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Sample records for aerodynamic noise

  1. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  2. Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Shinkansen Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KITAGAWA, T.; NAGAKURA, K.

    2000-03-01

    The noise value (A -weighted sound pressure level, SLOW) generated by Shinkansen trains, now running at 220-300 km/h, should be less than 75 dB(A) at the trackside. Shinkansen noise, such as rolling noise, concrete support structure noise, and aerodynamic noise are generated by various parts of Shinkansen trains. Among these aerodynamic noise is important because it is the major contribution to the noise generated by the coaches running at high speed. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise, a number of improvements to coaches have been made. As a result, the aerodynamic noise has been reduced, but it still remains significant. In addition, some aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars remains. In order to investigate the contributions of these noises, a method of analyzing Shinkansen noise has been developed and applied to the measured data of Shinkansen noise at speeds between 120 and 315 km/h. As a result, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Aerodynamic noise generated from the upper parts of cars was reduced considerably by smoothing car surfaces. (2) Aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars has a major influence upon the wayside noise.

  3. Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

  4. Non-propulsive aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe noise to total aircraft noise on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB noise suppression applied to the fan and turbine noise sources. The airframe noise of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft noise, the fan inlet. The noise impact of the airframe noise, as measured by noise contour area, is 1/4 that of fan noise. Further fan noise reduction efforts should not view airframe noise as an absolute noise floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity noise wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.

  5. Non-propulsive aerodynamic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.

    1992-04-01

    In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe noise to total aircraft noise on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB noise suppression applied to the fan and turbine noise sources. The airframe noise of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft noise, the fan inlet. The noise impact of the airframe noise, as measured by noise contour area, is 1/4 that of fan noise. Further fan noise reduction efforts should not view airframe noise as an absolute noise floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity noise wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.

  6. Remarks on the theory of aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Y. S.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy of approximations employed in the Lighthill theory in current aerodynamic noise research is critically evaluated. Based on the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the full Navier-Stokes equations are expanded for small Mach numbers. To the first order, the near-field is generally nonisentropic. The pressure field (pseudo-sound) is generated by the incompressible Reynolds stresses in the turbulent flow and the velocity, pressure perturbation, and their derivatives on the boundaries. In the far-field, the first-order pressure (acoustic) field satisfying a linear wave equation is obtained by matching with the pseudo-sound field. A uniformly valid solution for the pressure field in a stationary or uniformly moving medium is obtained. The solution shows that the generation of the first-order aerodynamic noise does not depend on the viscous, thermal, or entropy effects in the adiabatic flow nor on the shear stress on a smooth rigid boundary.

  7. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E. (Editor); Weir, D. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  8. Localization of aerodynamic noise sources of Shinkansen trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakura, K.

    2006-06-01

    Shinkansen noise consists of various noise sources, such as the rolling noise, concrete bridge structure noise, aerodynamic noise and so on. Among these, the aerodynamic noise is the most important at speeds over 270 km/h in some cases because of its strong dependence on train speed. Thus it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the aerodynamic noise generated by high speed trains for noise reduction. In this paper, wind tunnel tests using a 1/5 scale Shinkansen train model were performed. An acoustic mirror, which consists of an omni-directional microphone and a reflector, was chosen as a measuring device. First, the principle and characteristics of the acoustic mirror are discussed and a method of estimating quantitatively the aerodynamic noise generated by each part of the model is proposed on the basis of wind tunnel test data. Next, the distribution of aerodynamic noise sources generated by the 1/5 scale Shinkansen train model is shown, based on which the contribution of individual noise sources of Shinkansen trains to the wayside noise level is estimated. Finally, the noise source distribution of real Shinkansen trains was measured with the acoustic mirror in a field test. The results of the field test show a good agreement with those of the wind tunnel tests.

  9. Measurement and analysis of aircraft far-field aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic investigation of aircraft far-field radiated, aerodynamically generated noise was conducted. The test phase of the original program involved the measurement of the noise produced by five gliding aircraft in an aerodynamically clean configuration during low altitude flyovers. These aircraft had gross weights that ranged from 5785 to 173 925N (1300 to 39,000 pounds), fly-by velocities from 30 to 98.5m/sec (58 to 191.5 knots or 98 to 323 ft/sec) and wing aspect ratios from 6.59 to 18.25. The results of these measurements were used to develop an equation relating aerodynamic noise to readily evaluated physical and operational parameters of the aircraft. A non-dimensional frequency spectrum, based on the mean wing thickness, was also developed.

  10. INVITED PAPER: Aerodynamic noise reduction by pile fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Masaharu; Goto, Tomonobu

    2010-02-01

    Pile fabrics are known to be effective at reducing aerodynamic noise. However, it is not clear which kind of pile fabric is most effective at reducing noise and what the noise-reducing mechanism is. In this paper, simple experiments using a cylinder with and without pile fabrics clarify that the flow resistance of pile fabrics is an important parameter in reducing aerodynamic noise. Light resistance is preferable and the optimum filling rate of pile fabrics is around 1%. The noise-reducing mechanism of pile fabrics is discussed and clarified by comparing measured flow properties with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results, which simulate pile fabrics by the porous media model with light flow resistance.

  11. Prediction of aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anupam; Chen, Hsuan-nien

    2013-08-01

    A numerical approach for predicting tonal aerodynamic noise from "open rotors" is presented. "Open rotor" refers to an engine architecture with a pair of counter-rotating propellers. Typical noise spectra from an open rotor consist of dominant tones, which arise due to both the steady loading/thickness and the aerodynamic interaction between the two bladerows. The proposed prediction approach utilizes Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to obtain near-field description of the noise sources. The near-to-far-field propagation is then carried out by solving the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Since the interest of this paper is limited to tone noise, a linearized, frequency domain approach is adopted to solve the wake/vortex-blade interaction problem.This paper focuses primarily on the speed scaling of the aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors. Even though there is no theoretical mode cut-off due to the absence of nacelle in open rotors, the far-field noise is a strong function of the azimuthal mode order. While the steady loading/thickness noise has circumferential modes of high order, due to the relatively large number of blades (?10-12), the interaction noise typically has modes of small orders. The high mode orders have very low radiation efficiency and exhibit very strong scaling with Mach number, while the low mode orders show a relatively weaker scaling. The prediction approach is able to capture the speed scaling (observed in experiment) of the overall aerodynamic noise very well.

  12. EBF noise suppression and aerodynamic penalties. [Externally Blown Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, L. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic tests were conducted at model scale to determine the noise produced in the flyover and sideline planes at reduced separation distances between the nozzle exhaust plane and the flaps of an under-the-wing (UTW) externally blown flap (EBF) configuration in its approach attitude. Tests were also made to determine the noise suppression effectiveness of two types of passive devices which were located on the jet impingement surfaces of the configuration. In addition, static aerodynamic performance data were obtained to evaluate the penalties produced by these suppression devices. Broadband low frequency noise reductions were achieved by reducing the separation distance between the nozzle and flaps. However, mid and high frequency noise was produced which exceeded that of the reference configuration. Two passive noise suppression devices located on the flaps produced moderate to large noise reductions at reduced separation distances. Consideration of the static aerodynamic performance data obtained for the configurations tested suggests that specific broadband noise suppression characteristics may be obtained through a trade-off with aerodynamic performance penalties by the careful selection of suppression devices.

  13. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  14. Shape Optimization for Aerodynamic Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison; Wang, Meng; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moin, Parviz

    2002-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop optimal shape design methods for reducing airfoil trailing-edge noise. Accurate evaluation of the cost function gradient via classical methods is expensive in unsteady turbulent flow simulations. We have evaluated the method of incomplete sensitivities (Mohammadi and Pironneau), which is inexpensive, and has been successful in previous applications. Gradients are approximated by neglecting changes in the flow field relative to geometrical contributions at each time step. Initial tests applied to a model problem seemed promising, however, in some cases the method was found to break down. A systematic evaluation of the incomplete sensitivities method as applied to the present problem has been carried out by comparison with the full gradient. The contribution to the gradient from changes in the flow field were found to be important. The underlying physical reasoning will be discussed and alternative methods including adjoint approaches and evolutionary algorithms will be explored.

  15. An anechoic chamber facility for investigating aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic noise facility was designed to be used primarily for investigating the noise-generating mechanisms of high-temperature supersonic and subsonic jets. The facility consists of an anechoic chamber, an exhaust jet silencer, instrumentation equipment, and an air heater with associated fuel and cooling systems. Compressed air, when needed for jet noise studies, is provided by the wind tunnel compressor facility on a continuous basis. The chamber is 8.1 m long, 5.0 m wide, and 3.0 m high. Provisions have been made for allowing outside air to be drawn into the anechoic chamber in order to replenish the air that is entrained by the jet as it flows through the chamber. Also, openings are provided in the walls and in the ceiling for the purpose of acquiring optical measurements. Calibration of the chamber for noise reflections from the wall was accomplished in octave bands between 31.2 Hz and 32 kHz.

  16. Aerodynamics and interaction noise of streamlined bodies in nonuniform flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atassi, H. M.; Logue, M. M.

    2011-08-01

    The unsteady aerodynamics and interaction noise of streamlined bodies are modeled in terms of the Euler equations linearized about a nonuniform flow. The validity of the inviscid approach is supported by recent LES simulations of an airfoil in a gust indicating that for not-too-small impinging excitations, the interaction process is dominated by inertia forces. Results in the present paper are focused on the aerodynamics and interaction noise of a turbofan modeled as an annular cascade. The model accounts for the inflow-fan-duct coupling and the high frequency of the interaction process. Two high-order numerical algorithms are developed with body-fitted coordinate system. One algorithm uses a primitive variable formulation, the other uses an efficient velocity splitting algorithm and is suitable for broadband computations. Analytical and numerical analysis of disturbances in rotational flows is developed and exact inflow/outflow boundary conditions are derived, yielding directly the radiated acoustics. The upstream disturbances evolve in rotational flows and as a result the aerodynamic-aeroacoustic response of the annular cascade depends on the initial conditions location. Computational results show that the three-dimensional geometry of the annular cascade, the mean flow swirl, and the blade geometry have strong influence on the blade sectional lift and the radiated sound. These results also show the inadequacy of using the popular linear cascade model particularly for realistic fan geometry and inflow conditions.

  17. On the spectra of aerodynamic noise and aeroacoustic fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, L. M. B. C.

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the present paper is to obtain the spectra, for the energy and cross-correlation, of waves in random media., comparing with experimental data on the acoustics of turbulent flows. Since the scattering of sound by turbulence (Fig. 1) and by irregular interfaces in motion (Fig. 2), involves deterministic amplitude changes and random phase shifts, we start with the statistics of the latter, both for single and multiple scattering (Fig. 4); the ergodic and central limit theorems, are used to show that the statistics of random phase shifts are Gaussian, as supported by experimental evidence (Fig. 3). A group of applications concerns aerodynamic noise, namely the transmission of sound through the turbulent shear layer of a jet, for which a family of correlation functions for phase shifts is proposed, including Gaussian and volume conserving forms (Fig. 5); the latter is confirmed by direct experimental evidence (Fig. 6) and also by calculation of one-dimensional power spectra of sound (Figs 7-10), and comparison with measurements of aerodynamic noise (Figs 11 and 12). Another class of applications is aeroacoustic fatigue, namely the prediction of the correlation of acoustic pressure loads, for direct (Fig. 13) or indirect comparison with experiment; the latter approach, for the acoustic fatigue due to the turbulent wake of a flap (Fig. 14), involves the calculation of multi-dimensional spectra (Figs 15 and 16), which may have corrections due to edge and finite-span diffraction effects, and lead to predictions of panel response which can be compared with experiment (Fig. 19). The applications of the present theory of waves in random media, to the acoustics of turbulent flows, include not only aeroacoustic fatigue (Fig. 19) and aerodynamic noise (Fig. 18), but also rotor noise (Fig. 17); the corresponding spectra are included in a classification of 32 types, for which analytical calculation is most appropriate, since numerical methods would have the problem (Fig. 20) of summing large quantities with alternating signs, leading to large relative errors.

  18. Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.

  19. Experimental Characterization of Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemanson, Megan Lynn

    Wind turbine noise at low frequencies less than 300Hz is not only annoying to humans but has been proven to cause serious health issues. Additionally, animals are severely affected by wind turbines because a small increase in ambient noise (as is produced by wind turbines) significantly reduces their listening ability. In an attempt to better understand and characterize the aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades, experimental testing was completed on PowerWorks 100kW and GudCraft WG700 blade specimens in the University of California, Davis Transportation Noise Control Center's anechoic chamber. Experimental testing and data analysis proved approximately 4.0dB to 6.0dB was produced due to the blades' geometric design for both blade specimens at low frequencies. This noise was maximized at the blades' leading edge along the central portion of the blades' radius. Theoretical prediction models have been used to determine that, for typical wind speeds and low frequencies, noise generated due to the tip passing frequency is clearly predominant.

  20. An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2013-12-01

    An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

  1. Aerodynamic Performance Measurements for a Forward Swept Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    One source of noise in high tip speed turbofan engines, caused by shocks, is called multiple pure tone noise (MPT's). A new fan, called the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), showed reduced noise over the part speed operating range, which includes MPT's. The QHSF showed improved performance in most respects relative to a baseline fan; however, a partspeed instability discovered during testing reduced the operating range below acceptable limits. The measured QHSF adiabatic efficiency on the fixed nozzle acoustic operating line was 85.1 percent and the baseline fan 82.9 percent, a 2.2 percent improvement. The operating line pressure rise at design point rotational speed and mass flow was 1.764 and 1.755 for the QHSF and baseline fan, respectively. Weight flow at design point speed was 98.28 lbm/sec for the QHSF and 97.97 lbm/sec for the baseline fan. The operability margin for the QHSF approached 0 percent at the 75 percent speed operating condition. The baseline fan maintained sufficient margin throughout the operating range as expected. Based on the stage aerodynamic measurements, this concept shows promise for improved performance over current technology if the operability limitations can be solved.

  2. Spectral decomposition of the aerodynamic noise generated by rotating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovì, Alessandro; Cattanei, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A method is posed for separating the noise emitted by an aerodynamic source from propagation effects using spectral decomposition. This technique is applied to the power spectra of a fan measured at several rotational speeds. Although it has been conceived for rotating sources as turbomachinery rotors, the method may be easily applied to low speed stationary sources such as jets and flows in stators and about isolated airfoils. Based on the similarity theory, a clear description of the structure of the power spectrum of the received noise is given and the effect of rotational speed variations is considered as a means to obtain a data set suitable to perform the spectral decomposition. The problem is analyzed in order to clarify possibilities and limitations of the method and then an algorithm is presented which is based on the solution of the derived equations. Particular care is devoted to both the numerical details and the operative aspects. The validation of the algorithm is performed by means of numerically generated input data. Next, in order to verify the ability of the method in separating scattered from emitted sound, an automotive cooling fan has been tested in the DIMSET hemi-anechoic room in a free-field configuration and with a shielded microphone. These two apparently distinct spectra collapse to within less than 2 dB after the spectral decomposition has been performed. The tests prove the ability of the method despite the modest quantity of input data.

  3. Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong

    2012-09-01

    How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.

  4. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  5. On aerodynamic noises radiated by the pantograph system of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Hua; Li, Jia-Chun; Zhang, Hui-Qin

    2013-06-01

    Pantograph system of high-speed trains become significant source of aerodynamic noise when travelling speed exceeds 300 km/h. In this paper, a hybrid method of non-linear acoustic solver (NLAS) and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy is used to predict the aerodynamic noise of pantograph system in this speed range. When the simulation method is validated by a benchmark problem of flows around a cylinder of finite span, we calculate the near flow field and far acoustic field surrounding the pantograph system. And then, the frequency spectra and acoustic attenuation with distance are analyzed, showing that the pantograph system noise is a typical broadband one with most acoustic power restricted in the medium-high frequency range from 200 Hz to 5 kHz. The aerodynamic noise of pantograph systems radiates outwards in the form of spherical waves in the far field. Analysis of the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) at different speeds exhibits that the acoustic power grows approximately as the 4th power of train speed. The comparison of noise reduction effects for four types of pantograph covers demonstrates that only case 1 can lessen the total noise by about 3 dB as baffles on both sides can shield sound wave in the spanwise direction. The covers produce additional aerodynamic noise themselves in the other three cases and lead to the rise of OASPLs.

  6. Reduction of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by a Bluff-Shaped Pantograph Head Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishige, Hiroaki; Minobe, Takayuki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Masahiro

    With an increase in the maximum speed of Shinkansen trains, it becomes imperative to resolve aerodynamic and aeroacoustic problems related to pantographs. Hence, some methods based on flow control have been studied to improve the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic characteristics. In this study, the authors attempted to control the flow around a pantograph by using synthetic jets. The results of numerical and experimental tests indicate that the synthetic jets can stabilize the flow around the bluff-shaped pantograph head, thus resulting in a reduction in aerodynamic noise.

  7. Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab

    2013-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200

  8. Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise and Airload Prediction Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.

  9. Effects of Nozzle Geometry and Intermittent Injection of Aerodynamic Tab on Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Shiga, Seiichi; Obokata, Tomio

    Effects of the nozzle geometry and intermittent injection of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for an HST (Hypersonic transport) is planned. A 1/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle is manufactured, and the noise reduction performance of aerodynamic tabs, which is small air jet injection from the nozzle wall, was investigated. Compressed air is injected through the rectangular plug nozzle into the atmosphere at the nozzle pressure ratio of 2.7, which corresponds to the take-off condition of the vehicle. Aerodynamic tabs were installed at the sidewall ends, and 4 kinds of round nozzles and 2 kinds of wedge nozzles were applied. Using a high-frequency solenoid valve, intermittent gas injection is also applied. It is shown that, by use of wedge nozzles, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL (Overall sound pressure level), decreases by 29% when compared with round nozzles. It is also shown that, by use of intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL, decreases by about 40% when compared with steady injection. By combination of wedge nozzles and intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate significantly decreases by 57% when compared with the conventional strategy.

  10. Diagnostic techniques for measurement of aerodynamic noise in free field and reverberant environment of wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Sum, H. M. A.; Mawardi, O. K.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques for studying aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms without disturbing the flow in a free field, and in the reverberation environment of the ARC wind tunnel were investigated along with the design and testing of an acoustic antenna with an electronic steering control. The acoustic characteristics of turbojet as a noise source, detection of direct sound from a source in a reverberant background, optical diagnostic methods, and the design characteristics of a high directivity acoustic antenna. Recommendations for further studies are included.

  11. Influence of separated vortex on aerodynamic noise of an airfoil blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Soichi; Takamatsu, Hajime; Tsujino, Masao; Tsubota, Haruhiro; Hayashi, Hidechito

    2010-02-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism by which aerodynamic noise is generated from separated flow around an airfoil blade, the relation between the attack angle and the aerodynamic noise of the blade was analyzed using a wind tunnel experiment and a CFD code. In the case of rear surface separation, the separated vortex which has a large-scale structure in the direction of the blade chord is transformed into a structure that concentrates at the trailing edge with an increase in the attack angle. The aerodynamic noise level then becomes small according to the vortex scale in the blade chord. When the flow is separated at the leading edge, a separated vortex of low pressure is formed at the vicinity of the trailing edge. The pressure fluctuations on the blade surface at the vicinity of the trailing edge become large due to the vortex in the wake. It is considered that the aerodynamic noise level increases when the flow is separated at the leading edge because the separated vortex is causing the fluctuations due to wake vortex shedding.

  12. Experiments on the aerodynamic noise sources in centrifugal turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Thompson, Donald E.; Choi, Jong-Soo

    1990-10-01

    Flow induced noise generation mechanisms in a centrifugal turbomachine are investigated in this study. To isolate the noise generation mechanisms of interest, a simplified discharge configuration was selected. The unsteady flowfield discharging from the rotating impeller has been measured with stationary hot-wire sensors. A space and time cross-correlation technique using two stationary hot-wire sensors was developed to simulate a rotating hot-wire measurement. The simulated auto-spectrum of the discharged velocity shows a similar pattern to that observed in the spectrum from an impeller mounted rotating pressure sensor. Experimental results demonstrate how the unsteady flow in the impeller passages, modulated by a mild rotating stall pattern, interacts with the trailing edge of the impeller blades, and generates noise.

  13. Radiation from a double layer jet. [aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, R.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic radiation caused by two acoustic point sources located symmetrically on the sides of a double layer jet which produces a velocity discontinuity was examined, with attention given to the effect on the sound by the stream. Basic equations were defined in terms of wave propagation in the fluid in motion and a Fourier transformation. It was found that the radiation due to a point source on one side of the jet is enhanced by the presence of sound transmitted from the other side. The effect is expressed as a function of the reflection coefficient, wherein the reflections take place at the vortex interfaces separating the fluid in motion from the fluid at rest. The intensity patterns were determined to be kidney-shaped, lung-shaped, and heart-shaped, and characterized by a deep valley in the directivity pattern. The significance of the findings for STOL aircraft ejector thrust augmentation is mentioned.

  14. Effects of Aerodynamic Tabs onExhaust Noise from a Rectangular Plug Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Shiga, Seiichi; Obokata, Tomio

    Effects of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Explanation Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for the 1st stage propulsion of a TSTO (Two stage to orbit) is planned. In the present study, a 1/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle for the pre-cooled turbojet engine is manufactured and the exhaust noise characteristics were investigated. Compressed air is injected through the rectangular plug nozzle into the atmosphere. The nozzle pressure ratio was set at 2.7, which corresponds to the take-off condition of the vehicle. Aerodynamic tabs were installed at the ramp end (Upper AT), the cowl end (Lower AT) and the sidewall end (Side AT). The SPL (Sound pressure level) was measured with a high-frequency microphone. Without AT, the sound spectrum has a broadband peak at which the SPL is around 105dB. For Lower and Side ATs, the OASPL (Overall SPL) of the exhaust noise decreases, especially around ramp end. At the maximum, the OASPL was reduced by 2.4dB with about 2% loss of the main jet total pressure at the cowl exit. It is shown that the aerodynamic tabs are effective in noise reduction in a rectangular plug nozzle.

  15. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  16. Prediction of aerodynamic noise in a ring fan based on wake characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Soichi; Fukuda, Masaharu; Tsujino, Masao; Tsubota, Haruhiro

    2011-06-01

    A ring fan is a propeller fan that applies an axial-flow impeller with a ring-shaped shroud on the blade tip side. In this study, the entire flow field of the ring fan is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD); the accuracy of the CFD is verified through a comparison with the aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller fan of current model. Moreover, the aerodynamic noise generated by the fan is predicted on the basis of the wake characteristics. The aerodynamic characteristic of the ring fan based on CFD can represent qualitatively the variation in the measured value. The main flow domain of the ring fan is formed at the tip side of the blade because blade tip vortex is not formed at that location. Therefore, the relative velocity of the ring fan is increased by the circumferential velocity. The sound pressure levels of the ring fan within the frequency band of less than 200 Hz are larger than that of the propeller fan. In the analysis of the wake characteristics, it revealed that Karman vortex shedding occurred in the main flow domain in the frequency domain lower than 200 Hz; the aerodynamic noise of the ring fan in the vortex shedding frequency enlarges due to increase in the relative velocity and the velocity fluctuation.

  17. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  18. Follow-on Low Noise Fan Aerodynamic Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidegger, Nathan J.; Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of the project was to investigate the effects of turbulence models on the prediction of rotor wake structures. The Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis (ADPAC) code was modified through the incorporation of the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. Suitable test cases were solved numerically using ADPAC employing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model and another prediction code for comparison. A near-wall spacing study was also completed to determine the adequate spacing of the first computational cell off the wall. Solutions were also collected using two versions of the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in ADPAC. The effects of the turbulence model on the rotor wake definition was examined by obtaining ADPAC solutions for the Low Noise Fan rotor-only steady-flow case using the standard algebraic Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, a modified version of the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results from the three different turbulence modeling techniques were compared with each other and the available experimental data. These results include overall rotor performance, spanwise exit profiles, and contours of axial velocity taken along constant axial locations and along blade-to-blade surfaces. Wake characterizations were also performed on the experimental and ADPAC predicted results including the definition of a wake correlation function. Correlations were evaluated for wake width and wake depth. Similarity profiles of the wake shape were also compared between all numerical solutions and experimental data.

  19. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper implementation of injecting flow at/near the trailing edge as a wake filling strategy. However, data do support the notion that noise reductions can be realized not only for tones but perhaps more importantly, also for broadband. Furthermore, the technique can be implemented without adversely effecting overall fan aerodynamic performance.

  20. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 2: Aerodynamic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data from static tests of a two-stage advanced technology fan designed to minimize noise are presented. Fan design conditions include delivery of 209.1kg/sec/sq m (42.85 lbm/sec/sq ft) specific corrected flow at an overall pressure ratio of 1.9 and an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent. The 0.836m (2.74ft) diameter first stage rotor has a hub/tip ratio of 0.4 and 365.8m/sec (1200ft/sec) design tip speed. In addition to the moderate tip speed and pressure rise per stage, other noise control design features involve widely spaced blade rows and proper selection of blade-vane ratios. Aerodynamic data are presented for tests with unifrom and with hub and tip radially distorted inlet flow. Aerodynamic data are also presented for tests of this fan with acoustic treatments, including acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic ring, and a translating centerbody sonic inlet device. A complete tabulation of the overall performance data, the blade element data, and the power spectral density information relating to turbulence levels generated by the sonic inlet obtained during these tests is included. For vol. 1, see N74-33789.

  1. Study of aerodynamic noise in low supersonic operation of an axial flow compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldi, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A study of compressor noise is presented, based upon supersonic, part-speed operation of a high hub/tip ratio compressor designed for spanwise uniformity of aerodynamic conditions, having straight cylindrical inlet and exit passages for acoustic simplicity. Acoustic spectra taken in the acoustically-treated inlet plenum, are presented for five operating points at each of two speeds, corresponding to relative rotor tip Mach numbers of about 1.01 and 1.12 (60 and 67 percent design speed). These spectra are analyzed for low and high frequency broadband noise, blade passage frequency noise, combination tone noise and "haystack' noise (a very broad peak somewhat below blade passage frequency, which is occasionally observed in engines and fan test rigs). These types of noise are related to diffusion factor, total pressure ratio, and relative rotor tip Mach number. Auxiliary measurements of fluctuating wall static pressures and schlieren photographs of upstream shocks in the inlet are also presented and related to the acoustic and performance data.

