Sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bristow, D. R.
1984-01-01
Information on sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics is given in outline, graphical, and chart form. The prediction accuracy if the MCAERO program, a perturbation analysis method, is discussed. A procedure for calculating perturbation matrix, baseline wing paneling for perturbation analysis test cases and applications of an inviscid sensitivity matrix are among the topics covered.
Grid sensitivity for aerodynamic optimization and flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.
1993-01-01
After reviewing relevant literature, it is apparent that one aspect of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis, namely grid sensitivity, has not been investigated extensively. The grid sensitivity algorithms in most of these studies are based on structural design models. Such models, although sufficient for preliminary or conceptional design, are not acceptable for detailed design analysis. Careless grid sensitivity evaluations, would introduce gradient errors within the sensitivity module, therefore, infecting the overall optimization process. Development of an efficient and reliable grid sensitivity module with special emphasis on aerodynamic applications appear essential. The organization of this study is as follows. The physical and geometric representations of a typical model are derived in chapter 2. The grid generation algorithm and boundary grid distribution are developed in chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the theoretical formulation and aerodynamic sensitivity equation. The method of solution is provided in chapter 5. The results are presented and discussed in chapter 6. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided in chapter 7.
Variational Methods in Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization for Aerodynamic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibrahim, A. H.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
Variational methods (VM) sensitivity analysis, which is the continuous alternative to the discrete sensitivity analysis, is employed to derive the costate (adjoint) equations, the transversality conditions, and the functional sensitivity derivatives. In the derivation of the sensitivity equations, the variational methods use the generalized calculus of variations, in which the variable boundary is considered as the design function. The converged solution of the state equations together with the converged solution of the costate equations are integrated along the domain boundary to uniquely determine the functional sensitivity derivatives with respect to the design function. The determination of the sensitivity derivatives of the performance index or functional entails the coupled solutions of the state and costate equations. As the stable and converged numerical solution of the costate equations with their boundary conditions are a priori unknown, numerical stability analysis is performed on both the state and costate equations. Thereafter, based on the amplification factors obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue equations, the stability behavior of the costate equations is discussed and compared with the state (Euler) equations. The stability analysis of the costate equations suggests that the converged and stable solution of the costate equation is possible only if the computational domain of the costate equations is transformed to take into account the reverse flow nature of the costate equations. The application of the variational methods to aerodynamic shape optimization problems is demonstrated for internal flow problems at supersonic Mach number range. The study shows, that while maintaining the accuracy of the functional sensitivity derivatives within the reasonable range for engineering prediction purposes, the variational methods show a substantial gain in computational efficiency, i.e., computer time and memory, when compared with the finite
Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of Aerodynamic Configurations with Blend Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.
1997-01-01
A novel (geometrical) parametrization procedure using solutions to a suitably chosen fourth order partial differential equation is used to define a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail and horizontal tail. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. A graphic interface software is developed which dynamically changes the surface of the airplane configuration with the change in input design variable. The software is made user friendly and is targeted towards the initial conceptual development of any aerodynamic configurations. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an Automatic Differentiation precompiler software tool ADIFOR. Aerodynamic shape optimization of the complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. Unstructured and structured volume grids and Euler solutions are obtained with standard software to demonstrate the feasibility of the new surface definition.
Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.
2003-01-01
An efficient incremental iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a two-dimensional inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0 and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straightforward, black-box reverse-mode applicaiton of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-rder aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoinct) procedures; then, a very efficient noniterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hesian matrices) of lift, wave drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric shape, angle of attack, and freestream Mach number.
Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.
2001-01-01
An efficient incremental-iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a 2D inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic- differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0, and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straight-forward, black-box reverse- mode application of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoint) procedures; then, a very efficient non-iterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hessian matrices) of lift, wave-drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric- shape, angle-of-attack, and freestream Mach number
Coupled Aerodynamic and Structural Sensitivity Analysis of a High-Speed Civil Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, B. H.; Walsh, J. L.
2001-01-01
An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis. In a previous study, a multi-disciplinary analysis system for a high-speed civil transport was formulated to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, This paper is an extension of the previous study, in which the sensitivity analysis for the coupled aerodynamic and structural analysis problem is formulated and implemented. Uncoupled stress sensitivities computed with a constant load vector in a commercial finite element analysis code are compared to coupled aeroelastic sensitivities computed by finite differences. The computational expense of these sensitivity calculation methods is discussed.
Overview of Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization for Complex Aerodynamic Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, Perry A.; Newman, James C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene J.-W.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a brief overview of some of the more recent advances in steady aerodynamic shape-design sensitivity analysis and optimization, based on advanced computational fluid dynamics. The focus here is on those methods particularly well- suited to the study of geometrically complex configurations and their potentially complex associated flow physics. When nonlinear state equations are considered in the optimization process, difficulties are found in the application of sensitivity analysis. Some techniques for circumventing such difficulties are currently being explored and are included here. Attention is directed to methods that utilize automatic differentiation to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for both complex configurations and complex flow physics. Various examples of shape-design sensitivity analysis for unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamics algorithms are demonstrated for different formulations of the sensitivity equations. Finally, the use of advanced, unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamics in multidisciplinary analyses and multidisciplinary sensitivity analyses within future optimization processes is recommended and encouraged.
Overview of Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization for Complex Aerodynamic Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, James C., III; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.; Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene J.-W.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a brief overview of some of the more recent advances in steady aerodynamic shape-design sensitivity analysis and optimization, based on advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The focus here is on those methods particularly well-suited to the study of geometrically complex configurations and their potentially complex associated flow physics. When nonlinear state equations are considered in the optimization process, difficulties are found in the application of sensitivity analysis. Some techniques for circumventing such difficulties are currently being explored and are included here. Attention is directed to methods that utilize automatic differentiation to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for both complex configurations and complex flow physics. Various examples of shape-design sensitivity analysis for unstructured-grid CFD algorithms are demonstrated for different formulations of the sensitivity equations. Finally, the use of advanced, unstructured-grid CFDs in multidisciplinary analyses and multidisciplinary sensitivity analyses within future optimization processes is recommended and encouraged.
Recent advances in steady compressible aerodynamic sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene J.-W.; Jones, Henry E.
1992-01-01
Sensitivity analysis methods are classified as belonging to either of the two broad categories: the discrete (quasi-analytical) approach and the continuous approach. The two approaches differ by the order in which discretization and differentiation of the governing equations and boundary conditions is undertaken. The discussion focuses on the discrete approach. Basic equations are presented, and the major difficulties are reviewed in some detail, as are the proposed solutions. Recent research activity concerned with the continuous approach is also discussed.
Preconditioned domain decomposition scheme for three-dimensional aerodynamic sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eleshaky, Mohammed E.; Baysal, Oktay
1993-01-01
A preconditioned domain decomposition scheme is introduced for the solution of the 3D aerodynamic sensitivity equation. This scheme uses the iterative GMRES procedure to solve the effective sensitivity equation of the boundary-interface cells in the sensitivity analysis domain-decomposition scheme. Excluding the dense matrices and the effect of cross terms between boundary-interfaces is found to produce an efficient preconditioning matrix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lacasse, James M.
1995-01-01
A multiblock sensitivity analysis method is applied in a numerical aerodynamic shape optimization technique. The Sensitivity Analysis Domain Decomposition (SADD) scheme which is implemented in this study was developed to reduce the computer memory requirements resulting from the aerodynamic sensitivity analysis equations. Discrete sensitivity analysis offers the ability to compute quasi-analytical derivatives in a more efficient manner than traditional finite-difference methods, which tend to be computationally expensive and prone to inaccuracies. The direct optimization procedure couples CFD analysis based on the two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with a gradient-based numerical optimization technique. The linking mechanism is the sensitivity equation derived from the CFD discretized flow equations, recast in adjoint form, and solved using direct matrix inversion techniques. This investigation is performed to demonstrate an aerodynamic shape optimization technique on a multiblock domain and its applicability to complex geometries. The objectives are accomplished by shape optimizing two aerodynamic configurations. First, the shape optimization of a transonic airfoil is performed to investigate the behavior of the method in highly nonlinear flows and the effect of different grid blocking strategies on the procedure. Secondly, shape optimization of a two-element configuration in subsonic flow is completed. Cases are presented for this configuration to demonstrate the effect of simultaneously reshaping interfering elements. The aerodynamic shape optimization is shown to produce supercritical type airfoils in the transonic flow from an initially symmetric airfoil. Multiblocking effects the path of optimization while providing similar results at the conclusion. Simultaneous reshaping of elements is shown to be more effective than individual element reshaping due to the inclusion of mutual interference effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, James C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.
1997-01-01
A three-dimensional unstructured grid approach to aerodynamic shape sensitivity analysis and design optimization has been developed and is extended to model geometrically complex configurations. The advantage of unstructured grids (when compared with a structured-grid approach) is their inherent ability to discretize irregularly shaped domains with greater efficiency and less effort. Hence, this approach is ideally suited for geometrically complex configurations of practical interest. In this work the nonlinear Euler equations are solved using an upwind, cell-centered, finite-volume scheme. The discrete, linearized systems which result from this scheme are solved iteratively by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient-like algorithm known as GMRES for the two-dimensional geometry and a Gauss-Seidel algorithm for the three-dimensional; similar procedures are used to solve the accompanying linear aerodynamic sensitivity equations in incremental iterative form. As shown, this particular form of the sensitivity equation makes large-scale gradient-based aerodynamic optimization possible by taking advantage of memory efficient methods to construct exact Jacobian matrix-vector products. Simple parameterization techniques are utilized for demonstrative purposes. Once the surface has been deformed, the unstructured grid is adapted by considering the mesh as a system of interconnected springs. Grid sensitivities are obtained by differentiating the surface parameterization and the grid adaptation algorithms with ADIFOR (which is an advanced automatic-differentiation software tool). To demonstrate the ability of this procedure to analyze and design complex configurations of practical interest, the sensitivity analysis and shape optimization has been performed for a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and for a three-dimensional Boeing 747-200 aircraft.
Aerodynamic parameter studies and sensitivity analysis for rotor blades in axial flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Y. Danny; Peters, David A.
1991-01-01
The analytical capability is offered for aerodynamic parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of rotary wings in axial flight by using a 3-D undistorted wake model in curved lifting line theory. The governing equations are solved by both the Multhopp Interpolation technique and the Vortex Lattice method. The singularity from the bound vortices is eliminated through the Hadamard's finite part concept. Good numerical agreement between both analytical methods and finite differences methods are found. Parametric studies were made to assess the effects of several shape variables on aerodynamic loads. It is found, e.g., that a rotor blade with out-of-plane and inplane curvature can theoretically increase lift in the inboard and outboard regions respectively without introducing an additional induced drag.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oloso, Amidu Olawale
A hybrid automatic differentiation/incremental iterative method was implemented in the general purpose advanced computational fluid dynamics code (CFL3D Version 4.1) to yield a new code (CFL3D.ADII) that is capable of computing consistently discrete first order sensitivity derivatives for complex geometries. With the exception of unsteady problems, the new code retains all the useful features and capabilities of the original CFL3D flow analysis code. The superiority of the new code over a carefully applied method of finite-differences is demonstrated. A coarse grain, scalable, distributed-memory, parallel version of CFL3D.ADII was developed based on "derivative stripmining". In this data-parallel approach, an identical copy of CFL3D.ADII is executed on each processor with different derivative input files. The effect of communication overhead on the overall parallel computational efficiency is negligible. However, the fraction of CFL3D.ADII duplicated on all processors has significant impact on the computational efficiency. To reduce the large execution time associated with the sequential 1-D line search in gradient-based aerodynamic optimization, an alternative parallel approach was developed. The execution time of the new approach was reduced effectively to that of one flow analysis, regardless of the number of function evaluations in the 1-D search. The new approach was found to yield design results that are essentially identical to those obtained from the traditional sequential approach but at much smaller execution time. The parallel CFL3D.ADII and the parallel 1-D line search are demonstrated in shape improvement studies of a realistic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) wing/body configuration represented by over 100 design variables and 200,000 grid points in inviscid supersonic flow on the 16 node IBM SP2 parallel computer at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation (NAS) facility, NASA Ames Research Center. In addition to making the handling of such a large
Aerodynamic shape optimization directed toward a supersonic transport using sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baysal, Oktay
1995-01-01
This investigation was conducted from March 1994 to August 1995, primarily, to extend and implement the previously developed aerodynamic design optimization methodologies for the problems related to a supersonic transport design. These methods had demonstrated promise to improve the designs (more specifically, the shape) of aerodynamic surfaces, by coupling optimization algorithms (OA) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithms via sensitivity analyses (SA) with surface definition methods from Computer Aided Design (CAD). The present extensions of this method and their supersonic implementations have produced wing section designs, delta wing designs, cranked-delta wing designs, and nacelle designs, all of which have been reported in the open literature. Despite the fact that these configurations were highly simplified to be of any practical or commercial use, they served the algorithmic and proof-of-concept objectives of the study very well. The primary cause for the configurational simplifications, other than the usual simplify-to-study the fundamentals reason, were the premature closing of the project. Only after the first of the originally intended three-year term, both the funds and the computer resources supporting the project were abruptly cut due to their severe shortages at the funding agency. Nonetheless, it was shown that the extended methodologies could be viable options in optimizing the design of not only an isolated single-component configuration, but also a multiple-component configuration in supersonic and viscous flow. This allowed designing with the mutual interference of the components being one of the constraints all along the evolution of the shapes.
Sensitivity Analysis in Engineering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adelman, Howard M. (Compiler); Haftka, Raphael T. (Compiler)
1987-01-01
The symposium proceedings presented focused primarily on sensitivity analysis of structural response. However, the first session, entitled, General and Multidisciplinary Sensitivity, focused on areas such as physics, chemistry, controls, and aerodynamics. The other four sessions were concerned with the sensitivity of structural systems modeled by finite elements. Session 2 dealt with Static Sensitivity Analysis and Applications; Session 3 with Eigenproblem Sensitivity Methods; Session 4 with Transient Sensitivity Analysis; and Session 5 with Shape Sensitivity Analysis.
On simple aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for use in interdisciplinary optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doggett, Robert V., Jr.
1991-01-01
Low-aspect-ratio and piston aerodynamic theories are reviewed as to their use in developing aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for use in multidisciplinary optimization applications. The basic equations relating surface pressure (or lift and moment) to normal wash are given and discussed briefly for each theory. The general means for determining selected sensitivity derivatives are pointed out. In addition, some suggestions in very general terms are included as to sample problems for use in studying the process of using aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives in optimization studies.
Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cozzolongo, J. V.
1984-01-01
The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.
Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1995-01-01
An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.
Aerodynamic analysis of Pegasus - Computations vs reality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.; Whittaker, C. H.; Curry, Robert E.; Moulton, Bryan
1993-01-01
Pegasus, a three-stage, air-launched, winged space booster was developed to provide fast and efficient commercial launch services for small satellites. The aerodynamic design and analysis of Pegasus was conducted without benefit of wind tunnel tests using only computational aerodynamic and fluid dynamic methods. Flight test data from the first two operational flights of Pegasus are now available, and they provide an opportunity to validate the accuracy of the predicted pre-flight aerodynamic characteristics. Comparisons of measured and predicted flight characteristics are presented and discussed. Results show that the computational methods provide reasonable aerodynamic design information with acceptable margins. Post-flight analyses illustrate certain areas in which improvements are desired.
Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei
1991-01-01
A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.
Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.
1972-01-01
The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.
Grid and aerodynamic sensitivity analyses of airplane components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1993-01-01
An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) for defining the wing-section geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique, known as Two-Boundary Grid Generation (TBGG) is employed to generate C-type grids around wing-sections. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the wing-section surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the wing-section.
Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.
2014-08-01
Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.
Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1985-01-01
An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamically detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus is analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.
A PDE Sensitivity Equation Method for Optimal Aerodynamic Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borggaard, Jeff; Burns, John
1996-01-01
The use of gradient based optimization algorithms in inverse design is well established as a practical approach to aerodynamic design. A typical procedure uses a simulation scheme to evaluate the objective function (from the approximate states) and its gradient, then passes this information to an optimization algorithm. Once the simulation scheme (CFD flow solver) has been selected and used to provide approximate function evaluations, there are several possible approaches to the problem of computing gradients. One popular method is to differentiate the simulation scheme and compute design sensitivities that are then used to obtain gradients. Although this black-box approach has many advantages in shape optimization problems, one must compute mesh sensitivities in order to compute the design sensitivity. In this paper, we present an alternative approach using the PDE sensitivity equation to develop algorithms for computing gradients. This approach has the advantage that mesh sensitivities need not be computed. Moreover, when it is possible to use the CFD scheme for both the forward problem and the sensitivity equation, then there are computational advantages. An apparent disadvantage of this approach is that it does not always produce consistent derivatives. However, for a proper combination of discretization schemes, one can show asymptotic consistency under mesh refinement, which is often sufficient to guarantee convergence of the optimal design algorithm. In particular, we show that when asymptotically consistent schemes are combined with a trust-region optimization algorithm, the resulting optimal design method converges. We denote this approach as the sensitivity equation method. The sensitivity equation method is presented, convergence results are given and the approach is illustrated on two optimal design problems involving shocks.
Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric
Aerodynamic analysis of hypersonic waverider aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandlin, Doral R.; Pessin, David N.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this study is to validate two existing codes used by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA ARC, and to modify the codes so they can be used to generate and analyze waverider aircraft at on-design and off-design conditions. To generate waverider configurations and perform the on-design analysis, the appropriately named Waverider code is used. The Waverider code is based on the Taylor-Maccoll equations. Validation is accomplished via a comparison with previously published results. The Waverider code is modified to incorporate a fairing to close off the base area of the waverider configuration. This creates a more realistic waverider. The Hypersonic Aircraft Vehicle Optimization Code (HAVOC) is used to perform the off-design analysis of waverider configurations generated by the Waverider code. Various approximate analysis methods are used by HAVOC to predict the aerodynamic characteristics, which are validated via a comparison with experimental results from a hypersonic test model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyle, Karen H.
2014-01-01
Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation via flighttesting. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the sensitivity analysis of the structural response of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). HIAD architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during re-entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. In the example presented here, the structural parameters of an existing HIAD model have been varied to illustrate the design approach utilizing uncertainty-based methods. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense several orders of magnitude. The suitability of the design is based on assessing variation in the resulting cone angle. The acceptable cone angle variation would rely on the aerodynamic requirements.
Characteristics of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.
2001-01-01
One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution, and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.
Quantifying the Effect of Pressure Sensitive Paint On Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amer, T. R.; Obara, C. J.; Liu, T.
2003-01-01
A thin pressure sensitive paint (PSP) coating can slightly modify the overall shape of a wind-tunnel model and produce surface roughness or smoothness that does not exist on the unpainted model. These undesirable changes in model geometry may alter flow over the model, and affect the pressure distribution and aerodynamic forces and moments on the model. This study quantifies the effects of PSP on three models in low-speed, transonic and supersonic flow regimes. At a 95% confidence level, the PSP effects on the integrated forces are insignificant for a slender arrow-wing-fuselage model and delta wing model with two different paints at Mach 0.2, 1.8, and 2.16 relative to the total balance accuracy limit. The data displayed a repeatability of 2.5 drag counts, while the balance accuracy limit was about 5.5 drag counts. At transonic speeds, the paint has a localized effect at high angles of attack and has a resolvable effect on the normal force, which is significant relative to the balance accuracy limit. For low speeds, the PSP coating has a localized effect on the pressure tap measurements, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading. Moreover, the force and moment measurements had a poor precision, which precluded the ability to measure the PSP effect for this particular test.
