Note: This page contains sample records for the topic aerodynamic noise from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

1982-01-01

2

Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

Reynolds, Gregory A.

2001-01-01

3

New aspects of subsonic aerodynamic noise theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of aerodynamic noise is presented which differs from Lighthill's theory primarily in the way in which convection of the noise sources is treated. The sound directivity pattern obtained from the present theory agrees better with jet-noise directivity data than does that obtained from Lighthill's theory. The results imply that the shear-noise contribution to jet noise is smaller than previously expected.

Goldstein, M. E.; Howes, W. L.

1973-01-01

4

Non-propulsive aerodynamic noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe noise to total aircraft noise on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB noise suppression applied to the fan and turbine noise sources. The airframe noise of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft noise, the fan inlet. The noise impact of the airframe noise, as measured by noise contour area, is 1/4 that of fan noise. Further fan noise reduction efforts should not view airframe noise as an absolute noise floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity noise wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.

Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.

1992-01-01

5

Remarks on the theory of aerodynamic noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of approximations employed in the Lighthill theory in current aerodynamic noise research is critically evaluated. Based on the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the full Navier-Stokes equations are expanded for small Mach numbers. To the first order, the near-field is generally nonisentropic. The pressure field (pseudo-sound) is generated by the incompressible Reynolds stresses in the turbulent flow and the velocity, pressure perturbation, and their derivatives on the boundaries. In the far-field, the first-order pressure (acoustic) field satisfying a linear wave equation is obtained by matching with the pseudo-sound field. A uniformly valid solution for the pressure field in a stationary or uniformly moving medium is obtained. The solution shows that the generation of the first-order aerodynamic noise does not depend on the viscous, thermal, or entropy effects in the adiabatic flow nor on the shear stress on a smooth rigid boundary.

Pan, Y. S.

1975-01-01

6

Aerodynamic noise emission from turbulent shear layers.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Phillips (1960) convected wave equation is employed in this paper to study aerodynamic noise emission processes in subsonic and supersonic shear layers. The wave equation in three spatial dimensions is first reduced to an ordinary differential equation by Fourier transformation and then solved via the WKBJ method. Three typical solutions are required for discussions in this paper. The current results are different from the classical conclusions. The effects of refraction, convection, Mach-number dependence and temperature dependence of turbulent noise emission are analyzed in the light of solutions to the Phillips equation.

Pao, S. P.

1973-01-01

7

Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

Zorumski, W. E. (editor); Weir, D. S. (editor)

1986-01-01

8

Localization of aerodynamic noise sources of Shinkansen trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shinkansen noise consists of various noise sources, such as the rolling noise, concrete bridge structure noise, aerodynamic noise and so on. Among these, the aerodynamic noise is the most important at speeds over 270 km/h in some cases because of its strong dependence on train speed. Thus it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the aerodynamic noise generated by high speed trains for noise reduction. In this paper, wind tunnel tests using a 1/5 scale Shinkansen train model were performed. An acoustic mirror, which consists of an omni-directional microphone and a reflector, was chosen as a measuring device. First, the principle and characteristics of the acoustic mirror are discussed and a method of estimating quantitatively the aerodynamic noise generated by each part of the model is proposed on the basis of wind tunnel test data. Next, the distribution of aerodynamic noise sources generated by the 1/5 scale Shinkansen train model is shown, based on which the contribution of individual noise sources of Shinkansen trains to the wayside noise level is estimated. Finally, the noise source distribution of real Shinkansen trains was measured with the acoustic mirror in a field test. The results of the field test show a good agreement with those of the wind tunnel tests.

Nagakura, K.

2006-06-01

9

Measurement and analysis of aircraft far-field aerodynamic noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic investigation of aircraft far-field radiated, aerodynamically generated noise was conducted. The test phase of the original program involved the measurement of the noise produced by five gliding aircraft in an aerodynamically clean configuration during low altitude flyovers. These aircraft had gross weights that ranged from 5785 to 173 925N (1300 to 39,000 pounds), fly-by velocities from 30 to 98.5m/sec (58 to 191.5 knots or 98 to 323 ft/sec) and wing aspect ratios from 6.59 to 18.25. The results of these measurements were used to develop an equation relating aerodynamic noise to readily evaluated physical and operational parameters of the aircraft. A non-dimensional frequency spectrum, based on the mean wing thickness, was also developed.

Healy, G. J.

1974-01-01

10

Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

2009-01-01

11

Analysis and optimization of aerodynamic noise in a centrifugal compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numerical methods for the performance analysis and the noise prediction of the centrifugal compressor impeller are developed, which are coupled with the optimization design methodology consisting of response surface method, statistical approach, and genetic algorithm. Navier–Stokes equations with the two-equation (k–?) turbulence model are applied to calculate impeller aerodynamic characteristics, and Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings formulation and boundary element method are

Hyosung Sun; Hyungki Shin; Soogab Lee

2006-01-01

12

An anechoic chamber facility for investigating aerodynamic noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic noise facility was designed to be used primarily for investigating the noise-generating mechanisms of high-temperature supersonic and subsonic jets. The facility consists of an anechoic chamber, an exhaust jet silencer, instrumentation equipment, and an air heater with associated fuel and cooling systems. Compressed air, when needed for jet noise studies, is provided by the wind tunnel compressor facility on a continuous basis. The chamber is 8.1 m long, 5.0 m wide, and 3.0 m high. Provisions have been made for allowing outside air to be drawn into the anechoic chamber in order to replenish the air that is entrained by the jet as it flows through the chamber. Also, openings are provided in the walls and in the ceiling for the purpose of acquiring optical measurements. Calibration of the chamber for noise reflections from the wall was accomplished in octave bands between 31.2 Hz and 32 kHz.

Massier, P. F.; Parthasarathy, S. P.

1972-01-01

13

Studies in a transonic rotor aerodynamics and noise facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction and testing of a transonic rotor aerodynamics and noise facility was undertaken, using a rotating arm blade element support technique. This approach provides a research capability intermediate between that of a stationary element in a moving flow and that of a complete rotating blade system, and permits the acoustic properties of blade tip elements to be studied in isolation. This approach is an inexpensive means of obtaining data at high subsonic and transonic tip speeds on the effect of variations in tip geometry. The facility may be suitable for research on broad band noise and discrete noise in addition to high-speed noise. Initial tests were conducted over the Mach number range 0.3 to 0.93 and confirmed the adequacy of the acoustic treatment used in the facility to avoid reflection from the enclosure.

Wright, S. E.; Lee, D. J.; Crosby, W.

1984-01-01

14

Analysis and optimization of aerodynamic noise in a centrifugal compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical methods for the performance analysis and the noise prediction of the centrifugal compressor impeller are developed, which are coupled with the optimization design methodology consisting of response surface method, statistical approach, and genetic algorithm. Navier-Stokes equations with the two-equation ( k- ?) turbulence model are applied to calculate impeller aerodynamic characteristics, and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation and boundary element method are used to predict the impeller aerodynamic noise on the basis of impeller flow field results. The computational codes are verified through the comparison of measured data. The quadratic response surface model with D-optimal three-level factorial experimental design points is constructed to optimize the impeller geometry for the advanced centrifugal compressor, and it is shown that the quadratic model exhibits a reasonable fitting quality resulting in the impeller blade design with the high performance and the low far-field noise level. The influences of selected design variables and their mutual interactions as well as the effects of various objective functions and constraints on the impeller performance and the impeller noise are also examined as a result of the optimization process.

Sun, Hyosung; Shin, Hyungki; Lee, Soogab

2006-02-01

15

Aerodynamics and interaction noise of streamlined bodies in nonuniform flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady aerodynamics and interaction noise of streamlined bodies are modeled in terms of the Euler equations linearized about a nonuniform flow. The validity of the inviscid approach is supported by recent LES simulations of an airfoil in a gust indicating that for not-too-small impinging excitations, the interaction process is dominated by inertia forces. Results in the present paper are focused on the aerodynamics and interaction noise of a turbofan modeled as an annular cascade. The model accounts for the inflow-fan-duct coupling and the high frequency of the interaction process. Two high-order numerical algorithms are developed with body-fitted coordinate system. One algorithm uses a primitive variable formulation, the other uses an efficient velocity splitting algorithm and is suitable for broadband computations. Analytical and numerical analysis of disturbances in rotational flows is developed and exact inflow/outflow boundary conditions are derived, yielding directly the radiated acoustics. The upstream disturbances evolve in rotational flows and as a result the aerodynamic-aeroacoustic response of the annular cascade depends on the initial conditions location. Computational results show that the three-dimensional geometry of the annular cascade, the mean flow swirl, and the blade geometry have strong influence on the blade sectional lift and the radiated sound. These results also show the inadequacy of using the popular linear cascade model particularly for realistic fan geometry and inflow conditions.

Atassi, H. M.; Logue, M. M.

2011-08-01

16

An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

2013-12-01

17

Experimental Characterization of Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamic Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbine noise at low frequencies less than 300Hz is not only annoying to humans but has been proven to cause serious health issues. Additionally, animals are severely affected by wind turbines because a small increase in ambient noise (as is produced by wind turbines) significantly reduces their listening ability. In an attempt to better understand and characterize the aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades, experimental testing was completed on PowerWorks 100kW and GudCraft WG700 blade specimens in the University of California, Davis Transportation Noise Control Center's anechoic chamber. Experimental testing and data analysis proved approximately 4.0dB to 6.0dB was produced due to the blades' geometric design for both blade specimens at low frequencies. This noise was maximized at the blades' leading edge along the central portion of the blades' radius. Theoretical prediction models have been used to determine that, for typical wind speeds and low frequencies, noise generated due to the tip passing frequency is clearly predominant.

Ingemanson, Megan Lynn

18

The prediction of aerodynamic and wheel\\/rail noise generated by high-speed trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheel\\/rail interactions and aerodynamic fluctuations are the important sources of wayside noise produced by high-speed railway trains. The dominance of one or the other of these sources depends entirely on the relative effectivenss of each in generating radiated noise. Equations are given for the calculation of both the wheel\\/rail and aerodynamic noise levels and their predictions are compared to peak

W. F. King III

1977-01-01

19

Spectral decomposition of the aerodynamic noise generated by rotating sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is posed for separating the noise emitted by an aerodynamic source from propagation effects using spectral decomposition. This technique is applied to the power spectra of a fan measured at several rotational speeds. Although it has been conceived for rotating sources as turbomachinery rotors, the method may be easily applied to low speed stationary sources such as jets and flows in stators and about isolated airfoils. Based on the similarity theory, a clear description of the structure of the power spectrum of the received noise is given and the effect of rotational speed variations is considered as a means to obtain a data set suitable to perform the spectral decomposition. The problem is analyzed in order to clarify possibilities and limitations of the method and then an algorithm is presented which is based on the solution of the derived equations. Particular care is devoted to both the numerical details and the operative aspects. The validation of the algorithm is performed by means of numerically generated input data. Next, in order to verify the ability of the method in separating scattered from emitted sound, an automotive cooling fan has been tested in the DIMSET hemi-anechoic room in a free-field configuration and with a shielded microphone. These two apparently distinct spectra collapse to within less than 2 dB after the spectral decomposition has been performed. The tests prove the ability of the method despite the modest quantity of input data.

Bongiovì, Alessandro; Cattanei, Andrea

2011-01-01

20

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

21

Effects of Aerodynamic Interaction Between Main and Tail Rotors on Helicopter Hover Performance and Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests perform...

R. P. Menger T. L. Wood J. T. Brieger

1983-01-01

22

Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.  

PubMed

Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200

Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab

2013-02-01

23

Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise and Airload Prediction Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.

Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.

2007-01-01

24

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test...

C. E. Hughes R. J. Jeracki R. P. Woodward C. J. Miller

2005-01-01

25

Turbine noise generation and suppression. [prediction method linking acoustic modes with aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method for the prediction of turbine generated noise is discussed. The method links the duct acoustic modes with the turbomachinery aerodynamics. The results of the analysis are compared with turbine component and engine results. Component data on the effects of the variation of axial spacing between blade rows on turbine aerodynamics and acoustics are presented. The results of an experimental evaluation of the relative importance of turbine noise on highly suppressed bypass turbofans are discussed. The development of high temperature acoustic treatment and its application to high bypass turbofans are presented.

Benzakein, M. J.; Smith, E. B.

1973-01-01

26

Effects of Nozzle Geometry and Intermittent Injection of Aerodynamic Tab on Supersonic Jet Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of the nozzle geometry and intermittent injection of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for an HST (Hypersonic transport) is planned. A 1/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle is manufactured, and the noise reduction performance of aerodynamic tabs, which is small air jet injection from the nozzle wall, was investigated. Compressed air is injected through the rectangular plug nozzle into the atmosphere at the nozzle pressure ratio of 2.7, which corresponds to the take-off condition of the vehicle. Aerodynamic tabs were installed at the sidewall ends, and 4 kinds of round nozzles and 2 kinds of wedge nozzles were applied. Using a high-frequency solenoid valve, intermittent gas injection is also applied. It is shown that, by use of wedge nozzles, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL (Overall sound pressure level), decreases by 29% when compared with round nozzles. It is also shown that, by use of intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL, decreases by about 40% when compared with steady injection. By combination of wedge nozzles and intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate significantly decreases by 57% when compared with the conventional strategy.

Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Shiga, Seiichi; Obokata, Tomio

27

Diagnostic techniques for measurement of aerodynamic noise in free field and reverberant environment of wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for studying aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms without disturbing the flow in a free field, and in the reverberation environment of the ARC wind tunnel were investigated along with the design and testing of an acoustic antenna with an electronic steering control. The acoustic characteristics of turbojet as a noise source, detection of direct sound from a source in a reverberant background, optical diagnostic methods, and the design characteristics of a high directivity acoustic antenna. Recommendations for further studies are included.

El-Sum, H. M. A.; Mawardi, O. K.

1973-01-01

28

Influence of separated vortex on aerodynamic noise of an airfoil blade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to clarify the mechanism by which aerodynamic noise is generated from separated flow around an airfoil blade, the relation between the attack angle and the aerodynamic noise of the blade was analyzed using a wind tunnel experiment and a CFD code. In the case of rear surface separation, the separated vortex which has a large-scale structure in the direction of the blade chord is transformed into a structure that concentrates at the trailing edge with an increase in the attack angle. The aerodynamic noise level then becomes small according to the vortex scale in the blade chord. When the flow is separated at the leading edge, a separated vortex of low pressure is formed at the vicinity of the trailing edge. The pressure fluctuations on the blade surface at the vicinity of the trailing edge become large due to the vortex in the wake. It is considered that the aerodynamic noise level increases when the flow is separated at the leading edge because the separated vortex is causing the fluctuations due to wake vortex shedding.

Sasaki, Soichi; Takamatsu, Hajime; Tsujino, Masao; Tsubota, Haruhiro; Hayashi, Hidechito

2010-02-01

29

Aerodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief review of aerodynamic investigations currently underway at the Institute for Aerospace Studies is provided. An extensive investigation of airship dynamics and turbulence response has resulted in the development of a numerical analysis of airship d...

J. D. Delaurier G. W. Johnston D. W. Zingg W. D. Mckinney C. Hayball

1989-01-01

30

Radiation from a double layer jet. [aerodynamic noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic radiation caused by two acoustic point sources located symmetrically on the sides of a double layer jet which produces a velocity discontinuity was examined, with attention given to the effect on the sound by the stream. Basic equations were defined in terms of wave propagation in the fluid in motion and a Fourier transformation. It was found that the radiation due to a point source on one side of the jet is enhanced by the presence of sound transmitted from the other side. The effect is expressed as a function of the reflection coefficient, wherein the reflections take place at the vortex interfaces separating the fluid in motion from the fluid at rest. The intensity patterns were determined to be kidney-shaped, lung-shaped, and heart-shaped, and characterized by a deep valley in the directivity pattern. The significance of the findings for STOL aircraft ejector thrust augmentation is mentioned.

Dash, R.

1983-01-01

31

Some aerodynamic and noise studies of flow in centrifugal fans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for an experimental program undertaken to reduce centrifugal fan noise radiation. The control methods devised in response to the noise generation mechanisms identified involved the reduction of pressure fluctuations at the impeller exit and of flow interaction effects, through the alteration of the distance between moving and stationary turbomachine elements. The impeller types studied included a large width squirrel cage impeller with a large inner to outer diameter ratio, a narrow width conventional radial impeller, and an impeller with radial vanes and inducer. Attention was given to the effects of vane outlet angle, inclined cutoff edge, cutoff ratio, and splitter vanes. The cutting of slots and the provision of fences on the impeller vanes, to modify flow through the control of blade surface boundary layer growth, are found to be helpful in the control of noise.

Venkatrayulu, N.; Prithvi Raj, D.; Arumugham, S.

32

Effects of Aerodynamic Tabs onExhaust Noise from a Rectangular Plug Nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Explanation Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for the 1st stage propulsion of a TSTO (Two stage to orbit) is planned. In the present study, a 1/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle for the pre-cooled turbojet engine is manufactured and the exhaust noise characteristics were investigated. Compressed air is injected through the rectangular plug nozzle into the atmosphere. The nozzle pressure ratio was set at 2.7, which corresponds to the take-off condition of the vehicle. Aerodynamic tabs were installed at the ramp end (Upper AT), the cowl end (Lower AT) and the sidewall end (Side AT). The SPL (Sound pressure level) was measured with a high-frequency microphone. Without AT, the sound spectrum has a broadband peak at which the SPL is around 105dB. For Lower and Side ATs, the OASPL (Overall SPL) of the exhaust noise decreases, especially around ramp end. At the maximum, the OASPL was reduced by 2.4dB with about 2% loss of the main jet total pressure at the cowl exit. It is shown that the aerodynamic tabs are effective in noise reduction in a rectangular plug nozzle.

Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Shiga, Seiichi; Obokata, Tomio

33

Holographic interferometry technique for rotary wing aerodynamics and noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts of holography and holographic interferometry, as applied to the visualization and measurement of the three dimensional flow field near a rotor tip, are previewed, and initial experimental results of investigations of local shock structures and tip vortices behind the blade are presented. An additional method to visualize the flow in a three dimensional manner is demonstrated, and finally, a method to quantitatively measure the three dimensional flow, which will provide the necessary information to help improve helicopter performance and reduce noise, is introduced.

Kittleson, J. K.; Yu, Y. H.

1981-01-01

34

Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Noise Radiation from a High-Speed Train Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic noise radiation from a vestibule side door on a high-speed train surface is calculated by the combination of unsteady incompressible fluid flow analysis and acoustic analysis. Pressure fluctuation on a vestibule side door surface is measured to verify the results of fluid flow analysis. Analysis results agree with measured data very well at low frequencies. For high-frequency components, the solvable frequency is limited by the analysis mesh size. Required mesh size is typically one eighth of the wavelength of the pressure fluctuation on the model surface. The aerodynamic noise is mainly radiated from around the following corner where the vortices that are shed from the leading corner strongly interact with the train surface.

SASSA, T.; SATO, T.; YATSUI, S.

2001-10-01

35

Aerodynamic performance and noise characteristics of a centrifugal compressor with modified vaned diffusers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement of aerodynamic performance and reduction of interaction tone noise of a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffusers are discussed by experiments and visualization techniques using a colored oil-film method. The focus of the research is concentrated on the leading edge shape of diffuser vanes that are deeply related to the generation mechanism of the interaction tone noise. The compressor-radiated noise can be reduced by more than ten decibels by using modified diffuser vanes which have 3-D tapered shapes on both pressure and suction surfaces of the leading edge. Furthermore, by adopting the proposed modified diffuser vanes, the secondary flow which is considered to be an obstruction of diffuser pressure recovery can be suppressed, and also the pressure decrease observed in the throat part of the diffuser flow passage is reducible. Thus, the proposed diffuser vanes show a favorable result for both noise and the aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal compressor, and offer a few basic guidelines for the diffuser vane design.

Ohta, Yutaka; Okutsu, Yasuhiko; Goto, Takashi; Outa, Eisuke

2006-12-01

36

Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 2: Aerodynamic data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic data from static tests of a two-stage advanced technology fan designed to minimize noise are presented. Fan design conditions include delivery of 209.1kg/sec/sq m (42.85 lbm/sec/sq ft) specific corrected flow at an overall pressure ratio of 1.9 and an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent. The 0.836m (2.74ft) diameter first stage rotor has a hub/tip ratio of 0.4 and 365.8m/sec (1200ft/sec) design tip speed. In addition to the moderate tip speed and pressure rise per stage, other noise control design features involve widely spaced blade rows and proper selection of blade-vane ratios. Aerodynamic data are presented for tests with unifrom and with hub and tip radially distorted inlet flow. Aerodynamic data are also presented for tests of this fan with acoustic treatments, including acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic ring, and a translating centerbody sonic inlet device. A complete tabulation of the overall performance data, the blade element data, and the power spectral density information relating to turbulence levels generated by the sonic inlet obtained during these tests is included. For vol. 1, see N74-33789.

Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.

1975-01-01

37

Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression: Plume, Aerodynamic and Acoustic Data. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft per s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASE's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude and also noise in the reference frame of the nozzle. This volume is divided into three parts: in the first two parts, we collate the plume survey data in graphical form (line, contour and surface plots) and analyze it; in part 3, we tabulate the aerodynamic data for the acoustics tests and the acoustic data in one-third octave band levels.

Mengle, Vinod G.; Baker, V. David; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

38

Unified Aeroacoustics Analysis for High Speed Turboprop Aerodynamics and Noise. Volume 1; Development of Theory for Blade Loading, Wakes, and Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.

Hanson, D. B.

1991-01-01

39

Analysis of aerodynamic field and noise of a small wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbine will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, nowadays, the noise emissions from wind turbines represent one of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. Moreover, the energetic efficiency of these wind turbines has to be high even at low and medium wind velocities because, usually the cities are not windy places. The numerical results clearly show that the wakes after the trailing edge are the main noise sources. In order to decrease the power of these noise sources, we should try to decrease the intensity of wakes after the trailing edge, i.e. the aerodynamic fields from pressure and suction sides would have to be almost the same near trailing edge. Furthermore, one observes a strong link between transport (circumferential) velocity and acoustic power level, i.e. if the transport velocity increases, the acoustic power level also augments.

Niculescu, Mihai Leonida; Cojocaru, Marius Gabriel; Pricop, Mihai Victor

2012-11-01

40

Interaction of aerodynamic noise with laminar boundary layers in supersonic wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction between incoming aerodynamic noise and the supersonic laminar boundary layer is studied. The noise field is modeled as a Mach wave radiation field consisting of discrete waves emanating from coherent turbulent entities moving downstream within the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. The individual disturbances are likened to miniature sonic booms and the laminar boundary layer is staffed by the waves as the sources move downstream. The mean, autocorrelation, and power spectral density of the field are expressed in terms of the wave shapes and their average arrival rates. Some consideration is given to the possible appreciable thickness of the weak shock fronts. The emphasis in the interaction analysis is on the behavior of the shocklets in the noise field. The shocklets are shown to be focused by the laminar boundary layer in its outer region. Borrowing wave propagation terminology, this region is termed the caustic region. Using scaling laws from sonic boom work, focus factors at the caustic are estimated to vary from 2 to 6 for incoming shocklet strengths of 1 to .01 percent of the free stream pressure level. The situation regarding experimental evidence of the caustic region is reviewed.

Schopper, M. R.

1984-01-01

41

Effects of aerodynamic interaction between main and tail rotors on helicopter hover performance and noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.

Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.

1983-01-01

42

Inlet noise on 0.5-meter-diameter NASA QF-1 fan as measured in an unmodified compressor aerodynamic test facility and in an anechoic chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Narrowband analysis revealed grossly similar sound pressure level spectra in each facility. Blade passing frequency (BPF) noise and multiple pure tone (MPT) noise were superimposed on a broadband (BB) base noise. From one-third octave bandwidth sound power analyses the BPF noise (harmonics combined), and the MPT noise (harmonics combined, excepting BPF's) agreed between facilities within 1.5 db or less over the range of speeds and flows tested. Detailed noise and aerodynamic performance is also presented.

Gelder, T. F.; Soltis, R. F.

1975-01-01

43

Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 1: Aerodynamic design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec 11,650 ft/sec). The fan and booster components are designed in a scale model flow size convenient for testing with existing facility and vehicle hardware. The design corrected flow per unit annulus area at the fan face is 215 kg/sec sq m (44.0 lb m/sec sq ft) with a hub-tip ratio of 0.38 at the leading edge of the fan rotor. This results in an inlet corrected airflow of 117.9 kg/sec (259.9 lb m/sec) for the selected rotor tip diameter if 90.37 cm (35.58 in.). The variable geometry inlet is designed utilizing a combination of high throat Mach number and acoustic treatment in the inlet diffuser for noise suppression (hybrid inlet). A variable fan exhaust nozzle was assumed in conjunction with the variable inlet throat area to limit the required area change of the inlet throat at approach and hence limit the overall diffusion and inlet length. The fan exit duct design was primarily influenced by acoustic requirements, including length of suppressor wall treatment; length, thickness and position on a duct splitter for additional suppressor treatment; and duct surface Mach numbers.

Sullivan, T. J.; Younghans, J. L.; Little, D. R.

1976-01-01

44

Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

2013-01-01

45

Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 3: Application of theory for blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the predictions with data from tests at NASA-Lewis. Steady aerodyanmic performance, unsteady blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing and boundary layer shielding are examined.

Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.

