Overview of Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization for Complex Aerodynamic Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, Perry A.; Newman, James C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene J.-W.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a brief overview of some of the more recent advances in steady aerodynamic shape-design sensitivity analysis and optimization, based on advanced computational fluid dynamics. The focus here is on those methods particularly well- suited to the study of geometrically complex configurations and their potentially complex associated flow physics. When nonlinear state equations are considered in the optimization process, difficulties are found in the application of sensitivity analysis. Some techniques for circumventing such difficulties are currently being explored and are included here. Attention is directed to methods that utilize automatic differentiation to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for both complex configurations and complex flow physics. Various examples of shape-design sensitivity analysis for unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamics algorithms are demonstrated for different formulations of the sensitivity equations. Finally, the use of advanced, unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamics in multidisciplinary analyses and multidisciplinary sensitivity analyses within future optimization processes is recommended and encouraged.
Overview of Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization for Complex Aerodynamic Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, James C., III; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.; Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene J.-W.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a brief overview of some of the more recent advances in steady aerodynamic shape-design sensitivity analysis and optimization, based on advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The focus here is on those methods particularly well-suited to the study of geometrically complex configurations and their potentially complex associated flow physics. When nonlinear state equations are considered in the optimization process, difficulties are found in the application of sensitivity analysis. Some techniques for circumventing such difficulties are currently being explored and are included here. Attention is directed to methods that utilize automatic differentiation to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for both complex configurations and complex flow physics. Various examples of shape-design sensitivity analysis for unstructured-grid CFD algorithms are demonstrated for different formulations of the sensitivity equations. Finally, the use of advanced, unstructured-grid CFDs in multidisciplinary analyses and multidisciplinary sensitivity analyses within future optimization processes is recommended and encouraged.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lacasse, James M.
1995-01-01
A multiblock sensitivity analysis method is applied in a numerical aerodynamic shape optimization technique. The Sensitivity Analysis Domain Decomposition (SADD) scheme which is implemented in this study was developed to reduce the computer memory requirements resulting from the aerodynamic sensitivity analysis equations. Discrete sensitivity analysis offers the ability to compute quasi-analytical derivatives in a more efficient manner than traditional finite-difference methods, which tend to be computationally expensive and prone to inaccuracies. The direct optimization procedure couples CFD analysis based on the two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with a gradient-based numerical optimization technique. The linking mechanism is the sensitivity equation derived from the CFD discretized flow equations, recast in adjoint form, and solved using direct matrix inversion techniques. This investigation is performed to demonstrate an aerodynamic shape optimization technique on a multiblock domain and its applicability to complex geometries. The objectives are accomplished by shape optimizing two aerodynamic configurations. First, the shape optimization of a transonic airfoil is performed to investigate the behavior of the method in highly nonlinear flows and the effect of different grid blocking strategies on the procedure. Secondly, shape optimization of a two-element configuration in subsonic flow is completed. Cases are presented for this configuration to demonstrate the effect of simultaneously reshaping interfering elements. The aerodynamic shape optimization is shown to produce supercritical type airfoils in the transonic flow from an initially symmetric airfoil. Multiblocking effects the path of optimization while providing similar results at the conclusion. Simultaneous reshaping of elements is shown to be more effective than individual element reshaping due to the inclusion of mutual interference effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, James C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.
1997-01-01
A three-dimensional unstructured grid approach to aerodynamic shape sensitivity analysis and design optimization has been developed and is extended to model geometrically complex configurations. The advantage of unstructured grids (when compared with a structured-grid approach) is their inherent ability to discretize irregularly shaped domains with greater efficiency and less effort. Hence, this approach is ideally suited for geometrically complex configurations of practical interest. In this work the nonlinear Euler equations are solved using an upwind, cell-centered, finite-volume scheme. The discrete, linearized systems which result from this scheme are solved iteratively by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient-like algorithm known as GMRES for the two-dimensional geometry and a Gauss-Seidel algorithm for the three-dimensional; similar procedures are used to solve the accompanying linear aerodynamic sensitivity equations in incremental iterative form. As shown, this particular form of the sensitivity equation makes large-scale gradient-based aerodynamic optimization possible by taking advantage of memory efficient methods to construct exact Jacobian matrix-vector products. Simple parameterization techniques are utilized for demonstrative purposes. Once the surface has been deformed, the unstructured grid is adapted by considering the mesh as a system of interconnected springs. Grid sensitivities are obtained by differentiating the surface parameterization and the grid adaptation algorithms with ADIFOR (which is an advanced automatic-differentiation software tool). To demonstrate the ability of this procedure to analyze and design complex configurations of practical interest, the sensitivity analysis and shape optimization has been performed for a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and for a three-dimensional Boeing 747-200 aircraft.
Aerodynamic shape optimization directed toward a supersonic transport using sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baysal, Oktay
1995-01-01
This investigation was conducted from March 1994 to August 1995, primarily, to extend and implement the previously developed aerodynamic design optimization methodologies for the problems related to a supersonic transport design. These methods had demonstrated promise to improve the designs (more specifically, the shape) of aerodynamic surfaces, by coupling optimization algorithms (OA) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithms via sensitivity analyses (SA) with surface definition methods from Computer Aided Design (CAD). The present extensions of this method and their supersonic implementations have produced wing section designs, delta wing designs, cranked-delta wing designs, and nacelle designs, all of which have been reported in the open literature. Despite the fact that these configurations were highly simplified to be of any practical or commercial use, they served the algorithmic and proof-of-concept objectives of the study very well. The primary cause for the configurational simplifications, other than the usual simplify-to-study the fundamentals reason, were the premature closing of the project. Only after the first of the originally intended three-year term, both the funds and the computer resources supporting the project were abruptly cut due to their severe shortages at the funding agency. Nonetheless, it was shown that the extended methodologies could be viable options in optimizing the design of not only an isolated single-component configuration, but also a multiple-component configuration in supersonic and viscous flow. This allowed designing with the mutual interference of the components being one of the constraints all along the evolution of the shapes.
Semianalytic modeling of aerodynamic shapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, R. L.; Adams, M. S.