  2. Numerical investigation of tandem-cylinder aerodynamic noise and its control with application to airframe noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltaweel, Ahmed

    Prediction and reduction of airframe noise are critically important to the development of quieter civil transport aircraft. The key to noise reduction is a full understanding of the underlying noise source mechanisms. In this study, tandem cylinders in cross-flow as an idealization of a complex aircraft landing gear configuration are considered to investigate the noise generation and its reduction by flow control using single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators. The flow over tandem cylinders at ReD = 22, 000 with and without plasma actuation is computed using large-eddy simulation. The plasma effect is modeled as a body force obtained from a semi-empirical model. The flow statistics and surface pressure frequency spectra show excellent agreement with previous experimental measurements. For acoustic calculations, a boundary-element method is implemented to solve the convected Lighthill equation. The solution method is validated in a number of benchmark problems including flows over a cylinder, a rod-airfoil configuration, and a sphere. With validated flow field and acoustic solver, acoustic analysis is performed for the tandem-cylinder configuration to extend the experimental results and understand the mechanisms of noise generation and its control. Without flow control, the acoustic field is dominated by the interaction between the downstream cylinder and the upstream wake. Through suppression of vortex shedding from the upstream cylinder, the interaction noise is reduced drastically by the plasma flow control, and the vortex-shedding noise from the downstream cylinder becomes equally important. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.2, the peak sound pressure level is reduced by approximately 16 dB. This suggests the viability of plasma actuation for active control of airframe noise. The numerical investigation is extended to the noise from a realistic landing gear experimental model. Coarse-mesh computations are performed, and preliminary results are discussed with a view of future directions.

  3. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression: Plume, Aerodynamic and Acoustic Data. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Baker, V. David; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft per s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASE's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude and also noise in the reference frame of the nozzle. This volume is divided into three parts: in the first two parts, we collate the plume survey data in graphical form (line, contour and surface plots) and analyze it; in part 3, we tabulate the aerodynamic data for the acoustics tests and the acoustic data in one-third octave band levels.

  4. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression Acoustic and Aerodynamic Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Boyd, Kathleen (Technical Monitor); Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft/s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASK's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude. Sound in the nozzle reference frame was analyzed to understand the source characteristics. Several new concepts, mechanisms and methods are reported for such lobed mixers, such as, "boomerang" scallops, "tongue" mixer, detection of "excess" internal noise sources, and extrapolation of flyover noise data from one flight speed to different flight speeds. Noise reduction of as much as 3 EPNdB was found with a deeply scalloped mixer compared to annular nozzle at net thrust levels of 9500 lb for a 29 in. diameter nozzle after optimizing the nozzle length.

  5. Unified Aeroacoustics Analysis for High Speed Turboprop Aerodynamics and Noise. Volume 1; Development of Theory for Blade Loading, Wakes, and Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.

  6. Aerodynamic and noise measurements on a quasi-two dimensional augmentor wing model with lobe-type nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the static, wind-on aerodynamic and static noise characteristics of an augmentor wing having lobe type nozzles. The study was made in the Ames 7-by 10-Foot No. 1 Wind Tunnel using a small-scale, quasi-two-dimensional model. Several configurations of lobe nozzles as well as a normal slot nozzle were tested. Results indicate that lobe nozzles offer improved static and wind-on aerodynamics and reduced static noise relative to slot nozzles. Best wind-on performance was obtained when the tertiary gap was closed even though the static thrust augmentation was maximum with the gap open. Static thrust augmentation, wind-on lift and drag, and static noise directivity are presented as well as typical static and wind-on exit velocity profiles, surface pressure distributions and noise spectrums. The data are presented with limited discussion.

  7. Analysis of aerodynamic field and noise of a small wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, Mihai Leonida; Cojocaru, Marius Gabriel; Pricop, Mihai Victor

    2012-11-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbine will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, nowadays, the noise emissions from wind turbines represent one of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. Moreover, the energetic efficiency of these wind turbines has to be high even at low and medium wind velocities because, usually the cities are not windy places. The numerical results clearly show that the wakes after the trailing edge are the main noise sources. In order to decrease the power of these noise sources, we should try to decrease the intensity of wakes after the trailing edge, i.e. the aerodynamic fields from pressure and suction sides would have to be almost the same near trailing edge. Furthermore, one observes a strong link between transport (circumferential) velocity and acoustic power level, i.e. if the transport velocity increases, the acoustic power level also augments.

  8. Interaction of aerodynamic noise with laminar boundary layers in supersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopper, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction between incoming aerodynamic noise and the supersonic laminar boundary layer is studied. The noise field is modeled as a Mach wave radiation field consisting of discrete waves emanating from coherent turbulent entities moving downstream within the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. The individual disturbances are likened to miniature sonic booms and the laminar boundary layer is staffed by the waves as the sources move downstream. The mean, autocorrelation, and power spectral density of the field are expressed in terms of the wave shapes and their average arrival rates. Some consideration is given to the possible appreciable thickness of the weak shock fronts. The emphasis in the interaction analysis is on the behavior of the shocklets in the noise field. The shocklets are shown to be focused by the laminar boundary layer in its outer region. Borrowing wave propagation terminology, this region is termed the caustic region. Using scaling laws from sonic boom work, focus factors at the caustic are estimated to vary from 2 to 6 for incoming shocklet strengths of 1 to .01 percent of the free stream pressure level. The situation regarding experimental evidence of the caustic region is reviewed.

  9. Effects of aerodynamic interaction between main and tail rotors on helicopter hover performance and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.

  10. Inlet noise on 0.5-meter-diameter NASA QF-1 fan as measured in an unmodified compressor aerodynamic test facility and in an anechoic chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.; Soltis, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Narrowband analysis revealed grossly similar sound pressure level spectra in each facility. Blade passing frequency (BPF) noise and multiple pure tone (MPT) noise were superimposed on a broadband (BB) base noise. From one-third octave bandwidth sound power analyses the BPF noise (harmonics combined), and the MPT noise (harmonics combined, excepting BPF's) agreed between facilities within 1.5 db or less over the range of speeds and flows tested. Detailed noise and aerodynamic performance is also presented.

  11. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 1: Aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Younghans, J. L.; Little, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec 11,650 ft/sec). The fan and booster components are designed in a scale model flow size convenient for testing with existing facility and vehicle hardware. The design corrected flow per unit annulus area at the fan face is 215 kg/sec sq m (44.0 lb m/sec sq ft) with a hub-tip ratio of 0.38 at the leading edge of the fan rotor. This results in an inlet corrected airflow of 117.9 kg/sec (259.9 lb m/sec) for the selected rotor tip diameter if 90.37 cm (35.58 in.). The variable geometry inlet is designed utilizing a combination of high throat Mach number and acoustic treatment in the inlet diffuser for noise suppression (hybrid inlet). A variable fan exhaust nozzle was assumed in conjunction with the variable inlet throat area to limit the required area change of the inlet throat at approach and hence limit the overall diffusion and inlet length. The fan exit duct design was primarily influenced by acoustic requirements, including length of suppressor wall treatment; length, thickness and position on a duct splitter for additional suppressor treatment; and duct surface Mach numbers.

  12. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 3: Application of theory for blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the predictions with data from tests at NASA-Lewis. Steady aerodyanmic performance, unsteady blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing and boundary layer shielding are examined.

  13. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  14. Experimental study of the aerodynamic noise radiated by cylinders with different cross-sections and yaw angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre Iglesias, E.; Thompson, D. J.; Smith, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Vortex shedding from cylinders has been extensively studied due to its occurrence in many engineering fields. Many experimental studies reported in the literature focus on the aerodynamics of the vortex shedding process but the literature about the radiated noise is more scarce. The aim of the work presented here is to extend the available noise data. Aero-acoustic wind tunnel tests were carried out using cylinders with different cross-sections: circular, square, rectangular and elliptical. Flow speeds between 20 and 50 m/s were used, corresponding to Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.6×104 to 1.2×105. The dependence of the noise on the yaw angle, flow speed, cross-sectional shape, angle of attack and radiation angle (directivity) is assessed. The results obtained are compared, where possible, with those found in the literature for similar cases. It is intended that the results can be used for the validation and calibration of numerical and empirical aerodynamic noise prediction models.

  15. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  16. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from the smallest to the largest nozzle was 12.9 percent of the baseline nozzle area. The results will show that there are significant changes in aerodynamic performance and farfield acoustics as the fan nozzle area is increased. The weight flow through the fan model increased between 7 and 9 percent, the fan and stage pressure dropped between 8 and 10 percent, and the adiabatic efficiency increased between 2 and 3 percent--the magnitude of the change dependent on the fan speed. Results from force balance measurements of fan and outlet guide vane thrust will show that as the nozzle exit area is increased the combined thrust of the fan and outlet guide vanes together also increases, between 2 and 3.5 percent, mainly due to the increase in lift from the outlet guide vanes. In terms of farfield acoustics, the overall sound power level produced by the fan stage dropped nearly linearly between 1 dB at takeoff condition and 3.5 dB at approach condition, mainly due to a decrease in the broadband noise levels. Finally, fan swirl angle survey and Laser Doppler Velocimeter mean velocity and turbulence data obtained in the fan wake will show that the swirl angles and turbulence levels within the wake decrease as the fan nozzle area increases, which helps to explain the drop in the fan broadband noise at all fan speeds.

  17. Aerodynamic Noise Radiated by the Intercoach Spacing and the Bogie of a High-Speed Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FRÉMION, N.; VINCENT, N.; JACOB, M.; ROBERT, G.; LOUISOT, A.; GUERRAND, S.

    2000-03-01

    Full-scale acoustic experiments on a TGV are performed with on-board measurement techniques. Some spectral characteristics of the intercoach spacing and the bogie region are highlighted and interpreted. Two measurement techniques are described; they both extract the acoustical information of a particular aerodynamic source from the signal given by a flow imbedded probe.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by a Train-Car Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Fumio; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Takeshi; Kato, Chisachi; Iida, Akiyoshi

    To investigate the mechanism of noise generation by a train-car gap, which is one of a major source of noise in Shinkansen trains, experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel using a 1/5-scale model train. We measured velocity profiles of the boundary layer that approaches the gap and confirmed that the boundary layer is turbulent. We also measured the power spectrum of noise and surface pressure fluctuations around the train-car gap. Peak noise and broadband noise were observed. It is found that strong peak noise is generated when the vortex shedding frequency corresponds to the acoustic resonance frequency determined by the geometrical shape of the gap, and that broadband noise is generated at the downstream edge of the gap where vortexes collide. It is estimated that the convection velocity of the vortices in the gap is approximately 45% of the uniform flow velocity.

  19. The role of the helical jet mode in aerodynamic noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The helical jet mode is modeled by an infinite helical vortex filament, and an exact analytical solution for the induced velocity field interior to the filament is derived. These expressions are then used to model the jet flow field and to analyze the high subsonic and supersonic jet noise generation. It is shown that noise will be generated directly if the helical mode convects or rotates. Reducing this noise by stabilizing the mode is difficult, since the self-induced velocities of the mode itself cause it to convect and rotate; the use of noncircular nozzles is suggested to eliminate the symmetry of the boundary condition. The helical mode can also generate noise indirectly by inducing time-dependent Coriolis accelerations on small-scale turbulence propagating in its induced velocity field. This suggests that any upstream turbulence generation has an enhanced potential for noise propagation when propagating in the presence of the helical mode.

  20. Experimental investigation of aerodynamic noise production of valves by measurements within the connecting pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, L.; Felsch, K. O.

    The mechanism of noise production was studied, varying volumetric velocity, pressure drop, and valve shape and size. The separation of sound and pseudosound is realized by extensive investigation of correlation functions. The noise spectra are characteristic for the shape of the valve. The highest sound pressure at the dominating Strouhal number is a proportion of the pressure drop and the square of mean velocity in the slot. The sound power is predicted by hot wire analysis of the Lighthill tensor.

  1. Influence of diffuser on aerodynamic noise of a forward curved fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Soichi; Suzuki, Kota; Onomichi, Yuta; Hayashi, Hidechito

    2013-10-01

    In order to clarify the influence of a diffuser on the characteristics of a forward curved fan, the influence of the bare ratio and the outlet angle on the characteristics of the fan were measured through an experiment performed with an actual fan as well as through a numerical simulation, respectively. The mechanism of the discrete frequency noise generated by the separated flow of the diffuser was analyzed. The optimized bare ratio was approximately 17%. The flow separated inside of the diffuser generated discrete frequency noise owing to the interaction between the reversed flow from the diffuser and the impeller rotating at the blade passing frequency. The diffuser outlet angle influenced the pressure ratio more than that by the bare ratio. Furthermore, it was confirmed that restraining the separation in the diffuser effectively decreases the fan noise.

  2. Toward Affordable, Theory-and-Simulation-Inspired, Models for Realistic Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Alabi, Ken; Li, Wenhai

    2015-11-01

    The problem of generating design data for the operation of a farm of wind turbines for clean energy production is quite complicated, if properly done. Potential flow theories provide some models, but these are not suitable for the massive aerodynamic separation and turbulence that characterize many realistic wind turbine applications. Procedures, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can potentially resolve some of the accuracy problems with the purely theoretical approach, are quite expensive to use, and often prohibit real-time design and control. In our work, we seek affordable and acceptably-accurate models derived from the foregoing approaches. The simulation used in our study is based on high-fidelity CFD, meaning that we use high-order (compact-scheme based), mostly large-eddy simulation methods, with due regards for the proper treatment of the stochastic inflow turbulence data. Progress on the project described herein will be presented.

  3. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 2: Development of theory for wing shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiet, R. K.

    1991-05-01

    A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.

  4. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 2: Development of theory for wing shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amiet, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.

  5. High frequency green function for aerodynamic noise in moving media. I - General theory. II - Noise from a spreading jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown how a high frequency analysis can be made for general problems involving flow-generated noise. In the parallel shear flow problem treated by Balsa (1976) and Goldstein (1982), the equation governing sound propagation in the moving medium could be transformed into a wave equation for a stationary medium with an inhomogeneous index of refraction. It is noted that the procedure of Avila and Keller (1963) was then used to construct a high frequency Green function. This procedure involves matching a solution valid in an inner region around the point source to an outer, ray-acoustics solution. This same procedure is used here to construct the Green function for a source in an arbitrary mean flow. In view of the fact that there is no restriction to parallel flow, the governing equations cannot be transformed into a wave equation; the analysis therefore proceeds from the equations of motion themselves.

  6. Simulation of Turbine Tone Noise Generation Using a Turbomachinery Aerodynamics Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2010-01-01

    As turbofan engine bypass ratios continue to increase, the contribution of the turbine to the engine noise signature is receiving more attention. Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. As proof-of-concept for this approach, two highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flow field inside the first stage of a modern high-pressure turbine were carried out. The simulations were computed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes code capable of multi-stage simulations. Spectral and modal analysis of the unsteady pressure data from the numerical simulation of the turbine stage show a circumferential modal distribution that is consistent with the Tyler-Sofrin rule. Within the high-pressure turbine, the interaction of velocity, pressure and temperature fluctuations with the downstream blade rows are all possible tone noise source mechanisms. We have taken the initial step in determining the source strength hierarchy by artificially reducing the level of temperature fluctuations in the turbine flowfield. This was accomplished by changing the vane cooling flow temperature in order to mitigate the vane thermal wake in the second of the two simulations. The results indicated that, despite a dramatic change in the vane cooling flow, the computed modal levels changed very little indicating that the contribution of temperature fluctuations to the overall pressure field is rather small compared with the viscous and potential field interaction mechanisms.

  7. Two stage low noise advanced technology fan. 1: Aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, H. E.; Ruschak, J. T.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A two-stage fan was designed to reduce noise 20 db below current requirements. The first-stage rotor has a design tip speed of 365.8 m/sec and a hub/tip ratio of 0.4. The fan was designed to deliver a pressure ratio of 1.9 with an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent at a specific inlet corrected flow of 209.2kg/sec/sq m. Noise reduction devices include acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic splitter, a translating centerbody sonic inlet device, widely spaced blade rows, and the proper ratio of blades and vanes. Multiple-circular-arc rotor airfoils, resettable stators, split outer casings, and capability to go to close blade-row spacing are also included.

  8. Aerodynamic performance investigation of advanced mechanical suppressor and ejector nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, C. D.; Bediako, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced Supersonic Transport jet noise may be reduced to Federal Air Regulation limits if recommended refinements to a recently developed ejector shroud exhaust system are successfully carried out. A two-part program consisting of a design study and a subscale model wind tunnel test effort conducted to define an acoustically treated ejector shroud exhaust system for supersonic transport application is described. Coannular, 20-chute, and ejector shroud exhaust systems were evaluated. Program results were used in a mission analysis study to determine aircraft takeoff gross weight to perform a nominal design mission, under Federal Aviation Regulation (1969), Part 36, Stage 3 noise constraints. Mission trade study results confirmed that the ejector shroud was the best of the three exhaust systems studied with a significant takeoff gross weight advantage over the 20-chute suppressor nozzle which was the second best.

  9. On the precise implications of acoustic analogies for aerodynamic noise at low Mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.

    2013-05-01

    We seek a clear statement of the scaling which may be expected with rigour for transportation or other noise at low Mach numbers M, based on Lighthill's and Curle's theories of 1952 and 1955. In the presence of compact solid bodies, the leading term in the acoustic intensity is of order M6. Contrary to the belief held since that time that it is of order M8, the contribution of quadrupoles, in the presence of dipoles, is of order only M7. Retarded-time-difference effects are also of order M7. Curle's widely used approximation based on unsteady forces neglects both effects. Its order of accuracy is thus lower than was thought, and the common estimates of the value of M below which it applies appear precarious. The M6 leading term is modified by powers up to the fourth of (1-Mr), where Mr is the relative Mach number between source and observer; at speeds of interest the effect is several dB. However, this is only one of the corrections of order M7, which makes its value debatable. The same applies to the difference between emission distance and reception distance. The scaling with M6 is theoretically correct to leading order, but this prediction may be so convincing, like the M8 scaling for jet noise, that some authors rush to confirm it when their measurements are in conflict with it. We survey experimental studies of landing-gear noise, and argue that the observed power of M is often well below 6. We also object to comparisons across Mach numbers at fixed frequency; they should be made at fixed Strouhal number St instead. Finally, the compact-source argument does not only require M≪1; it requires MSt≪1. This is more restrictive if the relevant St is well above 1, a situation which can be caused by interference with a boundary or by wake impingement, among other effects. The best length scales to define St for this purpose are discussed.

  10. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menthe, R. W.; McColgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.

    1991-05-01

    The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.

  11. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menthe, R. W.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.

  12. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

  13. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 5: Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of tone noise propagation through a boundary layer and fuselage scattering effects was derived. This analysis is a three dimensional and the complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The outer wave field is constructed analytically from an incident wave appropriate to the source and a scattered wave in the standard Hankel function form. For the incident wave, an existing function - domain propeller noise radiation theory is used. In the boundary layer region, the wave equation is solved by numerical methods. The theoretical analysis is embodied in a computer program which allows the calculation of correction factors for the fuselage scattering and boundary layer refraction effects. The effects are dependent on boundary layer profile, flight speed, and frequency. Corrections can be derived for any point on the fuselage, including those on the opposite side from the source. The theory was verified using limited cases and by comparing calculations with available measurements from JetStar tests of model prop-fans. For the JetStar model scale, the boundary layer refraction effects produce moderate fuselage pressure reinforcements aft of and near the plane of rotation and significant attenuation forward of the plane of rotation at high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds, the calculated boundary layer effects result in moderate amplification over the fuselage area of interest. Apparent amplification forward of the plane of rotation is a result of effective changes in the source directivity due to boundary layer refraction effects. Full scale effects are calculated to be moderate, providing fuselage pressure amplification of about 5 dB at the peak noise location. Evaluation using available noise measurements was made under high-speed, high-altitude flight conditions. Comparisons of calculations made of free field noise, using a current frequency-domain propeller noise prediction method, and fuselage effects using this new procedure show good agreement with fuselage measurements over a wide range of flight speeds and frequencies. Correction factors for the JetStar measurements made on the fuselage are provided in an Appendix.

  14. The Aeroacoustics and Aerodynamics of High-Speed Coanda Devices, Part 2: Effects of Modifications for Flow Control and Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, P. W.; Smith, C.

    1997-12-01

    The paper describes two studies of the effects of flow control devices on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of a high-speed Coanda flow that is formed when a supersonic jet issues from a radial nozzle and adheres to a tulip-shaped body of revolution. Shadowgraphy and other flow-visualization techniques are used to reveal the various features of the complex flow fields. The acoustic characteristics are obtained from far- and near-field measurements with an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber. First the effects of incorporating a step between the annular exit slot and the Coanda surface are investigated. The step is incorporated to ensure that the breakaway pressure is raised to a level well above the maximum operating pressure. It substantially increases the complexity of the flow field and acoustic characteristics. In particular, it promotes the generation of two groups of discrete tones. A theoretical model based on a self-generated feedback loop is proposed to explain how these tones are generated. The second study investigates the effects of replacing the annular exit slot with a saw-toothed one with the aim of eliminating the discrete tones and thereby substantially reducing the level of noise generated.

  15. Single-stage, low-noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 4: Fan aerodynamics. Section 1: Results and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Silverman, I.; Little, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Test results at design speed show fan total pressure ratio, weight flow, and adiabatic efficiency to be 2.2, 2.9, and 1.8% lower than design goal values. The hybrid acoustic inlet (which utilizes a high throat Mach number and acoustic wall treatment for noise suppression) demonstrated total pressure recoveries of 98.9% and 98.2% at takeoff and approach. Exhaust duct pressure losses differed between the hardwall duct and treated duct with splitter by about 0.6% to 2.0% in terms of fan exit average total pressure (depending on operating condition). When the measured results were used to estimate pressure losses, a cruise sfc penalty of 0.68%, due to the acoustically treated duct, was projected.

  16. An experimental investigation of Curle's theory of aerodynamic noise generation by a stationary body in a turbulent air stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bies, David Alan

    2004-12-01

    Bies et al. (J. Sound Vib. 204(4) (1997) 631) investigated Curle's theory (Proc. R. Soc. Ser. A 231 (1955) 505) published in 1955 over a wide range of flow speeds from about 50-200 m/s and found only partial agreement with the experimental data. Here the experimental investigation has been repeated allowing the data to be recorded in a format amenable to analysis, which was not previously possible. Reintroduction of a term neglected by Curle has been found necessary as Curle's compact source condition ensures so low a radiation impedance that the effect cannot be detected in the jet background noise. The reintroduction of the term, which has been neglected, allows his analysis to include radiation from sources not compact but less than half a wavelength in characteristic dimension. It is shown that the power ratio defined as the measured sound power divided by Curle's amended prediction converges to about 3 whereas Curle predicts that the power ratio should converge to 1 as the wave number converges to zero. The introduction of the empirically determined constant 3 into Curle's prediction brings the measurements into very good agreement with prediction over the entire range of the non-dimensional wave numbers from about 0.4 to 3.2.

  17. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-05-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  18. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  19. Aerodynamic performance of 0.5 meter-diameter, 337 meter-per-second tip speed, 1.5 pressure-ratio, single-stage fan designed for low noise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Overall and blade-element aerodynamic performance of a 0.271-scale model of QF-1 are presented, examined, and then compared and evaluated with that from similar low noise fan stage designs. The tests cover a wide range of speeds and weight flows along with variations in stator setting angle and stator axial spacing from the rotor. At design speed with stator at design setting angle and a fixed distance between stage measuring stations, there were no significant effects of increasing the axial spacing between rotor stator from 1.0 to 3.5 rotor chords on stage overall pressure ratio, efficiency or stall margin.

  20. Noise Trends of a 0.5 M (20 In.) Diameter Supersonic Throughflow Fan as Measured in an Unmodified Compressor Aerodynamic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.; Moore, Royce D.

    1993-01-01

    The tone noise levels of a supersonic throughflow fan were measured at subsonic and supersonic axial duct Mach numbers. The noise in the inlet plenum showed no blade passing and harmonic tones at subsonic or supersonic axial flow conditions. At subsonic axial flow conditions, the supersonic throughflow fan showed no inlet plenum tones at fan operating conditions where tone noise had been previously measured for a subsonic fan design. This lower inlet-quadrant noise level for the supersonic throughflow fan was the result of high subsonic inlet velocities acting to reduce the noise propagating out the inlet. The fan noise, which was prevented from propagating upstream by the high subsonic inlet velocities, appeared to increase the noise in the exhaust duct at subsonic throughflow conditions. The exhaust duct noise decreased at supersonic axial throughflow Mach numbers, with the lowest blade passing and harmonic tones levels being observed at the design axial Mach number of 2.0. Multiple pure tone noise was observed in the inlet duct at subsonic axial flow Mach numbers but was seen only in the exhaust duct at supersonic axial flow conditions.

  1. Noise Control of High Speed Shinkansen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritoh, Y.; Zenda, Y.; Nagakura, K.

    1996-05-01

    A review of Shinkansen noise and methods for its control is given. In the process of controlling the noise, it has been found that many types of noise are generated from various parts of cars and other installations. These include rolling noise, bridge structure noise, pantograph spark noise, pantograph aerodynamic noise, other aerodynamic noise and gear noise. The countermeasures to reduce the individual noise are described. In order to control wayside noise, we must know the contribution of each noise element. For this purpose, "microphone array" and "parabola microphone" measurements are made. The methods of treatment of the data obtained by this measuring equipment are shown, and the amount of noise generated from the individual noise source is estimated. When the train speed increases, the contribution of aerodynamic noise becomes large. It will be considerably reduced if the surface of cars is smooth. Finally, we deduce the least possible noise values of Shinkansen, on the basis of the results obtained so far.

  2. Computational aerodynamics and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the progress in computational aerodynamics over the last decade is reviewed. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans are described.

  3. Coupled 2-dimensional cascade theory for noise and unsteady aerodynamics of blade row interaction in turbofans. Volume 1: Theory development and parametric studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is concluded that the new features of this analysis - unsteady coupling, frequency scattering, and flow turning between rotor and stator - have a profound effect on noise generation caused by rotor/stator interaction. Treating rotors and stators as isolated cascades is not adequate for noise analysis and prediction.

  4. Aerodynamic Design of Road Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Guidebook discusses design of road vehicles to reduce aerodynamic drag. Book presents strategy for integrating aerodynamic design into vehicle design. Book written for readers lacking experience in aerodynamics.

  5. Fluid-structure interaction and aerodynamics damping; Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise, Cincinnati, OH, September 10-13, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Au-Yang, M. K.