1991-01-01

46

Small scale noise and wind tunnel tests of upper surface blowing nozzle flap concepts. Volume 1. Aerodynamic test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results and analyses of aerodynamic and acoustic studies conducted on the small scale noise and wind tunnel tests of upper surface blowing nozzle flap concepts are presented. Various types of nozzle flap concepts were tested. These are an upper surface blowing concept with a multiple slot arrangement with seven slots (seven slotted nozzle), an upper surface blowing type with a large nozzle exit at approximately mid-chord location in conjunction with a powered trailing edge flap with multiple slots (split flow or partially slotted nozzle). In addition, aerodynamic tests were continued on a similar multi-slotted nozzle flap, but with 14 slots. All three types of nozzle flap concepts tested appear to be about equal in overall aerodynamic performance but with the split flow nozzle somewhat better than the other two nozzle flaps in the landing approach mode. All nozzle flaps can be deflected to a large angle to increase drag without significant loss in lift. The nozzle flap concepts appear to be viable aerodynamic drag modulation devices for landing.

Renselaer, D. J.; Nishida, R. S.; Wilkin, C. A.

1975-01-01

47

Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

1999-01-01

48

The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from the smallest to the largest nozzle was 12.9 percent of the baseline nozzle area. The results will show that there are significant changes in aerodynamic performance and farfield acoustics as the fan nozzle area is increased. The weight flow through the fan model increased between 7 and 9 percent, the fan and stage pressure dropped between 8 and 10 percent, and the adiabatic efficiency increased between 2 and 3 percent--the magnitude of the change dependent on the fan speed. Results from force balance measurements of fan and outlet guide vane thrust will show that as the nozzle exit area is increased the combined thrust of the fan and outlet guide vanes together also increases, between 2 and 3.5 percent, mainly due to the increase in lift from the outlet guide vanes. In terms of farfield acoustics, the overall sound power level produced by the fan stage dropped nearly linearly between 1 dB at takeoff condition and 3.5 dB at approach condition, mainly due to a decrease in the broadband noise levels. Finally, fan swirl angle survey and Laser Doppler Velocimeter mean velocity and turbulence data obtained in the fan wake will show that the swirl angles and turbulence levels within the wake decrease as the fan nozzle area increases, which helps to explain the drop in the fan broadband noise at all fan speeds.

Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

2013-01-01

49

Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 2: Development of theory for wing shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.

Amiet, R. K.

1991-01-01

50

Influence of diffuser on aerodynamic noise of a forward curved fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to clarify the influence of a diffuser on the characteristics of a forward curved fan, the influence of the bare ratio and the outlet angle on the characteristics of the fan were measured through an experiment performed with an actual fan as well as through a numerical simulation, respectively. The mechanism of the discrete frequency noise generated by the separated flow of the diffuser was analyzed. The optimized bare ratio was approximately 17%. The flow separated inside of the diffuser generated discrete frequency noise owing to the interaction between the reversed flow from the diffuser and the impeller rotating at the blade passing frequency. The diffuser outlet angle influenced the pressure ratio more than that by the bare ratio. Furthermore, it was confirmed that restraining the separation in the diffuser effectively decreases the fan noise.

Sasaki, Soichi; Suzuki, Kota; Onomichi, Yuta; Hayashi, Hidechito

2013-10-01

51

Aerodynamic performance investigation of advanced mechanical suppressor and ejector nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Supersonic Transport jet noise may be reduced to Federal Air Regulation limits if recommended refinements to a recently developed ejector shroud exhaust system are successfully carried out. A two-part program consisting of a design study and a subscale model wind tunnel test effort conducted to define an acoustically treated ejector shroud exhaust system for supersonic transport application is described. Coannular, 20-chute, and ejector shroud exhaust systems were evaluated. Program results were used in a mission analysis study to determine aircraft takeoff gross weight to perform a nominal design mission, under Federal Aviation Regulation (1969), Part 36, Stage 3 noise constraints. Mission trade study results confirmed that the ejector shroud was the best of the three exhaust systems studied with a significant takeoff gross weight advantage over the 20-chute suppressor nozzle which was the second best.

Wagenknecht, C. D.; Bediako, E. D.

1985-01-01

52

The ambiguity of the acoustic source distributions for divergent source fields, with application to aerodynamic noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A given uniform applied line force of linear strength F1 falls very rapidly to zero about the ends of its length L1. The wave equation source term is monopolelike, ?F1/?y1. The radiation is only from the opposite energy producing monopoles ?(?F1/?y1)dy1=+/-F1 at its extremities, forming a dipole L1F1. The divergence theorem transforms this into the exactly equivalent dipole distribution of strength F1, total strength F1L1, now the ``obvious'' energy source for the given excitation. Analogously, a volume L1L2L3 of a quadrupole distribution of uniform strength, say ?u1u2 for an aerodynamic lateral quadrupole, also radiates like opposing line dipoles ?(??u1u2/?y2)dy2L3=+/-?u1u2L3 along the L1 sides L2 apart (for lateral quadrupole L2?u1u2L1L3), replaceable by monopoles ?(?2?u1u2/dy1?y2)dy1 dy2L3 at the corners of the face L1L2 (where ?2?u1u2/?y1?y2?0), yielding lateral quadrupole L1L2?u1u2L3. With exactly the same fields, which can be considered physically realistic, like the force? The situation appears quite ambiguous; although note the fictitiousness of the monopoles, the appeal of ??u1u2/?y2 appearing in momentum equation as an applied force, while the energy loss by all elements, directly, of the sound producing flow may perhaps be best associated with the quadrupole distribution.

Powell, Alan

2002-05-01

53

Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.

Menthe, R. W.; McColgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.

1991-05-01

54

Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.

Menthe, R. W.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.

1991-01-01

55

On the precise implications of acoustic analogies for aerodynamic noise at low Mach numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We seek a clear statement of the scaling which may be expected with rigour for transportation or other noise at low Mach numbers M, based on Lighthill's and Curle's theories of 1952 and 1955. In the presence of compact solid bodies, the leading term in the acoustic intensity is of order M6. Contrary to the belief held since that time that it is of order M8, the contribution of quadrupoles, in the presence of dipoles, is of order only M7. Retarded-time-difference effects are also of order M7. Curle's widely used approximation based on unsteady forces neglects both effects. Its order of accuracy is thus lower than was thought, and the common estimates of the value of M below which it applies appear precarious. The M6 leading term is modified by powers up to the fourth of (1-Mr), where Mr is the relative Mach number between source and observer; at speeds of interest the effect is several dB. However, this is only one of the corrections of order M7, which makes its value debatable. The same applies to the difference between emission distance and reception distance. The scaling with M6 is theoretically correct to leading order, but this prediction may be so convincing, like the M8 scaling for jet noise, that some authors rush to confirm it when their measurements are in conflict with it. We survey experimental studies of landing-gear noise, and argue that the observed power of M is often well below 6. We also object to comparisons across Mach numbers at fixed frequency; they should be made at fixed Strouhal number St instead. Finally, the compact-source argument does not only require M?1; it requires MSt?1. This is more restrictive if the relevant St is well above 1, a situation which can be caused by interference with a boundary or by wake impingement, among other effects. The best length scales to define St for this purpose are discussed.

Spalart, Philippe R.

2013-05-01

56

Random Noise and Vibration in Space Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction (prediction of the environment, calculation of response, simulation of environmental loads); Flight vehicle noise environment (acoustic environment, inertial aerodynamic loads, compressible aerodynamic loads); Estimation of vehicle ...

R. H. Lyon

1967-01-01

57

Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 5: Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of tone noise propagation through a boundary layer and fuselage scattering effects was derived. This analysis is a three dimensional and the complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The outer wave field is constructed analytically from an incident wave appropriate to the source and a scattered wave in the standard Hankel function form. For the incident wave, an existing function - domain propeller noise radiation theory is used. In the boundary layer region, the wave equation is solved by numerical methods. The theoretical analysis is embodied in a computer program which allows the calculation of correction factors for the fuselage scattering and boundary layer refraction effects. The effects are dependent on boundary layer profile, flight speed, and frequency. Corrections can be derived for any point on the fuselage, including those on the opposite side from the source. The theory was verified using limited cases and by comparing calculations with available measurements from JetStar tests of model prop-fans. For the JetStar model scale, the boundary layer refraction effects produce moderate fuselage pressure reinforcements aft of and near the plane of rotation and significant attenuation forward of the plane of rotation at high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds, the calculated boundary layer effects result in moderate amplification over the fuselage area of interest. Apparent amplification forward of the plane of rotation is a result of effective changes in the source directivity due to boundary layer refraction effects. Full scale effects are calculated to be moderate, providing fuselage pressure amplification of about 5 dB at the peak noise location. Evaluation using available noise measurements was made under high-speed, high-altitude flight conditions. Comparisons of calculations made of free field noise, using a current frequency-domain propeller noise prediction method, and fuselage effects using this new procedure show good agreement with fuselage measurements over a wide range of flight speeds and frequencies. Correction factors for the JetStar measurements made on the fuselage are provided in an Appendix.

Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.

1991-01-01

58

Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 5: Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of tone noise propagation through a boundary layer and fuselage scattering effects was derived. This analysis is a three dimensional and the complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The outer wave field is constructed analytically from an incident wave appropriate to the source and a scattered wave in the standard Hankel function form. For the incident wave, an existing function - domain propeller noise radiation theory is used. In the boundary layer region, the wave equation is solved by numerical methods. The theoretical analysis is embodied in a computer program which allows the calculation of correction factors for the fuselage scattering and boundary layer refraction effects. The effects are dependent on boundary layer profile, flight speed, and frequency. Corrections can be derived for any point on the fuselage, including those on the opposite side from the source. The theory was verified using limited cases and by comparing calculations with available measurements from JetStar tests of model prop-fans. For the JetStar model scale, the boundary layer refraction effects produce moderate fuselage pressure reinforcements aft of and near the plane of rotation and significant attenuation forward of the plane of rotation at high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds, the calculated boundary layer effects result in moderate amplification over the fuselage area of interest. Apparent amplification forward of the plane of rotation is a result of effective changes in the source directivity due to boundary layer refraction effects. Full scale effects are calculated to be moderate, providing fuselage pressure amplification of about 5 dB at the peak noise location. Evaluation using available noise measurements was made under high-speed, high-altitude flight conditions. Comparisons of calculations made of free field noise, using a current frequency-domain propeller noise prediction method, and fuselage effects using this new procedure show good agreement with fuselage measurements over a wide range of flight speeds and frequencies. Correction factors for the JetStar measurements made on the fuselage are provided in an Appendix.

Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.

1991-05-01

59

The Aeroacoustics and Aerodynamics of High-Speed Coanda Devices, Part 2: Effects of Modifications for Flow Control and Noise Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes two studies of the effects of flow control devices on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of a high-speed Coanda flow that is formed when a supersonic jet issues from a radial nozzle and adheres to a tulip-shaped body of revolution. Shadowgraphy and other flow-visualization techniques are used to reveal the various features of the complex flow fields. The acoustic characteristics are obtained from far- and near-field measurements with an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber. First the effects of incorporating a step between the annular exit slot and the Coanda surface are investigated. The step is incorporated to ensure that the breakaway pressure is raised to a level well above the maximum operating pressure. It substantially increases the complexity of the flow field and acoustic characteristics. In particular, it promotes the generation of two groups of discrete tones. A theoretical model based on a self-generated feedback loop is proposed to explain how these tones are generated. The second study investigates the effects of replacing the annular exit slot with a saw-toothed one with the aim of eliminating the discrete tones and thereby substantially reducing the level of noise generated.

Carpenter, P. W.; Smith, C.

1997-12-01

60

Single-stage, low-noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 4: Fan aerodynamics. Section 1: Results and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results at design speed show fan total pressure ratio, weight flow, and adiabatic efficiency to be 2.2, 2.9, and 1.8% lower than design goal values. The hybrid acoustic inlet (which utilizes a high throat Mach number and acoustic wall treatment for noise suppression) demonstrated total pressure recoveries of 98.9% and 98.2% at takeoff and approach. Exhaust duct pressure losses differed between the hardwall duct and treated duct with splitter by about 0.6% to 2.0% in terms of fan exit average total pressure (depending on operating condition). When the measured results were used to estimate pressure losses, a cruise sfc penalty of 0.68%, due to the acoustically treated duct, was projected.

Sullivan, T. J.; Silverman, I.; Little, D. R.

1977-01-01

61

Aerodynamic potpourri  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

Wilson, R. E.

1981-01-01

62

Aerodynamic Drag.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current research and future prospects in the field of aerodynamic drag were presented and discussed at this Specialists' Meeting. Main emphasis was placed on subjects of practical value to the aerospace industry in relation to its need for accurate predic...

1973-01-01

63

Aerodynamic performance of scarf inlets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scarf inlet is characterized by having a longer lower lip than upper lip leading to both aerodynamic and acoustic advantages. Aerodynamically, a scarf inlet has higher angle of attack capability and is less likely to ingest foreign objects while the aircraft is on the ground. Acoustically, a scarf inlet provides for reduced inlet radiated noise levels below the engine as a result of upward reflection and refraction of inlet radiated noise. Results of a wind tunnel test program are presented which illustrate the aerodynamic performance of two different scarf inlet designs. Based on these results, scarf inlet performance is summarized in a way to illustrate the advantages and limitations of a scarf inlet compared to an axisymmetric inlet.

Abbott, J. M.

1979-01-01

64

THE AEROACOUSTICS AND AERODYNAMICS OF HIGH-SPEED COANDA DEVICES, PART 2: EFFECTS OF MODIFICATIONS FOR FLOW CONTROL AND NOISE REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes two studies of the effects of flow control devices on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of a high-speed Coanda flow that is formed when a supersonic jet issues from a radial nozzle and adheres to a tulip-shaped body of revolution. Shadowgraphy and other flow-visualization techniques are used to reveal the various features of the complex flow fields. The

P. W. Carpenter; C. Smith

1997-01-01

65

Awesome Aerodynamics!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn about the role of scientific research in the design of competition suits for athletes in the Winter Olympics. Students will also explore and research the concept of aerodynamics, and conduct their own scientific experiment to gain an understanding of this concept.

2010-01-01

66

Aerodynamic Characteristics, Temperature, and Noise Measurements of a Large-Scale External-Flow Jet-Augmented-Flap Model with Turbojet Engines Operating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel on a large-scale model powered by turbojet engines with flattened rectangular nozzles. The wing had 35 deg. sweep of the leading edge, an aspect ratio of 6.5, a taper ratio of 0.31, and NACA 65(1)-412 and 65-408 airfoils at the root and tip. The investigation included measurements of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the model with half-span and full-span flaps and measurements of the sound pressure and skin temperature on the portions of the lower surface of the wing immersed in the jet flow. The tests were conducted over a range or angles of attack from -8 to 16 deg. for Reynolds numbers from 1.8 x 10(exp 6) to 4.4 x 10(exp 6) and a range of momentum coefficients from 0 to 2.0. In general, the aerodynamic results of this investigation made with a large-scale hot-jet model verified the results of previous investigations with small models powered by compressed-air jets. Although blowing was only done over the inboard portion of the wing, substantial amounts of induced lift were also obtained over the outboard portion of the wing. Skin temperatures were about 340 F and wing heating could be handled with available materials without cooling. Random acoustic loadings on the wing surface were high enough to indicate that fatigue failure from this source would require special consideration in the design of an external-flow jet flap system for an airplane.

Fink, Marvin P.

1961-01-01

67

Aerodynamic noise generated by jet wing/flap interactions of the external USB configuration of STOL aircraft. Part 2: Full scale model experiment using FJR710 turbofan engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic characteristics of the external upper surface blowing (USB) concept of a propulsive lift configuration were studied by full scale model static experiments. Test components included an FJR710 turbofan engine with an acoustically treated nacelle and a USB wing/flap assembly. These were utilized in conjunction with the ground verification testing of the propulsive systems of the National Aerospace Laboratory Quiet STOL Research Aircraft. Results were compared with the previous 8% scale cold flow model data. The defect of shielding provided by the wing/flap surface on aftradiated turbofan engine noise was studied and some attempts were made to reduce USB noise.

Maita, M.; Shindo, S.; Nakayama, S.; Matsuki, M.; Torisaki, T.; Morita, M.; Yoshida, A.; Takeda, K.; Sekine, S.; Kondo, H.

1981-10-01

68

insect Aerodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes current research about insect flight dynamics. It focuses on the work of biologist R. McNeill Alexander of the University of Leeds, whose research team has built large-scale models of insects to test their flight aerodynamics in wind tunnels. At the bottom of the page is a small (160 x 120) QuickTime video of a Morpho butterfly (Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae) with detailed views of its wing scales. It is an excerpt from the Alien Empire miniseries of the Public Broadcasting Service's Nature series. The video requires QuickTime and may not be accessible to those with older or slow computers. The link to the "enhanced multimedia video clip" did not work at the time of this review.

0002-11-30

69

Coupled 2-dimensional cascade theory for noise and unsteady aerodynamics of blade row interaction in turbofans. Volume 1: Theory development and parametric studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is concluded that the new features of this analysis - unsteady coupling, frequency scattering, and flow turning between rotor and stator - have a profound effect on noise generation caused by rotor/stator interaction. Treating rotors and stators as isolated cascades is not adequate for noise analysis and prediction.

Hanson, Donald B.

1994-01-01

70

External aerodynamics of heavy ground vehicles: Computations and wind tunnel testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic characteristics of a ground vehicle affect vehicle operation in many ways. Aerodynamic drag, lift and side forces have influence on fuel efficiency, vehicle top speed and acceleration performance. In addition, engine cooling, air conditioning, wind noise, visibility, stability and crosswind sensitivity are some other tasks for vehicle aerodynamics. All of these areas benefit from drag reduction and changing the

Ilhan Bayraktar

2002-01-01

71

Fluid-structure interaction and aerodynamics damping; Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise, Cincinnati, OH, September 10-13, 1985  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of a two-layer elastic coating to pressure disturbances from a turbulent boundary layer is considered along with the application of the finite element method in the calculation of transmission loss of flat and curved panels, the application of various solution techniques to the calculation of transonic flutter boundaries, and noise transmission of double wall composite shells. Other topics explored are related to chaotic behavior of a simple single-degree-of-freedom system, the entrainment of self-sustained flow oscillations, the effects of strong shock loading on coupled bending-torssion flutter of tuned and mistuned cascades, and turbulent buffeting of a multispan tube bundle. Attention is given to the dynamics of heat exchangers U-bend tubes with flat bar supports, a review of flow induced vibration of two circular cylinders in crossflow, the avoidance of leakage flow-induced vibration by a tube-in-tube slip joint, random load from multiple sources and its assessment, and wake-induced vibration of a conductor in the wake of another via a 3-D finite element method.

Dowell, E. H.; Au-Yang, M. K.

1985-09-01

72

Unsteady aerodynamics of advanced ducted fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional linear frequency domain panel method has been extended to study the unsteady aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, and aeroacoustics of advanced ducted fans. Additional contributions are to extend and improve previous lifting surface theory to include for stator rows and planar supersonic tip Mach numbers, and radiated noise estimation. A two-dimensional viscous wake model is incorporated to account for the influence

Wen-Liang Huang

1996-01-01

73

NASA aerodynamics program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

1990-01-01

74

Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

1986-01-01

75

Aerodynamics. [numerical simulation using supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A projection is made of likely improvements in the economics of commercial aircraft operation due to developments in aerodynamics in the next half-century. Notable among these improvements are active laminar flow control techniques' application to third-generation SSTs, in order to achieve an L/D value of about 20; this is comparable to current subsonic transports, and has the further consequence of reducing cabin noise. Wave-cancellation systems may also be used to eliminate sonic boom overpressures, and rapid-combustion systems may be able to eliminate all pollutants from jet exhausts other than CO2.

Graves, Randolph A., Jr.

1988-01-01

76

Aerodynamics of high-speed railway train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Railway train aerodynamic problems are closely associated with the flows occurring around train. Much effort to speed up the train system has to date been paid on the improvement of electric motor power rather than understanding the flow around the train. This has led to larger energy losses and performance deterioration of the train system, since the flows around train are more disturbed due to turbulence of the increased speed of the train, and consequently the flow energies are converted to aerodynamic drag, noise and vibrations. With the speed-up of train, many engineering problems which have been neglected at low train speeds, are being raised with regard to aerodynamic noise and vibrations, impulse forces occurring as two trains intersect each other, impulse wave at the exit of tunnel, ear discomfort of passengers inside train, etc. These are of major limitation factors to the speed-up of train system. The present review addresses the state of the art on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic problems of high-speed railway train and highlights proper control strategies to alleviate undesirable aerodynamic problems of high-speed railway train system.

Raghunathan, Raghu S.; Kim, H.-D.; Setoguchi, T.

2002-10-01

77

Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source

Joshua A. Paquette; Matthew Franklin Barone; Monica Christiansen; Eric Simley

2010-01-01

78

Aerodynamic Requirements for BVI Noise Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a rotor blade moves through the air, it sheds vortices. These vortices shed along the length of the blade over time form the wake. The strongest vortices of the wake are those trailing from the tip of the blade. When a rotating blade system moves under certain operating conditions, each blade will impinge on the tip vortices shed by itself or other blades. This impingement is called a blade-vortex interaction, or BVI. Although the blade and trailing tip vortices interact with many different orientations, one of the two extremes, either parallel or perpendicular interaction, is usually modelled. In a perpendicular interaction, the portion of the blade that is actually interacting with the travelling vortex at any given time is very small. A parallel interaction, however, has the largest concurrent interaction with the blade, as a result this case is given the most attention. One of the most commonly studied occurrences of blade-vortex interactions is associated with low-speed descending rotorcraft flight. BVI occur when the tip vortices shed by the blades intersect the plane of the rotor. BVI cause local pressure changes over the blades which are responsible, in part, for the acoustic signature of the rotorcraft. The local pressure changes also cause vibrations which lead to fatigue of both the blades and the mechanical components driving the blades.

Wells, Valana L.

1996-01-01

79

Modeling Aerodynamically Generated Sound of Helicopter Rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and dipole source terms of the FW-H equation account for the thickness and loading noise, respectively. Bladevortex-interaction noise and broadband noise are important types of loading noise, hence much research has been directed toward the accurate modeling of these noise mechanisms. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H equation has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparisons of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems. Finally, significant progress has been made incorporating the rotor noise models into full vehicle noise prediction tools.

Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

80

Noise generation and noise propagation in centrifugal fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velocity oscillations at the impeller exit of centrifugal fans were investigated in order to explain the relationship between flow condition and the aerodynamic noise. Two procedures, based on linear equation systems, for the calculation of the frequency distribution of the system are discussed. It was found that the Reynolds number has no appreciable influence on the noise generation.

M. Bartenwerfer; T. Gikadi

1978-01-01

81

Aerodynamics of sports balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests

R. D. Mehta

1985-01-01

82

Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

2003-01-01

83

Application of Negative Scarf to Inlet Design for Acoustic Reduction, Aerodynamic Assessment at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft engines must meet current and future FAR regulations and noise 'footprint' criteria. A way of reducing noise is to use negatively scarfed inlets. The extended lower lip acts as an acoustic 'barrier.' We need to understand the aerodynamic implicat...

M. E. Palmer R. K. Nangia

2000-01-01

84

Topic in Depth - Aerodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youâÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

2010-09-17

85

Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.

Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.

1977-01-01

86

Aerodynamics of Mars Odyssey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct Simulation Monte Carlo and free-molecular analyses were used to provide aerothermodynamic characteristics of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The results of these analyses were used to develop an aerodynamic database that was used extensively for the p...

N. Takashima R. G. Wilmoth

2002-01-01

87

Aerodynamics: The Wright Way.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle...

J. H. Cole

2010-01-01

88

Transonic aerodynamic design experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancements have occurred in transonic numerical simulation that place aerodynamic performance design into a relatively well developed status. Efficient broad band operating characteristics can be reliably developed at the conceptual design level. Recent aeroelastic and separated flow simulation results indicate that systematic consideration of an increased range of design problems appears promising. This emerging capability addresses static and dynamic structural/aerodynamic coupling and nonlinearities associated with viscous dominated flows.

Bonner, E.

1989-01-01

89

Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

Horstman, Raymond H.

1992-01-01

90

The Effects of Surfaces on the Aerodynamics and Acoustics of Jet Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft noise mitigation is an ongoing challenge for the aeronautics research community. In response to this challenge, low-noise aircraft concepts have been developed that exhibit situations where the jet exhaust interacts with an airframe surface. Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces manifest a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. In this paper, the variation of the aerodynamics, acoustic source, and far-field acoustic intensity are examined as a large at plate is positioned relative to the nozzle exit. Steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions are examined to study the aerodynamic changes in the field-variables and turbulence statistics. The mixing noise model of Tam and Auriault is used to predict the noise produced by the jet. To validate both the aerodynamic and the noise prediction models, results are compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and free-field acoustic data respectively. The variation of the aerodynamic quantities and noise source are examined by comparing predictions from various jet and at plate configurations with an isolated jet. To quantify the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects on the aerodynamic noise source, a non-dimensional number is formed that contains the flow-conditions and airframe installation parameters.

Smith, Matthew J.; Miller, Steven A. E.

2013-01-01

91

Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

2000-01-01

92

Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

1976-01-01

93

OPTIMALLY DESIGNED PROPELLERS CONSTRAINED BY NOISE (BLADE, SOUND, AIRCRAFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design tool is developed that will produce an optimum geometry for a given trade-off between noise and performance. A vortex lattice model is used for the aerodynamics and a subsonic compact source model for the noise analysis. Optimizing the twist, chord and sweep distributions produced blades with favorable tradeoffs between noise and performance. The techniques used for noise reduction

CHRISTOPHER JOHN MILLER

1984-01-01

94

Clean wing airframe noise modeling for multidisciplinary design and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new noise metric has been developed that may be used for optimization problems involving aerodynamic noise from a clean wing. The modeling approach uses a classical trailing edge noise theory as the starting point. The final form of the noise metric includes characteristic velocity and length scales that are obtained from three-dimensional, steady, RANS simulations with a two equation

Serhat Hosder

2004-01-01

95

High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

Ryan, James S.

1994-01-01

96

CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

Ryan, James S.

1995-01-01

97

Applied computational aerodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

Henne, P.A.