1985-01-01
Equations for the semianalytic representation of a class of surfaces that vary smoothly in cross-sectional shape are presented. Some methods of fitting together and superimposing such surfaces are described. A brief discussion is also included of the application of the theory in various contexts such as computerized lofting of aerodynamic surfaces and grid generation.
Sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bristow, D. R.
1984-01-01
Information on sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics is given in outline, graphical, and chart form. The prediction accuracy if the MCAERO program, a perturbation analysis method, is discussed. A procedure for calculating perturbation matrix, baseline wing paneling for perturbation analysis test cases and applications of an inviscid sensitivity matrix are among the topics covered.
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on Free-form Deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh, Jamshid A.
2004-01-01
This paper presents a free-form deformation technique suitable for aerodynamic shape optimization. Because the proposed technique is independent of grid topology, we can treat structured and unstructured computational fluid dynamics grids in the same manner. The proposed technique is an alternative shape parameterization technique to a trivariate volume technique. It retains the flexibility and freedom of trivariate volumes for CFD shape optimization, but it uses a bivariate surface representation. This reduces the number of design variables by an order of magnitude, and it provides much better control for surface shape changes. The proposed technique is simple, compact, and efficient. The analytical sensitivity derivatives are independent of the design variables and are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. The paper includes the complete formulation and aerodynamics shape optimization results.
Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James
1996-01-01
Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madavan, Nateri K.
2003-01-01
An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.
Shape Optimization for Aerodynamic Noise Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsden, Alison; Wang, Meng; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moin, Parviz
2002-11-01
The objective of this work is to develop optimal shape design methods for reducing airfoil trailing-edge noise. Accurate evaluation of the cost function gradient via classical methods is expensive in unsteady turbulent flow simulations. We have evaluated the method of incomplete sensitivities (Mohammadi and Pironneau), which is inexpensive, and has been successful in previous applications. Gradients are approximated by neglecting changes in the flow field relative to geometrical contributions at each time step. Initial tests applied to a model problem seemed promising, however, in some cases the method was found to break down. A systematic evaluation of the incomplete sensitivities method as applied to the present problem has been carried out by comparison with the full gradient. The contribution to the gradient from changes in the flow field were found to be important. The underlying physical reasoning will be discussed and alternative methods including adjoint approaches and evolutionary algorithms will be explored.
Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of Aerodynamic Configurations with Blend Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.
1997-01-01
A novel (geometrical) parametrization procedure using solutions to a suitably chosen fourth order partial differential equation is used to define a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail and horizontal tail. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. A graphic interface software is developed which dynamically changes the surface of the airplane configuration with the change in input design variable. The software is made user friendly and is targeted towards the initial conceptual development of any aerodynamic configurations. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an Automatic Differentiation precompiler software tool ADIFOR. Aerodynamic shape optimization of the complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. Unstructured and structured volume grids and Euler solutions are obtained with standard software to demonstrate the feasibility of the new surface definition.
Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic-Structural Shape Optimization Using Deformation (MASSOUD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh, Jamshid A.
2000-01-01
This paper presents a multidisciplinary shape parameterization approach. The approach consists of two basic concepts: (1) parameterizing the shape perturbations rather than the geometry itself and (2) performing the shape deformation by means of the soft object animation algorithms used in computer graphics. Because the formulation presented in this paper is independent of grid topology, we can treat computational fluid dynamics and finite element grids in the same manner. The proposed approach is simple, compact, and efficient. Also, the analytical sensitivity derivatives are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. This algorithm is suitable for low-fidelity (e.g., linear aerodynamics and equivalent laminate plate structures) and high-fidelity (e.g., nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and detailed finite element modeling) analysis tools. This paper contains the implementation details of parameterizing for planform, twist, dihedral, thickness, camber, and free-form surface. Results are presented for a multidisciplinary application consisting of nonlinear computational fluid dynamics, detailed computational structural mechanics, and a simple performance module.
Parametric Deformation of Discrete Geometry for Aerodynamic Shape Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, George R.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian
2012-01-01
We present a versatile discrete geometry manipulation platform for aerospace vehicle shape optimization. The platform is based on the geometry kernel of an open-source modeling tool called Blender and offers access to four parametric deformation techniques: lattice, cage-based, skeletal, and direct manipulation. Custom deformation methods are implemented as plugins, and the kernel is controlled through a scripting interface. Surface sensitivities are provided to support gradient-based optimization. The platform architecture allows the use of geometry pipelines, where multiple modelers are used in sequence, enabling manipulation difficult or impossible to achieve with a constructive modeler or deformer alone. We implement an intuitive custom deformation method in which a set of surface points serve as the design variables and user-specified constraints are intrinsically satisfied. We test our geometry platform on several design examples using an aerodynamic design framework based on Cartesian grids. We examine inverse airfoil design and shape matching and perform lift-constrained drag minimization on an airfoil with thickness constraints. A transport wing-fuselage integration problem demonstrates the approach in 3D. In a final example, our platform is pipelined with a constructive modeler to parabolically sweep a wingtip while applying a 1-G loading deformation across the wingspan. This work is an important first step towards the larger goal of leveraging the investment of the graphics industry to improve the state-of-the-art in aerospace geometry tools.
Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.
2003-01-01
An efficient incremental iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a two-dimensional inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0 and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straightforward, black-box reverse-mode applicaiton of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-rder aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoinct) procedures; then, a very efficient noniterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hesian matrices) of lift, wave drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric shape, angle of attack, and freestream Mach number.
Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.
2001-01-01
An efficient incremental-iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a 2D inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic- differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0, and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straight-forward, black-box reverse- mode application of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoint) procedures; then, a very efficient non-iterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hessian matrices) of lift, wave-drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric- shape, angle-of-attack, and freestream Mach number
On simple aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for use in interdisciplinary optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doggett, Robert V., Jr.
1991-01-01
Low-aspect-ratio and piston aerodynamic theories are reviewed as to their use in developing aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for use in multidisciplinary optimization applications. The basic equations relating surface pressure (or lift and moment) to normal wash are given and discussed briefly for each theory. The general means for determining selected sensitivity derivatives are pointed out. In addition, some suggestions in very general terms are included as to sample problems for use in studying the process of using aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives in optimization studies.
Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haque, Md. Naimul; Katsuchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Nishio, Mayuko
2016-07-01
Aerodynamics of the long-span bridge deck should be well understood for an efficient design of the bridge system. For practical bridges various deck shapes are being recommended and adopted, yet not all of their aerodynamic behaviors are well interpreted. In the present study, a numerical investigation was carried out to explore the aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks. A relative comparison of steady state aerodynamic responses was made and the flow field was critically analyzed for better understanding the aerodynamic responses. It was found that the hexagonal shaped bridge deck has better aerodynamic characteristics as compared to the pentagonal shaped bridge deck.
Grid sensitivity for aerodynamic optimization and flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.
1993-01-01
After reviewing relevant literature, it is apparent that one aspect of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis, namely grid sensitivity, has not been investigated extensively. The grid sensitivity algorithms in most of these studies are based on structural design models. Such models, although sufficient for preliminary or conceptional design, are not acceptable for detailed design analysis. Careless grid sensitivity evaluations, would introduce gradient errors within the sensitivity module, therefore, infecting the overall optimization process. Development of an efficient and reliable grid sensitivity module with special emphasis on aerodynamic applications appear essential. The organization of this study is as follows. The physical and geometric representations of a typical model are derived in chapter 2. The grid generation algorithm and boundary grid distribution are developed in chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the theoretical formulation and aerodynamic sensitivity equation. The method of solution is provided in chapter 5. The results are presented and discussed in chapter 6. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided in chapter 7.
Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alansatan, Sait
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24
Variational Methods in Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization for Aerodynamic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibrahim, A. H.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
Variational methods (VM) sensitivity analysis, which is the continuous alternative to the discrete sensitivity analysis, is employed to derive the costate (adjoint) equations, the transversality conditions, and the functional sensitivity derivatives. In the derivation of the sensitivity equations, the variational methods use the generalized calculus of variations, in which the variable boundary is considered as the design function. The converged solution of the state equations together with the converged solution of the costate equations are integrated along the domain boundary to uniquely determine the functional sensitivity derivatives with respect to the design function. The determination of the sensitivity derivatives of the performance index or functional entails the coupled solutions of the state and costate equations. As the stable and converged numerical solution of the costate equations with their boundary conditions are a priori unknown, numerical stability analysis is performed on both the state and costate equations. Thereafter, based on the amplification factors obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue equations, the stability behavior of the costate equations is discussed and compared with the state (Euler) equations. The stability analysis of the costate equations suggests that the converged and stable solution of the costate equation is possible only if the computational domain of the costate equations is transformed to take into account the reverse flow nature of the costate equations. The application of the variational methods to aerodynamic shape optimization problems is demonstrated for internal flow problems at supersonic Mach number range. The study shows, that while maintaining the accuracy of the functional sensitivity derivatives within the reasonable range for engineering prediction purposes, the variational methods show a substantial gain in computational efficiency, i.e., computer time and memory, when compared with the finite
A PDE Sensitivity Equation Method for Optimal Aerodynamic Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borggaard, Jeff; Burns, John
1996-01-01
The use of gradient based optimization algorithms in inverse design is well established as a practical approach to aerodynamic design. A typical procedure uses a simulation scheme to evaluate the objective function (from the approximate states) and its gradient, then passes this information to an optimization algorithm. Once the simulation scheme (CFD flow solver) has been selected and used to provide approximate function evaluations, there are several possible approaches to the problem of computing gradients. One popular method is to differentiate the simulation scheme and compute design sensitivities that are then used to obtain gradients. Although this black-box approach has many advantages in shape optimization problems, one must compute mesh sensitivities in order to compute the design sensitivity. In this paper, we present an alternative approach using the PDE sensitivity equation to develop algorithms for computing gradients. This approach has the advantage that mesh sensitivities need not be computed. Moreover, when it is possible to use the CFD scheme for both the forward problem and the sensitivity equation, then there are computational advantages. An apparent disadvantage of this approach is that it does not always produce consistent derivatives. However, for a proper combination of discretization schemes, one can show asymptotic consistency under mesh refinement, which is often sufficient to guarantee convergence of the optimal design algorithm. In particular, we show that when asymptotically consistent schemes are combined with a trust-region optimization algorithm, the resulting optimal design method converges. We denote this approach as the sensitivity equation method. The sensitivity equation method is presented, convergence results are given and the approach is illustrated on two optimal design problems involving shocks.
Genetic Evolution of Shape-Altering Programs for Supersonic Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Two constrained shape optimization problems relevant to aerodynamics are solved by genetic programming, in which a population of computer programs evolves automatically under pressure of fitness-driven reproduction and genetic crossover. Known optimal solutions are recovered using a small, naive set of elementary operations. Effectiveness is improved through use of automatically defined functions, especially when one of them is capable of a variable number of iterations, even though the test problems lack obvious exploitable regularities. An attempt at evolving new elementary operations was only partially successful.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of a HSCT type configuration with improved surface definition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Almuttil M.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1994-01-01
Two distinct parametrization procedures of generating free-form surfaces to represent aerospace vehicles are presented. The first procedure is the representation using spline functions such as nonuniform rational b-splines (NURBS) and the second is a novel (geometrical) parametrization using solutions to a suitably chosen partial differential equation. The main idea is to develop a surface which is more versatile and can be used in an optimization process. Unstructured volume grid is generated by an advancing front algorithm and solutions obtained using an Euler solver. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an automatic differentiator precompiler software tool. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. High speed civil transport aircraft (HSCT) configurations are targeted to demonstrate the process.
Quantifying the Effect of Pressure Sensitive Paint On Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amer, T. R.; Obara, C. J.; Liu, T.
2003-01-01
A thin pressure sensitive paint (PSP) coating can slightly modify the overall shape of a wind-tunnel model and produce surface roughness or smoothness that does not exist on the unpainted model. These undesirable changes in model geometry may alter flow over the model, and affect the pressure distribution and aerodynamic forces and moments on the model. This study quantifies the effects of PSP on three models in low-speed, transonic and supersonic flow regimes. At a 95% confidence level, the PSP effects on the integrated forces are insignificant for a slender arrow-wing-fuselage model and delta wing model with two different paints at Mach 0.2, 1.8, and 2.16 relative to the total balance accuracy limit. The data displayed a repeatability of 2.5 drag counts, while the balance accuracy limit was about 5.5 drag counts. At transonic speeds, the paint has a localized effect at high angles of attack and has a resolvable effect on the normal force, which is significant relative to the balance accuracy limit. For low speeds, the PSP coating has a localized effect on the pressure tap measurements, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading. Moreover, the force and moment measurements had a poor precision, which precluded the ability to measure the PSP effect for this particular test.
