demands that new design concepts be regularly proposed to meet goals for increased performance, robustness and safety while concurrently decreasing cost. To date, the majority of the effort in design optimization of fluid dynamics has relied on gradient-based search algorithms. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space, can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables, and methods for predicting the model performance. In this article, we review recent progress made in establishing suitable global optimization techniques employing neural network and polynomial-based response surface methodologies. Issues addressed include techniques for construction of the response surface, design of experiment techniques for supplying information in an economical manner, optimization procedures and multi-level techniques, and assessment of relative performance between polynomials and neural networks. Examples drawn from wing aerodynamics, turbulent diffuser flows, gas-gas injectors, and supersonic turbines are employed to help demonstrate the issues involved in an engineering design context. Both the usefulness of the existing knowledge to aid current design practices and the need for future research are identified.

  20. Efficient Helicopter Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Predictions on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, Andrew M.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.; Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents parallel implementations of two codes used in a combined CFD/Kirchhoff methodology to predict the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics properties of helicopters. The rotorcraft Navier-Stokes code, TURNS, computes the aerodynamic flowfield near the helicopter blades and the Kirchhoff acoustics code computes the noise in the far field, using the TURNS solution as input. The overall parallel strategy adds MPI message passing calls to the existing serial codes to allow for communication between processors. As a result, the total code modifications required for parallel execution are relatively small. The biggest bottleneck in running the TURNS code in parallel comes from the LU-SGS algorithm that solves the implicit system of equations. We use a new hybrid domain decomposition implementation of LU-SGS to obtain good parallel performance on the SP-2. TURNS demonstrates excellent parallel speedups for quasi-steady and unsteady three-dimensional calculations of a helicopter blade in forward flight. The execution rate attained by the code on 114 processors is six times faster than the same cases run on one processor of the Cray C-90. The parallel Kirchhoff code also shows excellent parallel speedups and fast execution rates. As a performance demonstration, unsteady acoustic pressures are computed at 1886 far-field observer locations for a sample acoustics problem. The calculation requires over two hundred hours of CPU time on one C-90 processor but takes only a few hours on 80 processors of the SP2. The resultant far-field acoustic field is analyzed with state of-the-art audio and video rendering of the propagating acoustic signals.

  1. Global design optimization for aerodynamics and rocket propulsion components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Modern computational and experimental tools for aerodynamics and propulsion applications have matured to a stage where they can provide substantial insight into engineering processes involving fluid flows, and can be fruitfully utilized to help improve the design of practical devices. In particular, rapid and continuous development in aerospace engineering demands that new design concepts be regularly proposed to meet goals for increased performance, robustness and safety while concurrently decreasing cost. To date, the majority of the effort in design optimization of fluid dynamics has relied on gradient-based search algorithms. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space, can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables, and methods for predicting the model performance. In this article, we review recent progress made in establishing suitable global optimization techniques employing neural-network- and polynomial-based response surface methodologies. Issues addressed include techniques for construction of the response surface, design of experiment techniques for supplying information in an economical manner, optimization procedures and multi-level techniques, and assessment of relative performance between polynomials and neural networks. Examples drawn from wing aerodynamics, turbulent diffuser flows, gas-gas injectors, and supersonic turbines are employed to help demonstrate the issues involved in an engineering design context. Both the usefulness of the existing knowledge to aid current design practices and the need for future research are identified.

  2. Reduction of Background Noise in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, Stephen M.; Allen, Christopher S.; Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Background noise in both open-jet and closed wind tunnels adversely affects the signal-to-noise ratio of acoustic measurements. To measure the noise of increasingly quieter aircraft models, the background noise will have to be reduced by physical means or through signal processing. In a closed wind tunnel, such as the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel, the principle background noise sources can be classified as: (1) fan drive noise; (2) microphone self-noise; (3) aerodynamically induced noise from test-dependent hardware such as model struts and junctions; and (4) noise from the test section walls and vane set. This paper describes the steps taken to minimize the influence of each of these background noise sources in the 40 x 80.

  3. Wind-tunnel measurement of noise emitted by helicopter rotors at high speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Prieur

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of high-speed impulsive helicopter rotor noise in a wind-tunnel are presented. High-speed impulsive noise measurements have been performed in 1988 in the ONERA S2ch wind-tunnel, fitted with an acoustic lining, on two types of rotors. They show that substantial noise reduction is obtained with sweptback tips, initially designed for aerodynamic purposes, which lower transonic effects on the advancing blade

  4. AERODYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS WITH AEROSOL CENTRIFUGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. he sites of deposition in the human respiratory system are primarily related to the mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhaled particle siz...

  5. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics for Aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony Jameson; Massimiliano Fatica

    In this white paper we survey the use of computational simulation for aerodynamics, focusing on applications in Aerospace and Turbomachinery. We present some representative problems to illustrate the range of complexity in fluid simulations and the associated computational requirements. We also examine the design process in current industrial practice, and the role played by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Measured against

  6. Aerodynamics of a Cryogenic Semi-Tanker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2009-11-01

    The design of a modern cryogenic semi-tanker is based primarily upon functionality with little consideration given to aerodynamic drag. As a result, these tankers have maintained the appearance of a wheeled cylinder for several decades. To reduce the fuel usage of these vehicles, this study investigates their aerodynamics. A detailed understanding of the flow field about the vehicle and its influence on aerodynamic drag is obtained by performing Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of a full-scale tractor and cryogenic tanker-trailer operating at highway speed within a crosswind. The tanker-trailer has a length to diameter ratio of 6.3. The Reynolds number, based upon the tanker diameter, is 4.0x10^6, while the effective vehicle yaw angle is 6.1 . The flow field about the vehicle is characterized by large flow separation regions at the tanker underbody and base. In addition, the relatively large gap between the tractor and the tanker-trailer allows the free-stream flow to be entrained into the tractor-tanker gap. By mitigating these drag-producing phenomena through the use of simple geometry modifications, it may be possible to reduce the aerodynamic drag of cryogenic semi-tankers and, thereby, improve their fuel economy. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Aerodynamic tip desensitization in axial flow turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debashis Dey

    2001-01-01

    The leakage flow near the tip of unshrouded rotor blades in axial turbines imposes significant thermal loads on the blade. It is also responsible for up to a third of aerodynamic losses in a turbine stage. The leakage flow, mainly induced by the pressure differential across the rotor tip section, usually rolls into a stream-wise vertical structure near the suction

  8. Knowledge Based Airfoil Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Greschner; C. Yu; S. Zheng; M. Zhuang; Z. J. Wang; F. Thiele

    A systematic investigation of the unsteady flows around a series of NACA airfoils is carried out. The main objective is to conduct manual design case studies on the connections between an airfoil shape characteristics and it s aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. The approach employs the unsteady CFD flow simulations in the near field of an airfoil and the FW-H integral

  9. Modeling aerodynamically generated sound of helicopter rotors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Brentner; F. Farassat

    2003-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW–H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and

  10. Aerodynamic heating effects on radome boresight errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Weckesser; R. K. Frazer; D. J. Yost; B. E. Kuehne; G. P. Tricoles; R. Hayward; E. L. Rope

    1978-01-01

    A three part study was performed to analytically define an aerodynamically heated radome for supersonic homing missile applications. First, the radome was mathematically modeled and a thermal analysis was performed to define the hot radome electrical properties and its wall dimensions. Second, analyses were performed to define boresight error vs. look angle in the E and H planes for both

  11. Interdisciplinary Aerodynamics Group INSTITUTE OF (logo)

    E-print Network

    Diggavi, Suhas

    Interdisciplinary Aerodynamics Group INSTITUTE OF (logo) Mechanical Engineering Implementation,theerror on the common mesh nodes is minimized A simple coupling algorithm was implemented on an unsteady 2D heat conduction problem by imposing a temperature and heat flux exchange througha

  12. 40 CFR 1037.521 - Aerodynamic measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the same vehicle. Unless we approve another vehicle, the vehicle must be a Class 8, high-roof, sleeper cab with a full aerodynamics package, pulling a standards trailer. Where you have more than one model meeting these criteria, use the model...

  13. Pressure-sensitive paint in aerodynamic testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. McLachlan; J. H. Bell

    1995-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is a relatively new aerodynamic measurement tool with the unique capability of providing a field measurement of pressure over a test surface. An introductory review of this technology is presented, which is confined to the application of the PSP method to aircraft development wind tunnel testing. This is at present the primary application area and thus the

  14. 40 CFR 1037.521 - Aerodynamic measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the same vehicle. Unless we approve another vehicle, the vehicle must be a Class 8, high-roof, sleeper cab with a full aerodynamics package, pulling a standards trailer. Where you have more than one model meeting these criteria, use the model...

  15. 40 CFR 1037.521 - Aerodynamic measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the same vehicle. Unless we approve another vehicle, the vehicle must be a Class 8, high-roof, sleeper cab with a full aerodynamics package, pulling a standards trailer. Where you have more than one model meeting these criteria, use the model...

  16. The bulk aerodynamic formulation over heterogeneous surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Mahrt

    1996-01-01

    This interpretative literature survey examines problems with application of the bulk aerodynamic method to spatially averaged fluxes over heterogeneous surfaces. This task is approached by tying together concepts from a diverse range of recent studies on subgrid parameterization, the roughness sublayer, the roll of large “inactive” boundary-layer eddies, internal boundary-layer growth, the equilibrium sublayer, footprint theory and the blending height.

  17. Nonlinear aerodynamic modeling using multivariate orthogonal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1993-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this work is that of modeling nondimensional force and moment aerodynamic coefficients over the entire subsonic envelope. The particular application discussed here is the Z force coefficient for the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV).

  18. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

  19. Macro aerodynamic devices controlled by micro systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwo-Bin Lee; F. K. Jiang; T. Tsao; Y. C. Tai; C. M. Ho

    1997-01-01

    Micro-ElectroMechanical-Systems (MEMS) have emerged as a major enabling technology across the engineering disciplines. In this study, the possibility of applying MEMS to the aerodynamic field was explored. We have demonstrated that microtransducers can be used to control the motion of a delta wing in a wind tunnel and can even maneuver a scaled aircraft in flight tests. The main advantage

  20. Recent Experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J

    1925-01-01

    This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).

  1. Vorticity and the theory of aerodynamic sound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Howe

    2001-01-01

    Lighthill strongly advocated the use of vortex methods in most areas of fluid mechanics with the notable exception of the theory of aerodynamic sound. But it is straightforward to transform his famous `acoustic analogy' to make vorticity rather than Reynolds stress the ultimate `source' of sound in homentropic flows. `Vortex sound' theory becomes especially useful in applications involving acoustically compact

  2. User's guide to program FLEXSTAB. [aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavin, R. K., III; Colunga, D.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented for correctly submitting program runs in aerodynamics on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system. All major program modules are included. Control cards are documented for the user's convenience, and card parameters are included in order to provide some idea as to reasonable time estimates for the program modules.

  3. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds

    PubMed Central

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-01-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  4. Jet noise of an augmentor wing-advanced supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary mission study was made of the range and jet noise of an advanced supersonic transport (AST) employing an augmentor wing and four duct burning turbofan engines. The airplane weight and aerodynamic characteristics of the Boeing 2707-300 airplane with a gross weight of 750,000 pounds and 234 passengers was used for the study. Engine thrust was fixed at 58,000 pounds per engine and engine size was increased to obtain the required thrust at reduced power settings for jet noise reduction. Turbofan engine core noise was reduced to FAR 36 noise levels and lower by proper selection of turbine inlet temperature, bypass ratio and fan pressure ratio. The study showed that an augmentor wing can reduce the bypass jet noise sufficiently so that total noise levels below FAR 36 can be attained without significant range penalties if the augmentor wing can be designed without severe weight and performance penalties.

  5. Predicted vs. scale model and flight test UDF engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of a frequency-domain, noncompact-source noise prediction model for the unducted fan (UDF) engine. A brief description of the acoustic modeling approach and basic equations employed is given, together with a summary of the aerodynamic characteristics utilized in the noise prediction model. Scale model test results obtained from both low-speed and high-speed wind tunnel measurements are compared with the prediction model, and comparisons of predicted vs measured flight noise characteristics for the full-scale engine are also discussed.

  6. Numerical and experimental investigation on aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan with hollow blade root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhang; Jin, Yingzi; Huashu, Dou; Yuzhen, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To reduce the influence of adverse flow conditions at the fan hub and improve fan aerodynamic performance, a modification of conventional axial fan blades with numerical and experimental investigation is presented. Hollow blade root is manufactured near the hub. The numerical and experimental results show that hollow blade root has some effect on the static performance. Static pressure of the modified fan is generally the same with that of the datum fan, while, the efficiency curve of the modified fan has a different trend with that of the datum fan. The highest efficiency of the modified fan is 10% greater than that of the datum fan. The orthogonal experimental results of fan noise show that hollow blade root is a feasible method of reducing fan noise, and the maximum value of noise reduction is about 2 dB. The factors affecting the noise reduction of hollow blade root are in the order of importance as follows: hollow blade margin, hollow blade height and hollow blade width. The much smoother pressure distribution of the modified fan than that of the datum fan is the main mechanism of noise reduction of hollow blade root. The research results will provide the proof of the parameter optimization and the structure design for high performance and low noise small axial fans.