1990-01-01

98

Noise and noise abatement in fans and blowers: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise generation and its reduction industrial fans (ventilators) is addressed. A review is given of the fan types commonly in use and their practical applications, the mechanisms of the aerodynamic noise generation in fans, theoretical and empirical prediction methods for fan noise, acoustic similarity laws, and noise reduction methods by means of the fan construction and fan operation. Measurement procedures are discussed with respect to the noise radiated from different parts of a fan, e.g. from the fan inlet or outlet, from the fan casing, from the fan as a whole, and to the noise radiated into ducts connected to the fan. Finally, considerations are made, for which classes of fans noise standards can be defined to characterize the noise emission of the various fan types.

Neise, W.

1980-03-01

99

Aerodynamics for Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site serves as an online aerodynamics textbook for college students. Offered by the department of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Mechatronic Engineering at the University of Sydney, the material is divided into several main categories. These include fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, gasdynamics, aircraft performance, and propulsion. Each of these sections has many specific topics that are discussed in detail. There are MATLAB, Excel, and FORTRAN files and data sheets that accompany the reading, but they are best used as reference and are not needed to understand most of the material.

1995-01-01

100

Noise Generation and Noise Propagation in Centrifugal Fans Schallerzeugung und Schallausbreitung in Radialventilatoren.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Velocity oscillations at the impeller exit of centrifugal fans were investigated in order to explain the relationship between flow condition and the aerodynamic noise. Two procedures, based on linear equation systems, for the calculation of the frequency ...

M. Bartenwerfer T. Gikadi

1978-01-01

101

Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.

Cozzolongo, J. V.

1984-01-01

102

Aerodynamics of baseball  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseball is one of the popular games in America, North Asia and some parts of Europe and Africa. Despite being a popular game, scan data is not available on aerodynamic properties of baseball. Having over 108 curved stitches, complex seams and their orientation, the airflow around the ball is significantly complex and little understood. The primary objectives of this study

Firoz Alam; Huy Ho; Harun Chowdhury; Aleksandar Subic

2011-01-01

103

Projectiles and aerodynamic forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most elementary works on physics contain something about the motion of projectiles which, it is commonly assumed, are acted on only by gravity. Yet even on balls used in various games the aerodynamic forces are rarely completely negligible (Daish 1972, especially chs 6 and 12). As for bullets and artillery projectiles, the force of air resistance on them is commonly

H L Armstrong

1984-01-01

104

Wind turbine wake aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed

L. J. Vermeer; J. N. Sørensen; A. Crespo

2003-01-01

105

Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

1987-01-01

106

Noise constraints effecting optimal propeller designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design tool for advanced propellers was developed combining a fast vortex lattice aerodynamic analysis, a fast subsonic point source noise analysis, and an optimization scheme using a conjugate directions method. Twist, chord and sweep distributions are optimized to simultaneously improve both the aerodynamic performance and the noise observed at a fixed relative position. The optimal noise/performance tradeoffs for straight and advanced concept blades are presented. The techniques used include increasing the blade number, blade sweep, reducing the rotational speed, shifting the spanwise loading and diameter changes.

Miller, C. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

1985-01-01

107

Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

1999-01-01

108

Rotor noise in maneuvering flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to understand the physics of rotor noise in the maneuvering flight. To achieve this objective, an integrated noise prediction system is constructed, namely GenHel-MFW-PSU-WOPWOP. This noise prediction system includes a flight simulation code, a high fidelity free vortex-wake code, and a rotor acoustic prediction code. By using this noise prediction system, rotor maneuver noise characteristics are identified. Unlike periodic rotor noise, a longer duration is required to describe rotor maneuver noise. The variation of helicopter motion, blade motion and blade airloads are all influencing the noise prediction results in both noise level and directivity in the maneuvering flight. In this research, two types of rotor maneuver noise are identified, steady maneuver noise and transient maneuver noise. In the steady maneuver, rotor noise corresponds to a steady maneuver condition, which has nearly steady properties in flight dynamics and aerodynamics. Transient maneuver noise is the result of the transition between two steady maneuvers. In a transient maneuver, the helicopter experiences fluctuations in airload and helicopter angular rates, which lead to excess rotor noise. Even though the transient maneuver only exists for a fairly short period of time, the corresponding transient maneuver noise could be significant when compared to steady maneuver noise. The blade tip vortices also present complex behaviors in the transient maneuver condition. With stronger vortex circulation strength and the potential for vortex bundling, blade vortex-interaction (BVI) noise may increase significantly during a transient maneuver. In this research, it is shown that even with small pilot controls, significant BVI noise can be generated during a transient flight condition. Finally, through this research, the importance of transient maneuver noise is demonstrated and recognized.

Chen, Hsuan-Nien

109

Static Aerodynamic Performance Investigation of a Fluid Shield Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In pursuit of an acoustically acceptable, high performance exhaust system capable of meeting Federal Aviation Regulation 36 Stage 3 noise goals for the High Speed Civil Transport application, General Electric Aircraft Engines conducted a design study to incorporate a fluid shield into a 36-chute suppressor exhaust-nozzle system. After a full scale preliminary mechanical design of the resulting fluid shield exhaust system, scale model aerodynamic performance tests and acoustic tests were conducted to establish both aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics. Data are presented as thrust coefficients, discharge coefficients, chute-base pressure drags, and plug static pressure distributions.

Balan, C.; Askew, J. W.

2005-01-01

110

Sports Ball Aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in defining the flight of a ball that is struck or thrown through the air in almost all\\u000a ball sports. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can often deviate from its initial straight path, resulting in\\u000a a curved, or sometimes an unpredictable, flight path. It is particularly fascinating that not all

Rabindra D. Mehta

111

Aerodynamics: The Wright Way  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

Cole, Jennifer Hansen

2010-01-01

112

Aerodynamic mathematical modeling - basic concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic response of an aircraft to arbitrary maneuvers is reviewed. Bryan's original formulation, linear aerodynamic indicial functions, and superposition are considered. These concepts are extended into the nonlinear regime. The nonlinear generalization yields a form for the aerodynamic response that can be built up from the responses to a limited number of well defined characteristic motions, reproducible in principle either in wind tunnel experiments or flow field computations. A further generalization leads to a form accommodating the discontinuous and double valued behavior characteristics of hysteresis in the steady state aerodynamic response.

Tobak, M.; Schiff, L. B.

1981-01-01

113

AIRFRAME NOISE MODELING APPROPRIATE FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Trailing Edge Noise Metric has been developed for constructing response surfaces that may be used for optimization problems involving aerodynamic noise from a clean wing. The modeling approach includes a modified version of a theoretical trailing edge noise prediction and utilizes a high fidelity CFD (RANS) code with a two-equation turbulence model to obtain the characteristic velocity and length

Serhat Hosder; Joseph A. Schetz; Bernard Grossman; William H. Mason

114

Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility

B. Loyd; W. L. Harris

1995-01-01

115

TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

Barrowman, J.

1994-01-01

116

Development in aerodynamic calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unsteady aerodynamics models for simulating large wind energy converters is described. For the attached flow region the loads are calculated via a generalized indicial lift function based on the Wagner function. The angle of attack is defined at the 3/4 chord location and thus pitching velocity and virtual mass terms are included. Leading edge stall is incorporated by a simple time delay based on distance travelled in semichord. Trailing edge stall is incorporated via Kirchhoff's law and two first order lags. Time domain simulation of single point power spectra of velocity fluctuations, and coherence function estimates are compared with measurements.

Anderson, M. B.

1985-03-01

117

THE RADIATED NOISE FROM ISOTROPIC TURBULENCE WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE THEORY OF JET NOISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lighthill [1], in hisTheory of Aerodynamic Noise, considered the noise from a pseudo-finite yet unbounded domain of compressible unsteady flow. The first application of this theory was given by Proudman [2] for the case of isotropic turbulence at low Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers. More recently, Lilley [3] and Sarkar and Hussaini [4], using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), have

G. M. Lilley

1996-01-01

118

Aerodynamic Performance of Scarf Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A scarf inlet is characterized by having a longer lower lip than upper lip leading to both aerodynamic and acoustic advantages. Aerodynamically, a scarf inlet has higher angle of attack capability and is less likely to ingest foreign objects while the air...

J. M. Abbott

1979-01-01

119

Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

Ames, Joseph S

1918-01-01

120

On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

Millson, David

2000-01-01

121

Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue cost effectively, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended, leading to an effort by NASA to examine the potential for small-fan noise reduction by improving fan aerodynamic design. As a preliminary part of that effort, the aerodynamics of a cabin ventilation fan designed by Hamilton Sundstrand has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics codes, and the computed solutions analyzed to quantify various aspects of the fan aerodynamics and performance. Four simulations were performed at the design rotational speed: two at the design flow rate and two at off-design flow rates. Following a brief discussion of the computational codes, various aerodynamic- and performance-related quantities derived from the computed flow fields are presented along with relevant flow field details. The results show that the computed fan performance is in generally good agreement with stated design goals.

Tweedt, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

122

Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

1999-01-01

123

Aerodynamics of sports balls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

Mehta, R. D.

124

Aerodynamics of Mars Odyssey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct Simulation Monte Carlo and free-molecular analyses were used to provide aerothermodynamic characteristics of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The results of these analyses were used to develop an aerodynamic database that was used extensively for the pre-flight planning and in-flight execution for the aerobraking phase of the Mars Odyssey mission. During aerobraking operations, the database was used to reconstruct atmospheric density profiles during each pass. The reconstructed data was used to update the atmospheric model, which was used to determine the strategy for subsequent aerobraking maneuvers. The aerodynamic database was also used together with data obtained from on-board accelerometers to reconstruct the spacecraft attitudes throughout each aerobraking pass. The reconstructed spacecraft attitudes are in good agreement with those determined by independent on-board inertial measurements for all aerobraking passes. The differences in the pitch attitudes are significantly less than the preflight uncertainties of +/-2.9%. The differences in the yaw attitudes are influenced by zonal winds. When latitudinal gradients of density are small, the differences in the yaw attitudes are significantly less than the preflight uncertainties.

Takashima, Naruhisa; Wilmoth, Richard G.

2002-01-01

125

The Aerodynamic Plane Table  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

Zahm, A F

1924-01-01

126

The Airframe Noise Reduction Challenge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA goal of reducing external aircraft noise by 10 dB in the near-term presents the acoustics community with an enormous challenge. This report identifies technologies with the greatest potential to reduce airframe noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic effects will be discussed, along with the likelihood of industry accepting and implementing the different technologies. We investigate the lower bound, defined as noise generated by an aircraft modified with a virtual retrofit capable of eliminating all noise associated with the high lift system and landing gear. However, the airframe noise of an aircraft in this 'clean' configuration would only be about 8 dB quieter on approach than current civil transports. To achieve the NASA goal of 10 dB noise reduction will require that additional noise sources be addressed. Research shows that energy in the turbulent boundary layer of a wing is scattered as it crosses trailing edge. Noise generated by scattering is the dominant noise mechanism on an aircraft flying in the clean configuration. Eliminating scattering would require changes to much of the aircraft, and practical reduction devices have yet to receive serious attention. Evidence suggests that to meet NASA goals in civil aviation noise reduction, we need to employ emerging technologies and improve landing procedures; modified landing patterns and zoning restrictions could help alleviate aircraft noise in communities close to airports.

Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

2004-01-01

127

Projectiles and aerodynamic forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most elementary works on physics contain something about the motion of projectiles which, it is commonly assumed, are acted on only by gravity. Yet even on balls used in various games the aerodynamic forces are rarely completely negligible (Daish 1972, especially chs 6 and 12). As for bullets and artillery projectiles, the force of air resistance on them is commonly many times that of gravity (Smith 1962). What purpose, then, is supposed to be served by presenting students with such unphysical notions and asking them to spend time working out conundrums about such matters? Warren (1965) has commented on the lack of realism in many parts of school physics, but does not seem to have said much about this example. The author's purpose is to find simple ways of taking into account the air resistance on projectiles, at least approximately.

Armstrong, H. L.

1984-09-01

128

Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

1953-01-01

129

Noise reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The turbofan engine's noise-producing components are discussed in terms of efficient and economical noise reduction techniques that do not penalize the engine performance or weight significantly. Specific topics covered include fan noise, acoustic suppression, jet noise technology, combustor noise, and aircraft noise prediction.

Feiler, C. E.; Groeneweg, J. F.; Montegani, F. J.; Raney, J. P.; Rice, E. J.; Stone, J. R.

1979-01-01

130

Low Noise Exhaust Nozzle Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry have been assessing the economic viability and environmental acceptability of a second-generation supersonic civil transport, or High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Development of a propulsion system that satisfies strict airport noise regulations and provides high levels of cruise and transonic performance with adequate takeoff performance, at an acceptable weight, is critical to the success of any HSCT program. The principal objectives were to: 1. Develop a preliminary design of an innovative 2-D exhaust nozzle with the goal of meeting FAR36 Stage III noise levels and providing high levels of cruise performance with a high specific thrust for Mach 2.4 HSCT with a range of 5000 nmi and a payload of 51,900 lbm, 2. Employ advanced acoustic and aerodynamic codes during preliminary design, 3. Develop a comprehensive acoustic and aerodynamic database through scale-model testing of low-noise, high-performance, 2-D nozzle configurations, based on the preliminary design, and 4. Verify acoustic and aerodynamic predictions by means of scale-model testing. The results were: 1. The preliminary design of a 2-D, convergent/divergent suppressor ejector nozzle for a variable-cycle engine powered, Mach 2.4 HSCT was evolved, 2. Noise goals were predicted to be achievable for three takeoff scenarios, and 3. Impact of noise suppression, nozzle aerodynamic performance, and nozzle weight on HSCT takeoff gross weight were assessed.

Majjigi, R. K.; Balan, C.; Mengle, V.; Brausch, J. F.; Shin, H.; Askew, J. W.

2005-01-01

131

Launch vehicle aerodynamic flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic flight test procedures and results for the Space Shuttle orbiter are presented. The aerodynamic characteristics used in testing were determined from flights STS-1 and through STS-4. Normal force and pitching moment were different than predicted, suggesting an unanticipated aerodynamic force acting upward on the end of the orbiter. However, lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were in good management with good predictions. The flight measured aerodynamics are repeatable and show good correlation with angle of attack and angle of sideslip.

Gaines, L. M.; Osborn, W. L.; Wiltse, P. D.

1983-01-01

132

Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

1984-01-01

133

Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

1984-01-01

134

Noise Reduction Through Circulation Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circulation control technology uses tangential blowing around a rounded trailing edge or a leading edge to change the force and moment characteristics of an aerodynamic body. This technology has been applied to circular cylinders, wings, helicopter rotors, and even to automobiles for improved aerodynamic performance. Only limited research has been conducted on the acoustics of this technology. Since wing flaps contribute to the environmental noise of an aircraft, an alternate blown high lift system without complex mechanical flaps could prove beneficial in reducing the noise of an approaching aircraft. Thus, in this study, a direct comparison of the acoustic characteristics of high lift systems employing a circulation control wing configuration and a conventional wing flapped configuration has been made. These results indicate that acoustically, a circulation control wing high lift system could be considerably more acceptable than a wing with conventional mechanical flaps.

Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.; Englar, Robert J.

2003-01-01

135

Noise Reduction Through Circulation Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circulation control technology uses tangential blowing around a rounded trailing edge or a leading edge to change the force and moment characteristics of an aerodynamic body. This technology has been applied to circular cylinders, wings, helicopter rotors, and even to automobiles for improved aerodynamic performance. Only limited research has been conducted on the acoustic of this technology. Since wing flaps contribute to the environmental noise of an aircraft, an alternate blown high lift system without complex mechanical flaps could prove beneficial in reducing the noise of an approaching aircraft. Thus, in this study, a direct comparison of the acoustic characteristics of high lift systems employing a circulation control wing configuration and a conventional wing flapped configuration has been made. These results indicate that acoustically, a circulation control wing high lift system could be considerably more acceptable than a wing with conventional mechanical flaps.

Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.; Englar, Robert J.

2005-01-01

136

Noise Generation in Hot Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction method based on the generalized acoustic analogy is presented, and used to evaluate aerodynamic noise radiated from high speed hot jets. The set of Euler equations are split into their respective non-radiating and residual components. Under certain conditions, the residual equations are rearranged to form a wave equation. This equation consists of a third-order wave operator, plus a number of nonlinear terms that are identified with the equivalent sources of sound and their statistical characteristics are modeled. A specialized RANS solver provides the base flow as well as turbulence quantities and temperature fluctuations that determine the source strength. The main objective here is to evaluate the relative contribution from various source elements to the far-field spectra and to show the significance of temperature fluctuations as a source of aerodynamic noise in hot jets.

Khavaran, Abbas; Kenzakowski, Donald C.

2007-01-01

137

Tennis Ball Aerodynamics and Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The detailed aerodynamics and dynamics of a tennis ball have only recently been uncovered with the help of a series of experimental\\u000a studies (Mehta and Pallis, 2001, Cislunar Aerospace, Inc., 1998). Intuitively, one would expect the (rough) fabric covering on the ball to have an effect on the aerodynamics, but the extent\\u000a of the effect turned out to be much

Rabindra D. Mehtal; Jani Macari Pallis

138

Aerodynamics of the Golf Ball  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aerodynamics of golf balls is still not well understood, primarily because the aerodynamic performance of the golf ball\\u000a depends crucially on the details of the airflow over the ball, and those details are controlled by many factors. As the ball\\u000a flies through the air, it develops lift and drag forces that depend on its velocity, spin rate, the atmospheric

Smits J. Alexander; Steven Ogg

139

Aerodynamics of Wiffle Balls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of undergraduate students has performed experiments on Wiffle balls in the Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel facility. Wiffle balls are of particular interest because they can attain a curved trajectory with little or no pitcher-imparted spin. The reasons behind this have not previously been quantified formally. A strain gauge device was designed and constructed to measure the lift and drag forces on the Wiffle ball; a second device to measure lift and drag on a spinning ball was also developed. Experiments were conducted over a range of Reynolds numbers corresponding to speeds of roughly 0-40 mph. Lift forces of up to 0.2 N were measured for a Wiffle ball at 40 mph. This is believed to be due to air flowing into the holes on the Wiffle ball in addition to the effect of the holes on external boundary layer separation. A fog-based flow visualization system was developed in order to provide a deeper qualitative understanding of what occurred in the flowfield surrounding the ball. The data and observations obtained in this study support existing assumptions about Wiffle ball aerodynamics and begin to elucidate the mechanisms involved in Wiffle ball flight.

Utvich, Alexis; Jemmott, Colin; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn

2003-11-01

140

The aerodynamics of propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory and the design of propellers of minimum induced loss is treated. The pioneer analysis of this problem was presented more than half a century ago by Theodorsen, but obscurities in his treatment and inaccuracies and limited coverage in his tables of the Goldstein circulation function for helicoidal vortex sheets have not been remedied until the present work which clarifies and extends his work. The inverse problem, the prediction of the performance of a given propeller of arbitrary form, is also treated. The theory of propellers of minimum energy loss is dependent on considerations of a regular helicoidal trailing vortex sheet; consequently, a more detailed discussion of the dynamics of vortex sheets and the consequences of their instability and roll up is presented than is usually found in treatments of propeller aerodynamics. Complete and accurate tables of the circulation function are presented. Interference effects between a fuselage or a nacelle and the propeller are considered. The regimes of propeller, vortex ring, and windmill operation are characterized.

Wald, Quentin R.

2006-02-01

141

Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay

2013-08-01

142

Rotorcraft noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

Huston, R. J. (compiler)

1982-01-01

143

An Assessment of NASA Glenn's Aeroacoustic Experimental and Predictive Capabilities for Installed Cooling Fans. Part 1; Aerodynamic Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Driven by the need for low production costs, electronics cooling fans have evolved differently than the bladed components of gas turbine engines which incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Drawing upon NASA Glenn's experience in the measurement and prediction of gas turbine engine aeroacoustic performance, tests have been conducted to determine if these tools and techniques can be extended for application to the aerodynamics and acoustics of electronics cooling fans. An automated fan plenum installed in NASA Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory was used to map the overall aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a spaceflight qualified 80 mm diameter axial cooling fan. In order to more accurately identify noise sources, diagnose performance limiting aerodynamic deficiencies, and validate noise prediction codes, additional aerodynamic measurements were recorded for two operating points: free delivery and a mild stall condition. Non-uniformities in the fan s inlet and exhaust regions captured by Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, and rotor blade wakes characterized by hot wire anemometry measurements provide some assessment of the fan aerodynamic performance. The data can be used to identify fan installation/design changes which could enlarge the stable operating region for the fan and improve its aerodynamic performance and reduce noise emissions.

VanZante, Dale E.; Koch, L. Danielle; Wernet, Mark P.; Podboy, Gary G.

2006-01-01

144

Aerodynamics Via Acoustics: Application of Acoustic Formulas for Aerodynamic Calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.

Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

1986-01-01

145

Analysis of Pass-by Noise in Protective Barrier Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

By method of study in aerodynamic noise, a model of car and protective barrier road in air field was built in this paper. The distributed of fluid and acoustic in aside of protective barrier road was solved by Fluent software. The result of analysis showed that velocities, pressures and noise are all distributed as alternating strong and weak near the

F. Y. Ma; Wu Weiwei; Y. S. Wang; Li Wei; Cai Lijun

2011-01-01

146

Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

1999-01-01

147

Unsteady aerodynamic analyses for turbomachinery aeroelastic predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications for unsteady aerodynamics analysis in this report are: (1) aeroelastic: blade flutter and forced vibration; (2) aeroacoustic: noise generation; (3) vibration and noise control; and (4) effects of unsteadiness on performance. This requires that the numerical simulations and analytical modeling be accurate and efficient and contain realistic operating conditions and arbitrary modes of unsteady excitation. The assumptions of this application contend that: (1) turbulence and transition can be modeled with the Reynolds averaged and using Navier-Stokes equations; (2) 'attached' flow with high Reynolds number will require thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations, or inviscid/viscid interaction analyses; (3) small-amplitude unsteady excitations will need nonlinear steady and linearized unsteady analyses; and (4) Re to infinity will concern inviscid flow. Several computer programs (LINFLO, CLT, UNSVIS, AND SFLOW-IVI) are utilized for these analyses. Results and computerized grid examples are shown. This report was given during NASA LeRC Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery in August of 1993.

Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, M.; Ayer, T. C.

1994-01-01

148

Aerodynamic and acoustic performance of high Mach number inlets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results were obtained for two types of high Mach number inlets, one with a translating centerbody and one with a fixed geometry (collapsing cowl) without centerbody. The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of these inlets was examined. The effects of several parameters such as area ratio and length-diameter ratio were investigated. The translating centerbody inlet was found to be superior to the collapsing cowl inlet both acoustically and aerodynamically, particularly for area ratios greater than 1.5. Comparison of length-diameter ratio and area ratio effects on performance near choked flow showed the latter parameter to be more significant. Also, greater high frequency noise attenuation was achieved by increasing Mach number from low to high subsonic values.

Lumsdaine, E.; Clark, L. R.; Cherng, J. C.; Tag, I.

1977-01-01

149

Aerodynamic Design and Computational Analysis of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue in a cost-effective way, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended. Toward that end, NASA has begun to investigate the potential for small-fan noise reduction through improvements in fan aerodynamic design. Using tools and methodologies similar to those employed by the aircraft engine industry, most notably computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the aerodynamic design of a new cabin ventilation fan has been developed, and its aerodynamic performance has been predicted and analyzed. The design, intended to serve as a baseline for future work, is discussed along with selected CFD results

Tweedt, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

150

Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.  

PubMed

Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account. PMID:20968337

Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

2010-10-01

151

FAST AERODYNAMIC MODEL FOR DESIGN TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative IT-based technique of Fast Aerodynamic Computations is offered for the analysis of airliner aerodynamic characteristics in cruise flight, which is crucial from the effectiveness standpoint. A typical airliner configuration \\

Alexander V. Bernstein; Alexander P. Kouleshov; Yuri N. Sviridenko; Victor V. Vyshinsky

152

Aerodynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial momentum theory, vortex theory and inviscid flow, viscous flow and aerodynamic loads, derivatives of the aerodynamic load, maximum tip speed ratio, turbine design for maximum power, optimization, and turbines in rotationally unsymmetric flow are discussed.

O. A. M. Holme

1981-01-01

153

Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

2008-01-01

154

Multidisciplinary HSCT Design Using Response Surface Approximations of Supersonic Euler Aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to eciently implement supersonic aerodynamic predictions from Euler solutions into a highly constrained, multidisciplinary design opti- mization of a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) con- guration. The method alleviates the large computational burden associated with performing CFD analyses and elim- inates the numerical noise present in the analyses through the use of response surface (RS) methodologies,

Duane L. Knill; Anthony A. Giuntay; William H. Mason; Raphael T. Haftkak; Layne T. Watson

155

AERODYNAMIC AND AEROACOUSTIC OPTIMIZATION OF AIRFOI LS VIA A PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel genetic algorithm (GA) was used to generate, in a single run, a family of aerodynamically efficient, low-noise rotor blade designs representing th e Pareto optimal set. The n-branch tournament, uniform crossover genetic algorithm operates on twenty design variables, which constitute the control points for a spline representing the airfoil surface. The GA takes advantage of available computer resources

Brian R. Jones; William A. Crossley; Anastasios S. Lyrintzis

1998-01-01

156

Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with ...