    1985-09-01

    The response of a two-layer elastic coating to pressure disturbances from a turbulent boundary layer is considered along with the application of the finite element method in the calculation of transmission loss of flat and curved panels, the application of various solution techniques to the calculation of transonic flutter boundaries, and noise transmission of double wall composite shells. Other topics explored are related to chaotic behavior of a simple single-degree-of-freedom system, the entrainment of self-sustained flow oscillations, the effects of strong shock loading on coupled bending-torssion flutter of tuned and mistuned cascades, and turbulent buffeting of a multispan tube bundle. Attention is given to the dynamics of heat exchangers U-bend tubes with flat bar supports, a review of flow induced vibration of two circular cylinders in crossflow, the avoidance of leakage flow-induced vibration by a tube-in-tube slip joint, random load from multiple sources and its assessment, and wake-induced vibration of a conductor in the wake of another via a 3-D finite element method.

  6. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  7. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  8. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  9. Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

  10. Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accommodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

  11. Wind-turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1980-05-01

    The aerodynamics of wind turbines is reviewed starting with effects of lift and drag on translating devices and proceeding through the performance aerodynamics of the horizontal-axis and vertical-axis machines currently in service. Horizontal-axis rotor aerodynamics is outlined and the performance limits are presented along with key assumptions and problem areas. The Darrieus rotor multiple streamtube analysis is developed and compared with fixed and free wake analyses for an idealized case.

  12. High-lift aerodynamics: Prospects and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    The emergence of high-lift aerodynamics is reviewed as one of the key technologies to the development of future subsonic transport aircraft. Airport congestion, community noise, economic competitiveness, and safety - the drivers that make high-lift an important technology - are discussed. Attention is given to the potentially synergistic integration of high-lift aerodynamics with two other advanced technologies: ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engines and hybrid laminar flow control. A brief review of the ongoing high-lift research program at Ames Research Center is presented. Suggestions for future research directions are made with particular emphasis on the development and validation of computational codes and design methods. It is concluded that the technology of high-lift aerodynamics analysis and design should move boldly into the realm of high Reynolds number, three-dimensional flows.

  13. Modeling Aerodynamically Generated Sound of Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and dipole source terms of the FW-H equation account for the thickness and loading noise, respectively. Bladevortex-interaction noise and broadband noise are important types of loading noise, hence much research has been directed toward the accurate modeling of these noise mechanisms. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H equation has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparisons of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems. Finally, significant progress has been made incorporating the rotor noise models into full vehicle noise prediction tools.

  14. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.

  15. Unsteady transonic aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, D.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.

  16. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  17. Iced-airfoil aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Broeren, A. P.; Blumenthal, L. A.

    2005-07-01

    Past research on airfoil aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the time period after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This article identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For each class, the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are discussed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are summarized.

  18. HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.

  19. Aerodynamic technology opportunities for a high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored study has undertaken the definition of SST and HST configurations resulting in substantial reductions relative to current technology in takeoff gross weight, sonic boom overpressures, and airport-vicinity propulsion and aerodynamic noise. CFD methods have been applied to vehicle-shaping and laminar boundary layer flow area-maximizing configurational studies. Various planforms and active boundary-layer control methods are considered. Computer-managed wing control surface deflections are identified as substantial contributors to wing aerodynamic load and structural weight reduction, while correcting undesirable aerodynamic-pitching characteristics.

  20. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  1. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  2. Aerodynamic aspects of shock containing jet plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, J. M.; Norum, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements of shock-free and shock-containing plumes were acquired for several supersonic free-jet model nozzles. The purpose was to investigate important features of the broadband shock noise generation process. The aerodynamic measurements include the variation of shock cell spacing and strength as a function of nozzle pressure ratio, and longitudinal turbulent-mass-flux axial development as determined by a hot-film probe. In addition, correlations of the hot-film probe with a near-field microphone were obtained. These measurements provide useful information concerning the relation of peak shock noise frequency and level with variations in shock cell spacing and strength. In general, it is shown that a distinction must be made between plumes containing weak and strong imbedded shocks. Strong shocks diminish the level of emitted shock noise and influence the behavior of the jet mixing noise process. The probable location and spectral content for the shock-shear layer interaction mechanism is indicated by the correlations. Numerical inviscid plume comparisons with experimental data are also included.

  3. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  4. The Effects of Surfaces on the Aerodynamics and Acoustics of Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew J.; Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft noise mitigation is an ongoing challenge for the aeronautics research community. In response to this challenge, low-noise aircraft concepts have been developed that exhibit situations where the jet exhaust interacts with an airframe surface. Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces manifest a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. In this paper, the variation of the aerodynamics, acoustic source, and far-field acoustic intensity are examined as a large at plate is positioned relative to the nozzle exit. Steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions are examined to study the aerodynamic changes in the field-variables and turbulence statistics. The mixing noise model of Tam and Auriault is used to predict the noise produced by the jet. To validate both the aerodynamic and the noise prediction models, results are compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and free-field acoustic data respectively. The variation of the aerodynamic quantities and noise source are examined by comparing predictions from various jet and at plate configurations with an isolated jet. To quantify the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects on the aerodynamic noise source, a non-dimensional number is formed that contains the flow-conditions and airframe installation parameters.

  5. Propeller noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the actual noise prediction, based on data from the first group. Deterministic predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are made using Farassat's time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by the semi-empirical Schlinker-Amiet method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressures include the effects of boundary layer refraction and (for a cylinder) scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects. Experimental data from subsonic and transonic propellers are compared and NASA's future direction is propeller noise technology development are indicated.

  6. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

    2000-01-01

    Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

  7. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  8. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  9. High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

  10. CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

  11. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  12. Computational aerodynamics and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348

  13. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica; Simley, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  14. Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.

  15. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  16. Aerodynamics Improve Wind Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, V. W.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications based on aerodynamic concepts would raise efficiency of wind-wheel electric-power generator. Changes smooth airflow, to increase power output, without increasing size of wheel. Significant improvements in efficiency anticipated without any increase in size or number of moving parts and without departing from simplicity of original design.

  17. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual: Rotorcraft System Noise Prediction System (ROTONET), part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald S.; Jumper, Stephen J.; Burley, Casey L.; Golub, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the theoretical methods used in the rotorcraft noise prediction system (ROTONET), which is a part of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The ANOPP code consists of an executive, database manager, and prediction modules for jet engine, propeller, and rotor noise. The ROTONET subsystem contains modules for the prediction of rotor airloads and performance with momentum theory and prescribed wake aerodynamics, rotor tone noise with compact chordwise and full-surface solutions to the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equations, semiempirical airfoil broadband noise, and turbulence ingestion broadband noise. Flight dynamics, atmosphere propagation, and noise metric calculations are covered in NASA TM-83199, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

  18. Noise constraints effecting optimal propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary design tool for advanced propellers was developed combining a fast vortex lattice aerodynamic analysis, a fast subsonic point source noise analysis, and an optimization scheme using a conjugate directions method. Twist, chord and sweep distributions are optimized to simultaneously improve both the aerodynamic performance and the noise observed at a fixed relative position. The optimal noise/performance tradeoffs for straight and advanced concept blades are presented. The techniques used include increasing the blade number, blade sweep, reducing the rotational speed, shifting the spanwise loading and diameter changes.

  19. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  20. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  1. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

  2. Static Aerodynamic Performance Investigation of a Fluid Shield Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balan, C.; Askew, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    In pursuit of an acoustically acceptable, high performance exhaust system capable of meeting Federal Aviation Regulation 36 Stage 3 noise goals for the High Speed Civil Transport application, General Electric Aircraft Engines conducted a design study to incorporate a fluid shield into a 36-chute suppressor exhaust-nozzle system. After a full scale preliminary mechanical design of the resulting fluid shield exhaust system, scale model aerodynamic performance tests and acoustic tests were conducted to establish both aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics. Data are presented as thrust coefficients, discharge coefficients, chute-base pressure drags, and plug static pressure distributions.

  3. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  4. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.

  5. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-03-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  6. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  7. The Airframe Noise Reduction Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA goal of reducing external aircraft noise by 10 dB in the near-term presents the acoustics community with an enormous challenge. This report identifies technologies with the greatest potential to reduce airframe noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic effects will be discussed, along with the likelihood of industry accepting and implementing the different technologies. We investigate the lower bound, defined as noise generated by an aircraft modified with a virtual retrofit capable of eliminating all noise associated with the high lift system and landing gear. However, the airframe noise of an aircraft in this 'clean' configuration would only be about 8 dB quieter on approach than current civil transports. To achieve the NASA goal of 10 dB noise reduction will require that additional noise sources be addressed. Research shows that energy in the turbulent boundary layer of a wing is scattered as it crosses trailing edge. Noise generated by scattering is the dominant noise mechanism on an aircraft flying in the clean configuration. Eliminating scattering would require changes to much of the aircraft, and practical reduction devices have yet to receive serious attention. Evidence suggests that to meet NASA goals in civil aviation noise reduction, we need to employ emerging technologies and improve landing procedures; modified landing patterns and zoning restrictions could help alleviate aircraft noise in communities close to airports.

  8. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  9. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  10. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  11. Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.

  12. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  13. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  14. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  15. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements

  16. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  17. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue cost effectively, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended, leading to an effort by NASA to examine the potential for small-fan noise reduction by improving fan aerodynamic design. As a preliminary part of that effort, the aerodynamics of a cabin ventilation fan designed by Hamilton Sundstrand has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics codes, and the computed solutions analyzed to quantify various aspects of the fan aerodynamics and performance. Four simulations were performed at the design rotational speed: two at the design flow rate and two at off-design flow rates. Following a brief discussion of the computational codes, various aerodynamic- and performance-related quantities derived from the computed flow fields are presented along with relevant flow field details. The results show that the computed fan performance is in generally good agreement with stated design goals.

  18. Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

  19. Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

  20. On the design and test of a low noise propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of noise and performance of general aviation propellers was performed. Research was done in three areas: The acoustic and aerodynamic theory of general aviation propellers, wind tunnel tests of three one-quarter scale models of general aviation propellers, and flight test of two low noise propellers. The design and testing of the second propeller is reviewed. The general aerodynamic considerations needed to design a new propeller are described. The design point analysis of low noise propellers is reviewed. The predicted and measured noise levels are compared.

  1. Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamics of Thin Airfoils with Porosity Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajian, Rozhin; Jaworski, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    Porous treatments have been shown in previous studies to reduce turbulence noise generation from the edges of wings and blades. However, this acoustical benefit can come at the cost of aerodynamic performance that is degraded by seepage flow through the wing. To better understand the trade-off between acoustic stealth and the desired airfoil performance, the aerodynamic loads of a thin airfoil in uniform flow with a prescribed porosity distribution are determined analytically in closed form, provided that the distribution is Hölder-continuous. The theoretical model is extended to include unsteady heaving and pitching motions of the airfoil section, which has applications to the performance estimation of biologically-inspired swimmers and fliers and to the future assessment of vortex noise production from porous airfoils.

  2. Wavy-Planform Helicopter Blades Make Less Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    Wavy-planform rotor blades for helicopters have been investigated for the first time in an effort to reduce noise. Two of the main sources of helicopter noise are blade/vortex interaction (BVI) and volume displacement. (The noise contributed by volume displacement is termed thickness noise.) The reduction in noise generated by a wavyplanform blade, relative to that generated by an otherwise equivalent straight-planform blade, affects both main sources: (1) the BVI noise is reduced through smoothing and defocusing of the aerodynamic loading on the blade and (2) the thickness noise is reduced by reducing gradients of thickness with respect to listeners on the ground.

  3. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  4. Low Noise Exhaust Nozzle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Balan, C.; Mengle, V.; Brausch, J. F.; Shin, H.; Askew, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry have been assessing the economic viability and environmental acceptability of a second-generation supersonic civil transport, or High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Development of a propulsion system that satisfies strict airport noise regulations and provides high levels of cruise and transonic performance with adequate takeoff performance, at an acceptable weight, is critical to the success of any HSCT program. The principal objectives were to: 1. Develop a preliminary design of an innovative 2-D exhaust nozzle with the goal of meeting FAR36 Stage III noise levels and providing high levels of cruise performance with a high specific thrust for Mach 2.4 HSCT with a range of 5000 nmi and a payload of 51,900 lbm, 2. Employ advanced acoustic and aerodynamic codes during preliminary design, 3. Develop a comprehensive acoustic and aerodynamic database through scale-model testing of low-noise, high-performance, 2-D nozzle configurations, based on the preliminary design, and 4. Verify acoustic and aerodynamic predictions by means of scale-model testing. The results were: 1. The preliminary design of a 2-D, convergent/divergent suppressor ejector nozzle for a variable-cycle engine powered, Mach 2.4 HSCT was evolved, 2. Noise goals were predicted to be achievable for three takeoff scenarios, and 3. Impact of noise suppression, nozzle aerodynamic performance, and nozzle weight on HSCT takeoff gross weight were assessed.

  5. Noise Reduction Through Circulation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.; Englar, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Circulation control technology uses tangential blowing around a rounded trailing edge or a leading edge to change the force and moment characteristics of an aerodynamic body. This technology has been applied to circular cylinders, wings, helicopter rotors, and even to automobiles for improved aerodynamic performance. Only limited research has been conducted on the acoustic of this technology. Since wing flaps contribute to the environmental noise of an aircraft, an alternate blown high lift system without complex mechanical flaps could prove beneficial in reducing the noise of an approaching aircraft. Thus, in this study, a direct comparison of the acoustic characteristics of high lift systems employing a circulation control wing configuration and a conventional wing flapped configuration has been made. These results indicate that acoustically, a circulation control wing high lift system could be considerably more acceptable than a wing with conventional mechanical flaps.

  6. Noise Generation in Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Kenzakowski, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    A prediction method based on the generalized acoustic analogy is presented, and used to evaluate aerodynamic noise radiated from high speed hot jets. The set of Euler equations are split into their respective non-radiating and residual components. Under certain conditions, the residual equations are rearranged to form a wave equation. This equation consists of a third-order wave operator, plus a number of nonlinear terms that are identified with the equivalent sources of sound and their statistical characteristics are modeled. A specialized RANS solver provides the base flow as well as turbulence quantities and temperature fluctuations that determine the source strength. The main objective here is to evaluate the relative contribution from various source elements to the far-field spectra and to show the significance of temperature fluctuations as a source of aerodynamic noise in hot jets.

  7. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  8. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... here: EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be ... epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information ...

  9. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be immediately ... gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information Where ...

  10. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  11. Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Allan E.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems is examined. It is presumed that the underlying model can be arranged into an input/output (I/O) differential operator equation of a generic form. The algorithm estimation is especially efficient since the equation error can be integrated exactly given any I/O pair to obtain an algebraic function of the parameters. The algorithm for parameter identification was extended to the order determination problem for linear differential system. The degeneracy in a least squares estimate caused by feedback was addressed. A method of frequency analysis for determining the transfer function G(j omega) from transient I/O data was formulated using complex valued Fourier based modulating functions in contrast with the trigonometric modulating functions for the parameter estimation problem. A simulation result of applying the algorithm is given under noise-free conditions for a system with a low pass transfer function.

  12. Effect of chevrons on the slat noise of straight and swept wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Kopiev, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study of the airframe noise for small-scale wing models with high-lift devices (slat and flap) is performed. It is shown that installation of chevrons on the lower edge of a slat leads to noise reduction on both straight and swept wings. Simultaneous acoustic and aerodynamic measurements show that chevrons lead to suppression of the slat tonal noise components without significantly affecting the wing aerodynamics.

  13. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  14. Dynamic soaring: aerodynamics for albatrosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio L/D, albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant L/D. Analytic solutions to the simplified equations provide an instructive and appealing example of fixed-wing aerodynamics suitable for undergraduate demonstration.

  15. Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.

  16. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  17. Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

  18. Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Chung K.

    2000-11-01

    The presentation will review recent advances in the understanding of the structure, dynamics, and geometry of stretched, nonequidiffusive, laminar premixed flames, as exemplified by the unsteady propagation of wrinkled flames in nonuniform flow fields. It is first shown that by considering the effects of aerodynamic stretch on the flame structure, and by allowing for mixture nonequidiffusion, the flame responses, especially the flame propagation speed, can be quantitatively as well as qualitatively modified from the idealized planar limit. Subsequently, by treating the flame as a level surface propagating with the stretch-affected flame speed, problems of increasing complexity are presented to illustrate various features of flame propagation. The illustration first treats the flame as a structureless surface propagating into a constant-density combustible with a constant velocity * the laminar flame speed, and demonstrates the phenomena of cusp formation and volumetric burning rate augmentation through flame wrinkling. By using the stretch-affected flame speed, we then describe the phenomena of cusp broadening as well as tip opening of the Bunsen flame. Finally, by allowing for the density jump across the flame surface, a unified dispersion relation is derived for the intrinsic hydrodynamic, body-force, and nonequidiffusive modes of flame

  19. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  20. Probabilistic Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Probabilistic CFD design is needed because we are asked to do more with less. To cost effectively accomplish the design task, we need to formally quantify the effect of uncertainties (variables) in the design. Probabilistic design is one effective method to formally quantify the effect of uncertainties. Our objective is to establish a revolutionary new early design process, by developing non-deterministic physics-based probabilistic design tools, which will include all the life cycle processes. This work was concerned with the usefulness of parametric optimization method coupled with a Navier-Stokes analysis code for the aero-thermodynamic design of turbomachinery combustor liner. The interconnection between the CFD code and NESSUS codes will facilitate the coupling between the thermal profiles and structural design. We have developed new concepts for reducing the computational cost of unsteady, three-dimensional, compressible aerodynamic analyses for multistage turbomachinery flows. The flow was modeled by the three-dimensional Favre-Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the k-E turbulence closure, which was integrated using an implicit third-order upwind solver. The methodology developed in this work is expected to lead to the design optimization of turbomachinery blades.

  1. Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Paul G

    2007-10-15

    The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used. PMID:17519203

  2. Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

  3. Noise Considerations for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, David A.; Mayes, William H.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1960-01-01

    Noise measurements pertaining mainly to the static firing, launch, 0 and exit flight phases are presented for three rocket-powered vehicles 4 in the Project Mercury test program. Both internal and external data 4 from onboard recordings are presented for a range of Mach numbers and dynamic pressures and for different external vehicle shapes. The main sources of noise are noted to be the rocket engines during static firing and launch and the aerodynamic boundary layer during the high-dynamic-pressure portions of the flight. Rocket-engine noise measurements along the surface of the Mercury Big Joe vehicle were noted to correlate well with data from small models and available data for other large rockets. Measurements have indicated that the aerodynamic noise pressures increase approximately as the dynamic pressure increases and may vary according to the external shape of the vehicle, the highest noise levels being associated with conditions of flow separation. There is also a trend for the aerodynamic noise spectra to peak at higher frequencies as the flight Mach number increases.

  4. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 1: FanB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Acoustical tests of full scale fans for jet engines are presented. The fans are described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of one third octave band analysis are presented in tabular form. Power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels are included.

  5. Obtaining absolute acoustic spectra in an aerodynamic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alexander R.; Dowling, Ann P.; Graham, W. R.; Babinsky, H.

    2011-05-01

    Cost effective methods for identifying and reducing sources of noise have become essential in the design of many modern transport vehicles. Whilst closed-section wind tunnels can readily evaluate aerodynamic performance, obtaining accurate acoustic spectra is often a major challenge because of the poor signal to noise ratios available. In this paper, methods of obtaining absolute spectra from the non-acoustically treated Markham wind tunnel at the University of Cambridge are discussed. Initial measurements with a small monopole source compare well with simulations and show that it is possible to obtain similar spectra from two nested acoustic arrays. However, a series of further experiments with simplified landing gear models show very different spectra from each array. By comparing measurements with simulations, it is shown that negative side lobes affect beamforming source maps. Measurements of an 'empty tunnel' cross spectral matrix allow the removal of sidelobes, providing much greater consistency between spectra. Finally, a dipole beamforming vector is used to account for the directivity of the landing gear noise, leading to good agreement between absolute spectra from the differently sized arrays. This analysis demonstrates that data from a phased array in a hard-walled, aerodynamic wind tunnel can provide meaningful acoustic spectra from low-noise models.

  6. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  7. Tandem cylinder aerodynamic sound control using porous coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanru; Azarpeyvand, Mahdi; Wei, Jinjia; Qu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with the application of porous coatings as a passive flow control method for reducing the aerodynamic sound from tandem cylinders. The aim here is to perform a parametric proof-of-concept study to investigate the effectiveness of porous treatment on bare tandem cylinders to control and regularize the vortex shedding and flow within the gap region between the two bluff bodies, and thereby control the aerodynamic sound generation mechanism. The aerodynamic simulations are performed using 2D transient RANS approach with k - ω turbulence model, and the acoustic computations are carried out using the standard Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy. Numerical flow and acoustic results are presented for bare tandem cylinders and porous-covered cylinders, with different porosities and thicknesses. Experimental flow and acoustic data are also provided for comparison. Results show that the proper use of porous coatings can lead to stabilization of the vortex shedding within the gap region, reduction of the vortex shedding interaction with the downstream body, and therefore the generation of tonal and broadband noise. It has also been observed that the magnitude and the frequency of the primary tone reduce significantly as a result of the flow regularization. The proposed passive flow-induced noise and vibration control method can potentially be used for other problems involving flow interaction with bluff bodies.

  8. An Assessment of NASA Glenn's Aeroacoustic Experimental and Predictive Capabilities for Installed Cooling Fans. Part 1; Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Koch, L. Danielle; Wernet, Mark P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    Driven by the need for low production costs, electronics cooling fans have evolved differently than the bladed components of gas turbine engines which incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Drawing upon NASA Glenn's experience in the measurement and prediction of gas turbine engine aeroacoustic performance, tests have been conducted to determine if these tools and techniques can be extended for application to the aerodynamics and acoustics of electronics cooling fans. An automated fan plenum installed in NASA Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory was used to map the overall aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a spaceflight qualified 80 mm diameter axial cooling fan. In order to more accurately identify noise sources, diagnose performance limiting aerodynamic deficiencies, and validate noise prediction codes, additional aerodynamic measurements were recorded for two operating points: free delivery and a mild stall condition. Non-uniformities in the fan s inlet and exhaust regions captured by Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, and rotor blade wakes characterized by hot wire anemometry measurements provide some assessment of the fan aerodynamic performance. The data can be used to identify fan installation/design changes which could enlarge the stable operating region for the fan and improve its aerodynamic performance and reduce noise emissions.

  9. Jet noise classical theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, G. M.

    1991-08-01

    Lighthill's theory of aerodynamic noise is presented as the foundation on which to build all other theories of aerodynamic noise. The application of the Lighthill acoustic analogy to the estimation of the characteristics of the noise radiated from the jets is central. Attention is given to the assumptions on which the Lighthill acoustic analogy is based and it is shown why the theory gives results different from experiment when flow-acoustic interaction occurs. The details of flow-acoustic interaction are invariably unavailable to provide the necessary fine adjustments to the Lighthill source function to render it such that the noise radiation as calculated is exact. The alternative approaches to the understanding of aerodynamic noise theory are discussed. The emphasis is placed on the flow-acoustic interaction and such theories as are required to complement the results obtained by application of Lighthill's acoustic analogy. The authors discuss some of the dominant features of the mean flow and the turbulent structure of a jet as a guide to modeling the T sub ij four-order covariance, which is central to applications involving Lighthill's acoustic analogy. The results obtained from the acoustic analogy model are compared with experimental data obtained by application of the polar correlation technique to both a model-scale jet and a full-scale jet engine. The relatively close agreement is evidence that the flow field data are pertinent to the description of the acoustic analogy model. A brief description is given of attempts to reduce jet noise without incurring an undue penalty in the loss of nozzle efficiency. Finally, the importance of good, reliable, and accurate experimental data in all studies of aerodynamic noise is stressed.

  10. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  11. Unsteady aerodynamic analyses for turbomachinery aeroelastic predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, M.; Ayer, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Applications for unsteady aerodynamics analysis in this report are: (1) aeroelastic: blade flutter and forced vibration; (2) aeroacoustic: noise generation; (3) vibration and noise control; and (4) effects of unsteadiness on performance. This requires that the numerical simulations and analytical modeling be accurate and efficient and contain realistic operating conditions and arbitrary modes of unsteady excitation. The assumptions of this application contend that: (1) turbulence and transition can be modeled with the Reynolds averaged and using Navier-Stokes equations; (2) 'attached' flow with high Reynolds number will require thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations, or inviscid/viscid interaction analyses; (3) small-amplitude unsteady excitations will need nonlinear steady and linearized unsteady analyses; and (4) Re to infinity will concern inviscid flow. Several computer programs (LINFLO, CLT, UNSVIS, AND SFLOW-IVI) are utilized for these analyses. Results and computerized grid examples are shown. This report was given during NASA LeRC Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery in August of 1993.

  12. Noise suppression by flexible fan silencers

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, J.; Kelly, T.R.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results on noise testing of a fan only, as well as the results of a steel silencer and of flexible silencers that were connected directly to a fan. On-site facilities and free-field method set by the British Standards Institution were used to measure and then compare the fan only and different practical silencer configuration setups. In order to determine the fan-silencer combination that would give the maximum noise attenuation, total noise intensity, noise contributed to by the fan motor only, as well as aerodynamical noise created through air interacting with the fan parts were considered to obtain decibel readings for the octave bands. Subsequently, the optimal configuration found was the setup with flexible silencers on the fan inlet and the fan outlet. If only one silencer is used, it should be installed on the fan inlet. The aerodynamic noise affects the low frequencies. The flow noise is then overtaken at 1 kHz by the mechanical noise.

  13. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  14. Unsteady aerodynamics of vortical flows: Early and recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of aerodynamic theories of streaming motions around bodies with unsteady vortical and entropic disturbances is reviewed. The basic concepts associated with such motions, their interaction with solid boundaries and their noise generating mechanisms are described. The theory was first developed in the approximation wherein the unsteady flow is linearized about a uniform mean lfow. This approach has been extensively developed and used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic calculations. The theory was recently extended to account for the effect of distortion of the incident disturbances by the nonuniform mean flow around the body. This effect is found to have a significant influence on the unsteady aerodynamic force along the body surface and the sound radiated in the far field. Finally, the nonlinear characteristics of unsteady transonic flows are reviewed and recent results of linear and nonlinear computations are presented.