Characterization of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.
2001-01-01
One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution. and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.
Sensitivity analysis of a wing aeroelastic response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapania, Rakesh K.; Eldred, Lloyd B.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.
1991-01-01
A variation of Sobieski's Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) approach is implemented to obtain the sensitivity of the static aeroelastic response of a three-dimensional wing model. The formulation is quite general and accepts any aerodynamics and structural analysis capability. An interface code is written to convert one analysis's output to the other's input, and visa versa. Local sensitivity derivatives are calculated by either analytic methods or finite difference techniques. A program to combine the local sensitivities, such as the sensitivity of the stiffness matrix or the aerodynamic kernel matrix, into global sensitivity derivatives is developed. The aerodynamic analysis package FAST, using a lifting surface theory, and a structural package, ELAPS, implementing Giles' equivalent plate model are used.
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1992-01-01
Research conducted during the period from July 1991 through December 1992 is covered. A method based upon the quasi-analytical approach was developed for computing the aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients of three dimensional wings in transonic and subsonic flow. In addition, the method computes for comparison purposes the aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients using the finite difference approach. The accuracy and validity of the methods are currently under investigation.
Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong
2012-09-01
How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.
Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 1: Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.
1981-01-01
A subsonic/supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamic analysis was developed by integrating the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS), and the inviscid force calculation modules of the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. APAS analysis was extended for nonlinear vortex forces using a generalization of the Polhamus analogy. The interactive system provides appropriate aerodynamic models for a single input geometry data base and has a run/output format similar to a wind tunnel test program. The user's manual was organized to cover the principle system activities of a typical application, geometric input/editing, aerodynamic evaluation, and post analysis review/display. Sample sessions are included to illustrate the specific task involved and are followed by a comprehensive command/subcommand dictionary used to operate the system.
Aerodynamic canard/wing parametric analysis for general aviation applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, M. W.; Selberg, B. P.
1984-01-01
Vortex panel and vortex lattice methods have been utilized in an analytic study to determine the two- and three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of canard and wing configurations. The purpose was to generate data useful for the design of general aviation canard aircraft. Essentially no two-dimensional coupling was encountered and the vertical distance between the lifting surfaces was found to be the main contributor to interference effects of the three-dimensional analysis. All canard configurations were less efficient than a forward wing with an aft horizontal tail, but were less sensitive to off-optimum division of total lift between the two surfaces, such that trim drag could be less for canard configurations. For designing a general aviation canard aircraft, results point toward large horizontal and vertical distance between the canard and wing, a large wing-to-canard area ratio, and with the canard at a low incidence angle relative to the wing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elbanna, Hesham M.; Carlson, Leland A.
1992-01-01
The quasi-analytical approach is applied to the three-dimensional full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. Results are compared to those obtained by the direct finite difference approach and both methods are evaluated to determine their computational accuracy and efficiency. The quasi-analytical approach is shown to be accurate and efficient for large aerodynamic systems.
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Upwind and Downwind Turbines
Zhao, Qiuying; Sheng, Chunhua; Afjeh, Abdollah
2014-01-01
Aerodynamic interactions of the model NREL 5 MW offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are investigated using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four wind turbine configurations are considered; three-bladed upwind and downwind and two-bladed upwind and downwind configurations, which operate at two different rotor speeds of 12.1 and 16 RPM. In the present study, both steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads, such as the rotor torque, blade hub bending moment, and base the tower bending moment of the tower, are evaluated in detail to provide overall assessment of different wind turbine configurations. Aerodynamic interactions between the rotor and tower are analyzed,more » including the rotor wake development downstream. The computational analysis provides insight into aerodynamic performance of the upwind and downwind, two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines.« less
Improved Aerodynamic Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Conceptual Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gern, Frank H.
2012-01-01
This paper provides an overview of ongoing efforts to develop, evaluate, and validate different tools for improved aerodynamic modeling and systems analysis of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configurations. Results are being presented for the evaluation of different aerodynamic tools including panel methods, enhanced panel methods with viscous drag prediction, and computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on proper prediction of aerodynamic loads for structural sizing as well as viscous drag prediction to develop drag polars for HWB conceptual design optimization. Data from transonic wind tunnel tests at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used as a reference data set in order to evaluate the accuracy of the aerodynamic tools. Triangularized surface data and Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) models of an X-48B 2% scale wind tunnel model were used to generate input and model files for the different analysis tools. In support of ongoing HWB scaling studies within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, an improved finite element based structural analysis and weight estimation tool for HWB center bodies is currently under development. Aerodynamic results from these analyses are used to provide additional aerodynamic validation data.
Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 2: User's manuals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divan, P.
1981-01-01
An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic/supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral directional chracteristics may be generated. The analysis has been implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Typical simulation indicates that program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.
Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 1: Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.
1991-01-01
An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic and/or supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral directional characteristics may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. The program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1976-01-01
An analysis of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter has been performed. It is shown that slender wing theory can be modified to account for the effect of Mach number and leading edge roundness on both attached and separated flow loads. The orbiter unsteady aerodynamics can be computed by defining two equivalent slender wings, one for attached flow loads and another for the vortex-induced loads. It is found that the orbiter is in the transonic speed region subject to vortex-shock-boundary layer interactions that cause highly nonlinear or discontinuous load changes which can endanger the structural integrity of the orbiter wing and possibly cause snap roll problems. It is presently impossible to simulate these interactions in a wind tunnel test even in the static case. Thus, a well planned combined analytic and experimental approach is needed to solve the problem.
Aerodynamic, structural, and trajectory analysis of ASTRID-1 vehicle
Glover, L.S.; Iwaskiw, A.P.; Oursler, M.A.; Perini, L.L.; Schaefer, E.D.
1994-02-10
The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, JHU/API, in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL, is conducting aerodynamic, trajectory, and structural analysis of the Advanced Single Stage Technology Rapid Insertion Demonstration (ASTRID) vehicle, being launched out of Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in February 1994. The launch is designated ASTRID-1 and is the first in a series of three that will be launched out of VAFB. Launch dates for the next two flights have not been identified, but they are scheduled for the 1994-1995 time frame. The primary goal of the ASTRID-1 flight is to test the LLNL light weight thrust on demand bi-propellant pumped divert propulsion system. The system is employed as the main thrusters for the ASTRID-1 vehicle and uses hydrazine as the mono-propellant. The major conclusions are: (1) The vehicle is very stable throughout flight (stability margin = 17 to 24 inches); (2) The aerodynamic frequency and the roll rate are such that pitch-roll interactions will be small; (3) The high stability margin combined with the high launcher elevation angle makes the vehicle flight path highly sensitive to perturbations during the initial phase of flight, i.e., during the first second of flight after leaving the rail; (4) The major impact dispersions for the test flight are due to winds. The wind impact dispersions are 90% dictated by the low altitude, 0 to 1000 ft., wind conditions; and (5) In order to minimize wind dispersions, head wind conditions are favored for the launch as November VAFB mean tail winds result in land impacts. The ballistic wind methodology can be employed to assess the impact points of winds at the launch site.
Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meagher, G. M.
1981-01-01
Analytical models to predict performance and operating characteristics of dual nozzle concepts were developed and improved. Aerodynamic models are available to define flow characteristics and bleed requirements for both the dual throat and dual expander concepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow, boundary layer, and shock effects within dual nozzle engines. Thermal analyses were performed to define cooling requirements for baseline configurations, and special studies of unique dual nozzle cooling problems defined feasible means of achieving adequate cooling.
Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, M. A.; Mahajan, A. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Stefko, G. L.
1991-01-01
Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time marching Full Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier Transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers.
Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.; Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.
1991-01-01
Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time-marching Full-Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient method, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response method, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers using both flat plates and actual airfoils.
Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) for a 3-D Flexible Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.
2001-01-01
The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) are extended from single discipline analysis (aerodynamics only) to multidisciplinary analysis - in this case, static aero-structural analysis - and applied to a simple 3-D wing problem. The method aims to reduce the computational expense incurred in performing shape optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, Finite Element Method (FEM) structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. Results for this small problem show that the method reaches the same local optimum as conventional optimization. However, unlike its application to the win,, (single discipline analysis), the method. as I implemented here, may not show significant reduction in the computational cost. Similar reductions were seen in the two-design-variable (DV) problem results but not in the 8-DV results given here.
Low Dimensional Modeling And Computational Analysis of Dragonfly Wing Aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yan; Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team
2011-11-01
High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key aerodynamic features and lift production of insect wings. However, the kinematics of the insect's wing and the resulting aerodynamics is highly complex, and does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is therefore needed to dissect the wing gait and gain insight into the remarkable aerodynamic performance of the insect's wing. The focus of the current investigation is on the aerodynamics of the wing of a dragonfly (Erythemis Simplicicollis) in hovering motion. The three-dimensional, time-dependent wing kinematics is obtained via a high-speed photogrammetry system. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is then applied to extract the essential features of the wing gait. The SVD spectrum shows that the first four modes capture more than 80% of the motion. Aerodynamics of wings flapping with kinematics synthesized from SVD modes will be discussed in detail. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1055949.
An unsteady helicopter rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan
1990-01-01
A computational method has been developed to treat the unsteady aerodynamic interaction between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage. Two existing codes, a lifting line-prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis, were modified and coupled to allow prediction of unsteady fuselage pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique was developed to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Also coupled into the method were optional blade dynamics or rigid blade performance analyses to set the rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake and fuselage geometry on the computational results. Solutions were computed for an ellipsoidal fuselage and a four bladed rotor at several advance ratios, using both the classical helix and the generalized distorted wake model. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and the induced velocities and bound circulation at the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries was demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. Initial computations were made to simulate the geometry of an experimental rotor-fuselage interaction study performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M., E.
1974-01-01
An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.
Assessment of aerodynamic and dynamic models in a comprehensive analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1985-01-01
The history, status, and lessons of a comprehensive analysis for rotorcraft are reviewed. The development, features, and capabilities of the analysis are summarized, including the aerodynamic and dynamic models that were used. Examples of correlation of the computational results with experimental data are given, extensions of the analysis for research in several topics of helicopter technology are discussed, and the experiences of outside users are summarized. Finally, the required capabilities and approach for the next comprehensive analysis are described.
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1994-01-01
The primary accomplishments of the project are as follows: (1) Using the transonic small perturbation equation as a flowfield model, the project demonstrated that the quasi-analytical method could be used to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for airfoils at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic conditions for design variables such as Mach number, airfoil thickness, maximum camber, angle of attack, and location of maximum camber. It was established that the quasi-analytical approach was an accurate method for obtaining aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for airfoils at transonic conditions and usually more efficient than the finite difference approach. (2) The usage of symbolic manipulation software to determine the appropriate expressions and computer coding associated with the quasi-analytical method for sensitivity derivatives was investigated. Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, it was determined that symbolic manipulation along with a chain rule approach was extremely useful in developing a combined flowfield and quasi-analytical sensitivity derivative code capable of considering a large number of realistic design variables. (3) Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, the quasi-analytical method was applied to swept wings (i.e. three dimensional) at transonic flow conditions. (4) The incremental iterative technique has been applied to the three dimensional transonic nonlinear small perturbation flowfield formulation, an equivalent plate deflection model, and the associated aerodynamic and structural discipline sensitivity equations; and coupled aeroelastic results for an aspect ratio three wing in transonic flow have been obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rege, Alok Ashok
Insect flight comes with a lot of intricacies that cannot be explained by conventional aerodynamics. Even with their small-size, insects have the ability to generate the required aerodynamic forces using high frequency flapping motion of their wings to perform different maneuvers. The maneuverability obtained by these flyers using flapping motion belies the classical aerodynamics theory and calls for a new approach to study this highly unsteady aerodynamics. Research is on to find new ways to realize the flight capabilities of these insects and engineer a micro-flyer which would have various applications, ranging from autonomous pollination of crop fields and oil & gas exploration to area surveillance and detection & rescue missions. In this research, a parametric study of flapping trajectories is performed using a two-dimensional wing to identify the factors that affect the force production. These factors are then non-dimensionalized and used in a design of experiments set-up to conduct sensitivity analysis. A procedure to determine an aerodynamic model comprising cycle-averaged force coefficients is described. This aerodynamic model is then used in a nonlinear dynamics framework to perform flight dynamics analysis using a micro-flyer with model properties based on Drosophila. Stability analysis is conducted to determine different steady state flight conditions that could achieved by the micro-flyer with the given model properties. The effect of scaling the mass properties is discussed. An LQR design is used for closed-loop control. Open and closed-loop simulations are performed. The results show that nonlinear dynamics framework can be used to determine values for model properties of a micro-flyer that would enable it to perform different flight maneuvers.
Application of Approximate Unsteady Aerodynamics for Flutter Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrices by using basis functions has been developed. A process for using the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix in aeroelastic analysis has also been developed. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain, and this methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis using unsteady subsonic aerodynamic approximation is demonstrated herein. The technique presented is shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing (ATW) 2 and a hybrid wing body (HWB) type of vehicle configuration with negligible loss in precision. This method computes AICs that are functions of the changing parameters being studied and are generated within minutes of CPU time instead of hours. These results may have practical application in parametric flutter analyses as well as more efficient multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.
Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 1: Theory. [linearized potential theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.
1978-01-01
A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple non-planar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies of non-circular contour may be analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.
1987-01-01
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. In addition to direct computational use, the analytical method presented here should provide benchmark criteria for assessing the accuracy of aerodynamic sensitivities obtained by approximate methods such as finite geometry perturbation and differencing. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
Sensitivity Analysis for Coupled Aero-structural Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giunta, Anthony A.
1999-01-01
A novel method has been developed for calculating gradients of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for an aeroelastic aircraft model. This method uses the Global Sensitivity Equations (GSE) to account for the aero-structural coupling, and a reduced-order modal analysis approach to condense the coupling bandwidth between the aerodynamic and structural models. Parallel computing is applied to reduce the computational expense of the numerous high fidelity aerodynamic analyses needed for the coupled aero-structural system. Good agreement is obtained between aerodynamic force and moment gradients computed with the GSE/modal analysis approach and the same quantities computed using brute-force, computationally expensive, finite difference approximations. A comparison between the computational expense of the GSE/modal analysis method and a pure finite difference approach is presented. These results show that the GSE/modal analysis approach is the more computationally efficient technique if sensitivity analysis is to be performed for two or more aircraft design parameters.
The aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheatley, John B
1934-01-01
An aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system is presented herein. This system consists of a freely rotating rotor in which opposite blades are rigidly connected and allowed to rotate or feather freely about their span axis. Equations have been derived for the lift, the lift-drag ratio, the angle of attack, the feathering angles, and the rolling and pitching moments of a gyroplane rotor in terms of its basic parameters. Curves of lift-drag ratio against lift coefficient have been calculated for a typical case, showing the effect of varying the pitch angle, the solidarity, and the average blade-section drag coefficient. The analysis expresses satisfactorily the qualitative relations between the rotor characteristics and the rotor parameters. As disclosed by this investigation, the aerodynamic principles of the gyroplane are sound, and further research on this wing system is justified.
Energy Efficient Engine Low Pressure Subsystem Aerodynamic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Lynn, Sean R.; Veres, Joseph P.
1998-01-01
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capability to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the complete low pressure subsystem (LPS) of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE). Detailed analyses were performed using three- dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical models employing advanced clustered processor computing platforms. The analysis evaluates the impact of steady aerodynamic interaction effects between the components of the LPS at design and off- design operating conditions. Mechanical coupling is provided by adjusting the rotational speed of common shaft-mounted components until a power balance is achieved. The Navier-Stokes modeling of the complete low pressure subsystem provides critical knowledge of component acro/mechanical interactions that previously were unknown to the designer until after hardware testing.
Formulation for Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, G. W.; Taylor, A. C., III; Mani, S. V.; Newman, P. A.
1993-01-01
An efficient approach for simultaneous aerodynamic analysis and design optimization is presented. This approach does not require the performance of many flow analyses at each design optimization step, which can be an expensive procedure. Thus, this approach brings us one step closer to meeting the challenge of incorporating computational fluid dynamic codes into gradient-based optimization techniques for aerodynamic design. An adjoint-variable method is introduced to nullify the effect of the increased number of design variables in the problem formulation. The method has been successfully tested on one-dimensional nozzle flow problems, including a sample problem with a normal shock. Implementations of the above algorithm are also presented that incorporate Newton iterations to secure a high-quality flow solution at the end of the design process. Implementations with iterative flow solvers are possible and will be required for large, multidimensional flow problems.
An aerodynamic assisted miniature mass spectrometer for enhanced volatile sample analysis.
Zhai, Yanbing; Jiang, Ting; Huang, Guangyan; Wei, Yongzheng; Xu, Wei
2016-09-21
Previously, we have reported the development of a miniature mass spectrometer with a continuous atmospheric pressure interface (CAPI), and the use of it for non-volatile sample analysis, such as drugs, peptides and proteins. However due to the diffusion effects in the CAPI, especially stronger for light ions, the instrument shows low detection sensitivities for volatile samples when coupling with an atmosphere pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source (>ppmv). In this study, an in-vacuum plasma ionization source was designed and integrated into the system. By performing ionization in the first vacuum stage, ion transfer loss through the CAPI was minimized and tens of ppbv level detection sensitivities were achieved for volatile samples. Due to its improved sensitivity, chemical source tracing was demonstrated in an indoor environment as a simple proof-of-concept example. Furthermore, an aerodynamic sampling method was developed to facilitate directional sample transfer towards the miniature mass spectrometer in an open environment. By coupling this aerodynamic method with the miniature mass spectrometer, remote chemical source sensing could be achieved at a distance of more than two meters. This aerodynamic sampling method could also be applied to other mass spectrometry instruments for enhanced sample sampling in open environments. PMID:27379359
An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Mixed Flow Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Chan M.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.
1994-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of a high-work Mixed Flow Turbine (MFT) is computed and compared with experimental data. A three dimensional (3-D) viscous analysis is applied to the single stage MFT geometry with a relatively long upstream transition duct. Predicted vane surface static pressures and circumferentially averaged spanwise quantities at stator and rotor exits agree favorably with data. Compared to the results of axisymmetric flow analysis from design intent, the 3-D computation agrees much better especially in the endwall regions where throughflow prediction fails to assess the loss mechanism properly. Potential sources of performance loss such as tip leakage and secondary flows are also properly captured by the analysis.
Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 2: User's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sova, G.; Divan, P.; Spacht, L.
1991-01-01
An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic and/or supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations have multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planforms and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis. Computation times on an IBM 3081 are typically less than one minute of CPU/Mach number at subsonic, supersonic, or hypersonic speeds. This is a user manual for the computer programming.
Mean streamline aerodynamic performance analysis of centrifugal compressors
Aungier, R.H.
1995-07-01
Aerodynamic performance prediction models for centrifugal compressor impellers are presented. In combination with similar procedures for stationary components, previously published in the open literature, a comprehensive mean streamline performance analysis for centrifugal compressor stages is provided. The accuracy and versatility of the overall analysis is demonstrated for several centrifugal compressor stages of various types, including comparison with intrastage component performance data. Detailed validation of the analysis against experimental data has been accomplished for over a hundred stages, including stage flow coefficients from 0.009 to 0.15 and pressure ratios up to about 3.5. Its application to turbocharger stages includes pressure ratios up to 4.2, but with test uncertainty much greater than for the data used in the detailed validation studies.