  7. Noise suppression with high Mach number inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumsdaine, E.; Cherng, J. G.; Tag, I.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results were obtained for two types of high Mach number inlets, one with a translating centerbody and a fixed geometry inlet (collapsing cowl) with no centerbody. The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of these inlets was examined. The effects of area ratio, length/diameter ratio, and lip geometry were among several parameters investigated. The translating centerbody type inlet was found to be superior to the collapsing cowl both acoustically and aerodynamically, particularly for area ratios greater than 1.5. Comparison of length/diameter ratio and area ratio effects on performance near choked flow showed the latter to be more significant. Also, greater high frequency noise attenuation was achieved by increasing Mach number from low to high subsonic values.

  8. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products intended to further improve efficiency, lower costs, and enhance durability. Resulting products demonstrated a 30% efficiency improvement in full scale wind tunnel tests. The fuel savings of our most promising product, the “Belly Fairing” increased from 4% to 6% in scientific track and operational tests. The project successfully demonstrated the economic feasibility of trailer aerodynamics and positioned the technology to realize significant public benefits. Scientific testing conducted with partners such as the EPA Smartway program and Transport Canada clearly validated the fuel and emission saving potential of the technology. The Smartway program now recommends trailer aerodynamics as a certified fuel saving technology and is offering incentives such as low interest loans. Trailer aerodynamics can save average trucks over 1,100 gallons of fuel an 13 tons of emissions every 100,000 miles, a distance many trucks travel annually. These fuel savings produce a product return on investment period of one to two years in average fleet operations. The economic feasibility of the products was validated by participating fleets, several of which have since completed large implementations or demonstrated an interest in volume orders. The commercialization potential of the technology was also demonstrated, resulting in a national distribution and manufacturing partnership with a major industry supplier, Carrier Transicold. Consequently, Freight Wing is well positioned to continue marketing trailer aerodynamics to the trucking industry. The participation of leading fleets in this project served to break down the market skepticism that represents a primary barrier to widespread industry utilization. The benefits of widespread utilization of the technology could be quite significant for both the transportation industry and the public. Trailer aerodynamics could potentially save the U.S. trucking fleet over a billion gallons of fuel and 20 million tons of emissions annually.

  9. Bubble cavitation noise and cavitation noise spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Latorre, R. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Cavitaton noise from collapsing bubbles generates noise pulses and a cavitation noise spectrum. This paper examines the relationship of cavitation bubble noise pulse and the noise spectra. The scaling relationships are developed from the transformation relationships of bubble potential energy into bubble noise. The resulting scaling relationships allow the bubble cavitation noise spectra to be reduced to a single curve. The analysis leads to a second relationship for sheet cavitation noise spectrum.

  10. Noise Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Chambers

    Noise is playing an ever-increasing role in our lives and seems a regrettable but ultimately avoidable corollary of current\\u000a technology. The trend toward the use of more automated equipment, sports and pleasure craft, high-wattage stereo, larger construction\\u000a machinery, and the increasing numbers of ground vehicles and aircraft has created a gradual acceptance of noise as a natural\\u000a byproduct of progress.

  11. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  12. Noise, anti-noise and fluid flow control.

    PubMed

    Williams, J E Ffowcs

    2002-05-15

    This paper celebrates Thomas Young's discovery that wave interference was responsible for much that is known about light and colour. A substantial programme of work has been aimed at controlling the noise of aerodynamic flows. Much of that field can be explained in terms of interference and it is argued in this paper that the theoretical techniques for analysing noise can also be seen to rest on interference effects. Interference can change the character of wave fields to produce, out of well-ordered fields, wave systems quite different from the interfering wave elements. Lighthill's acoustic analogy is described as an example of this effect, an example in which the exact model of turbulence-generated noise is seen to consist of elementary interfering sound waves; waves that are sometimes heard in advance of their sources. The paper goes on to describe an emerging field of technology where sound is suppressed by superimposing on it a destructively interfering secondary sound; one designed and manufactured specifically for interference. That sound is known as anti-sound, or anti-noise when the sound is chaotic enough. Examples are then referred to where the noisy effect to be controlled is actually a disturbance of a linearly unstable system; a disturbance that is destroyed by destructive interference with a deliberately constructed antidote. The practical benefits of this kind of instability control are much greater and can even change the whole character of flows. It is argued that completely unnatural unstable conditions can be held with active controllers generating destructively interfering elements. Examples are given in which gravitational instability of stratified fluids can be prevented. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of shear flows can also be avoided by simple controls. Those are speculative examples of what might be possible in future developments of an interference effect, which has made anti-noise a useful technology. PMID:12804281

  13. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  14. Investigation of noise suppression by sonic inlets for turbofan engines. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klujber, F.; Bosch, J. C.; Demetrick, R. W.; Robb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a program for sonic inlet technology development are presented. This program includes configuration and mechanical design selection of concepts, aerodynamic design description of the models, and results of test evaluation. Several sonic inlet concepts were tested and compared for aerodynamic and acoustic performance. Results of these comparative evaluations are presented. Near-field measurements were taken inside several of the inlet models. Results of these tests are discussed with respect to the effect of Mach number gradients on noise attenuation and rotor shock wave attenuation, and boundary layer effects on noise propagation. The test facilities and experimental techniques employed are described briefly.

  15. Particle separation from a uniflow aerodynamic deduster

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, A.G.; Zhang, Y. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1998-10-01

    A particle separation theory for uniflow aerodynamic dedusters was developed. Particle cut-size and separation efficiency were affected by many factors, such as chamber configuration, particle characteristics, and airflow patterns. A prototype aerodynamic deduster was developed based on the analysis of particle behavior in uniflow conditions. It was found that the vortex chamber length, annular tunnel space between the inside and outside cylinders, vane angle, tangential and axial air velocities, and turbulence intensities have effects on the particle cut-size and separation efficiency. A particle counter was used to measure dust concentrations upstream and downstream of the deduster. Particle separation efficiencies agreed well between the predicted and measured values. The study showed that a uniflow deduster could be effective in separating dust particles from an airstream. Further studies are needed to optimize the deduster configuration and evaluate the effect of turbulence intensity on particle separation.

  16. Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.

  17. Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Schatzle, P.R.; Klimas, P.C.; Spahr, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the cases examined, the calculations showed that the downwind turbine power decrement (1) was significant only when the line of turbine centers was coincident with the ambient wind direction, (2) increased with increasing tip-speed-ratio, and (3) is due more to induced flow angularities downstream than to speed deficits near the downstream turbine.

  18. An Interactive Educational Tool for Compressible Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive educational tool was developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. The tool solves for the supersonic flow past a wedge using the equations found in NACA 1135. The student varies the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the variation of flow results to the student. One such format leads the student to the generation of some of the graphs found in NACA-1135. The tool includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use. This paper will detail the numerical methods used in the tool and describe how it can be used and modified.

  19. Vortical sources of aerodynamic force and moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the aerodynamic force and moment can be expressed in terms of vorticity distribution (and entropy variation for compressible flow) on near wake plane, or in terms of boundary vorticity flux on the body surface. Thus the vortical sources of lift and drag are clearly identified, which is the real physical basis of optimal aerodynamic design. Moreover, these sources are highly compact, hence allowing one to concentrate on key local regions of the configuration, which have dominating effect to the lift and drag. A detail knowledge of the vortical low requires measuring or calculating the vorticity and dilatation field, which is however still a challenging task. Nevertheless, this type of formulation has some unique advantages; and how to set up a well-posed problem, in particular how to establish vorticity-dilatation boundary conditions, is addressed.

  20. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  1. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bret W. Tobalske; Jason W. D. Hearn; Douglas R. Warrick

    2009-01-01

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift\\u000a is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions\\u000a of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured

  2. Aerodynamic heating and thermal protection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Fletcher

    1978-01-01

    The aerothermal environment is considered, taking into account the aerothermal environment for the Pioneer Venus multiprobe mission, shuttle elevon cove aerodynamic heating by ingested flow, aerothermodynamic base heating, vortices induced in a stagnation region by wakes, three-dimensional shock-wave interference heating prediction, methods for predicting radiation-coupled flowfields about planetary entry probes, shock-tube studies of silicon-compound vapors, and Mach number and wall

  3. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  4. Experimental Aerodynamics of Mesoscale Trailing Edge Actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Solovitz; John Eaton

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed on a wing with segmented Gurney flaps. Each of the sixteen active flaps is approximately 1.5can be actuated in only two positions: 90 degrees up or 90 degrees down. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at chord Reynolds numbers up to 800,000. Measurements include the determination of aerodynamic forces and moments using a 6 DOF balance, surface pressure

  5. Shuttle system ascent aerodynamic and plume heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. D.; Greenwood, T. F.; Lee, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The shuttle program provided a challenge to the aerothermodynamicist due to the complexity of the flow field around the vehicle during ascent, since the configuration causes multiple shock interactions between the elements. Wind tunnel tests provided data for the prediction of the ascent design heating environment which involves both plume and aerodynamic heating phenomena. The approach for the heating methodology based on ground test firings and the use of the wind tunnel data to formulate the math models is discussed.

  6. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  7. Integrated aerodynamic-structural-control wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, M.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Unger, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic-structural-control design of a forward-swept composite wing for a high subsonic transport aircraft is considered. The structural analysis is based on a finite-element method. The aerodynamic calculations are based on a vortex-lattice method, and the control calculations are based on an output feedback control. The wing is designed for minimum weight subject to structural, performance/aerodynamic and control constraints. Efficient methods are used to calculate the control-deflection and control-effectiveness sensitivities which appear as second-order derivatives in the control constraint equations. To suppress the aeroelastic divergence of the forward-swept wing, and to reduce the gross weight of the design aircraft, two separate cases are studied: (1) combined application of aeroelastic tailoring and active controls; and (2) aeroelastic tailoring alone. The results of this study indicated that, for this particular example, aeroelastic tailoring is sufficient for suppressing the aeroelastic divergence, and the use of active controls was not necessary.

  8. Computational Aerodynamics of Insects' Flapping Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kyung Dong; Kyung, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.

  9. Aerodynamics of a rigid curved kite wing

    E-print Network

    Maneia, Gianmauro; Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary numerical study on the aerodynamics of a kite wing for high altitude wind power generators is proposed. Tethered kites are a key element of an innovative wind energy technology, which aims to capture energy from the wind at higher altitudes than conventional wind towers. We present the results obtained from three-dimensional finite volume numerical simulations of the steady air flow past a three-dimensional curved rectangular kite wing (aspect ratio equal to 3.2, Reynolds number equal to 3x10^6). Two angles of incidence -- a standard incidence for the flight of a tethered airfoil (6{\\deg}) and an incidence close to the stall (18{\\deg}) -- were considered. The simulations were performed by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes flow model using the industrial STAR-CCM+ code. The overall aerodynamic characteristics of the kite wing were determined and compared to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flat rectangular non twisted wing with an identical aspect ratio and section (Clark Y profil...

  10. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  11. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  12. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.

  14. Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

  15. Acoustic and aerodynamic study of a pusher-propeller aircraft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Horne, W. Clifton

    1990-09-01

    An aerodynamic and acoustic study was made of a pusher-propeller aircraft model in the NASA-Ames 7 x 10 ft Wind Tunnel. The test section was changed to operate as an open jet. The 591 mm diameter unswept propeller was operated alone and in the wake of three empennages: an I tail, Y tail, and a V tail. The radiated noise and detailed wake properties were measured. Results indicate that the unsteady blade loading caused by the blade interactions with the wake mean velocity distribution had a strong effect on the harmonics of blade passage noise. The blade passage harmonics above the first were substantially increased in all horizontal directions by the empennage/propeller interaction. Directivity in the plane of the propeller was maximum perpendicular to the blade surface. Increasing the tail loading caused the propeller harmonics to increase 3 to 5 dB for an empennage/propeller spacing of 0.38 mean empennage chords. The interaction noise became weak as empennage propeller spacing was increased beyond 1.0 mean empennage chord lengths. Unlike the mean wake deficit, the wake turbulence had only a small effect on the propeller noise, that effect being a small increase in the broadband noise.

  16. A Survey of Challenges in Aerodynamic Exhaust Nozzle Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyne, Rickey J.

    2002-01-01

    The current paper discusses aerodynamic exhaust nozzle technology challenges for aircraft and space propulsion systems. Technology advances in computational and experimental methods have led to more accurate design and analysis tools, but many major challenges continue to exist in nozzle performance, jet noise and weight reduction. New generations of aircraft and space vehicle concepts dictate that exhaust nozzles have optimum performance, low weight and acceptable noise signatures. Numerous innovative nozzle concepts have been proposed for advanced subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic vehicle configurations such as ejector, mixer-ejector, plug, single expansion ramp, altitude compensating, lobed and chevron nozzles. This paper will discuss the technology barriers that exist for exhaust nozzles as well as current research efforts in place to address the barriers.