  15. Aerodynamic Design and Computational Analysis of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue in a cost-effective way, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended. Toward that end, NASA has begun to investigate the potential for small-fan noise reduction through improvements in fan aerodynamic design. Using tools and methodologies similar to those employed by the aircraft engine industry, most notably computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the aerodynamic design of a new cabin ventilation fan has been developed, and its aerodynamic performance has been predicted and analyzed. The design, intended to serve as a baseline for future work, is discussed along with selected CFD results

  16. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.; Intrieri, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive series of ballistic range tests are currently being conducted at the Ames Research Center. These tests are intended to investigate the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of two basic configurations, which are: the blunt-cone Galileo probe which is scheduled to be launched in late 1989 and will enter the atmosphere of Jupiter in 1994, and a generic slender cone configuration to provide experimental aerodynamic data including good flow-field definition which computational aerodynamicists could use to validate their computer codes. Some of the results obtained thus far are presented and work for the near future is discussed.

  17. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  18. Noise Generation of BLADE-VORTEX Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEUNG, R. C. K.; SO, R. M. C.

    2001-08-01

    A numerical study of the aerodynamic noise generated when an airfoil/blade in a uniform flow is excited by an oncoming vortical flow is reported. The vortical flow is modelled by a series of flow convected discrete vortices representative of a Karman vortex street. Such noise generation problems due to fluid-blade interaction occur in helicopter rotor and turbomachinery blades. Interactions with both rigid and elastic airfoil/blade are considered. Under a vortical excitation, aerodynamic resonance of the airfoil/blade at certain excitation frequencies is found to occur and loading noise is generated due to the fluctuations of the aerodynamic loading on the airfoil/blade. For an elastic blade, due the occurrence of structural resonance incited by the flow-induced vibration of the airfoil/blade, a stronger loading noise is generated. The associated thickness effect due to the airfoil/blade vibration is extremely weak. The magnitude of the noise was found to depend on the frequency of the oncoming vortical flow and the geometry and rigidity of the blade.

  19. Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping

    2005-01-01

    This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear noise prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field noise, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear noise, both for parametric trends and for absolute noise levels. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in absolute noise levels.

  20. Wind induced interior and far field radiated exterior noise from automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, W.

    Aerodynamically induced interior noise in passenger cars was investigated. Surface pressure and resulting interior noise were measured on a full-scale automobile in wind tunnel tests. Both quantities are interrelated theoretically; corresponding interior noise predictions are compared to measured data. Results show that high surface-pressure originating even from highly localized flow separations on the car-body tend to dominate interior noise. Far field noise radiation from exterior flow/car-body interaction is predicted and compared to measured data.

  1. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  2. Diagnostic calculations of airframe-radiated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Kadman, Y.; Bliss, D. B.; Africk, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of calculating airframe noise due to the following components are presented: wings and stabilizers, flaps, landing gear 'self-noise', landing gear bay (wheel well) oscillations, separated flow interaction with edges of cavities, and doors associated with gear deployment. The predominant source mechanisms were dipole-like in nature, being related to the local fluctuating aerodynamic forces on struts, airfoil edges, cavity edges, etc. Available data are converted into semiempirical prediction methods to enable a tentative rank ordering of noise sources. A sample application of these prediction procedures is carried out for a typical CTOL passenger jet using actual aircraft parameters, where available.

  3. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to capture the complete decay in the spanwise correlation, thereby producing reasonable noise radiation levels.

  4. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  5. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

  6. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  7. Nostril Aerodynamics of Scenting Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, G. S.

    1997-11-01

    Dogs and other scenting animals detect airborne odors with extraordinary sensitivity. Aerodynamic sampling plays a key role, but the literature on olfaction contains little on the external aerodynamics thereof. To shed some light on this, the airflows generated by a scenting dog were visualized using the schlieren technique. It was seen that the dog stops panting in order to scent, since panting produces a turbulent jet which disturbs scent-bearing air currents. Inspiratory airflow enters the nostrils from straight ahead, while expiration is directed to the sides of the nose and downward, as was found elsewhere in the case of rats and rabbits. The musculature and geometry of the dog's nose thus modulates the airflow during scenting. The aerodynamics of a nostril which must act reversibly as both inlet and outlet is briefly discussed. The eventual practical goal of this preliminary work is to achieve a level of understanding of the aerodynamics of canine olfaction sufficient for the design of a mimicking device. (Research supported by the DARPA Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Neutralization Program.)

  8. Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

  9. Shuttle reentry aerodynamic heating test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, J. E.; Mccormick, P. O.; Smith, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    The research for determining the space shuttle aerothermal environment is reported. Brief summaries of the low Reynolds number windward side heating test, and the base and leeward heating and high Reynolds number heating test are included. Also discussed are streamline divergence and the resulting effect on aerodynamic heating, and a thermal analyzer program that is used in the Thermal Environment Optimization Program.

  10. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  11. Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified

  12. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  13. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

  14. Semianalytic modeling of aerodynamic shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.; Adams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    Equations for the semianalytic representation of a class of surfaces that vary smoothly in cross-sectional shape are presented. Some methods of fitting together and superimposing such surfaces are described. A brief discussion is also included of the application of the theory in various contexts such as computerized lofting of aerodynamic surfaces and grid generation.

  15. Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.

    2002-01-01

    Ohio State University developed a new spectrally filtered light-scattering apparatus based on a diode laser injected-locked titanium: sapphire laser and rubidium vapor filter at 780.2 nm. When the device was combined with a stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirror, the realizable peak attenuation of elastic scattering interferences exceeded 105. The potential of the system was demonstrated by performing Thomson scattering measurements. Under USAF-NASA funding, West Virginia University developed a Doppler global velocimetry system using inexpensive 8-bit charged coupled device cameras and digitizers and a CW argon ion laser. It has demonstrated a precision of +/- 2.5 m/sec in a swirling jet flow. Low-noise silicon-micromachined microphones developed and incorporated in a novel two-tier, hybrid packaging scheme at the University of Florida used printed circuit board technology to realize a MEMS-based directional acoustic array. The array demonstrated excellent performance relative to conventional sensor technologies and provides scaling technologies that can reduce cost and increase speed and mobility.

  16. Airfoil self noise - Effect of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Marcolini, M. A.

    1983-04-01

    Key data from a comprehensive airfoil broadband self-noise study are reported. Attention here is restricted to two-dimensional sharp trailing-edge models. The models include seven NACA 0012 airfoil sections and five 'flat plate' sections with chordlengths ranging from 2.54 to 60.96 cm. Testing parameters include flow velocity, angle of attack to the flow, and boundary layer turbulence through natural transition and through tripping. Detailed aerodynamic measurements, of pertinence to the scaling problem of airfoil self-noise, were conducted in the near-wake of the trailing edges. Presented are mean and rms turbulent velocity profiles as well as boundary layer thicknesses and integral thickness parameters for a large range of conditions. The noise spectra of the self-noise sources were determined by the use of a cross-spectral technique. The spectra were normalized using the measured aerodynamic parameters in order to evaluate the most common scaling law now in use. An examination of the Reynolds number dependence of the overall self-noise levels has revealed a new and useful scaling result. This result appears to quantify the transition between turbulent-boundary-layer trailing edge noise and laminar-boundary-layer vortex shedding noise.

  17. Landing gear noise control using perforated fairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorsma, K.; Zhang, X.; Molin, N.

    2010-05-01

    Landing gears of commercial aircraft make an important contribution to total aircraft noise in the approach configuration. Using fairings to shield components from high speed impingement reduces noise. Furthermore, perforating these fairings has been confirmed by flight tests to further enable noise reduction. Following an earlier fundamental study of the application of perforated fairings, a study has been performed to investigate and optimize the benefits of bleeding air through landing gear fairings. By means of wind tunnel tests, an aerodynamic and acoustic survey has been performed on a simplified generic main landing gear to explore the influence of (perforated) fairings on the lower part of the gear. The results show that for this specific case, the application of impermeable fairings reduces noise in the mid- and high frequency range by shielding sharp edged components from high velocity impingement. However, below 1 kHz the noise is shown to increase significantly. Application of the perforations is shown to diminish this low frequency increase whilst maintaining the reduction in the mid- and high frequency range. The aerodynamic and acoustic measurements point in the direction of the separated flow of the fairings interacting with the downstream gear components responsible for the low frequency noise increase. Bleeding of the air through the fairings reduces the large scale turbulence in the proximity of these components and hence diminishes the low frequency noise increase.

  18. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  19. The directivity of railway noise at different speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuetao

    2010-12-01

    For a sound source, directivity is an important parameter to specify. This parameter also reflects the physical feature of the sound generation mechanism. In this article, studies on the directivity of railway noise, by measurement and by theoretical investigation, are discussed extensively and systematically. The two most important noise types, i.e. rolling noise and aerodynamic noise, are focused on. A model of perpendicular dipole pair is proposed to interpret the measurement specified directivity characters of wheel/rail radiation. This model naturally explains why a vibrating railway wheel does not present dipole directivity character and why rail radiation is of different vertical and horizontal directivity characters. Moreover pantograph noise is also found to be of perpendicular dipole components. As for aerodynamic noise around bogies, scattering of the air flow is proposed to be the mechanism of the noise generation; this understanding leads to a different directivity description for the noise component. Directivities of other important noise types are discussed as well; their directivities become understood, although lacking of relevant directivity data. In summary, this study provides applicable directivity functions together with a survey of the directivities of all important railway noise types and components. Hopefully, this work will be useful, for railway noise engineering also contribute to understand better railway noise.

  20. Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1990-01-01

    The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

  1. Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Daniel V.

    Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited quasi-steady effects caused by small variations in the angle of attack. The quasi-steady effects, or small unsteady effects, caused variations in the aerodynamic characteristics (particularly incrementing the lift curve), and the magnitude of the influence depended on the angle-of-attack rate. In addition to nominal gliding flight, MAVs in general are capable of flying over a wide flight envelope including agile maneuvers such as perching, hovering, deep stall and maneuvering in confined spaces. From the captured motion trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics during the numerous unsteady flights were gathered without the complexity required for unsteady wind tunnel tests. Experimental results for the MAVs show large flight envelopes that included high angles of attack (on the order of 90 deg) and high angular rates, and the aerodynamic coefficients had dynamic stall hysteresis loops and large values. From the large number of unsteady high angle-of-attack flights, an aerodynamic modeling method was developed and refined for unsteady MAV flight at high angles of attack. The method was based on a separation parameter that depended on the time history of the angle of attack and angle-of-attack rate. The separation parameter accounted for the time lag inherit in the longitudinal characteristics during dynamic maneuvers. The method was applied to three MAVs and showed general agreement with unsteady experimental results and with nominal gliding flight results. The flight tests with the MAVs indicate that modern motion tracking systems are capable of capturing the flight trajectories, and the captured trajectories can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. From the captured trajectories, low Reynolds number MAV flight is explored in both nominal gliding flight and unsteady high angle-of-attack flight. Building on the experimental results, a modeling method for the longitudinal characteristics is developed that is applicable to the full flight envelope.

  2. Numerical and experimental study on aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan with splitter blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lifu; Jin, Yingzi; Li, Yi; Jin, Yuzhen; Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Li

    2013-08-01

    To improve the aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan, in this paper the design of a small axial flow fan with splitter blades is studied. The RNG k-ɛ turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm were applied to the steady simulation calculation of the flow field, and its result was used as the initial field of the large eddy simulation to calculate the unsteady pressure field. The FW-H noise model was adopted to predict aerodynamic noise in the six monitoring points. Fast Fourier transform algorithm was applied to process the pressure signal. Experiment of noise testing was done to further investigate the aerodynamic noise of fans. And then the results obtained from the numerical simulation and experiment were described and analyzed. The results show that the static characteristics of small axial fan with splitter blades are similar with the prototype fan, and the static characteristics are improved within a certain range of flux. The power spectral density at the six monitoring points of small axial flow fan with splitter blades have decreased to some extent. The experimental results show sound pressure level of new fan has reduced in most frequency bands by comparing with prototype fan. The research results will provide a proof for parameter optimization and noise prediction of small axial flow fans with high performance.

  3. Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

  4. Measurement of noise and its correlation to performance and geometry of small aircraft propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štorch, Vít; Nožička, Jiří; Brada, Martin; Gemperle, Jiří; Suchý, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    A set of small model and UAV propellers is measured both in terms of aerodynamic performance and acoustic noise under static conditions. Apart from obvious correlation of noise to tip speed and propeller diameter the influence of blade pitch, blade pitch distribution, efficiency and shape of the blade is sought. Using the measured performance data a computational model for calculation of aerodynamic noise of propellers will be validated. The range of selected propellers include both propellers designed for nearly static conditions and propellers that are running at highly offdesign conditions, which allows to investigate i.e. the effect of blade stall on both noise level and performance results.

  5. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  6. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  7. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

  8. Unsteady aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Ellington, C P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, the importance of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms for flapping insect flight has become widely recognised. Even at the fastest flight speeds, the old quasi-steady aerodynamic interpretation seems inadequate to explain the extra lift produced by the wings. Recent experiments on rigid model wings have confirmed the effectiveness of several postulated high-lift mechanisms. Delayed stall can produce extra lift for several chords of travel during the translational phases of the wingbeat. Lift can also be enhanced by circulation created during pronation and supination by rotational mechanisms: the fling/peel, the near fling/peel and isolated rotation. These studies have revealed large leading-edge vortices which contribute to the circulation around the wing, augmenting the lift. The mechanisms show distinctive patterns of vortex shedding from leading and trailing edges. The results of flow visualization experiments on tethered insects are reviewed in an attempt to identify the high-lift mechanisms actually employed. The fling/peel mechanism is clearly used by some insects. The near fling/peel is the wing motion most commonly observed, but evidence for the production of high lift remains indirect. For many insects, lift on the upstroke probably results from delayed stall instead of the flex mechanism of isolated rotation. The large leading-edge vortices from experiments on rigid model wings are greatly reduced or missing around the real insect wings, often making the identification of aerodynamic mechanisms inconclusive. A substantial spanwise flow component has been detected over the aerodynamic upper wing surface, which should transport leading-edge vorticity towards the wingtip before it has much time to roll up. This spanwise transport, arising from centrifugal acceleration, is probably a general phenomenon for flapping insect flight. It should reduce and stabilise any leading-edge vortices that are present, which is essential for preventing stall and maintaining the circulation of high-lift mechanisms during translation. PMID:8571220

  9. Wing Covers For Aerodynamic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn-Meyer, Marta R.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques, problems, and solutions described. Report discusses construction of thin covers - known as "gloves" in industry - on wings of airplanes for use in aerodynamic studies. Made of foam cores and fiberglass-and-resin outer layers, contain instrumentation to measure properties of boundary layers, sounds, and pressures. Report focuses on gloves installed on F-14A and F-15A airplanes, and compares techniques used to construct gloves with technique used to construct glove on F-111 airplaine during previous study.

  10. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

  11. The compressible aerodynamics of rotating blades based on an acoustic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    An acoustic formula derived for the calculation of the noise of moving bodies is applied to aerodynamic problems. The acoustic formulation is a time domain result suitable for slender wings and bodies moving at subsonic speeds. A singular integral equation is derived in terms of the surface pressure which must then be solved numerically for aerodynamic purposes. However, as the 'observer' is moved onto the body surface, the divergent integrals in the acoustic formulation are semiconvergent. The procedure for regularization (or taking principal values of divergent integrals) is explained, and some numerical examples for ellipsoids, wings, and lifting rotors are presented. The numerical results show good agreement with available measured surface pressure data.

  12. A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 1: Analysis development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Structural, inertia, and aerodynamic models were combined to form a comprehensive model of rotor aerodynamics and dynamics that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. A digital computer program is used to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft, and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

  13. A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 3: Program manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program for a comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics is described. This analysis is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; the helicopter vibration and gust response; the flight dynamics and handling qualities; and the system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is a combination of structural, inertial, and aerodynamic models that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

  14. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  15. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  16. Introduction to Generalized Functions with Applications in Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.

    1994-01-01

    Generalized functions have many applications in science and engineering. One useful aspect is that discontinuous functions can be handled as easily as continuous or differentiable functions and provide a powerful tool in formulating and solving many problems of aerodynamics and acoustics. Furthermore, generalized function theory elucidates and unifies many ad hoc mathematical approaches used by engineers and scientists. We define generalized functions as continuous linear functionals on the space of infinitely differentiable functions with compact support, then introduce the concept of generalized differentiation. Generalized differentiation is the most important concept in generalized function theory and the applications we present utilize mainly this concept. First, some results of classical analysis, are derived with the generalized function theory. Other applications of the generalized function theory in aerodynamics discussed here are the derivations of general transport theorems for deriving governing equations of fluid mechanics, the interpretation of the finite part of divergent integrals, the derivation of the Oswatitsch integral equation of transonic flow, and the analysis of velocity field discontinuities as sources of vorticity. Applications in aeroacoustics include the derivation of the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces, the noise from moving surfaces, and shock noise source strength based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.

  17. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  18. Transonic rotor noise: Theoretical and experimental comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two complementary methods of describing the high speed rotor noise problem are discussed. The first method uses the second order transonic potential equation to define and characterize the nature of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields and to explain the appearance of radiating shock waves. The second employs the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to successfully calculate the acoustic far field. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental waveforms is shown for transonic hover tip Mach numbers from 0.8 to 0.9.

  19. The role of unsteady aerodynamics in aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul

    1988-01-01

    The role of acoustics and unsteady aerodynamics research in understanding the fundamental physics of time-dependent fluid phenomena is reviewed. The key issues are illustrated by considering the sound radiation of turbulent jets and the aeroacoustics of rotating bodies such as helicopter rotors. The importance of computational methods as a link between aerodynamics and acoustics is also discussed. It is noted that where acoustic analogy techniques are sufficiently accurate, unsteady aerodynamics can be used for acoustic prediction. In supersonic problems where acoustics and aerodynamics are coupled, an integrated nonlinear analysis can provide an accurate problem solution.

  20. Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

  1. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  2. Performance and noise generation studies of supersonic air ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the aerodynamic performance and noise generation characteristics of five ejectors having subsonic secondary flow. Primary nozzles with equal exit area for Mach numbers 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 produced a variety of noise and pumping effects. The pumping capacity, specific power, and noise generation of the Mach 1 nozzle was the highest and its mass augmentation was the lowest among the nozzles tested. The Mach 3 nozzle was found superior in mass augmentation and it also produced the lowest noise, however its pumping capacity and specific power was the lowest.

  3. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.

    1983-09-01

    The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.

  4. Aerodynamic applications of infrared thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.

    1989-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel experiments were conducted as part of a systematic study for evaluation of infrared thermography as a viable non-intrusive thermal measurement technique for aerodynamic applications. The experiments consisted of obtaining steady-state surface temperature and convective heat transfer rates for a uniformly heated cylinder in transverse flow with a Reynolds number range of 46,000 to 250,000. The calculated convective heat transfer rates were in general agreement with classical data. Furthermore, IR thermography provided valuable real-time fluid dynamic information such as visualization of flow separation, transition and vortices.

  5. Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.

    1991-01-01

    The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.

  6. Aerodynamic control using forebody strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, T. Terry; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1991-01-01

    Aerodynamic control using a rotatable, miniature nose-tip strake system was investigated in a water tunnel with a forebody model. Flow visualization and yawing moment measurements were performed. The results show that the system was highly effective in controlling the forebody vortices and producing controlled yawing moments at moderate-to-high angles of attack. In comparison with the forebody strakes used in several previous studies, the system can potentially be substantially smaller in size, simpler in operation, and effective over wide ranges of angles of attack and sideslip.

  7. Progress in computational unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    1993-01-01

    After vigorous development for over twenty years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the field of aerospace engineering has arrived at a turning point toward maturity. This paper discusses issues related to algorithm development for the Euler/Navier Stokes equations, code validation and recent applications of CFD for unsteady aerodynamics. Algorithm development is a fundamental element for a good CFD program. Code validation tries to bridge the reliability gap between CFD and experiment. Many of the recent applications also take a multidisciplinary approach, which is a future trend for CFD applications. As computers become more affordable, CFD is expected to be a better scientific and engineering tool.

  8. Removing Background Noise with Phased Array Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Stephens, David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test conducted to determine how well microphone phased array processing software could pull an acoustic signal out of background noise. The array consisted of 24 microphones in an aerodynamic fairing designed to be mounted in-flow. The processing was conducted using Functional Beam forming software developed by Optinav combined with cross spectral matrix subtraction. The test was conducted in the free-jet of the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig at NASA GRC. The background noise was produced by the interaction of the free-jet flow with the solid surfaces in the flow. The acoustic signals were produced by acoustic drivers. The results show that the phased array processing was able to pull the acoustic signal out of the background noise provided the signal was no more than 20 dB below the background noise level measured using a conventional single microphone equipped with an aerodynamic forebody.

  9. Landslide noise.

    PubMed

    Cadman, J D; Goodman, R E

    1967-12-01

    Acoustical monitoring of real landslides has revealed the existence of subaudible noise activity prior to failure and has enabled prediction of the depth of the seat of sliding when conducted in boreholes beneath the surface. Recordings of noise generated in small slopes of moist sand, tilted to failure in laboratory tests, have been analyzed to determine the foci of discrete subaudible noise events. The noises emitted shortly before failure were plotted close to the true sliding surface observed after failure. The foci of earlier events lay either within the central portion of the sliding mass or in a region behind the failure surface. The head and toe zones were devoid of strong seismic activity. PMID:17734306

  10. Comparison of two transonic noise prediction formulations using the aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses recently completed work on using Farassat's Formulation 3 noise prediction code with the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). Software was written to link aerodynamic loading generated by the Propeller Loading (PLD) module within ANOPP with formulation 3. Included are results of comparisons between Formulation 3 with ANOPP's existing noise prediction modules, Subsonic Propeller Noise (SPN) and Transonic Propeller Noise (TPN). Four case studies are investigated. Results of the comparison studies show excellent agreement for the subsonic cases. Differences found in the comparisons made under transonic conditions are strictly numerical and can be explained by the way in which the time derivative is calculated in Formulation 3. Also included is a section on how to execute Formulation 3 with ANOPP.

  11. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

  12. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  13. Perching aerodynamics and trajectory optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    Advances in smart materials, actuators, and control architecture have enabled new flight capabilities for aircraft. Perching is one such capability, described as a vertical landing maneuver using in-flight shape reconfiguration in lieu of high thrust generation. A morphing, perching aircraft design is presented that is capable of post stall flight and very slow landing on a vertical platform. A comprehensive model of the aircraft's aerodynamics, with special regard to nonlinear affects such as flow separation and dynamic stall, is discussed. Trajectory optimization using nonlinear programming techniques is employed to show the effects that morphing and nonlinear aerodynamics have on the maneuver. These effects are shown to decrease the initial height and distance required to initiate the maneuver, reduce the bounds on the trajectory, and decrease the required thrust for the maneuver. Perching trajectories comparing morphing versus fixed-configuration and stalled versus un-stalled aircraft are presented. It is demonstrated that a vertical landing is possible in the absence of high thrust if post-stall flight capabilities and vehicle reconfiguration are utilized.

  14. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

    2005-06-23

    Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a variety of empirical tests. Here we provide measurements of the wake of hovering rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) obtained with digital particle image velocimetry that show force asymmetry: hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and only 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry is probably due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. The wake of hummingbird wings also reveals evidence of leading-edge vortices created during the downstroke, indicating that they may operate at Reynolds numbers sufficiently low to exploit a key mechanism typical of insect hovering. Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan. PMID:15973407

  15. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  16. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  17. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  18. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  19. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  20. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  1. Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

  2. Review of aerodynamic design in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrujere, Th. E.

    1991-01-01

    Aerodynamic design activities in the Netherlands, which take place mainly at Fokker, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and Delft University of Technology (TUD), are discussed. The survey concentrates on the development of the Fokker 100 wing, glider design at TUD, and research at NLR in the field of aerodynamic design. Results are shown to illustrate these activities.

  3. The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

  4. Optimum design of structures of composite materials in response to aerodynamic noise and noise transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Elastic wave propagation and attenuation in a model fiber matrix was investigated. Damping characteristics in graphite epoxy composite materials were measured. A sound transmission test facility suitable to incorporate into NASA Ames wind tunnel for measurement of transmission loss due to sound generation in boundary layers was constructed. Measurement of transmission loss of graphite epoxy composite panels was also included.

  5. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  6. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  7. Investigation of helicopter rotor blade/wake interactive impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.; Hall, G. F.; Vonlavante, E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the Tip Aerodynamic/Aeroacoustic Test (TAAT) data was performed to identify possible aerodynamic sources of blade/vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise. The identification is based on correlation of measured blade pressure time histories with predicted blade/vortex intersections for the flight condition(s) where impulsive noise was detected. Due to the location of the recording microphones, only noise signatures associated with the advancing blade were available, and the analysis was accordingly restricted to the first and second azimuthal quadrants. The results show that the blade tip region is operating transonically in the azimuthal range where previous BVI experiments indicated the impulsive noise to be. No individual blade/vortex encounter is identifiable in the pressure data; however, there is indication of multiple intersections in the roll-up region which could be the origin of the noise. Discrete blade/vortex encounters are indicated in the second quadrant; however, if impulsive noise were produced here, the directivity pattern would be such that it was not recorded by the microphones. It is demonstrated that the TAAT data base is a valuable resource in the investigation of rotor aerodynamic/aeroacoustic behavior.

  8. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling of a jet transport using flight-data-recorder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chih-Chin

    To assess the effect of the unsteady aerodynamics on a jet transport that crashed upon executing an unsuccessful go-around operation, a fuzzy logic modeling technique is proposed to estimate the aerodynamic models using a set of data recorded by the digital flight data recorder. The longitudinal aerodynamic models are assumed to be functions of the angle of attack, time rate of angle of attack, pitch rate, reduced frequency, sideslip, elevator deflection, stabilizer deflection, flap deflection and Mach number. The lateral-directional aerodynamic models are set up to be functions of the angle of attack, sideslip angle, roll angle, roll rate, yaw rate, lateral reduced frequency, aileron deflection, rudder deflection, and Mach number. Among these parameters, the reduced frequency, sideslip, pitch rate, roll rate, and yaw rate are derived from the recorded data. The Euler angles, accelerations along three axes, and other recorded flight data are first bias-analyzed by satisfying the kinematic relations to account for the measurement errors and noise. The force and moment coefficients are also calculated by satisfying the flight dynamic equations. The bias-adjusted data are then used to establish the general dynamic aerodynamic models using a fuzzy-logic algorithm with internal functions. The identified fuzzy logic aerodynamic models are then employed to predict the stability and control derivatives along the flight path or in other flight conditions. The results show that low longitudinal control effectiveness and unstable pitch damping are possible at high flap angles and moderate angles of attack. Finally, the identified aerodynamic models are integrated into a real-time flight simulation routine running on a PC. The simulation flight scenarios can be recorded by the simulation routine for later replay and plotting. It is demonstrated that the unsteady aerodynamic models in fuzzy logic form has the potential to be used on a real flight simulator. More daily flight data collection and analysis are recommended for the future study to make the unsteady aerodynamic model complete. It is also recommended to apply the proposed technique to rapidly establish the dynamic aerodynamic models for other jet transports involved in flight accidents for engineering analysis.