A performance index approach to aerodynamic design with the use of analysis codes only
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, Raymond L.; Moitra, Anutosh
1988-01-01
A method is described for designing an aerodynamic configuration for a specified performance vector, based on results from several similar, but not identical, trial configurations, each defined by a geometry parameter vector. The theory shows the method effective provided that: (1) the results for the trial configuration provide sufficient variation so that a linear combination of them approximates the specified performance; and (2) the difference between the performance vectors (including the specifed performance) are sufficiently small that the linearity assumption of sensitivity analysis applies to the differences. A computed example describes the design of a high supersonic Mach number missile wing body configuration based on results from a set of four trial configurations.
Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.
2015-11-01
Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.
Analysis of the Hessian for Aerodynamic Optimization: Inviscid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arian, Eyal; Ta'asan, Shlomo
1996-01-01
In this paper we analyze inviscid aerodynamic shape optimization problems governed by the full potential and the Euler equations in two and three dimensions. The analysis indicates that minimization of pressure dependent cost functions results in Hessians whose eigenvalue distributions are identical for the full potential and the Euler equations. However the optimization problems in two and three dimensions are inherently different. While the two dimensional optimization problems are well-posed the three dimensional ones are ill-posed. Oscillations in the shape up to the smallest scale allowed by the design space can develop in the direction perpendicular to the flow, implying that a regularization is required. A natural choice of such a regularization is derived. The analysis also gives an estimate of the Hessian's condition number which implies that the problems at hand are ill-conditioned. Infinite dimensional approximations for the Hessians are constructed and preconditioners for gradient based methods are derived from these approximate Hessians.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Tektites and Their Parent Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, E. W.; Huffaker, R. M.
1962-01-01
Experiment and analysis indicate that the button-type australites were derived from glassy spheres which entered or re-entered the atmosphere as cold solid bodies; in case of average-size specimens, the entry direction was nearly horizontal and the entry speed between 6.5 and 11.2 km/sec. Terrestrial origin of such spheres is impossible because of extremely high deceleration rates at low altitudes. The limited extension of the strewn fields rules out extraterrestrial origin of clusters of such spheres because of stability considerations for clusters in space. However, tektites may have been released as liquid droplets from glassy parent bodies ablating in the atmosphere of the earth. The australites then have skipped together with the parent body in order to re-enter as cold spheres. Terrestrial origin of a parent body would require an extremely violent natural event. Ablation analysis shows that fusion of opaque siliceous stone into glass by aerodynamic heating is impossible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Desmarais, Robert N.
1990-01-01
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-02-20
SENSIT,MUSIG,COMSEN is a set of three related programs for sensitivity test analysis. SENSIT conducts sensitivity tests. These tests are also known as threshold tests, LD50 tests, gap tests, drop weight tests, etc. SENSIT interactively instructs the experimenter on the proper level at which to stress the next specimen, based on the results of previous responses. MUSIG analyzes the results of a sensitivity test to determine the mean and standard deviation of the underlying population bymore » computing maximum likelihood estimates of these parameters. MUSIG also computes likelihood ratio joint confidence regions and individual confidence intervals. COMSEN compares the results of two sensitivity tests to see if the underlying populations are significantly different. COMSEN provides an unbiased method of distinguishing between statistical variation of the estimates of the parameters of the population and true population difference.« less
Team Software Development for Aerothermodynamic and Aerodynamic Analysis and Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexandrov, N.; Atkins, H. L.; Bibb, K. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Carpenter, M. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Hammond, D. P.; Jones, W. T.; Kleb, W. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.
2003-01-01
A collaborative approach to software development is described. The approach employs the agile development techniques: project retrospectives, Scrum status meetings, and elements of Extreme Programming to efficiently develop a cohesive and extensible software suite. The software product under development is a fluid dynamics simulator for performing aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis and design. The functionality of the software product is achieved both through the merging, with substantial rewrite, of separate legacy codes and the authorship of new routines. Examples of rapid implementation of new functionality demonstrate the benefits obtained with this agile software development process. The appendix contains a discussion of coding issues encountered while porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95, software design principles, and a Fortran 95 coding standard.
LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2011-01-01
Launch vehicles frequently experience a reduced stability margin through the transonic Mach number range. This reduced stability margin is caused by an undamping of the aerodynamics in one of the lower frequency flexible or rigid body modes. Analysis of the behavior of a flexible vehicle is routinely performed with quasi-steady aerodynamic lineloads derived from steady rigid computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis can be unconservative at the critical Mach numbers where experiment or unsteady computational aeroelastic (CAE) analysis show a reduced or even negative aerodynamic damping. This paper will present a method of enhancing the quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis of a launch vehicle with unsteady aerodynamics. The enhanced formulation uses unsteady CFD to compute the response of selected lower frequency modes. The response is contained in a time history of the vehicle lineloads. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the unsteady aerodynamic lineload response is used to reduce the scale of data volume and system identification is used to derive the aerodynamic stiffness, damping and mass matrices. The results of the enhanced quasi-static aeroelastic stability analysis are compared with the damping and frequency computed from unsteady CAE analysis and from a quasi-steady analysis. The results show that incorporating unsteady aerodynamics in this way brings the enhanced quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis into close agreement with the unsteady CAE analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1973-01-01
An analysis of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of sharp-edged slender wings has been performed. The results show that slender wing theory can be modified to give the potential flow static and dynamic characteristics in incompressible flow. A semiempirical approximation is developed for the vortex-induced loads, and it is shown that the analytic approximation for sharp-edged slender wings gives good prediction of experimentally determined steady and unsteady aerodynamics at M = 0 and M = 1. The predictions are good not only for delta wings but also for so-called arrow and diamond wings. The results indicate that the effects of delta planform lifting surfaces can be included in a simple manner when determining elastic launch vehicle dynamic characteristics. For Part 1 see (N73-32763).
Unstructured CFD Aerodynamic Analysis of a Generic UCAV Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Tormalm, Magnus; Schmidt, Stefan
2011-01-01
Three independent studies from the United States (NASA), Sweden (FOI), and Australia (DSTO) are analyzed to assess the state of current unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamic tools and practices for predicting the complex static and dynamic aerodynamic and stability characteristics of a generic 53-degree swept, round-leading-edge uninhabited combat air vehicle configuration, called SACCON. NASA exercised the USM3D tetrahedral cell-centered flow solver, while FOI and DSTO applied the FOI/EDGE general-cell vertex-based solver. The authors primarily employ the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) assumption, with a limited assessment of the EDGE Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) extension, to explore sensitivities to grids and turbulence models. Correlations with experimental data are provided for force and moments, surface pressure, and off-body flow measurements. The vortical flow field over SACCON proved extremely difficult to model adequately. As a general rule, the prospect of obtaining reasonable correlations of SACCON pitching moment characteristics with the RANS formulation is not promising, even for static cases. Yet, dynamic pitch oscillation results seem to produce a promising characterization of shapes for the lift and pitching moment hysteresis curves. Future studies of this configuration should include more investigation with higher-fidelity turbulence models, such as DES.
An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Spinning Missile with Dithering Canards
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.; Nygaard, Tor A.
2003-01-01
A generic spinning missile with dithering canards is used to demonstrate the utility of an overset structured grid approach for simulating the aerodynamics of rolling airframe missile systems. The approach is used to generate a modest aerodynamic database for the generic missile. The database is populated with solutions to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. It is used to evaluate grid resolution requirements for accurate prediction of instantaneous missile loads and the relative aerodynamic significance of angle-of-attack, canard pitching sequence, viscous effects, and roll-rate effects. A novel analytical method for inter- and extrapolation of database results is also given.
Aerodynamic Analysis of a Hale Aircraft Joined-Wing Configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivaji, Rangarajan; Ghia, Urmila; Ghia, Karman; Thornburg, Hugh
2003-11-01
Aerodynamic analysis of a high-aspect ratio, joined wing of a High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft is performed. The requirement of high lift over extended flight periods for the HALE aircraft leads to high-aspect ratio wings experiencing significant deflections necessitating consideration of aeroelastic effects. The finite-volume solver COBALT, with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) capabilities, is used for the flow simulations. Calculations are performed at á = 0° and 12° for M = 0.6, at an altitude of 30,000 feet, at a Re per unit length of 5.6x106. The wing cross sections are NACA 4421 airfoils. Because of the high lift-to-drag ratio wings, an inviscid flow analysis is also performed. The inviscid surface pressure coefficient (Cp) is compared with the corresponding viscous Cp to examine the feasibility of the use of the inviscid pressure loads as an estimate of the total fluid loads on the structure. The viscous and inviscid Cp results compare reasonably only at á = 0°. The viscous flow is examined in detail via surface and field velocity vectors, vorticity, density and pressure contours. For á = 12°, the unsteady DES solutions show a weak shock at the aft-wing trailing edge. Also, the flow near the joint exhibits a region of mild separation.
Sensitivity Analysis Without Assumptions
VanderWeele, Tyler J.
2016-01-01
Unmeasured confounding may undermine the validity of causal inference with observational studies. Sensitivity analysis provides an attractive way to partially circumvent this issue by assessing the potential influence of unmeasured confounding on causal conclusions. However, previous sensitivity analysis approaches often make strong and untestable assumptions such as having an unmeasured confounder that is binary, or having no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the confounder on the outcome, or having only one unmeasured confounder. Without imposing any assumptions on the unmeasured confounder or confounders, we derive a bounding factor and a sharp inequality such that the sensitivity analysis parameters must satisfy the inequality if an unmeasured confounder is to explain away the observed effect estimate or reduce it to a particular level. Our approach is easy to implement and involves only two sensitivity parameters. Surprisingly, our bounding factor, which makes no simplifying assumptions, is no more conservative than a number of previous sensitivity analysis techniques that do make assumptions. Our new bounding factor implies not only the traditional Cornfield conditions that both the relative risk of the exposure on the confounder and that of the confounder on the outcome must satisfy but also a high threshold that the maximum of these relative risks must satisfy. Furthermore, this new bounding factor can be viewed as a measure of the strength of confounding between the exposure and the outcome induced by a confounder. PMID:26841057
An analysis of prop-fan/airframe aerodynamic integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boctor, M. L.; Clay, C. W.; Watson, C. F.
1978-01-01
An approach to aerodynamic integration of turboprops and airframes, with emphasis placed upon wing mounted installations is addressed. Potential flow analytical techniques were employed to study aerodynamic integration of the prop fan propulsion concept with advanced, subsonic, commercial transport airframes. Three basic configurations were defined and analyzed: wing mounted prop fan at a cruise Mach number of 0.8, wing mounted prop fan in a low speed configuration, and aft mounted prop fan at a cruise Mach number of 0.8.
Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.
2013-01-01
The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.
Coupled flow, thermal and structural analysis of aerodynamically heated panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, Earl A.; Dechaumphai, Pramote
1986-01-01
A finite element approach to coupling flow, thermal and structural analyses of aerodynamically heated panels is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible flow are solved together with the energy equation and quasi-static structural equations of the panel. Interactions between the flow, panel heat transfer and deformations are studied for thin stainless steel panels aerodynamically heated by Mach 6.6 flow.
Sherman, L.L.; Taylor, A.C. III; Hou, G.W.; Korivi, V.M.
1996-12-01
The straightforward automatic-differentiation and the hand-differentiated incremental iterative methods are interwoven to produce a hybrid scheme that captures some of the strengths of each strategy. With this compromise, discrete aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives are calculated with the efficient incremental iterative solution algorithm of the original flow code. Moreover, the principal advantage of automatic differentiation is retained. The basic equations for second-order sensitivity derivatives are presented, which results in a comparison of four different methods. Each of these four schemes for second-order derivatives requires that large systems are solved first for the first-order adjoint variables. Of these latter three schemes, two require no solutions of large systems thereafter. For the other two for which additional systems are solved, the equations and solution procedures are analogous to those for the first-order derivatives. From a practical viewpoint, implementation of the second-order methods is feasible only with software tools such as automatic differentiation, because of the extreme complexity and large number of terms. First- and second-order sensitivities are calculated accurately for two airfoil problems, including a turbulent-flow example. In each of these two sample problems, three dependent variables (coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching-moment) and six independent variables (three geometric-shape and three flow-condition design variables) are considered. Several different procedures are tested, and results are compared on the basis of accuracy, computational time, and computer memory. For first-order derivatives, the hybrid incremental iterative scheme obtained with automatic differentiation is competitive with the best hand-differentiated method. Furthermore, it is at least two to four times faster than central finite differences, without an overwhelming penalty in computer memory. 23 refs., 14 tabs.
Witholder, R.E.
1980-04-01
The Solar Energy Research Institute has conducted a limited sensitivity analysis on a System for Projecting the Utilization of Renewable Resources (SPURR). The study utilized the Domestic Policy Review scenario for SPURR agricultural and industrial process heat and utility market sectors. This sensitivity analysis determines whether variations in solar system capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and fuel cost (biomass only) correlate with intuitive expectations. The results of this effort contribute to a much larger issue: validation of SPURR. Such a study has practical applications for engineering improvements in solar technologies and is useful as a planning tool in the R and D allocation process.
An analysis of blade vortex interaction aerodynamics and acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, D. J.
1985-01-01
The impulsive noise associated with helicopter flight due to Blade-Vortex Interaction, sometimes called blade slap is analyzed especially for the case of a close encounter of the blade-tip vortex with a following blade. Three parts of the phenomena are considered: the tip-vortex structure generated by the rotating blade, the unsteady pressure produced on the following blade during the interaction, and the acoustic radiation due to the unsteady pressure field. To simplify the problem, the analysis was confined to the situation where the vortex is aligned parallel to the blade span in which case the maximum acoustic pressure results. Acoustic radiation due to the interaction is analyzed in space-fixed coordinates and in the time domain with the unsteady pressure on the blade surface as the source of chordwise compact, but spanwise non-compact radiation. Maximum acoustic pressure is related to the vortex core size and Reynolds number which are in turn functions of the blade-tip aerodynamic parameters. Finally noise reduction and performance are considered.
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong
2013-01-01
This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.
RESRAD parameter sensitivity analysis
Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.
1991-08-01
Three methods were used to perform a sensitivity analysis of RESRAD code input parameters -- enhancement of RESRAD by the Gradient Enhanced Software System (GRESS) package, direct parameter perturbation, and graphic comparison. Evaluation of these methods indicated that (1) the enhancement of RESRAD by GRESS has limitations and should be used cautiously, (2) direct parameter perturbation is tedious to implement, and (3) the graphics capability of RESRAD 4.0 is the most direct and convenient method for performing sensitivity analyses. This report describes procedures for implementing these methods and presents a comparison of results. 3 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Simulated Heat Shield Recession for the Orion Command Module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibb, Karen L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Mcdaniel, Ryan D.
2008-01-01
The aerodynamic effects of the recession of the ablative thermal protection system for the Orion Command Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle are important for the vehicle guidance. At the present time, the aerodynamic effects of recession being handled within the Orion aerodynamic database indirectly with an additional safety factor placed on the uncertainty bounds. This study is an initial attempt to quantify the effects for a particular set of recessed geometry shapes, in order to provide more rigorous analysis for managing recession effects within the aerodynamic database. The aerodynamic forces and moments for the baseline and recessed geometries were computed at several trajectory points using multiple CFD codes, both viscous and inviscid. The resulting aerodynamics for the baseline and recessed geometries were compared. The forces (lift, drag) show negligible differences between baseline and recessed geometries. Generally, the moments show a difference between baseline and recessed geometries that correlates with the maximum amount of recession of the geometry. The difference between the pitching moments for the baseline and recessed geometries increases as Mach number decreases (and the recession is greater), and reach a value of -0.0026 for the lowest Mach number. The change in trim angle of attack increases from approx. 0.5deg at M = 28.7 to approx. 1.3deg at M = 6, and is consistent with a previous analysis with a lower fidelity engineering tool. This correlation of the present results with the engineering tool results supports the continued use of the engineering tool for future work. The present analysis suggests there does not need to be an uncertainty due to recession in the Orion aerodynamic database for the force quantities. The magnitude of the change in pitching moment due to recession is large enough to warrant inclusion in the aerodynamic database. An increment in the uncertainty for pitching moment could be calculated from these results and
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1991-01-01
The three dimensional quasi-analytical sensitivity analysis and the ancillary driver programs are developed needed to carry out the studies and perform comparisons. The code is essentially contained in one unified package which includes the following: (1) a three dimensional transonic wing analysis program (ZEBRA); (2) a quasi-analytical portion which determines the matrix elements in the quasi-analytical equations; (3) a method for computing the sensitivity coefficients from the resulting quasi-analytical equations; (4) a package to determine for comparison purposes sensitivity coefficients via the finite difference approach; and (5) a graphics package.
Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Soumitr
2011-12-01
The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account
Van Dam, C P; Nakafuji, D Y; Bauer, C; Chao, D; Standish, K
2002-11-01
A computational design and analysis of a microtab based aerodynamic loads control system is presented. The microtab consists of a small tab that emerges from a wing approximately perpendicular to its surface in the vicinity of its trailing edge. Tab deployment on the upper side of the wing causes a decrease in the lift generation whereas deployment on the pressure side causes an increase. The computational methods applied in the development of this concept solve the governing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on structured, overset grids. The application of these methods to simulate the flows over lifting surface including the tabs has been paramount in the development of these devices. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the microtab and that it is possible to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the positioning and sizing of the tabs before they are implemented in successfully controlling the aerodynamic loads.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Multistage Turbomachinery Flows in Support of Aerodynamic Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.
1999-01-01
This paper summarizes the state of 3D CFD based models of the time average flow field within axial flow multistage turbomachines. Emphasis is placed on models which are compatible with the industrial design environment and those models which offer the potential of providing credible results at both design and off-design operating conditions. The need to develop models which are free of aerodynamic input from semi-empirical design systems is stressed. The accuracy of such models is shown to be dependent upon their ability to account for the unsteady flow environment in multistage turbomachinery. The relevant flow physics associated with some of the unsteady flow processes present in axial flow multistage machinery are presented along with procedures which can be used to account for them in 3D CFD simulations. Sample results are presented for both axial flow compressors and axial flow turbines which help to illustrate the enhanced predictive capabilities afforded by including these procedures in 3D CFD simulations. Finally, suggestions are given for future work on the development of time average flow models.
Scaling in sensitivity analysis
Link, W.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.
2002-01-01
Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.
LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.
Unsteady aerodynamic analysis of space shuttle vehicles. Part 3: Booster interference effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1973-01-01
An investigation of the interference flow field on the space-shuttle boost configuration has been made. The results show that the interference effects can dominate the shuttle aerodynamics. Vortices shed from shock-induced flow separations on the forward portion of the vehicle affect the aerodynamic loads on the aft portion of the booster. Thus, the forebody and aft-body flow fields are coupled. This coupling and the associated time lag due to the finite convection speed of the vortices furnish a mechanism whereby the unsteady aerodynamics can cause undamping of certain low frequency elastic modes of the booster. A preliminary order-of-magnitude analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the shuttle booster indicates that negative aerodynamic damping could occur for at least one bending mode and be of sufficient magnitude to dominate the structural damping. The implication of these results, (with the possibility of undamped oscillations leading to structural failure), is serious enough to warrant further, more detailed analysis.