  17. Experimental identification of abnormal noise and vibration in a high-speed polygon mirror scanner motor due to mechanical contact of plain journal bearing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Kim; G. H. Jang; C. J. Lee; D. O. Lim

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the abnormal noise and mechanical vibration of a high-speed polygon mirror scanner motor due to the\\u000a mechanical contact between the rotating shaft and stationary sleeve. In the paper, we analyze the characteristics of the aerodynamic\\u000a noise, structural borne noise, and electromagnetic noise in a polygon mirror scanner motor. We determine the characteristics\\u000a of the main harmonics of

  18. The Noise of a Forward Swept Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Fite, E. Brian

    2003-01-01

    A forward swept fan, designated the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), was tested in the NASA Glenn 9-by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate its noise reduction relative to a baseline fan of the same aerodynamic performance. The objective of the Quiet High Speed Fan was a 6 decibel reduction in the Effective Perceived Noise relative to the baseline fan at the takeoff condition. The intent of the Quiet High Speed Fan design was to provide both a multiple pure tone noise reduction from the forward sweep of the fan rotor and a rotor-stator interaction blade passing tone noise reduction from a leaned stator. The tunnel noise data indicted that the Quiet High Speed Fan was quieter than the baseline fan for a significant portion of the operating line and was 6 dB quieter near the takeoff condition. Although reductions in the multiple pure tones were observed, the vast majority of the EPNdB reduction was a result of the reduction in the blade passing tone and its harmonics. The baseline fan's blade passing tone was dominated by the rotor-strut interaction mechanism. The observed blade passing tone reduction could be the result of either the redesign of the Quiet High Speed Fan Rotor or the redesigned stator. The exact cause of this rotor-strut noise reduction, whether from the rotor or stator redesign, was not discernable from this experiment.

  19. State of the art in wind turbine aerodynamics and aeroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, M. O. L.; Sørensen, J. N.; Voutsinas, S.; Sørensen, N.; Madsen, H. Aa.

    2006-06-01

    A comprehensive review of wind turbine aeroelasticity is given. The aerodynamic part starts with the simple aerodynamic Blade Element Momentum Method and ends with giving a review of the work done applying CFD on wind turbine rotors. In between is explained some methods of intermediate complexity such as vortex and panel methods. Also the different approaches to structural modelling of wind turbines are addressed. Finally, the coupling between the aerodynamic and structural modelling is shown in terms of possible instabilities and some examples.

  20. Inverse aerodynamic design applications using the MGM hybrid formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernani V. Volpe; Guilherme L. Oliveira; Luis C. C. Santos; Marcelo T. Hayashi; Marco A. B. Ceze

    2009-01-01

    The well-known modified Garabedian–Mcfadden (MGM) method is an attractive alternative for aerodynamic inverse design, for its simplicity and effectiveness (P. Garabedian and G. Mcfadden, Design of supercritical swept wings, AIAA J. 20(3) (1982), 289–291; J.B. Malone, J. Vadyak, and L.N. Sankar, Inverse aerodynamic design method for aircraft components, J. Aircraft 24(2) (1987), 8–9; Santos, A hybrid optimization method for aerodynamic

  1. Aerodynamic, aeroacoustic, and aeroelastic investigations of airfoil-vortex interaction using large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Marcel

    In helicopters, vortices (generated at the tip of the rotor blades) interact with the next advancing blades during certain flight and manoeuvring conditions, generating undesirable levels of acoustic noise and vibration. These Blade-Vortex Interactions (BVIs), which may cause the most disturbing acoustic noise, normally occur in descent or high-speed forward flight. Acoustic noise characterization (and potential reduction) is one the areas generating intensive research interest to the rotorcraft industry. Since experimental investigations of BVI are extremely costly, some insights into the BVI or AVI (2-D Airfoil-Vortex Interaction) can be gained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations. Numerical simulation of BVI or AVI has been of interest to CFD for many years. There are still difficulties concerning an accurate numerical prediction of BVI. One of the main issues is the inherent dissipation of CFD turbulence models, which severely affects the preservation of the vortex characteristics. Moreover this is not an issue only for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analysis but also for aeroelastic investigations as well, especially when the strong (two-way) aeroelastic coupling is of interest. The present investigation concentrates mainly on AVI simulations. The simulations are performed for Mach number, Ma = 0.3, resulting in a Reynolds number, Re = 1.3 x 106, which is based on the chord, c, of the airfoil (NACA0012). Extensive literature search has indicated that the present work represents the first comprehensive investigation of AVI using the LES numerical approach, in the rotorcraft research community. The major factor affecting the aerodynamic coefficients and aeroacoustic field as a result of airfoil-vortex interaction is observed to be the unsteady pressure generated at the location of the interaction. The present numerical results show that the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, moment, and drag) and aeroacoustic field are strongly dependent on the airfoil-vortex vertical miss-distance, airfoil angle of attack, vortex characteristics, and aeroelastic response of airfoil to airfoil-vortex interaction. A decay of airfoil-vortex interactions with the increase of vertical miss-distance and angle of attack was observed. Also, a decay of airfoil-vortex interactions is observed for the case of a flexible structure when compared with the case of a rigid structure. The decay of vortex core size produces a decrease in the aerodynamic coefficients.

  2. A Fan Design that Meets the NASA Aeronautics Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James; Tweedt, Daniel; Jeracki, Robert; Envia, Edmaine; Bartos, Karen; Slater, John

    2003-01-01

    A fan concept was previously identified that would meet the NASA aeronautics goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction in aircraft noise. This was a 2-stage fan with a pressure ratio of 1.15 and a 460 ft/sec tip speed. The 2 stages were identical so that, with the proper synchrophasing, noise from one stage could be used to cancel noise from the other stage. This paper documents the aerodynamic design of the 2-stage fan concept in a 22-in. diameter size for testing in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-ft wind tunnel. A set of rotor and stator coordinates are listed in the report. Stress and flutter analyses were done on these blades and showed that the design was structurally viable. A noise prediction code, using the blade coordinates and fan flows, indicated that the 2-stage fan would meet the goal of a 20 dB reduction in fan noise.

  3. A parametric study of transonic blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyrintzis, A. S.

    1991-01-01

    Several parameters of transonic blade-vortex interactions (BVI) are being studied and some ideas for noise reduction are introduced and tested using numerical simulation. The model used is the two-dimensional high frequency transonic small disturbance equation with regions of distributed vorticity (VTRAN2 code). The far-field noise signals are obtained by using the Kirchhoff method with extends the numerical 2-D near-field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic 3-D far-field. The BVI noise mechanisms are explained and the effects of vortex type and strength, and angle of attack are studied. Particularly, airfoil shape modifications which lead to noise reduction are investigated. The results presented are expected to be helpful for better understanding of the nature of the BVI noise and better blade design.

  4. Nature-Inspired Airfoils for Environmental Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Suyeong; Kyung, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of environmental engineering and aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present work, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings are conducted by utilizing numerical and computational simulation. The e-AIRS [6] (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) gives a balanced service between computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. This paper presents the wing motions and their aerodynamics with a two dimensional approach to reduce environmental noise during the airflight. Also this paper shows an optimal phase angle, where the thrust is maximized at the position of minimized drag, which occurs when noise is minimized. Aside from the two-dimensional approach, stroke angles and phase angles of the airfoils are set as parameters, to determine which motion yields the best aerodynamic characteristics.

  5. Multi-parameter aerodynamic modeling for aeroelastic coupling in turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, D.-M.

    2009-04-01

    A multi-parameter method based on multivariate spline function approximation and minimum state smoothing for modeling the generalized aerodynamic forces is proposed in order to reduce the cost of the aerodynamic computations in the solution of the coupled fluid-structure problem in turbomachinery. This method allows simultaneous variations of several parameters and provides the solutions of the coupled systems at arbitrary values of the parameters using the generalized aerodynamic forces computed at the few values of the parameters. This multi-parameter aerodynamic modeling method is applied to a large-chord blade, for which the two chosen parameters are the rotation speed and the inter-blade phase angle.

  6. Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J. (editor); Ashbaugh, J. (editor)

    1980-01-01

    Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.

  7. Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

  8. A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic contrails are defined in this paper as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data, first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Finally we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally we give an argument for our believe that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

  9. Fundamental Aspects of the Aerodynamics of Turbojet Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrere, M.

    1978-01-01

    Aerodynamic considerations in the design of high performance combustors for turbojet engines are discussed. Aerodynamic problems concerning the preparation of the fuel-air mixture, the recirculation zone where primary combustion occurs, the secondary combustion zone, and the dilution zone were examined. An aerodynamic analysis of the entire primary chamber ensemble was carried out to determine the pressure drop between entry and exit. The aerodynamics of afterburn chambers are discussed. A model which can be used to investigate the evolution of temperature, pressure, and rate and efficiency of combustion the length of the chamber was developed.

  10. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular plug nozzles. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Blozy, J. T.; Staid, P. S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of model scale parametric static and wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests on unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle configurations with inverted velocity profile are discussed. The nozzle configurations are high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles applicable to dual-stream exhaust systems typical of a variable cycle engine for Advanced Supersonic Transport application. In all, seven acoustic models and eight aerodynamic performance models were tested. The nozzle geometric variables included outer stream radius ratio, inner stream to outer stream ratio, and inner stream plug shape. When compared to a conical nozzle at the same specific thrust, the results of the static acoustic tests with the coannular nozzles showed noise reductions of up to 7 PNdB. Extensive data analysis showed that the overall acoustic results can be well correlated using the mixed stream velocity and the mixed stream density. Results also showed that suppression levels are geometry and flow regulation dependent with the outer stream radius ratio, inner stream-to-outer stream velocity ratio and inner stream velocity ratio and inner stream plug shape, as the primary suppression parameters. In addition, high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles were found to yield shock associated noise level reductions relative to a conical nozzle. The wind tunnel aerodynamic tests showed that static and simulated flight thrust coefficient at typical takeoff conditions are quite good - up to 0.98 at static conditions and 0.974 at a takeoff Mach number of 0.36. At low inner stream flow conditions significant thrust loss was observed. Using an inner stream conical plug resulted in 1% to 2% higher performance levels than nozzle geometries using a bent inner plug.

  11. On Noise Assessment for Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L; Thomas, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    A system noise study is presented for the blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft configured with advanced technologies that are projected to be available in the 2025 timeframe of the NASA N+2 definition. This system noise assessment shows that the noise levels of the baseline configuration, measured by the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL), have a large margin of 34 dB to the aircraft noise regulation of Stage 4. This confirms the acoustic benefits of the BWB shielding of engine noise, as well as other projected noise reduction technologies, but the noise margins are less than previously published assessments and are short of meeting the NASA N+2 noise goal. In establishing the relevance of the acoustic assessment framework, the design of the BWB configuration, the technical approach of the noise analysis, the databases and prediction tools used in the assessment are first described and discussed. The predicted noise levels and the component decomposition are then analyzed to identify the ranking order of importance of various noise components, revealing the prominence of airframe noise, which holds up the levels at all three noise certification locations and renders engine noise reduction technologies less effective. When projected airframe component noise reduction is added to the HWB configuration, it is shown that the cumulative noise margin to Stage 4 can reach 41.6 dB, nearly at the NASA goal. These results are compared with a previous NASA assessment with a different study framework. The approaches that yield projections of such low noise levels are discussed including aggressive assumptions on future technologies, assumptions on flight profile management, engine installation, and component noise reduction technologies. It is shown that reliable predictions of component noise also play an important role in the system noise assessment. The comparisons and discussions illustrate the importance of practical feasibilities and constraints in aircraft system noise studies, which include aerodynamic performance, propulsion efficiency, flight profile limitation and many other factors. For a future aircraft concept to achieve the NASA N+2 noise goal it will require a range of fully successful noise reduction technology developments.

  12. Prediction of XV-15 tilt rotor discrete frequency aeroacoustic noise with WOPWOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1990-01-01

    The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The mechanisms studied were thickness and loading noise. In particular, the loading noise caused by flow separation and the fountain/ground plane effect were predicted with calculations made using WOPWOP, a noise prediction program developed by NASA Langley. The methodology was to model the geometry and aerodynamics of the XV-15 rotor blades in hover and steady level flight and then create corresponding FORTRAN subroutines which were used an input for WOPWOP. The models are described and the simplifying assumptions made in creating them are evaluated, and the results of the computations are presented. The computations lead to the following conclusions: The fountain/ground plane effect is an important source of aerodynamic noise for the XV-15 in hover. Unsteady flow separation from the airfoil passing through the fountain at high angles of attack significantly affects the predicted sound spectra and may be an important noise mechanism for the XV-15 in hover mode. The various models developed did not predict the sound spectra in helicopter forward flight. The experimental spectra indicate the presence of blade vortex interactions which were not modeled in these calculations. A need for further study and development of more accurate aerodynamic models, including unsteady stall in hover and blade vortex interactions in forward flight.