  9. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394

  10. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394

  11. Computation of Supersonic Jet Mixing Noise Using PARC Code With a kappa-epsilon Turbulence Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, A.; Kim, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of modifications have been proposed in order to improve the jet noise prediction capabilities of the MGB code. This code which was developed at General Electric, employees the concept of acoustic analogy for the prediction of turbulent mixing noise. The source convection and also refraction of sound due to the shrouding effect of the mean flow are accounted for by incorporating the high frequency solution to Lilley's equation for cylindrical jets (Balsa and Mani). The broadband shock-associated noise is estimated using Harper-Bourne and Fisher's shock noise theory. The proposed modifications are aimed at improving the aerodynamic predictions (source/spectrum computations) and allowing for the non- axisymmetric effects in the jet plume and nozzle geometry (sound/flow interaction). In addition, recent advances in shock noise prediction as proposed by Tam can be employed to predict the shock-associated noise as an addition to the jet mixing noise when the flow is not perfectly expanded. Here we concentrate on the aerodynamic predictions using the PARC code with a k-E turbulence model and the ensuing turbulent mixing noise. The geometry under consideration is an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle at its design operating conditions. Aerodynamic and acoustic computations are compared with data as well as predictions due to the original MGB model using Reichardt's aerodynamic theory.

  12. Cyclostationary spectral analysis for the measurement and prediction of wind turbine swishing noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Cheolung; Joseph, Phillip

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces cyclostationary spectral analysis as a new approach to analyzing and predicting the aerodynamic noise generated by wind turbines. This method is able to reveal new insights into the periodic character of the noise signal and is therefore ideally suited to the study of wind turbine noise. A new formulation is presented for the time variation of the noise spectrum due to wind turbines thereby providing insight into the character of the periodic variation in noise referred to as 'swishing'. The character and mechanism of swishing noise is analyzed in detail.

  13. Crackling noise.

    PubMed

    Sethna, J P; Dahmen, K A; Myers, C R

    2001-03-01

    Crackling noise arises when a system responds to changing external conditions through discrete, impulsive events spanning a broad range of sizes. A wide variety of physical systems exhibiting crackling noise have been studied, from earthquakes on faults to paper crumpling. Because these systems exhibit regular behaviour over a huge range of sizes, their behaviour is likely to be independent of microscopic and macroscopic details, and progress can be made by the use of simple models. The fact that these models and real systems can share the same behaviour on many scales is called universality. We illustrate these ideas by using results for our model of crackling noise in magnets, explaining the use of the renormalization group and scaling collapses, and we highlight some continuing challenges in this still-evolving field. PMID:11258379

  14. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  15. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using A Real-Number-Encoded Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for aerodynamic shape optimization using a genetic algorithm with real number encoding is presented. The algorithm is used to optimize three different problems, a simple hill climbing problem, a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle problem using an Euler equation solver and a three-dimensional transonic wing problem using a nonlinear potential solver. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement and extremely reliable, being relatively insensitive to design space noise.

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    The object of this report is to bring together the investigations of the various aerodynamic laboratories in this country and Europe upon the subject of aerofoils suitable for use as lifting or control surfaces on aircraft. The data have been so arranged as to be of most use to designing engineers and for the purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report.

  17. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2000-03-01

    The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute unsteady viscous flows, governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, about a two dimensional flapping wing which mimics the motion of an insect wing. I will present two main results: the existence of a prefered frequency in forward flight and its physical origin, and 2) the vortex dynamics and forces in hovering dragonfly flight.

  18. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    2011-05-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

  19. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. J.; Wood, D. H.

    1983-09-01

    It is pointed out that the basic aerodynamics of modern floatation ovens, in which the continuous, freshly painted metal strip is floated, dried, and cured, is the two-dimensional analog of that of hovercraft. The basic theory for the static lift considered in connection with the study of hovercraft has had spectacular success in describing the experimental results. This appears surprising in view of the crudity of the theory. The present investigation represents an attempt to explore the reasons for this success. An outline of the basic theory is presented and an approach is shown for deriving the resulting expressions for the lift from the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly indicates the limitations on the validity of the expressions. Attention is given to the generally good agreement between the theory and the axisymmetric (about the centerline) results reported by Jaumotte and Kiedrzynski (1965).

  20. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

  1. On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

  2. Aerodynamic Interactions During Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieret, J.; Terry, M. J.; Ward, B. A.

    1986-11-01

    Most laser cutting systems utilise a gas jet to remove molten or vaporised material from the kerf. The speed, economy and quality of the cut can be strongly dependent on the aerodynamic conditions created by the nozzle, workpiece proximity and kerf shape. Adverse conditions can be established that may lead to an unwelcome lack of reproducibility of cut quality. Relatively low gas nozzle pressures can result in supersonic flow in the jet with its associated shock fronts. When the nozzle is placed at conventional distances (1-2mm) above the workpiece, the force exerted by the gas on the workpiece and the cut products (the cutting pressure) can be significantly less than the nozzle pressure. Higher cutting pressures can be achieved by increasing the height of the nozzle above the workpiece, to a more damage resistant zone, provided that the shock structure of the jet is taken into account. Conventional conical nozzles with circular exits can be operated with conditions that will result in cutting pressures up to 3 Bar (g) in the more distant zone. At higher pressures in circular tipped nozzles the cutting pressure in this zone decays to inadequate levels. Investigations of a large number of non-circular nozzle tip shapes have resulted in the selection of a few specific shapes that can provide cutting pressures in excess of 6 Bar(g) at distances of 4 to 7mm from the nozzle tip. Since there is a strong correlation between cutting pressure and the speed and quality of laser cutting, the paper describes the aerodynamic requirements for achieving the above effects and reports the cutting results arising from the different nozzle designs and conditions. The results of the work of other investigators, who report anomalous laser cutting results, will be examined and reviewed in the light of the above work.

  3. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method. PMID:25075621

  4. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Methodology for Noise Assessment of Wind Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method. PMID:25075621

  5. Airframe noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This Data Item 90023, an addition to the Noise Sub-series, provides the FORTRAN listing of a computer program for a semi-empirical method that calculates the far-field airframe aerodynamic noise generated by turbo-fan powered transport aircraft or gliders in one-third octave bands over a frequency range specified by the user. The overall sound pressure level is also output. The results apply for a still, lossless atmosphere; other ESDU methods may be used to correct for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflection, lateral attenuation, and wind and temperature gradients. The position of the aircraft relative to the observer is input in terms of the height at minimum range, and the elevation and azimuthal angles to the aircraft; if desired the user may obtain results over a range of those angles in 10 degree intervals. The method sums the contributions made by various components, results for which can also be output individually. The components are: the wind (conventional or delta), tailplane, fin, flaps (single/double slotted or triple slotted), leading-edge slats, and undercarriage legs and wheels (one/two wheel or four wheel units). The program requires only geometric data for each component (area and span in the case of lifting elements, flap deflection angle, and leg length and wheel diameter for the undercarriage). The program was validated for aircraft with take-off masses from 42,000 to 390,000 kg (92,000 to 860,000 lb) at airspeeds from 70 to 145 m/s (135 to 280 kn). Comparisons with available experimental data suggest a prediction rms accuracy of 1 dB at minimum range, rising to between 2 and 3 dB at 60 degrees to either side.

  6. Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

  7. Noise suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Suppressor reduces noise propagated through ducts. It provides high attenuation in given duct length. Entire device forms acoustic trap which utilizes reflective elements on ends to direct sound energy into sound-dissipating element in center. Device achieves large suppression by utilizing interactive effects of different suppression devices.

  8. Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Through COSMIC, United Information Services, Inc., (UIS) in Raleigh, NC, purchased a software package consisting of two computer programs--NOIZ and RAYTR. These programs, enhanced by UIS for its particular applications, are used to provide computer analysis of noise level predictions for clients. Predictions are then used in design of new buildings or in remodeling existing plants.

  9. Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.

  10. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  11. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting...

  12. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting...

  13. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting...

  14. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  15. Reduction of Background Noise in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, Stephen M.; Allen, Christopher S.; Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Background noise in both open-jet and closed wind tunnels adversely affects the signal-to-noise ratio of acoustic measurements. To measure the noise of increasingly quieter aircraft models, the background noise will have to be reduced by physical means or through signal processing. In a closed wind tunnel, such as the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel, the principle background noise sources can be classified as: (1) fan drive noise; (2) microphone self-noise; (3) aerodynamically induced noise from test-dependent hardware such as model struts and junctions; and (4) noise from the test section walls and vane set. This paper describes the steps taken to minimize the influence of each of these background noise sources in the 40 x 80.

  16. Rarefied aerodynamic measurements in hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, K.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the feasibility of space missions, the prediction accuracy of rarefied aerodynamics is one of the important factors. To improve rarefied aerodynamic predictions, the determination of accommodation coefficients and direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamic forces are crucial. Thus, at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, a hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel has been developed for rarefied aerodynamic measurements. In this work, we have utilized both experimental and numerical approaches for rarefied hypersonic aerodynamic measurements, and the measurement schemes have been developed by using pendulous models for accommodation coefficients and for aeroshell aerodynamic characteristics. Consequently, we have successfully demonstrated measurements of accommodation coefficients and rarefied aerodynamic characteristics for an aeroshell.

  17. Using the HARV simulation aerodynamic model to determine forebody strake aerodynamic coefficients from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.

  18. Aerodynamic sound generated by a slotted trailing edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. S.

    1980-11-01

    The theory of the generation of sound by turbulent flow over a trailing edge flap of an airfoil or guidevane is analyzed by using a narrow slot which separates the flap from the airfoil. The configuration is modeled by a semiinfinite rigid plate with a slot at an arbitrary, finite distance from the edge; the aerodynamic sound problem is formulated in terms of an integral equation solved in closed form when the width of the slot is small compared with the acoustic wavelength and the chord of the flap. It was found that at low subsonic mean flow Mach numbers, the slot reduces the level of the radiated noise provided the product of the characteristic wave number and the chord of the flap does not exceed 10.

  19. A shock wave approach to the noise of supersonic propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Rice, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    To model propeller noise expected for a turboprop aircraft, the pressure ratio across the shock at the propeller tip was calculated and compared with noise data from three propellers. At helical tip Mach numbers over 1.0, using only the tip shock wave, the model gave a fairly good prediction of the noise for a bladed propeller and for a propeller swept for aerodynamic purposes. However for another propeller, which was highly swept and designed to have noise cancellations from the inboard propeller sections, the shock strength from the tip over predicted the noise. In general the good agreement indicates that shock theory is a viable method for predicting the noise from these supersonic propellers but that the shock strengths from all of the blade sections need to be properly included.

  20. Effects of perforation number of blade on aerodynamic performance of dual-rotor small axial flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Guoqi; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-04-01

    Compared with single rotor small axial flow fans, dual-rotor small axial flow fans is better regarding the static characteristics. But the aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans is worse than that of single rotor small axial flow fans. In order to improve aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans, the pre-stage blades with different perforation numbers are designed in this research. The RANS equations and the standard k-ɛ turbulence model as well as the FW-H noise model are used to simulate the flow field within the fan. Then, the aerodynamic performance of the fans with different perforation number is compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Compared to the prototype fan, the noise of fans with perforation blades is reduced. Additionally, the noise of the fans decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (2) The vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades of perforated fans is reduced. It is found that the vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (3) Compared to the prototype fan, the total pressure rising and efficiency of the fans with perforation blades drop slightly.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Development of the Aerodynamic Database of the X-34 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi , Bandu N.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the aerodynamic characteristics and the process of developing the preflight aerodynamic database of the NASA/ Orbital X-34 reusable launch vehicle is presented in this paper. Wind tunnel tests from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers including ground effect tests at low subsonic speeds were conducted in various facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. The APAS (Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System) code was used for engineering level analysis and to fill the gaps in the wind tunnel test data. This aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach numbers, angles of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections anticipated in the complete flight envelope.

  2. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  3. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  4. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  5. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

  6. Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.

  7. Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Insights using Eigenanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Dowell, Earl H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.

  8. Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers given at the conference present the results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include two-dimensional configurations, three-dimensional configurations, transonic aircraft, and the space shuttle.

  9. Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sazonov, V. V.

    1983-01-01

    Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

  10. HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  12. Aerodynamics as a subway design parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric sensitivity study has been performed on the system operational energy requirement in order to guide subway design strategy. Aerodynamics can play a dominant or trivial role, depending upon the system characteristics. Optimization of the aerodynamic parameters may not minimize the total operational energy. Isolation of the station box from the tunnel and reduction of the inertial power requirements pay the largest dividends in terms of the operational energy requirement.

  13. Recent progress in aerodynamic design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, R. G.; Huffman, W. P.; Young, D. P.; Johnson, F. T.; Hilmes, C. L.; Bieterman, M. B.

    1999-05-01

    Recent emphasis on reduction of design cycle time and cost in the design of commercial aircraft (P.E. Rubbert, CFD and the changing world of airplane design, AIAA Wright Brothers Lecture, September, 1994) has sparked a renewed interest in design optimization in aerodynamics, structures and aeroelastics. In this paper, recent developments in the use of design optimization in aerodynamics using the TRANAIR code are considered. Globalization techniques and the extension of the methodology to multipoint design will be discussed. Copyright

  14. Estimation of morphing airfoil shapes and aerodynamic loads using artificial hair sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Nathan Scott

    An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape, as well as the aerodynamic loads, in real time. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors (AHS) developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this study, AHS measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the AHS measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network (ANN) based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Additionally, an aerodynamic formulation based on the finite-state inflow theory has been developed to calculate the aerodynamic loads on thin airfoils with arbitrary camber deformations. Various aerodynamic properties approximated from the AHS/ANN system will be compared with the results of the finite-state inflow aerodynamic formulation in order to validate the approximation approach.

  15. Aerodynamic performances of three fan stator designs operating with rotor having tip speed of 337 meters per second and pressure ratio of 1.54. 1: Experimental performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic performances of four stator-blade rows are presented and evaluated. The aerodynamic designs of two of these stators were compromised to reduce noise, a third design was not. On a calculated operating line passing through the design point pressure ratio, the best stator had overall pressure-ratio and efficiency decrements of 0.031 and 0.044, respectively, providing a stage pressure ratio of 1.483 and efficiency of 0.865. The other stators showed some correctable deficiencies due partly to the design compromises for noise. In the end-wall regions blade-element losses were significantly less for the shortest chord studied.

  16. Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

  17. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  18. On-road and wind-tunnel measurement of motorcycle helmet noise.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J; Carley, M; Walker, I; Holt, N

    2013-09-01

    The noise source mechanisms involved in motorcycling include various aerodynamic sources and engine noise. The problem of noise source identification requires extensive data acquisition of a type and level that have not previously been applied. Data acquisition on track and on road are problematic due to rider safety constraints and the portability of appropriate instrumentation. One way to address this problem is the use of data from wind tunnel tests. The validity of these measurements for noise source identification must first be demonstrated. In order to achieve this extensive wind tunnel tests have been conducted and compared with the results from on-track measurements. Sound pressure levels as a function of speed were compared between on track and wind tunnel tests and were found to be comparable. Spectral conditioning techniques were applied to separate engine and wind tunnel noise from aerodynamic noise and showed that the aerodynamic components were equivalent in both cases. The spectral conditioning of on-track data showed that the contribution of engine noise to the overall noise is a function of speed and is more significant than had previously been thought. These procedures form a basis for accurate experimental measurements of motorcycle noise. PMID:23967933

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  20. Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk

    2015-11-01

    In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of kinetic techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.

  1. Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

  2. Sharp Hypervelocity Aerodynamic Research Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Kolodziej, Paul; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this flight demonstration is to deploy a slender-body hypervelocity aerodynamic research probe (SHARP) from an orbiting platform using a tether, deorbit and fly it along its aerothermal performance constraint, and recover it intact in mid-air. To accomplish this objective, two flight demonstrations are proposed. The first flight uses a blunt-body, tethered reentry experiment vehicle (TREV) to prove out tethered deployment technology for accurate entries, a complete SHARP electronics suite, and a new soft mid-air helicopter recovery technique. The second flight takes advantage of this launch and recovery capability to demonstrate revolutionary sharp body concepts for hypervelocity vehicles, enabled by new Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) recently developed by Ames Research Center. Successful demonstration of sharp body hypersonic vehicle technologies could have radical impact on space flight capabilities, including: enabling global reentry cross range capability from Station, eliminating reentry communications blackout, and allowing new highly efficient launch systems incorporating air breathing propulsion and zeroth staging.

  3. The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1987-06-01

    A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic wind tunnel data on hemisflo and 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes behind several forebody shapes and diameters are discussed. Test techniques were derived which avoided many of the opportunities to obtain erroneous supersonic parachute drag data in wind tunnels. Preliminary correlations of supersonic parachute drag with Mach number, forebody shape and diameter, canopy porosity, inflated canopy diameter and stability are presented. Supersonic parachute design considerations are discussed and applied to a M = 2 parachute system designed and tested at Sandia. It is shown that the performance of parachutes in supersonic flows is a strong function of parachute design parameters and their interactions with the payload wake.

  4. Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir

    2015-01-01

    An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.

  5. Perspective -- Aerodynamic control of combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A.K.

    1993-12-01

    To do useful work, the exothermic process of combustion should be carried out in an enclosure, as is typically the case with i.c. engines -- the subject of this paper`s particular concern. To meet the requirements of high efficiency and low pollutant production, this process should be executed at a relatively low temperature -- a condition attainable by the use of lean air-fuel mixtures. For this purpose it has to be distributed in space upon multipoint initiation and kept away from the walls to minimize their detrimental effects. In principle, all this can be accomplished by a system referred to as fireball combustion that takes advantage of entrainment and spiral mixing associated with large scale vortex structures of jet plumes. As demonstrated in this paper, the success in such an endeavor depends crucially upon the utilization of the essential elements of classical aerodynamics: the properly distributed sources, expressed in terms of velocity divergences prescribed by the thermodynamic process of combustion and of the vorticity field generated by shear between the jets and the fluid into which they are injected.

  6. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  7. Reduction of Wake-Stator Interaction Noise Using Passive Porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the potential of Passive Porosity Technology as a mechanism to reduce interaction noise in turbomachinery by reducing the fluctuating forces acting on the vane surfaces. To do so, a typical fan stator airfoil was subjected to the effects of a transversely moving wake; time histories of the primitive aerodynamic variables, obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions, were then input into an acoustic prediction code. This procedure was performed on the solid airfoil to obtain a baseline, and on a series of porous configurations in order to isolate those that yield maximum noise reductions without compromising the aerodynamic performance of the stator. It was found that communication between regions of high pressure differential - made possible by the use of passive porosity - is necessary to significantly alter the noise radiation pattern of the stator airfoil. In general, noise reductions were obtained for those configurations incorporating passive porosity in the region between x/c is approximately 0.15 on the suction side of the airfoil and x/c is approximately 0.20 on the pressure side. Reductions in overall radiated noise of approximately 1.0 dB were obtained. The noise benefit increased to about 2.5 dB when the effects of loading noise alone were considered.

  8. Test-section noise of the Ames 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made of the test-section noise levels at various wind speeds in the Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel No. 1. No model was in the test section. Results showed that aerodynamic noise from various struts used to monitor flow conditions in the test section dominated the wind-tunnel background noise over much of the frequency spectrum. A tapered microphone stand with a thin trailing edge generated less noise than did a constant-chord strut with a blunt trailing edge. Noise from small holes in the test-section walls was insignificant.

  9. Control of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the physical properties, sources, physiological effects, and legislation pertaining to noise, especially noise characteristics in the community. Indicates that noise reduction steps can be taken more intelligently after determination of the true noise sources and paths. (CC)

  10. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  11. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  12. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  13. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  14. Potential of neuro-fuzzy methodology to estimate noise level of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Por, Lip Yee; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Zamani, Mazdak; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Motamedi, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines noise effect became large problem because of increasing of wind farms numbers since renewable energy becomes the most influential energy sources. However, wind turbine noise generation and propagation is not understandable in all aspects. Mechanical noise of wind turbines can be ignored since aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades is the main source of the noise generation. Numerical simulations of the noise effects of the wind turbine can be very challenging task. Therefore in this article soft computing method is used to evaluate noise level of wind turbines. The main goal of the study is to estimate wind turbine noise in regard of wind speed at different heights and for different sound frequency. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to estimate the wind turbine noise levels.

  15. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  16. Significance of shock structure on supersonic jet mixing noise of axisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chan M.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Khavaran, Abbas

    1994-01-01

    One of the key technical elements in NASA's high speed research program is reducing the noise level to meet the federal noise regulation. The dominant noise source is associated with the supersonic jet discharged from the engine exhaust system. Whereas the turbulence mixing is largely responsible for the generation of the jet noise, a broadband shock-associated noise is also generated when the nozzle operates at conditions other than its design. For both mixing and shock noise components, because the source of the noise is embedded in the jet plume, one can expect that jet noise can be predicted from the jet flowfield computation. Mani et al. developed a unified aerodynamic/acoustic prediction scheme by applying an extension of Reichardt's aerodynamic model to compute turbulent shear stresses which are utilized in estimating the strength of the noise source. Although this method produces a fast and practical estimate of the jet noise, a modification by Khavaran et al. has led to an improvement in aerodynamic solution. The most notable feature in this work is that Reichardt's model is replaced with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The major advantage of this work is that the essential, noise-related flow quantities such as turbulence intensity and shock strength can be better predicted. The predictions were limited to a shock-free design condition and the effect of shock structure on the jet mixing noise was not addressed. The present work is aimed at investigating this issue. Under imperfectly expanded conditions the existence of the shock cell structure and its interaction with the convecting turbulence structure may not only generate a broadband shock-associated noise but also change the turbulence structure, and thus the strength of the mixing noise source. Failure in capturing shock structures properly could lead to incorrect aeroacoustic predictions.

  17. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  18. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise (XMIN) on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Reed, Darren K.; Nance, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is often studied via large scale wind tunnel testing. Boundary layer noise is measured by miniature pressure transducers installed in a model. Noise levels (2-5 dB ref. 20 µPa) can be induced when transducer is mounted out of flush with model outer surface. This effect must be minimized to accurately determine aerodynamically induced acoustic environments.

  19. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  20. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intrieri, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.

  1. The aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2003-12-01

    The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well as the different approaches used to model these phenomena. PMID:14581590

  2. External aerodynamics of heavy ground vehicles: Computations and wind tunnel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktar, Ilhan

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a ground vehicle affect vehicle operation in many ways. Aerodynamic drag, lift and side forces have influence on fuel efficiency, vehicle top speed and acceleration performance. In addition, engine cooling, air conditioning, wind noise, visibility, stability and crosswind sensitivity are some other tasks for vehicle aerodynamics. All of these areas benefit from drag reduction and changing the lift force in favor of the operating conditions. This can be achieved by optimization of external body geometry and flow modification devices. Considering the latter, a thorough understanding of the airflow is a prerequisite. The present study aims to simulate the external flow field around a ground vehicle using a computational method. The model and the method are selected to be three dimensional and time-dependent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method. The Renormalization Group (RNG) k-epsilon model was elected for closure of the turbulent quantities. Initially, the aerodynamics of a generic bluff body is studied computationally and experimentally to demonstrate a number of relevant issues including the validation of the computational method. Experimental study was conducted at the Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel using pressure probes and force measurement equipment. Experiments and computations are conducted on several geometric configurations. Results are compared in an attempt to validate the computational model for ground vehicle aerodynamics. Then, the external aerodynamics of a heavy truck is simulated using the validated computational fluid dynamics method, and the external flow is presented using computer visualization. Finally, to help the estimation of the error due to two commonly practiced engineering simplifications, a parametric study on the tires and the moving ground effect are conducted on full-scale tractor-trailer configuration. Force and pressure coefficients and velocity distribution around tractor-trailer assembly are computed for each case and the results compared with each other. Finally, this study demonstrates that it is possible to apply computational fluid dynamics for ground vehicle aerodynamics with substantial detail and fidelity. With the latest developments on computing power, computational fluid dynamics can be applied on real-life transportation problems with reasonable turn-around times, reliability, ease of accessibility and affordability. The next step is deemed to be considering such a computational methodology for analysis within an automated optimization process in improving aerodynamic designs of heavy ground vehicles.

  3. Aerodynamic loading and magnetic bearing controller robustness using a gain-scheduled Kalman filter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Weldon, W.F.; Traver, A.E.

    1996-10-01

    Modeling or predicting aerodynamic loading effects on rotating equipment has been a source of concern to those who wish to examine stability or response of critical components. The rotordynamic model of the system employed for such examination assumes greater importance for active bearings than for passive ones, if only because of the additional potential for instability introduced by the controller. For many systems, aerodynamic loading may vary widely over the range of operation of the bearings, and may depend on extended system variables. Thus, potential controllers for active magnetic bearings require sufficient robustness or adaptation to changes in critical aerodynamic loading parameters, as might be embodied in cross-coupled stiffness terms for compressor impellers. Furthermore, the presence of plant or measurement noise provides additional sources of complication. Here, the previous development of a nonlinear controller for a hypothetical single-stage centrifugal gas compressor is extended by comparing the compensator performance using a multivariable Luenberger observer against that of a stationary Kalman filter, both gain-scheduled for rotational speed. For the postulated system, it was found that the slower poles of the Kalman filter did not observably detract from controller convergence and stability, while predictably smoothing out the simulated sensor noise.

  4. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Hrgovan, I.; Okulov, V.; Zhu, W. J.; Madsen, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline/reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using the concepts of Betz and Joukowski, and the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils. Performance analysis shows that the newly designed turbine rotors can achieve an overall noise reduction of 6 dB and 1.5 dB(A) with a similar power output as compared to the reference rotor.

  5. Investigation of computational aeroacoustic tools for noise predictions of wind turbine aerofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpf, A.; Ferrer, E.; Munduate, X.