Design Exploration of Aerodynamic Wing Shape for RLV Flyback Booster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, Kazuhisa; Obayashi, Shigeru; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro
The wing shape of flyback booster for a Two-Stage-To-Orbit reusable launch vehicle has been optimized considering four objectives. The objectives are to minimize the shift of aerodynamic center between supersonic and transonic conditions, transonic pitching moment and transonic drag coefficient, as well as to maximize subsonic lift coefficient. The three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computation using the modified Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model is used in aerodynamic evaluation accounting for possible flow separations. Adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm is used for the present study because tradeoff can be obtained using a smaller number of individuals than conventional multi-objective genetic algorithms. Consequently, four-objective optimization has produced 102 non-dominated solutions, which represent tradeoff information among four objective functions. Moreover, Self-Organizing Maps have been used to analyze the present non-dominated solutions and to visualize tradeoffs and influence of design variables to the four objectives. Self-Organizing Maps contoured by the four objective functions and design variables are found to visualize tradeoffs and effects of each design variable.
Gradient-Based Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using ADI Method for Large-Scale Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Baysal, Oktay
1997-01-01
A gradient-based shape optimization methodology, that is intended for practical three-dimensional aerodynamic applications, has been developed. It is based on the quasi-analytical sensitivities. The flow analysis is rendered by a fully implicit, finite volume formulation of the Euler equations.The aerodynamic sensitivity equation is solved using the alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm for memory efficiency. A flexible wing geometry model, that is based on surface parameterization and platform schedules, is utilized. The present methodology and its components have been tested via several comparisons. Initially, the flow analysis for for a wing is compared with those obtained using an unfactored, preconditioned conjugate gradient approach (PCG), and an extensively validated CFD code. Then, the sensitivities computed with the present method have been compared with those obtained using the finite-difference and the PCG approaches. Effects of grid refinement and convergence tolerance on the analysis and shape optimization have been explored. Finally the new procedure has been demonstrated in the design of a cranked arrow wing at Mach 2.4. Despite the expected increase in the computational time, the results indicate that shape optimization, which require large numbers of grid points can be resolved with a gradient-based approach.
Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.
2005-01-01
A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding Pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the Pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide Pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.
Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.
2004-01-01
A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective optimization problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.
Coupled Aerodynamic and Structural Sensitivity Analysis of a High-Speed Civil Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, B. H.; Walsh, J. L.
2001-01-01
An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis. In a previous study, a multi-disciplinary analysis system for a high-speed civil transport was formulated to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, This paper is an extension of the previous study, in which the sensitivity analysis for the coupled aerodynamic and structural analysis problem is formulated and implemented. Uncoupled stress sensitivities computed with a constant load vector in a commercial finite element analysis code are compared to coupled aeroelastic sensitivities computed by finite differences. The computational expense of these sensitivity calculation methods is discussed.
Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1995-01-01
An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laub, G. H.; Kodani, H. M.
1972-01-01
Wind tunnel tests were conducted on scale models of three rectangular shaped cargo containers to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of these typical externally-suspended helicopter cargo configurations. Tests were made over a large range of pitch and yaw attitudes at a nominal Reynolds number per unit length of 1.8 x one million. The aerodynamic data obtained from the tests are presented.
Grid and aerodynamic sensitivity analyses of airplane components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1993-01-01
An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) for defining the wing-section geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique, known as Two-Boundary Grid Generation (TBGG) is employed to generate C-type grids around wing-sections. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the wing-section surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the wing-section.
Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane
2003-01-01
The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.
Aerodynamic parameter studies and sensitivity analysis for rotor blades in axial flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Y. Danny; Peters, David A.
1991-01-01
The analytical capability is offered for aerodynamic parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of rotary wings in axial flight by using a 3-D undistorted wake model in curved lifting line theory. The governing equations are solved by both the Multhopp Interpolation technique and the Vortex Lattice method. The singularity from the bound vortices is eliminated through the Hadamard's finite part concept. Good numerical agreement between both analytical methods and finite differences methods are found. Parametric studies were made to assess the effects of several shape variables on aerodynamic loads. It is found, e.g., that a rotor blade with out-of-plane and inplane curvature can theoretically increase lift in the inboard and outboard regions respectively without introducing an additional induced drag.
Shape sensitivity analysis of flutter response of a laminated wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergen, Fred D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.
1988-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the shape sensitivity of a wing aeroelastic response with respect to changes in geometric shape. Yates' modified strip method is used in conjunction with Giles' equivalent plate analysis to predict the flutter speed, frequency, and reduced frequency of the wing. Three methods are used to calculate the sensitivity of the eigenvalue. The first method is purely a finite difference calculation of the eigenvalue derivative directly from the solution of the flutter problem corresponding to the two different values of the shape parameters. The second method uses an analytic expression for the eigenvalue sensitivities of a general complex matrix, where the derivatives of the aerodynamic, mass, and stiffness matrices are computed using a finite difference approximation. The third method also uses an analytic expression for the eigenvalue sensitivities, but the aerodynamic matrix is computed analytically. All three methods are found to be in good agreement with each other. The sensitivities of the eigenvalues were used to predict the flutter speed, frequency, and reduced frequency. These approximations were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a complete reanalysis.