D. H. Neuhart G. A. Markowski J. A. Hannon M. R. Khorrami T. VandeVen

2012-01-01

157

Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

Stack, Sharon H. (compiler)

1986-01-01

158

Aerodynamic optimization of railway motor coaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of very high speed trains and the increasing operational speeds of conventional passenger and freight rolling stock are the cause of a growing interest in railways aerodynamics. Environmental issues, comfort demands and reduction of energy consumption are the key points to which aerodynamic improvements can largely contribute. Railways aerodynamics has to be performed on the complete system

E. Lorriaux; N. Bourabaa; F. Monnoyer

159

Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

Not Available

1986-12-01

160

Rotorcraft Aerodynamics Models for a Comprehensive Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments of the aerodynamics models for the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II are described, particularly the unsteady aerodynamic models and dynamic stall models, and the free wake geometry calculation. Three models for the unsteady aerodynamic loads in attached flow are implemented: from incompressible thin-airfoil theory, from ONERA EDLIN, and from Leishman-Beddoes. Five dynamic stall models are implemented: from Johnson, Boeing,

Wayne Johnson

1998-01-01

161

Combustion noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

Strahle, W. C.

1977-01-01

162

Feedback Control of a Morphing Chevron for Takeoff and Cruise Noise Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise from commercial high-bypass ratio turbofan engines is generated by turbulent mixing of the hot jet exhaust, fan stream, and ambient air. Serrated aerodynamic devices, known as chevrons, along the trailing edges of a jet engine primary and secondary exhaust nozzle have been shown to reduce jet noise at takeoff and shock-cell noise at cruise conditions. Their optimum shape is

R. H. Cabell; N. Schiller; J. H. Mabe; R. T. Ruggeri; G. W. Butler

163

The Aerodynamics of Golf Balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic forces on golf balls were studied by dropping spinning balls through the horizontal wind stream of the B. F. Goodrich wind tunnel. The lift, L, and drag, D, were calculated from the drift of the balls, rotating at speeds, N, up to 8000 r.p.m. while falling through a wind stream having a velocity of 105 feet per second.

John M. Davies

1949-01-01

164

Review of tennis ball aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamics of a tennis ball are reviewed here with reference to several wind tunnel measurement efforts. Measurements for a wide variety of tennis balls, including the ‘oversized’ balls, are presented. Flow visualization results have shown that the separation location on a non?spinning tennis ball occurred relatively early, near the apex, and appeared very similar to a laminar separation in

Rabindra Mehta; Firoz Alam; Aleksandar Subic

2008-01-01

165

AERODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOCCER BALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors analyse the aerodynamic properties of soccer ball. Using ADVENTURE System, the finite element flow\\u000a analysis around soccer ball is performed to figure out the coefficient of drag of soccer ball, the critical Reynolds number\\u000a of drag crisis, the track of curveball.

Y. Nakabayashi; S. Yoshimura

166

POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

2010-01-01

167

Compressor Research Facility Aerodynamics Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a series of aerodynamic studies carried out jointly by AFAPL and ICFAR personnel in support of the design and development of the AF Aero Propulsion Laboratory Compressor Research Facility (CRF). The CRF is a non-return compressor tes...

G. D. Huffman

1979-01-01

168

Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The main emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the effects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this theory has been developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to blade motions. The resulting equations consist of a system of three field equations along with conditions imposed at blade, wake and shock surfaces and in the far field. These equations can be solved to determine the fluctuations in all fluid dynamic properties throughout the required solution domain. Example solutions are presented to demonstrate several effects associated with nonuniform steady flows on the linearized unsteady aerodynamic response to prescribed blade motions.

Verdon, J. M.

1987-01-01

169

Aerodynamic features of turbulent flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides an interpretation for a variety of turbulent flame phenomena relating them to the aerodynamic properties of the flow field. This includes the classical notion of the breakdown of laminar flames propagation in ducts, the characteristic features of turbulent flame-fronts recorded by schlieren photography, as well as flame instabilities leading to flashback occurring in a combustion chamber behind

A. K. Oppenheim; A. F. Ghoniem

1983-01-01

170

Aerodynamics of a Dimpled Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automobiles consume approximately two billion barrels of fuel each year throughout the United States. A significant portion of this fuel is used to overcome aerodynamic drag at highway speeds. As a result, even small improvements made to the aerodynamics of automobiles can result in sizeable fuel savings. Since the shape of a vehicle is often dictated by design, economics, and function, aerodynamic improvements by means of obvious body streamlining are not always possible. However, minor modifications can be made to the vehicle, such as changing the behavior of the boundary layer to delay flow separation or installing small components either to reduce underbody flow or to mitigate induced drag. In this study, we examine the effect that dimples have upon the aerodynamics of a simplified vehicle. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are performed on a full-scale Ahmed body at a Reynolds number of 9.5e6 based upon the vehicle length. The dimples, which have a uniform diameter of 0.1 m and a dimple depth-to-diameter ratio of 0.14, are distributed across the vehicle surface. The results of the simulations demonstrate that the dimples modify both the recirculation zone and the strength and location of the counter-rotating vortex pair in the vehicle wake. Although an increase in base pressure can occur for a dimpled configuration, the net drag change is sensitive to both the number and placement of the dimples on the vehicle body.

Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

2010-11-01

171

Aerodynamic effects of Nacelle position  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineer in the PRT test the aerodynamic effects of nacelle position with respect to the wing, May 1930. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 132.

1932-01-01

172

Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

Denny, Mark

2009-01-01

173

Noise Generation of BLADE-VORTEX Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study of the aerodynamic noise generated when an airfoil/blade in a uniform flow is excited by an oncoming vortical flow is reported. The vortical flow is modelled by a series of flow convected discrete vortices representative of a Karman vortex street. Such noise generation problems due to fluid-blade interaction occur in helicopter rotor and turbomachinery blades. Interactions with both rigid and elastic airfoil/blade are considered. Under a vortical excitation, aerodynamic resonance of the airfoil/blade at certain excitation frequencies is found to occur and loading noise is generated due to the fluctuations of the aerodynamic loading on the airfoil/blade. For an elastic blade, due the occurrence of structural resonance incited by the flow-induced vibration of the airfoil/blade, a stronger loading noise is generated. The associated thickness effect due to the airfoil/blade vibration is extremely weak. The magnitude of the noise was found to depend on the frequency of the oncoming vortical flow and the geometry and rigidity of the blade.

LEUNG, R. C. K.; SO, R. M. C.

2001-08-01

174

Aerodynamic Measurement Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ohio State University developed a new spectrally filtered light-scattering apparatus based on a diode laser injected-locked titanium: sapphire laser and rubidium vapor filter at 780.2 nm. When the device was combined with a stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirror, the realizable peak attenuation of elastic scattering interferences exceeded 105. The potential of the system was demonstrated by performing Thomson scattering measurements. Under USAF-NASA funding, West Virginia University developed a Doppler global velocimetry system using inexpensive 8-bit charged coupled device cameras and digitizers and a CW argon ion laser. It has demonstrated a precision of +/- 2.5 m/sec in a swirling jet flow. Low-noise silicon-micromachined microphones developed and incorporated in a novel two-tier, hybrid packaging scheme at the University of Florida used printed circuit board technology to realize a MEMS-based directional acoustic array. The array demonstrated excellent performance relative to conventional sensor technologies and provides scaling technologies that can reduce cost and increase speed and mobility.

Burner, Alpheus W.

2002-01-01

175

Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear noise prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field noise, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear noise, both for parametric trends and for absolute noise levels. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in absolute noise levels.

Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping

2005-01-01

176

USB noise reduction by nozzle and flap modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of concepts for reducing upper surface blown flap noise at the source through flap modifications and special nozzles is reviewed. In particular, recent results obtained on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of flaps with porous surfaces near the trailing edge and multi-slotted nozzles are reviewed. Considerable reduction (6-10 db) of the characteristic low frequency peak is shown. The aerodynamic performance is compared with conventional systems, and prospects for future improvements are discussed.

Hayden, R. E.

1976-01-01

177

Adaptive noise.  

PubMed

In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise and that noise may be adaptive. For example, gene networks can generate bistable states resulting in phenotypic diversity and switching among individual cells of a genotype, which may be a bet hedging strategy. Here, we review the sources of noise in gene expression, the extent to which noise in biological systems may be adaptive and suggest that applying evolutionary rigour to the study of noise is necessary to fully understand organismal phenotypes. PMID:23902900

Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E

2013-09-22

178

Diagnostic calculations of airframe-radiated noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of calculating airframe noise due to the following components are presented: wings and stabilizers, flaps, landing gear 'self-noise', landing gear bay (wheel well) oscillations, separated flow interaction with edges of cavities, and doors associated with gear deployment. The predominant source mechanisms were dipole-like in nature, being related to the local fluctuating aerodynamic forces on struts, airfoil edges, cavity edges, etc. Available data are converted into semiempirical prediction methods to enable a tentative rank ordering of noise sources. A sample application of these prediction procedures is carried out for a typical CTOL passenger jet using actual aircraft parameters, where available.

Hayden, R. E.; Kadman, Y.; Bliss, D. B.; Africk, S. A.

1975-01-01

179

Estimation of transport airplane aerodynamics using multiple stepwise regression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an application of multiple stepwise regression to the flight test data of a typical transport airplane. The flight test data was carefully preprocessed to eliminate aliasing, time skews and high frequency noise. The data consisted both of basic certification maneuvers, such as wind-up-turns and maneuvers suitable for parameter estimation, such as responses to elevator pulses and doublets. It is shown that the results of multiple stepwise regression techniques compare favorably with the results obtained from maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, it is concluded that multiple stepwise regression could be a fast economical way to estimate transport airplane aerodynamics.

Keskar, D. A.; Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.

1985-01-01

180

Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

2010-01-01

181

Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

1990-01-01

182

Noise Reduction in Centrifugal Fans by the Use of Lambda/4 Resonators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerodynamic blade passage noise reduction, using a resonator at the cutoff of a centrifugal fan, is described. While preserving the original cutoff geometry, the perforated mouth of the resonator forms the new cutoff. The resonator can be tuned to various...

W. Neise G. H. Koopmann

1982-01-01

183

Integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is used to minimize blade weight and 4 per rev vertical hub shear for a rotor blade in forward flight. The coupling of aerodynamics and dynamics is accomplished through the inclusion of airloads which vary with the design variables during the optimization process. Both single and multiple objective functions are used in the optimization formulation. The Global Criteria Approach is used to formulate the multiple objective optimization and results are compared with those obtained by using single objective function formulations. Constraints are imposed on natural frequencies, autorotational inertia, and centrifugal stress. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade aerodynamic and dynamic analyses, and the program CONMIN is used for the optimization. Since the spanwise and the azimuthal variations of loading are responsible for most rotor vibration and noise, the vertical airload distributions on the blade, before and after optimization, are compared. The total power required by the rotor to produce the same amount of thrust for a given area is also calculated before and after optimization. Results indicate that integrated optimization can significantly reduce the blade weight, the hub shear and the amplitude of the vertical airload distributions on the blade and the total power required by the rotor.

Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.; Riley, Michael F.

1989-01-01

184

New Acoustic and Aerodynamic Phenomena due to Non-Uniform Rotation of Propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is reported of the influence of non-uniform rotation—which is inherent to piston engine driven propellers—on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of multi-blade propellers by numerical simulation. The combination of aerodynamic predictions with a 3-D unsteady free wake panel method and aeroacoustic predictions based on Farassat's Formulation 1A of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to achieve this goal. The numerical results show that non-uniform rotation has a significant influence on propeller aerodynamics and can lead to an increase in the generated noise. In case of a mismatch between the periodicity of the non-uniformity and the basic blade passage frequency, additional harmonics (“subharmonics”) are generated. For a periodicity coincidence, the effects are masked due to an overlapping of the frequencies. The level of such subharmonics may be high enough to increase the overall A-weighted noise. The azimuthal directivity of the of the propeller noise remains no longer axisymmetric, and changes to a wave-like harmonic variation. The number of undulations per revolution depends on the order of the non-uniformity and is not related to the number of propeller blades. The polar directivity pattern also changes substantially from that known for uniform rotation. A frequency domain analysis of the unsteady pressure distribution shows that the subharmonics perceived at a space-fixed location are not due to an aerodynamic or acoustic interaction but rather the consequence of a motion geometry or Doppler effect.

YIN, J. P.; AHMED, S. R.; DOBRZYNSKI, W.

1999-08-01

185

Aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a contracting cowl high throat Mach number inlet installed on NASA quiet engine C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach and takeoff performance was evaluated of a contracting cowl variable geometry design inlet installed on a high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine. The design was finalized after consideration of aerodynamic, acoustic, and mechanical factors which would lead to a viable flight worthy concept. The aerodynamic results are presented in terms of inlet recovery and distortion parameter as functions of throat Mach number, and acoustic results in terms of Perceived Noise Level. The contracting cowl high throat Mach number inlet is shown to be an attractive means to reduce forward radiated noise from a high bypass ratio turbofan engine.

Blommer, H. E.; Schaefer, J. W.

1976-01-01

186

Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

Tweedt, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

187

A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 3: Program manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program for a comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics is described. This analysis is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; the helicopter vibration and gust response; the flight dynamics and handling qualities; and the system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is a combination of structural, inertial, and aerodynamic models that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

Johnson, W.

1980-01-01

188

A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 1: Analysis development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural, inertia, and aerodynamic models were combined to form a comprehensive model of rotor aerodynamics and dynamics that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. A digital computer program is used to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft, and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

Johnson, W.

1980-01-01

189

Aerodynamics of a cricket ball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experiments performed on stationary and rotating cricket balls to determine the aerodynamic forces acting on the ball over a range of bowling speeds and seam angles. Lift, drag and side forces were measured directly and it was found they exhibited magnitudes in the order of 1.4, 1 and 0.4N, respectively, for the stationary ball. At air velocities

A. T Sayers; A Hill

1999-01-01

190

Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

2003-01-01

191

Analysis of aerodynamic pendulum oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oscillations of an aerodynamic pendulum about the ``along the flow'' equilibrium are studied. The attached oscillator model is used in order to simulate the internal dynamics of the airflow. Stability criteria are found and stability domains in plane of are constructed for different values of parameters. Influence of damping is studied. It is shown that damping depending on airspeed allows describing experimentally registered phenomenon of flutter occurrence in a certain range of airspeeds.

Selyutskiy, Yury D.

2012-11-01

192

A Hybrid Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Modeling for Small Wind Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stall control and pitch control are the most commonly used methods of regulating power. However, through the opportunities presented by the flexible (or teetered) hub of a two-bladed teetered rotor one can also utilize yaw control to regulate power. This is achieved by adjusting the capture area of the rotor disk relative to the prevailing wind direction. This paper presents the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results obtained from theoretical models for such a rotor when is yawed to the undisturbed flow. The non-axial flow operating conditions results in a variation in the power output and noise spectrum. Some comparisons between calculated and measured noise spectra of a yaw controlled wind turbine show good agreement over all angles up to 60 degrees of yaw.

Stoica, C.; Dumitrescu, H.; Dumitrache, Al.

2010-09-01

193

X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

Brauckmann, Gregory J.

1998-01-01

194

Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

1993-01-01

195

Rotor noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical characteristics and sources of rotorcraft noise as they exist today are presented. Emphasis is on helicopter-like vehicles, that is, on rotorcraft in nonaxial flight. The mechanisms of rotor noise are reviewed in a simple physical manner for the most dominant sources of rotorcraft noise. With simple models, the characteristic time- and frequency-domain features of these noise sources are presented for idealized cases. Full-scale data on several rotorcraft are then reviewed to allow for the easy identification of the type and extent of the radiating noise. Methods and limitations of using scaled models to test for several noise sources are subsequently presented. Theoretical prediction methods are then discussed and compared with experimental data taken under very controlled conditions. Finally, some promising noise reduction technology is reviewed.

Schmitz, F. H.

1991-01-01

196

Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

1992-01-01

197

Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

198

Introduction to Generalized Functions with Applications in Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generalized functions have many applications in science and engineering. One useful aspect is that discontinuous functions can be handled as easily as continuous or differentiable functions and provide a powerful tool in formulating and solving many problems of aerodynamics and acoustics. Furthermore, generalized function theory elucidates and unifies many ad hoc mathematical approaches used by engineers and scientists. We define generalized functions as continuous linear functionals on the space of infinitely differentiable functions with compact support, then introduce the concept of generalized differentiation. Generalized differentiation is the most important concept in generalized function theory and the applications we present utilize mainly this concept. First, some results of classical analysis, are derived with the generalized function theory. Other applications of the generalized function theory in aerodynamics discussed here are the derivations of general transport theorems for deriving governing equations of fluid mechanics, the interpretation of the finite part of divergent integrals, the derivation of the Oswatitsch integral equation of transonic flow, and the analysis of velocity field discontinuities as sources of vorticity. Applications in aeroacoustics include the derivation of the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces, the noise from moving surfaces, and shock noise source strength based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.

Farassat, F.

1994-01-01

199

Aerodynamic characteristics of a hybrid trimaran model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra fast marine vehicles can substantially benefit from aerodynamic unloading. The subject of this study is aerodynamics of a hybrid trimaran that comprises three wave-piercing planing hulls and a wing-shaped superstructure. This configuration is characterized by high efficiency and good seaworthiness at speeds about twice those of contemporary fast ferries and combat ships. Aerodynamic coefficients of the above-water structure of

Konstantin I. Matveev; Victor A. Dubrovsky

2007-01-01

200

Aerodynamics of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). While the aerodynamics of wind\\u000a turbine are relatively complicated in detail, the fundamental operational principle of a HAWT is that the action of the blowing\\u000a wind produces aerodynamic forces on the turbine blades to rotate them, thereby capturing the kinetic energy contained in the\\u000a wind and converting this

J. Gordon Leishman

201

The role of unsteady aerodynamics in aeroacoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of acoustics and unsteady aerodynamics research in understanding the fundamental physics of time-dependent fluid phenomena is reviewed. The key issues are illustrated by considering the sound radiation of turbulent jets and the aeroacoustics of rotating bodies such as helicopter rotors. The importance of computational methods as a link between aerodynamics and acoustics is also discussed. It is noted that where acoustic analogy techniques are sufficiently accurate, unsteady aerodynamics can be used for acoustic prediction. In supersonic problems where acoustics and aerodynamics are coupled, an integrated nonlinear analysis can provide an accurate problem solution.

Pao, S. Paul

1988-01-01

202

Airframe noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current understanding of airframe noise was reviewed as represented by experiment at model and full scale, by theoretical modeling, and by empirical correlation models. The principal component sources are associated with the trailing edges of wing and tail, deflected trailing edge flaps, flap side edges, leading edge flaps or slats, undercarriage gear elements, gear wheel wells, fuselage and wing boundary layers, and panel vibration, together with many minor protrusions like radio antennas and air conditioning intakes which may contribute significantly to perceived noise. There are also possibilities for interactions between the various mechanisms. With current engine technology, the principal airframe noise mechanisms dominate only at low frequencies, typically less than 1 kHz and often much lower, but further reduction of turbomachinery noise in particular may make airframe noise the principal element of approach noise at frequencies in the sensitive range.

Crighton, David G.

1991-01-01

203

Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

1995-01-01

204

Noise Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

1980-01-01

205

Inner workings of aerodynamic sweep  

SciTech Connect

The recent trend in using aerodynamic sweep to improve the performance of transonic blading has been one of the more significant technological evolutions for compression components in turbomachinery. This paper reports on the experimental and analytical assessment of the pay-off derived from both aft and forward sweep technology with respect to aerodynamic performance and stability. The single-stage experimental investigation includes two aft-swept rotors with varying degree and type of aerodynamic sweep and one swept forward rotor. On a back-to-back test basis, the results are compared with an unswept rotor with excellent performance and adequate stall margin. Although designed to satisfy identical design speed requirements as the unswept rotor, the experimental results reveal significant variations in efficiency and stall margin with the swept rotors. At design speed, all the swept rotors demonstrated a peak stage efficiency level that was equal to that of the unswept rotor. However, the forward-swept rotor achieved the highest rotor-alone peak efficiency. At the same time, the forward-swept rotor demonstrated a significant improvement in stall margin relative to the already satisfactory level achieved by the unswept rotor. Increasing the level of aft sweep adversely affected the stall margin. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis was used to assist in the interpretation of the data. The reduced shock/boundary layer interaction, resulting from reduced axial flow diffusion and less accumulation of centrifuged blade surface boundary layer at the tip, was identified as the prime contributor to the enhanced performance with forward sweep. The impact of tip clearance on the performance and stability for one of the aft-swept rotors was also assessed.

Wadia, A.R.; Szucs, P.N.; Crall, D.W. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1998-10-01

206

The basic aerodynamics of floatation  

SciTech Connect

The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.

Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.

1983-09-01

207

Progress in computational unsteady aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After vigorous development for over twenty years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the field of aerospace engineering has arrived at a turning point toward maturity. This paper discusses issues related to algorithm development for the Euler/Navier Stokes equations, code validation and recent applications of CFD for unsteady aerodynamics. Algorithm development is a fundamental element for a good CFD program. Code validation tries to bridge the reliability gap between CFD and experiment. Many of the recent applications also take a multidisciplinary approach, which is a future trend for CFD applications. As computers become more affordable, CFD is expected to be a better scientific and engineering tool.

Obayashi, Shigeru

1993-01-01

208

Aerodynamic characteristics in ground proximity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from recent investigations in the Langley V/STOL tunnel of an externally blown flap and an upper surface blown flap configuration in ground proximity are presented. Comparisons of longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics indicate that in ground proximity, drag is reduced for both configurations, but changes in lift are configuration dependent. Steady state analyses of the landing approach indicate an increase in flight path angle for both configurations in ground proximity because of the drag reduction. Dynamic analyses with a fixed-base simulator indicate that the resultant flight path during landing approach is dependent on the initial flight path angle and the control technique used.

Thomas, J. L.; Hassell, J. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L. T.

1976-01-01

209

Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.

Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.

1991-01-01

210

Rarefaction Effects on Galileo Probe Aerodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow re...

J. N. Moss G. J. Lebeau R. C. Blanchard J. M. Price

1996-01-01

211

An experimental study of Wiffle ball aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure the aerodynamic forces on a Wiffle ball as a function of the Reynolds number and ball orientation. The effects of asymmetric flow outside the ball and flow within the ball are considered, and are both associated with the ball's tendency to curve without pitcher-imparted spin. The problem of Wiffle ball aerodynamics is an accessible way to introduce topics

Jenn Rossmann; Andrew Rau

2007-01-01

212

A study of golf ball aerodynamic drag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamics of golf balls is considerably more complex than that of many other spherical balls. The surface roughness in the form of dimples intensifies the level of complexity and three-dimensionality of air flow around the golf ball. Prior studies have revealed that golf ball aerodynamics is still not fully understood due to the varied dimple size, shape, depth and

Firoz Alam; Tom Steiner; Harun Chowdhury; Hazim Moria; Iftekhar Khan; Fayez Aldawi; Aleksandar Subic

2011-01-01

213

Numerical Analysis of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flapping-wing aerodynamics recently has generated a great deal of interest and increasing research effort because of the potential application in micro-air vehicles. The objective of this study is to critically review the recent progress of CFD analysis of flapping- wing aerodynamics. Critical parameters like flapping modes, frequency and amplitude for optimal thrust generation and propulsive efficiency are identified. Current gaps

M. A. Ashraf; J. C. S. Lai; J. Young

214

The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

Schmitz, F. W.

1980-01-01

215

Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

1978-01-01

216

Aerodynamics of Sounding-Rocket Geometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical aerodynamics program TAD predicts aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding-rocket configurations. These slender, Axisymmetric finned vehicles have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high-speed armament. TAD calculates characteristics of separate portions of vehicle, calculates interference between portions, and combines results to form total vehicle solution.

Barrowman, J.

1982-01-01

217

CFD MODELLING OF WIND TURBINE AIRFOIL AERODYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper reports the first findings of an ongoing research programme on wind turbine computational aerodynamics at the University of Glasgow. Several modeling aspects of wind turbine airfoil aerodynamics based on the solution of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are addressed. One of these is the effect of an a priori method for structured grid adaptation aimed at

M. S. Campobasso; A. Zanon; M. Foerster; F. Fraysse; A. Bonfiglioli

218

Nonlinear Response of Composite Panels Under Combined Acoustic Excitation and Aerodynamic Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of large deflection response of composite panels subjected to aerodynamic pressure- at supersonic flow and high acoustic excitation. The first-order shear deformation theory is considered for laminated composite plates, and the von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are employed for the analysis of large deflection panel response. The first-order piston theory aerodynamics and the simulated Gaussian white noise are employed for the aerodynamic and acoustic loads, respectively. The nonlinear equations of motion for an arbitrarily laminated composite panel subjected to a combined aerodynamic and acoustic pressures are formulated first in structure node degrees-of-freedom. The system equations are then transformed and reduced to a set of coupled nonlinear equations in modal coordinates. Modal participation is defined and the in-vacuo modes to be retained in the analysis are based on the modal participation values. Numerical results include root mean square values of maximum deflections, deflection and strain response time histories, probability distributions, and power spectrum densities. Results showed that combined acoustic and aerodynamic loads have to be considered for panel analysis and design at high dynamic pressure values.

Abdel-Motagaly, K.; Duan, B.; Mei, C.

1999-01-01

219

Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

220

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

221

Identification, modelling and reduction potential of railway noise sources: a critical survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental requirements for railway operations will become tighter in the future. In particular, annoyance due to railway noise has to be taken carefully into account in the expansion of freight traffic as well as in new high speed line projects. Reduction of noise at source can be more attractive than the use of noise barriers but this requires a thorough understanding of the source mechanisms. This paper presents a critical survey of the identification and modelling of railway noise sources and summarizes the current knowledge of the physical source phenomena (mainly rolling and aerodynamic sources) as well as the potential for noise reduction. Future research perspectives are also given. These concern, in particular, improvements to source modelling, especially for aerodynamic noise, investigation of other sources and development of more advanced models for predicting railway noise in the environment. These should include a better description of the sources, obtained from modelling.

Talotte, C.; Gautier, P.-E.; Thompson, D. J.; Hanson, C.

2003-10-01

222

Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.  