    2007-07-01

    In this work trailing edge noise levels of a research aerofoil have been computed and compared to aeroacoustic measurements using two different approaches. On the other hand, aerodynamic and aeroacoustic calculations were performed with the full Navier-Stokes CFD code Fluent [Fluent Inc 2005 Fluent 6.2 Users Guide, Lebanon, NH, USA] on the basis of a steady RANS simulation. Aerodynamic characteristics were computed by the aid of various turbulence models. By the combined usage of implemented broadband noise source models, it was tried to isolate and determine the trailing edge noise level. Throughout this work two methods of different computational cost have been tested and quantitative and qualitative results obtained. On the one hand, the semi-empirical noise prediction tool NAFNoise [Moriarty P 2005 NAFNoise User's Guide. Golden, Colorado, July. http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/ simulators/NAFNoise] was used to directly predict trailing edge noise by taking into consideration the nature of the experiments.

  6. A Preliminary Axial Fan Design Method with the Considerat ion of Performance and Noise Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan; Kil, Hyun Gwon

    2010-06-01

    Presented in this paper are a fan's aero-acoustic performance method and its computation procedure which combines aerodynamic flow field data, performances and noise levels of fan. The internal flow field and the performance of fan are analyzed by the through-flow modeling, inviscid pitch-averaged quasi-3D flow analysis combined with flow deviation and pressure loss distribution models. Based on the predicted internal flow field dada by the trough-flow modeling, fan noise is predicted by two models for the discrete frequency noise due to rotating steady aerodynamic thrust and blade interaction and for the broadband noise due to turbulent boundary layer and wake vortex shedding. The present predictions of the flow distribution, the performance and the noise level of fan are well agreed with actual test results.

  7. Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.

  8. On Noise Assessment for Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L; Thomas, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    A system noise study is presented for the blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft configured with advanced technologies that are projected to be available in the 2025 timeframe of the NASA N+2 definition. This system noise assessment shows that the noise levels of the baseline configuration, measured by the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL), have a large margin of 34 dB to the aircraft noise regulation of Stage 4. This confirms the acoustic benefits of the BWB shielding of engine noise, as well as other projected noise reduction technologies, but the noise margins are less than previously published assessments and are short of meeting the NASA N+2 noise goal. In establishing the relevance of the acoustic assessment framework, the design of the BWB configuration, the technical approach of the noise analysis, the databases and prediction tools used in the assessment are first described and discussed. The predicted noise levels and the component decomposition are then analyzed to identify the ranking order of importance of various noise components, revealing the prominence of airframe noise, which holds up the levels at all three noise certification locations and renders engine noise reduction technologies less effective. When projected airframe component noise reduction is added to the HWB configuration, it is shown that the cumulative noise margin to Stage 4 can reach 41.6 dB, nearly at the NASA goal. These results are compared with a previous NASA assessment with a different study framework. The approaches that yield projections of such low noise levels are discussed including aggressive assumptions on future technologies, assumptions on flight profile management, engine installation, and component noise reduction technologies. It is shown that reliable predictions of component noise also play an important role in the system noise assessment. The comparisons and discussions illustrate the importance of practical feasibilities and constraints in aircraft system noise studies, which include aerodynamic performance, propulsion efficiency, flight profile limitation and many other factors. For a future aircraft concept to achieve the NASA N+2 noise goal it will require a range of fully successful noise reduction technology developments.

  9. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  10. Take-off aerodynamics in ski jumping.

    PubMed

    Virmavirta, M; Kivekäs, J; Komi, P V

    2001-04-01

    The effect of aerodynamic forces on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping take-off was examined in a wind tunnel. Vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the wind tunnel floor. The jumpers performed take-offs in non-wind conditions and in various wind conditions (21-33 m s(-1)). EMGs of the important take-off muscles were recorded from one jumper. The dramatic decrease in take-off time found in all jumpers can be considered as the result of the influence of aerodynamic lift. The loss in impulse due to the shorter force production time with the same take-off force is compensated with the increase in lift force, resulting in a higher vertical velocity (V(v)) than is expected from the conventional calculation of V(v) from the force impulse. The wind conditions emphasized the explosiveness of the ski jumping take-off. The aerodynamic lift and drag forces which characterize the aerodynamic quality of the initial take-off position (static in-run position) varied widely even between the examined elite ski jumpers. According to the computer simulation these differences can decisively affect jumping distance. The proper utilization of the prevailing aerodynamic forces before and during take-off is a very important prerequisite for achieving a good flight position. PMID:11266669

  11. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  12. An analysis of blade vortex interaction aerodynamics and acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The impulsive noise associated with helicopter flight due to Blade-Vortex Interaction, sometimes called blade slap is analyzed especially for the case of a close encounter of the blade-tip vortex with a following blade. Three parts of the phenomena are considered: the tip-vortex structure generated by the rotating blade, the unsteady pressure produced on the following blade during the interaction, and the acoustic radiation due to the unsteady pressure field. To simplify the problem, the analysis was confined to the situation where the vortex is aligned parallel to the blade span in which case the maximum acoustic pressure results. Acoustic radiation due to the interaction is analyzed in space-fixed coordinates and in the time domain with the unsteady pressure on the blade surface as the source of chordwise compact, but spanwise non-compact radiation. Maximum acoustic pressure is related to the vortex core size and Reynolds number which are in turn functions of the blade-tip aerodynamic parameters. Finally noise reduction and performance are considered.

  13. Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; McCallum, Duncan

    1994-05-01

    A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

  14. Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; Mccallum, Duncan

    1994-01-01

    A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

  15. Predicting tonal noise from a high rotational speed centrifugal fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelladi, S.; Kouidri, S.; Bakir, F.; Rey, R.

    2008-06-01

    Prediction of noise generated by centrifugal fans is much more complex than prediction noise generated by axial fans. A complete, aerodynamic and aeroacoustic, investigation of the tonal noise of a high rotational speed centrifugal fan is proposed in this paper. The studied fan is made up of an impeller, a diffuser and a return channel. The purpose of this work is to understand the nature of noise generated within this type of machine. An aeroacoustic model based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict dipole and monopole tonal noises in the frequency domain. Showing the importance of the monopole source in this kind of fans constitutes the main contribution in these research tasks. A numerical simulation of the fluid flow validated by experiments, enables to obtain the fluctuating forces and normal velocity on the impeller and diffuser blades needed for the aeroacoustic computation.

  16. A Fan Design that Meets the NASA Aeronautics Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James; Tweedt, Daniel; Jeracki, Robert; Envia, Edmaine; Bartos, Karen; Slater, John

    2003-01-01

    A fan concept was previously identified that would meet the NASA aeronautics goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction in aircraft noise. This was a 2-stage fan with a pressure ratio of 1.15 and a 460 ft/sec tip speed. The 2 stages were identical so that, with the proper synchrophasing, noise from one stage could be used to cancel noise from the other stage. This paper documents the aerodynamic design of the 2-stage fan concept in a 22-in. diameter size for testing in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-ft wind tunnel. A set of rotor and stator coordinates are listed in the report. Stress and flutter analyses were done on these blades and showed that the design was structurally viable. A noise prediction code, using the blade coordinates and fan flows, indicated that the 2-stage fan would meet the goal of a 20 dB reduction in fan noise.

  17. A parametric study of transonic blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyrintzis, A. S.

    1991-01-01

    Several parameters of transonic blade-vortex interactions (BVI) are being studied and some ideas for noise reduction are introduced and tested using numerical simulation. The model used is the two-dimensional high frequency transonic small disturbance equation with regions of distributed vorticity (VTRAN2 code). The far-field noise signals are obtained by using the Kirchhoff method with extends the numerical 2-D near-field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic 3-D far-field. The BVI noise mechanisms are explained and the effects of vortex type and strength, and angle of attack are studied. Particularly, airfoil shape modifications which lead to noise reduction are investigated. The results presented are expected to be helpful for better understanding of the nature of the BVI noise and better blade design.

  18. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83 meter (6 foot) diameter 1.2 pressure ratio fan (QF-6). [for short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A 1.2-pressure-ratio, 1.83-meter-(6-ft-) diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for use in STOL aircraft engines was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor-blade-tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator rows. The stage was run with four nozzles of different area. The perceived noise along a 152.4 meter (500-ft) sideline was rear-quadrant dominated with a maximum design-point level of 103.9 PNdb. The acoustic 1/3-octave results were analytically separated into broadband and pure-tone components. It was found that the stage noise levels generally increase with a decrease in nozzle area, with this increase observed primarily in the broadband noise component. A stall condition was documented acoustically with a 90-percent-of-design-area nozzle.

  19. Aerodynamic and acoustic behavior of a YF-12 inlet at static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, L. H.; Feltz, E. P.; Godby, L. A.; Miller, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    An aeroacoustic test program to determine the cause of YF-12 inlet noise suppression was performed with a YF-12 aircraft at ground static conditions. Data obtained over a wide range of engine speeds and inlet configurations are reported. Acoustic measurements were made in the far field and aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were made inside the inlet. The J-58 test engine was removed from the aircraft and tested separately with a bellmouth inlet. The far field noise level was significantly lower for the YF-12 inlet than for the bellmouth inlet at engine speeds above 5500 rpm. There was no evidence that noise suppression was caused by flow choking. Multiple pure tones were reduced and the spectral peak near the blade passing frequency disappeared in the region of the spike support struts at engine speeds between 6000 and 6600 rpm.

  20. Physics of badminton shuttlecocks. Part 1 : aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    We study experimentally shuttlecocks dynamics. In this part we show that shuttlecock trajectory is highly different from classical parabola. When one takes into account the aerodynamic drag, the flight of the shuttlecock quickly curves downwards and almost reaches a vertical asymptote. We solve the equation of motion with gravity and drag at high Reynolds number and find an analytical expression of the reach. At high velocity, this reach does not depend on velocity anymore. Even if you develop your muscles you will not manage to launch the shuttlecock very far because of the ``aerodynamic wall.'' As a consequence you can predict the length of the field. We then discuss the extend of the aerodynamic wall to other projectiles like sports balls and its importance.

  1. Wind turbine aerodynamics research needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, F. S.; Porter, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    A prioritized list is developed for wind turbine aerodynamic research needs and opportunities which could be used by the Department of Energy program management team in detailing the DOE Five-Year Wind Turbine Research Plan. The focus of the Assessment was the basic science of aerodynamics as applied to wind turbines, including all relevant phenomena, such as turbulence, dynamic stall, three-dimensional effects, viscosity, wake geometry, and others which influence aerodynamic understanding and design. The study was restricted to wind turbines that provide electrical energy compatible with the utility grid, and included both horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). Also, no economic constraints were imposed on the design concepts or recommendations since the focus of the investigation was purely scientific.

  2. Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.

  3. History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.

  4. Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

    1996-01-01

    High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

  5. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    A Fourier analysis method was developed to analyze harmonic forced-oscillation data at high angles of attack as functions of the angle of attack and its time rate of change. The resulting aerodynamic responses at different frequencies are used to build up the aerodynamic models involving time integrals of the indicial type. An efficient numerical method was also developed to evaluate these time integrals for arbitrary motions based on a concept of equivalent harmonic motion. The method was verified by first using results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional linear theories. The developed models for C sub L, C sub D, and C sub M based on high-alpha data for a 70 deg delta wing in harmonic motions showed accurate results in reproducing hysteresis. The aerodynamic models are further verified by comparing with test data using ramp-type motions.

  6. Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Walters, R.E.; Wolfe, W.P.

    1983-03-01

    An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were corrected to section coefficients for comparison to published rectilinear flow data. Although the airfoil sections were symmetrical, moment coefficients were not zero and the lift and drag curves were asymmetrical about zero lift coefficient and angle of attack. These features verified the predicted virtual camber and incidence phenomena. Boundary-layer centrifugal effects were manifested by discontinuous lift curves and large differences in the angle of zero lift between th NACA 0015 and elliptical airfoils. It was concluded that rectilinear flow aerodynamic data are not applicable to Darrieus turbine blades, even for small chord-to-radius ratios.

  7. Photogrammetry of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Littell, Justin D.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, two large-scale models of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic decelerator were tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. One of the objectives of this test was to measure model deflections under aerodynamic loading that approximated expected flight conditions. The measurements were acquired using stereo photogrammetry. Four pairs of stereo cameras were mounted inside the NFAC test section, each imaging a particular section of the HIAD. The views were then stitched together post-test to create a surface deformation profile. The data from the photogram- metry system will largely be used for comparisons to and refinement of Fluid Structure Interaction models. This paper describes how a commercial photogrammetry system was adapted to make the measurements and presents some preliminary results.

  8. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  9. Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1995-01-01

    The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.

  10. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  11. Aerodynamic/acoustic performance of YJ101/double bypass VCE with coannular plug nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vdoviak, J. W.; Knott, P. R.; Ebacker, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test and a Coannular Nozzle test performed on a YJ101 Double Bypass Variable Cycle Engine are reported. These components are intended for use on a Variable Cycle Engine. The forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test demonstrated the mode shifting capability between single and double bypass operation with less than predicted aerodynamic losses in the bypass duct. The acoustic nozzle test demonstrated that coannular noise suppression was between 4 and 6 PNdB in the aft quadrant. The YJ101 VCE equipped with the forward VABI and the coannular exhaust nozzle performed as predicted with exhaust system aerodynamic losses lower than predicted both in single and double bypass modes. Extensive acoustic data were collected including far field, near field, sound separation/ internal probe measurements as Laser Velocimeter traverses.

  12. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  13. Silicon carbide whiskers: Characterization and aerodynamic behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.S.; Smith, S.M.; Johnson, N.F.; Powell, Q.H.

    1995-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) whiskers are fiberlike materials with a wide range of industrial applications. Industrial hygiene samplings of the material are taken to monitor and control possible exposures to workers. This study characterizes an SiC whisker in detail, including its width-length distribution, aspect ratio, particle density, and aerodynamic size distribution. The SiC whiskers were aerosolized, and samples from a filter, cascade impactor, and aerosol centrifuge were taken. The diameter-length distribution of SiC fibers determined by electron microscopy from filter samples was found to follow the bivariate lognormal distribution. The aerodynamic size of a fiber aerosol depends not only on the particle dimension and density but also on the orientation of its axis with respect to flow. The results show that the aerodynamic size distribution obtained from the impactor was consistent with the predicted value, assuming the long axis of the fiber was parallel to the flow toward the collection substrate. On the other hand, the aerodynamic size in the aerosol centrifuge was consistent with results for a perpendicular orientation. A larger aerodynamic size (20--25%) was obtained in the case of impactor data as compared with centrifuge data. The respirable fraction estimated from the cascade impactor data was 65%, consistent with the estimate from bivariate analysis (67%) but smaller than the estimated fraction from the aerosol centrifuge (76%). The results show that the data obtained with the bivariate analysis of fiber dimensions had good correlation with the cascade impactor data, and this approach can be used to predict the aerodynamic size distribution and the size-selective fractions for fiber aerosols from filter samples.

  14. Method of reducing drag in aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrach, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In the present method, boundary layer thickening is combined with laminar flow control to reduce drag. An aerodynamic body is accelerated enabling a ram turbine on the body to receive air at velocity V sub 0. The discharge air is directed over an aft portion of the aerodynamic body producing boundary layer thickening. The ram turbine also drives a compressor by applying torque to a shaft connected between the ram turbine and the compressor. The compressor sucks in lower boundary layer air through inlets in the shell of the aircraft producing laminar flow control and reducing drag. The discharge from the compressor is expanded in a nozzle to produce thrust.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the numerical simulations of unsteady aerodynamic models. The results focus on numerical accuracy and efficiency, and the robustness of the numerical methods. The aerodynamic models includes the classical Wagner and Kussner functions and the Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model. The simulations includes the numerical approximations of the Duhamel's integrals using both indicial (step) and impulse responses, the numerical integrations of the state-space models, and the exact solutions. The report also presents the conversion among different model representations.

  16. Influence of aerodynamic forces in ice shedding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scavuzzo, R. J.; Chu, M. L.; Ananthaswamy, V.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses in accreted ice on a typical airfoil impact ice caused by aerodynamic forces have been studied using finite element analyses. The objective of this study is to determine the significance of these stresses relative to values needed to cause ice shedding. In the case studied, stresses are not significant (less than 10 percent) when compared to the fracture value for airspeeds below a Mach number of 0.45. Above this velocity, the influence of aerodynamic forces on impact ice stresses should be considered in analyses of ice shedding.

  17. Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.

  18. Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.

  19. Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The combined experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.

    1994-08-01

    Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by such machines. The analysis showed that inflow conditions were extremely variable and that these inflows yielded three different operational regimes. Each regime produces very different aerodynamic loading conditions that must be tolerated by the turbine. The two conditions not predicted from wind tunnel data are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators.

  20. Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.

  1. Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.; Cunningham, H. J.; Yates, E. C. J.; Morino, L.; Preuss, R. D.; Smolka, S. A.; Tseng, K.; Averick, J.

    1982-01-01

    Computer program SOUSSA-P (Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics--Production Version) accurately and efficiently evaluates steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads on aircraft having arbitrary shapes and motions, including structural deformations.

  2. Aerodynamic Modeling for Aircraft in Unsteady Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in unsteady aerodynamic modeling and application of unsteady aerodynamic models to flight dynamics. A public on briefing was presented on July 21, 1999 at Langley Research Center.

  3. Nature-Inspired Airfoils for Environmental Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Suyeong; Kyung, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of environmental engineering and aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present work, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings are conducted by utilizing numerical and computational simulation. The e-AIRS [6] (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) gives a balanced service between computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. This paper presents the wing motions and their aerodynamics with a two dimensional approach to reduce environmental noise during the airflight. Also this paper shows an optimal phase angle, where the thrust is maximized at the position of minimized drag, which occurs when noise is minimized. Aside from the two-dimensional approach, stroke angles and phase angles of the airfoils are set as parameters, to determine which motion yields the best aerodynamic characteristics.

  4. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming events are highlighted, including tests of the Highly Variable Cycle Mixer-Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. Other key events are milestones to be delivered within the next calendar year.

  5. Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.

  6. Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex-shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.

  7. Efficient Helicopter Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Predictions on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, Andrew M.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.; Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents parallel implementations of two codes used in a combined CFD/Kirchhoff methodology to predict the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics properties of helicopters. The rotorcraft Navier-Stokes code, TURNS, computes the aerodynamic flowfield near the helicopter blades and the Kirchhoff acoustics code computes the noise in the far field, using the TURNS solution as input. The overall parallel strategy adds MPI message passing calls to the existing serial codes to allow for communication between processors. As a result, the total code modifications required for parallel execution are relatively small. The biggest bottleneck in running the TURNS code in parallel comes from the LU-SGS algorithm that solves the implicit system of equations. We use a new hybrid domain decomposition implementation of LU-SGS to obtain good parallel performance on the SP-2. TURNS demonstrates excellent parallel speedups for quasi-steady and unsteady three-dimensional calculations of a helicopter blade in forward flight. The execution rate attained by the code on 114 processors is six times faster than the same cases run on one processor of the Cray C-90. The parallel Kirchhoff code also shows excellent parallel speedups and fast execution rates. As a performance demonstration, unsteady acoustic pressures are computed at 1886 far-field observer locations for a sample acoustics problem. The calculation requires over two hundred hours of CPU time on one C-90 processor but takes only a few hours on 80 processors of the SP2. The resultant far-field acoustic field is analyzed with state of-the-art audio and video rendering of the propagating acoustic signals.

  8. Global Design Optimization for Aerodynamics and Rocket Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Modern computational and experimental tools for aerodynamics and propulsion applications have matured to a stage where they can provide substantial insight into engineering processes involving fluid flows, and can be fruitfully utilized to help improve the design of practical devices. In particular, rapid and continuous development in aerospace engineering demands that new design concepts be regularly proposed to meet goals for increased performance, robustness and safety while concurrently decreasing cost. To date, the majority of the effort in design optimization of fluid dynamics has relied on gradient-based search algorithms. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space, can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables, and methods for predicting the model performance. In this article, we review recent progress made in establishing suitable global optimization techniques employing neural network and polynomial-based response surface methodologies. Issues addressed include techniques for construction of the response surface, design of experiment techniques for supplying information in an economical manner, optimization procedures and multi-level techniques, and assessment of relative performance between polynomials and neural networks. Examples drawn from wing aerodynamics, turbulent diffuser flows, gas-gas injectors, and supersonic turbines are employed to help demonstrate the issues involved in an engineering design context. Both the usefulness of the existing knowledge to aid current design practices and the need for future research are identified.

  9. Unsteady aerodynamic loading of a tension leg platform

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, B.J.; Barnes, F.H.; Drabble, M.J.; Grant, I.

    1983-05-01

    A model study has been made of the aerodynamic loads experienced by a typical TLP superstructure. Details are given of extreme quasi-static aerodynamic loads induced under extreme conditions and the aerodynamic admittance function relating the spectrum of drag force to the wind gust spectrum.

  10. Index for aerodynamic data from the Bumblebee program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Barnes, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Bumblebee program, was designed to provide a supersonic guided missile. The aerodynamics program included a fundamental research effort in supersonic aerodynamics as well as a design task in developing both test vehicles and prototypes of tactical missiles. An index of aerodynamic missile data developed in this program is presented.

  11. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371... Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the...

  12. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371... Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the...

  13. 14 CFR 23.371 - Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 23.371... Flight Loads § 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the gyroscopic, inertial, and aerodynamic loads that result, with the...

  14. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...

  15. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...

  16. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  17. Prediction of XV-15 tilt rotor discrete frequency aeroacoustic noise with WOPWOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1990-01-01

    The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The mechanisms studied were thickness and loading noise. In particular, the loading noise caused by flow separation and the fountain/ground plane effect were predicted with calculations made using WOPWOP, a noise prediction program developed by NASA Langley. The methodology was to model the geometry and aerodynamics of the XV-15 rotor blades in hover and steady level flight and then create corresponding FORTRAN subroutines which were used an input for WOPWOP. The models are described and the simplifying assumptions made in creating them are evaluated, and the results of the computations are presented. The computations lead to the following conclusions: The fountain/ground plane effect is an important source of aerodynamic noise for the XV-15 in hover. Unsteady flow separation from the airfoil passing through the fountain at high angles of attack significantly affects the predicted sound spectra and may be an important noise mechanism for the XV-15 in hover mode. The various models developed did not predict the sound spectra in helicopter forward flight. The experimental spectra indicate the presence of blade vortex interactions which were not modeled in these calculations. A need for further study and development of more accurate aerodynamic models, including unsteady stall in hover and blade vortex interactions in forward flight.

  18. Numerical and experimental investigation on aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan with hollow blade root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhang; Jin, Yingzi; Huashu, Dou; Yuzhen, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To reduce the influence of adverse flow conditions at the fan hub and improve fan aerodynamic performance, a modification of conventional axial fan blades with numerical and experimental investigation is presented. Hollow blade root is manufactured near the hub. The numerical and experimental results show that hollow blade root has some effect on the static performance. Static pressure of the modified fan is generally the same with that of the datum fan, while, the efficiency curve of the modified fan has a different trend with that of the datum fan. The highest efficiency of the modified fan is 10% greater than that of the datum fan. The orthogonal experimental results of fan noise show that hollow blade root is a feasible method of reducing fan noise, and the maximum value of noise reduction is about 2 dB. The factors affecting the noise reduction of hollow blade root are in the order of importance as follows: hollow blade margin, hollow blade height and hollow blade width. The much smoother pressure distribution of the modified fan than that of the datum fan is the main mechanism of noise reduction of hollow blade root. The research results will provide the proof of the parameter optimization and the structure design for high performance and low noise small axial fans.

  19. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  20. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  1. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  2. A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.

  3. Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, R. O. (Editor); Johnsen, I. A.

    1965-01-01

    An overview of 'Aerodynamic systems design of axial flow compressors' is presented. Numerous chapters cover topics such as compressor design, ptotential and viscous flow in two dimensional cascades, compressor stall and blade vibration, and compressor flow theory. Theoretical aspects of flow are also covered.

  4. Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.

  5. Recent Experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J

    1925-01-01

    This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).

  6. Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William

    2011-09-01

    When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance. PMID:21936289

  7. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

  8. AERODYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS WITH AEROSOL CENTRIFUGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. he sites of deposition in the human respiratory system are primarily related to the mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhaled particle siz...

  9. Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles

    DOEpatents

    Brockmann, John E.; Torczynski, John R.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Neiser, Richard A.; Smith, Mark F.

    2002-01-01

    A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

  10. An aerodynamic load criterion for airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.

  11. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  12. User's guide to program FLEXSTAB. [aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavin, R. K., III; Colunga, D.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented for correctly submitting program runs in aerodynamics on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system. All major program modules are included. Control cards are documented for the user's convenience, and card parameters are included in order to provide some idea as to reasonable time estimates for the program modules.

  13. Current CFD efforts in projectile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nietubicz, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts in projectile aerodynamics. Topics covered include spinning projectiles, fin stabilized projectiles, model geometry, the variation of base drag with base bleed, the variation of normal force with Mach number, and chordwise pressure distribution.

  14. Propeller and propfan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.; Amiet, R. K.

    1991-08-01

    The characteristics of propellers, their noise-generating mechanisms, propeller noise theories and calculation procedures, and sound propagation effects are described. Comparisons of predictions and measurements, and means for controlling propeller noise are described.

  15. Wind-tunnel measurement of noise emitted by helicopter rotors at high speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, J.

    Measurements of high-speed impulsive helicopter rotor noise in a wind-tunnel are presented. High-speed impulsive noise measurements have been performed in 1988 in the ONERA S2ch wind-tunnel, fitted with an acoustic lining, on two types of rotors. They show that substantial noise reduction is obtained with sweptback tips, initially designed for aerodynamic purposes, which lower transonic effects on the advancing blade tip. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of taking into account the acoustic annoyance problem, using noise prediction tools, when designing new helicopter blades.

  16. Noise reduction studies of several aircraft to reduce their aural detection distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingeldein, R. C.; Connor, A. B.; Hilton, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the extent to which practicable reductions of the external noise level of various aircraft could be achieved by different methods. The aircraft included in the study are the O-1, O-2, U-10, OV-1, and A-6. The noise signatures obtained from field measurements and the estimated aural detection distance of aircraft operating in low speed cruising flight are presented. The characteristics of each aircraft and the modifications made to reduce the aerodynamic noise are explained. Tables of data are included to show the effectiveness of the noise reduction modifications for each aircraft.