Conversion of the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) to an IBM PC Compatible Format
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruep, John M.
1995-01-01
The conversion of the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) software from a Silicon Graphics UNIX-based platform to a DOS-based IBM PC compatible is discussed. Relevant background information is given, followed by a discussion of the steps taken to accomplish the conversion and a discussion of the type of problems encountered during the conversion. A brief comparison of aerodynamic data obtained using APAS with data from another source is also made.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.
1992-01-01
Fundamental equations of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis and approximate analysis for the two dimensional thin layer Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed, and special boundary condition considerations necessary to apply these equations to isolated lifting airfoils on 'C' and 'O' meshes are discussed in detail. An efficient strategy which is based on the finite element method and an elastic membrane representation of the computational domain is successfully tested, which circumvents the costly 'brute force' method of obtaining grid sensitivity derivatives, and is also useful in mesh regeneration. The issue of turbulence modeling is addressed in a preliminary study. Aerodynamic shape sensitivity derivatives are efficiently calculated, and their accuracy is validated on two viscous test problems, including: (1) internal flow through a double throat nozzle, and (2) external flow over a NACA 4-digit airfoil. An automated aerodynamic design optimization strategy is outlined which includes the use of a design optimization program, an aerodynamic flow analysis code, an aerodynamic sensitivity and approximate analysis code, and a mesh regeneration and grid sensitivity analysis code. Application of the optimization methodology to the two test problems in each case resulted in a new design having a significantly improved performance in the aerodynamic response of interest.
Sensitivity testing and analysis
Neyer, B.T.
1991-01-01
New methods of sensitivity testing and analysis are proposed. The new test method utilizes Maximum Likelihood Estimates to pick the next test level in order to maximize knowledge of both the mean, {mu}, and the standard deviation, {sigma} of the population. Simulation results demonstrate that this new test provides better estimators (less bias and smaller variance) of both {mu} and {sigma} than the other commonly used tests (Probit, Bruceton, Robbins-Monro, Langlie). A new method of analyzing sensitivity tests is also proposed. It uses the Likelihood Ratio Test to compute regions of arbitrary confidence. It can calculate confidence regions, for {mu}, {sigma}, and arbitrary percentiles. Unlike presently used methods, such as the program ASENT which is based on the Cramer-Rao theorem, it can analyze the results of all sensitivity tests, and it does not significantly underestimate the size of the confidence regions. The new test and analysis methods will be explained and compared to the presently used methods. 19 refs., 12 figs.
Modal forced vibration analysis of aerodynamically excited turbosystems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elchuri, V.
1985-01-01
Theoretical aspects of a new capability to determine the vibratory response of turbosystems subjected to aerodynamic excitation are presented. Turbosystems such as advanced turbopropellers with highly swept blades, and axial-flow compressors and turbines can be analyzed using this capability. The capability has been developed and implemented in the April 1984 release of the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN. The dynamic response problem is addressed in terms of the normal modal coordinates of these tuned rotating cyclic structures. Both rigid and flexible hubs/disks are considered. Coriolis and centripetal accelerations, as well as differential stiffness effects are included. Generally non-uniform steady inflow fields and uniform flow fields arbitrarily inclined at small angles with respect to the axis of rotation of the turbosystem are considered sources of aerodynamic excitation. The spatial non-uniformities are considered to be small deviations from a principally uniform inflow. Subsonic and supersonic relative inflows are addressed, with provision for linearly interpolating transonic airloads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1976-01-01
An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries was performed. The results show that the experimentally observed pulsating flow on spiked bodies and in forward facing cavities can be described by the developed simple mathematical model of the phenomenon. Static experimental data is used as a basis for determination of the oscillatory frequency of spike-induced flow pulsations. The agreement between predicted and measured reduced frequencies is generally very good. The spiked-body mathematical model is extended to describe the pulsations observed in forward facing cavities and it is shown that not only the frequency but also the pressure time history can be described with the accuracy needed to predict the experimentally observed time average effects. This implies that it should be possible to determine analytically the impact of the flow pulsation on the structural integrity of the nozzles for the jettisoned empty SRM-shells.
Analysis and compilation of missile aerodynamic data. Volume 2: Performance analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burkhalter, J. E.
1977-01-01
A general analysis is given of the flight dynamics of several surface-to-air and two air-to-air missile configurations. The analysis involves three phases: vertical climb, straight and level flight, and constant altitude turn. Wind tunnel aerodynamic data and full scale missile characteristics are used where available; unknown data are estimated. For the constant altitude turn phase, a three degree of freedom flight simulation is used. Important parameters considered in this analysis are the vehicle weight, Mach number, heading angle, thrust level, sideslip angle, g loading, and time to make the turn. The actual flight path during the turn is also determined. Results are presented in graphical form.
Nonlinear potential analysis techniques for supersonic-hypersonic aerodynamic design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shankar, V.; Clever, W. C.
1984-01-01
Approximate nonlinear inviscid theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at supersonic and moderate hypersonic speeds were developed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to conceptual configuration design level of effort. Second order small disturbance and full potential theory was utilized to meet this objective. Numerical codes were developed for relatively general three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes.
Program user's manual for an unsteady helicopter rotor-fuselage aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.
1988-01-01
The Rotor-Fuselage Analysis is a method of calculating the aerodynamic reaction between a helicopter rotor and fuselage. This manual describes the structure and operation of the computer programs that make up the Rotor-Fuselage Analysis, programs which prepare the input and programs which display the output.
Unsteady aerodynamic analysis of space shuttle vehicles. Part 1: Summary report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1973-01-01
An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of space shuttle vehicles was performed. The results show that slender wing theory can be modified to give the potential flow static and dynamic characteristics over a large Mach number range from M = 0 to M 1. A semi-empirical analytic approximation is derived for the loads induced by the leading edge vortex; and it is shown that the developed analytic technique gives good prediction of experimentally determined steady and unsteady delta wing aerodynamics, including the effects of leading edge roundness. At supersonic speeds, attached leading edge flow is established and shock-induced flow separation effects become of concern. Analysis of experimental results for a variety of boost configurations led to a definition of the main features of the flow interference effects between orbiter (delta wing) and booster. The effects of control deflection on the unsteady aerodynamics of the delta-wing orbiter were also evaluated.
Sensitivity Analysis of Wing Aeroelastic Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Issac, Jason Cherian
1995-01-01
Design for prevention of aeroelastic instability (that is, the critical speeds leading to aeroelastic instability lie outside the operating range) is an integral part of the wing design process. Availability of the sensitivity derivatives of the various critical speeds with respect to shape parameters of the wing could be very useful to a designer in the initial design phase, when several design changes are made and the shape of the final configuration is not yet frozen. These derivatives are also indispensable for a gradient-based optimization with aeroelastic constraints. In this study, flutter characteristic of a typical section in subsonic compressible flow is examined using a state-space unsteady aerodynamic representation. The sensitivity of the flutter speed of the typical section with respect to its mass and stiffness parameters, namely, mass ratio, static unbalance, radius of gyration, bending frequency, and torsional frequency is calculated analytically. A strip theory formulation is newly developed to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a wing. This is coupled with an equivalent plate structural model and solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the critical speed of the wing. Flutter analysis of the wing is also carried out using a lifting-surface subsonic kernel function aerodynamic theory (FAST) and an equivalent plate structural model. Finite element modeling of the wing is done using NASTRAN so that wing structures made of spars and ribs and top and bottom wing skins could be analyzed. The free vibration modes of the wing obtained from NASTRAN are input into FAST to compute the flutter speed. An equivalent plate model which incorporates first-order shear deformation theory is then examined so it can be used to model thick wings, where shear deformations are important. The sensitivity of natural frequencies to changes in shape parameters is obtained using ADIFOR. A simple optimization effort is made towards obtaining a minimum weight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyadkin, A. A.; Khatuntseva, O. N.
2014-12-01
Analysis of experimental data shows that the nature of the oscillating motion of an aircraft does not depend uniquely on the value of the coefficients of aerodynamic damping derivatives. The present work makes an attempt to explain this phenomenon and develops a methodology to adequately characterize the oscillating motion of aircraft based on the analysis of the coefficients of aerodynamic damping derivatives.
Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.
2014-01-01
The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of
Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.
2015-06-01
The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.
An aerodynamic analysis computer program and design notes for low speed wing flap systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.
1983-01-01
The expanded capabilities for analysis and design of low speed flap systems afforded by recent modifications of an existing computer program is described. The program provides for the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 pairs of leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflection schedules. Among other new features of the program are a revised attainable thrust estimation method to provide more accurate predictions for low Mach numbers, and a choice of three options for estimation of leading-edge separation vortex flow effects. Comparison of program results with low speed experimental data for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration with leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps showed good agreement over most of the range of flap deflections. Other force data comparisons and an independent study of airfoil and wing pressure distributions indicated that wind-tunnel measurements of the aerodynamic performance of twisted and cambered wings and wings with leading-edge flaps can be very sensitive to Reynolds number effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egolf, T. Alan; Anderson, Olof L.; Edwards, David E.; Landgrebe, Anton J.
1988-01-01
A user's manual for the computer program developed for the prediction of propeller-nacelle aerodynamic performance reported in, An Analysis for High Speed Propeller-Nacelle Aerodynamic Performance Prediction: Volume 1 -- Theory and Application, is presented. The manual describes the computer program mode of operation requirements, input structure, input data requirements and the program output. In addition, it provides the user with documentation of the internal program structure and the software used in the computer program as it relates to the theory presented in Volume 1. Sample input data setups are provided along with selected printout of the program output for one of the sample setups.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1980-01-01
Structural, inertia, and aerodynamic models were combined to form a comprehensive model of rotor aerodynamics and dynamics that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. A digital computer program is used to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft, and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.
A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 4: Test cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.
1980-01-01
An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. Representative test cases and associated program output are presented.
Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Jordan A.
The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.
1985-01-01
The aeromechanical stability of a helicopter in ground resonance was analyzed, by incorporating five different aerodynamic models in the coupled rotor/fuselage analysis. The sensitivity of the results to changes in aerodynamic modelling was carefully examined. The theoretical results were compared with experimental data and useful conclusions are drawn regarding the role of aerodynamic modeling on this aeromechanical stability problem. The aerodynamic model which provided the best all around correlation with the experimental data was identified.
Aerodynamic analysis of Audi A4 Sedan using CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birwa, S. K.; Rathi, N.; Gupta, R.
2013-04-01
This paper presents the aerodynamic influence of velocity and ground clearance for Audi A4 Sedan. The topology of the test vehicle was modeled using CATIA P3 V5 R17. ANSYS FLUENT 12 was the CFD solver employed in this study. The distribution of pressure and velocity was obtained. The velocities were 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/s and ground clearances were 76.2 mm,101.6 mm,127 mm and 152.4 mm. The simulation results were compared with the available resources. It was found that the drag coefficient decreases with the velocity increasing from 30 to 60 m/s and increases with the ground clearance from 101.6 mm to 152.4 mm. Further decrease in ground clearance showed no effect on the value of coefficient of drag. The lift coefficient was found to decrease firstly with ground clearance from 152.4 mm to 101.6 mm, and then increase from 101.6 mm to 76.2 mm. Both the lift coefficient and drag coefficient was found to be minimum for the ground clearance of 101.6 mm as designed by the company.
Viscous-Inviscid Methods in Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Bio-Inspired Morphing Wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhruv, Akash V.
Flight has been one of the greatest realizations of human imagination, revolutionizing communication and transportation over the years. This has greatly influenced the growth of technology itself, enabling researchers to communicate and share their ideas more effectively, extending the human potential to create more sophisticated systems. While the end product of a sophisticated technology makes our lives easier, its development process presents an array of challenges in itself. In last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to design more efficient and robust aerodynamic systems to enhance the ability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be operated in cluttered environments, where tight maneuverability and controllability are necessary. Effective use of UAVs in domestic airspace will mark the beginning of a new age in communication and transportation. The design of such complex systems necessitates the need for faster and more effective tools to perform preliminary investigations in design, thereby streamlining the design process. This thesis explores the implementation of numerical panel methods for aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired morphing wings. Numerical panel methods have been one of the earliest forms of computational methods for aerodynamic analysis to be developed. Although the early editions of this method performed only inviscid analysis, the algorithm has matured over the years as a result of contributions made by prominent aerodynamicists. The method discussed in this thesis is influenced by recent advancements in panel methods and incorporates both viscous and inviscid analysis of multi-flap wings. The surface calculation of aerodynamic coefficients makes this method less computationally expensive than traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers available, and thus is effective when both speed and accuracy are desired. The morphing wing design, which consists of sequential feather-like flaps installed
Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 2: User's manual and program description
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divan, P.; Dunn, K.; Kojima, J.
1978-01-01
A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies or noncircular contour are analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions are generated. The analysis is implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.
Analysis of the aerodynamic force in an eye-stabilized flapping flyer.
Su, Jian-Yuan; Yang, Jing-Tang
2013-12-01
Experimental methods and related theories to evaluate the lift force for a flyer are established, but one can traditionally acquire only the magnitude of that lift. We here proffer an analysis based on kinematic theory and experimental visualization of the flow to complete a treatment of the aerodynamic force affecting a hovering flyer that generates a lift force approximately equal to its weight, and remains nearly stationary in midair; the center and direction of the aerodynamic force are accordingly determined with some assumptions made. The principal condition to resolve the problem is the stabilization of the vision of a flyer, which is inspired by a hovering passerine that experiences a substantial upward swing during downstroke periods while its eye remains stabilized. Viewing the aerodynamic force with a bird's eye, we find that the center and direction of this aerodynamic force vary continuously with respect to the lift force. Our results provide practical guidance for engineers to enhance the visual stability of surveillance cameras incorporated in micro aerial vehicles. PMID:24200672
Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartshorn, Fletcher
2011-01-01
Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tianshu; Bencic, T.; Sullivan, J. P.
1999-01-01
This article reviews new advances and applications of pressure sensitive paints in aerodynamic testing. Emphasis is placed on important technical aspects of pressure sensitive paint including instrumentation, data processing, and uncertainty analysis.
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Seamless Flaps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
2016-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) swept wing modified with an experimental seamless, compliant flap called the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap. The stall characteristics of the modified ACTE wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified, clean wing at the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 feet above mean sea level, in free air as well as in ground effect. A polyhedral finite-volume unstructured full Navier-Stokes CFD code, STAR-CCM (registered trademark) plus (CD-adapco [Computational Dynamics Limited, United Kingdom, and Analysis & Design Application Co., United States]), was used. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations were conducted for a clean wing and the ACTE wings at various ACTE deflection angles in free air (-2 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees) as well as in ground effect (15 degrees and 30 degrees). Solution sensitivities to grid densities were examined. In free air, the ACTE wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the clean wing. In ground effect, all wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the corresponding wings in free air. Even though the lift curves are higher in ground effect than in free air, the maximum lift coefficients for all wings are lower in ground effect. Finally, the lift increase due to ground effect for the ACTE wing is predicted to be less than the clean wing.
Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat
1990-01-01
The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.
1976-01-01
An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This user's manual contains a description of the system, an explanation of its usage, the input definition, and example output.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winter, O. A.
1980-01-01
The B01 version of the United Subsonic Supersonic Aerodynamic Analysis program is the result of numerous modifications and additions made to the B00 version. These modifications and additions affect the program input, its computational options, the code readability, and the overlay structure. The following are described: (1) the revised input; (2) the plotting overlay programs which were also modified, and their associated subroutines, (3) the auxillary files used by the program, the revised output data; and (4) the program overlay structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.
1975-01-01
An integrated system of computer programs has been developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This part presents a general description of the system and describes the theoretical methods used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad
2011-01-01
Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on the unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver USM3D, with an assumption that the flow is fully turbulent over the entire vehicle. This effort was designed to complement the prior computational activities conducted over the past five years in support of the Ares I Project with the emphasis on the vehicle s last design cycle designated as the A106 configuration. Due to a lack of flight data for this particular design s outer mold line, the initial vehicle s aerodynamic predictions and the associated error estimates were first assessed and validated against the available experimental data at representative wind tunnel flow conditions pertinent to the ascent phase of the trajectory without including any propulsion effects. Subsequently, the established procedures were then applied to obtain the longitudinal aerodynamic predictions at the selected flight flow conditions. Sample computed results and the correlations with the experimental measurements are presented. In addition, the present analysis includes the relevant data to highlight the balance between the prediction accuracy against the grid size and, thus, the corresponding computer resource requirements for the computations at both wind tunnel and flight flow conditions. NOTE: Some details have been removed from selected plots and figures in compliance with the sensitive but unclassified (SBU) restrictions. However, the content still conveys the merits of the technical approach and the relevant results.
Sensitivity Analysis of the Static Aeroelastic Response of a Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eldred, Lloyd B.
1993-01-01
A technique to obtain the sensitivity of the static aeroelastic response of a three dimensional wing model is designed and implemented. The formulation is quite general and accepts any aerodynamic and structural analysis capability. A program to combine the discipline level, or local, sensitivities into global sensitivity derivatives is developed. A variety of representations of the wing pressure field are developed and tested to determine the most accurate and efficient scheme for representing the field outside of the aerodynamic code. Chebyshev polynomials are used to globally fit the pressure field. This approach had some difficulties in representing local variations in the field, so a variety of local interpolation polynomial pressure representations are also implemented. These panel based representations use a constant pressure value, a bilinearly interpolated value. or a biquadraticallv interpolated value. The interpolation polynomial approaches do an excellent job of reducing the numerical problems of the global approach for comparable computational effort. Regardless of the pressure representation used. sensitivity and response results with excellent accuracy have been produced for large integrated quantities such as wing tip deflection and trim angle of attack. The sensitivities of such things as individual generalized displacements have been found with fair accuracy. In general, accuracy is found to be proportional to the relative size of the derivatives to the quantity itself.
Shape sensitivity analysis of flutter response of a laminated wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergen, Fred D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.
1988-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the shape sensitivity of a wing aeroelastic response with respect to changes in geometric shape. Yates' modified strip method is used in conjunction with Giles' equivalent plate analysis to predict the flutter speed, frequency, and reduced frequency of the wing. Three methods are used to calculate the sensitivity of the eigenvalue. The first method is purely a finite difference calculation of the eigenvalue derivative directly from the solution of the flutter problem corresponding to the two different values of the shape parameters. The second method uses an analytic expression for the eigenvalue sensitivities of a general complex matrix, where the derivatives of the aerodynamic, mass, and stiffness matrices are computed using a finite difference approximation. The third method also uses an analytic expression for the eigenvalue sensitivities, but the aerodynamic matrix is computed analytically. All three methods are found to be in good agreement with each other. The sensitivities of the eigenvalues were used to predict the flutter speed, frequency, and reduced frequency. These approximations were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a complete reanalysis.
Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.