PubMed

Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394

Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

2010-03-01

223

Comparison of two transonic noise prediction formulations using the aircraft noise prediction program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses recently completed work on using Farassat's Formulation 3 noise prediction code with the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). Software was written to link aerodynamic loading generated by the Propeller Loading (PLD) module within ANOPP with formulation 3. Included are results of comparisons between Formulation 3 with ANOPP's existing noise prediction modules, Subsonic Propeller Noise (SPN) and Transonic Propeller Noise (TPN). Four case studies are investigated. Results of the comparison studies show excellent agreement for the subsonic cases. Differences found in the comparisons made under transonic conditions are strictly numerical and can be explained by the way in which the time derivative is calculated in Formulation 3. Also included is a section on how to execute Formulation 3 with ANOPP.

Spence, Peter L.

1987-01-01

224

Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

2012-01-01

225

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using A Real-Number-Encoded Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for aerodynamic shape optimization using a genetic algorithm with real number encoding is presented. The algorithm is used to optimize three different problems, a simple hill climbing problem, a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle problem using an Euler equation solver and a three-dimensional transonic wing problem using a nonlinear potential solver. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement and extremely reliable, being relatively insensitive to design space noise.

Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

2001-01-01

226

PiezoElectric And Viscoelastic Control Of Lifting Surface Aerodynamic Derivatives And Aileron Reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is part of a series of systematic fundamental investigations into thee#ects of damping arising from piezo-thermo-viscoelasticity to control and minimize undesirableflexible structural contributions in flight vehicles. Previous research (Beldica etal. 1998a, b; Hilton & Yi 1998) has demonstrated through computer simulations the attractiveperformance of piezoelectric viscoelastic devices to control aerodynamic noise, divergenceand flutter. The present study evaluates

Cristina E. Beldica; Harry H. Hilton

1999-01-01

227

Noise Reduction in Centrifugal Fans by Use of Resonators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The significant reduction of aerodynamically generated blade passage noise at the source by mounting a lambda/4 resonator at the cut-off lip on centrifugal fans is considered. While preserving the original cut-off lip geometry, the perforated mouth of the...

W. Neise G. H. Koopmann

1981-01-01

228

Noise of the 10-bladed 60 deg swept SR5 propeller in a wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise generated by supersonic helical tip speed propellers is a possible cabin environment problem for future airplanes powered by these propellers. Noise characteristics of one of these propellers, designated SR-5, are presented. A matrix of tests was conducted to provide as much acoustic information as possible. During aerodynamic testing it was discovered that the propeller had an aeroelastic instability which

J. H. Dittmar; G. L. Stefko; R. J. Jeracki

1983-01-01

229

Computation of Supersonic Jet Mixing Noise Using PARC Code With a kappa-epsilon Turbulence Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of modifications have been proposed in order to improve the jet noise prediction capabilities of the MGB code. This code which was developed at General Electric, employees the concept of acoustic analogy for the prediction of turbulent mixing noise. The source convection and also refraction of sound due to the shrouding effect of the mean flow are accounted for by incorporating the high frequency solution to Lilley's equation for cylindrical jets (Balsa and Mani). The broadband shock-associated noise is estimated using Harper-Bourne and Fisher's shock noise theory. The proposed modifications are aimed at improving the aerodynamic predictions (source/spectrum computations) and allowing for the non- axisymmetric effects in the jet plume and nozzle geometry (sound/flow interaction). In addition, recent advances in shock noise prediction as proposed by Tam can be employed to predict the shock-associated noise as an addition to the jet mixing noise when the flow is not perfectly expanded. Here we concentrate on the aerodynamic predictions using the PARC code with a k-E turbulence model and the ensuing turbulent mixing noise. The geometry under consideration is an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle at its design operating conditions. Aerodynamic and acoustic computations are compared with data as well as predictions due to the original MGB model using Reichardt's aerodynamic theory.

Khavaran, A.; Kim, C. M.

1999-01-01

230

Investigation of helicopter rotor blade/wake interactive impulsive noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the Tip Aerodynamic/Aeroacoustic Test (TAAT) data was performed to identify possible aerodynamic sources of blade/vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise. The identification is based on correlation of measured blade pressure time histories with predicted blade/vortex intersections for the flight condition(s) where impulsive noise was detected. Due to the location of the recording microphones, only noise signatures associated with the advancing blade were available, and the analysis was accordingly restricted to the first and second azimuthal quadrants. The results show that the blade tip region is operating transonically in the azimuthal range where previous BVI experiments indicated the impulsive noise to be. No individual blade/vortex encounter is identifiable in the pressure data; however, there is indication of multiple intersections in the roll-up region which could be the origin of the noise. Discrete blade/vortex encounters are indicated in the second quadrant; however, if impulsive noise were produced here, the directivity pattern would be such that it was not recorded by the microphones. It is demonstrated that the TAAT data base is a valuable resource in the investigation of rotor aerodynamic/aeroacoustic behavior.

Miley, S. J.; Hall, G. F.; Vonlavante, E.

1987-01-01

231

Cyclostationary spectral analysis for the measurement and prediction of wind turbine swishing noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces cyclostationary spectral analysis as a new approach to analyzing and predicting the aerodynamic noise generated by wind turbines. This method is able to reveal new insights into the periodic character of the noise signal and is therefore ideally suited to the study of wind turbine noise. A new formulation is presented for the time variation of the noise spectrum due to wind turbines thereby providing insight into the character of the periodic variation in noise referred to as 'swishing'. The character and mechanism of swishing noise is analyzed in detail.

Cheong, Cheolung; Joseph, Phillip

2014-07-01

232

System for determining aerodynamic imbalance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is provided for determining tracking error in a propeller or rotor driven aircraft by determining differences in the aerodynamic loading on the propeller or rotor blades of the aircraft. The system includes a microphone disposed relative to the blades during the rotation thereof so as to receive separate pressure pulses produced by each of the blades during the passage thereof by the microphone. A low pass filter filters the output signal produced by the microphone, the low pass filter having an upper cut-off frequency set below the frequency at which the blades pass by the microphone. A sensor produces an output signal after each complete revolution of the blades, and a recording display device displays the outputs of the low pass filter and sensor so as to enable evaluation of the relative magnitudes of the pressure pulses produced by passage of the blades by the microphone during each complete revolution of the blades.

Churchill, Gary B. (inventor); Cheung, Benny K. (inventor)

1994-01-01

233

The basic aerodynamics of floatation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that the basic aerodynamics of modern floatation ovens, in which the continuous, freshly painted metal strip is floated, dried, and cured, is the two-dimensional analog of that of hovercraft. The basic theory for the static lift considered in connection with the study of hovercraft has had spectacular success in describing the experimental results. This appears surprising in view of the crudity of the theory. The present investigation represents an attempt to explore the reasons for this success. An outline of the basic theory is presented and an approach is shown for deriving the resulting expressions for the lift from the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly indicates the limitations on the validity of the expressions. Attention is given to the generally good agreement between the theory and the axisymmetric (about the centerline) results reported by Jaumotte and Kiedrzynski (1965).

Davies, M. J.; Wood, D. H.

1983-09-01

234

Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this report is to bring together the investigations of the various aerodynamic laboratories in this country and Europe upon the subject of aerofoils suitable for use as lifting or control surfaces on aircraft. The data have been so arranged as to be of most use to designing engineers and for the purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report.

1921-01-01

235

High angle of attack: Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to predict high angle of attack, nonlinear, aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles, including aircraft, has made significant progress in the last 25 years using computational tools and analyses. The key technological element which has made these analyses possible is the ability to account for the influence of the shed vortical flow, prevalent in this angle of attack range, on geometries of interest. Using selected analysis techniques, applications have also been made to wing design in order to improve their high speed maneuver performance. Various techniques, associated with different levels of accuracy, exist to model this vortical flow influence. The ones included in this paper cover: suction analogy with extensions; free vortex filaments; free vortex sheet modeling; and Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions. Associated relevant features of vortices are also addressed, including: the wing and flow conditions which cause vortex formation; and how the vortex strength varies with angle of attack and wing sweep.

Lamar, John E.

1992-01-01

236

Aerodynamic features of turbulent flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper provides an interpretation for a variety of turbulent flame phenomena relating them to the aerodynamic properties of the flow field. This includes the classical notion of the breakdown of laminar flames propagation in ducts, the characteristic features of turbulent flame-fronts recorded by schlieren photography, as well as flame instabilities leading to flashback occurring in a combustion chamber behind a bluff-body flame holder. The rudimentary nature of turbulent flame propagation is shown to be associated with (1) vortex motion of a large-scale turbulent eddy, combined with (2) self-advancement of the flame at the appropriate normal burning speed and (3) the concomitant action of distributed sources of specific volume. The results furnish an insight into the macroscopic properties of the mechanism of turbulent flame propagation, rationalizing in particular its capability to sustain high flow velocities at relatively low normal burning speeds.

Oppenheim, A. K.; Ghoniem, A. F.

1983-01-01

237

Method for investigating unsteady aerodynamic pressure pulsations on rotating fan blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for measuring unsteady aerodynamic pressure pulsations on rotating fan blades has been developed with reference to the study of fan vibration and noise. It is shown that there is practically no change in the transfer coefficient of the receiving section for tangential-flow conditions that characterize centrifugal fans when the waveguide-transfer section of the sampling orifice on the blade surface is continuous; hence, the effect of flow on calibration can be neglected. The proposed method yields a signal/noise ratio of 20 dB.

Bazhenov, D. V.; Bazhenova, L. A.; Vodopianov, V. G.; Rimskii-Korsakov, A. V.

238

Noise Jammer Discrimination by Noise Modulation Bandwidth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for distinguishing between multiple noise jammer sources having different noise modulation bandwidths. Noise signals are detected by a receiver having a bandwidth substantially the same as the bandwidth of the jammer noise source. Th...

C. D. Wise

1984-01-01

239

Hypersonic aerodynamics at North Carolina State University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypersonic Aerodynamics has attracted outstanding graduate students and faculty at NCSU. It has grown to 6 faculty and 32 graduate students for fall, 1988. A significant feature of the program is that students and faculty spend time at government laboratories which currently include NASA Langley Research Center, Naval Surface Warfare Center at Silver Spring, and the Wright Aeronautical Laboratories. Research projects include analysis, computational and experimental aerodynamics. The combined program produces graduates with the background needed to perform aerodynamics investigations of hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft. The research performed helps advance the state of the art as well as assist government laboratories in meeting their goals.

Dejarnette, Fred R.

1988-01-01

240

The importance of aerodynamics on dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of aerodynamic phenomena on helicopter structural dynamics are examined, reviewing the results of recent theoretical and experimental investigations. A schematic diagram of a dynamic analysis is presented and discussed, noting the numerous aerodynamic inputs, and numerical data are presented in graphs. Consideration is given to forcing functions, aerodynamic damping, aeroelastic coupling, negative damping, apparent coriolis coupling, periodic coefficients, inverse damping, additional degrees of freedom, flap-lag stability, and dynamic inflow. The need for theoretical models which account for the dynamic loop between blade lift and induced flow (permitting blade motion to dynamically alter the flowfield during transients) is indicated.

Peters, David A.

1987-01-01

241

1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

242

Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.  

PubMed

Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method. PMID:25075621

Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petkovi?, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin

2014-01-01

243

Filtering flight data prior to aerodynamic system identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm for processing flight-test data to provide state estimates and instrument calibrations for aerodynamic or hydrodynamic system identification by the equation error estimation method is developed and demonstrated on synthesized data. The extended-Kalman-filter algorithm employs a locally level, north-pointing frame of reference, accounts for rotating ellipsoidal earth effects, and estimates sensor bias, scale factors, wind components, and process noise levels by maximum-likelihood parameters. The method is found to be most effective with navigation quality inertial input data. The algorithm is applied to data from a six-degree-of-freedom F-4 aircraft simulation and shown to produce state estimates in good agreement with the simulation values.

Trankle, T. L.; Rabin, U. H.

1983-01-01

244

1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

245

Aerodynamic analysis of Pegasus - Computations vs reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pegasus, a three-stage, air-launched, winged space booster was developed to provide fast and efficient commercial launch services for small satellites. The aerodynamic design and analysis of Pegasus was conducted without benefit of wind tunnel tests using only computational aerodynamic and fluid dynamic methods. Flight test data from the first two operational flights of Pegasus are now available, and they provide an opportunity to validate the accuracy of the predicted pre-flight aerodynamic characteristics. Comparisons of measured and predicted flight characteristics are presented and discussed. Results show that the computational methods provide reasonable aerodynamic design information with acceptable margins. Post-flight analyses illustrate certain areas in which improvements are desired.

Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.; Whittaker, C. H.; Curry, Robert E.; Moulton, Bryan

1993-01-01

246

Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

Sazonov, V. V.

1983-01-01

247

MATLAB/Aerodynamic Analyzer System Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A MATLAB script has been developed that interfaces with the U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Command's Aerodynamic Analyzer System (AAS). This tool has the capability of automatically removing data biases, forcing delta symmetry, and plotting 3-Dimensional...

L. M. Auman J. Newby

2003-01-01

248

Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the most important aerodynamic research topics in the field of wind energy. Wind turbine aerodynamics concerns the modeling and prediction of aerodynamic forces, such as performance predictions of wind farms, and the design of specific parts of wind turbines, such as rotor-blade geometry. The basics of the blade-element momentum theory are presented along with guidelines for the construction of airfoil data. Various theories for aerodynamically optimum rotors are discussed, and recent results on classical models are presented. State-of-the-art advanced numerical simulation tools for wind turbine rotors and wakes are reviewed, including rotor predictions as well as models for simulating wind turbine wakes and flows in wind farms.

Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

2011-01-01

249

Aerodynamic Focusing of Nanoparticle or Cluster Beams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines for designing lenses or systems for aerodynamic focusing of nanoparticle or cluster beams. The design process may involve obtaining a relationship between particle size, operating pressure and aperture size, and selecting the operating pressure...

F. E. Kruis P. H. McMurry X. Wang

2005-01-01

250

Aerodynamic Performance of Hand Launch Glider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for disaster aerial video are developed vigorously. In order to improve aerodynamic performance of MAV wing performance in low Reynolds numbers (Re) need to be improved, but research on the theme are very rare. In category of Hand Launch Glider, a kind of model aircraft, glide performance are competed, as a result high performance airfoils in Re is around 20,000 are developed. Therefore for MAV's aerodynamic performance improvement airfoils of Hand Launch Gliders should be referred and aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils desired to be studied. So in this research, aerodynamic characteristics of the gliders are measured in wind tunnel. And also consistency between wind tunnel test and glide test in calm air is examined to confirm reliability of wind tunnel test. Comparison of different airfoils and flow visualization are also performed.

Koike, Masaru; Ishii, Mitsuru

251

Parameter Identification and Modeling of Longitudinal Aerodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the...

J. W. Aksteter E. K. Parks R. E. Bach

1995-01-01

252

Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, Jhn A.

2011-01-01

253

Nonpotential Aerodynamics for Windmills in Shear Wind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several project goals are included in this report: (1) development of a formulation and computer program for a lifting surface aerodynamic analysis of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS); (2) development of a formulation and computer program for a compl...

L. Morino

1975-01-01

254

Aerodynamic Interference Effects on Tilting Proprotor Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Green's function method was used to study tilting proprotor aircraft aerodynamics with particular application to the problem of the mutual interference of the wing-fuselage-tail-rotor wake configuration. While the formulation is valid for fully unstea...

P. Soohoo L. Morino R. B. Noll N. D. Ham

1977-01-01

255

An Investigation of Rooftop Stolport Aerodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation into aerodynamic problems associated with large building rooftop STOLports was performed. Initially, a qualitative flow visualization study indicated two essential problems: (1) the establishment of smooth, steady, attached flow over the ...

J. N. Blanton H. M. Parker

1972-01-01

256

Torso Experienced Aerodynamic Forces Experienced during Ejection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aerodynamic forces which are experienced by an ejecting aircrewmember are momentarily unique in direction and can be of severe magnitude. One difficulty of analyzing extremity injury during emergency escape is the diversity and intensity of the aerody...

A. J. Nestle

1981-01-01

257

Aerodynamics of Advanced Axial-Flow Turbomachinery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations is being carried on at Iowa State University. The elements of this program are intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, ...

G. K. Serovy P. Kavanagh T. H. Okiishi E. C. Hansen

1979-01-01

258

Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Insights using Eigenanalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.

Heeg, Jennifer; Dowell, Earl H.

2004-01-01

259

Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Insights using Eigenanalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.

Heeg, Jennifer; Dowell, Earl H.

1999-01-01

260

Experimental Facilities and Modelling for Rarefied Aerodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present lecture is devoted to experimental and theoretical modelling for rarefied aerodynamics. General features of experimental studies in rarefied flows are discussed. Experimental facilities designed in Saint Petersburg State University for rarefie...

A. Krylov E. Kustova M. Mekhonoshina V. Lashkov

2011-01-01

261

Noise and Music  

MedlinePLUS

... Events Events by Month Make an Appointment Noise & Music Home › Noise Center Home › Facts on NoiseNoise & ... jcochary on June 18, 2009 - 5:57pm Noise & Music Fact Sheet Warning: Whether it's Bach or Rock, ...

262

Noise in the Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Workplace Recreational Noise Personal Stereo Systems & Headsets Noise & Music Noise in Health Clubs Noise in the Home ... interrupted by noise from our neighbors, street traffic, music blaring in the next apartment, train whistles and ...

263

Aerodynamic performances of three fan stator designs operating with rotor having tip speed of 337 meters per second and pressure ratio of 1.54. 1: Experimental performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performances of four stator-blade rows are presented and evaluated. The aerodynamic designs of two of these stators were compromised to reduce noise, a third design was not. On a calculated operating line passing through the design point pressure ratio, the best stator had overall pressure-ratio and efficiency decrements of 0.031 and 0.044, respectively, providing a stage pressure ratio of 1.483 and efficiency of 0.865. The other stators showed some correctable deficiencies due partly to the design compromises for noise. In the end-wall regions blade-element losses were significantly less for the shortest chord studied.

Gelder, T. F.

1980-01-01

264

The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

2013-01-01

265

Fundamental aerodynamics of a new volleyball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the basic aerodynamic characteristics of conventional volleyballs with those of new designs in a wind tunnel. Furthermore, to examine the aerodynamic instability near the critical Reynolds regime (14 m\\/s), balls were propelled with an impact-type ball ejection device and the variation in the coordinates of the landing point was measured. It was found that the critical Reynolds number

Takeshi Asai; Shinichiro Ito; Kazuya Seo; Akihiro Hitotsubashi

2010-01-01

266

An experimental study of Wiffle ball aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the aerodynamic forces on a Wiffle ball as a function of the Reynolds number and ball orientation. The effects of asymmetric flow outside the ball and flow within the ball are considered, and are both associated with the ball's tendency to curve without pitcher-imparted spin. The problem of Wiffle ball aerodynamics is an accessible way to introduce topics such as boundary layer separation and transition to turbulence.

Rossmann, Jenn; Rau, Andrew

2007-12-01

267

Fundamental aerodynamics of a new volleyball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the basic aerodynamic characteristics of conventional volleyballs with those of new designs in a wind tunnel. Furthermore, to examine the aerodynamic instability near the critical Reynolds regime (14 m\\/s), balls were propelled with an impact-type ball ejection device and the variation in the coordinates of the landing point was measured. It was found that the critical Reynolds number

Takeshi Asai; Shinichiro Ito; Kazuya Seo; Akihiro Hitotsubashi

2012-01-01

268

Some aerodynamic problems of satellite launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Satellite Launch Vehicle, during its atmospheric flight, presents a variety of aerodynamic problems for which solutions\\u000a are to be obtained through analytical and experimental techniques. Generally, the problems are complex and three-dimensional\\u000a in nature and quite often involve multibody interactions, interactions between the free stream and propulsive jet etc.\\u000a \\u000a In this paper, attention is confined to the current aerodynamic

T S Prahlad

1987-01-01

269

Aerodynamic response analysis of wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy has received increasing attention in the same way as energy crisis and environmental deterioration. The aerodynamic\\u000a response of wind turbines is the major problem in wind turbine design. Blade element momentum theory was used to study the\\u000a aerodynamic thrusts of the blades on the tower. Iterative solutions were used to calculate the axial flow induction factor\\u000a for each

Jing Li; Jianyun Chen; Xiaobo Chen

2011-01-01

270

Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

1991-01-01

271

Measurement and estimation of the aerodynamic resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using two methods of eddy correlation system and evaporation pan to measure respectively the aerodynamic resistance over bare soil surface and maize field, this paper analyses the diurnal variation of the aerodynamic resistance and its relationship with wind speed. Based on direct measurements by eddy correlation system, an evaluation of the aerodynamic resistance models is made. These models include Thom model, Verma-Ronsenberg model, Monteith-Hatfield model, XieXianqun model, Mahrt-Ek model, Choudhury-1 model and Choudhury-2 model. The results show that: the distribution of the aerodynamic resistance takes a "U" type in the daytime and inverse "V" type at night. The aerodynamic resistance is a power function of wind speed. The aerodynamic resistances measured by eddy correlation system are in agreement with those measured by evaporation pan, but big differences occur when the evaporation rate is very small at night or rainy day. Choudhury-1 model, XieXianqun model and Thom model give the better agreement with the measurements by eddy correlation system both over bare soil surface and the maize field, while Mahrt-Ek Model and Monteith-Hatfield model perform worse.

Liu, S.; Mao, D.; Lu, L.

2006-05-01

272

On the sources of wayside noise generated by high-speed trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear array of 14 microphones was used to measure radiated noise generated by a four-carriage electric train travelling at speeds between 160 and 250 km\\/h. Most of the results given in this paper pertain to apparent source locations of wheel\\/rail interaction noise, although preliminary data collected in a concurrent study of railway aerodynamic noise are briefly mentioned. An analysis

W. F. King; D. Bechert

1979-01-01

273

A shock wave approach to the noise of supersonic propellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To model propeller noise expected for a turboprop aircraft, the pressure ratio across the shock at the propeller tip was calculated and compared with noise data from three propellers. At helical tip Mach numbers over 1.0, using only the tip shock wave, the model gave a fairly good prediction of the noise for a bladed propeller and for a propeller swept for aerodynamic purposes. However for another propeller, which was highly swept and designed to have noise cancellations from the inboard propeller sections, the shock strength from the tip over predicted the noise. In general the good agreement indicates that shock theory is a viable method for predicting the noise from these supersonic propellers but that the shock strengths from all of the blade sections need to be properly included.

Dittmar, J. H.; Rice, E. J.

1981-01-01

274

Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

2012-06-01

275

The Aerodynamics of Bird Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifest success of birds in flight over small and large distances, in confined quarters and also in gusty conditions has inspired admiration, investigation and sometimes imitation from the earthbound human. Birds occupy a range of scales (2 g - 12 kg in mass, and 0.05 - 3 m in wingspan) that overlaps certain micro air vehicle (MAV) designs and there is interest in whether some bird-like properties (flapping wings, deformable feathers, movable tails) might be useful or even necessary for successful MAVs. A bird with 5 cm mean chord flying at 8 m/s has a nominal Reynolds number of 2 - 3 x 10^4. This is an extremely inconvenient range for design, operation and analysis of lifting surfaces, even in steady motion, because their properties are very sensitive to boundary layer separation. The moderate- to high-amplitude flapping motions, together with the complex surface geometry and mechanical properties of the wings themselves lead to yet further challenges. This talk will review some of the theoretical and practical approaches towards understanding and analyzing the aerodynamics of various types of bird flight, including some recent research results that suggest that this effort is far from complete.

Spedding, Geoffrey

2002-11-01

276

Aeroacoustic noise measurements in wind tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the general characteristics of the lowspeed Acoustic Research Wind Tunnel constructed in the Aerodynamics Laboratory of E.N.S.M.A (poitiers/France) and presents the results of the preliminary experiments conducted in this wind tunnel. The wind tunnel is of open test section, open circuit and blower type. It has a test section of 30x30 sq cm and a mean velocity of 42 m/s. Aerodynamic measurements revealed a maximum turbulence intensity of less than 1%. The open test section is completely enclosed within a acoustically lined semi-anechoic chamber of dimensions 3.3x4/2.8 sq cm. Acoustic calibration of the wind tunnel is done by using both white noise and pure tone noise sources and it was observed that the tunnel can be considered to be anechoic above 100 Hz for white noise tests. Preliminary measurements of aerodynamic noise are performed by using both smooth and artificially roughened circular cylinders placed in the open test section of the wind tunnel. An aeroacoustic coherence function is deviced in order to classify the subsonic flow at moderate Reynolds numbers 5.05x10 to the 4th power Re sub d around a circular cylinder in its different flow regimes; subcritical, transcritical and supercritical. The method uses simultaneous measurements of the power spectra of the far field acoustic pressure and of the turbulent longitudinal velocity fluctuations in the wake of the cylinder as well as their cross spectra density functions CSD and especially the coherence function between the two signals. The values of the coherent function corresponding to the critical Strouhal frequencies are intense in the subcritical regime, decrease sharply in the transcritical domain and then increase and stabilize in the supercritical regime.

Alemdaroglu, H. N.

1984-02-01

277

On-road and wind-tunnel measurement of motorcycle helmet noise.  