A method of simultaneously measuring particle shape parameter and aerodynamic size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Lei; Zhang, JinBi; Zheng, HaiYang; Wang, YingPing; Fang, Li
2016-08-01
For the purpose of classification of airborne particles, this paper describes an experimental apparatus for simultaneously measuring shape characteristics and aerodynamic size at single particle level. The shape of a particle is indicated through near forward scattering light collected by 3 PMTs placed at 120-degree offset azimuthal angles and the aerodynamic diameter is obtained by time-of-flight that a particle takes to traverse double laser beams. Laboratory experiments are performed on sampled aerosol particles in spherical, cuboid and elongated shape, and preliminary results indicate that the experimental apparatus has a good capability of discriminating between spherical and irregular particles. A variance factor of scattered light related to shape of ambient airborne particles under different conditions are also presented, which can be modeled using lognormal probability density distribution. Combined with aerodynamic size information, these results suggest potential uses in environmental aerosol monitoring for characterizing constituents of particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishige, Hiroaki; Minobe, Takayuki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Masahiro
With an increase in the maximum speed of Shinkansen trains, it becomes imperative to resolve aerodynamic and aeroacoustic problems related to pantographs. Hence, some methods based on flow control have been studied to improve the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic characteristics. In this study, the authors attempted to control the flow around a pantograph by using synthetic jets. The results of numerical and experimental tests indicate that the synthetic jets can stabilize the flow around the bluff-shaped pantograph head, thus resulting in a reduction in aerodynamic noise.
Multi-objective aerodynamic shape optimization of small livestock trailers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilkeson, C. A.; Toropov, V. V.; Thompson, H. M.; Wilson, M. C. T.; Foxley, N. A.; Gaskell, P. H.
2013-11-01
This article presents a formal optimization study of the design of small livestock trailers, within which the majority of animals are transported to market in the UK. The benefits of employing a headboard fairing to reduce aerodynamic drag without compromising the ventilation of the animals' microclimate are investigated using a multi-stage process involving computational fluid dynamics (CFD), optimal Latin hypercube (OLH) design of experiments (DoE) and moving least squares (MLS) metamodels. Fairings are parameterized in terms of three design variables and CFD solutions are obtained at 50 permutations of design variables. Both global and local search methods are employed to locate the global minimum from metamodels of the objective functions and a Pareto front is generated. The importance of carefully selecting an objective function is demonstrated and optimal fairing designs, offering drag reductions in excess of 5% without compromising animal ventilation, are presented.
Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.
Estimation of morphing airfoil shapes and aerodynamic loads using artificial hair sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, Nathan Scott
An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape, as well as the aerodynamic loads, in real time. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors (AHS) developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this study, AHS measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the AHS measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network (ANN) based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Additionally, an aerodynamic formulation based on the finite-state inflow theory has been developed to calculate the aerodynamic loads on thin airfoils with arbitrary camber deformations. Various aerodynamic properties approximated from the AHS/ANN system will be compared with the results of the finite-state inflow aerodynamic formulation in order to validate the approximation approach.
Characteristics of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.
2001-01-01
One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution, and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.
Characterization of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.
2001-01-01
One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution. and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.
Torque-Matched Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of HAWT Rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Abadi, Ali; Ertunç, Özgür; Beyer, Florian; Delgado, Antonio
2014-12-01
Schmitz and Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theories are integrated to a gradient based optimization algorithm to optimize the blade shape of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Schmitz theory is used to generate an initial blade design. BEM theory is used to calculate the forces, torque and power extracted by the turbine. The airfoil shape (NREL S809) is kept the same, so that the shape optimization comprises only the chord and the pitch angle distribution. The gradient based optimization of the blade shape is constrained to the torque-rotational speed characteristic of the generator, which is going to be a part of the experimental set-up used to validate the results of the optimization study. Hence, the objective of the optimization is the maximization of the turbines power coefficient Cp while keeping the torque matched to that of the generator. The wind velocities and the rotational speeds are limited to those achievable in the wind tunnel and by the generator, respectively. After finding the optimum blade shape with the maximum Cp within the given range of parameters, the Cp of the turbine is evaluated at wind-speeds deviating from the optimum operating condition. For this purpose, a second optimization algorithm is used to find out the correct rotational speed for a given wind-speed, which is again constrained to the generator's torque rotational speed characteristic. The design and optimization procedures are later validated by high-fidelity numerical simulations. The agreement between the design and the numerical simulations is very satisfactory.
Using High Resolution Design Spaces for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Under Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon
2004-01-01
This paper explains why high resolution design spaces encourage traditional airfoil optimization algorithms to generate noisy shape modifications, which lead to inaccurate linear predictions of aerodynamic coefficients and potential failure of descent methods. By using auxiliary drag constraints for a simultaneous drag reduction at all design points and the least shape distortion to achieve the targeted drag reduction, an improved algorithm generates relatively smooth optimal airfoils with no severe off-design performance degradation over a range of flight conditions, in high resolution design spaces parameterized by cubic B-spline functions. Simulation results using FUN2D in Euler flows are included to show the capability of the robust aerodynamic shape optimization method over a range of flight conditions.
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1992-01-01
Research conducted during the period from July 1991 through December 1992 is covered. A method based upon the quasi-analytical approach was developed for computing the aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients of three dimensional wings in transonic and subsonic flow. In addition, the method computes for comparison purposes the aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients using the finite difference approach. The accuracy and validity of the methods are currently under investigation.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of space vehicle in very-low-earth-orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jae Hyun; Myong, Rho Shin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Seung Wook
2014-12-01
Space vehicles orbiting in Very-Low-Earth-Orbit (VLEO, h = 200˜300 km) experience considerably large aerodynamic drag due to high air-density in comparison with Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO, h = 600 ˜ 700 km). Therefore, the optimization of vehicle shape via minimization of aerodynamic drag is essential for accurate estimation of satellite lifetime and fuel budget at the design stage. In this study, the aerodynamic drag is computed with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) because even in VLEO, whose free stream Knudsen number is sufficiently large, some errors are still found in the prediction using free molecular approach. In order to find the optimized configuration, we vary the shape of frontal surface normal to the flight direction. Interestingly, the effects of such geometrical change appear distinctively depending on the gas-surface interaction (GSI, diffuse or specular) which can be represented by the thermal accommodation coefficient. The satellite aerodynamic characteristics including force, torque, and thermal loading are also identified by changing the pitch and the side angle.
Estimation of morphing airfoil shape and aerodynamic load using artificial hair sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, Nathan S.; Su, Weihua; Thapa Magar, Kaman S.; Reich, Gregory W.