Space-time computational analysis of MAV flapping-wing aerodynamics with wing clapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Buscher, Austin
2015-06-01
Computational analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics with wing clapping was one of the classes of computations targeted in introducing the space-time (ST) interface-tracking method with topology change (ST-TC). The ST-TC method is a new version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized ST (DSD/SST) method, enhanced with a master-slave system that maintains the connectivity of the "parent" fluid mechanics mesh when there is contact between the moving interfaces. With that enhancement and because of its ST nature, the ST-TC method can deal with an actual contact between solid surfaces in flow problems with moving interfaces. It accomplishes that while still possessing the desirable features of interface-tracking (moving-mesh) methods, such as better resolution of the boundary layers. Earlier versions of the DSD/SST method, with effective mesh update, were already able to handle moving-interface problems when the solid surfaces are in near contact or create near TC. Flapping-wing aerodynamics of an actual locust, with the forewings and hindwings crossing each other very close and creating near TC, is an example of successfully computed problems. Flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV) with the wings of an actual locust is another example. Here we show how the ST-TC method enables 3D computational analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV with wing clapping. In the analysis, the wings are brought into an actual contact when they clap. We present results for a model dragonfly MAV.
Sensitivity of aerodynamic forces in laminar and turbulent flow past a square cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meliga, Philippe; Boujo, Edouard; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, François
2014-10-01
We use adjoint-based gradients to analyze the sensitivity of the drag force on a square cylinder. At Re = 40, the flow settles down to a steady state. The quantity of interest in the adjoint formulation is the steady asymptotic value of drag reached after the initial transient, whose sensitivity is computed solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of the stable base solution. At Re = 100, the flow develops to the time-periodic, vortex-shedding state. The quantity of interest is rather the time-averaged mean drag, whose sensitivity is computed integrating backwards in time an unsteady adjoint problem from knowledge of the entire history of the vortex-shedding solution. Such theoretical frameworks allow us to identify the sensitive regions without computing the actually controlled states, and provide a relevant and systematic guideline on where in the flow to insert a secondary control cylinder in the attempt to reduce drag, as established from comparisons with dedicated numerical simulations of the two-cylinder system. For the unsteady case at Re = 100, we also compute an approximation to the mean drag sensitivity solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of only the mean flow solution, and show the approach to carry valuable information in view of guiding relevant control strategy, besides reducing tremendously the related numerical effort. An extension of this simplified framework to turbulent flow regime is examined revisiting the widely benchmarked flow at Reynolds number Re = 22 000, the theoretical predictions obtained in the frame of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling being consistent with experimental data from the literature. Application of the various sensitivity frameworks to alternative control objectives such as increasing the lift and reducing the fluctuating drag and lift is also discussed and illustrated with a few selected examples.
Error Estimates of the Ares I Computed Turbulent Ascent Longitudinal Aerodynamic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad
2012-01-01
Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on an unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. The validity of the approach to compute the associated error estimates, derived from a base grid to an extrapolated infinite-size grid, was first demonstrated on a sub-scaled wind tunnel model at representative ascent flow conditions for which the experimental data existed. Such analysis at the transonic flow conditions revealed a maximum deviation of about 23% between the computed longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid and the measured data across the entire roll angles. This maximum deviation from the wind tunnel data was associated with the computed normal force coefficient at the transonic flow condition and was reduced to approximately 16% based on the infinite-size grid. However, all the computed aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid at the supersonic flow conditions showed a maximum deviation of only about 8% with that level being improved to approximately 5% for the infinite-size grid. The results and the error estimates based on the established procedure are also presented for the flight flow conditions.
An analytical approach to grid sensitivity analysis for NACA four-digit wing sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.
1992-01-01
Sensitivity analysis in computational fluid dynamics with emphasis on grids and surface parameterization is described. An interactive algebraic grid-generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around NACA four-digit wing sections. An analytical procedure is developed for calculating grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters of a wing section. A comparison of the sensitivity with that obtained using a finite difference approach is made. Grid sensitivity with respect to grid parameters, such as grid-stretching coefficients, are also investigated. Using the resultant grid sensitivity, aerodynamic sensitivity is obtained using the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations.
Unsteady Aerodynamic and Dynamic Analysis of the Meridian UAS in a Rolling-Yawing Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lykins, Ryan
The nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic effects of operating the Meridian unmanned aerial system (UAS) in crosswinds and at high angular rates is investigated in this work. The Meridian UAS is a large autonomous aircraft, with a V-tail configuration, operated in Polar Regions for the purpose of remotely measuring ice sheet thickness. The inherent nonlinear coupling produced by the V-tail, along with the strong atmospheric disturbances, has made classical model identification methods inadequate for proper model development. As such, a powerful tool known as Fuzzy Logic Modeling (FLM) was implemented to generate time-dependent, nonlinear, and unsteady aerodynamic models using flight test data collected in Greenland in 2011. Prior to performing FLM, compatibility analysis is performed on the data, for the purpose of systematic bias removal and airflow angle estimation. As one of the advantages of FLM is the ability to model unsteady aerodynamics, the reduced frequency for both longitudinal and lateral-directional motions is determined from the unbiased data, using Theodorsen's theory of unsteadiness, which serves as an input parameter in modeling. These models have been used in this work to identify pilot induced oscillations, unsteady coupling motions, unsteady motion due to the slipstream and cross wind interaction, and destabilizing motions and orientations. This work also assesses the accuracy of preliminary aircraft dynamic models developed using engineering level software, and addresses the autopilot Extended Kalman Filter state estimations.
Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.
1990-01-01
A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.
Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-200 supersonic transport configuration concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walkley, K. B.; Martin, G. L.
1979-01-01
The design and analysis of a supersonic transport configuration was conducted using linear theory methods in conjunction with appropriate constraints. Wing optimization centered on the determination of the required twist and camber and proper integration of the wing and fuselage. Also included in the design are aerodynamic refinements to the baseline wing thickness distribution and nacelle shape. Analysis to the baseline and revised configurations indicated an improvement in lift-to-drag ratio of 0.36 at the Mach 2.7 cruise condition. Validation of the design is planned through supersonic wing tunnel tests.
Aeroacoustics and aerodynamics of impinging supersonic jets: Analysis of the screech tones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinibaldi, G.; Lacagnina, G.; Marino, L.; Romano, G. P.
2013-08-01
The interaction between acoustics and aerodynamics of a supersonic jet is an actual fundamental topic which has been a matter of discussion in the last decades. The present paper is devoted to the experimental analysis of free and impinging jets with particular attention on the effect of an impinging surface on screech tones. The acoustics is studied using free-field microphones, while Particle Image Velocimetry is used to investigate the velocity field. The analysis of acquired data allowed to verify and explain the coupling between acoustic discrete tones and mean and fluctuating flow velocities.
Aerodynamic flight evaluation analysis and data base update
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyle, W. W.; Miller, M. S.; Wilder, G. O.; Reheuser, R. D.; Sharp, R. S.; Bridges, G. I.
1989-01-01
Research was conducted to determine the feasibility of replacing the Solid Rocket Boosters on the existing Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (SSLV) with Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRB). As a part of the LRB selection process, a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted along with aero studies to determine the effects of different LRB configurations on the SSLV. Final results were tabulated into increments and added to the existing SSLV data base. The research conducted in this study was taken from a series of wind tunnel tests conducted at Marshall's 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel. The effects on the axial force (CAF), normal force (CNF), pitching moment (CMF), side force (CY), wing shear force (CSR), wing torque moment (CTR), and wing bending moment (CBR) coefficients were investigated for a number of candidate LRB configurations. The aero effects due to LRB protuberances, ET/LRB separation distance, and aft skirts were also gathered from the tests. Analysis was also conducted to investigate the base pressure and plume effects due to the new booster geometries. The test results found in Phases 1 and 2 of wind tunnel testing are discussed and compared. Preliminary LRB lateral/directional data results and trends are given. The protuberance and gap/skirt effects are discussed. The base pressure/plume effects study is discussed and results are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egolf, T. Alan; Anderson, Olof L.; Edwards, David E.; Landgrebe, Anton J.
1988-01-01
A computer program, the Propeller Nacelle Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Analysis (PANPER), was developed for the prediction and analysis of the performance and airflow of propeller-nacelle configurations operating over a forward speed range inclusive of high speed flight typical of recent propfan designs. A propeller lifting line, wake program was combined with a compressible, viscous center body interaction program, originally developed for diffusers, to compute the propeller-nacelle flow field, blade loading distribution, propeller performance, and the nacelle forebody pressure and viscous drag distributions. The computer analysis is applicable to single and coaxial counterrotating propellers. The blade geometries can include spanwise variations in sweep, droop, taper, thickness, and airfoil section type. In the coaxial mode of operation the analysis can treat both equal and unequal blade number and rotational speeds on the propeller disks. The nacelle portion of the analysis can treat both free air and tunnel wall configurations including wall bleed. The analysis was applied to many different sets of flight conditions using selected aerodynamic modeling options. The influence of different propeller nacelle-tunnel wall configurations was studied. Comparisons with available test data for both single and coaxial propeller configurations are presented along with a discussion of the results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monk, David James Winchester
Compressor design programs are becoming more reliant on computational tools to predict and optimize aerodynamic and aeromechanical behavior within a compressor. Recent trends in compressor development continue to push for more efficient, lighter weight, and higher performance machines. To meet these demands, designers must better understand the complex nature of the inherently unsteady flow physics inside of a compressor. As physical testing can be costly and time prohibitive, CFD and other computational tools have become the workhorse during design programs. The objectives of this research were to investigate the aerodynamic and aeromechanical behavior of the Purdue multistage compressor, as well as analyze novel concepts for reducing rotor resonant responses in compressors. Advanced computational tools were utilized to allow an in-depth analysis of the flow physics and structural characteristics of the Purdue compressor, and complement to existing experimental datasets. To analyze the aerodynamic behavior of the compressor a Rolls-Royce CFD code, developed specifically for multistage turbomachinery flows, was utilized. Steady-state computations were performed using the RANS solver on a single-passage mesh. Facility specific boundary conditions were applied to the model, increasing the model fidelity and overall accuracy of the predictions. Detailed investigations into the overall compressor performance, stage performance, and individual blade row performance were completed. Additionally, separation patterns on stator vanes at different loading conditions were investigated by plotting pathlines near the stator suction surfaces. Stator cavity leakage flows were determined to influence the size and extent of stator hub separations. In addition to the aerodynamic analysis, a Rolls-Royce aeroelastic CFD solver was utilized to predict the forced response behavior of Rotor 2, operating at the 1T mode crossing of the Campbell Diagram. This computational tool couples
Observations Regarding Use of Advanced CFD Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Design Codes in MDO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene J. W.; Taylor, Arthur C., III
1996-01-01
Observations regarding the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, sensitivity analysis (SA), and design codes in gradient-based multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) reflect our perception of the interactions required of CFD and our experience in recent aerodynamic design optimization studies using CFD. Sample results from these latter studies are summarized for conventional optimization (analysis - SA codes) and simultaneous analysis and design optimization (design code) using both Euler and Navier-Stokes flow approximations. The amount of computational resources required for aerodynamic design using CFD via analysis - SA codes is greater than that required for design codes. Thus, an MDO formulation that utilizes the more efficient design codes where possible is desired. However, in the aerovehicle MDO problem, the various disciplines that are involved have different design points in the flight envelope; therefore, CFD analysis - SA codes are required at the aerodynamic 'off design' points. The suggested MDO formulation is a hybrid multilevel optimization procedure that consists of both multipoint CFD analysis - SA codes and multipoint CFD design codes that perform suboptimizations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1976-01-01
An exploratory analysis has been made of the aeroelastic stability of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration, with the objective of defining critical flow phenomena with adverse aeroelastic effects and developing simple analytic means of describing the time-dependent flow-interference effects so that they can be incorporated into a computer program to predict the aeroelastic stability of all free-free modes of the shuttle launch configuration. Three critical flow phenomana have been identified: (1) discontinuous jump of orbiter wing shock, (2) inlet flow between orbiter and booster, and (3) H.O. tank base flow. All involve highly nonlinear and often discontinuous aerodynamics which cause limit cycle oscillations of certain critical modes. Given the appropriate static data, the dynamic effects of the wing shock jump and the HO tank bulbous base effect can be analyzed using the developed quasi-steady techniques. However, further analytic and experimental efforts are required before the dynamic effects of the inlet flow phenomenon can be predicted for the shuttle launch configuration.
An analysis of sensitivity tests
Neyer, B.T.
1992-03-06
A new method of analyzing sensitivity tests is proposed. It uses the Likelihood Ratio Test to compute regions of arbitrary confidence. It can calculate confidence regions for the parameters of the distribution (e.g., the mean, {mu}, and the standard deviation, {sigma}) as well as various percentiles. Unlike presently used methods, such as those based on asymptotic analysis, it can analyze the results of all sensitivity tests, and it does not significantly underestimate the size of the confidence regions. The main disadvantage of this method is that it requires much more computation to calculate the confidence regions. However, these calculations can be easily and quickly performed on most computers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamhawi, Hilmi N.
2011-01-01
This report documents the work performed during from March 2010 October 2011. The Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed environment using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) as the underlying framework. This report will focus on describing the work done in the area of extending the aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics module using S/HABP, CBAERO, PREMIN and LANMIN. It will also detail the work done integrating EXITS as the TPS sizing tool.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
York, B. J.; Sinha, N.; Dash, S. M.; Hosangadi, A.; Kenzakowski, D. C.; Lee, R. A.
1992-07-01
The analysis of steady and transient aerodynamic/propulsive/plume flowfield interactions utilizing several state-of-the-art computer codes (PARCH, CRAFT, and SCHAFT) is discussed. These codes have been extended to include advanced turbulence models, generalized thermochemistry, and multiphase nonequilibrium capabilities. Several specialized versions of these codes have been developed for specific applications. This paper presents a brief overview of these codes followed by selected cases demonstrating steady and transient analyses of conventional as well as advanced missile systems. Areas requiring upgrades include turbulence modeling in a highly compressible environment and the treatment of particulates in general. Recent progress in these areas are highlighted.
Analysis of preflutter and postflutter characteristics with motion-matched aerodynamic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, H. J.
1978-01-01
The development of the equations of dynamic equilibrium for a lifting surface from Lagrange's equation is reviewed and restated for general exponential growing and decaying oscillatory motion. Aerodynamic forces for this motion are obtained from the three-dimensional supersonic kernel function that is newly generalized to complex reduced frequencies. Illustrative calculations were made for two flutter models at supersonic Mach numbers. Preflutter and postflutter motion isodecrement curves were obtained. This type of analysis can be used to predict preflutter behavior during flutter testing and to predict postflutter behavior for use in the design of flutter suppression systems.
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.
An examination of the aerodynamic moment on rotor blade tips using flight test data and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maier, Thomas H.; Bousman, William G.
1993-01-01
The analysis CAMRAD/JA is used to model two aircraft, a Puma with a swept-tip blade and a UH-60A Black Hawk. The accuracy of the analysis in predicting the torsion loads is assessed by comparing the predicted loads with measurements from flight tests. The influence of assumptions in the analytical model is examined by varying model parameters and comparing the predicted results to baseline values for the torsion loads. Flight test data from a research Puma are used to identify the source of torsion loads. These data indicate that the aerodynamic section moment in the region of the blade tip dominates torsion loading in high-speed flight. Both the aerodynamic section moment at the blade tip and the pitch-link loads are characterized by large positive (nose-up) moments in the first quadrant with rapid reversal of load so that the moment is negative in the second quadrant. Both the character and magnitude of this loading are missed by the CAMRAD/JA analysis.
New Methods for Sensitivity Analysis in Chaotic, Turbulent Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Wang, Qiqi
2012-11-01
Computational methods for sensitivity analysis are invaluable tools for fluid mechanics research and engineering design. These methods are used in many applications, including aerodynamic shape optimization and adaptive grid refinement. However, traditional sensitivity analysis methods break down when applied to long-time averaged quantities in chaotic fluid flowfields, such as those obtained using high-fidelity turbulence simulations. Also, a number of dynamical properties of chaotic fluid flows, most notably the ``Butterfly Effect,'' make the formulation of new sensitivity analysis methods difficult. This talk will outline two chaotic sensitivity analysis methods. The first method, the Fokker-Planck adjoint method, forms a probability density function on the strange attractor associated with the system and uses its adjoint to find gradients. The second method, the Least Squares Sensitivity method, finds some ``shadow trajectory'' in phase space for which perturbations do not grow exponentially. This method is formulated as a quadratic programing problem with linear constraints. This talk is concluded with demonstrations of these new methods on some example problems, including the Lorenz attractor and flow around an airfoil at a high angle of attack.
Aerodynamic and thermal analysis of an engine cylinder head using numerical flow simulation
Taghavi, R.; Dupont, A.; Dupont, J.F. )
1990-07-01
This paper reports on a computational fluid dynamics code used as a guide during the development stage of a passenger car spark ignition engine. The focus is on the flow proiperties of the inlet port as well as the heat transfer characteristics of the proposed cylinder head design. In the first part of this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of two slightly different inlet ports are considered and their effect on the development of in-cylinder flow is examined. The collected information is used to estimate geometric sensitivity and assess the effects of drifts between design and actual production specifications of inlet ports. In the second part, the same computational code is used to simulate in-cylinder combustion and determine the resulting temperature and heat flux distribution on the cylinder head walls. A comparison is thn carried out between numerical results and experimental measurements and good agreement is obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1973-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamics of the 040A orbiter have been explored experimentally. The results substantiate earlier predictions of the unsteady flow boundaries for a 60 deg swept delta wing at zero yaw and with no controls deflected. The test revealed a previously unknown region of discontinuous yaw characteristics at transonic speeds. Oilflow results indicate that this is the result of a coupling between wing and fuselage flows via the separated region forward of the deflected elevon. In fact, the large leeward elevon deflections are shown to produce a multitude of nonlinear stability effects which sometimes involve hysteresis. Predictions of the unsteady flow boundaries are made for the current orbiter. They should carry a good degree of confidence due to the present substantiation of previous predictions for the 040A. It is proposed that the present experiments be extended to the current configuration to define control-induced effects. Every effort should be made to account for Reynolds number, roughness, and possible hot-wall effects on any future experiments.
An integrated CFD/experimental analysis of aerodynamic forces and moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Robertson, David D.; Moyer, Seth A.
1989-01-01
Aerodynamic analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is most fruitful when it is combined with a thorough program of wind tunnel testing. The understanding of aerodynamic phenomena is enhanced by the synergistic use of both analysis methods. A technique is described for an integrated approach to determining the forces and moments acting on a wind tunnel model by using a combination of experimentally measured pressures and CFD predictions. The CFD code used was FLO57 (an Euler solver) and the wind tunnel model was a heavily instrumented delta wing with 62.5 deg of leading-edge sweep. A thorough comparison of the CFD results and the experimental data is presented for surface pressure distributions and longitudinal forces and moments. The experimental pressures were also integrated over the surface of the model and the resulting forces and moments are compared to the CFD and wind tunnel results. The accurate determination of various drag increments via the combined use of the CFD and experimental pressures is presented in detail.
Aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Xinzi
This work investigates the aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades via the blade element momentum (BEM) based approach and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based approach. From this research, it is possible to draw a series of detailed guidelines on small wind turbine blade design and analysis. The research also provides a platform for further comprehensive study using these two approaches. The wake induction corrections and stall corrections of the BEM method were examined through a case study of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine. A hybrid stall correction model was proposed to analyse wind turbine power performance. The proposed model shows improvement in power prediction for the validation case, compared with the existing stall correction models. The effects of the key rotor parameters of a small wind turbine as well as the blade chord and twist angle distributions on power performance were investigated through two typical wind turbines, i.e. a fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine and a fixed-pitch fixed-speed (FPFS) wind turbine. An engineering blade design and analysis code was developed in MATLAB to accommodate aerodynamic design and analysis of the blades.. The linearisation for radial profiles of blade chord and twist angle for the FPFS wind turbine blade design was discussed. Results show that, the proposed linearisation approach leads to reduced manufacturing cost and higher annual energy production (AEP), with minimal effects on the low wind speed performance. Comparative studies of mesh and turbulence models in 2D and 3D CFD modelling were conducted. The CFD predicted lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil S809 were compared with wind tunnel test data and the 3D CFD modelling method of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine were validated against measurements. Airfoil aerodynamic characterisation and wind turbine power performance as well as 3D flow details were studied. The detailed flow
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong
2013-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartshorn, Fletcher
2011-01-01
Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.
Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
2014-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
2014-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
Analysis of rotor wake aerodynamics during maneuvering flight using a free-vortex wake methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ananthan, Shreyas
The problem of helicopter rotor wake aerodynamics during maneuvering flight conditions was analyzed using a time-accurate, free-vortex wake methodology. The free-vortex method consists of a Lagrangian representation of the rotor flow field using vortex elements, where the evolution of the flow field is simulated by tracking the free motion of these vortex elements and calculating their induced velocity field. Traditionally, free-vortex methods are inviscid, incompressible models, but in the present approach the viscous effects are incorporated using a viscous splitting method where the viscous and inviscid terms are modeled as successive sub-processes. The rotor aerodynamics and rigid blade flapping dynamics are closely coupled with the wake model and solved for in a consistent manner using the same numerical scheme. Validations of the methodology with experimental data were performed to study the wake response to perturbations in collective and cyclic pitch inputs. The numerical simulations captured all the essential wake dynamics observed in flow visualization. The predictions of the transient inflow and airloads response were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental measurements. It was observed that the rotor wake was extremely sensitive to perturbations in collective and cyclic blade pitch inputs. The characteristic wake response was found to be the bundling of the wake vorticity into a vortex ring structure. The evolution, convection and subsequent breakdown of this bundled ring of tip-vortices was found to be highly nonlinear, and occurs with a temporal lag. The nonlinear induced velocity field associated with unsteady wake evolution can cause considerable fluctuations in the rotor airloads time-history if the bundled tip-vortex structure comes into close proximity to the rotor blades. Furthermore, the interaction of these tip-vortices with the blades results in steep gradients in the rotor airloads across the rotor disk, thereby
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Le; Liu, Qinhuo
2012-10-01
The aerodynamic surface roughness z0 is a key parameter for climate and land-surface models to study surfaceatmosphere exchanges of mass and energy. The roughness length is difficult to estimate without wind speed profile data, which is intractable at regional to global scale. Theoretical formulations of roughness have been developed in terms of canopy attributes such as frontal area, height, and drag coefficient. This paper discusses the potential of radar altimetry, which provides the backscatter coefficient of the land surface at nadir view, to characterise the surface roughness at km scale. The AIEM model and ProSARproSIM are employed to simulate the backscatter coefficient under different surface condition and different observation geometry at bare soil and at pine forest, respectively. The altimetry backscatter decreases with increase of geometric roughness. The microwave backscatter measured at the nadir view is more sensitive to the surface roughness than that at the oblique observation, especially for the smooth surface. The direct forest return is the dominated scattering mechanism for normal incidence at forest area. Since we failed to collect the z0 measurement at arid and semi-arid area with sparse vegetation, the backscatter measurements at Ku and C band of altimeter Jason1 were analyzed with the ground measured aerodynamic surface roughness at three vegetated sites (Da yekou, Yin ke, and Chang Baisan) of China. The relationships we found between Jason1 sigma0 and z0 is not significant, since Jason1 lost track seriously at the three sites. Further research using the altimeter data of Jason2 and Cryosat is possible to demonstrate the potential to map z0 from orbit using radar altimeters.
Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Shell
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1999-04-20
SUNS (Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Shell) is a 32-bit application that runs under Windows 95/98 and Windows NT. It is designed to aid in statistical analyses for a broad range of applications. The class of problems for which SUNS is suitable is generally defined by two requirements: 1. A computer code is developed or acquired that models some processes for which input is uncertain and the user is interested in statistical analysis of the outputmore » of that code. 2. The statistical analysis of interest can be accomplished using the Monte Carlo analysis. The implementation then requires that the user identify which input to the process model is to be manipulated for statistical analysis. With this information, the changes required to loosely couple SUNS with the process model can be completed. SUNS is then used to generate the required statistical sample and the user-supplied process model analyses the sample. The SUNS post processor displays statistical results from any existing file that contains sampled input and output values.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.
1974-01-01
Concepts from the theory of functionals are used to develop nonlinear formulations of the aerodynamic force and moment systems acting on bodies in large-amplitude, arbitrary motions. The analysis, which proceeds formally once the functional dependence of the aerodynamic reactions upon the motion variables is established, ensures the inclusion, within the resulting formulation, of pertinent aerodynamic terms that normally are excluded in the classical treatment. Applied to the large-amplitude, slowly varying, nonplanar motion of a body, the formulation suggests that the aerodynamic moment can be compounded of the moments acting on the body in four basic motions: steady angle of attack, pitch oscillations, either roll or yaw oscillations, and coning motion. Coning, where the nose of the body describes a circle around the velocity vector, characterizes the nonplanar nature of the general motion.
Sensitivity Analysis of Chaotic Flow around Two-Dimensional Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Wang, Qiqi; Nielsen, Eric; Diskin, Boris
2015-11-01
Computational methods for sensitivity analysis are invaluable tools for fluid dynamics research and engineering design. These methods are used in many applications, including aerodynamic shape optimization and adaptive grid refinement. However, traditional sensitivity analysis methods, including the adjoint method, break down when applied to long-time averaged quantities in chaotic fluid flow fields, such as high-fidelity turbulence simulations. This break down is due to the ``Butterfly Effect'' the high sensitivity of chaotic dynamical systems to the initial condition. A new sensitivity analysis method developed by the authors, Least Squares Shadowing (LSS), can compute useful and accurate gradients for quantities of interest in chaotic dynamical systems. LSS computes gradients using the ``shadow trajectory'', a phase space trajectory (or solution) for which perturbations to the flow field do not grow exponentially in time. To efficiently compute many gradients for one objective function, we use an adjoint version of LSS. This talk will briefly outline Least Squares Shadowing and demonstrate it on chaotic flow around a Two-Dimensional airfoil.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.
1978-01-01
The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Jack N.
1988-01-01
The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.
Analysis and compilation of missile aerodynamic data. Volume 1: Data presentation and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nichols, J. O.
1977-01-01
Most of the aerodynamic configurations considered are suitable for highly maneuverable air-to-air or surface-to-air missiles; however, data for a few air-to-surface, cruise missiles, and one projectile configuration are also presented. The Mach number range of the data is from about 0.2 to 4.63; however, data for most configurations cover only a portion of this range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1976-01-01
A quasi-steady analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the lateral (antisymmetric) modes of the 747/orbiter vehicle was accomplished. The interference effect of the orbiter wake on the 747 tail furnishes an aerodynamic undamping contribution to the elastic modes. Likewise, the upstream influence of the 747 tail and aft fuselage on the orbiter beaver-tail rail fairing also is undamping. Fortunately these undamping effects cannot overpower the large damping contribution of the 747 tail and the modes are damped for the configurations analyzed. However, significant interference effects of the orbiter on the 747 tail have been observed in the pitch plane. The high response of the 747 vertical tail in the orbiter wave was also considered. Wind tunnel data points to flapping of the OMS pod wakes as the source of the wake resonance phenomenon.
Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle: Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Analysis of Trajectory Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trumble, Kerry; Dyakonov, Artem; Fuller, John
2010-01-01
Multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is designed to deliver small payloads from space to Earth's surface by flying an uncontrolled ballistic entry, which ends with ground impact. The included range of entry velocities is from 10 to 16 km/s. The range of ballistic coefficients is from 41.94 to 128.74 kg/m2, which insures a low subsonic terminal velocity on the order of 50 m/sec. The range of entry flight path angles, considered in this analysis is from -5 to -25 degrees. The assessment and parametric characterization of aeroheating and aerodynamic performance of the capsule during entry is the subject of this paper.
Aerodynamic and heat transfer analysis of the low aspect ratio turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, O. P.; Nguyen, P.; Ni, R. H.; Rhie, C. M.; White, J. A.
1987-06-01
The available two- and three-dimensional codes are used to estimate external heat loads and aerodynamic characteristics of a highly loaded turbine stage in order to demonstrate state-of-the-art methodologies in turbine design. By using data for a low aspect ratio turbine, it is found that a three-dimensional multistage Euler code gives good averall predictions for the turbine stage, yielding good estimates of the stage pressure ratio, mass flow, and exit gas angles. The nozzle vane loading distribution is well predicted by both the three-dimensional multistage Euler and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes. The vane airfoil surface Stanton number distributions, however, are underpredicted by both two- and three-dimensional boundary value analysis.
Shock Structure Analysis and Aerodynamics in a Weakly Ionized Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saeks, R.; Popovic, S.; Chow, A. S.
2006-01-01
The structure of a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is analyzed using an electrofluid dynamics model composed of classical conservation laws and Gauss Law. A viscosity model is included to correctly model the spatial scale of the shock structure, and quasi-neutrality is not assumed. A detailed analysis of the structure of a shock wave propagating in a weakly ionized gas is presented, together with a discussion of the physics underlying the key features of the shock structure. A model for the flow behind a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is developed and used to analyze the effect of the ionization on the aerodynamics and performance of a two-dimensional hypersonic lifting body.
Development of a linear unsteady aerodynamic analysis for finite-deflection subsonic cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.
1981-01-01
A linear unsteady potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of blade geometry and steady turning, is being developed to predict the aerodynamic response to blade vibrations in the fan, compressor or turbine stages of modern jet engines. In previous work numerical solutions were restricted to cascades of sharp-edged blades aligned with the mean flow. Under the present effort the solution procedure has been extended to treat blades with rounded or blunt edges. As part of this effort an analytical model-problem study has been conducted to clarify the behavior of first-order perturbation solutions in the vicinity of airfoil edges. Further, a numerical approximation using concepts from singular perturbation theory has been developed to resolve the unsteady boundary value problem for cascades of blunt leading-edged blades. Numerical results for NACA 0012 cascades, including detailed results in the vicinity of a blade leading edge, are presented and evaluated.
Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.
2013-12-01
This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.
Development of an unsteady aerodynamic analysis for finite-deflection subsonic cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.
1981-01-01
An unsteady potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of blade geometry and steady turning, was developed to predict aerodynamic forces and moments associated with free vibration or flutter phenomena in the fan, compressor, or turbine stages of modern jet engines. Based on the assumption of small amplitude blade motions, the unsteady flow is governed by linear equations with variable coefficients which depend on the underlying steady low. These equations were approximated using difference expressions determined from an implicit least squares development and applicable on arbitrary grids. The resulting linear system of algebraic equations is block tridiagonal, which permits an efficient, direct (i.e., noniterative) solution. The solution procedure was extended to treat blades with rounded or blunt edges at incidence relative to the inlet flow.
Using Dynamic Sensitivity Analysis to Assess Testability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voas, Jeffrey; Morell, Larry; Miller, Keith
1990-01-01
This paper discusses sensitivity analysis and its relationship to random black box testing. Sensitivity analysis estimates the impact that a programming fault at a particular location would have on the program's input/output behavior. Locations that are relatively \\"insensitive" to faults can render random black box testing unlikely to uncover programming faults. Therefore, sensitivity analysis gives new insight when interpreting random black box testing results. Although sensitivity analysis is computationally intensive, it requires no oracle and no human intervention.
Aerodynamic analysis of natural flapping flight using a lift model based on spanwise flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alford, Lionel D., Jr.
This study successfully described the mechanics of flapping hovering flight within the framework of conventional aerodynamics. Additionally, the theory proposed and supported by this research provides an entirely new way of looking at animal flapping flight. The mechanisms of biological flight are not well understood, and researchers have not been able to describe them using conventional aerodynamic forces. This study proposed that natural flapping flight can be broken down into a simplest model, that this model can then be used to develop a mathematical representation of flapping hovering flight, and finally, that the model can be successfully refined and compared to biological flapping data. This paper proposed a unique theory that the lift of a flapping animal is primarily the result of velocity across the cambered span of the wing. A force analysis was developed using centripetal acceleration to define an acceleration profile that would lead to a spanwise velocity profile. The force produced by the spanwise velocity profile was determined using a computational fluid dynamics analysis of flow on the simplified wing model. The overall forces on the model were found to produce more than twice the lift required for hovering flight. In addition, spanwise lift was shown to generate induced drag on the wing. Induced drag increased both the model wing's lift and drag. The model allowed the development of a mathematical representation that could be refined to account for insect hovering characteristics and that could predict expected physical attributes of the fluid flow. This computational representation resulted in a profile of lift and drag production that corresponds to known force profiles for insect flight. The model of flapping flight was shown to produce results similar to biological observation and experiment, and these results can potentially be applied to the study of other flapping animals. This work provides a foundation on which to base further exploration
Stiff DAE integrator with sensitivity analysis capabilities
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2007-11-26
IDAS is a general purpose (serial and parallel) solver for differential equation (ODE) systems with senstivity analysis capabilities. It provides both forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis options.
Point Source Location Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, J. Allen
1986-11-01
This paper presents the results of an analysis of point source location accuracy and sensitivity as a function of focal plane geometry, optical blur spot, and location algorithm. Five specific blur spots are treated: gaussian, diffraction-limited circular aperture with and without central obscuration (obscured and clear bessinc, respectively), diffraction-limited rectangular aperture, and a pill box distribution. For each blur spot, location accuracies are calculated for square, rectangular, and hexagonal detector shapes of equal area. The rectangular detectors are arranged on a hexagonal lattice. The two location algorithms consist of standard and generalized centroid techniques. Hexagonal detector arrays are shown to give the best performance under a wide range of conditions.
Aeroacoustic sensitivity analysis and optimal aeroacoustic design of turbomachinery blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Kenneth C.
1994-01-01
During the first year of the project, we have developed a theoretical analysis - and wrote a computer code based on this analysis - to compute the sensitivity of unsteady aerodynamic loads acting on airfoils in cascades due to small changes in airfoil geometry. The steady and unsteady flow though a cascade of airfoils is computed using the full potential equation. Once the nominal solutions have been computed, one computes the sensitivity. The analysis takes advantage of the fact that LU decomposition is used to compute the nominal steady and unsteady flow fields. If the LU factors are saved, then the computer time required to compute the sensitivity of both the steady and unsteady flows to changes in airfoil geometry is quite small. The results to date are quite encouraging, and may be summarized as follows: (1) The sensitivity procedure has been validated by comparing the results obtained by 'finite difference' techniques, that is, computing the flow using the nominal flow solver for two slightly different airfoils and differencing the results. The 'analytic' solution computed using the method developed under this grant and the finite difference results are found to be in almost perfect agreement. (2) The present sensitivity analysis is computationally much more efficient than finite difference techniques. We found that using a 129 by 33 node computational grid, the present sensitivity analysis can compute the steady flow sensitivity about ten times more efficiently that the finite difference approach. For the unsteady flow problem, the present sensitivity analysis is about two and one-half times as fast as the finite difference approach. We expect that the relative efficiencies will be even larger for the finer grids which will be used to compute high frequency aeroacoustic solutions. Computational results show that the sensitivity analysis is valid for small to moderate sized design perturbations. (3) We found that the sensitivity analysis provided important
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1997-01-01
The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.
Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.
1988-01-01
This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Flexible Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle Using Quasi-Steady Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijayakumar, Kolandapaiyan; Chandrasekhar, Uttam; Chandrashekhar, Nagaraj
2016-04-01
In recent times flexible flapping-wing aerodynamics has generated a great deal of interest and is the topic of contemporary research because of its potential application in micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). The prominent features of MAVs include low Reynolds Number, changing the camber of flapping wings, development of related mechanisms, study of the suitability airfoil shape selection and other parameters. Generally, low Reynolds Number is similar to that of an insect or a bird (103-105). The primary goal of this project work is to perform CFD analysis on flexible flapping wing MAVs in order to estimate the lift and drag by using engineering methods such as quasi-steady approach. From the wind tunnel data, 3-D deformation is obtained. For CFD analysis, two types of quasi-steady methods are considered. The first method is to slice the wing section chord-wise and span wise at multiple regions, frame by frame, and obtain the 2-D corrugated camber section for each frame. This 2-D corrugated camber is analysed using CFD techniques and all the individual 2-D corrugated camber results are summed up frame by frame, to obtain the total lift and drag for one wing beat. The second method is to consider the 3D wing in entirety and perform the CFD analysis to obtain the lift and drag for five wing beat.
An analysis of aerodynamic requirements for coordinated bank-to-turn autopilots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arrow, A.
1982-01-01
Two planar missile airframes were compared having the potential for improved bank-to-turn control but having different aerodynamic properties. The comparison was made with advanced level autopilots using both linear and nonlinear 3-D aerodynamic models to obtain realistic missile body angular rates and control surface incidence. Cortical cross-coupling effects are identified and desirable aerodynamics are recommended for improved coordinated (BTT) (CBTT) performance. In addition, recommendations are made for autopilot control law analyses and design techniques for improving CBTT performance.
3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romander, Ethan
2006-01-01
The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibrahim, A. H.; Tiwari, S. N.; Smith, R. E.
1997-01-01
Variational methods (VM) sensitivity analysis employed to derive the costate (adjoint) equations, the transversality conditions, and the functional sensitivity derivatives. In the derivation of the sensitivity equations, the variational methods use the generalized calculus of variations, in which the variable boundary is considered as the design function. The converged solution of the state equations together with the converged solution of the costate equations are integrated along the domain boundary to uniquely determine the functional sensitivity derivatives with respect to the design function. The application of the variational methods to aerodynamic shape optimization problems is demonstrated for internal flow problems at supersonic Mach number range. The study shows, that while maintaining the accuracy of the functional sensitivity derivatives within the reasonable range for engineering prediction purposes, the variational methods show a substantial gain in computational efficiency, i.e., computer time and memory, when compared with the finite difference sensitivity analysis.
Not Available
1993-01-01
In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.
Analysis of holographic interferograms of aerodynamic models in a wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, R. L.
1985-01-01
Holographic interferometry provides a non-invasive technique for estimating variations in the air density distribution around aerodynamic models in wind tunnels. The testing of this technique has been underway for some time and has been reported previously for a two dimensional aerodynamic model. Results obtained from tests using three dimensional aerodynamic models are summarized. Holograms were made of aerodynamic models in a wind tunnel. Interferograms were made from these holograms. The interference fringes in these holographic interferograms were digitized and this information was entered into the HOLOFT program. The HOLOFT program successfully calculated the known stagnation air density at the nose of a model and the known air density distribution across the cross section passing through the stagnation point for the axisymmetrical case of this model at a Mach number of 0.8. Thus the technique of holographic interferometry does work.The HOLOFT program stands for HOLOgraphic Inversion by 2-D Fourier Transform.
A review of sensitivity analysis techniques
Hamby, D.M.
1993-12-31
Mathematical models are utilized to approximate various highly complex engineering, physical, environmental, social, and economic phenomena. Model parameters exerting the most influence on model results are identified through a {open_quotes}sensitivity analysis.{close_quotes} A comprehensive review is presented of more than a dozen sensitivity analysis methods. The most fundamental of sensitivity techniques utilizes partial differentiation whereas the simplest approach requires varying parameter values one-at-a-time. Correlation analysis is used to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables. Regression analysis provides the most comprehensive sensitivity measure and is commonly utilized to build response surfaces that approximate complex models.
Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.
1979-01-01
The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.
Aerodynamic analysis for aircraft with nacelles, pylons, and winglets at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boppe, Charles W.
1987-01-01
A computational method has been developed to provide an analysis for complex realistic aircraft configurations at transonic speeds. Wing-fuselage configurations with various combinations of pods, pylons, nacelles, and winglets can be analyzed along with simpler shapes such as airfoils, isolated wings, and isolated bodies. The flexibility required for the treatment of such diverse geometries is obtained by using a multiple nested grid approach in the finite-difference relaxation scheme. Aircraft components (and their grid systems) can be added or removed as required. As a result, the computational method can be used in the same manner as a wind tunnel to study high-speed aerodynamic interference effects. The multiple grid approach also provides high boundary point density/cost ratio. High resolution pressure distributions can be obtained. Computed results are correlated with wind tunnel and flight data using four different transport configurations. Experimental/computational component interference effects are included for cases where data are available. The computer code used for these comparisons is described in the appendices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1990-01-01
Improved algorithms for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements have been developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach which is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves an implicit time-integration shceme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. For example, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady and unsteady flow results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The unsteady results were obtained for the airfoil pitching harmonically about the quarter chord. The resulting instantaneous pressure distributions and lift and moment coefficients during a cycle of motion compare well with experimental data. The paper presents a description of the Euler solvers along with results and comparisons which assess the capability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1990-01-01
Improved algorithm for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements were developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach which is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. For example, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady and unsteady flow results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The unsteady results were obtained for the airfoil pitching harmonically about the quarter chord. The resulting instantaneous pressure distributions and lift and moment coefficients during a cycle of motion compare well with experimental data. A description of the Euler solvers is presented along with results and comparisons which assess the capability.
Analysis of VAWT aerodynamics and design using the Actuator Cylinder flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madsen, H. Aa; Paulsen, U. S.; Vitae, L.
2014-12-01
The actuator cylinder (AC) flow model is defined as the ideal VAWT rotor. Radial directed volume forces are applied on the circular path of the VAWT rotor airfoil and constitute an energy conversion in the flow. The power coefficient for the ideal as well as the real energy conversion is defined. The describing equations for the two-dimensional AC model are presented and a solution method splitting the final solution in a linear and non-linear part is briefly described. A family of loadforms approaching the uniform loading is used to study the ideal energy conversion indicating that the maximum power coefficient for the ideal energy conversion of a VAWT could exceed the Betz limit. The real energy conversion of the 5MW DeepWind rotor is simulated with the AC flow model in combination with the blade element analysis. Aerodynamic design aspects are discussed on this basis revealing that the maximum obtainable power coefficient for a fixed pitch VAWT is constrained by the fundamental cyclic variation of inflow angle and relative velocity leading to a loading that deviates considerably from the uniform loading.
Design sensitivity analysis of nonlinear structural response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cardoso, J. B.; Arora, J. S.
1987-01-01
A unified theory is described of design sensitivity analysis of linear and nonlinear structures for shape, nonshape and material selection problems. The concepts of reference volume and adjoint structure are used to develop the unified viewpoint. A general formula for design sensitivity analysis is derived. Simple analytical linear and nonlinear examples are used to interpret various terms of the formula and demonstrate its use.
Aerodynamic analysis of the aerospaceplane HyPlane in supersonic rarefied flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuppardi, Gennaro; Savino, Raffaele; Russo, Gennaro; Spano'Cuomo, Luca; Petrosino, Eliano
2016-06-01
HyPlane is the Italian aerospaceplane proposal targeting, at the same time, both the space tourism and point-to-point intercontinental hypersonic flights. Unlike other aerospaceplane projects, relying on boosters or mother airplanes that bring the vehicle to high altitude, HyPlane will take off and land horizontally from common runways. According to the current project, HyPlane will fly sub-orbital trajectories under high-supersonic/low-hypersonic continuum flow regimes. It can go beyond the von Karman line at 100 km altitude for a short time, then starting the descending leg of the trajectory. Its aerodynamic behavior up to 70 km have already been studied and the results published in previous works. In the present paper some aspects of the aerodynamic behavior of HyPlane have been analyzed at 80, 90 and 100 km. Computer tests, calculating the aerodynamic parameters, have been carried out by a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The effects of the Knudsen, Mach and Reynolds numbers have been evaluated in clean configuration. The effects of the aerodynamic surfaces on the rolling, pitching and yawing moments, and therefore on the capability to control attitude, have been analyzed at 100 km altitude. The aerodynamic behavior has been compared also with that of another aerospaceplane at 100 km both in clean and flapped configuration.
Modeling of Aerodynamic Force Acting in Tunnel for Analysis of Riding Comfort in a Train
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikko, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Katsuya; Sakanoue, Kei; Nanba, Kouichiro
In this paper, we aimed to model the aerodynamic force that acts on a train running at high speed in a tunnel. An analytical model of the aerodynamic force is developed from pressure data measured on car-body sides of a test train running at the maximum revenue operation speed. The simulation of an 8-car train running while being subjected to the modeled aerodynamic force gives the following results. The simulated car-body vibration corresponds to the actual vibration both qualitatively and quantitatively for the cars at the rear of the train. The separation of the airflow at the tail-end of the train increases the yawing vibration of the tail-end car while it has little effect on the car-body vibration of the adjoining car. Also, the effect of the moving velocity of the aerodynamic force on the car-body vibration is clarified that the simulation under the assumption of a stationary aerodynamic force can markedly increase the car-body vibration.
Least Squares Shadowing Sensitivity Analysis of Chaotic Flow Around a Two-Dimensional Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blonigan, Patrick J.; Wang, Qiqi; Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris
2016-01-01
Gradient-based sensitivity analysis has proven to be an enabling technology for many applications, including design of aerospace vehicles. However, conventional sensitivity analysis methods break down when applied to long-time averages of chaotic systems. This breakdown is a serious limitation because many aerospace applications involve physical phenomena that exhibit chaotic dynamics, most notably high-resolution large-eddy and direct numerical simulations of turbulent aerodynamic flows. A recently proposed methodology, Least Squares Shadowing (LSS), avoids this breakdown and advances the state of the art in sensitivity analysis for chaotic flows. The first application of LSS to a chaotic flow simulated with a large-scale computational fluid dynamics solver is presented. The LSS sensitivity computed for this chaotic flow is verified and shown to be accurate, but the computational cost of the current LSS implementation is high.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemsch, Michael J. (Editor); Nielsen, Jack N. (Editor)
1986-01-01
The present conference on tactical missile aerodynamics discusses autopilot-related aerodynamic design considerations, flow visualization methods' role in the study of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, low aspect ratio wing behavior at high angle-of-attack, supersonic airbreathing propulsion system inlet design, missile bodies with noncircular cross section and bank-to-turn maneuvering capabilities, 'waverider' supersonic cruise missile concepts and design methods, asymmetric vortex sheding phenomena from bodies-of-revolution, and swept shock wave/boundary layer interaction phenomena. Also discussed are the assessment of aerodynamic drag in tactical missiles, the analysis of supersonic missile aerodynamic heating, the 'equivalent angle-of-attack' concept for engineering analysis, the vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking, paneling methods with vorticity effects and corrections for nonlinear compressibility, the application of supersonic full potential method to missile bodies, Euler space marching methods for missiles, three-dimensional missile boundary layers, and an analysis of exhaust plumes and their interaction with missile airframes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, YuGuang; Yang, Kai; Sun, DongKe; Zhang, YuGuang; Kennedy, David; Williams, Fred; Gao, XiaoWei
2013-02-01
This paper focuses on numerical simulations of bluff body aerodynamics with three-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modeling, where a computational scheme for fluid-structure interactions is implemented. The choice of an appropriate turbulence model for the computational modeling of bluff body aerodynamics using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD numerical simulations is also considered. An efficient mesh control method which employs the mesh deformation technique is proposed to achieve better simulation results. Several long-span deck sections are chosen as examples which were stationary and pitching at a high Reynolds number. With the proposed CFD method and turbulence models, the force coefficients and flutter derivatives thus obtained are compared with the experimental measurement results and computed values completely from commercial software. Finally, a discussion on the effects of oscillation amplitude on the flutter instability of a bluff body is carried out with extended numerical simulations. These numerical analysis results demonstrate that the proposed three-dimensional CFD method, with proper turbulence modeling, has good accuracy and significant benefits for aerodynamic analysis and computational FSI studies of bluff bodies.
Aerodynamic Design and Computational Analysis of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, Daniel L.
2010-01-01
Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue in a cost-effective way, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended. Toward that end, NASA has begun to investigate the potential for small-fan noise reduction through improvements in fan aerodynamic design. Using tools and methodologies similar to those employed by the aircraft engine industry, most notably computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the aerodynamic design of a new cabin ventilation fan has been developed, and its aerodynamic performance has been predicted and analyzed. The design, intended to serve as a baseline for future work, is discussed along with selected CFD results
Recent developments in structural sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, Raphael T.; Adelman, Howard M.
1988-01-01
Recent developments are reviewed in two major areas of structural sensitivity analysis: sensitivity of static and transient response; and sensitivity of vibration and buckling eigenproblems. Recent developments from the standpoint of computational cost, accuracy, and ease of implementation are presented. In the area of static response, current interest is focused on sensitivity to shape variation and sensitivity of nonlinear response. Two general approaches are used for computing sensitivities: differentiation of the continuum equations followed by discretization, and the reverse approach of discretization followed by differentiation. It is shown that the choice of methods has important accuracy and implementation implications. In the area of eigenproblem sensitivity, there is a great deal of interest and significant progress in sensitivity of problems with repeated eigenvalues. In addition to reviewing recent contributions in this area, the paper raises the issue of differentiability and continuity associated with the occurrence of repeated eigenvalues.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Iannelli, G. S.; Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.
1993-01-01
This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.
Analysis and Improvement of Aerodynamic Performance of Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi-Baloutaki, Mojtaba
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) with straight blades are attractive for their relatively simple structure and aerodynamic performance. Their commercialization, however, still encounters many challenges. A series of studies were conducted in the current research to improve the VAWTs design and enhance their aerodynamic performance. First, an efficient design methodology built on an existing analytical approach is presented to formulate the design parameters influencing a straight bladed-VAWT (SB-VAWT) aerodynamic performance and determine the optimal range of these parameters for prototype construction. This work was followed by a series of studies to collectively investigate the role of external turbulence on the SB-VAWTs operation. The external free-stream turbulence is known as one of the most important factors influencing VAWTs since this type of turbines is mainly considered for urban applications where the wind turbulence is of great significance. Initially, two sets of wind tunnel testing were conducted to study the variation of aerodynamic performance of a SB-VAWT's blade under turbulent flows, in two major stationary configurations, namely two- and three-dimensional flows. Turbulent flows generated in the wind tunnel were quasi-isotropic having uniform mean flow profiles, free of any wind shear effects. Aerodynamic force measurements demonstrated that the free-stream turbulence improves the blade aerodynamic performance in stall and post-stall regions by delaying the stall and increasing the lift-to-drag ratio. After these studies, a SB-VAWT model was tested in the wind tunnel under the same type of turbulent flows. The turbine power output was substantially increased in the presence of the grid turbulence at the same wind speeds, while the increase in turbine power coefficient due to the effect of grid turbulence was small at the same tip speed ratios. The final section presents an experimental study on the aerodynamic interaction of VAWTs in arrays
An arbitrary grid CFD algorithm for configuration aerodynamics analysis. Volume 2: FEMNAS user guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.; Baker, A. J.
1992-01-01
This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mennell, R. C.
1973-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.0405 scale representation of the Rockwell -89A Light Weight Space Shuttle Orbiter. The test purpose was to obtain pressure loads data in the presence of the ground for orbiter structural strength analysis. Aerodynamic force data was also recorded to allow correlation with all pressure loads information. Angles of attack from minus 3 deg to 18 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg, plus or minus 50 deg, and plus or minus 10 deg were tested in the presence of the NAAL ground plane. Static pressure bugs were used to obtain a pressure loads survey of the basic configuration, elevon deflections of 5 deg, 10 deg, 15 deg, and minus 20 deg and a rudder deflection of minus 15 deg, at a tunnel dynamic pressure of 40 psi. The test procedure was to locate a maximum of 30 static pressure bugs on the model surface at various locations calculated to prevent aerodynamic and physical interference. Then by various combinations of location the pressure bugs output was to define a complete pressure survey for the fuselages, wing, vertical tail, and main landing gear door.
Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff
2014-05-01
Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .
Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification
Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau
2008-09-01
This report presents the forward sensitivity analysis method as a means for quantification of uncertainty in system analysis. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a “black box” approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. This approach requires large number of simulation runs and therefore has high computational cost. Contrary to the “black box” method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In this approach equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivity is solved for as variables in the same simulation. This “glass box” method can generate similar sensitivity information as the above “black box” approach with couples of runs to cover a large uncertainty region. Because only small numbers of runs are required, those runs can be done with a high accuracy in space and time ensuring that the uncertainty of the physical model is being measured and not simply the numerical error caused by the coarse discretization. In the forward sensitivity method, the model is differentiated with respect to each parameter to yield an additional system of the same size as the original one, the result of which is the solution sensitivity. The sensitivity of any output variable can then be directly obtained from these sensitivities by applying the chain rule of differentiation. We extend the forward sensitivity method to include time and spatial steps as special parameters so that the numerical errors can be quantified against other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty analysis. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other
Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…
Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification
Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau
2013-01-01
This paper presents the extended forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty qualification. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other interested physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time and space steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time and space steps forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step and grid convergence study with much less computational cost. Two well-defined benchmark problems with manufactured solutions are utilized to demonstrate the method.
Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification
Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau
2011-09-01
Verification and validation (V&V) are playing more important roles to quantify uncertainties and realize high fidelity simulations in engineering system analyses, such as transients happened in a complex nuclear reactor system. Traditional V&V in the reactor system analysis focused more on the validation part or did not differentiate verification and validation. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a 'black box' approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. The 'black box' method mixes numerical errors with all other uncertainties. It is also not efficient to perform sensitivity analysis. Contrary to the 'black box' method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In these types of approaches equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivities are directly solved for as variables in the simulation. This paper presents the forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty qualification. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other interested physical parameters, the simulation is allowed
Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis
2005-01-01
On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.
Applied computational aerodynamics
Henne, P.A.
1990-01-01
The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.
1984-01-01
A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.
System Dynamic Analysis of a Wind Tunnel Model with Applications to Improve Aerodynamic Data Quality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehrle, Ralph David
1997-01-01
The research investigates the effect of wind tunnel model system dynamics on measured aerodynamic data. During wind tunnel tests designed to obtain lift and drag data, the required aerodynamic measurements are the steady-state balance forces and moments, pressures, and model attitude. However, the wind tunnel model system can be subjected to unsteady aerodynamic and inertial loads which result in oscillatory translations and angular rotations. The steady-state force balance and inertial model attitude measurements are obtained by filtering and averaging data taken during conditions of high model vibrations. The main goals of this research are to characterize the effects of model system dynamics on the measured steady-state aerodynamic data and develop a correction technique to compensate for dynamically induced errors. Equations of motion are formulated for the dynamic response of the model system subjected to arbitrary aerodynamic and inertial inputs. The resulting modal model is examined to study the effects of the model system dynamic response on the aerodynamic data. In particular, the equations of motion are used to describe the effect of dynamics on the inertial model attitude, or angle of attack, measurement system that is used routinely at the NASA Langley Research Center and other wind tunnel facilities throughout the world. This activity was prompted by the inertial model attitude sensor response observed during high levels of model vibration while testing in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The inertial attitude sensor cannot distinguish between the gravitational acceleration and centrifugal accelerations associated with wind tunnel model system vibration, which results in a model attitude measurement bias error. Bias errors over an order of magnitude greater than the required device accuracy were found in the inertial model attitude measurements during dynamic testing of two model systems. Based on a theoretical modal
Sensitivity analysis for solar plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aster, R. W.
1986-01-01
Economic evaluation methods and analyses of emerging photovoltaic (PV) technology since 1976 was prepared. This type of analysis was applied to the silicon research portion of the PV Program in order to determine the importance of this research effort in relationship to the successful development of commercial PV systems. All four generic types of PV that use silicon were addressed: crystal ingots grown either by the Czochralski method or an ingot casting method; ribbons pulled directly from molten silicon; an amorphous silicon thin film; and use of high concentration lenses. Three technologies were analyzed: the Union Carbide fluidized bed reactor process, the Hemlock process, and the Union Carbide Komatsu process. The major components of each process were assessed in terms of the costs of capital equipment, labor, materials, and utilities. These assessments were encoded as the probabilities assigned by experts for achieving various cost values or production rates.
Sensitivity analysis for solar plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aster, R. W.
1986-02-01
Economic evaluation methods and analyses of emerging photovoltaic (PV) technology since 1976 was prepared. This type of analysis was applied to the silicon research portion of the PV Program in order to determine the importance of this research effort in relationship to the successful development of commercial PV systems. All four generic types of PV that use silicon were addressed: crystal ingots grown either by the Czochralski method or an ingot casting method; ribbons pulled directly from molten silicon; an amorphous silicon thin film; and use of high concentration lenses. Three technologies were analyzed: the Union Carbide fluidized bed reactor process, the Hemlock process, and the Union Carbide Komatsu process. The major components of each process were assessed in terms of the costs of capital equipment, labor, materials, and utilities. These assessments were encoded as the probabilities assigned by experts for achieving various cost values or production rates.
Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.
Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.
2006-08-01
The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.
Development of unstructured grid methods for steady and unsteady aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1990-01-01
The current status of the development of unstructured grid methods in the Unsteady Aerodynamics Branch at NASA-Langley is described. These methods are being developed for steady and unsteady aerodynamic applications. The flow solvers that were developed for the solution of the unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are highlighted and selected results are given which demonstrate various features of the capability. The results demonstrate 2-D and 3-D applications for both steady and unsteady flows. Comparisons are also made with solutions obtained using a structured grid code and with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the unstructured grid methodology. These comparisons show good agreement which thus verifies the accuracy.
Development of unstructured grid methods for steady and unsteady aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1990-01-01
The current status of the development of unstructured grid methods in the Unsteady Aerodynamic Branch at NASA-Langley is described. These methods are being developed for steady and unsteady aerodynamic applications. The flow solvers that were developed for the solution of the unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are highlighted and selected results are given which demonstrate various features of the capability. The results demonstrate 2-D and 3-D applications for both steady and unsteady flows. Comparisons are also made with solutions obtained using a structured grid code and with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the unstructured grid methodology. These comparisons show good agreement which thus verifies the accuracy.
Thermal Analysis and Design of Multi-layer Insulation for Re-entry Aerodynamic Heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daryabeigi, Kamran
2001-01-01
The combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in high-temperature multi-layer insulations was modeled using a finite volume numerical model. The numerical model was validated by comparison with steady-state effective thermal conductivity measurements, and by transient thermal tests simulating re-entry aerodynamic heating conditions. A design of experiments technique was used to investigate optimum design of multi-layer insulations for re-entry aerodynamic heating. It was found that use of 2 mm foil spacing and locating the foils near the hot boundary with the top foil 2 mm away from the hot boundary resulted in the most effective insulation design. A 76.2 mm thick multi-layer insulation using 1, 4, or 16 foils resulted in 2.9, 7.2, or 22.2 percent mass per unit area savings compared to a fibrous insulation sample at the same thickness, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorp, Scott A.