  13. Aerodynamic Focusing of Nanoparticles: II. Numerical Simulation of Particle Motion Through Aerodynamic Lenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoliang Wang; Ashok Gidwani; Steven L. Girshick; Peter H. McMurry

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a numerical simulation methodology that is able to accurately characterize the focusing performance of aerodynamic lens systems. The commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT was used to simulate the gas flow field. Particle trajectories were tracked using the Lagrangian approach. Brownian motion of nanoparticles was successfully incorporated in our numerical simulations. This simulation tool was then

  14. Aerodynamic Focusing of Nanoparticles: I. Guidelines for Designing Aerodynamic Lenses for Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoliang Wang; Frank Einar Kruis; Peter H. McMurry

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the challenges in focusing nanoparticles (< 30 nm) into tightly collimated beams, and provide guidelines for designing aerodynamic lens systems for nanoparticles. The major difficulties of focusing nanoparticles arise from their low inertia and high diffusivity. Because of their low inertia, nanoparticles tend to closely follow gas streamlines; their high diffusivities lead to beam broadening and diffusional

  15. On aerodynamic wake analysis and its relation to total aerodynamic drag in a wind tunnel environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui M. Guterres

    2002-01-01

    The present work was developed with the goal of advancing the state of the art in the application of three-dimensional wake data analysis to the quantification of aerodynamic drag on a body in a low speed wind tunnel environment. Analysis of the existing tools, their strengths and limitations is presented. Improvements to the existing analysis approaches were made. Software tools

  16. A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

  17. Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2005-06-21

    The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings. PMID:15808868

  18. Hub to tip variations of counter rotating propeller interaction noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. L. Patrick; R. T. Nagel

    1989-01-01

    Axial and circumferential flow velocity components were measured at discretepoints between hobby-craft model counter-rotating propellers using a single sensor hot-film anemometer. Coherence analysis was used to determine characteristics of the relationship between the far-field radiated noise and the measured flow velocity components at the primary aerodynamics interaction tones. Tests were performed in an open-jet anechoic wind tunnel at a free-stream

  19. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-04-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  20. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  1. Interdisciplinary optimization combining electromagnetic and aerodynamic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Anders James

    The design of missile body shapes often requires a compromise between aero-dynamic and electromagnetic performance goals. In general, the missile shape producing the lowest radar signature will be different from the preferred aero-dynamic shape. Interdisciplinary shape optimization is utilized to combine multiple disciplines to determine the best possible shape for a hybrid aerodynamic-electromagnetic problem. A composite missile body consisting of an axisymmetric body of revolution (BOR) and two thin flat plate attachments is considered. The goal is to minimize the drag and backscatter associated with this composite shape. The body is assumed to be perfectly conducting, and flying at zero degrees angle of attack. The variable nose shape serves as the optimization design parameter. To characterize the system performance, a cost function is defined which is comprised of weighted values of the drag and backscatter. To solve the electromagnetic problem, methods to treat electrically large complex bodies are investigated. Hybrid methods which combine the method of moments (MoM) with physical optics (PO) are developed to calculate the scattering from simple two-dimensional bodies. A surface-wave hybrid approach is shown to effectively approximate the traveling wave currents on the smooth interior portions of a BOR. Asymptotic methods are used to solve the resulting integral equations more efficiently. The hybrid methods are shown to produce MoM-quality results, while requiring less computational resources. To solve the composite body problem, an iterative technique is developed that preserves the simplicity of the original BOR scheme. In this formulation, the current over each part of the composite body is solved independently. The results from one part of the body are used to update the fields incident on the other part of the body. This procedure is repeated until the solution converges. To solve the aerodynamic problem, slender body theory is used to calculate the nonviscous pressure drag on the body. Results show that the optimal design depends on a variety of factors including frequency, backscatter observation angle, incident wave polarization, and arbitrary weighting coefficients.

  2. Report of the Panel on Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Richard G.; Bushnell, Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Progress in aerodynamics over the past 50 years has been evidenced by the development of increasingly sophisticated and efficient flight vehicles throughout the flight spectrum. Advances have generally arisen in an evolutionary manner from experience gained in wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and improvements in analytical and computational capabilities. As a result of this evolutionary development, both military and commercial vehicles operate at a relatively high efficiency level. This observation plus the fact that airplanes have not changed appreciably in outward appearance over recent years has led some skeptics to conclude incorrectly that aerodynamics is a mature technology, with little to be gained from further developments in the field. It is of interest to note that progress in aerodynamics has occurred without a thorough understanding of the fundamental physics of flow, turbulence, vortex dynamics, and separated flow, for example. The present understanding of transition, turbulence, and boundary layer separation is actually very limited. However, these fundamental flow phenomena provide the key to reducing the viscous drag of aircraft. Drag reduction provides the greatest potential for increased flight efficiency from the standpoint of both saving energy and maximizing performance. Recent advances have led to innovative concepts for reducing turbulent friction drag by modifying the turbulent structure within the boundary layer. Further advances in this basic area should lead to methods for reducing skin friction drag significantly. The current challenges for military aircraft open entirely new fields of investigation for the aerodynamicist. The ability through very high speed information processing technology to totally integrate the flight and propulsion controls can permit an aircraft to fly with "complete abandon," avoiding departure, buffet, and other undesirable characteristics. To utilize these new control concepts, complex aerodynamic phenomena will have to be understood, predicted, and controlled. Current requirements for military aircraft include configuration optimization through a widened envelope from subsonic to supersonic and from low to high angles of attack. This task is further complicated by requirements for control of observables. These challenging new designs do not have the luxury of a large experimental data base from which to optimize for various parameter combinations. Consequently, there exists a strong need for better techniques, both experimental and computational, to permit design optimization in a complete sense.

  3. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  4. Aerodynamic prediction techniques for hypersonic configuration design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of approximate theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at moderate hypersonic speeds was performed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to preliminary configuration design level of effort. Potential theory was examined in detail to meet this objective. Numerical pilot codes were developed for relatively simple three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with higher order solutions and experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes for values of the hypersonic similarity parameter M delta approaching one.

  5. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  6. Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.

  7. Measurement technology for micro-scale aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael James

    As micro-technology improves, it may become possible to build flying vehicles at length scales of millimeters, or even microns. Successful design of vehicles at such sizes requires understanding of the fluid mechanics of flight at the micron scale. While biological flight has been studied at these scales, many questions remain to be answered for flight at these scales. Previous work has not determined the limiting scales of continuum aerodynamics for low-speed flight. This study begins with the development of a new scaling law based on boundary layer theory. The laminar boundary layer equations were solved non-dimensionally for slip flow conditions. These results show that a measurable decrease in skin friction, as well as changes in heat transfer, and flow stability, may occur as the boundary layer Knudsen number approaches 0.01. These flow conditions correspond to airfoil chords of up to 100 microns, pressures of 0.1 to 1.0 atmospheres, and velocities from 30 to 100 m/s. Based on this scaling law, specialized wind-tunnel test facilities were designed to operate at scales not previously studied. The novel wind-tunnel allows for independent control of Reynolds and Knudsen numbers on static airfoils. A draw-through, low turbulence, low-pressure wind tunnel with a 1 cm cross section was built and tested. The flow through these facilities is characterized, and recommendations are made for future wind-tunnel development. To allow testing at these scales, micro-scale airfoils, with chords of 100 microns, thicknesses of 5 microns, and a span of 1 cm were fabricated using MEMS fabrication technology. Fabrication of free-standing micro-structures with meso-scale spans and micro-scale cross sections required the development of specialized fabrication processes. These airfoils were integrated with piezoresistive force sensors, allowing measurement of aerodynamic forces. The airfoil structures were successfully released within the tunnel. The actual aerodynamic load on the airfoils in testing exceeded the design loads of the airfoils. It is believed that this is due to vortex shedding during testing. Testing this theory will require development both of new computational techniques, and new test facilities. A road map is provided for the next generation of micro-scale aerodynamics testing.

  8. Wind-tunnel measurement of noise emitted by helicopter rotors at high speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, J.

    Measurements of high-speed impulsive helicopter rotor noise in a wind-tunnel are presented. High-speed impulsive noise measurements have been performed in 1988 in the ONERA S2ch wind-tunnel, fitted with an acoustic lining, on two types of rotors. They show that substantial noise reduction is obtained with sweptback tips, initially designed for aerodynamic purposes, which lower transonic effects on the advancing blade tip. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of taking into account the acoustic annoyance problem, using noise prediction tools, when designing new helicopter blades.

  9. Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent H. Lundberg

    The noise behavior of bulk CMOS devices is dominated primarily by two noise sources: thermal noise and ?icker (1=f) noise. Other sources that are sometimes present in the noise spectrum are shot noise, generation\\/recombination noise, and \\\\popcorn\\

  10. Aerodynamic tailoring of the Learjet Model 60 wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekharan, Reuben M.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Hinson, Michael L.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Madson, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The wing of the Learjet Model 60 was tailored for improved aerodynamic characteristics using the TRANAIR transonic full-potential computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A root leading edge glove and wing tip fairing were shaped to reduce shock strength, improve cruise drag and extend the buffet limit. The aerodynamic design was validated by wind tunnel test and flight test data.

  11. Aerodynamics of ski jumping: experiments and CFD simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Meile; E. Reisenberger; M. Mayer; B. Schmölzer; W. Müller; G. Brenn

    2006-01-01

    The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger

  12. Nonlinear aerodynamic forces on thin flat plate: Numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lin; Xu, You-Lin; Liao, Haili

    2014-01-01

    This paper first presents a numerical simulation of nonlinear aerodynamic forces on a thin flat plate through an integration of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and the forced asymptotic oscillation method. The thin flat plate is forced to have either asymptotic torsional oscillation or asymptotic vertical oscillation of increasing amplitude. A multiple-domain mesh technique together with unstructured dynamic meshes is used in the CFD simulation to accommodate large amplitude oscillations of the plate. The instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes of the aerodynamic forces are then identified from the simulated asymptotic aerodynamic force time histories using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) in terms of the CWT ridges. Extensive numerical studies are finally performed to examine the feasibility of the proposed approach. The results show that the CFD method used in this study can properly simulate nonlinear aerodynamic forces on the plate. The amplitude of the aerodynamic force depends on the amplitude of the forced oscillation and there are high-order harmonic aerodynamic forces of higher frequency than the forced oscillation frequency, both indicating the nonlinearity of aerodynamic forces. The results also show the flutter derivatives associated with self-excited aerodynamic forces depend on the amplitude of forced oscillation in addition to reduced velocity.

  13. Aerodynamic Devices for Mitigation of Wind Damage Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. X. Lin; P. R. Montpellier; C. W. Tillman; W. I. Riker

    Different from a conventional wisdom of damage risk mitigation by increasing structural resistance capacity, an aerodynamic approach seeks to mitigate damage risk at the source by reducing the load demand generated by wind. A recent such example is a series of patented aerodynamic roof edge devices designed to minimize uplifts generated by edge vortices. They are being evaluated by full-scale

  14. Spaceplane aerodynamic heating and thermal protection design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Hirotoshi; Itoda, Norihiko; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yukimitsu

    At the first phase of concept design of spaceplanes, parametric studies and optimization for the various body configurations and trajectories are needed. For that purpose, the aerodynamic heating is predicted by a simple method. The wall temperature is estimated from the predicted aerodynamic heating against the various wall thickness and coolant heat transfer coefficients. A method for designing a thermal protection system is discussed.

  15. Aerodynamic Admittance Function of Tall Buildings Ahsan Kareemb

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    are generally employed in formulating analysis of wind effects in the along-wind direction following the "gust;Gust spectrum Aerodynamic admittance Generalized force spectrum Displacement transfer function Log )( fH )( fSM Gust spectrum MGLFMGLFMGLFMGLF (b) (a) Figure 1. Aerodynamic admittance functions in gust

  16. Determination and classification of the aerodynamic properties of wing sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1925-01-01

    The following note, prepared for the NACA, contains several remarks on the possible improvement of the experimental determination of the aerodynamic properties of wing sections. It shows how errors of observation can subsequently be partially eliminated, and how the computation of the maxima or minima of aerodynamic characteristics can be much improved.

  17. Development of aerodynamics for a solar race car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Ozawa; Sumio Nishikawa; Dai Higashida

    1998-01-01

    The dominant factor of a solar car is running resistance, especially aerodynamic drag; and the reduction of the CD (drag coefficient)× A (frontal projected area) value is a crucial task to maximize the performance of a solar car. This paper will introduce the aerodynamic approach of the '96 Honda solar car which participated in the World Solar Challenge, the world's

  18. Discriminating speakers with vocal nodules using aerodynamic and acoustic features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jefl Kuo; Eva B. Holmberg; Robert E. Hillman

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that linear discriminant analysis using aerodynamic and acoustic features is effective in discriminating speakers with vocal-fold nodules from normal speakers. Simultaneous aerodynamic and acoustic measurements of vocal function were taken of 14 women with bilateral vocal-fold nodules and 12 women with normal voice production. Features were extracted from the glottal airflow waveform and peaks in the acoustic

  19. Spaceplane aerodynamic heating and thermal protection design method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirotoshi Kubota; Norihiko Itoda; Kiyoshi Yamamoto; Yukimitsu Yamamoto

    1990-01-01

    At the first phase of concept design of spaceplanes, parametric studies and optimization for the various body configurations and trajectories are needed. For that purpose, the aerodynamic heating is predicted by a simple method. The wall temperature is estimated from the predicted aerodynamic heating against the various wall thickness and coolant heat transfer coefficients. A method for designing a thermal

  20. COPYRIGHT 2003 by ASME AERODYNAMICS OF TIP LEAKAGE FLOWS

    E-print Network

    Camci, Cengiz

    COPYRIGHT 2003 by ASME 1 AERODYNAMICS OF TIP LEAKAGE FLOWS NEAR PARTIAL SQUEALER RIMS IN AN AXIAL FLOW TURBINE STAGE Cengiz Camci 1 , Debashis Dey 2 and Levent Kavurmacioglu 3 Turbomachinery Heat of aerodynamic characteristics of full and partial-length squealer rims in a turbine stage. Full and partial

  1. Aerodynamics simulation of operating rooms N. El Gharbi*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aerodynamics simulation of operating rooms N. El Gharbi* A. Benzaoui*R. Bennacer** * Faculty. Keywords: Operating room, aerodynamics simulation, turbulent model, comfort, Airflow, Indoor air quality. hal-00915314,version1-10Dec2013 Author manuscript, published in "International Heat Transfer

  2. Aerodynamics at the Particle Level C. A. Crummer

    E-print Network

    Belanger, David P.