2016-04-01
An active area of research in adaptive structures focuses on the use of continuous wing shape changing methods as a means of replacing conventional discrete control surfaces and increasing aerodynamic efficiency. Although many shape-changing methods have been used since the beginning of heavier-than-air flight, the concept of performing camber actuation on a fully-deformable airfoil has not been widely applied. A fundamental problem of applying this concept to real-world scenarios is the fact that camber actuation is a continuous, time-dependent process. Therefore, if camber actuation is to be used in a closed-loop feedback system, one must be able to determine the instantaneous airfoil shape as well as the aerodynamic loads at all times. One approach is to utilize a new type of artificial hair sensors developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory to determine the flow conditions surrounding deformable airfoils. In this work, the hair sensor measurement data will be simulated by using the flow solver XFoil, with the assumption that perfect data with no noise can be collected from the hair sensor measurements. Such measurements will then be used in an artificial neural network based process to approximate the instantaneous airfoil camber shape, lift coefficient, and moment coefficient at a given angle of attack. Various aerodynamic and geometrical properties approximated from the artificial hair sensor and artificial neural network system will be compared with the results of XFoil in order to validate the approximation approach.
Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.
1981-01-01
The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.
On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madavan, Nateri K.
2004-01-01
Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been provEn effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. Several approaches that have proven effective for other evolutionary algorithms are modified and implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for standard test optimization problems and for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.
On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madavan, Nateri K.
2004-01-01
Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. These approaches are implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, William L.
1989-01-01
Two scaled models of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle were tested in two air wind tunnels and one CF4 tunnel. The tests were to determine the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, and shock shapes for the configuration in hypersonic continuum flow. The tests were conducted with a range of angle of attack to evaluate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds numbers, and normal shock density ratio.
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using A Real-Number-Encoded Genetic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2001-01-01
A new method for aerodynamic shape optimization using a genetic algorithm with real number encoding is presented. The algorithm is used to optimize three different problems, a simple hill climbing problem, a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle problem using an Euler equation solver and a three-dimensional transonic wing problem using a nonlinear potential solver. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement and extremely reliable, being relatively insensitive to design space noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Seung-Hee; Bae, Jae-Sung; Rho, Jin-Ho
2014-07-01
The discontinuous contour of a wing with conventional flaps diminishes the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. A wing with a continuous contour does not experience extreme flow stream fluctuations during flight, and consequently has good aerodynamic characteristics. In this study, a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators is proposed, designed and fabricated, and its aerodynamic characteristics are investigated using aerodynamic analyses and wind tunnel tests. The ribs of the morphing flap are designed and fabricated with multiple elements joined together in a way that allows relative rotations of adjacent elements and forms a smooth contour of the morphing flap. The aerodynamic analyses of this multiple-element morphing-flap wing are performed using XFLR pro; its aerodynamic performance is compared with that of a mechanical-flap wing, and is measured through wind-tunnel tests.
Aerodynamic characteristics, including effect of body shape, of a Mach 6 aircraft concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riebe, G. D.
1983-01-01
Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for a hydrogen-fueled hypersonic transport concept at Mach 6 are presented. The model components consist of four bodies with identical longitudinal area distributions but different cross-sectional shapes and widths, a wing, horizontal and vertical tails, and a set of wing-mounted nacelles simulated by slid bodies on the wing upper surface. Lift-drag ratios were found to be only sightly affected by fuselage planform width or cross sectional shape. Relative distribution of fuselage volume above and below the wing was found to have an effect on the lift-drag ratio, with a higher lift drag ratio produced by the higher wing position.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goett, Harry J; Reeder, J P
1939-01-01
Results are presented showing the effects of gap, elevator, nose shape, balance, cut-out, and tabs on the aerodynamic characteristics of a horizontal tail surface tested in the NACA full-scale tunnel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elbanna, Hesham M.; Carlson, Leland A.
1992-01-01
The quasi-analytical approach is applied to the three-dimensional full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. Results are compared to those obtained by the direct finite difference approach and both methods are evaluated to determine their computational accuracy and efficiency. The quasi-analytical approach is shown to be accurate and efficient for large aerodynamic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagnon, Hugo
This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height
The Effect of Aerodynamic Heating on Air Penetration by Shaped Charge Jets and Their Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backofen, Joseph
2009-06-01
The goal of this paper is to present recent work modeling thermal coupling between shaped charge jets and their particles with air while it is being penetrated to form a crater that subsequently collapses back onto the jet. This work complements research published at International Symposia on Ballistics: 1) 1987 - Shaped Charge Jet Aerodynamics, Particulation and Blast Field Modeling; and 2) 2007 - Air Cratering by Eroding Shaped Charge Jets. The current work shows how and when a shaped charge jet's tip and jet particles are softened enough that they can erode in a hydrodynamic manner as modeled in these papers. This paper and its presentation includes models for heat transfer from shocked air as a function of jet velocity as well as heat flow within the jet or particle. The work is supported by an extensive bibliographic search including publications on meteors and ballistic missile re-entry vehicles. The modeling shows that a jet loses its strength to the depth required to justify hydrodynamic erosion when its velocity is above a specific velocity related to the shock properties of air and the jet material's properties. As a result, the portion of a jet's kinetic energy converted at the aerodynamic shock into heating transferred back onto the jet affects the energy deposited into the air through drag and ablation which in turn affect air crater expansion and subsequent collapse back onto the jet and its particles as shown in high-speed photography.
Direct method for the design of optimal three-dimensional aerodynamic shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isakova, N. P.; Kraiko, A. A.; P'yankov, K. S.
2012-11-01
A direct optimization method for a broad class of three-dimensional aerodynamic shapes based on the approximation of the desired geometry by Bernstein-Bézier surfaces is developed. The high efficiency of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the design of an optimal supersonic section of an axisymmetric maximum-thrust de Laval nozzle. The method is also tested as applied to the design of a three-dimensional supersonic nozzle section in a dense multi-nozzle setup. In addition to three-dimensional supersonic nozzle sections with a circular throat, nozzles with a varying throat shape are considered. The results suggest that the method can be applied to various problems of 3D shape optimization.
Integrated Aerodynamic/Structural/Dynamic Analyses of Aircraft with Large Shape Changes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh, Jamshid A.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Horta, Lucas G.; Piatak, David J.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.