1992-01-01
This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.
2006-12-01
Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.
An Efficient Multiblock Method for Aerodynamic Analysis and Design on Distributed Memory Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Vassberg, John C.; Jameson, Antony; Martinelli, Luigi
1997-01-01
The work presented in this paper describes the application of a multiblock gridding strategy to the solution of aerodynamic design optimization problems involving complex configurations. The design process is parallelized using the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard such that it can be efficiently run on a variety of distributed memory systems ranging from traditional parallel computers to networks of workstations. Substantial improvements to the parallel performance of the baseline method are presented, with particular attention to their impact on the scalability of the program as a function of the mesh size. Drag minimization calculations at a fixed coefficient of lift are presented for a business jet configuration that includes the wing, body, pylon, aft-mounted nacelle, and vertical and horizontal tails. An aerodynamic design optimization is performed with both the Euler and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations governing the flow solution and the results are compared. These sample calculations establish the feasibility of efficient aerodynamic optimization of complete aircraft configurations using the RANS equations as the flow model. There still exists, however, the need for detailed studies of the importance of a true viscous adjoint method which holds the promise of tackling the minimization of not only the wave and induced components of drag, but also the viscous drag.
Wake analysis of aerodynamic components for the glide envelope of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula).
KleinHeerenbrink, Marco; Warfvinge, Kajsa; Hedenström, Anders
2016-05-15
Gliding flight is a relatively inexpensive mode of flight used by many larger bird species, where potential energy is used to cover the cost of aerodynamic drag. Birds have great flexibility in their flight configuration, allowing them to control their flight speed and glide angle. However, relatively little is known about how this flexibility affects aerodynamic drag. We measured the wake of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula) gliding in a wind tunnel, and computed the components of aerodynamic drag from the wake. We found that induced drag was mainly affected by wingspan, but also that the use of the tail has a negative influence on span efficiency. Contrary to previous work, we found no support for the separated primaries being used in controlling the induced drag. Profile drag was of similar magnitude to that reported in other studies, and our results suggest that profile drag is affected by variation in wing shape. For a folded tail, the body drag coefficient had a value of 0.2, rising to above 0.4 with the tail fully spread, which we conclude is due to tail profile drag. PMID:26994178
Experimental analysis of the aerodynamic performance of an innovative low pressure turbine rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Infantino, Daniele; Satta, Francesca; Simoni, Daniele; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro; Bertini, Francesco
2016-02-01
In the present work the aerodynamic performances of an innovative rotor blade row have been experimentally investigated. Measurements have been carried out in a large scale low speed single stage cold flow facility at a Reynolds number typical of aeroengine cruise, under nominal and off-design conditions. The time-mean blade aerodynamic loadings have been measured at three radial positions along the blade height through a pressure transducer installed inside the hollow shaft, by delivering the signal to the stationary frame with a slip ring. The time mean aerodynamic flow fields upstream and downstream of the rotor have been measured by means of a five-hole probe to investigate the losses associated with the rotor. The investigations in the single stage research turbine allow the reproduction of both wake-boundary layer interaction as well as vortex-vortex interaction. The detail of the present results clearly highlights the strong dissipative effects induced by the blade tip vortex and by the momentum defect as well as the turbulence production, which is generated during the migration of the stator wake in the rotor passage. Phase-locked hot-wire investigations have been also performed to analyze the time-varying flow during the wake passing period. In particular the interaction between stator and rotor structures has been investigated also under off-design conditions to further explain the mechanisms contributing to the loss generation for the different conditions.
Adjoint sensitivity analysis of an ultrawideband antenna
Stephanson, M B; White, D A
2011-07-28
The frequency domain finite element method using H(curl)-conforming finite elements is a robust technique for full-wave analysis of antennas. As computers become more powerful, it is becoming feasible to not only predict antenna performance, but also to compute sensitivity of antenna performance with respect to multiple parameters. This sensitivity information can then be used for optimization of the design or specification of manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we review the Adjoint Method for sensitivity calculation, and apply it to the problem of optimizing a Ultrawideband antenna.
Sensitivity Analysis in the Model Web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, R.; Cornford, D.; Boukouvalas, A.
2012-04-01
The Model Web, and in particular the Uncertainty enabled Model Web being developed in the UncertWeb project aims to allow model developers and model users to deploy and discover models exposed as services on the Web. In particular model users will be able to compose model and data resources to construct and evaluate complex workflows. When discovering such workflows and models on the Web it is likely that the users might not have prior experience of the model behaviour in detail. It would be particularly beneficial if users could undertake a sensitivity analysis of the models and workflows they have discovered and constructed to allow them to assess the sensitivity to their assumptions and parameters. This work presents a Web-based sensitivity analysis tool which provides computationally efficient sensitivity analysis methods for models exposed on the Web. In particular the tool is tailored to the UncertWeb profiles for both information models (NetCDF and Observations and Measurements) and service specifications (WPS and SOAP/WSDL). The tool employs emulation technology where this is found to be possible, constructing statistical surrogate models for the models or workflows, to allow very fast variance based sensitivity analysis. Where models are too complex for emulation to be possible, or evaluate too fast for this to be necessary the original models are used with a carefully designed sampling strategy. A particular benefit of constructing emulators of the models or workflow components is that within the framework these can be communicated and evaluated at any physical location. The Web-based tool and backend API provide several functions to facilitate the process of creating an emulator and performing sensitivity analysis. A user can select a model exposed on the Web and specify the input ranges. Once this process is complete, they are able to perform screening to discover important inputs, train an emulator, and validate the accuracy of the trained emulator. In
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan
2012-02-01
In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, R.
2013-12-01
In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the
SEP thrust subsystem performance sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, K. L.; Sauer, C. G., Jr.; Kerrisk, D. J.
1973-01-01
This is a two-part report on solar electric propulsion (SEP) performance sensitivity analysis. The first part describes the preliminary analysis of the SEP thrust system performance for an Encke rendezvous mission. A detailed description of thrust subsystem hardware tolerances on mission performance is included together with nominal spacecraft parameters based on these tolerances. The second part describes the method of analysis and graphical techniques used in generating the data for Part 1. Included is a description of both the trajectory program used and the additional software developed for this analysis. Part 2 also includes a comprehensive description of the use of the graphical techniques employed in this performance analysis.
Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.
Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F
2015-02-28
A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859
Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions
Xu, B. F.; Wang, T. G.; Yuan, Y.; Cao, J. F.
2015-01-01
A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, G. P.; Goorjian, P. M.
1984-01-01
An efficient coordinate transformation technique is presented for constructing grids for unsteady, transonic aerodynamic computations for delta-type wings. The original shearing transformation yielded computations that were numerically unstable and this paper discusses the sources of those instabilities. The new shearing transformation yields computations that are stable, fast, and accurate. Comparisons of those two methods are shown for the flow over the F5 wing that demonstrate the new stability. Also, comparisons are made with experimental data that demonstrate the accuracy of the new method. The computations were made by using a time-accurate, finite-difference, alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm for the transonic small-disturbance potential equation.
Probabilistic sensitivity analysis in health economics.
Baio, Gianluca; Dawid, A Philip
2015-12-01
Health economic evaluations have recently become an important part of the clinical and medical research process and have built upon more advanced statistical decision-theoretic foundations. In some contexts, it is officially required that uncertainty about both parameters and observable variables be properly taken into account, increasingly often by means of Bayesian methods. Among these, probabilistic sensitivity analysis has assumed a predominant role. The objective of this article is to review the problem of health economic assessment from the standpoint of Bayesian statistical decision theory with particular attention to the philosophy underlying the procedures for sensitivity analysis. PMID:21930515
Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics
Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas
2015-01-01
We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379
Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.
Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas
2015-01-01
We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379
A numerical comparison of sensitivity analysis techniques
Hamby, D.M.
1993-12-31
Engineering and scientific phenomena are often studied with the aid of mathematical models designed to simulate complex physical processes. In the nuclear industry, modeling the movement and consequence of radioactive pollutants is extremely important for environmental protection and facility control. One of the steps in model development is the determination of the parameters most influential on model results. A {open_quotes}sensitivity analysis{close_quotes} of these parameters is not only critical to model validation but also serves to guide future research. A previous manuscript (Hamby) detailed many of the available methods for conducting sensitivity analyses. The current paper is a comparative assessment of several methods for estimating relative parameter sensitivity. Method practicality is based on calculational ease and usefulness of the results. It is the intent of this report to demonstrate calculational rigor and to compare parameter sensitivity rankings resulting from various sensitivity analysis techniques. An atmospheric tritium dosimetry model (Hamby) is used here as an example, but the techniques described can be applied to many different modeling problems. Other investigators (Rose; Dalrymple and Broyd) present comparisons of sensitivity analyses methodologies, but none as comprehensive as the current work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, James Charles, III
1997-10-01
The first two steps in the development of an integrated multidisciplinary design optimization procedure capable of analyzing the nonlinear fluid flow about geometrically complex aeroelastic configurations have been accomplished in the present work. For the first step, a three-dimensional unstructured grid approach to aerodynamic shape sensitivity analysis and design optimization has been developed. The advantage of unstructured grids, when compared with a structured-grid approach, is their inherent ability to discretize irregularly shaped domains with greater efficiency and less effort. Hence, this approach is ideally suited for geometrically complex configurations of practical interest. In this work the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations are solved using an upwind, cell-centered, finite-volume scheme. The discrete, linearized systems which result from this scheme are solved iteratively by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient-like algorithm known as GMRES for the two-dimensional cases and a Gauss-Seidel algorithm for the three-dimensional; at steady-state, similar procedures are used to solve the accompanying linear aerodynamic sensitivity equations in incremental iterative form. As shown, this particular form of the sensitivity equation makes large-scale gradient-based aerodynamic optimization possible by taking advantage of memory efficient methods to construct exact Jacobian matrix-vector products. Various surface parameterization techniques have been employed in the current study to control the shape of the design surface. Once this surface has been deformed, the interior volume of the unstructured grid is adapted by considering the mesh as a system of interconnected tension springs. Grid sensitivities are obtained by differentiating the surface parameterization and the grid adaptation algorithms with ADIFOR, an advanced automatic-differentiation software tool. To demonstrate the ability of this procedure to analyze and design complex configurations of
PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishita, Sadao
2010-02-01
The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the
Analysis of aerodynamic load on straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Kawabata, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Kazuma
2014-08-01
This paper presents a wind tunnel experiment for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a small straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) depending on several values of tip speed ratio. In the present study, the wind turbine is a four-bladed VAWT. The test airfoil of blade is symmetry airfoil (NACA0021) with 32 pressure ports used for the pressure measurements on blade surface. Based on the pressure distributions which are acted on the surface of rotor blade measured during rotation by multiport pressure-scanner mounted on a hub, the power, tangential force, lift and drag coefficients which are obtained by pressure distribution are discussed as a function of azimuthally position. And then, the loads which are applied to the entire wind turbine are compared with the experiment data of pressure distribution. As a result, it is clarified that aerodynamic forces take maximum value when the blade is moving to upstream side, and become small and smooth at downstream side. The power and torque coefficients which are based on the pressure distribution are larger than that by torque meter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elchuri, V.; Pamidi, P. R.
1985-01-01
This report is a supplemental NASTRAN document for a new capability to determine the vibratory response of turbosystems subjected to aerodynamic excitation. Supplements of NASTRAN Theoretical, User's, Programmer's, and Demonstration Manuals are included. Turbosystems such as advanced turbopropellers with highly swept blades, and axial-flow compressors and turbines can be analyzed using this capability, which has been developed and implemented in the April 1984 release of the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN. The dynamic response problem is addressed in terms of the normal modal coordinates of these tuned rotating cyclic structures. Both rigid and flexible hubs/disks are considered. Coriolis and centripetal accelerations, as well as differential stiffness effects are included. Generally nonuniform steady inflow fields and uniform flow fields arbitrarily inclined at small angles with respect to the axis of rotation of the turbosystem are considered as the sources of aerodynamic excitation. The spatial nonuniformities are considered to be small deviations from a principally uniform inflow. Subsonic relative inflows are addressed, with provision for linearly interpolating transonic airloads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madanu, Sushma Bala
Transverse vibrations of an electrostatically actuated thin flexible cantilever perturbed by low-speed air flow is studied using both experiments and numerical modeling. In the experiments the dynamic characteristics of the cantilever are studied by supplying a DC voltage with an AC component for electrostatic forcing and a constant uniform air flow around the cantilever system for aerodynamic forcing. The maximum voltage applied varies from 1 - 9 kV and air flow speeds range from 0.224 - 3.58 m/s (0.5 - 8 mile/hr). The Reynolds numbers for these speeds lie in the range of 1000 - 20000. A range of control parameters leading to stable vibrations are established using the Strouhal number as the operating parameter whose inverse values change from 100 - 2500. The Numerical results are validated with experimental results. Assuming the amplitude of vibrations are small, then a non-linear dynamic Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with viscous damping and gravitational effects is used to model the vibrations of the dynamical system. Aerodynamic forcing is modeled as a temporally sinusoidal and uniform force acting perpendicular to the beam length. The forcing amplitude is found to be proportional to square of air flow velocity by obtaining relationship between the experimental amplitude of vibrations and air flow velocity. Numerical results strongly agree with those of experiments predicting accurate vibration amplitudes, displacement frequency and quasi-periodic displacements of the cantilever tip.
Ambient aerodynamic ionization source for remote analyte sampling and mass spectrometric analysis.
Dixon, R Brent; Sampson, Jason S; Hawkridge, Adam M; Muddiman, David C
2008-07-01
The use of aerodynamic devices in ambient ionization source development has become increasingly prevalent in the field of mass spectrometry. In this study, an air ejector has been constructed from inexpensive, commercially available components to incorporate an electrospray ionization emitter within the exhaust jet of the device. This novel aerodynamic device, herein termed remote analyte sampling, transport, and ionization relay (RASTIR) was used to remotely sample neutral species in the ambient and entrain them into an electrospray plume where they were subsequently ionized and detected using a linear ion trap Fourier transform mass spectrometer. Two sets of experiments were performed in the ambient environment to demonstrate the device's utility. The first involved the remote (approximately 1 ft) vacuum collection of pure sample particulates (i.e., dry powder) from a glass slide, entrainment and ionization at the ESI emitter, and mass spectrometric detection. The second experiment involved the capture (vacuum collection) of matrix-assisted laser desorbed proteins followed by entrainment in the ESI emitter plume, multiple charging, and mass spectrometric detection. This approach is in principle a RASTIR-assisted matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization source (Sampson, J. S.; Hawkridge, A. M.; Muddiman, D. C. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2006, 17, 1712-1716; Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2007, 21, 1150-1154.). A detailed description of the device construction, operational parameters, and preliminary small molecule and protein data are presented. PMID:18529018
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Songyuan; Zhang, Weiping
2015-12-01
Hummingbirds have a unique way of hovering. However, only a few published papers have gone into details of the corresponding three-dimensional vortex structures and transient aerodynamic forces. In order to deepen the understanding in these two realms, this article presents an integrated computational fluid dynamics study on the hovering aerodynamics of a rufous hummingbird. The original morphological and kinematic data came from a former researcher's experiments. We found that conical and stable leading-edge vortices (LEVs) with spanwise flow inside their cores existed on the hovering hummingbird's wing surfaces. When the LEVs and other near-field vortices were all shed into the wake after stroke reversals, periodically shed bilateral vortex rings were formed. In addition, a strong downwash was present throughout the flapping cycle. Time histories of lift and drag were also obtained. Combining the three-dimensional flow field and time history of lift, we believe that high lift mechanisms (i.e., rotational circulation and wake capture) which take place at stroke reversals in insect flight was not evident here. For mean lift throughout a whole cycle, it is calculated to be 3.60 g (104.0 % of the weight support). The downstroke and upstroke provide 64.2 % and 35.8 % of the weight support, respectively.
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of a Micro-CT Based Bio-Realistic Fruit Fly Wing
Brandt, Joshua; Doig, Graham; Tsafnat, Naomi
2015-01-01
The aerodynamic features of a bio-realistic 3D fruit fly wing in steady state (snapshot) flight conditions were analyzed numerically. The wing geometry was created from high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of the fruit fly Drosophila virilis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the wing were conducted at ultra-low Reynolds numbers ranging from 71 to 200, and at angles of attack ranging from -10° to +30°. It was found that in the 3D bio-realistc model, the corrugations of the wing created localized circulation regions in the flow field, most notably at higher angles of attack near the wing tip. Analyses of a simplified flat wing geometry showed higher lift to drag performance values for any given angle of attack at these Reynolds numbers, though very similar performance is noted at -10°. Results have indicated that the simplified flat wing can successfully be used to approximate high-level properties such as aerodynamic coefficients and overall performance trends as well as large flow-field structures. However, local pressure peaks and near-wing flow features induced by the corrugations are unable to be replicated by the simple wing. We therefore recommend that accurate 3D bio-realistic geometries be used when modelling insect wings where such information is useful. PMID:25954946
Sequentially-coupled space-time FSI analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kostov, Nikolay
2014-08-01
We present a sequentially-coupled space-time (ST) computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The wing motion and deformation data, whether prescribed fully or partially, is from an actual locust, extracted from high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of the locust in a wind tunnel. The core computational FSI technology is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST (DSD/SST) formulation. This is supplemented with using NURBS basis functions in temporal representation of the wing and mesh motion, and in remeshing. Here we use the version of the DSD/SST formulation derived in conjunction with the variational multiscale (VMS) method, and this version is called "DSD/SST-VMST." The structural mechanics computations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell model. The sequential-coupling technique is applicable to some classes of FSI problems, especially those with temporally-periodic behavior. We show that it performs well in FSI computations of the flapping-wing aerodynamics we consider here. In addition to the straight-flight case, we analyze cases where the MAV body has rolling, pitching, or rolling and pitching motion. We study how all these influence the lift and thrust.
Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1990-01-01
The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.
Pediatric Pain, Predictive Inference, and Sensitivity Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiss, Robert
1994-01-01
Coping style and effects of counseling intervention on pain tolerance was studied for 61 elementary school students through immersion of hands in cold water. Bayesian predictive inference tools are able to distinguish between subject characteristics and manipulable treatments. Sensitivity analysis strengthens the certainty of conclusions about…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolding, R. M.; Stearman, R. O.
1976-01-01
A low budget flutter model incorporating active aerodynamic controls for flutter suppression studies was designed as both an educational and research tool to study the interfering lifting surface flutter phenomenon in the form of a swept wing-tail configuration. A flutter suppression mechanism was demonstrated on a simple semirigid three-degree-of-freedom flutter model of this configuration employing an active stabilator control, and was then verified analytically using a doublet lattice lifting surface code and the model's measured mass, mode shapes, and frequencies in a flutter analysis. Preliminary studies were significantly encouraging to extend the analysis to the larger degree of freedom AFFDL wing-tail flutter model where additional analytical flutter suppression studies indicated significant gains in flutter margins could be achieved. The analytical and experimental design of a flutter suppression system for the AFFDL model is presented along with the results of a preliminary passive flutter test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.