    Aerodynamics at the Particle Level C. A. Crummer Preface The purpose of this work is to examine into modern aerodynamic design but physicists have not developed a tractable mathematics to describe can be assumed incompressible and non-viscous because compression heating and viscous interactions

  3. AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 410 Computational Aerodynamics

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Matthew

    AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 410 Computational Aerodynamics AE 412 Viscous flow & Heat Transfer AE 416 Applied Aerodynamics AE 419 Aircraft Flight Mechanics AE 433 Aerospace Propulsion AE 434 Rocket Methods In Eng. Other possible electives (examples): ME 411 ONL: Viscous Flow & Heat Transfer CEE 446 ONL

  4. Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…

  5. Mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics in flight dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.; Schiff, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    Basic concepts involved in the mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic response of an aircraft to arbitrary maneuvers are reviewed. The original formulation of an aerodynamic response in terms of nonlinear functionals is shown to be compatible with a derivation based on the use of nonlinear functional expansions. Extensions of the analysis through its natural connection with ideas from bifurcation theory are indicated.

  6. Computational Study of the Aerodynamic Performance of Subsonic Scarf Inlets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Abbott

    2004-01-01

    A computational study has been conducted to assess the aerodynamic performance of subsonic scarf inlets. The computations were performed using the WIND 3D Navier-Stokes CFD code. The objective of the study was to investigate the aerodynamic performance of scarf inlets wherein the circumferential extent, ?, over which the transition from the extended lower lip to the non-extended lip was the

  7. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Kitamura; Keiichiro Fujimoto; Satoshi Nonaka; Tomoko Irikado; Moriyasu Fukuzoe; Eiji Shima

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted

  8. Hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bein; P. Friedmann; X. Zhong; I. Nydick

    1993-01-01

    The general equations describing the nonlinear fluttering oscillations of shallow, curved, heated orthotropic panels have been derived. The formulation takes into account the location of the panel on the surface of a generic hypersonic vehicle, when calculating the aerodynamic loads. It is also shown that third order piston theory produces unsteady aerodynamic loading which is in close agreement with that

  9. Aerodynamic stiffness effects in rotational galloping at high wind speeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. van Oudheusden

    1996-01-01

    An investigation is made of aerodynamic stiffness effects on the dynamics of rotational galloping at high wind speeds. The system is analysed as a perturbation of the Hamiltonian system in which the aerodynamic stiffness is included. The analysis agrees with the experimentally observed behaviour. Both the frequency and mode shape of the oscillation are affected, while the amplitude of the

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 5.8-Percent Scale Hybrid Wing Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2012-01-01

    A low-speed experimental investigation has been conducted on a 5.8-percent scale Hybrid Wing Body configuration in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was designed with specific intention to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project goals of reduced noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This HWB configuration incorporates twin, podded nacelles mounted on the vehicle upper surface between twin vertical tails. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics were assessed through the acquisition of force and moment, surface pressure, and flow visualization data. Longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were investigated on this multi-component model. The effects of a drooped leading edge, longitudinal flow-through nacelle location, vertical tail shape and position, elevon deflection, and rudder deflection have been studied. The basic configuration aerodynamics, as well as the effects of these configuration variations, are presented in this paper.

  11. Effect of blade wrap angle on efficiency and noise of small radial fan impellers—A computational and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheit, C.; Karic, B.; Becker, S.

    2012-02-01

    Radial impellers have several technical applications. Regarding their aerodynamic performance, they are well optimized nowadays, but this is in general not true regarding acoustics. This work was therefore concerned with analyzing the flow structures inside isolated radial impellers together with the far-field sound radiated from them in order to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance. Both numerical and experimental techniques were applied in order to study the effect of varying wrap angle and otherwise identical geometric configuration on aerodynamics and acoustics of the radial impellers. The results give a detailed insight into the processes leading to sound generation in radial impellers. Measurements were performed using laser Doppler anemometry for the flow field and microphone measurements to analyze the radiated noise. In addition, unsteady aerodynamic simulations were carried out to calculate the compressible flow field. An acoustic analogy was employed to compute far-field noise. Finally, the phenomena responsible for tonal noise and the role of the wrap angle could be identified. Using this knowledge, design guidelines are given to optimize the impeller with respect to the radiated noise. This work shows that improved aerodynamic efficiency for isolated impellers does not automatically lead to a smaller flow-induced sound radiation.

  12. Some unique characteristics of supersonic cruise vehicles and their effect on airport community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the differences between the supersonic and subsonic commercial aircraft in terms of their configuration, aerodynamic characteristics, propulsion systems, and the manner of operation. The unique characteristics of supersonic cruise vehicles should provide improved airport-community noise exposures if the vehicle is permitted to operate at its most efficient and effective flight modes. It is concluded that noise exposure levels for supersonic cruise vehicles can be comparable to those of its equivalent subsonic counterpart of that time period.

  13. Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Edwin B.

    1989-01-01

    The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.

  14. (Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules)

    SciTech Connect

    de la Mora, J.F.

    1990-01-08

    By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m{sub p} some 3.6 {times} 10{sup 5} times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100{angstrom}), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5{radical}(m/m{sub p}) times the nozzle diameter d{sub n}. But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs.

  15. Aerodynamic models for a Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraunie, P.; Beguier, C.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.

    1982-11-01

    Various models proposed for the aerodynamics of Darrieus wind turbines are reviewed. The magnitude of the L/D ratio for a Darrieus rotor blade is dependent on the profile, the Re, boundary layer characteristics, and the three-dimensional flow effects. The aerodynamic efficiency is theoretically the Betz limit, and the interference of one blade with another is constrained by the drag force integrated over all points on the actuator disk. A single streamtube model can predict the power available in a Darrieus, but the model lacks definition of the flow structure and the cyclic stresses. Techniques for calculating the velocity profiles and the consequent induced velocity at the blades are presented. The multiple streamtube theory has been devised to account for the repartition of the velocity in the rotor interior. The model has been expanded as the double multiple streamtube theory at Sandia Laboratories. Futher work is necessary, however, to include the effects of dynamic decoupling at high rotation speeds and to accurately describe blade behavior.

  16. Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time marching Full Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier Transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers.

  17. Aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Gaurav; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine after the end of compression is investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone. To study the effect of reaction chamber configuration on the resulting aerodynamics and temperature field, experiments are conducted and compared using a creviced piston and a flat piston under varying conditions. Results show that the flat piston design leads to significant mixing of the cold vortex with the hot core region, which causes alternate hot and cold regions inside the combustion chamber. At higher pressures, the effect of the vortex is reduced. The creviced piston head configuration is demonstrated to result in drastic reduction of the effect of the vortex. Experimental conditions are also simulated using the Star-CD computational fluid dynamics package. Computed results closely match with experimental observation. Numerical results indicate that with a flat piston design, gas velocity after compression is very high and the core region shrinks quickly due to rapid entrainment of cold gases. Whereas, for a creviced piston head design, gas velocity after compression is significantly lower and the core region remains unaffected for a long duration. As a consequence, for the flat piston, adiabatic core assumption can significantly overpredict the maximum temperature after the end of compression. For the creviced piston, the adiabatic core assumption is found to be valid even up to 100 ms after compression. This work therefore experimentally and numerically substantiates the importance of piston head design for achieving a homogeneous core region inside a rapid compression machine. (author)

  18. Experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Tate, R.E.; Henfling, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degree} half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap could be attached so that deflection angles of 10{degree}, 20{degree} and 30{degree} could be obtained. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia Mach 8 hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Flow visualization results include shear stress sensitive liquid crystal photographs, surface streak flow photographs (using liquid crystals), and spark schlieren photographs and video. The liquid crystals were used as an aid in verifying that a laminar boundary layer existed over the entire body. The surface flow photo-graphs show attached and separated flow on both the leeside of the vehicle and near the flap. A detailed uncertainty analysis was conducted to estimate the contributors to body force and moment measurement uncertainty. Comparisons are made with computational results to evaluate both the experimental and numerical results. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of relevant computational aerodynamics codes.

  19. Experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Tate, R.E.; Henfling, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10[degree] half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap could be attached so that deflection angles of 10[degree], 20[degree] and 30[degree] could be obtained. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia Mach 8 hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Flow visualization results include shear stress sensitive liquid crystal photographs, surface streak flow photographs (using liquid crystals), and spark schlieren photographs and video. The liquid crystals were used as an aid in verifying that a laminar boundary layer existed over the entire body. The surface flow photo-graphs show attached and separated flow on both the leeside of the vehicle and near the flap. A detailed uncertainty analysis was conducted to estimate the contributors to body force and moment measurement uncertainty. Comparisons are made with computational results to evaluate both the experimental and numerical results. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of relevant computational aerodynamics codes.

  20. Aerodynamics of Stardust Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.; Wilmoth, R. G.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Brauckmann, G. J.; Greene, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    Successful return of interstellar dust and cometary material by the Stardust Sample Return Capsule requires an accurate description of the Earth entry vehicle's aerodynamics. This description must span the hypersonic-rarefied, hypersonic-continuum, supersonic, transonic, and subsonic flow regimes. Data from numerous sources are compiled to accomplish this objective. These include Direct Simulation Monte Carlo analyses, thermochemical nonequilibrium computational fluid dynamics, transonic computational fluid dynamics, existing wind tunnel data, and new wind tunnel data. Four observations are highlighted: 1) a static instability is revealed in the free-molecular and early transitional-flow regime due to aft location of the vehicle s center-of-gravity, 2) the aerodynamics across the hypersonic regime are compared with the Newtonian flow approximation and a correlation between the accuracy of the Newtonian flow assumption and the sonic line position is noted, 3) the primary effect of shape change due to ablation is shown to be a reduction in drag, and 4) a subsonic dynamic instability is revealed which will necessitate either a change in the vehicle s center-of-gravity location or the use of a stabilizing drogue parachute.

  1. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MEXICO Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraez, I.; Medjroubi, W.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J.

    2014-12-01

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are a very promising method for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines in an inexpensive and accurate way. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the lack of validated models. As a consequence, the reliability of numerical results is often difficult to assess. The MEXICO project aimed at solving this problem by providing the project partners with high quality measurements of a 4.5 meters rotor diameter wind turbine operating under controlled conditions. The large measurement data-set allows the validation of all kind of aerodynamic models. This work summarizes our efforts for validating a CFD model based on the open source software OpenFoam. Both steady- state and time-accurate simulations have been performed with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for several operating conditions. In this paper we will concentrate on axisymmetric inflow for 3 different wind speeds. The numerical results are compared with pressure distributions from several blade sections and PIV-flow data from the near wake region. In general, a reasonable agreement between measurements the and our simulations exists. Some discrepancies, which require further research, are also discussed.

  2. ExoMars Entry Demonstrator Module Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, P.; Beck, J.

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamics data for ExoMars Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients are generated as a function of total angle-of- attack, Knudsen number and Mach number depending on the flight regime. Bridging functions were developed from DSMC computations in transitional flow regime between free-molecular and continuum flow regimes. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions with non- equilibrium flow assumptions in hot hypersonic (M>6.3) and with an equivalent approach below. Wind-tunnel in cold hypersonic (ONERA S4Ma - M=10) and in high-enthalpy facilities (ONERA F4 and DLR-HEG) tests were conducted in order to address uncertainty model in hypersonic-supersonic flow regime. For M<3.5, wind- tunnel campaign was conducted in DLR-TMK (1.8

  3. Near-field frequency - Domain theory for propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. B.

    1983-04-01

    Near-field noise equations are developed from the author's helicoidal surface theory for propeller aerodynamics and noise. Thickness, steady loading, and quadrupole sources are included. Apart from the thin blade approximation and neglect of radial source terms, the equations are exact. In a comparison with the previously published far-field theory, it is shown that several valuable features of the far-field equations are retained. In particular, blade sweep still appears explicitly as a phase lag effect. A brief correlation with test data is shown.

  4. Hub to tip variations of counter rotating propeller interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, H. V. L.; Nagel, R. T.

    1989-04-01

    Axial and circumferential flow velocity components were measured at discretepoints between hobby-craft model counter-rotating propellers using a single sensor hot-film anemometer. Coherence analysis was used to determine characteristics of the relationship between the far-field radiated noise and the measured flow velocity components at the primary aerodynamics interaction tones. Tests were performed in an open-jet anechoic wind tunnel at a free-stream speed of 0.08 Mach number with a 3 x 4 CRP configuration. It was determined that the degree of linearity in the flow-noise relation varied radially along the propeller blade span.

  5. Experimental assessment of a turbulence ingestion noise theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, John; Schlinker, Robert; Amiet, Roy

    A model helicopter rotor was tested in a closed anechoic chamber to assess the accuracy of a rotor noise theory for nonisotropic turbulence ingestion. The measured aerodynamic properties were used as inputs to a noise prediction procedure. The agreement between the experimental data and predictions is good, although the analysis generally overpredicts the quasi-tonal low to mid range frequencies and underpredicts the higher broadband signals. The predicted sound power level as a function of polar angle is in close agreement with measurements, except near the rotor plane, which is not modeled by the present analysis.