2007-01-01
The conceptual and preliminary design processes for aircraft with large shape changes are generally difficult and time-consuming, and the processes are often customized for a specific shape change concept to streamline the vehicle design effort. Accordingly, several existing reports show excellent results of assessing a particular shape change concept or perturbations of a concept. The goal of the current effort was to develop a multidisciplinary analysis tool and process that would enable an aircraft designer to assess several very different morphing concepts early in the design phase and yet obtain second-order performance results so that design decisions can be made with better confidence. The approach uses an efficient parametric model formulation that allows automatic model generation for systems undergoing radical shape changes as a function of aerodynamic parameters, geometry parameters, and shape change parameters. In contrast to other more self-contained approaches, the approach utilizes off-the-shelf analysis modules to reduce development time and to make it accessible to many users. Because the analysis is loosely coupled, discipline modules like a multibody code can be easily swapped for other modules with similar capabilities. One of the advantages of this loosely coupled system is the ability to use the medium-to high-fidelity tools early in the design stages when the information can significantly influence and improve overall vehicle design. Data transfer among the analysis modules are based on an accurate and automated general purpose data transfer tool. In general, setup time for the integrated system presented in this paper is 2-4 days for simple shape change concepts and 1-2 weeks for more mechanically complicated concepts. Some of the key elements briefly described in the paper include parametric model development, aerodynamic database generation, multibody analysis, and the required software modules as well as examples for a telescoping wing, a
Preconditioned domain decomposition scheme for three-dimensional aerodynamic sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eleshaky, Mohammed E.; Baysal, Oktay
1993-01-01
A preconditioned domain decomposition scheme is introduced for the solution of the 3D aerodynamic sensitivity equation. This scheme uses the iterative GMRES procedure to solve the effective sensitivity equation of the boundary-interface cells in the sensitivity analysis domain-decomposition scheme. Excluding the dense matrices and the effect of cross terms between boundary-interfaces is found to produce an efficient preconditioning matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osusky, Lana Maria
The increase in the availability and power of computational resources over the last fifteen years has contributed to the development of many different types of numerical optimization methods and created a large area of research focussed on numerical aerodynamic shape optimization and, more recently, high-fidelity multidisciplinary optimization. Numerical optimization provides dramatic savings when designing new aerodynamic configurations, as it allows the designer to focus more on the development of a well-posed design problem rather than on performing an exhaustive search of the design space via the traditional cut-and-try approach, which is expensive and time-consuming. It also reduces the dependence on the designer's experience and intuition, which can potentially lead to more optimal designs. Numerical optimization methods are particularly attractive when designing novel, unconventional aircraft for which the designer has no pre-existing studies or experiences from which to draw; these methods have the potential to discover new designs that might never have been arrived at without optimization. This work presents an extension of an efficient gradient-based numerical aerodynamic shape optimization algorithm to enable optimization in turbulent flow. The algorithm includes an integrated geometry parameterization and mesh movement scheme, an efficient parallel Newton-Krylov-Schur algorithm for solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, which are fully coupled with the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, and a discrete-adjoint gradient evaluation. In order to develop an efficient methodology for optimization in turbulent flows, the viscous and turbulent terms in the ii governing equations were linearized by hand. Additionally, a set of mesh refinement tools was introduced in order to obtain both an acceptable control volume mesh and a sufficiently refined computational mesh from an initial coarse mesh. A series of drag minimization
Sherman, L.L.; Taylor, A.C. III; Hou, G.W.; Korivi, V.M.
1996-12-01
The straightforward automatic-differentiation and the hand-differentiated incremental iterative methods are interwoven to produce a hybrid scheme that captures some of the strengths of each strategy. With this compromise, discrete aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives are calculated with the efficient incremental iterative solution algorithm of the original flow code. Moreover, the principal advantage of automatic differentiation is retained. The basic equations for second-order sensitivity derivatives are presented, which results in a comparison of four different methods. Each of these four schemes for second-order derivatives requires that large systems are solved first for the first-order adjoint variables. Of these latter three schemes, two require no solutions of large systems thereafter. For the other two for which additional systems are solved, the equations and solution procedures are analogous to those for the first-order derivatives. From a practical viewpoint, implementation of the second-order methods is feasible only with software tools such as automatic differentiation, because of the extreme complexity and large number of terms. First- and second-order sensitivities are calculated accurately for two airfoil problems, including a turbulent-flow example. In each of these two sample problems, three dependent variables (coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching-moment) and six independent variables (three geometric-shape and three flow-condition design variables) are considered. Several different procedures are tested, and results are compared on the basis of accuracy, computational time, and computer memory. For first-order derivatives, the hybrid incremental iterative scheme obtained with automatic differentiation is competitive with the best hand-differentiated method. Furthermore, it is at least two to four times faster than central finite differences, without an overwhelming penalty in computer memory. 23 refs., 14 tabs.