  17. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds

    PubMed Central

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-01-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  18. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-03-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  19. Aeroacoustics: Acoustic wave propagation; Aircraft noise prediction; Aeroacoustic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal with recent research into acoustic-wave propagation through the atmosphere and progress in aeroacoustic instrumentation, facilities, and test techniques. Topics include the propagation of aircraft noise over long distances in the lower atmosphere, measured effects of turbulence on the rise time of a weak shock, sound scattering from atmospheric turbulence, saturation effects associated with sound propagation in a turbulent medium, and a computer model of the lightning-thunder process. Other papers discuss the development of a computer system for aircraft noise prediction; aircraft flyover noise measurements; and theories and methods for the prediction of ground effects on aircraft noise propagation, for the prediction of airframe aerodynamic noise, for turbine noise prediction, and for combustion noise prediction. Attention is also given to the use of Hartmann generators as sources of high-intensity sound in a large absorption flow-duct facility, an outdoor jet noise facility, factors in the design and performance of free-jet acoustic wind tunnels, and the use of a laser shadowgraph for jet noise diagnosis.

  20. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  1. Rotor-strut interaction noise of a model fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Isomura, K.; Kodama, H.

    1986-07-01

    Rotor-strut interaction noise was studied by using modern turbofans with different strut configuration. It was shown that the potential perturbation field induced by fat strut has important effect on the generation of blade passing frequency tone which is usualy designed to be cut off by selecting appropriate stator vane number. This fact was further confirmed by the induct acoustic mode measurement. Semi-actuator disk approach for rotor blade row combined with singularity method well predicted the static pressure perturbation field. Quasi-steady calculation of rotor unsteady aerodynamic force due to down stream perturbation was also obtained as an interim step for the interaction noise estimation.

  2. Measurement of model propfan noise in high speed wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounet, H.; Lewy, S.

    A single-rotation 12-blade propfan whose blades were outfitted with pressure transducers has been tested in a transonic wind tunnel equipped with acoustic probes in order to ascertain both its acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics. The results thus obtained were compared with theoretical predictions for noise radiation. It is found that the nonanechoic environment of the wind tunnel degraded the acoustic results for far-field conditions; nevertheless, measurements in the propfan plane, around which noise radiation was maximum, appear to be valid. Substantial agreement is obtained between experimental results and both near- and far-field acoustic predictions.

  3. Experimental determination of the tonal noise sources in a centrifugal fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde-Suárez, Sandra; Ballesteros-Tajadura, Rafael; Pablo Hurtado-Cruz, Juan; Santolaria-Morros, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    In this work, an experimental study about the aerodynamic tonal noise sources in a centrifugal fan with backward-curved blades has been carried out. Acoustic pressure measurements at the fan exit duct and pressure fluctuation measurements on the volute surface have been made for different flow rates. A correlation study of both pressure signals has been made in order to explain some of the features of the aerodynamic tonal noise generation. A strong source of noise caused by the interaction between the fluctuating flow leaving the impeller and the volute tongue is appreciated. The unsteady forces exerted on the fan blades constitute another noise generation mechanism, which affects the whole extension of the impeller, thus transmitting pressure fluctuations to the entire volute casing. The relative importance of this mechanism compared to the impeller-tongue interaction depends on the flow rate.

  4. Acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan jet noise simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Stringas, E. J.; Brausch, J. F.; Staid, P. S.; Heck, P. H.; Latham, D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a static acoustic and aerodynamic performance, model-scale test program on coannular unsuppressed and multielement fan suppressed nozzle configurations are summarized. The results of the static acoustic tests show a very beneficial interaction effect. When the measured noise levels were compared with the predicted noise levels of two independent but equivalent conical nozzle flow streams, noise reductions for the unsuppressed coannular nozzles were of the order of 10 PNdB; high levels of suppression (8 PNdB) were still maintained even when only a small amount of core stream flow was used. The multielement fan suppressed coannular nozzle tests showed 15 PNdB noise reductions and up to 18 PNdB noise reductions when a treated ejector was added. The static aerodynamic performance tests showed that the unsuppressed coannular plug nozzles obtained gross thrust coefficients of 0.972, with 1.2 to 1.7 percent lower levels for the multielement fan-suppressed coannular flow nozzles. For the first time anywhere, laser velocimeter velocity profile measurements were made on these types of nozzle configurations and with supersonic heated flow conditions. Measurements showed that a very rapid decay in the mean velocity occurs for the nozzle tested.

  5. Scaling of airfoil self-noise using measured flow parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Marcolini, M. A.

    1985-02-01

    Data from an airfoil broadband self-noise study are reported. Attention here is restricted to two-dimensional models at zero angle of attack to the flow. The models include seven NACA 0012 airfoil sections and five flat plate sections with chordlengths ranging from 2.54 to 60.96 cm. Testing parameters include flow velocity to 71.3 m/s and boundary-layer turbulence through natural transition and by tripping. Detailed aerodynamic measurements are conducted in the near-wake of the sharp trailing edges. The noise spectra of the self-noise sources are determined by the use of a cross-spectral technique. The acoustic data are normalized using the measured aerodynamic parameters in order to evaluate a commonly used scaling law. An examination of the Reynolds number dependence of the normalized overall levels has revealed a useful scaling result. This result appears to quantify the transition between turbulent boundary-layer trailing-edge noise and laminar boundary-layer vortex shedding noise.

  6. Aeroacoustic Evaluation of Flap and Landing Gear Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Ravetta, Patricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements for a semi-span, 18% scale, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The model was used as a test bed to conduct detailed studies of flap and main landing gear noise sources and to determine the effectiveness of numerous noise mitigation concepts. Using a traversing microphone array in the flyover direction, an extensive set of acoustic data was obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the information was acquired with the model in a landing configuration with the flap deflected 39 deg and the main landing gear alternately installed and removed. Data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24 over directivity angles between 56 deg and 116 deg, with 90 deg representing the overhead direction. Measured acoustic spectra showed that several of the tested flap noise reduction concepts decrease the sound pressure levels by 2 - 4 dB over the entire frequency range at all directivity angles. Slightly lower levels of noise reduction from the main landing gear were obtained through the simultaneous application of various gear devices. Measured aerodynamic forces indicated that the tested gear/flap noise abatement technologies have a negligible impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  7. Recommended procedures for measuring aircraft noise and associated parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are recommended for obtaining experimental values of aircraft flyover noise levels (and associated parameters). Specific recommendations are made for test criteria, instrumentation performance requirements, data-acquisition procedures, and test operations. The recommendations are based on state-of-the-art measurement capabilities available in 1976 and are consistent with the measurement objectives of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. The recommendations are applicable to measurements of the noise produced by an airplane flying subsonically over (or past) microphones located near the surface of the ground. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations are fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines and using conventional aerodynamic means for takeoff and landing. Various assumptions with respect to subsequent data processing and analysis were made (and are described) and the recommended measurement procedures are compatible with the assumptions. Some areas where additional research is needed relative to aircraft flyover noise measurement techniques are also discussed.

  8. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  9. A study of helicopter main rotor noise in hover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaplioglu, C.; Kinney, C.

    1986-07-01

    Some fundamental aspects of rotor noise generation and radiation are presented. Data on which the study is based were obtained during a hover test at the NASA Ames Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility of a one-sixth-scale, four-bladed, helicopter rotor. The test site provided an open environment ideal for acquiring good acoustic data. Information is presented on the delineation between the acoustic near-field and far-field, and on the effect of a simple boundary-layer trip device. Data obtained at near-zero thrust conditions indicate that it is possible to isolate thickness noise with minimum contamination by loading noise effects. An abrupt change in the nature of the emitted noise at high-thrust conditions is investigated and is related to unsteady wake/support interaction.

  10. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products intended to further improve efficiency, lower costs, and enhance durability. Resulting products demonstrated a 30% efficiency improvement in full scale wind tunnel tests. The fuel savings of our most promising product, the “Belly Fairing” increased from 4% to 6% in scientific track and operational tests. The project successfully demonstrated the economic feasibility of trailer aerodynamics and positioned the technology to realize significant public benefits. Scientific testing conducted with partners such as the EPA Smartway program and Transport Canada clearly validated the fuel and emission saving potential of the technology. The Smartway program now recommends trailer aerodynamics as a certified fuel saving technology and is offering incentives such as low interest loans. Trailer aerodynamics can save average trucks over 1,100 gallons of fuel an 13 tons of emissions every 100,000 miles, a distance many trucks travel annually. These fuel savings produce a product return on investment period of one to two years in average fleet operations. The economic feasibility of the products was validated by participating fleets, several of which have since completed large implementations or demonstrated an interest in volume orders. The commercialization potential of the technology was also demonstrated, resulting in a national distribution and manufacturing partnership with a major industry supplier, Carrier Transicold. Consequently, Freight Wing is well positioned to continue marketing trailer aerodynamics to the trucking industry. The participation of leading fleets in this project served to break down the market skepticism that represents a primary barrier to widespread industry utilization. The benefits of widespread utilization of the technology could be quite significant for both the transportation industry and the public. Trailer aerodynamics could potentially save the U.S. trucking fleet over a billion gallons of fuel and 20 million tons of emissions annually.

  11. Minimal noise subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Byrd, Mark; Jacobs, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    A system subjected to noise contains a decoherence-free subspace or subsystem (DFS) only if the noise possesses an exact symmetry. Here we consider noise models in which a perturbation breaks a symmetry of the noise, so that if S is a DFS under a given noise process it is no longer so under the new perturbed noise process. We ask whether there is a subspace or subsystem that is more robust to the perturbed noise than S . To answer this question we develop a numerical method that allows us to search for subspaces or subsystems that are maximally robust to arbitrary noise processes. We apply this method to a number of examples, and find that a subsystem that is a DFS is often not the subsystem that experiences minimal noise when the symmetry of the noise is broken by a perturbation. We discuss which classes of noise have this property.

  12. Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not appear to offer any advantages over the use of FSGF at the present stage of development. It is suggested here that the applications of EGF for airframe noise analysis be continued. As an example pertinent to airframe noise prediction, the Fast Scattering Code of NASA Langley is utilized to obtain the EGF numerically on the surface of a three dimensional wing with a flap and leading edge slat in uniform rectilinear motion. The interpretation and use of these numerical Green functions are then discussed.

  13. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  14. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center noise test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the noise results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.

  15. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  16. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  17. Noise, Health, and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranek, Leo L.

    There is reasonable agreement that hearing impairment is related to noise exposure. This hearing loss due to noise is considered a serious health injury, but there is still difficulty in delineating the importance of noise related to people's general non-auditory well-being and health. Beside hearing loss, noise inhibits satisfactory speech…

  18. Effect of blade wrap angle on efficiency and noise of small radial fan impellers—A computational and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheit, C.; Karic, B.; Becker, S.

    2012-02-01

    Radial impellers have several technical applications. Regarding their aerodynamic performance, they are well optimized nowadays, but this is in general not true regarding acoustics. This work was therefore concerned with analyzing the flow structures inside isolated radial impellers together with the far-field sound radiated from them in order to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance. Both numerical and experimental techniques were applied in order to study the effect of varying wrap angle and otherwise identical geometric configuration on aerodynamics and acoustics of the radial impellers. The results give a detailed insight into the processes leading to sound generation in radial impellers. Measurements were performed using laser Doppler anemometry for the flow field and microphone measurements to analyze the radiated noise. In addition, unsteady aerodynamic simulations were carried out to calculate the compressible flow field. An acoustic analogy was employed to compute far-field noise. Finally, the phenomena responsible for tonal noise and the role of the wrap angle could be identified. Using this knowledge, design guidelines are given to optimize the impeller with respect to the radiated noise. This work shows that improved aerodynamic efficiency for isolated impellers does not automatically lead to a smaller flow-induced sound radiation.

  19. Specialized computer architectures for computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years, computational fluid dynamics has made significant progress in modelling aerodynamic phenomena. Currently, one of the major barriers to future development lies in the compute-intensive nature of the numerical formulations and the relative high cost of performing these computations on commercially available general purpose computers, a cost high with respect to dollar expenditure and/or elapsed time. Today's computing technology will support a program designed to create specialized computing facilities to be dedicated to the important problems of computational aerodynamics. One of the still unresolved questions is the organization of the computing components in such a facility. The characteristics of fluid dynamic problems which will have significant impact on the choice of computer architecture for a specialized facility are reviewed.

  20. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P G; Miller, L S; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  1. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  2. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  3. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  4. Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Schatzle, P.R.; Klimas, P.C.; Spahr, H.R.

    1981-04-01

    The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the cases examined, the calculations showed that the downwind turbine power decrement (1) was significant only when the line of turbine centers was coincident with the ambient wind direction, (2) increased with increasing tipspeed ratio, and (3) is due more to induced flow angularities downstream than to speed deficits near the downstream turbine.

  5. Aerodynamics of Seeing on Large Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts were undertaken to obtain a set of data that examined the level of turbulence and the scale sizes in the shear layer existing over the fence quieted cavity on the NASA-Ames Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). These data were to be taken during the present study and compared with data taken from previous wind tunnel experiments, for which both aerodynamic and direct optical measurements were made. The data obtained during the present study were presented and discussed in light of their impact on the quality of optical images, that is, seeing through the shear layer. In addition, scaling relationships were presented that allow optical data obtained in one aerodynamic environment to be estimated for another one at perhaps different Mach numbers, scale sizes, or aircraft configurations.

  6. Aerodynamics of the Mars Microprobe Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.; Moss, J. N.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Greene, F. A.; Braun, R. D.

    1997-01-01

    The selection of the unique aeroshell shape for the Mars Microprobes is discussed. A description of its aerodynamics in hypersonic rarefied, hypersonic continuum, supersonic and transonic flow regimes is then presented. This description is based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo analyses in the rarefied-flow regime, thermochemical nonequilibrium Computational Fluid Dynamics in the hypersonic regime, existing wind tunnel data in the supersonic and transonic regime, additional computational work in the transonic regime, and finally, ballistic range data. The aeroshell is shown to possess the correct combination of aerodynamic stability and drag to convert the probe's initial tumbling attitude and high velocity at atmospheric-interface into the desired surface-impact orientation and velocity.

  7. Aerodynamic breakup of liquid jets - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utreja, L. R.; Harmon, D. B.

    1990-06-01

    There are many applications for which it is important to understand the breakup of a liquid glob or jet into droplets (e.g., propulsion, control, and cooling of system components). The aerodynamic breakup of liquids is a complex process and is affected by the geometry, flow conditions and the liquid properties. This paper summarizes the results of several studies on the subject and discusses features of the phenomena which appear to be possible mechanisms in the liquid breakup process. The acceleration waves are the most likely mechanism responsible for the liquid breakup with secondary influence from the liquid properties, surface tension and viscosity. Correlations are presented for predicting the stability of liquid drops and breakup conditions. The results of this analysis will help toward better understanding of the role of aerodynamic forces in the breakup of liquids.

  8. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-03-07

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

  9. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  10. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

  11. An Interactive Educational Tool for Compressible Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive educational tool was developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. The tool solves for the supersonic flow past a wedge using the equations found in NACA 1135. The student varies the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the variation of flow results to the student. One such format leads the student to the generation of some of the graphs found in NACA-1135. The tool includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use. This paper will detail the numerical methods used in the tool and describe how it can be used and modified.

  12. Parameter identification and modeling of longitudinal aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksteter, J. W.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the equation error method using multiple linear regression to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The formulated math model structure adhered closely to aerodynamic and stability/control theory, particularly with regard to compressibility and dynamic manoeuvring. Validation was accomplished by using a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear flight simulator with pilot inputs from flight test data. The simulation models agreed quite well with the measured states. It is important to note that the flight test data used for the validation of the model was not used in the model identification.

  13. Aerodynamic shape optimization of arbitrary hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.; Sheffer, Scott G.

    1991-01-01

    A new method was developed to optimize, in terms of aerodynamic wave drag minimization, arbitrary (nonaxisymmetric) hypersonic vehicles in modified Newtonian flow, while maintaining the initial volume and length of the vehicle. This new method uses either a surface fitted Fourier series to represent the vehicle's geometry or an independent point motion algorithm. In either case, the coefficients of the Fourier series or the spatial locations of the points defining each cross section were varied and a numerical optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton gradient search concept was used to determine the new optimal configuration. Results indicate a significant decrease in aerodynamic wave drag for simple and complex geometries at relatively low CPU costs. In the case of a cone, the results agreed well with known analytical optimum ogive shapes. The procedure is capable of accepting more complex flow field analysis codes.

  14. Aerodynamic interactions with turbulent jet exhaust plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of aerodynamic interactions associated with external flow-field effects on turbulent jet exhaust plume structure is discussed. A viscous/inviscid prediction technique is presented which combines the overlaid mixing and inviscid plume components of the JANNAF Standardized Plume Flow-Field (SPF) model with inviscid external flow and boundary-layer analyses for treating nozzle afterbodies at subsonic/transonic speeds. Validation of the technique via comparisons between predictions and experiment for cold-air jet plumes is presented. Predicted spatial temperature distributions for hot, nonafterburning plumes are presented and compared to results obtained from more simplified prediction techniques in order to assess the importance of the aerodynamic interactions associated with external boundary layers and pressure gradients. It is demonstrated that these interactions play a significant role in determining the near-field turbulent mixing and inviscid plume shock structure. The implication of these results to plume radiation predictions is discussed.

  15. Exploratory study to induce fan noise in the test section of the NASA Langley full-scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ver, I. L.; Hayden, R. E.; Myles, M. M.; Murray, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measures to reduce the intensity of fan noise in the NASA Langley 30 ft x 60 ft subsonic wind tunnel were sought. Measurements were first performed to document existing aerodynamic and acoustic conditions. The purpose of these experiments was to (1) obtain the transfer function between the sound power output of the fan and the sound pressure on the test platform, (2) evaluate the sound attenuation around the tunnel circuit, (3) measure simultaneously the flow profile and the turbulence spectrum of the inflow to the fan and the noise on the test platform, and (4) perform flow observations and identify secondary noise sources. Subsequently, these data were used to predict (1) the relative contribution of the major aerodynamic parameters to total fan noise and (2) the effect of placing a dissipative silencer in the collector duct upstream of the fan. Promising noise control measures were identified and recommendations were made on how to evaluate them.

  16. Acoustic and aerodynamic study of a pusher-propeller aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Horne, W. Clifton

    1990-01-01

    An aerodynamic and acoustic study was made of a pusher-propeller aircraft model in the NASA-Ames 7 x 10 ft Wind Tunnel. The test section was changed to operate as an open jet. The 591 mm diameter unswept propeller was operated alone and in the wake of three empennages: an I tail, Y tail, and a V tail. The radiated noise and detailed wake properties were measured. Results indicate that the unsteady blade loading caused by the blade interactions with the wake mean velocity distribution had a strong effect on the harmonics of blade passage noise. The blade passage harmonics above the first were substantially increased in all horizontal directions by the empennage/propeller interaction. Directivity in the plane of the propeller was maximum perpendicular to the blade surface. Increasing the tail loading caused the propeller harmonics to increase 3 to 5 dB for an empennage/propeller spacing of 0.38 mean empennage chords. The interaction noise became weak as empennage propeller spacing was increased beyond 1.0 mean empennage chord lengths. Unlike the mean wake deficit, the wake turbulence had only a small effect on the propeller noise, that effect being a small increase in the broadband noise.

  17. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Performance of Two Choked-Flow Inlets Under Static Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.; Abbott, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of two choking flow inlets under static conditions. One inlet choked the flow in the cowl throat by an axial translation of the inlet centerbody. The other inlet employed a translating grid of airfoils to choke the flow. Both inlets were sized to fit a 13.97 cm diameter fan with a design weight flow of 2.49 kg/sec. The inlets were operated in both the choked and unchoked modes over a range of weight flows. Measurements were made of inlet pressure recovery, flow distortion, surface static pressure distribution, and fan noise suppression. Choking of the translating centerbody inlet reduced blade passing frequency noise by 29 db while yielding a total pressure recovery of 0.985. Noise reductions were also measured at 1/3-octave band center frequencies of 2500, 5000, and 20,000 cycles. The translating grid inlet gave a total pressure recovery of 0.968 when operating close to the choking weight flow. However, an intermittent high intensity noise source was encountered with this inlet that precluded an accurate measurement of inlet noise suppression.

  18. Assessment of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A component method of airframe noise prediction is used to predict levels of operational and proposed aircraft airframe noise to assess the contribution of airframe noise to community noise levels. This is done after first evaluating the prediction method using newly acquired detailed measurements from full-scale aircraft and models. In the course of the evaluation, modeling techniques of airframe noise sources are examined with attention to scaling. Finally, when used to predict approach airframe EPNLs, the levels fell about 10 EPNdB below current noise regulations and about 5 EPNdB below proposed noise regulations.

  19. Propulsive lift noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Martin R.

    1991-01-01

    Propulsive life noise is the increase in noise that occurs when airframe surfaces are placed in the propulsive system's exhaust to increase their lift force. Increased local flow velocities and turbulence levels, due to the propulsive system exhaust gases passing along the airframe lifting surfaces, cause an increase in maximum lift coefficient. The airplane's flight speed required for takeoff and landing can then be significantly reduced, allowing operation from shorter runways than those of conventional commercial airports. Unfortunately, interaction of high velocity turbulent exhaust flow with the airframe's solid surfaces generates additional noise radiation. Aeroacoustic processes that cause propulsive lift noise also are present in airframe noise and propulsive system installation noise. Research studies of propulsive lift noise led to development of improved methods of predicting noise radiation from surfaces in turbulent flows. Noise reduction and prediction methods of aircraft noise are discussed.

  20. Propulsive lift noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Martin R.

    1991-08-01

    Propulsive life noise is the increase in noise that occurs when airframe surfaces are placed in the propulsive system's exhaust to increase their lift force. Increased local flow velocities and turbulence levels, due to the propulsive system exhaust gases passing along the airframe lifting surfaces, cause an increase in maximum lift coefficient. The airplane's flight speed required for takeoff and landing can then be significantly reduced, allowing operation from shorter runways than those of conventional commercial airports. Unfortunately, interaction of high velocity turbulent exhaust flow with the airframe's solid surfaces generates additional noise radiation. Aeroacoustic processes that cause propulsive lift noise also are present in airframe noise and propulsive system installation noise. Research studies of propulsive lift noise led to development of improved methods of predicting noise radiation from surfaces in turbulent flows. Noise reduction and prediction methods of aircraft noise are discussed.

  1. Flight-Test Fixture For Aerodynamic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richwine, David M.; Del Frate, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Second-generation flight-test fixture (FTF-II) developed to be used as generic test bed for research in aerodynamics and fluid mechanics. Highly instrumented finlike structure mounted on lower fuselage surface of F-15B airplane. Modular configuration makes possible to modify FTF-II to satisfy variety of flight-test requirements. Fixture used at airspeeds up to mach 2.0.

  2. Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic breakup of liquid sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic, aerodynamic and liquid surface forces on the mean drop diameter of water sprays that are produced by the breakup of nonswirling and swirling water sheets in quiescent air and in airflows similar to those encountered in gas turbine combustors is investigated. The mean drop diameter is used to characterize fuel sprays and it is a very important factor in determining the performance and exhaust emissions of gas turbine combustors.

  3. Advances in modeling aerodynamic decelerator dynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Viking entry vehicle uses a lines-first type of deployment in which the parachute, packed in a deployment bag, gets ejected rearward from the vehicle by a mortar. As the bag moves rearward, first the lines are unfurled and then the canopy. An analysis of the unfurling process is conducted, giving attention to longitudinal and rotational dynamics. It is shown that analytical modeling of aerodynamic systems provides significant information for a better understanding of the physics of the deployment process.

  4. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2005-02-15

    A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

  5. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  6. The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

    2005-06-01

    Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight costs. PMID:15939772

  7. Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

  8. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  9. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  10. Aerodynamically balanced ailerons for a commuter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinne, Erkki

    2001-08-01

    This review paper describes the state of designing aerodynamically balanced ailerons with a practical application to commuter aircraft, with Saab 2000 being used as an example. A modern design method is presented based on the application of CFD computations to determine the aileron aerodynamic data combined with flight mechanical simulations to study the impact on airplane rolling maneuvers and aileron dynamics. Dynamic response of aileron deflection, airplane roll rate and roll acceleration to the applied wheel force is determined by frequency analysis. A review on the design requirements on ailerons and practical design considerations is presented. The CFD computations are described in detail with comparisons against wind tunnel experiments and flight tests for validation of the methodology. Description of the flight mechanical simulation system includes the modeling of the aileron control system. The frequency analysis summarizes the equations of the employed Fourier analysis, spectrum analysis and system identification. Numerical results are presented on aileron hinge moment coefficient, airplane rolling moment coefficient, wheel force in sideslip and rolling maneuvers and gain and phase lag in frequency analysis results to highlight the key discussion points including the effects of aileron control system and aileron and tab gap sizes. Overall, aerodynamically balanced ailerons, together with a mechanical control system, offer large cost savings on small- and medium-sized airplanes.

  11. Aerodynamic sampling for landmine trace detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary S.; Kester, Douglas A.

    2001-10-01

    Electronic noses and similar sensors show promise for detecting buried landmines through the explosive trace signals they emit. A key step in this detection is the sampler or sniffer, which acquires the airborne trace signal and presents it to the detector. Practicality demands no physical contact with the ground. Further, both airborne particulates and molecular traces must be sampled. Given a complicated minefield terrain and microclimate, this becomes a daunting chore. Our prior research on canine olfactory aerodynamics revealed several ways that evolution has dealt with such problems: 1) proximity of the sniffer to the scent source is important, 2) avoid exhaling back into the scent source, 3) use an aerodynamic collar on the sniffer inlet, 4) use auxiliary airjets to stir up surface particles, and 5) manage the 'impedance mismatch' between sniffer and sensor airflows carefully. Unfortunately, even basic data on aerodynamic sniffer performance as a function of inlet-tube and scent-source diameters, standoff distance, etc., have not been previously obtained. A laboratory-prototype sniffer was thus developed to provide guidance for landmine trace detectors. Initial experiments with this device are the subject of this paper. For example, a spike in the trace signal is observed upon starting the sniffer airflow, apparently due to rapid depletion of the available signal-laden air. Further, shielding the sniffer from disruptive ambient airflows arises as a key issue in sampling efficiency.

  12. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  13. Improving the aerodynamics of top fuel dragsters

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.C.; Kohlman, D.L.; Kenner, M.T.