  6. A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.

  7. Impact of computers on aerodynamics research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. L.

    1984-01-01

    Factors motivating the development of computational aerodynamics as a discipline are traced back to the limitations of the tools available to the aerodynamicist before the development of digital computers. Governing equations in exact and approximate forms are discussed together with approaches to their numerical solution. Example results obtained from the successively refined forms of the equations are presented and discussed, both in the context of levels of computer power required and the degree of the effect that their solution has on aerodynamic research and development. Factors pacing advances in computational aerodynamics are identified, including the amount of computational power required to take the next major step in the discipline. Finally, the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program - with its 1987 target of achieving a sustained computational rate of 1 billion floating-point operations per second operating on a memory of 240 million words - is briefly discussed in terms of its projected effect on the future of computational aerodynamics.

  8. Forced response unsteady aerodynamics in a multistage compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capece, Vincent Ralph

    The fundamental flow physics of the unsteady aerodynamics associated with forced vibrations in turbomachinery are investigated. Unique data are obtained through a series of experiments in a three stage axial flow research compressor which quantify the unsteady harmonic gust interaction phenomena over a range of operating and geometric conditions at high values of reduced frequency. In these experiments the effects of the following on the stator vane unsteady aerodynamics were quantified: (1) the steady aerodynamic loading, (2) the detailed waveform of the aerodynamic forcing function, including the chordwise and transverse gust components, (3) multistage blade row interactions, and (4) the solidity, ranging from a design value of 1.09 to an isolated airfoil. In addition, the effect of flow separation on the unsteady aerodynamics of an isolated airfoil was also investigated.

  9. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  10. Influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the outdoor unit of a split air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengjun; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Jie

    2014-07-01

    DC-inverter split air-conditioner is widely used in Chinese homes as a result of its high-efficiency and energy-saving. Recently, the researches on its outdoor unit have focused on the influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance, however they are only limited to the influence of a few parameters on the performance, and practical design of the unit requires more detailed parametric analysis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and computational aerodynamic acoustics(CAA) simulation based on FLUENT solver is used to study the influence of surrounding structures upon the aforementioned properties of the unit. The flow rate and sound pressure level are predicted for different rotating speed, and agree well with the experimental results. The parametric influence of three main surrounding structures(i.e. the heat sink, the bell-mouth type shroud and the outlet grille) upon the aerodynamic performance of the unit is analyzed thoroughly. The results demonstrate that the tip vortex plays a major role in the flow fields near the blade tip and has a great effect on the flow field of the unit. The inlet ring's size and throat's depth of the bell-mouth type shroud, and the through-flow area and configuration of upwind and downwind sections of the outlet grille are the most important factors that affect the aerodynamic performance of the unit. Furthermore, two improved schemes against the existing prototype of the unit are developed, which both can significantly increase the flow rate more than 6 %(i.e. 100 m3·h-1) at given rotating speeds. The inevitable increase of flow noise level when flow rate is increased and the advantage of keeping a lower rotating speed are also discussed. The presented work could be a useful guideline in designing the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the split air-conditioner in engineering practice.

  11. Numerical and analytical modelling of entropy noise in a supersonic nozzle with a shock

    E-print Network

    Nicoud, Franck

    by an electrical heating device. Both 3-D and 2-D axisymmetric simulations are performed to demonstrate. 1. Introduction Over the last five decades, jet and external aerodynamic noises of aircraft have identified (see Fig. 1). On the one hand, acoustic perturbations generated by the unsteady heat release from

  12. Airfoil optimization for unsteady flows with application to high-lift noise reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Peer Rumpfkeil

    2008-01-01

    The use of steady-state aerodynamic optimization methods in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) community is fairly well established. In particular, the use of adjoint methods has proven to be very beneficial because their cost is independent of the number of design variables. The application of numerical optimization to airframe-generated noise, however, has not received as much attention, but with the

  13. Direct computation of the noise radiated by a subsonic cavity flow and application of integral methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Gloerfelt; C. Bailly; D. Juvé

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the acoustic field generated by the flow over a cavity using two different and complementary numerical methods. First, a Direct Numerical Simulation of the 2-D compressible Navier–Stokes equations is performed to obtain directly the radiated noise. The results of the acoustic and aerodynamic fields are compared to the experimental data in the

  14. The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. Gallman; Chee Tung; Scott L. Low

    1995-01-01

    The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD\\/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD\\/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures

  15. Simulation of a hot coaxial jet: Direct noise prediction and flow-acoustics correlations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are at high velocities, the primary stream is heated, and the Reynolds number based on the primary velocity. The jet aerodynamic field and the near-pressure field are both obtained directly from the LES. The far-field noise is calculated by solving the linear acoustic equations, from the unsteady LES data

  16. Aeroacoustics: Acoustic wave propagation; Aircraft noise prediction; Aeroacoustic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal with recent research into acoustic-wave propagation through the atmosphere and progress in aeroacoustic instrumentation, facilities, and test techniques. Topics include the propagation of aircraft noise over long distances in the lower atmosphere, measured effects of turbulence on the rise time of a weak shock, sound scattering from atmospheric turbulence, saturation effects associated with sound propagation in a turbulent medium, and a computer model of the lightning-thunder process. Other papers discuss the development of a computer system for aircraft noise prediction; aircraft flyover noise measurements; and theories and methods for the prediction of ground effects on aircraft noise propagation, for the prediction of airframe aerodynamic noise, for turbine noise prediction, and for combustion noise prediction. Attention is also given to the use of Hartmann generators as sources of high-intensity sound in a large absorption flow-duct facility, an outdoor jet noise facility, factors in the design and performance of free-jet acoustic wind tunnels, and the use of a laser shadowgraph for jet noise diagnosis.

  17. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming events are highlighted, including tests of the Highly Variable Cycle Mixer-Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. Other key events are milestones to be delivered within the next calendar year.

  18. Subsonic and supersonic indicial aerodynamics and aerodynamic transfer function for complex configurations. [aerodynamic configurations for subsonic and supersonic speeds using the finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morino, L.

    1974-01-01

    A general theory for indicial-potential-compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. The motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed (steady state) and small perturbations around the steady state. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, a set of differential-difference equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative on the surface of the body was obtained. The aerodynamics transfer function was derived by using standard method of operational calculus.

  19. EDITORIAL: Advanced Measurement Techniques in Aerodynamics Advanced Measurement Techniques in Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.

    2009-07-01

    This issue of Measurement Science and Technology contains a special feature section with selected papers from the EWA International workshop on Advanced Measurement Techniques in Aerodynamics, which was held at the Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 31 March-1 April 2008. The workshop was funded by the European Windtunnel Association (EWA, www.eu-ewa.aero), which is an EU-funded network established in 2004 under the European Sixth Framework Programme with the goal of integrating and standardizing the different capabilities of European wind tunnels and related flow measurement techniques. The workshop was organized with the objective of stimulating discussion among leading European universities, research institutes and industry in the field of advanced aerodynamics measurement techniques, in order to provide a transfer of new ideas from upstream research centres to wind tunnel operators and industrial users. Non-intrusive flow diagnostic techniques nowadays offer renewed capabilities for industrial wind-tunnel applications. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) plays a leading role for particular applications (unsteady and complex flows, rotorcraft aerodynamics, turbulent separated flows) and can provide solutions that cannot be achieved with conventional techniques (e.g. in the analysis of vortex flows). This formed the main motivation to revise the state-of-the-art of PIV along with other non-intrusive optical techniques such as PSP, DGV and BOS. The two-day workshop contained sessions dedicated to several specific topics: rotorcraft aerodynamics applications; state-of-the-art of high-speed PIV and configurations for time-resolved measurements; three-dimensional PIV; non-intrusive load characterization by PSP and PIV. The main conclusion emerging from the closing discussion was that the new capabilities offered by time-resolved PIV are of great scientific and industrial interest for application to unsteady flows and in particular to the determination of unsteady aerodynamic forces and loads. We believe that this workshop provided a useful framework facilitating the transfer of new ideas from developer to the user communities. At the same time the workshop provided the upstream research community with important feedback about the areas of relevance for industrial aerodynamics.

  20. NOISE PERCEPTION AND SCORING OF NOISE EXPOSURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang J. Probst

    Based on the strategic noise maps according to 2002\\/49\\/EC, action plans shall be developed to reduce the noise exposure in European agglomerations. To decide among possible alternatives, it is necessary to rank them with respect to noise reduction and number of people exposed. Different strategies have been used to derive a single number noise score. The most often used approach

  1. Nonequilibrium spin noise and noise of susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, P.; Narozhny, B. N.; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, A.

    2014-11-01

    We analyze out-of-equilibrium fluctuations in a driven spin system and relate them to the noise of spin susceptibility. In the spirit of the linear response theory we further relate the noise of susceptibility to a 4-spin correlation function in equilibrium. We show that, in contrast to the second noise (noise of noise), the noise of susceptibility is a direct measure of non-Gaussian fluctuations in the system. We develop a general framework for calculating the noise of susceptibility using the Majorana representation of spin-1/2 operators. We illustrate our approach by a simple example of noninteracting spins coupled to a dissipative (Ohmic) bath.

  2. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  3. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 1: Orbiter aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter has been performed. It is shown that slender wing theory can be modified to account for the effect of Mach number and leading edge roundness on both attached and separated flow loads. The orbiter unsteady aerodynamics can be computed by defining two equivalent slender wings, one for attached flow loads and another for the vortex-induced loads. It is found that the orbiter is in the transonic speed region subject to vortex-shock-boundary layer interactions that cause highly nonlinear or discontinuous load changes which can endanger the structural integrity of the orbiter wing and possibly cause snap roll problems. It is presently impossible to simulate these interactions in a wind tunnel test even in the static case. Thus, a well planned combined analytic and experimental approach is needed to solve the problem.

  4. The Computation and Analysis of Helicopter Impulsive Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Helicopters have been proven to be economical and convenient vehicles with their ability to land, take -off and maneuver in areas inaccessible to fixed-wing aircraft. However, the noise they generate can severely restrict their usage in both civilian and military operations. When it occurs, helicopter impulsive noise is the loudest and the most annoying. The noise usually can be broken down to high -speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction noise. The physical phenomena of helicopter blade-vortex interaction are especially complicated and include three-dimensional unsteady transonic flow and regions of vorticity. A computational and analytical study of the helicopter impulsive noise has been conducted herein, particularly of the blade-vortex interaction noise. The fundamental theory and noise mechanisms are introduced and discussed. The computational study includes two-dimensional and three -dimensional approaches. The two-dimensional unsteady transonic small disturbance model was extended to include viscous effects and monotone switches. The noise generation mechanisms due to the blade-vortex interaction are discussed. A rotating Kirchhoff method is developed to predict high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction noise. A three-dimensional full potential CFD code was used for calculation of the nonlinear aerodynamic near-field, then a couple of extended Kirchhoff formulations with a rotational control surface are used to compute the far-field acoustic signals. The computed numerical results showed a good agreement with experimental results. The results also identify the important parameters for the impulsive noise control. This new rotating Kirchhoff method can be used to predict the helicopter impulsive noise accurately and is believed to be better in many ways than other existing methods.

  5. Aerodynamic database development of the ESA intermediate experimental vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzella, Giuseppe; Marino, Giuliano; Rufolo, Giuseppe C.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the aerodynamic database development of the Intermediate Experiment Vehicle. The aerodynamic analysis, carried out for the whole flight scenario, relies on computational fluid dynamics, wind tunnel test, and engineering-based design data generated during the project phases, from rarefied flow conditions, to hypersonic continuum flow up to reach subsonic speeds regime. Therefore, the vehicle aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections foreseen for the vehicle nominal re-entry. In particular, the databasing activities are developed in the light of build-up approach. This means that all aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are provided by means of a linear summation over certain number of incremental contributions such as, for example, effect of sideslip angle, aerodynamic control surface effectiveness, etc. Each force and moment coefficient is treated separately and appropriate equation is provided, in which all the pertinent contributions for obtaining the total coefficient for any selected flight conditions appear. To this aim, all the available numerical and experimental aerodynamic data are gathered in order to explicit the functional dependencies from each aerodynamic model addend through polynomial expressions obtained with the least squares method. These polynomials are function of the primary variable that drives the phenomenon whereas secondary dependencies are introduced directly into its unknown coefficients which are determined by means of best-fitting algorithms.

  6. Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.

  7. Beyond robins: aerodynamic analyses of animal flight.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Spedding, Geoffrey

    2008-06-01

    Recent progress in studies of animal flight mechanics is reviewed. A range of birds, and now bats, has been studied in wind tunnel facilities, revealing an array of wake patterns caused by the beating wings and also by the drag on the body. Nevertheless, the quantitative analysis of these complex wake structures shows a degree of similarity among all the different wake patterns and a close agreement with standard quasi-steady aerodynamic models and predictions. At the same time, new data on the flow over a bat wing in mid-downstroke show that, at least in this case, such simplifications cannot be useful in describing in detail either the wing properties or control prospects. The reasons for these apparently divergent results are discussed and prospects for future advances are considered. PMID:18397865

  8. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling and active aeroelastic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.

  9. Aerodynamics of seeing on large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Data were obtained in the full scale flight environment of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) on the nature of turbulent shear layer over the open cavity. These data were used to verify proposed aerodynamic scaling relationships to describe the behavior of the turbulent layers and to estimate the optical performance of systems of various wavelengths operating within the KAO environment. These data and wind tunnel data are used to scale the expected optical effects for a potential stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy (SOFIA) in which a telescope approximately 3.5 times larger than that on the KAO is envisioned. It appears that the use of combinations of active and passive aeromechanical flow control techniques can improve the optical behavior of systems in the SOFIA environment. Experiments to verify these potential improvements can be performed on the KAO with sufficient modifications to the cavity and aero-mechanical technique installations.