PubMed

The noise source mechanisms involved in motorcycling include various aerodynamic sources and engine noise. The problem of noise source identification requires extensive data acquisition of a type and level that have not previously been applied. Data acquisition on track and on road are problematic due to rider safety constraints and the portability of appropriate instrumentation. One way to address this problem is the use of data from wind tunnel tests. The validity of these measurements for noise source identification must first be demonstrated. In order to achieve this extensive wind tunnel tests have been conducted and compared with the results from on-track measurements. Sound pressure levels as a function of speed were compared between on track and wind tunnel tests and were found to be comparable. Spectral conditioning techniques were applied to separate engine and wind tunnel noise from aerodynamic noise and showed that the aerodynamic components were equivalent in both cases. The spectral conditioning of on-track data showed that the contribution of engine noise to the overall noise is a function of speed and is more significant than had previously been thought. These procedures form a basis for accurate experimental measurements of motorcycle noise. PMID:23967933

Kennedy, J; Carley, M; Walker, I; Holt, N

2013-09-01

278

1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

1999-01-01

279

1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

1999-01-01

280

1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

281

Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

282

Quantum Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for

C W J Beenakker

2005-01-01

283

Aerodynamic Parameter Identification of a Venus Lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis was conducted to identify the parameters of an aerodynamic model for a Venus lander based on experimental free-flight data. The experimental free-flight data were collected in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel with a 25-percent Froude-scaled model. The experimental data were classified based on the wind tunnel run type: runs where the lander model was unperturbed over the course of the run, and runs were the model was perturbed (principally in pitch, yaw, and roll) by the wind tunnel operator. The perturbations allow for data to be obtained at higher wind angles and rotation rates than those available from the unperturbed data. The model properties and equations of motion were used to determine experimental values for the aerodynamic coefficients. An aerodynamic model was selected using a priori knowledge of axisymmetric blunt entry vehicles. The least squares method was used to estimate the aerodynamic parameters. Three sets of results were obtained from the following data sets: perturbed, unperturbed, and the combination of both. The combined data set was selected for the final set of aerodynamic parameters based on the quality of the results. The identified aerodynamic parameters are consistent with that of the static wind tunnel data. Reconstructions, of experimental data not used in the parameter identification analyses, achieved similar residuals as those with data used to identify the parameters. Simulations of the experimental data, using the identified parameters, indicate that the aerodynamic model used is incapable of replicating the limit cycle oscillations with stochastic peak amplitudes observed during the test.

Sykes, Robert A.

284

1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

285

Aerodynamic loading and magnetic bearing controller robustness using a gain-scheduled Kalman filter  

SciTech Connect

Modeling or predicting aerodynamic loading effects on rotating equipment has been a source of concern to those who wish to examine stability or response of critical components. The rotordynamic model of the system employed for such examination assumes greater importance for active bearings than for passive ones, if only because of the additional potential for instability introduced by the controller. For many systems, aerodynamic loading may vary widely over the range of operation of the bearings, and may depend on extended system variables. Thus, potential controllers for active magnetic bearings require sufficient robustness or adaptation to changes in critical aerodynamic loading parameters, as might be embodied in cross-coupled stiffness terms for compressor impellers. Furthermore, the presence of plant or measurement noise provides additional sources of complication. Here, the previous development of a nonlinear controller for a hypothetical single-stage centrifugal gas compressor is extended by comparing the compensator performance using a multivariable Luenberger observer against that of a stationary Kalman filter, both gain-scheduled for rotational speed. For the postulated system, it was found that the slower poles of the Kalman filter did not observably detract from controller convergence and stability, while predictably smoothing out the simulated sensor noise.

Smith, R.D.; Weldon, W.F.; Traver, A.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

286

Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

1995-01-01

287

Reduction of Wake-Stator Interaction Noise Using Passive Porosity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was conducted to assess the potential of Passive Porosity Technology as a mechanism to reduce interaction noise in turbomachinery by reducing the fluctuating forces acting on the vane surfaces. To do so, a typical fan stator airfoil was subjected to the effects of a transversely moving wake; time histories of the primitive aerodynamic variables, obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions, were then input into an acoustic prediction code. This procedure was performed on the solid airfoil to obtain a baseline, and on a series of porous configurations in order to isolate those that yield maximum noise reductions without compromising the aerodynamic performance of the stator. It was found that communication between regions of high pressure differential - made possible by the use of passive porosity - is necessary to significantly alter the noise radiation pattern of the stator airfoil. In general, noise reductions were obtained for those configurations incorporating passive porosity in the region between x/c is approximately 0.15 on the suction side of the airfoil and x/c is approximately 0.20 on the pressure side. Reductions in overall radiated noise of approximately 1.0 dB were obtained. The noise benefit increased to about 2.5 dB when the effects of loading noise alone were considered.

Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

2002-01-01

288

Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

289

Acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of ejectives in Amharic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper invetsigates the main phonetic characteristics that distinguishes ejectives from pulmonic sounds in Amharic. In this language, there are five ejectives that can be phonemically singleton or geminate. Duration measurements have been made in intervocalic position for pulmonic stops and for each type of ejective, taking into account the overall duration and VOT. Results show that ejective stops have a higher amplitude burst than pulmonic stops. The duration of the noise is shorter for ejective fricatives compared to pulmonic fricatives. At the end of ejective fricatives, there is a 30-ms glottal lag that is not present in pulmonic fricatives. Geminate ejectives are realized by delaying the elevation of the larynx. This can be observed on the spectrographic data by an increase of the noise at the end of the geminate ejectives. Aerodynamic data have been collected in synchronization with the acoustic recordings. The main observations are that pharyngeal pressures values are much higher than what is usually assumed (up to 40 CmH2O for velars) and that the delayed command in the elevation of the larynx of geminate ejectives is shown by two phases in the rise of pharyngeal pressure.

Demolin, Didier

2001-05-01

290

An analysis of blade vortex interaction aerodynamics and acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impulsive noise associated with helicopter flight due to Blade-Vortex Interaction, sometimes called blade slap is analyzed especially for the case of a close encounter of the blade-tip vortex with a following blade. Three parts of the phenomena are considered: the tip-vortex structure generated by the rotating blade, the unsteady pressure produced on the following blade during the interaction, and the acoustic radiation due to the unsteady pressure field. To simplify the problem, the analysis was confined to the situation where the vortex is aligned parallel to the blade span in which case the maximum acoustic pressure results. Acoustic radiation due to the interaction is analyzed in space-fixed coordinates and in the time domain with the unsteady pressure on the blade surface as the source of chordwise compact, but spanwise non-compact radiation. Maximum acoustic pressure is related to the vortex core size and Reynolds number which are in turn functions of the blade-tip aerodynamic parameters. Finally noise reduction and performance are considered.

Lee, D. J.

1985-01-01

291

Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; McCallum, Duncan

1994-05-01

292

Community noise sources and noise control issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

Nihart, Gene L.

1992-01-01

293

Investigation of computational aeroacoustic tools for noise predictions of wind turbine aerofoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work trailing edge noise levels of a research aerofoil have been computed and compared to aeroacoustic measurements using two different approaches. On the other hand, aerodynamic and aeroacoustic calculations were performed with the full Navier-Stokes CFD code Fluent [Fluent Inc 2005 Fluent 6.2 Users Guide, Lebanon, NH, USA] on the basis of a steady RANS simulation. Aerodynamic characteristics were computed by the aid of various turbulence models. By the combined usage of implemented broadband noise source models, it was tried to isolate and determine the trailing edge noise level. Throughout this work two methods of different computational cost have been tested and quantitative and qualitative results obtained. On the one hand, the semi-empirical noise prediction tool NAFNoise [Moriarty P 2005 NAFNoise User's Guide. Golden, Colorado, July. http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/ simulators/NAFNoise] was used to directly predict trailing edge noise by taking into consideration the nature of the experiments.

Humpf, A.; Ferrer, E.; Munduate, X.

2007-07-01

294

The Noise of a Forward Swept Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A forward swept fan, designated the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), was tested in the NASA Glenn 9-by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate its noise reduction relative to a baseline fan of the same aerodynamic performance. The objective of the Quiet High Speed Fan was a 6 decibel reduction in the Effective Perceived Noise relative to the baseline fan at the takeoff condition. The intent of the Quiet High Speed Fan design was to provide both a multiple pure tone noise reduction from the forward sweep of the fan rotor and a rotor-stator interaction blade passing tone noise reduction from a leaned stator. The tunnel noise data indicted that the Quiet High Speed Fan was quieter than the baseline fan for a significant portion of the operating line and was 6 dB quieter near the takeoff condition. Although reductions in the multiple pure tones were observed, the vast majority of the EPNdB reduction was a result of the reduction in the blade passing tone and its harmonics. The baseline fan's blade passing tone was dominated by the rotor-strut interaction mechanism. The observed blade passing tone reduction could be the result of either the redesign of the Quiet High Speed Fan Rotor or the redesigned stator. The exact cause of this rotor-strut noise reduction, whether from the rotor or stator redesign, was not discernable from this experiment.

Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Fite, E. Brian

2003-01-01

295

Physics of badminton shuttlecocks. Part 1 : aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally shuttlecocks dynamics. In this part we show that shuttlecock trajectory is highly different from classical parabola. When one takes into account the aerodynamic drag, the flight of the shuttlecock quickly curves downwards and almost reaches a vertical asymptote. We solve the equation of motion with gravity and drag at high Reynolds number and find an analytical expression of the reach. At high velocity, this reach does not depend on velocity anymore. Even if you develop your muscles you will not manage to launch the shuttlecock very far because of the ``aerodynamic wall.'' As a consequence you can predict the length of the field. We then discuss the extend of the aerodynamic wall to other projectiles like sports balls and its importance.

Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

2011-11-01

296

Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.

Chawla, Kalpana

1995-01-01

297

Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades  

SciTech Connect

An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were corrected to section coefficients for comparison to published rectilinear flow data. Although the airfoil sections were symmetrical, moment coefficients were not zero and the lift and drag curves were asymmetrical about zero lift coefficient and angle of attack. These features verified the predicted virtual camber and incidence phenomena. Boundary-layer centrifugal effects were manifested by discontinuous lift curves and large differences in the angle of zero lift between th NACA 0015 and elliptical airfoils. It was concluded that rectilinear flow aerodynamic data are not applicable to Darrieus turbine blades, even for small chord-to-radius ratios.

Migliore, P.G.; Walters, R.E.; Wolfe, W.P.

1983-03-01

298

Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.

Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary

2002-01-01

299

Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Fourier analysis method was developed to analyze harmonic forced-oscillation data at high angles of attack as functions of the angle of attack and its time rate of change. The resulting aerodynamic responses at different frequencies are used to build up the aerodynamic models involving time integrals of the indicial type. An efficient numerical method was also developed to evaluate these time integrals for arbitrary motions based on a concept of equivalent harmonic motion. The method was verified by first using results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional linear theories. The developed models for C sub L, C sub D, and C sub M based on high-alpha data for a 70 deg delta wing in harmonic motions showed accurate results in reproducing hysteresis. The aerodynamic models are further verified by comparing with test data using ramp-type motions.

Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.

1992-01-01

300

Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

1996-01-01

301

Noise in Health Clubs  

MedlinePLUS

... Workplace Recreational Noise Personal Stereo Systems & Headsets Noise & Music Noise in Health Clubs Noise in the Home ... of the health clubs and spas consistently played music which exceeded 105 dBA over one hour periods ...

302

Aerodynamic Heating Measurements on Hypersonic Flight Exoerunebt (HYFLEX) Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerodynamic heating on the Hypersonic Flight Experiment vehicle was measured using newly developed sensors, calibrated by lamp heating tests. These sensors were shown to be of sue for flight measurement purposes. The results of the aerodynamic heating mea...

K. Fujii S. Watanabe M. Shirouzu Y. Inoue T. Kurotaki T. Koyama S. Tsuda N. Hirabayashi

2000-01-01

303

International collaborative research in wind turbine rotor aerodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five organizations from four countries are collaborating to conduct detailed wind turbine aerodynamic test programs. Fullscale atmospheric testing will be conducted on turbines configured to measure aerodynamic forces on rotating airfoils. The purpose of ...

D. A. Simms C. P. Butterfield

1993-01-01

304

Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, rel...

T. Rajkumar J. Bardina

2002-01-01

305

On Noise Assessment for Blended Wing Body Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system noise study is presented for the blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft configured with advanced technologies that are projected to be available in the 2025 timeframe of the NASA N+2 definition. This system noise assessment shows that the noise levels of the baseline configuration, measured by the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL), have a large margin of 34 dB to the aircraft noise regulation of Stage 4. This confirms the acoustic benefits of the BWB shielding of engine noise, as well as other projected noise reduction technologies, but the noise margins are less than previously published assessments and are short of meeting the NASA N+2 noise goal. In establishing the relevance of the acoustic assessment framework, the design of the BWB configuration, the technical approach of the noise analysis, the databases and prediction tools used in the assessment are first described and discussed. The predicted noise levels and the component decomposition are then analyzed to identify the ranking order of importance of various noise components, revealing the prominence of airframe noise, which holds up the levels at all three noise certification locations and renders engine noise reduction technologies less effective. When projected airframe component noise reduction is added to the HWB configuration, it is shown that the cumulative noise margin to Stage 4 can reach 41.6 dB, nearly at the NASA goal. These results are compared with a previous NASA assessment with a different study framework. The approaches that yield projections of such low noise levels are discussed including aggressive assumptions on future technologies, assumptions on flight profile management, engine installation, and component noise reduction technologies. It is shown that reliable predictions of component noise also play an important role in the system noise assessment. The comparisons and discussions illustrate the importance of practical feasibilities and constraints in aircraft system noise studies, which include aerodynamic performance, propulsion efficiency, flight profile limitation and many other factors. For a future aircraft concept to achieve the NASA N+2 noise goal it will require a range of fully successful noise reduction technology developments.

Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L; Thomas, Russell H.

2014-01-01

306

Nonlinear Aerodynamics of Bodies in Coning Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical method for computing the nonlinear inviscid flowfield surrounding a body performing coning motion is described. The method permits accurate computation of the aerodynamic moment due to one of the four motions characterizing an arbitrary nonplanar motion. Results of computations for a slender circular cone in coning motion are presented, and show good agreement with experiment for angles of attack up to twice the cone half-angle. The computational results display significant departure of the side moment from the linear theory value with increasing angle of attack, but agree well with experimental measurements. This indicates that the initial nonlinear behavior of the aerodynamic moment is determined primarily by the inviscid flow.

Schiff, Lewis B.

1972-01-01

307

Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.

1975-01-01

308

Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.

Mavriplis, D. J.

1992-01-01

309

Method of reducing drag in aerodynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present method, boundary layer thickening is combined with laminar flow control to reduce drag. An aerodynamic body is accelerated enabling a ram turbine on the body to receive air at velocity V sub 0. The discharge air is directed over an aft portion of the aerodynamic body producing boundary layer thickening. The ram turbine also drives a compressor by applying torque to a shaft connected between the ram turbine and the compressor. The compressor sucks in lower boundary layer air through inlets in the shell of the aircraft producing laminar flow control and reducing drag. The discharge from the compressor is expanded in a nozzle to produce thrust.

Hrach, Frank J. (inventor)

1993-01-01

310

Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of the numerical simulations of unsteady aerodynamic models. The results focus on numerical accuracy and efficiency, and the robustness of the numerical methods. The aerodynamic models includes the classical Wagner and Kussner functions and the Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model. The simulations includes the numerical approximations of the Duhamel's integrals using both indicial (step) and impulse responses, the numerical integrations of the state-space models, and the exact solutions. The report also presents the conversion among different model representations.

Nguyen, Khanh Q.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

311

Aerodynamics of the upper surface blow flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of some preliminary wind-tunnel investigations made to provide fundamental aerodynamic information on the upper surface blown jet-flap concept incorporating high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines are summarized. The results of the investigation have shown the concept to have aerodynamic performance generally similar to that of other externally blown high-lift systems. A few of the more critical problems associated with this concept have been identified and preliminary solutions to some of these problems have been found. These results have proven to be sufficiently encouraging to warrant continuation of fundamental research efforts on the concept.

Phelps, A. E., III

1972-01-01

312

A parametric study of transonic blade-vortex interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several parameters of transonic blade-vortex interactions (BVI) are being studied and some ideas for noise reduction are introduced and tested using numerical simulation. The model used is the two-dimensional high frequency transonic small disturbance equation with regions of distributed vorticity (VTRAN2 code). The far-field noise signals are obtained by using the Kirchhoff method with extends the numerical 2-D near-field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic 3-D far-field. The BVI noise mechanisms are explained and the effects of vortex type and strength, and angle of attack are studied. Particularly, airfoil shape modifications which lead to noise reduction are investigated. The results presented are expected to be helpful for better understanding of the nature of the BVI noise and better blade design.

Lyrintzis, A. S.

1991-01-01

313

A Fan Design That Meets the NASA Aeronautics Noise Goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fan concept was previously identified that would meet the NASA aeronautics goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction in aircraft noise. This was a 2-stage fan with a pressure ratio of 1.15 and a 460 ft/sec tip speed. The 2 stages were identical so that, with the proper synchrophasing, noise from one stage could be used to cancel noise from the other stage. This paper documents the aerodynamic design of the 2-stage fan concept in a 22-in. diameter size for testing in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-ft wind tunnel. A set of rotor and stator coordinates are listed in the report. Stress and flutter analyses were done on these blades and showed that the design was structurally viable. A noise prediction code, using the blade coordinates and fan flows, indicated that the 2-stage fan would meet the goal of a 20 dB reduction in fan noise.

Dittmar, James; Tweedt, Daniel; Jeracki, Robert; Envia, Edmaine; Bartos, Karen; Slater, John

2003-01-01

314

Noise pollution resources compendium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

1973-01-01

315

Global Design Optimization for Aerodynamics and Rocket Propulsion Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern computational and experimental tools for aerodynamics and propulsion applications have matured to a stage where they can provide substantial insight into engineering processes involving fluid flows, and can be fruitfully utilized to help improve the design of practical devices. In particular, rapid and continuous development in aerospace engineering demands that new design concepts be regularly proposed to meet goals for increased performance, robustness and safety while concurrently decreasing cost. To date, the majority of the effort in design optimization of fluid dynamics has relied on gradient-based search algorithms. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space, can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables, and methods for predicting the model performance. In this article, we review recent progress made in establishing suitable global optimization techniques employing neural network and polynomial-based response surface methodologies. Issues addressed include techniques for construction of the response surface, design of experiment techniques for supplying information in an economical manner, optimization procedures and multi-level techniques, and assessment of relative performance between polynomials and neural networks. Examples drawn from wing aerodynamics, turbulent diffuser flows, gas-gas injectors, and supersonic turbines are employed to help demonstrate the issues involved in an engineering design context. Both the usefulness of the existing knowledge to aid current design practices and the need for future research are identified.

Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

316

Efficient Helicopter Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Predictions on Parallel Computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents parallel implementations of two codes used in a combined CFD/Kirchhoff methodology to predict the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics properties of helicopters. The rotorcraft Navier-Stokes code, TURNS, computes the aerodynamic flowfield near the helicopter blades and the Kirchhoff acoustics code computes the noise in the far field, using the TURNS solution as input. The overall parallel strategy adds MPI message passing calls to the existing serial codes to allow for communication between processors. As a result, the total code modifications required for parallel execution are relatively small. The biggest bottleneck in running the TURNS code in parallel comes from the LU-SGS algorithm that solves the implicit system of equations. We use a new hybrid domain decomposition implementation of LU-SGS to obtain good parallel performance on the SP-2. TURNS demonstrates excellent parallel speedups for quasi-steady and unsteady three-dimensional calculations of a helicopter blade in forward flight. The execution rate attained by the code on 114 processors is six times faster than the same cases run on one processor of the Cray C-90. The parallel Kirchhoff code also shows excellent parallel speedups and fast execution rates. As a performance demonstration, unsteady acoustic pressures are computed at 1886 far-field observer locations for a sample acoustics problem. The calculation requires over two hundred hours of CPU time on one C-90 processor but takes only a few hours on 80 processors of the SP2. The resultant far-field acoustic field is analyzed with state of-the-art audio and video rendering of the propagating acoustic signals.

Wissink, Andrew M.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.; Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

1996-01-01

317

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamics in Experiments and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbine aerodynamics remains a challenging and crucial research area for wind energy. Blade aerodynamic forces responsible for power production must be augmented to maximize energy capture. At the same time, adverse aerodynamic loads that fatigue turbine components need to be mitigated to extend machine service life. Successful resolution of these conflicting demands and continued cost of energy reduction require accurate

Scott J. Schreck; Michael C. Robinson

2007-01-01

318

Predictions of unsteady hawt aerodynamics by lifting line theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical engineering method for the prediction of unsteady wind turbine aerodynamics is presented. The formulation is based on lifting line theory and a semiempirical dynamic stall model of Leishman and Beddoes. The unsteady aerodynamic response of the blade aerodynamics to the sharp blade-pitch changes or unsteady wind conditions is achieved by superposition of the above methods. Comparisons between computed

H. Dumitrescu; V. Cardo?

2001-01-01

319

Noise Abatement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

1983-01-01

320

Noise Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide students with a field exercise that allows them to measure noise pollution and interpret the data collected. The field exercise should take about 2-3 hours to complete, depending upon travel time to sample sites, and requires a few additional materials which are detailed in the lesson. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Winterbottom, Wesley L.

2011-02-14

321

Fuselage Aerodynamic Design Issues and Rotor/Fuselage Interactional Aerodynamics. Part 1: Practical Design Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The more important helicopter fuselage aerodynamic design issues and also interactional problems faced by the helicopter airframe aerodynamicist, including performance and handling optimization and special effects caused by rotor downwash impingement on t...

F. T. Wilson

1990-01-01

322

Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

2005-01-01

323

Trends and pacing items in computational aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perspective is presented of trends in computational aerodynamics, and of important technology development items that pace future advanced applications. From a survey of AIAA Journal papers published during the past two decades, the growth trends and the progressively increasing emphasis on code development for viscous, compressible, turbulent flow are illustrated. These trends are reflected in the chronology of introduction

Dean R. Chapman

324

Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Compressors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of 'Aerodynamic systems design of axial flow compressors' is presented. Numerous chapters cover topics such as compressor design, ptotential and viscous flow in two dimensional cascades, compressor stall and blade vibration, and compressor flow theory. Theoretical aspects of flow are also covered.

Bullock, R. O. (Editor); Johnsen, I. A.

1965-01-01

325

Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

1990-01-01

326

Measured Aerodynamic Interaction of Two Tiltrotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic interaction of two model tiltrotors in helicopter-mode formation flight is investigated. Three scenarios representing tandem level flight, tandem operations near the ground, and a single tiltrotor operating above the ground for varying winds are examined. The effect of aircraft separation distance on the thrust and rolling moment of the trailing aircraft with and without the presence of a

Gloria K. Yamauchi; Alan J. Wadcock; Michael R. Derby

2003-01-01

327

Aerodynamic Optimization of an UAV Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela, is an important petroleum extraction region and besides it is a source of constant pollution. However, the early detection of the oil leakages minimizes the environment impact. In 2003 an UAV for the special mission of patrolling that region in search for oil leakages was designed. The purpose of this research is to optimize the aerodynamic

Pedro J. Boschetti; Andrea Amerio

328

Optimization of transition maneuvers through aerodynamic vectoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the optimization of transition maneuvers between hover and cruise for small aircraft using a novel aerodynamic vectoring feature, which is achieved by allowing the wing to have variable incidence angle with respect to the fuselage. Compared to the fixed-wing aircraft case, the angle of incidence of the wing provides an additional independent control variable in the optimization

Adnan Maqsood; Tiauw Hiong Go

329

Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

2010-11-01

330

Unsteady aerodynamics - Physical issues and numerical predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics is reviewed. The need to match the fluid dynamic flow equation level to the complexity of the type of unsteady flow under consideration is discussed. Comparisons of computational predictions with experimental unsteady pressures and flutter boundaries are presented. The treatment of complex aircraft geometries is also described.

Edwards, John W.

1990-01-01

331

Plane Aerodynamics Chamber (Ploskaya Aerodinamicheskaya Kamera).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of a patent for a plane aerodynamics chamber for blowing through sections of the type of flat gratings consisting of plane vertical and horizontal movable walls, a parallelogrammic mechanism for changing the section of the working p...

N. N. Chernov V. G. Korneev

1967-01-01

332

AN ELECTROMAGNETIC SHOCK TUBE FOR AERODYNAMIC RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetically driven shock tube was studied as a possible new ; tool for aerodynamic research in which velocities of up to 41,000 fps are ; obtainable in air. At these high velocities stagnation temperatures of about ; 35,000 deg K are produced. The simple construction and operation of the shock ; tube is described and an evaluation is made

Ziemer

1958-01-01

333

Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles  

DOEpatents

A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dykhuizen, Ronald C. (Albuquerque, NM); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

334

Aerodynamic Performance of Hand Launch Glider  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for disaster aerial video are developed vigorously. In order to improve aerodynamic performance of MAV wing performance in low Reynolds numbers (Re) need to be improved, but research on the theme are very rare. In category of Hand Launch Glider, a kind of model aircraft, glide performance are competed, as a result high

Masaru Koike; Mitsuru Ishii

2009-01-01

335

Aerodynamic characteristics of an oscillating airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported from wind tunnel tests to study the effects of dynamic aerodynamics on the efficiency of a NACA 0018 airfoil used on a Darreius vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The topic is of interest because of uncontrolled pitching which occurs during operation and which produces stall, turbulence and separation effects that reduce efficiency. Present stream-tube theory and axial

R. H. Wickens

1986-01-01

336

Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

Reuther, James

1996-01-01

337

Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming events are highlighted, including tests of the Highly Variable Cycle Mixer-Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. Other key events are milestones to be delivered within the next calendar year.

Bridges, James

2011-01-01

338

International collaborative research in wind turbine rotor aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five organizations from four countries are collaborating to conduct detailed wind turbine aerodynamic test programs. Fullscale atmospheric testing will be conducted on turbines configured to measure aerodynamic forces on rotating airfoils. The purpose of these test programs is to come to a better understanding of the steady and unsteady aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine rotors, and provide information needed to build accurate aerodynamic models for design codes. Stall, dynamic inflow, yaw conditions, and tower effects all contribute to unknown aerodynamic responses. These unknown responses make it extremely difficult to produce cost-effective wind turbine designs. Turbines behave unexpectedly, experiencing power surges and higher fatigue loads than predicted. In order to evolve state-of-the-art wind turbine designs, these aerodynamic effects must be quantified and understood. This paper describes a coordinated international research effort that is underway to accelerate this key research area, and help develop a more thorough understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics.