    1998-07-01

    The standard drag race is a straight ahead quarter mile race from a standing stop. As engine technology has improved, the speeds attained at the end of the quarter mile have increased. As the speed has increased, the importance of aerodynamic effects on the dragster has also increased. Lift and drag are the two primary aerodynamic effects. Lift is produced vertically downward to increase the normal force on the rear wheels, thereby increasing the ability to transmit energy from the engine through the wheels to the racetrack. Drag is an unwanted aerodynamic effect. Drag is produced by viscous interaction between the dragster and the air, by separation causing profile drag, and as a result of the lift being produced. This paper addresses the mechanisms of lift and drag production by a high speed dragster and proposes some design changes that can decrease the drag while maintaining the necessary negative lift. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on dragster models confirm that reductions in drag can be achieved. The effects of these changes on the elapsed time and final speed are estimated using a computer simulation of a quarter mile drag race. The simulation predicts a decrease in elapsed time of almost 0.1 seconds and an increase in top speed of approximately 10 miles per hour.

  14. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  15. High angle of attack hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    A new aerodynamics force model is presented which is based on modified Newtonian theory and empirical correlations. The algebraic model was developed for complete vehicles from take off to orbital speeds and for large angles of attack. Predictions are compared to results for a wind tunnel model at a Mach number of 20, and the full scale Shuttle Orbiter for Mach numbers from 0.25 to 20 for angles of attack from 0 to 50 deg. The maximum shuttle orbiter lift/drag at Mach 10 and 20 is 1.85 at 20-deg angle-of-attack. Aerodynamic force predictions are made for a transatmospheric vehicle, which is a derivative of the Shuttle Orbiter, for Mach numbers from 4 to 27 at angles of attack from 5 to 40 deg. Predicted aerodynamic force data indicate that lift/drag ratios of 5.2 at Mach number 10 and 3.6 at Mach number 26 are obtainable. Changes in force coefficients with changes in: nose angle, sweep angle, and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area are quantified for Mach numbers of 10 and 26. Lift/drag ratios increase with decreasing nose angle and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area and increasing wing sweep angle. Lift/drag ratios are independent of these variables for angles of attack in excess of 20 deg at Mach 10 and 30 deg at Mach 26.

  16. Aircraft engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennepohl, F.

    An overview of the main aircraft engine noise sources is given. Special emphasis is devoted to turbomachinery/rotor noise, which plays an important role in all engine concepts appropriate to regional aircraft, such as turbofans, propellers, or new propfan engine concepts. The noise generating mechanisms, including propagation within the engine, and calculation methods used are described. Noise reduction methods are considered, with emphasis on cutoff design of turbomachines. Some noise features of counter rotating propellers and swept rotor blades are mentioned.

  17. A new aerodynamic integral equation based on an acoustic formula in the time domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.

    1984-01-01

    An aerodynamic integral equation for bodies moving at transonic and supersonic speeds is presented. Based on a time-dependent acoustic formula for calculating the noise emanating from the outer portion of a propeller blade travelling at high speed (the Ffowcs Williams-Hawking formulation), the loading terms and a conventional thickness source terms are retained. Two surface and three line integrals are employed to solve an equation for the loading noise. The near-field term is regularized using the collapsing sphere approach to obtain semiconvergence on the blade surface. A singular integral equation is thereby derived for the unknown surface pressure, and is amenable to numerical solutions using Galerkin or collocation methods. The technique is useful for studying the nonuniform inflow to the propeller.

  18. A Survey of Challenges in Aerodynamic Exhaust Nozzle Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyne, Rickey J.

    2002-01-01

    The current paper discusses aerodynamic exhaust nozzle technology challenges for aircraft and space propulsion systems. Technology advances in computational and experimental methods have led to more accurate design and analysis tools, but many major challenges continue to exist in nozzle performance, jet noise and weight reduction. New generations of aircraft and space vehicle concepts dictate that exhaust nozzles have optimum performance, low weight and acceptable noise signatures. Numerous innovative nozzle concepts have been proposed for advanced subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic vehicle configurations such as ejector, mixer-ejector, plug, single expansion ramp, altitude compensating, lobed and chevron nozzles. This paper will discuss the technology barriers that exist for exhaust nozzles as well as current research efforts in place to address the barriers.

  19. A New Formulation of the Filter-Error Method for Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of the filter-error method for estimating aerodynamic parameters in nonlinear aircraft dynamic models during turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses an estimate of the measurement noise covariance to identify the model parameters, their uncertainties, and the process noise covariance, in a relaxation method analogous to the output-error method. Prior information on the model parameters and uncertainties can be supplied, and a post-estimation correction to the uncertainty was included to account for colored residuals not considered in the theory. No tuning parameters, needing adjustment by the analyst, are used in the estimation. The method was demonstrated in simulation using the NASA Generic Transport Model, then applied to the subscale T-2 jet-engine transport aircraft flight. Modeling results in different levels of turbulence were compared with results from time-domain output error and frequency- domain equation error methods to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  20. Aerodynamic and acoustic investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular exhaust nozzle models and development of aerodynamic and acoustic prediction procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. S.; Nelson, D. P.; Stevens, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Five co-annular nozzle models, covering a systematic variation of nozzle geometry, were tested statically over a range of exhaust conditions including inverted velocity profile (IVP) (fan to primary stream velocity ratio 1) and non IVP profiles. Fan nozzle pressure ratio (FNPR) was varied from 1.3 to 4.1 at primary nozzle pressure ratios (PNPR) of 1.53 and 2.0. Fan stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R) and 1089 K(1960 deg R) were tested with primary stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R), 811 K (1460 deg R), and 1089 K (1960 deg R). At fan and primary stream velocities of 610 and 427 m/sec (2000 and 1400 ft/sec), respectively, increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced peak perceived noise level (PNL) 3 dB, and an increase in primary radius ratio from 0 to 0.81 (fan radius ratio constant at 0.83) reduced peak PNL an additional 1.0 dB. There were no noise reductions at a fan stream velocity of 853 m/sec (2800 ft/sec). Increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced nozzle thrust coefficient 1.2 to 1.5% at a PNPR of 1.53, and 1.7 to 2.0% at a PNPR of 2.0. The developed acoustic prediction procedure collapsed the existing data with standard deviation varying from + or - 8 dB to + or - 7 dB. The aerodynamic performance prediction procedure collapsed thrust coefficient measurements to within + or - .004 at a FNPR of 4.0 and a PNPR of 2.0.

  1. A study of noise source location on a model scale augmentor wing using correlation techniques. [noise measurement of far field noise by wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Scharton, T. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation, conducted on a model-scale augmentor wing to identify the sources of far-field noise, is examined. The measurement procedure followed in the investigation involved the cross-correlation of far field sound pressures with fluctuating pressures on the surface of the augmentor flap and shroud. In addition pressures on the surfaces of the augmentor were cross-correlated. The results are interpreted as showing that the surface pressure fluctuations are mainly aerodynamic in character and are convected in the downstream direction with a velocity which is dependent on the jet exhaust velocity. However the far field sound levels in the mid and high frequency ranges are dominated by jet noise. There is an indication that in the low frequency range trailing edge noise, associated with interaction of the jet flow and the flap trailing edge, plays a significant role in the radiated sound field.

  2. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise. [noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amier, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A two dimensional section of a helicopter main rotor blade was tested in an acoustic wind tunnel at close to full-scale Reynolds numbers to obtain boundary layer data and acoustic data for use in developing an acoustic scaling law and testing a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Results were extended to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a helicopter rotor trailing edge noise prediction. Comparisons of the calculated noise levels with helicopter flyover spectra demonstrate that trailing edge noise contributes significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies. This noise mechanism is expected to control the minimum rotor noise. In the case of noise radiation from a local blade segment, the acoustic directivity pattern is predicted by the first principles trailing edge noise theory. Acoustic spectra are predicted by a scaling law which includes Mach number, boundary layer thickness and observer position. Spectrum shape and sound pressure level are also predicted by the first principles theory but the analysis does not predict the Strouhal value identifying the spectrum peak.

  3. Post-Flight Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Model Validation of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.

  4. Aerodynamic, aeroacoustic, and aeroelastic investigations of airfoil-vortex interaction using large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Marcel

    In helicopters, vortices (generated at the tip of the rotor blades) interact with the next advancing blades during certain flight and manoeuvring conditions, generating undesirable levels of acoustic noise and vibration. These Blade-Vortex Interactions (BVIs), which may cause the most disturbing acoustic noise, normally occur in descent or high-speed forward flight. Acoustic noise characterization (and potential reduction) is one the areas generating intensive research interest to the rotorcraft industry. Since experimental investigations of BVI are extremely costly, some insights into the BVI or AVI (2-D Airfoil-Vortex Interaction) can be gained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations. Numerical simulation of BVI or AVI has been of interest to CFD for many years. There are still difficulties concerning an accurate numerical prediction of BVI. One of the main issues is the inherent dissipation of CFD turbulence models, which severely affects the preservation of the vortex characteristics. Moreover this is not an issue only for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analysis but also for aeroelastic investigations as well, especially when the strong (two-way) aeroelastic coupling is of interest. The present investigation concentrates mainly on AVI simulations. The simulations are performed for Mach number, Ma = 0.3, resulting in a Reynolds number, Re = 1.3 x 106, which is based on the chord, c, of the airfoil (NACA0012). Extensive literature search has indicated that the present work represents the first comprehensive investigation of AVI using the LES numerical approach, in the rotorcraft research community. The major factor affecting the aerodynamic coefficients and aeroacoustic field as a result of airfoil-vortex interaction is observed to be the unsteady pressure generated at the location of the interaction. The present numerical results show that the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, moment, and drag) and aeroacoustic field are strongly dependent on the airfoil-vortex vertical miss-distance, airfoil angle of attack, vortex characteristics, and aeroelastic response of airfoil to airfoil-vortex interaction. A decay of airfoil-vortex interactions with the increase of vertical miss-distance and angle of attack was observed. Also, a decay of airfoil-vortex interactions is observed for the case of a flexible structure when compared with the case of a rigid structure. The decay of vortex core size produces a decrease in the aerodynamic coefficients.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.

  6. Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

  7. The Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig: an Acoustic and Aerodynamic Free-jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    1994-01-01

    The nozzle acoustic test rig (NATR) was built at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the High Speed Research Program. The facility is capable of measuring the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of aircraft engine nozzle concepts. Trade-off studies are conducted to compare performance and noise during simulated low-speed flight and takeoff. Located inside an acoustically treated dome with a 62-ft radius, the NATR is a free-jet that has a 53-in. diameter and is driven by an air ejector. This ejector is operated with 125 lb/s of compressed air, at 125 psig, to achieve 375 lb/s at Mach 0.3. Acoustic and aerodynamic data are collected from test nozzles mounted in the free-jet flow. The dome serves to protect the surrounding community from high noise levels generated by the nozzles, and to provide an anechoic environment for acoustic measurements. Information presented in this report summarizes free-jet performance, fluid support systems, and data acquisition capabilities of the NATR.

  8. Aircraft flyover noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    A review is conducted of the prediction techniques for CTOL aircraft noise sources which are presently implemented in the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The sources considered include jet noise, fan noise, combination noise, and airframe noise. Questions related to propagation prediction methods, source shielding, atmospheric attenuation, and ground attenuation are also described. It is pointed out that ANOPP is designed to make predictions of varying degrees of complexity, or amounts of detail, depending on the needs of the user. These different degrees of complexity are called levels of prediction. The prediction methods being used imply a similarity law for aircraft noise. Propulsion noise is proportional to mass flow for a selected engine cycle and, since thrust is also proportional to mass flow, aircraft with a fixed thrust-to-weight ratio will have their propulsion noise proportional to weight.

  9. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  10. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular plug nozzles. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Blozy, J. T.; Staid, P. S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of model scale parametric static and wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests on unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle configurations with inverted velocity profile are discussed. The nozzle configurations are high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles applicable to dual-stream exhaust systems typical of a variable cycle engine for Advanced Supersonic Transport application. In all, seven acoustic models and eight aerodynamic performance models were tested. The nozzle geometric variables included outer stream radius ratio, inner stream to outer stream ratio, and inner stream plug shape. When compared to a conical nozzle at the same specific thrust, the results of the static acoustic tests with the coannular nozzles showed noise reductions of up to 7 PNdB. Extensive data analysis showed that the overall acoustic results can be well correlated using the mixed stream velocity and the mixed stream density. Results also showed that suppression levels are geometry and flow regulation dependent with the outer stream radius ratio, inner stream-to-outer stream velocity ratio and inner stream velocity ratio and inner stream plug shape, as the primary suppression parameters. In addition, high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles were found to yield shock associated noise level reductions relative to a conical nozzle. The wind tunnel aerodynamic tests showed that static and simulated flight thrust coefficient at typical takeoff conditions are quite good - up to 0.98 at static conditions and 0.974 at a takeoff Mach number of 0.36. At low inner stream flow conditions significant thrust loss was observed. Using an inner stream conical plug resulted in 1% to 2% higher performance levels than nozzle geometries using a bent inner plug.

  11. System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.

  12. Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in aerodynamic model estimation from flight data. In addition to public presentations at the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conferences, two presentations at Boeing-Seattle were made during personal trips. These are discussed in the following: 1. Methodology of Aerodynamic Model Estimation from Flight Data. 2. Applications of F-16XL aerodynamic modeling. 3. Modeling of turbulence response. 5. Presentations at Boeing-Seattle. 6. Recommendations. and 7. References.

  13. Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Hueppe, Andreas; Kuehnelt, Helmut; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2011-09-01

    Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer. They can be classified in 3 main categories: the Turbulent Boundary Layer—Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise. The TBL-TE is mainly related to the noise generated by turbulent eddies which develop into the boundary layer and usually exhibits a broadband spectrum. The LBL-VS is related to laminar instabilities that can occur within the boundary layer which are responsible for a very late transition and generate a typical peaked tonal noise, while the S-S noise mainly results from the development of large vortices after the separation point. In this paper we propose a numerical analysis targeted to the simulation the LBL-VS noise mechanisms on a NACA 0012 aerofoil, tested at a Reynolds number of 1.1 M and Mach number of 0.2. The aerodynamic simulation is performed with a 2D transient RANS approach using the k-ω transitional turbulence model, while the acoustic computations are performed with the FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy and with a Finite Element (FE) approach solving Lighthill's wave equation. Computed noise spectra are compared with experimental data published by NASA showing a good agreement both for peak location as well as for the predicted noise level.

  14. Landing-gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Wook Kim, Jae; Zhang, Xin; Angland, David; Caruelle, Bastien

    2013-07-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agreement. The far-field noise was found to vary with the 6th power of the free-stream velocity. Individual contributions from three components, i.e. wheels, axle and strut of the landing-gear model are also investigated to identify the relative contribution to the total noise by each component. It is found that the wheels are the dominant noise source in general. Strong vortex shedding from the axle is the second major contributor to landing-gear noise. This work is part of Airbus LAnding Gear nOise database for CAA validatiON (LAGOON) program with the general purpose of evaluating current CFD/CAA and experimental techniques for airframe noise prediction.

  15. Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

  16. Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    Garca-Lpez, Juan; Rodrguez-Marroyo, Jos Antonio; Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Peleteiro, Jos; Martnez, Alfredo Crdova; Villa, Jos Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31% higher in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic drag by 14%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists. The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2%). In conclusion, we measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists. Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field testing were addressed. PMID:17943597

  17. On the formulation of the aerodynamic characteristics in aircraft dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Schiff, L. B.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of functionals is used to reformulate the notions of aerodynamic indicial functions and superposition. Integral forms for the aerodynamic response to arbitrary motions are derived that are free of dependence on a linearity assumption. Simplifications of the integral forms lead to practicable nonlinear generalizations of the linear superpositions and stability derivative formulations. Applied to arbitrary nonplanar motions, the generalization yields a form for the aerodynamic response that can be compounded of the contributions from a limited number of well-defined characteristic motions, in principle reproducible in the wind tunnel. Further generalizations that would enable the consideration of random fluctuations and multivalued aerodynamic responses are indicated.

  18. Integrated aerodynamic/structural design of a sailplane wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Strauch, G. J.; Eppard, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Using lifting-line theory and beam analysis, the geometry (planiform and twist) and composite material structural sizes (skin thickness, spar cap, and web thickness) were designed for a sailplane wing, subject to both structural and aerodynamic constraints. For all elements, the integrated design (simultaneously designing the aerodynamics and the structure) was superior in terms of performance and weight to the sequential design (where the aerodynamic geometry is designed to maximize the performance, following which a structural/aeroelastic design minimizes the weight). Integrated designs produced less rigid, higher aspect ratio wings with favorable aerodynamic/structural interactions.

  19. HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator) - Duration: 101 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...

  20. Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J. (Editor); Ashbaugh, J. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.

  1. Clean wing airframe noise modeling for multidisciplinary design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosder, Serhat

    A new noise metric has been developed that may be used for optimization problems involving aerodynamic noise from a clean wing. The modeling approach uses a classical trailing edge noise theory as the starting point. The final form of the noise metric includes characteristic velocity and length scales that are obtained from three-dimensional, steady, RANS simulations with a two equation k-o turbulence model. The noise metric is not the absolute value of the noise intensity, but an accurate relative noise measure as shown in the validation studies. One of the unique features of the new noise metric is the modeling of the length scale, which is directly related to the turbulent structure of the flow at the trailing edge. The proposed noise metric model has been formulated so that it can capture the effect of different design variables on the clean wing airframe noise such as the aircraft speed, lift coefficient, and wing geometry. It can also capture three dimensional effects which become important at high lift coefficients, since the characteristic velocity and the length scales are allowed to vary along the span of the wing. Noise metric validation was performed with seven test cases that were selected from a two-dimensional NACA 0012 experimental database. The agreement between the experiment and the predictions obtained with the new noise metric was very good at various speeds, angles of attack, and Reynolds Number, which showed that the noise metric is capable of capturing the variations in the trailing edge noise as a relative noise measure when different flow conditions and parameters are changed. Parametric studies were performed to investigate the effect of different design variables on the noise metric. Two-dimensional parametric studies were done using two symmetric NACA four-digit airfoils (NACA 0012 and NACA 0009) and two supercritical (SC(2)-0710 and SC(2)-0714) airfoils. The three-dimensional studies were performed with two versions of a conventional transport wing at realistic approach conditions. The twist distribution of the baseline wing was changed to obtain a modified wing which was used to investigate the effect of the twist on the trailing edge noise. An example study with NACA 0012 and NACA 0009 airfoils demonstrated a reduction in the trailing edge noise by decreasing the thickness ratio and the lift coefficient, while increasing the chord length to keep the same lift at a constant speed. Both two- and three-dimensional studies demonstrated that the trailing edge noise remains almost constant at low lift coefficients and gets larger at higher lift values. The increase in the noise metric can be dramatic when there is separation on the wing. Three-dimensional effects observed in the wing cases indicate the importance of calculating the noise metric with a characteristic velocity and length scale that vary along the span. The twist change does not have a significant effect on the noise at low lift coefficients, however it may give significant noise reduction at higher lift values. The results obtained in this study show the importance of the lift coefficient, CL, on the airframe noise of a clean wing and favors having a larger wing area to reduce the CL for minimizing the noise. The results also point to the fact that the noise reduction studies should be performed in a multidisciplinary design and optimization framework, since many of the parameters that change the trailing edge noise also affect the other aircraft design requirements. It's hoped that the noise metric developed here can aid in such multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.

  2. The Prediction and Analysis of Jet Flows and Scattered Turbulent Mixing Noise about Flight Vehicle Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces exhibit a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. The physical understanding and prediction of these characteristics are essential to designing future low noise aircraft. A new approach is created for predicting scattered jet mixing noise that utilizes an acoustic analogy and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. A tailored Green's function accounts for the propagation of mixing noise about the airframe and is calculated numerically using a newly developed ray tracing method. The steady aerodynamic statistics, associated unsteady sound source, and acoustic intensity are examined as jet conditions are varied about a large flat plate. A non-dimensional number is proposed to estimate the effect of the aerodynamic noise source relative to jet operating condition and airframe position.The steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, acoustic analogy, tailored Green's function, non-dimensional number, and predicted noise are validated with a wide variety of measurements. The combination of the developed theory, ray tracing method, and careful implementation in a stand-alone computer program result in an approach that is more first principles oriented than alternatives, computationally efficient, and captures the relevant physics of fluid-structure interaction.

  3. The Prediction and Analysis of Jet Flows and Scattered Turbulent Mixing Noise About Flight Vehicle Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces exhibit a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. The physical understanding and prediction of these characteristics are essential to designing future low noise aircraft. A new approach is created for predicting scattered jet mixing noise that utilizes an acoustic analogy and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. A tailored Green's function accounts for the propagation of mixing noise about the air-frame and is calculated numerically using a newly developed ray tracing method. The steady aerodynamic statistics, associated unsteady sound source, and acoustic intensity are examined as jet conditions are varied about a large at plate. A non-dimensional number is proposed to estimate the effect of the aerodynamic noise source relative to jet operating condition and airframe position. The steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, acoustic analogy, tailored Green's function, non- dimensional number, and predicted noise are validated with a wide variety of measurements. The combination of the developed theory, ray tracing method, and careful implementation in a stand-alone computer program result in an approach that is more first principles oriented than alternatives, computationally efficient, and captures the relevant physics of fluid-structure interaction.

  4. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben

    2016-01-01

    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  5. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

    2013-12-01

    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d  ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces. PMID:23705104

  6. Calculation of subsonic and supersonic steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces using velocity potential aerodynamic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.

    1976-01-01

    Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.

  7. Propagation of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions for environmental noise pollution lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. Noise propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)

  8. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  9. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase the combustion-noise component. The trend towards high-power-density cores also means that the noise generated in the low-pressure turbine will likely increase. Consequently, the combined result from these emerging changes will be to elevate the overall importance of turbomachinery core noise, which will need to be addressed in order to meet future noise goals.

  10. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  11. The case for aerodynamic sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1987-01-01

    No specific solutions are offered, nor verified by applications, for its subject problem which is sensitivity analysis in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Instead, a plea is made to the CFD community for extending their present capability to include sensitivity analysis. The plea is made from the viewpoint of an aeronautical engineer, not an expert in CFD methods, who needs the sensitivity information when working at the junction of aerodynamics, structures, active controls, and other disciplines whose inputs need to be integrated in aircraft design.

  12. Fluidization technologies: Aerodynamic principles and process engineering.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Rahul; Puthli, Shivanand

    2009-11-01

    The concept of fluidization has been adapted to different unit processes of pharmaceutical product development. Till date a lot of improvements have been made in the engineering design to achieve superior process performance. This review is focused on the fundamental principles of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics associated with the fluidization technologies. Fluid-bed coating, fluidized bed granulation, rotor processing, hot melt granulation, electrostatic coating, supercritical fluid based fluidized bed technology are highlighted. Developments in the design of processing equipments have been explicitly elucidated. This article also discusses processing problems from the operator's perspective along with latest developments in the application of these principles. PMID:19340888

  13. Aerodynamics of engine-airframe interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the variational approach for the solution of inviscid aerodynamic problems using solution adaptive grids is discussed. The formulation of a new, directional weighting, functional has been shown to have desirable properties. The scheme has been applied to compute the transonic flow past two-dimensional airfoils using the Euler equations of inviscid, compressible flow. Transonic flows in quasi-one-dimensional nozzles and over the two dimensional airfoils are solved on the various solution-adaptive-grids to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed directional-concentration functional and the grid adaptation process from the stand point of improving the solution accuracy and demonstrating the overall convergence.

  14. Aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    The aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design with secondary top blasting has been studied. Flow velocity fields have been measured in an isothermal laboratory model of the furnace using a digital tracer imaging (particle image velocimetry) technique. Three-dimensional diagnostics of flow structure in the combustion chamber has been carried out by the method of laser Doppler anemometry. Processing of the obtained data using the criterion of "minimum total pressure" has been used to visualize the spatial structure of the vortex core.

  15. Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.

  16. Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.

  17. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  18. Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical models to predict performance and operating characteristics of dual nozzle concepts were developed and improved. Aerodynamic models are available to define flow characteristics and bleed requirements for both the dual throat and dual expander concepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow, boundary layer, and shock effects within dual nozzle engines. Thermal analyses were performed to define cooling requirements for baseline configurations, and special studies of unique dual nozzle cooling problems defined feasible means of achieving adequate cooling.

  19. Interdisciplinary optimization combining electromagnetic and aerodynamic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Anders James

    The design of missile body shapes often requires a compromise between aero-dynamic and electromagnetic performance goals. In general, the missile shape producing the lowest radar signature will be different from the preferred aero-dynamic shape. Interdisciplinary shape optimization is utilized to combine multiple disciplines to determine the best possible shape for a hybrid aerodynamic-electromagnetic problem. A composite missile body consisting of an axisymmetric body of revolution (BOR) and two thin flat plate attachments is considered. The goal is to minimize the drag and backscatter associated with this composite shape. The body is assumed to be perfectly conducting, and flying at zero degrees angle of attack. The variable nose shape serves as the optimization design parameter. To characterize the system performance, a cost function is defined which is comprised of weighted values of the drag and backscatter. To solve the electromagnetic problem, methods to treat electrically large complex bodies are investigated. Hybrid methods which combine the method of moments (MoM) with physical optics (PO) are developed to calculate the scattering from simple two-dimensional bodies. A surface-wave hybrid approach is shown to effectively approximate the traveling wave currents on the smooth interior portions of a BOR. Asymptotic methods are used to solve the resulting integral equations more efficiently. The hybrid methods are shown to produce MoM-quality results, while requiring less computational resources. To solve the composite body problem, an iterative technique is developed that preserves the simplicity of the original BOR scheme. In this formulation, the current over each part of the composite body is solved independently. The results from one part of the body are used to update the fields incident on the other part of the body. This procedure is repeated until the solution converges. To solve the aerodynamic problem, slender body theory is used to calculate the nonviscous pressure drag on the body. Results show that the optimal design depends on a variety of factors including frequency, backscatter observation angle, incident wave polarization, and arbitrary weighting coefficients.

  20. Reduced order models for nonlinear aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    Reduced order models are needed for reliable, efficient and accurate prediction of aerodynamic forces to analyze fluid structure interaction problems in turbomachinery, including propfans. Here, a finite difference, time marching Navier-Stokes code is validated for unsteady airfoil motion by comparing results with those from classical potential flow. The Navier-Stokes code is then analyzed for calculation of primitive and exact estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with fluid-airfoil interaction. A variational formulation for the Euler equations and Navier-Stokes equations will be the basis for reduction of order through an eigenvector transformation.