  10. Experimental Aerodynamics of Mesoscale Trailing Edge Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovitz, Stephen; Eaton, John

    2001-11-01

    Experiments were performed on a wing with segmented Gurney flaps. Each of the sixteen active flaps is approximately 1.5can be actuated in only two positions: 90 degrees up or 90 degrees down. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at chord Reynolds numbers up to 800,000. Measurements include the determination of aerodynamic forces and moments using a 6 DOF balance, surface pressure profiles, and wake surveys. Actuation of the full span of the airfoil from the up position to the down position increases the lift coefficient by approximately 0.6 for low to moderate angles of attack. The flaps have a reduced but still significant effect past stall. The overall changes in wing loads are linear with the number of flaps actuated, suggesting that simple control laws may be used. However, surface pressure measurements indicate that each flap affects the section lift over a substantial span. A study of the transient performance of the flaps is underway.

  11. Aerodynamic levitation : an approach to microgravity.

    SciTech Connect

    Glorieux, B.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Millot, F.; Enderby, J.; Rifflet, J.-C.

    2000-12-05

    Measurements of the thermophysical and structural properties of liquid materials at high temperature have undergone considerable development in the past few years. Following improvements in electromagnetic levitation, aerodynamic levitation associated with laser heating has shown promise for assessing properties of different molten materials (metals, oxides, and semiconductors), preserving sample purity over a wide range of temperatures and under different gas environments. The density, surface tension and viscosity are measured with a high-speed video camera and an image analysis system. Results on nickel and alumina show that small droplets can be considered in the first approximation to be under microgravity conditions. Using a non-invasive contactless technique recently developed to measure electrical conductivity, results have been extended to variety of materials ranging from liquid metals and liquid semiconductors to ionically conducting materials. The advantage of this technique is the feasibility of monitoring changes in transport occurring during phase transitions and in deeply undercooled states.

  12. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  13. Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao

    2015-03-01

    We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.

  14. Aerodynamics modeling of towed-cable dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; Latorre, V.R.

    1991-01-17

    The dynamics of a cable/drogue system being towed by an orbiting aircraft has been investigated as a part of an LTWA project for the Naval Air Systems Command. We present here a status report on the tasks performed under Phase 1. We have accomplished the following tasks under Phase 1: A literature survey on the towed-cable motion problem has been conducted. While both static (steady-state) and dynamic (transient) analyses exist in the literature, no single, comprehensive analysis exists that directly addresses the present problem. However, the survey also reveals that, when judiciously applied, these past analyses can serve as useful building blocks for approaching the present problem. A numerical model that addresses several aspects of the towed-cable dynamic problem has been adapted from a Canadian underwater code for the present aerodynamic situation. This modified code, called TOWDYN, analyzes the effects of gravity, tension, aerodynamic drag, and wind. Preliminary results from this code demonstrate that the wind effects alone CAN generate the drogue oscillation behavior, i.e., the yo-yo'' phenomenon. This code also will serve as a benchmark code for checking the accuracy of a more general and complete R D'' model code. We have initiated efforts to develop a general R D model supercomputer code that also takes into account other physical factors, such as induced oscillations and bending stiffness. This general code will be able to evaluate the relative impacts of the various physical parameters, which may become important under certain conditions. This R D code will also enable development of a simpler operational code that can be used by the Naval Air personnel in the field.

  15. Aerodynamic-Structural Design Studies of Low-Sweep Transonic Wings

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    Aerodynamic-Structural Design Studies of Low-Sweep Transonic Wings Antony Jameson Department level. High-fidelity aerodynamic and aerodynamic-structural optimizations are performed on a set to significantly reduce wing sweep without incurring either aerodynamic or structural penalties, especially for M

  16. Modeling FullEnvelope Aerodynamics of Small UAVs in RealTime Prof. Michael Selig

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    D M E S S Modeling FullEnvelope Aerodynamics of Small UAVs in RealTime Prof. Michael Selig Applied Aerodynamics Group and Subsonic Aerodynamics Research Lab Department of Aerospace Engineering will focus on the development of a full six degreeoffreedom aerodynamics modeling environment for small UAVs

  17. Review of unsteady transonic aerodynamics: Theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendiksen, Oddvar O.

    2011-02-01

    Unsteady transonic flow theory is reviewed and classical results from the nonlinear asymptotic theory are combined with new results from computational fluid dynamics. The emphasis is on applications to the field of aeroelasticity and on clarifying the limitations of linearized theories in problems involving mixed subsonic-supersonic flows. The inherent differences between nonlinear transonic aerodynamics and linear subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics are considered from a theoretical and computational standpoint, and the practical implications of these differences in formulating suitable aerodynamic models for aeroelastic stability calculations are discussed. Transonic similarity principles are reviewed and their relevance in understanding flutter, divergence, and control reversal phenomena of transonic aircraft is illustrated through practical examples.

  18. Aerodynamic Interaction Effects of a Helicopter Rotor and Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, David D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A three year Cooperative Research Agreements made in each of the three years between the Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Va. Tech) has been completed. This document presents results from this three year endeavor. The goal of creating an efficient method to compute unsteady interactional effects between a helicopter rotor and fuselage has been accomplished. This paper also includes appendices to support these findings. The topics are: 1) Rotor-Fuselage Interactions Aerodynamics: An Unsteady Rotor Model; and 2) Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Interactional Aerodynamics: A New Computational Model.

  19. Prediction of Hyper-X Stage Separation Aerodynamics Using CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Wong, Tin-Chee; Dilley, Arthur D.; Pao, Jenn L.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA X-43 "Hyper-X" hypersonic research vehicle will be boosted to a Mach 7 flight test condition mounted on the nose of an Orbital Sciences Pegasus launch vehicle. The separation of the research vehicle from the Pegasus presents some unique aerodynamic problems, for which computational fluid dynamics has played a role in the analysis. This paper describes the use of several CFD methods for investigating the aerodynamics of the research and launch vehicles in close proximity. Specifically addressed are unsteady effects, aerodynamic database extrapolation, and differences between wind tunnel and flight environments.

  20. Hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bein, T.; Friedmann, P.; Zhong, X.; Nydick, I.

    1993-01-01

    The general equations describing the nonlinear fluttering oscillations of shallow, curved, heated orthotropic panels have been derived. The formulation takes into account the location of the panel on the surface of a generic hypersonic vehicle, when calculating the aerodynamic loads. It is also shown that third order piston theory produces unsteady aerodynamic loading which is in close agreement with that based upon direct solution of the Euler equations. Results, for simply supported panels, are obtained using Galerkin's method combined with direct numerical integration in time to compute stable limit cycle amplitudes. These results illustrate the sensitivity of the aeroelastic behavior to the unsteady aerodynamic assumptions, temperature, orthotropicity and flow orientation.

  1. Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Aerodynamics of Power Plant Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.

    1982-01-01

    Powerplant installations involve complex flows, strongly influenced by viscous effects and often with important aerodynamic interactions between the airframe and propulsion system. The introduction of vehicle propulsion concepts, and points of emphasis in aircraft and missile design requirements, provide an expanding range of aerodynamic problems which cal for both experimental and theoretical study. Aerodynamic problems in powerplant installation are surveyed and work which has improved basic understanding or has enhanced prediction and design methods in this field is reviewed. Powerplant installation effects for both combat and transport aircraft are emphasized.

  2. Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamics (HABA) for conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1990-03-15

    The Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamics (HABA) computer program predicts static and dynamic aerodynamic derivatives at hypersonic speeds for any vehicle geometry. It is intended to be used during conceptual design studies where fast computational speed is required. It uses the same geometry and hypersonic aerodynamic methods as the Mark IV Supersonic/Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Program (SHABP) developed under sponsorship of the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory; however, the input and output formats have been improved to make it easier to use. This program is available as part of the Department 9140 CAE software.

  3. Compendium of NASA Langley reports on hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabo, Frances E.; Cary, Aubrey M.; Lawson, Shirley W.

    1987-01-01

    Reference is made to papers published by the Langley Research Center in various areas of hypersonic aerodynamics for the period 1950 to 1986. The research work was performed either in-house by the Center staff or by other personnel supported entirely or in part by grants or contracts. Abstracts have been included with the references when available. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Aerodynamic Measurements - Single Shapes; (2) Aerodynamic Measurements - Configurations; (3) Aero-Heating; (4) Configuration Studies; (5) Propulsion Integration Experiment; (6) Propulsion Integration - Study; (7) Analysis Methods; (8) Test Techniques; and (9) Airframe Active Cooling Systems.

  4. Community Response to Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandy Fidell

    2008-01-01

    The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport\\/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally

  5. Community Response to Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sandy

    The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally posemorelocalized problems.

  6. A method of infrared imaging missile's aerodynamic heating modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunqin; Xiang, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Weiqiang

    2013-09-01

    The infrared (IR) imaging missile's dome will be heated when fly at high speed in the atmosphere because of the friction of the air flow blocking. The detector's performance will be decline if the dome surface is heated to a certain temperature. In this paper, we find a right way to evaluate the aerothermal effects in the imaging and information processing algorithm. Which have three steps including the aerothermal radiation calculation, quantization and image reconstruction. Firstly, the aerothermal radiation is calculated by using a combination of both methods of theoretical analysis and experiment data. Secondly, the relationship between aerothermal radiation and IR images background mean gray and noise can be calculated through the analysis of the experiment data. At last, we can rebuild an aerodynamic heating effect of infrared images fusion with target and decoy, which can be used for virtual prototyping platform missile trajectory simulation. It can be found that the above constructed images have good agreements with the actual image according to comparison between the simulation data and experiment data. It is an economic method that can solve the lab aerodynamic heating simulation and modeling problems.

  7. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.

    1981-01-01

    A subsonic/supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamic analysis was developed by integrating the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS), and the inviscid force calculation modules of the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. APAS analysis was extended for nonlinear vortex forces using a generalization of the Polhamus analogy. The interactive system provides appropriate aerodynamic models for a single input geometry data base and has a run/output format similar to a wind tunnel test program. The user's manual was organized to cover the principle system activities of a typical application, geometric input/editing, aerodynamic evaluation, and post analysis review/display. Sample sessions are included to illustrate the specific task involved and are followed by a comprehensive command/subcommand dictionary used to operate the system.

  8. Reinforcement Learning of Morphing Airfoils with Aerodynamic and Structural Effects

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Reinforcement Learning of Morphing Airfoils with Aerodynamic and Structural Effects Amanda Lampton Changing / Morphing for Micro Air Vehicles Learning Morphing Airfoil Results Conclusions Research Issues controllers, and mechanisms to achieve the state change. Morphing Aircraft DARPA's definition Aerospace

  9. Future experimental needs in low-speed aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a review of future experimental needs in low-speed aerodynamic research. Emphasis is on fixed wind aircraft and the review uses the anticipated technical needs of subsonic transport aircraft and supersonic transport aircraft to establish and prioritize future low-speed experimental needs and directions. These technical needs, combined with a continuing improvement in computational capability, suggest changes in the experimental capabilities and adjustments in the use of existing capabilities. Three factors emerge that will have a major influence on the future directions for low-speed aerodynamic research: a recognition of the significance of three-dimensional high-lift aerodynamics, the increasing importance of aeroacoustics, and additional emphasis on the importance of propulsion/airframe integration. These analyses are combined with a review of the status of experimental capabilities in low-speed aerodynamic research to suggest future directions in the development and utilization of advanced instrumentation, test techniques, and test capabilities.

  10. Forced response analysis of an aerodynamically detuned supersonic turbomachine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of aerodynamic detuning on the supersonic flow induced forced response behavior of a turbomachine blade row is analyzed using an aeroelastic model. The rotor is modeled as a flat plate airfoil cascade representing an unwrapped rotor annulus; the aerodynamic detuning is achieved by alternating the circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The total unsteady aerodynamic loading on the blading, due to the convection of the transverse gust past the airfoil cascade as well as that resulting from the motion of the cascade, is developed in terms of influence coefficients. The model developed here is then used to analyze the effect of aerodynamic detuning on the flow induced forced response behavior of a twelve-bladed rotor with Verdon's Cascade B flow geometry.

  11. Six Degree of Freedom Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model with Aerodynamics 

    E-print Network

    Niksch, Adam

    2010-01-14

    to generate rolling and yawing moments. The dynamic model calculates state information for the morphing wing based on the aerodynamic forces from the panel method. The model allows for multiple shape changing degrees-of-freedom for the wing, including...

  12. Applications of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Inviscid Transonic Aerodynamics

    E-print Network

    Tan, Bui-Thanh

    Two extensions to the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are considered for steady transonic aerodynamic applications. The first is to couple the POD approach with a cubic spline interpolation procedure in ...

  13. Aerodynamic induced vibrations on reactor containment fan coolers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Soddy-Daisy, TN (US))

    1989-05-01

    Diagnosis of problems on reactor containment fan coolers is not always straightforward. This article describes the method of investigation employed at Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Station to diagnose and correct aerodynamic induced vibrations on the coolers.

  14. Enabling Venus In Situ Missions Using Mechanically Deployed Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, S. J.; Saranathan, H.; Grant, M. J.; Longuski, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Trade study and optimal solutions for guided entry and aerocapture for Venus in situ missions using Mechanically Deployed Aerodynamic Decelerator to reduce peak deceleration loads, as well as peak heat fluxes.