Simms, D. A.; Butterfield, C. P.

1993-12-01

339

A theoretical and experimental investigation of shock-associated noise in supersonic jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the fundamental mechanism of broadband shock noise generation in an improperly expanded supersonic jet. The study includes circular convergent-divergent as well as circular convergent nozzles. The main source of shock noise is determined to be the transient interaction between the shock front and the convected vorticity within the jet plume. The discussion of the noise-generation mechanism is based on detailed numerical analysis, theoretical aerodynamic and acoustic modeling, refined measurements of the jet mean flow, shock-cell structure, turbulence, and noise. These results provide a broad-based generalization for the Harper-Bourne and Fisher analysis and prediction method.

Pao, S. P.; Seiner, J. M.

1981-01-01

340

Community Response to Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally posemorelocalized problems.

Fidell, Sandy

341

Community Response to Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport\\/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally

Sandy Fidell

2008-01-01

342

Wind Turbine Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an introduction to noise and noise regulation of wind turbines, the problem of adverse health effects of turbine noise is discussed. This is attributed to the characteristics of turbine noise and deficiencies in the regulation of this noise. Both onshore and offshore wind farms are discussed.

John P. Harrison

2011-01-01

343

Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

2010-01-01

344

Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

345

Acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan jet noise simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a static acoustic and aerodynamic performance, model-scale test program on coannular unsuppressed and multielement fan suppressed nozzle configurations are summarized. The results of the static acoustic tests show a very beneficial interaction effect. When the measured noise levels were compared with the predicted noise levels of two independent but equivalent conical nozzle flow streams, noise reductions for the unsuppressed coannular nozzles were of the order of 10 PNdB; high levels of suppression (8 PNdB) were still maintained even when only a small amount of core stream flow was used. The multielement fan suppressed coannular nozzle tests showed 15 PNdB noise reductions and up to 18 PNdB noise reductions when a treated ejector was added. The static aerodynamic performance tests showed that the unsuppressed coannular plug nozzles obtained gross thrust coefficients of 0.972, with 1.2 to 1.7 percent lower levels for the multielement fan-suppressed coannular flow nozzles. For the first time anywhere, laser velocimeter velocity profile measurements were made on these types of nozzle configurations and with supersonic heated flow conditions. Measurements showed that a very rapid decay in the mean velocity occurs for the nozzle tested.

Knott, P. R.; Stringas, E. J.; Brausch, J. F.; Staid, P. S.; Heck, P. H.; Latham, D.

1978-01-01

346

Acoustic and aerodynamic study of a pusher-propeller aircraft model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerodynamic and acoustic study was made of a pusher-propeller aircraft model in the NASA-Ames 7 x 10 ft Wind Tunnel. The test section was changed to operate as an open jet. The 591 mm diameter unswept propeller was operated alone and in the wake of three empennages: an I tail, Y tail, and a V tail. The radiated noise and detailed wake properties were measured. Results indicate that the unsteady blade loading caused by the blade interactions with the wake mean velocity distribution had a strong effect on the harmonics of blade passage noise. The blade passage harmonics above the first were substantially increased in all horizontal directions by the empennage/propeller interaction. Directivity in the plane of the propeller was maximum perpendicular to the blade surface. Increasing the tail loading caused the propeller harmonics to increase 3 to 5 dB for an empennage/propeller spacing of 0.38 mean empennage chords. The interaction noise became weak as empennage propeller spacing was increased beyond 1.0 mean empennage chord lengths. Unlike the mean wake deficit, the wake turbulence had only a small effect on the propeller noise, that effect being a small increase in the broadband noise.

Soderman, Paul T.; Horne, W. Clifton

1990-01-01

347

Recommended procedures for measuring aircraft noise and associated parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures are recommended for obtaining experimental values of aircraft flyover noise levels (and associated parameters). Specific recommendations are made for test criteria, instrumentation performance requirements, data-acquisition procedures, and test operations. The recommendations are based on state-of-the-art measurement capabilities available in 1976 and are consistent with the measurement objectives of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. The recommendations are applicable to measurements of the noise produced by an airplane flying subsonically over (or past) microphones located near the surface of the ground. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations are fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines and using conventional aerodynamic means for takeoff and landing. Various assumptions with respect to subsequent data processing and analysis were made (and are described) and the recommended measurement procedures are compatible with the assumptions. Some areas where additional research is needed relative to aircraft flyover noise measurement techniques are also discussed.

Marsh, A. H.

1977-01-01

348

Rarefaction effects on Galileo probe aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow regime using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Accuracy of the probe's drag coefficient directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties that are being extracted from the deceleration measurements made by onboard accelerometers as part of the Atmospheric Structure Experiment. The range of rarefaction considered in the present study extends from the free molecular limit to continuum conditions. Comparisons made with previous calculations and experimental measurements show the present results for drag to merge well with Navier-Stokes and experimental results for the least rarefied conditions considered.

Moss, James N.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Price, Joseph M.

1996-01-01

349

Parameter identification and modeling of longitudinal aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the equation error method using multiple linear regression to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The formulated math model structure adhered closely to aerodynamic and stability/control theory, particularly with regard to compressibility and dynamic manoeuvring. Validation was accomplished by using a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear flight simulator with pilot inputs from flight test data. The simulation models agreed quite well with the measured states. It is important to note that the flight test data used for the validation of the model was not used in the model identification.

Aksteter, J. W.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

1995-01-01

350

Aerodynamic enhancement of space transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a number of recent investigations are reviewed and used to demonstrate gains in launch, orbital transfer, and planetary vehicle performance and economy that can result from the proper exploitation of aerodynamic phenomena. For launch vehicles, application of control-configured design is shown to allow substantial reduction in wing and vertical fin area (and hence, weight) while maintaining acceptable vehicle performance and control. For orbital transfer and planetary vehicles, the use of aerodynamic lift and drag to reduce retropropulsion requirements is shown to produce payload increases of up to 100 percent and to enable some planetary missions that are not feasible with all-propulsive vehicles. Finally, the application of various advanced technologies to a complete set of launch and orbit transfer vehicles in an early space industrialization mission scenario is considered.

Walberg, G. D.

1981-01-01

351

Using Satellite Aerodynamics to Sense Thermospheric Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that even in the rarified space environment satellite aerodynamics still play a role in determining parameters such as drag and attitude, and if the aerodynamics are well understood, satellite deceleration can be used to determine the in-track neutral momentum flux or density if a wind velocity is assumed, as clearly demonstrated with the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. In addition to measurement of the neutral density, these satellites have demonstrated how the cross winds can influence the satellite attitude. In this work, it is shown how if the satellite geometry is taken to the extreme of adding a simple long rigid gossamer tail, as with a dart, sufficient sensitivity can be achieved to measure the cross track winds with precision comparable to the in-track density determination.

Cooke, D. L.; Jackson, D.

2010-12-01

352

Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes  

SciTech Connect

Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

1995-04-01

353

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

Madavan, Nateri K.

2003-01-01

354

Aerodynamics of Seeing on Large Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts were undertaken to obtain a set of data that examined the level of turbulence and the scale sizes in the shear layer existing over the fence quieted cavity on the NASA-Ames Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). These data were to be taken during the present study and compared with data taken from previous wind tunnel experiments, for which both aerodynamic and direct optical measurements were made. The data obtained during the present study were presented and discussed in light of their impact on the quality of optical images, that is, seeing through the shear layer. In addition, scaling relationships were presented that allow optical data obtained in one aerodynamic environment to be estimated for another one at perhaps different Mach numbers, scale sizes, or aircraft configurations.

Rose, William C.

1988-01-01

355

An Interactive Educational Tool for Compressible Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workstation-based interactive educational tool was developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. The tool solves for the supersonic flow past a wedge using the equations found in NACA 1135. The student varies the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the variation of flow results to the student. One such format leads the student to the generation of some of the graphs found in NACA-1135. The tool includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use. This paper will detail the numerical methods used in the tool and describe how it can be used and modified.

Benson, Thomas J.

1994-01-01

356

Aerodynamic shape optimization of arbitrary hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method was developed to optimize, in terms of aerodynamic wave drag minimization, arbitrary (nonaxisymmetric) hypersonic vehicles in modified Newtonian flow, while maintaining the initial volume and length of the vehicle. This new method uses either a surface fitted Fourier series to represent the vehicle's geometry or an independent point motion algorithm. In either case, the coefficients of the Fourier series or the spatial locations of the points defining each cross section were varied and a numerical optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton gradient search concept was used to determine the new optimal configuration. Results indicate a significant decrease in aerodynamic wave drag for simple and complex geometries at relatively low CPU costs. In the case of a cone, the results agreed well with known analytical optimum ogive shapes. The procedure is capable of accepting more complex flow field analysis codes.

Dulikravich, George S.; Sheffer, Scott G.

1991-01-01

357

Turbomachinery noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

1991-01-01

358

Noise in Dishwashing Rooms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Noise levels in dishwashing rooms have been a continuing problem in Army dining facilities. This study has measured, recorded, and analyzed noise levels at Army and civilian facilities of various sizes. Study results show that noise levels increase with n...

J. C. McBryan P. D. Schomer

1976-01-01

359

Noise and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... flight corridors reported that they were bothered by aircraft noise and that these noises interfered with daily activities. Further, the subjects who were bothered by aircraft noise were more likely to complain of sleep ...

360

Topics in Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses basic noise problems which effects the performance of electronic devices. The noisiness of black boxes is described first in terms of the noise figure concept and then from the noise temperature approach. Equations are given for calcul...

H. K. Scherer

1967-01-01

361

Fundamental aerodynamics of the soccer ball  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the boundary layer of a sports ball undergoes the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, a drag crisis occurs whereby\\u000a the drag coefficient (C\\u000a d) rapidly decreases. However, the aerodynamic properties and boundary-layer dynamics of a soccer ball are not yet well understood.\\u000a In this study we showed that the critical Reynolds number (Re\\u000a crit) of soccer balls ranged

T. Asai; K. Seo; O. Kobayashi; R. Sakashita

2007-01-01

362

Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift\\u000a is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions\\u000a of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured

Bret W. Tobalske; Jason W. D. Hearn; Douglas R. Warrick

2009-01-01

363

Unsteady aerodynamics of fluttering and tumbling plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the aerodynamics of freely falling plates in a quasi-two-dimensional flow at Reynolds number of 10(3) , which is typical for a leaf or business card falling in air. We quantify the trajectories experimentally using high-speed digital video at sufficient resolution to determine the instantaneous plate accelerations and thus to deduce the instantaneous fluid forces. We compare the measurements

A. Andersen; U. Pesavento; Z. Jane Wang

2005-01-01

364

Unsteady aerodynamics of fluttering and tumbling plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the aerodynamics of freely falling plates in a quasi-two-dimensional flow at Reynolds number of 103, which is typical for a leaf or business card falling in air. We quantify the trajectories experimentally using high-speed digital video at sufficient resolution to determine the instantaneous plate accelerations and thus to deduce the instantaneous fluid forces. We compare the measurements with

U. P ESAVENTO; Z. J ANE W ANG

2005-01-01

365

Aerodynamic characteristics of flapping motion in hover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to understand the aerodynamic phenomena and the vortex topology of an unsteady flapping motion\\u000a by means of numerical and experimental methods. Instead of the use of real insect\\/bird wing geometries and kinematics which\\u000a are highly complex and difficult to imitate by an exact modeling, a simplified model is used in order to understand

D. Funda Kurtulus; Laurent David; Alain Farcy; Nafiz Alemdaroglu

2008-01-01

366

Experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10° half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap could be attached so that deflection angles of 10°, 20° and

W. L. Oberkampf; D. P. Aeschliman; R. E. Tate; J. F. Henfling

1993-01-01

367

Experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10[degree] half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap could be attached so that deflection angles of 10[degree], 20[degree] and

W. L. Oberkampf; D. P. Aeschliman; R. E. Tate; J. F. Henfling

1993-01-01

368

Opportunities for aerodynamic-drag reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for reducing aerodynamic drag to improve aircraft performance and reduce fuel consumption are discussed. The techniques considered are: (1) pressure drag reduction, (2) supercritical airfoils, (3) subcritical airfoils, (4) induced drag reduction by over-the-wing blowing and increased aspect ratio, and (5) friction drag reduction by laminar flow control and slot injection. It is stated that a 50 percent reduction from current drag values is expected through the application of these techniques.

Bower, R. E.

1975-01-01

369

Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic breakup of liquid sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of hydrodynamic, aerodynamic and liquid surface forces on the mean drop diameter of water sprays that are produced by the breakup of nonswirling and swirling water sheets in quiescent air and in airflows similar to those encountered in gas turbine combustors is investigated. The mean drop diameter is used to characterize fuel sprays and it is a very important factor in determining the performance and exhaust emissions of gas turbine combustors.

Ingebo, R.

1982-01-01

370

Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

Steers, L.

1978-01-01

371

Recent progress in circulation control aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop on circulation control aerodynamics was held on February 19-21, 1986 at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. The subjects covered were viscosity and turbulence of Coanda jets, circulation control airfoils, airfoil theory, circulation control airfoil and wing experiments, circulation control rotor theory, X-Wing technology, and fixed-wing technology. The unclassified papers of the Workshop are reviewed in this paper, and Workshop recommendations for future research and development on circulation control are presented.

Nielsen, Jack N.; Biggers, James C.

1987-01-01

372

Aerodynamic considerations in open shelters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Aerodynamic factors are addressed bearing on the suitability of open structures as blast shelters. Blast closures and attenuator designs are discussed. The research on shelter filling is reviewed; this includes both experimental and theoretical work on scale models and full-scale structures of large dimensions. Shock-dominated and pressure-gradient-dominated shelter-filling mechanisms are described and their potential effects on people are discussed.

Hickman, R.G.

1984-11-01

373

Windbreak Aerodynamics: Is Computational Fluid Dynamics Reliable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the suitability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with regard to windbreak aerodynamics, simulations are\\u000a performed with a state-of-the-art numerical scheme (Fluent) and compared against experimental data for two- and three-dimensional\\u000a disturbances, namely the case of a long straight porous shelter fence and the case of a shelter fence erected in a square\\u000a about an enclosed plot. A thorough

P. Bourdin; John D. Wilson

2008-01-01

374

Variable-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aerodynamic shape optimization (ASO) plays an important role in the design of aircraft, turbomachinery and other fluid machinery.\\u000a Simulation-driven ASO involves the coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers with numerical optimization methods.\\u000a Although being relatively mature and widely used, ASO is still being improved and numerous challenges remain. This chapter\\u000a provides an overview of simulation-driven ASO methods, with an

Leifur Leifsson; Slawomir Koziel

375

Noise reduction in centrifugal fans by the use of lambda\\/4 resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic blade passage noise reduction, using a resonator at the cutoff of a centrifugal fan, is described. While preserving the original cutoff geometry, the perforated mouth of the resonator forms the new cutoff. The resonator can be tuned to various frequencies, e.g., the blade passing frequency, via a movable end plug, enabling tone intensity to be reduced by up to

W. Neise; G. H. Koopmann

1982-01-01

376

The Aerodynamics of a Flying Sports Disc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flying sports disc is a spin-stabilised axi-symmetric wing of quite remarkable design. A typical disc has an approximate elliptical cross-section and hollowed out under-side cavity, such as the Frisbee(TM) disc. An experimental study of flying disc aerodynamics, including both spinning and non-spinning tests, has been carried out in the wind tunnel. Load measurements, pressure data and flow visualisation techniques have enabled an explanation of the flow physics and provided data for free-flight simulations. A computer simulation that predicts free-flight trajectories from a given set of initial conditions was used to investigate the dynamics of a flying disc. This includes a six-degree of freedom mathematical model of disc flight mechanics, with aerodynamic coefficients derived from experimental data. A flying sports disc generates lift through forward velocity just like a conventional wing. The lift contributed by spin is insignificant and does not provide nearly enough down force to support hover. Without spin, the disc tumbles ground-ward under the influence of an unstable aerodynamic pitching moment. From a backhand throw however, spin is naturally given to the disc. The unchanged pitching moment now results in roll, due to gyroscopic precession, stabilising the disc in free-flight.

Potts, Jonathan R.; Crowther, William J.

2001-11-01

377

Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

2008-01-01

378

Aerodynamically balanced ailerons for a commuter aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review paper describes the state of designing aerodynamically balanced ailerons with a practical application to commuter aircraft, with Saab 2000 being used as an example. A modern design method is presented based on the application of CFD computations to determine the aileron aerodynamic data combined with flight mechanical simulations to study the impact on airplane rolling maneuvers and aileron dynamics. Dynamic response of aileron deflection, airplane roll rate and roll acceleration to the applied wheel force is determined by frequency analysis. A review on the design requirements on ailerons and practical design considerations is presented. The CFD computations are described in detail with comparisons against wind tunnel experiments and flight tests for validation of the methodology. Description of the flight mechanical simulation system includes the modeling of the aileron control system. The frequency analysis summarizes the equations of the employed Fourier analysis, spectrum analysis and system identification. Numerical results are presented on aileron hinge moment coefficient, airplane rolling moment coefficient, wheel force in sideslip and rolling maneuvers and gain and phase lag in frequency analysis results to highlight the key discussion points including the effects of aileron control system and aileron and tab gap sizes. Overall, aerodynamically balanced ailerons, together with a mechanical control system, offer large cost savings on small- and medium-sized airplanes.

Soinne, Erkki

2001-08-01

379

Computational Aerodynamics of Insects' Flapping Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.

Yang, Kyung Dong; Kyung, Richard

2011-11-01

380

High angle of attack hypersonic aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new aerodynamics force model is presented which is based on modified Newtonian theory and empirical correlations. The algebraic model was developed for complete vehicles from take off to orbital speeds and for large angles of attack. Predictions are compared to results for a wind tunnel model at a Mach number of 20, and the full scale Shuttle Orbiter for Mach numbers from 0.25 to 20 for angles of attack from 0 to 50 deg. The maximum shuttle orbiter lift/drag at Mach 10 and 20 is 1.85 at 20-deg angle-of-attack. Aerodynamic force predictions are made for a transatmospheric vehicle, which is a derivative of the Shuttle Orbiter, for Mach numbers from 4 to 27 at angles of attack from 5 to 40 deg. Predicted aerodynamic force data indicate that lift/drag ratios of 5.2 at Mach number 10 and 3.6 at Mach number 26 are obtainable. Changes in force coefficients with changes in: nose angle, sweep angle, and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area are quantified for Mach numbers of 10 and 26. Lift/drag ratios increase with decreasing nose angle and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area and increasing wing sweep angle. Lift/drag ratios are independent of these variables for angles of attack in excess of 20 deg at Mach 10 and 30 deg at Mach 26.

Harloff, Gary J.

1987-01-01

381

Effect of blade wrap angle on efficiency and noise of small radial fan impellers—A computational and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radial impellers have several technical applications. Regarding their aerodynamic performance, they are well optimized nowadays, but this is in general not true regarding acoustics. This work was therefore concerned with analyzing the flow structures inside isolated radial impellers together with the far-field sound radiated from them in order to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance. Both numerical and experimental techniques were applied in order to study the effect of varying wrap angle and otherwise identical geometric configuration on aerodynamics and acoustics of the radial impellers. The results give a detailed insight into the processes leading to sound generation in radial impellers. Measurements were performed using laser Doppler anemometry for the flow field and microphone measurements to analyze the radiated noise. In addition, unsteady aerodynamic simulations were carried out to calculate the compressible flow field. An acoustic analogy was employed to compute far-field noise. Finally, the phenomena responsible for tonal noise and the role of the wrap angle could be identified. Using this knowledge, design guidelines are given to optimize the impeller with respect to the radiated noise. This work shows that improved aerodynamic efficiency for isolated impellers does not automatically lead to a smaller flow-induced sound radiation.

Scheit, C.; Karic, B.; Becker, S.

2012-02-01

382

Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not appear to offer any advantages over the use of FSGF at the present stage of development. It is suggested here that the applications of EGF for airframe noise analysis be continued. As an example pertinent to airframe noise prediction, the Fast Scattering Code of NASA Langley is utilized to obtain the EGF numerically on the surface of a three dimensional wing with a flap and leading edge slat in uniform rectilinear motion. The interpretation and use of these numerical Green functions are then discussed.

Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.

2006-01-01

383

Exploratory study to induce fan noise in the test section of the NASA Langley full-scale wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measures to reduce the intensity of fan noise in the NASA Langley 30 ft x 60 ft subsonic wind tunnel were sought. Measurements were first performed to document existing aerodynamic and acoustic conditions. The purpose of these experiments was to (1) obtain the transfer function between the sound power output of the fan and the sound pressure on the test platform, (2) evaluate the sound attenuation around the tunnel circuit, (3) measure simultaneously the flow profile and the turbulence spectrum of the inflow to the fan and the noise on the test platform, and (4) perform flow observations and identify secondary noise sources. Subsequently, these data were used to predict (1) the relative contribution of the major aerodynamic parameters to total fan noise and (2) the effect of placing a dissipative silencer in the collector duct upstream of the fan. Promising noise control measures were identified and recommendations were made on how to evaluate them.

Ver, I. L.; Hayden, R. E.; Myles, M. M.; Murray, B. E.

1975-01-01

384

Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

1995-01-01

385

Some applications of aerodynamic formulations to problems in aircraft dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two applications of mathematical modeling to aerodynamic problems are cussed. The first application is an investigation of the capacity of a nonlinear aerodynamic mathematical model to describe the aerodynamic reactions on an airfoil with a deflecting flap in transonic flow. Flow field computational methods are used to evaluate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic data in terms of characteristic motions called for by the model. Histories of unconstrained motions of the flap are generated from the flap equations of motion, with the aerodynamic reactions specified by the mathematical model. In the second application wing rock is investigated. The most recent model accommodates experimental results wing rock by admitting the existence of aerodynamic hysteresis in the variation of the steady state rolling moment coefficient with roll angle is described.

Schiff, L. B.; Tobak, M.

1981-01-01

386

The nozzle acoustic test rig: An acoustic and aerodynamic free-jet facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nozzle acoustic test rig (NATR) was built at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the High Speed Research Program. The facility is capable of measuring the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of aircraft engine nozzle concepts. Trade-off studies are conducted to compare performance and noise during simulated low-speed flight and takeoff. Located inside an acoustically treated dome with a 62-ft radius, the NATR is a free-jet that has a 53-in. diameter and is driven by an air ejector. This ejector is operated with 125 lb/s of compressed air, at 125 psig, to achieve 375 lb/s at Mach 0.3. Acoustic and aerodynamic data are collected from test nozzles mounted in the free-jet flow. The dome serves to protect the surrounding community from high noise levels generated by the nozzles, and to provide an anechoic environment for acoustic measurements. Information presented in this report summarizes free-jet performance, fluid support systems, and data acquisition capabilities of the NATR.

Castner, Raymond S.

1994-01-01

387

Acoustic and aerodynamic performance investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular plug nozzles. [variable cycle engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of model scale parametric static and wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests on unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle configurations with inverted velocity profile are discussed. The nozzle configurations are high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles applicable to dual-stream exhaust systems typical of a variable cycle engine for Advanced Supersonic Transport application. In all, seven acoustic models and eight aerodynamic performance models were tested. The nozzle geometric variables included outer stream radius ratio, inner stream to outer stream ratio, and inner stream plug shape. When compared to a conical nozzle at the same specific thrust, the results of the static acoustic tests with the coannular nozzles showed noise reductions of up to 7 PNdB. Extensive data analysis showed that the overall acoustic results can be well correlated using the mixed stream velocity and the mixed stream density. Results also showed that suppression levels are geometry and flow regulation dependent with the outer stream radius ratio, inner stream-to-outer stream velocity ratio and inner stream velocity ratio and inner stream plug shape, as the primary suppression parameters. In addition, high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles were found to yield shock associated noise level reductions relative to a conical nozzle. The wind tunnel aerodynamic tests showed that static and simulated flight thrust coefficient at typical takeoff conditions are quite good - up to 0.98 at static conditions and 0.974 at a takeoff Mach number of 0.36. At low inner stream flow conditions significant thrust loss was observed. Using an inner stream conical plug resulted in 1% to 2% higher performance levels than nozzle geometries using a bent inner plug.

Knott, P. R.; Blozy, J. T.; Staid, P. S.

1981-01-01

388

Unsteady aerodynamic load estimates on turning vanes in the national full-scale aerodynamic complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsteady aerodynamic design loads have been estimated for each of the vane sets in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). These loads include estimates of local loads over one vane section and global loads over an entire vane set. The analytical methods and computer programs used to estimate these loads are discussed. In addition, the important computer input parameters are defined and the rationale used to estimate them is discussed. Finally, numerical values are presented for both the computer input parameters and the calculated design loads for each vane set.

Norman, Thomas R.

1986-01-01

389

System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.

Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

2001-01-01

390

Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Flight Test Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the activities in aerodynamic model estimation from flight data. In addition to public presentations at the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conferences, two presentations at Boeing-Seattle were made during personal trips. These are discussed in the following: 1. Methodology of Aerodynamic Model Estimation from Flight Data. 2. Applications of F-16XL aerodynamic modeling. 3. Modeling of turbulence response. 5. Presentations at Boeing-Seattle. 6. Recommendations. and 7. References.

Lan, C. Edward

2003-01-01

391

Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.

Gregory, T. J. (editor); Ashbaugh, J. (editor)

1980-01-01

392

Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

2006-01-01

393

Integrated aerodynamic/structural design of a sailplane wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using lifting-line theory and beam analysis, the geometry (planiform and twist) and composite material structural sizes (skin thickness, spar cap, and web thickness) were designed for a sailplane wing, subject to both structural and aerodynamic constraints. For all elements, the integrated design (simultaneously designing the aerodynamics and the structure) was superior in terms of performance and weight to the sequential design (where the aerodynamic geometry is designed to maximize the performance, following which a structural/aeroelastic design minimizes the weight). Integrated designs produced less rigid, higher aspect ratio wings with favorable aerodynamic/structural interactions.

Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Strauch, G. J.; Eppard, W. M.

1986-01-01

394

A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamic contrails are defined in this paper as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data, first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Finally we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally we give an argument for our believe that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

2013-06-01

395

14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When...

2014-01-01

396

On the formulation of the aerodynamic characteristics in aircraft dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of functionals is used to reformulate the notions of aerodynamic indicial functions and superposition. Integral forms for the aerodynamic response to arbitrary motions are derived that are free of dependence on a linearity assumption. Simplifications of the integral forms lead to practicable nonlinear generalizations of the linear superpositions and stability derivative formulations. Applied to arbitrary nonplanar motions, the generalization yields a form for the aerodynamic response that can be compounded of the contributions from a limited number of well-defined characteristic motions, in principle reproducible in the wind tunnel. Further generalizations that would enable the consideration of random fluctuations and multivalued aerodynamic responses are indicated.

Tobak, M.; Schiff, L. B.

1976-01-01

397

Traffic noise and annoyance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a socio-psychological study performed in a residential area of Tehran, exposed to both aircraft and traffic noise. Analysis of residents? responses to road traffic noise shows that although aircraft noise is the chief environmental problem it fails to mask the nuisance of traffic noise.

K. Karami; S. Frost

1995-01-01

398

Decoder based noise suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Acoustic background noise in mobile speech communication systems, while largely inevitable, can have a severely detrimental efiect on speech intelligibility. Noise suppression is highly desirable in these systems. However, the process of reducing noise in a speech signal is associated with distortion of the processed signal, the severity of which is generally proportional to the amount of noise suppression

Erik Hennix

2006-01-01

399

Television noise reduction IC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noise reduction IC for consumer television has been designed. The IC contains a spatial filter for Gaussian noise and a temporal filter for clamp noise. To reduce clamp noise, the average value of the pixels in a line-segment are filtered rather than individual pixels. This reduces the cost of the temporal filter significantly, enabling the use of embedded memory.

G. de Haan; T. G. Kwaaitaal-Spassova; M. M. Larragy; O. A. Ojo; R. J. Schutten

1998-01-01

400

Noise, Health, and Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is reasonable agreement that hearing impairment is related to noise exposure. This hearing loss due to noise is considered a serious health injury, but there is still difficulty in delineating the importance of noise related to people's general non-auditory well-being and health. Beside hearing loss, noise inhibits satisfactory speech…

Beranek, Leo L.

401

Health Effects of Noise Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... effects of noise pollution Health effects of noise pollution People of all ages, including children, teens, young ... noises around them. The health effects of noise pollution include: Hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss usually ...

402

Noise Pollution Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Noise Pollution Clearinghouse (NPC) is a nonprofit organization devoted to collecting, disseminating, and archiving information resources relevant to the study of noise pollution. The NPC site contains an online library of related publications, a law library of proposed and current noise legislation, excerpts and summaries of recent noise pollution news stories, an annotated collection of online resources and information tools, and an annotated directory with links to other noise organizations. The entire clearinghouse is searchable by keyword.

403

Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.  

PubMed

Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2?×?10(5) (drag coefficient, C d ???0.12), ~2.8?×?10(5) (C d ???0.13), ~3.3?×?10(5) (C d ???0.13), and ~2.4?×?10(5) (C d ???0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces. PMID:23705104

Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

2013-12-01

404

Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not adequately removed prior to takeoff. Throughout this review, important voids in the available database are highlighted, as are instances where previous lessons learned have tended to be overlooked.

Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

2001-11-01

405

Aerodynamic assessment of prosthetic speech aids.  

PubMed

The primary function of a speech aid prosthesis is to provide adequate palatopharyngeal function by preventing nasal emission and hypernasality during oral speech production and permitting sufficient nasal air escape during nasal consonant production. The adequacy of speech aids is often judged subjectively by speech-language pathologists and prosthodontists. However, when oral and laryngeal function are also affected, additional information may be needed for accurate assessment of palatopharyngeal function and optimal prosthetic management. In these instances, aerodynamic measurements can provide information about palatopharyngeal function and guide fabrication and modification of speech aid prostheses to provide adequate palatopharyngeal function for speech. PMID:3863945

Reisberg, D J; Smith, B E

1985-11-01

406

Aerodynamic Size Classification of Glass Fibers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to examine a technique by which fibers may be aerodynamically classified by diameter and/or length. In this study a system for fiber preparation and generation as well as an in situ fiber classifier were constructed and evaluated. A recently developed technique, the size classification of particles by opposing jets, was modified. The research set-up consisted of (1) a vibrating bed fiber generator, which also functioned as a preselector, (2) an opposing-jet classifier equipped with electrodes and high voltage power supplies to create fiber-aligning electric fields inside the classifier and (3) an optoelectric fiber sensor to measure the concentration and length of fibers. The classified fibers were also collected on filters for the counting and dimensional analysis of the fibers. Some flow instability problems were found during the initial tests of the classifier. They were attributed to random flow fluctuations in the nozzles caused by very small perturbations upstream of the nozzles. Within a critical range of flow Reynolds numbers the flow becomes "intermittent", i.e. it alternates in time between being laminar and turbulent in a random sequence. Small disturbances upstream of the point of consideration can "trigger" the changes from laminar to turbulent flow and the initial disturbance may be "amplified", sending a turbulent flash through the flow system. The classifier performed well with test aerosols after the nozzle flowrate had been decreased to correspond to a lower and less critical Reynolds number and after some modifications had been made to smooth the flow inside the classifier inlet chambers. The cut-off of test aerosols was sharp, but the loss of particles greater than 2.5 (mu)m in aerodynamic diameter was unsatisfactorily high. The classifier was able to classify fibers by aerodynamic diameter, but not as predicted through calculations. The results were difficult to interpret because of the high loss of fibers with large or very small aerodynamic diameters. Fiber separation by diameter was far more distinct than by length.

Laosmaa, Pekka J. J.

407

Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory.

Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S

1940-01-01

408

The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airship, which was used in the investigation of the navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose. It presents the general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned, and an attempt has been made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics without reference to some of the modern highly developed conceptions, which may not yet be thoroughly known to readers uninitiated into modern aerodynamics, and which may, perhaps, for all time remain restricted to a small number of specialists.

Munk, Max M

1924-01-01

409

Aerodynamics of High-Speed Trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review highlights the differences between the aerodynamics of high-speed trains and other types of transportation vehicles. The emphasis is on modern, high-speed trains, including magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains. Some of the key differences are derived from the fact that trains operate near the ground or a track, have much greater length-to-diameter ratios than other vehicles, pass close to each other and to trackside structures, are more subject to crosswinds, and operate in tunnels with entry and exit events. The coverage includes experimental techniques and results and analytical and numerical methods, concentrating on the most recent information available.

Schetz, Joseph A.

410

Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

411

Fluidization technologies: Aerodynamic principles and process engineering.  

PubMed

The concept of fluidization has been adapted to different unit processes of pharmaceutical product development. Till date a lot of improvements have been made in the engineering design to achieve superior process performance. This review is focused on the fundamental principles of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics associated with the fluidization technologies. Fluid-bed coating, fluidized bed granulation, rotor processing, hot melt granulation, electrostatic coating, supercritical fluid based fluidized bed technology are highlighted. Developments in the design of processing equipments have been explicitly elucidated. This article also discusses processing problems from the operator's perspective along with latest developments in the application of these principles. PMID:19340888

Dixit, Rahul; Puthli, Shivanand

2009-11-01

412

Aerodynamic Optimization of a Winglet Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, an experimental study is presented for a flow around an isolated wing equipped by a winglet and profiled with Naca 0012. Several cases of winglets were tested according to the angle ß: 0°, 55°, 65°and 75°. For all these cases at a velocity of 20, 30 and 40 meters per second, wind tunnel tests are performed and compared for different angles of incidence. It is observed that the aerodynamic performance of the winglet with ?= 55° differ favorably for positive angle of incidence compared for other cases.

Belferhat, S.; Meftah, S. M. A.; Yahiaoui, T.; Imine, B.

2013-04-01

413

Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical models to predict performance and operating characteristics of dual nozzle concepts were developed and improved. Aerodynamic models are available to define flow characteristics and bleed requirements for both the dual throat and dual expander concepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow, boundary layer, and shock effects within dual nozzle engines. Thermal analyses were performed to define cooling requirements for baseline configurations, and special studies of unique dual nozzle cooling problems defined feasible means of achieving adequate cooling.

Meagher, G. M.

1981-01-01

414

Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.

Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.

1986-01-01

415

Insect Flight: Aerodynamics, Efficiency, and Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects, like birds and fish, locomote via interactions between fluids and flapping wings. Their motion is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation coupled to moving boundaries. In this talk, I will first describe how dragonflies fly: their wing motions and the flows and forces they generate. I will then consider insects in several species and discuss three questions: 1) Is insect flight optimal? 2) How does the efficiency of flapping flight compare to classical fixed-wing flight? 3) How might aerodynamic effects have influenced the evolution of insect flight?

Wang, Z. Jane

2007-11-01

416

Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

1981-01-01

417

A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

2013-11-01

418

Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer. They can be classified in 3 main categories: the Turbulent Boundary Layer--Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer--Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise. The TBL-TE is mainly related to the noise generated by turbulent eddies which develop into the boundary layer and usually exhibits a broadband spectrum. The LBL-VS is related to laminar instabilities that can occur within the boundary layer which are responsible for a very late transition and generate a typical peaked tonal noise, while the S-S noise mainly results from the development of large vortices after the separation point. In this paper we propose a numerical analysis targeted to the simulation the LBL-VS noise mechanisms on a NACA 0012 aerofoil, tested at a Reynolds number of 1.1 M and Mach number of 0.2. The aerodynamic simulation is performed with a 2D transient RANS approach using the k-? transitional turbulence model, while the acoustic computations are performed with the FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy and with a Finite Element (FE) approach solving Lighthill's wave equation. Computed noise spectra are compared with experimental data published by NASA showing a good agreement both for peak location as well as for the predicted noise level.

de Gennaro, Michele; Hueppe, Andreas; Kuehnelt, Helmut; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

2011-09-01

419

Experimental Investigation of the Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 5.8-Percent Scale Hybrid Wing Body Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-speed experimental investigation has been conducted on a 5.8-percent scale Hybrid Wing Body configuration in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was designed with specific intention to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project goals of reduced noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This HWB configuration incorporates twin, podded nacelles mounted on the vehicle upper surface between twin vertical tails. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics were assessed through the acquisition of force and moment, surface pressure, and flow visualization data. Longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were investigated on this multi-component model. The effects of a drooped leading edge, longitudinal flow-through nacelle location, vertical tail shape and position, elevon deflection, and rudder deflection have been studied. The basic configuration aerodynamics, as well as the effects of these configuration variations, are presented in this paper.

Gatlin, Gregory M.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Carter, Melissa B.

2012-01-01

420

Analysis and control of computer cooling fan noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is divided into three parts: the study of the source mechanisms and their separation, passive noise control, and active noise control. The mechanisms of noise radiated by a typical computer cooling fan is investigated both theoretically and experimentally focusing on the dominant rotor-stator interaction. The unsteady force generated by the aerodynamic interaction between the rotor blades and struts is phase locked with the blade rotation and radiates tonal noise. Experimentally, synchronous averaging with the rotation signal extracts the tones made by the deterministic part of the rotor-strut interaction mechanism. This averaged signal is called the rotary noise. The difference between the overall noise and rotary noise is defined as random noise which is broadband in the spectrum. The deterministic tonal peaks are certainly more annoying than the broadband, so the suppression of the tones is the focus of this study. Based on the theoretical study of point force formulation, methods are devised to separate the noise radiated by the two components of drag and thrust forces on blades and struts. The source separation is also extended to the leading and higher order modes of the spinning pressure pattern. By using the original fan rotor and installing it in various casings, the noise sources of the original fan are decomposed into elementary sources through directivity measurements. Details of the acoustical directivity for the original fan and its various modifications are interpreted. For the sample fan, two common features account for most of the tonal noise radiated. The two features are the inlet flow distortion caused by the square fan casing, and the large strut carrying the electric wires for the motor. When the inlet bellmouth is installed and the large strut is trimmed down to size, a significant reduction of 12 dB in tonal sound power is achieved. These structural corrections constitute the passive noise control. However, the end product still features the leading mode drag noise. Further reduction of this noise is left to the active noise control. The feasibility of the active noise control technique is demonstrated for the cancellation of both thrust and drag noise radiated at their leading modes. An open loop, feed-forward system is used to maximize the simplicity of the rig in order to deliver an appropriate technology for a small ventilation fan. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wong, Kam

421

Aviation noise effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

1985-03-01

422

The Aerodynamic Forces on a Series of Tennis Balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic properties of typical tennis balls as a function of Reynolds numbers have been reported in the open literature. However, the results are somewhat different as each study indicated differences in drag coefficients. The primary objective of this paper is to study the aerodynamic drag of tennis balls used in major tournaments around the world. Results presented in this

F. Alam; S. Watkins; A. Subic

423

Aerodynamic applications of Newton Krylov-Schwarz solvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel implicit solution methods are increasingly important in aerodynamics, since reliable low-residual solutions at elevated CFL number are prerequisite to such large-scale applications of aerodynamic analysis codes as aeroelasticity and optimization. In this chapter, a class of nonlinear implicit methods and a class of linear implicit methods are defined and illustrated. Their composition forms a class of methods with strong

David E. Keyes

424

Aerodynamic tailoring of the Learjet Model 60 wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wing of the Learjet Model 60 was tailored for improved aerodynamic characteristics using the TRANAIR transonic full-potential computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A root leading edge glove and wing tip fairing were shaped to reduce shock strength, improve cruise drag and extend the buffet limit. The aerodynamic design was validated by wind tunnel test and flight test data.

Chandrasekharan, Reuben M.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Hinson, Michael L.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Madson, Michael D.

1993-01-01

425

Flutter derivatives based random parametric excitation aerodynamic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects of wind turbulence on bridge aerodynamic instability, previous researchers used indicial functions to express the aerodynamic forces and then conducted Random Parametric Excitation (RPE) analyses. To make not only a finite element formulation possible, but also to reduce computational effort, the present study uses flutter derivatives in a finite element based RPE analysis. The application of

Chun S. Cai; Pedro Albrecht

2000-01-01

426

Reducing disk flutter by improving aerodynamic design of base castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present two aerodynamically designed base castings that could substantially reduce disk flutter due to turbulent excitations in high-speed disk drives. The first design includes aerodynamic brackets to smooth the shroud contour and an extended shroud to reduce the shroud opening. The second design is a Velcro treatment to modify turbulence generation. Experimental results

Baekho Heo; I. Y. Shen; James J. Riley

2000-01-01

427

Nonlinear aerodynamic forces on thin flat plate: Numerical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper first presents a numerical simulation of nonlinear aerodynamic forces on a thin flat plate through an integration of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and the forced asymptotic oscillation method. The thin flat plate is forced to have either asymptotic torsional oscillation or asymptotic vertical oscillation of increasing amplitude. A multiple-domain mesh technique together with unstructured dynamic meshes is used in the CFD simulation to accommodate large amplitude oscillations of the plate. The instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes of the aerodynamic forces are then identified from the simulated asymptotic aerodynamic force time histories using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) in terms of the CWT ridges. Extensive numerical studies are finally performed to examine the feasibility of the proposed approach. The results show that the CFD method used in this study can properly simulate nonlinear aerodynamic forces on the plate. The amplitude of the aerodynamic force depends on the amplitude of the forced oscillation and there are high-order harmonic aerodynamic forces of higher frequency than the forced oscillation frequency, both indicating the nonlinearity of aerodynamic forces. The results also show the flutter derivatives associated with self-excited aerodynamic forces depend on the amplitude of forced oscillation in addition to reduced velocity.

Huang, Lin; Xu, You-Lin; Liao, Haili

2014-01-01

428

Mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics in flight dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic concepts involved in the mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic response of an aircraft to arbitrary maneuvers are reviewed. The original formulation of an aerodynamic response in terms of nonlinear functionals is shown to be compatible with a derivation based on the use of nonlinear functional expansions. Extensions of the analysis through its natural connection with ideas from bifurcation theory are indicated.

Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.; Schiff, L. B.

1984-01-01

429

Wind turbine design codes: A preliminary comparison of the aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Wind Technology Center of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is comparing several computer codes used to design and analyze wind turbines. The first part of this comparison is to determine how well the programs predict the aerodynamic behavior of turbines with no structural degrees of freedom. Without general agreement on the aerodynamics, it is futile to try to

Marshall L. Buhl; Alan D. Wright; James L. Tangler

1997-01-01

430

Advanced aerodynamics and active controls. Selected NASA research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic and active control concepts for application to commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Selected topics include in flight direct strike lightning research, triply redundant digital fly by wire control systems, tail configurations, winglets, and the drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) program.

1981-01-01

431

Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted

Keiichi Kitamura; Keiichiro Fujimoto; Satoshi Nonaka; Tomoko Irikado; Moriyasu Fukuzoe; Eiji Shima

2010-01-01

432

Aerodynamic Analysis of Low-Speed Wing-Flap Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SUBAERF program developed for aerodynamic analysis and design of lowspeed wing-flap systems. SUBAERF based on linearized theory lifting-surface solution. Low speed aerodynamic analysis method used in SUBAERF provides estimates of wing performance which include effects of attainable leading edge thrust and vortex lift.

Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.

1985-01-01

433

Development of aerodynamics for a solar race car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant factor of a solar car is running resistance, especially aerodynamic drag; and the reduction of the CD (drag coefficient)× A (frontal projected area) value is a crucial task to maximize the performance of a solar car. This paper will introduce the aerodynamic approach of the '96 Honda solar car which participated in the World Solar Challenge, the world's

Hiroyuki Ozawa; Sumio Nishikawa; Dai Higashida

1998-01-01

434

Survey of Unsteady Computational Aerodynamics for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a short review of aerodynamic computational models for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). Models presented have a various level of complexity to calculate aerodynamic loads on rotor of HAWT, starting with the simplest blade element momentum (BEM) and ending with the complex model of Navier-Stokes equations. Also, we present some computational aspects of these models.

Frunzulic?, F.; Dumitrescu, H.; Cardo?, V.

2010-09-01

435

Technique for aerodynamic force measurement within milliseconds in shock tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For aerodynamic force measurement in shock tunnels and similar short duration aerodynamic testing facilities we have developed a novel measurement technique. Its key feature is a mounting support, which releases the test model and grips it again after a free flight duration of about 10 milliseconds. The model is equipped with small accelerometers and may contain additional installations. The short

K. W. Naumann; H. Ende; G. Mathieu

1991-01-01

436

(Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules)  

SciTech Connect

By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m{sub p} some 3.6 {times} 10{sup 5} times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100{angstrom}), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5{radical}(m/m{sub p}) times the nozzle diameter d{sub n}. But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs.

de la Mora, J.F.

1990-01-08

437

Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.

Brewer, Edwin B.

1989-01-01

438

Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph illustrates a standard passenger van modified at the Dryden Flight Research Center to investigate the aerodynamics of trucks. The resulting vehicle--re-fashioned with sheet metal--resembled a motor home, with rounded vertical corners on the vehicle's front and rear sections. For subsequent tests, researchers installed a 'boat tail' structure, shown in the photograph. During a decade spanning the 1970s and 1980s, Dryden researchers conducted tests to determine the extent to which adjustments in the shape of trucks reduced aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the tests, the vehicle's sides were fitted with tufts, or strings, that showed air flow. The investigators concluded that rounding the vertical corners front and rear reduced drag by 40 percent, yet decreased the vehicle's internal volume by only 1.3 percent. Rounding both the vertical and horizontal corners cut drag by 54 percent, resulting in a three percent loss of internal volume. A second group of tests added a faired underbody and a boat tail, the latter feature resulting in drag reduction of about 15 percent.

1981-01-01

439

Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time marching Full Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier Transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers.

Bakhle, Milind A.; Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

1991-01-01

440

Fuel nozzle aerodynamic design using CFD analysis  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamic design of airflow passages in fuel injection systems can be significantly enhanced by the use of CFD analysis. Attempts to improve the efficiency of the fuel nozzle design process by using CFD analyses have generally been unsuccessful in the past due to the difficulties of modeling swirling flow in complex geometries. Some of the issues that have been obstacles to successful and timely analysis of fuel nozzle aerodynamics include grid generation, turbulence models, and definition of boundary conditions. This study attempts to address these obstacles and demonstrate a CFD methodology capable of modeling swirling flow within the internal air passages of fuel nozzles. The CFD code CFD-ACE was used for the analyses. Results of nonreacting analyses and comparison with experimental data are presented for three different fuel nozzles. The three nozzles have distinctly different designs (including axial and radial inflow swirlers) and thus demonstrate the flexibility of the design methodology. Particular emphasis is given to techniques involved in predicting the effective flow area (ACd) of the nozzles. Good agreement between CFD predictions of the ACd (made prior to experiments) and the measured ACd was obtained. Comparisons between predicted and measured velocity profiles also showed good agreement.

Crocker, D.S.; Fuller, E.J.; Smith, C.E. [CFD Research Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States)

1997-07-01

441

Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter oonfiguration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.

Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.

1986-01-01

442

Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter configuration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.

Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.

1986-01-01

443

Launch vehicle aerodynamic data base development comparison with flight data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic development plan for the Space Shuttle integrated vehicle had three major objectives. The first objective was to support the evolution of the basic configuration by establishing aerodynamic impacts to various candidate configurations. The second objective was to provide continuing evaluation of the basic aerodynamic characteristics in order to bring about a mature data base. The third task was development of the element and component aerodynamic characteristics and distributed air loads data to support structural loads analyses. The complexity of the configurations rendered conventional analytic methods of little use and therefore required extensive wind tunnel testing of detailed complex models. However, the ground testing and analyses did not predict the aerodynamic characteristics that were extracted from the Space Shuttle flight test program. Future programs that involve the use of vehicles similar to the Space Shuttle should be concerned with the complex flow fields characteristics of these types of complex configurations.

Hamilton, J. T.; Wallace, R. O.; Dill, C. C.

1983-01-01

444

A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.

Blanchard, Robert C.

1990-01-01

445

Application of Passive Porous Treatment to Slat Trailing Edge Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous trailing-edge treatment is investigated as a passive means for slat noise reduction by using time-accurate simulations based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. For the model scale high-lift configuration used during previous experiments in the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, application of the proposed treatment over a minute fraction of the slat surface area is shown to mitigate the noise impact of the trailing edge, with no measurable aerodynamic penalty. Assessment of the pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the treated edge indicates a potential noise reduction in excess of 20 dB. The primary mechanism underlying this reduction is related to the reduced strength of Strouhal shedding from the finite thickness trailing edge. A secondary effect of the treatment involves an upward shift in the Strouhal-shedding frequency to a frequency band of reduced auditory sensitivity in a full-scale application.

Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2003-01-01

446

Measurements of noise produced by flow past lifting surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel studies have been conducted to determine the specific locations of aerodynamic noise production within the flow field about various lifting-surface configurations. The models tested included low aspect ratio shapes intended to represent aircraft flaps, a finite aspect ratio NACA 0012 wing, and a multi-element wing section consisting of a main section, a leading edge flap, and dual trailing edge flaps. Turbulence was induced on the models by surface roughness. Lift and drag were measured for the flap models. Hot-wire anemometry was used for study of the flap-model vortex roll-up. Apparent noise source distributions were measured by use of a directional microphone system, located outside the tunnel, which was scanned about the flow region to be analyzed under computer control. These distributions exhibited a diversity of pattern, suggesting that several flow processes are important to lifting-surface noise production. Speculation concerning these processes is offered.

Kendall, J. M.

1978-01-01

447

Subsonic and supersonic indicial aerodynamics and aerodynamic transfer function for complex configurations. [aerodynamic configurations for subsonic and supersonic speeds using the finite element method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general theory for indicial-potential-compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. The motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed (steady state) and small perturbations around the steady state. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, a set of differential-difference equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative on the surface of the body was obtained. The aerodynamics transfer function was derived by using standard method of operational calculus.

Morino, L.

1974-01-01

448

Interim Noise Assessment Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These guidelines provide a means for assessing separately the noise produced by airport, highway, and railroad operations, as well as the means for aggregating their combined effect on the overall noise environment at a site. The procedures described have...

W. J. Galloway T. J. Schultz

1980-01-01

449

Measuring Noise Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through investigating the nature, sources and level of noise produced in their environment, students are introduced to the concept of noise pollution. They learn about the undesirable and disturbing effects of noise and the resulting consequences on people's health, as well as on the health of the environment. They use a sound level meter that consists of a sound sensor attached to the LEGO® NXT Intelligent Brick to record the noise level emitted by various sources. They are introduced to engineering concepts such as sensors, decibel (dB) measurements, and sound pressure used to measure the noise level. Students are introduced to impairments resulting from noise exposure such as speech interference, hearing loss, sleep disruption and reduced productivity. They identify potential noise pollution sources, and based on recorded data, they classify these sources into levels of annoyance. Students also explore the technologies designed by engineers to protect against the harmful effects of noise pollution.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) GK-12 Program,

450

Special Noise Barrier Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes an investigation of the technical, aesthetic, and economic feasibilities of incorporating special noise barrier applications into a highway noise control program. The intent of the report is to take as a starting point the thin, vert...

L. F. Cohn R. A. Harris

1993-01-01

451

Core-Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase the combustion-noise component. The trend towards high-power-density cores also means that the noise generated in the low-pressure turbine will likely increase. Consequently, the combined result from these emerging changes will be to elevate the overall importance of turbomachinery core noise, which will need to be addressed in order to meet future noise goals.

Hultgren, Lennart S.

2010-01-01

452

Noise Reduction Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

Hallas, Tony

453