  15. Hypersonic static aerodynamics for Mars science laboratory entry capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Tang, Wei; Gui, Yewei; Du, Yanxia; Xiao, Guangming; Liu, Lei

    2014-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry capsule has been designed as a lifting entry for sufficient deceleration and precise landing performance. This paper presents the static aerodynamics analysis of the MSL capsule in the hypersonic entry process for exploration mission to Mars. Hypersonic static coefficients were derived from fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics solutions with a specified effective specific heat ratio on a typical trajectory state. Aerodynamic performance analysis ascertains the trim characteristics and static stability of the capsule with respect to the center of gravity (CG) location. Analysis results obtained show that CG location determines the trim characteristics and the static stability, and certain CG radial and axial shift alters the lifting entry performance, so that proper aerodynamic configuration and inner equipment layout is needed for CG adjustment to satisfy the static aerodynamics requirements.

  16. Learning Activities: Students and Recycling. [and] Automobile Aerodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Charles H., Jr.; Schieber, Rich

    1994-01-01

    The first learning activity is intended to heighten students' awareness of the need for recycling, reuse, and reduction of materials; the second explores the aerodynamics of automobiles. Both include context, concept, objectives, procedure, and materials needed. (SK)

  17. Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) - Duration: 105 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The HFFAF is the only aeroballistic range the nation currently capable of testing in gases other than air and at sub-atmospheric pressures. It is used primarily to study the aerodynamics, Aerotherm...

  18. Space Launch System Ascent Static Aerodynamic Database Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.; Erickson, Gary E.; Favaregh, Noah M.; Houlden, Heather P.; Tomek, William G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the wind tunnel testing work and data analysis required to characterize the static aerodynamic environment of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) ascent portion of flight. Scaled models of the SLS have been tested in transonic and supersonic wind tunnels to gather the high fidelity data that is used to build aerodynamic databases. A detailed description of the wind tunnel test that was conducted to produce the latest version of the database is presented, and a representative set of aerodynamic data is shown. The wind tunnel data quality remains very high, however some concerns with wall interference effects through transonic Mach numbers are also discussed. Post-processing and analysis of the wind tunnel dataset are crucial for the development of a formal ascent aerodynamics database.

  19. Wind turbine design codes: A preliminary comparison of the aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.L. Jr.; Wright, A.D.; Tangler, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    The National Wind Technology Center of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is comparing several computer codes used to design and analyze wind turbines. The first part of this comparison is to determine how well the programs predict the aerodynamic behavior of turbines with no structural degrees of freedom. Without general agreement on the aerodynamics, it is futile to try to compare the structural response due to the aerodynamic input. In this paper, the authors compare the aerodynamic loads for three programs: Garrad Hassan`s BLADED, their own WT-PERF, and the University of Utah`s YawDyn. This report documents a work in progress and compares only two-bladed, downwind turbines.

  20. Supersonic Parachute Aerodynamic Testing and Fluid Structure Interaction Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Darley, M. G.; Marraffa, L.; Ferracina, L.

    2014-06-01

    The ESA Supersonic Parachute program expands the knowledge of parachute inflation and flying characteristics in supersonic flows using wind tunnel testing and fluid structure interaction to develop new inflation algorithms and aerodynamic databases.

  1. Aerodynamic optimization of a solar powered race vehicle

    E-print Network

    Augenbergs, Peteris K

    2006-01-01

    Aerodynamic optimization was performed on Tesseract, the MIT Solar Electric Vehicle Team's 2003-2005 solar car using Wind Tunnel 8 at Jacobs/Sverdrup Drivability Test Facility in Allen Park, MI. These tests include angle ...

  2. Influence of wind shear on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1988-01-01

    The aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters is investigated and characterized. The wind shear effect is computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitudes if the aerodynamic effects are demonstrated by computation of the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and horizontal stability configuration on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results indicate that as much as 20 percent of the control authority of the airplane may be required to counteract the wind-shear-induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.

  3. Accomplishments at NASA Langley Research Center in rotorcraft aerodynamics technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the development of aerodynamic technology for rotorcraft has continued successfully at NASA LaRC. Though the NASA Langley Research Center is not the lead NASA center in this area, the activity was continued due to facilities and individual capabilities which are recognized as contributing to helicopter research needs of industry and government. Noteworthy accomplishments which contribute to advancing the state of rotorcraft technology in the areas of rotor design, airfoil research, rotor aerodynamics, and rotor/fuselage interaction aerodynamics are described. Rotor designs were defined for current helicopters and evaluated in wind tunnel testing. These designs have incorporated advanced airfoils defined analytically and also proven in wind tunnel tests. A laser velocimetry system has become a productive tool for experimental definition of rotor inflow/wake and is providing data for rotorcraft aerodynamic code validation.

  4. Aerodynamic Effects and Modeling of Damage to Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Gautam H.

    2008-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to measure the aerodynamic effects of damage to lifting and stability/control surfaces of a commercial transport aircraft configuration. The modeling of such effects is necessary for the development of flight control systems to recover aircraft from adverse, damage-related loss-of-control events, as well as for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics from flight data under such conditions. Damage in the form of partial or total loss of area was applied to the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. Aerodynamic stability and control implications of damage to each surface are presented, to aid in the identification of potential boundaries in recoverable stability or control degradation. The aerodynamic modeling issues raised by the wind tunnel results are discussed, particularly the additional modeling requirements necessitated by asymmetries due to damage, and the potential benefits of such expanded modeling.

  5. Aerodynamic and acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Packman, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    The static aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of duct-burning turbofan (DBTF) exhaust nozzles are established. Scale models, having a total area equivalent to a 0.127 m diameter convergent nozzle, simulating unsuppressed coannular nozzles and mechanically suppressed nozzles with and without ejectors (hardwall and acoustically treated) were tested in a quiescent environment. The ratio of fan to primary area was varied from 0.75 to 1.2. Far field acoustic data, perceived noise levels, and thrust measurements were obtained for 417 test conditions. Pressure ratios were varied from 1.3 to 4.1 in the fan stream and from 1.53 to 2.5 in the primary stream. Total temperature varied from 395 to 1090 K in both streams. Jet noise reductions relative to synthesized prediction from 8 PNdB (with the unsuppressed coannular nozzle) to 15 PNdB (with a mechanically suppressed configuration) were observed at conditions typical of engines being considered under the Advanced Supersonic Technology program. The inherent suppression characteristic of the unsuppressed coannular nozzle is related to the rapid mixing in the jet wake caused by the velocity profiles associated with the DBTF. Since this can be achieved without a mechanical suppressor, significant reductions in aircraft weight or noise footprint can be realized.

  6. Aerodynamic Design of Complex Configurations Using Cartesian Methods and CAD Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective for this paper is to present the development of an optimization capability for the Cartesian inviscid-flow analysis package of Aftosmis et al. We evaluate and characterize the following modules within the new optimization framework: (1) A component-based geometry parameterization approach using a CAD solid representation and the CAPRI interface. (2) The use of Cartesian methods in the development Optimization techniques using a genetic algorithm. The discussion and investigations focus on several real world problems of the optimization process. We examine the architectural issues associated with the deployment of a CAD-based design approach in a heterogeneous parallel computing environment that contains both CAD workstations and dedicated compute nodes. In addition, we study the influence of noise on the performance of optimization techniques, and the overall efficiency of the optimization process for aerodynamic design of complex three-dimensional configurations. of automated optimization tools. rithm and a gradient-based algorithm.

  7. CFD methods development considerations for unsteady aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods for unsteady aerodynamic analysis is described. Special emphasis is placed on considerations that are required for application of the methods to unsteady aerodynamic flow problems. Two broad categories of topics are presented to illustrate the major points. Although primary application of these CFD methods is to relatively low frequency oscillatory phenomena such as flutter, the ideas that are presented may be of value to developers of computational aeroacoustic methods for predicting high frequency acoustics.

  8. Coupled flow, thermal and structural analysis of aerodynamically heated panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Dechaumphai, Pramote

    1986-01-01

    A finite element approach to coupling flow, thermal and structural analyses of aerodynamically heated panels is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible flow are solved together with the energy equation and quasi-static structural equations of the panel. Interactions between the flow, panel heat transfer and deformations are studied for thin stainless steel panels aerodynamically heated by Mach 6.6 flow.

  9. Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.

  10. Monte Carlo methods in applied mathematics and computational aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. Belotserkovskii; Yu. I. Khlopkov

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the Monte Carlo methods developed in the computational aerodynamics of rarefied gases is given, and application\\u000a of these methods in unconventional fields is described. A short history of these methods is presented, and their advantages\\u000a and drawbacks are discussed. A relationship of the direct statistical simulation of aerodynamical processes with the solution\\u000a of kinetic equations is established;

  11. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.

  12. Quasi-steady aerodynamic analysis of propeller-wing interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinsoo Cho; Jaeheon Cho

    1999-01-01

    A quasi-steady scheme for the analysis of aerodynamic interaction between a propeller and a wing has been developed. The quasi-steady analysis uses a 3D steady vortex lattice method for the propeller and a 3D unsteady panel method for the wing. The aerodynamic coupling is represented by periodic loads, which are decomposed into harmonics and the harmonic amplitudes are found iteratively.

  13. Forced response analysis of an aerodynamically detuned supersonic turbomachine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1985-01-01

    High performance aircraft-engine fan and compressor blades are vulnerable to aerodynamically forced vibrations generated by inlet flow distortions due to wakes from upstream blade and vane rows, atmospheric gusts, and maldistributions in inlet ducts. In this report, an analysis is developed to predict the flow-induced forced response of an aerodynamically detuned rotor operating in a supersonic flow with a subsonic axial component. The aerodynamic detuning is achieved by alternating the circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The total unsteady aerodynamic loading acting on the blading, as a result of the convection of the transverse gust past the airfoil cascade and the resulting motion of the cascade, is developed in terms of influence coefficients. This analysis is used to investigate the effect of aerodynamic detuning on the forced response of a 12-blade rotor, with Verdon's Cascade B flow geometry as a uniformly spaced baseline configuration. The results of this study indicate that, for forward traveling wave gust excitations, aerodynamic detuning is very beneficial, resulting in significantly decreased maximum-amplitude blade responses for many interblade phase angles.

  14. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

  15. Improved Aerodynamic Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Conceptual Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ongoing efforts to develop, evaluate, and validate different tools for improved aerodynamic modeling and systems analysis of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configurations. Results are being presented for the evaluation of different aerodynamic tools including panel methods, enhanced panel methods with viscous drag prediction, and computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on proper prediction of aerodynamic loads for structural sizing as well as viscous drag prediction to develop drag polars for HWB conceptual design optimization. Data from transonic wind tunnel tests at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used as a reference data set in order to evaluate the accuracy of the aerodynamic tools. Triangularized surface data and Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) models of an X-48B 2% scale wind tunnel model were used to generate input and model files for the different analysis tools. In support of ongoing HWB scaling studies within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, an improved finite element based structural analysis and weight estimation tool for HWB center bodies is currently under development. Aerodynamic results from these analyses are used to provide additional aerodynamic validation data.

  16. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  17. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag coefficient of the vehicle. Furthermore, the evaluation of the impact of small changes in radiator or grille dimensions has revealed that the total drag is not particularly sensitive to those changes. This observation leads to two significant conclusions. First, a small increase in radiator size to accommodate heat rejection needs related to new emissions restrictions may be tolerated without significant increases in drag losses. Second, efforts to reduce drag on the tractor requires that the design of the entire tractor be treated in an integrated fashion. Simply reducing the size of the grille will not provide the desired result, but the additional contouring of the vehicle as a whole which may be enabled by the smaller radiator could have a more significant effect.

  18. Interim noise correlation for some OTW configurations using external jet-flow deflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Jet flap interaction acoustic data obtained statically from a model-scale study of STOL-OTW configurations with a conical nozzle mounted above the wing and using various external deflectors to provide jet-flow attachment are correlated. The acoustic data are correlated in terms that consider the jet/flap interaction noise contributions associated primarily with fluctuating lift, trailing edge, and configuration wake noise sources. Variables considered include deflector geometry, flap setting and wing size. Finally, the configuration overall noise levels are related to static lift and thrust measurements in order to provide insight into possible acoustic/aerodynamic performance trade-off benefits.

  19. OTW noise correlation for several nozzle/wing geometries using a 5:1 slot nozzle with external deflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic spectral data obtained from a model-scale study of several over the wing (OTW) configurations with a 5:1 slot nozzle using various external deflectors are correlated in terms of deflector geometry and flow parameters. Variations in the deflector geometry include deflector size and deflector angle. In addition, geometry variations in flap setting and nozzle chordwise location are included. Three dominant noise sources are correlated: fluctuating lift noise, flap trailing edge noise, and jet mixing noise. Aerodynamic characteristics including lift and thrust measurements, obtained for the various configurations are summarized.

  20. Title: Aerodynamic and Scalar Roughness over Snow and Sea Ice In Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the aerodynamic roughness, z0, is the artificial height

    E-print Network

    Title: Aerodynamic and Scalar Roughness over Snow and Sea Ice Abstract: In Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the aerodynamic roughness, z0, is the artificial height above the surface at which the wind speed the theory and measurement of the aerodynamic and scalar roughness lengths over snow and sea ice. The data