Wing shape allometry and aerodynamics in calopterygid damselflies: a comparative approach
2013-01-01
Background Wing size and shape have important aerodynamic implications on flight performance. We explored how wing size was related to wing shape in territorial males of 37 taxa of the damselfly family Calopterygidae. Wing coloration was also included in the analyses because it is sexually and naturally selected and has been shown to be related to wing shape. We studied wing shape using both the non-dimensional radius of the second moment of wing area (RSM) and geometric morphometrics. Lower values of the RSM result in less energetically demanding flight and wider ranges of flight speed. We also re-analyzed previously published data on other damselflies and dragonflies. Results The RSM showed a hump-shaped relationship with wing size. However, after correcting for phylogeny using independent contrast, this pattern changed to a negative linear relationship. The basal genus of the study family, Hetaerina, was mainly driving that change. The obtained patterns were specific for the study family and differed from other damselflies and dragonflies. The relationship between the RSM and wing shape measured by geometric morphometrics was linear, but relatively small changes along the RSM axis can result in large changes in wing shape. Our results also showed that wing coloration may have some effect on RSM. Conclusions We found that RSM showed a complex relationship with size in calopterygid damselflies, probably as a result of other selection pressures besides wing size per se. Wing coloration and specific behavior (e.g. courtship) are potential candidates for explaining the complexity. Univariate measures of wing shape such as RSM are more intuitive but lack the high resolution of other multivariate techniques such as geometric morphometrics. We suggest that the relationship between wing shape and size are taxa-specific and differ among closely-related insect groups. PMID:23742224
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Saunders, David
1997-01-01
An aerodynamic shape optimization method that treats the design of complex aircraft configurations subject to high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD), geometric constraints and multiple design points is described. The design process will be greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and distributed memory computer architectures. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods. The resulting problem is implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on a higher order CFD method. In order to facilitate the integration of these high fidelity CFD approaches into future multi-disciplinary optimization (NW) applications, new methods must be developed which are capable of simultaneously addressing complex geometries, multiple objective functions, and geometric design constraints. In our earlier studies, we coupled the adjoint based design formulations with unconstrained optimization algorithms and showed that the approach was effective for the aerodynamic design of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations. In many of the results presented in these earlier works, geometric constraints were satisfied either by a projection into feasible space or by posing the design space parameterization such that it automatically satisfied constraints. Furthermore, with the exception of reference 9 where the second author initially explored the use of multipoint design in conjunction with adjoint formulations, our earlier works have focused on single point design efforts. Here we demonstrate that the same methodology may be extended to treat
Demonstration of Automatically-Generated Adjoint Code for Use in Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Lawrence; Carle, Alan; Fagan, Mike
1999-01-01
Gradient-based optimization requires accurate derivatives of the objective function and constraints. These gradients may have previously been obtained by manual differentiation of analysis codes, symbolic manipulators, finite-difference approximations, or existing automatic differentiation (AD) tools such as ADIFOR (Automatic Differentiation in FORTRAN). Each of these methods has certain deficiencies, particularly when applied to complex, coupled analyses with many design variables. Recently, a new AD tool called ADJIFOR (Automatic Adjoint Generation in FORTRAN), based upon ADIFOR, was developed and demonstrated. Whereas ADIFOR implements forward-mode (direct) differentiation throughout an analysis program to obtain exact derivatives via the chain rule of calculus, ADJIFOR implements the reverse-mode counterpart of the chain rule to obtain exact adjoint form derivatives from FORTRAN code. Automatically-generated adjoint versions of the widely-used CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an algebraic wing grid generation code were obtained with just a few hours processing time using the ADJIFOR tool. The codes were verified for accuracy and were shown to compute the exact gradient of the wing lift-to-drag ratio, with respect to any number of shape parameters, in about the time required for 7 to 20 function evaluations. The codes have now been executed on various computers with typical memory and disk space for problems with up to 129 x 65 x 33 grid points, and for hundreds to thousands of independent variables. These adjoint codes are now used in a gradient-based aerodynamic shape optimization problem for a swept, tapered wing. For each design iteration, the optimization package constructs an approximate, linear optimization problem, based upon the current objective function, constraints, and gradient values. The optimizer subroutines are called within a design loop employing the approximate linear problem until an optimum shape is found, the design loop
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1994-01-01
The primary accomplishments of the project are as follows: (1) Using the transonic small perturbation equation as a flowfield model, the project demonstrated that the quasi-analytical method could be used to obtain aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for airfoils at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic conditions for design variables such as Mach number, airfoil thickness, maximum camber, angle of attack, and location of maximum camber. It was established that the quasi-analytical approach was an accurate method for obtaining aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for airfoils at transonic conditions and usually more efficient than the finite difference approach. (2) The usage of symbolic manipulation software to determine the appropriate expressions and computer coding associated with the quasi-analytical method for sensitivity derivatives was investigated. Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, it was determined that symbolic manipulation along with a chain rule approach was extremely useful in developing a combined flowfield and quasi-analytical sensitivity derivative code capable of considering a large number of realistic design variables. (3) Using the three dimensional fully conservative full potential flowfield model, the quasi-analytical method was applied to swept wings (i.e. three dimensional) at transonic flow conditions. (4) The incremental iterative technique has been applied to the three dimensional transonic nonlinear small perturbation flowfield formulation, an equivalent plate deflection model, and the associated aerodynamic and structural discipline sensitivity equations; and coupled aeroelastic results for an aspect ratio three wing in transonic flow have been obtained.
Recent advances in steady compressible aerodynamic sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene J.-W.; Jones, Henry E.
1992-01-01
Sensitivity analysis methods are classified as belonging to either of the two broad categories: the discrete (quasi-analytical) approach and the continuous approach. The two approaches differ by the order in which discretization and differentiation of the governing equations and boundary conditions is undertaken. The discussion focuses on the discrete approach. Basic equations are presented, and the major difficulties are reviewed in some detail, as are the proposed solutions. Recent research activity concerned with the continuous approach is also discussed.
Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics through poststall for 21 novel planform shapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatlin, Gregory M.; Mcgrath, Brian E.
1995-01-01
To identify planform characteristics which have promise for a highly maneuverable vehicle, an investigation was conducted in the Langley Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of 21 planform geometries. Concepts studied included twin bodies, double wings, cutout wings, and serrated forebodies. The planform models tested were all 1/4-in.-thick flat plates with beveled edges on the lower surface to ensure uniform flow separation at angle of attack. A 1.0-in.-diameter cylindrical metric body with a hemispherical nose was used to house the six-component strain gauge balance for each configuration. Aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained across an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 70 deg with zero sideslip at a free-stream dynamic pressure of 30 psf. Surface flow visualization studies were also conducted on selected configurations using fluorescent minitufts. Results from the investigation indicate that a cutout wing planform can improve lift characteristics; however, cutout size, shape, and position and wing leading-edge sweep will all influence the effectiveness of the cutout configuration. Tests of serrated forebodies identified this concept as an extremely effective means of improving configuration lift characteristics; increases of up to 25 percent in the value of maximum lift coefficient were obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, William B.; Chung, James
1999-01-01
Aerodynamic performance calculations were performed using WIND on ten experimental ice shapes and the corresponding ten ice shapes predicted by LEWICE 2.0. The resulting data for lift coefficient and drag coefficient are presented. The difference in aerodynamic results between the experimental ice shapes and the LEWICE ice shapes were compared to the quantitative difference in ice shape geometry presented in an earlier report. Correlations were generated to determine the geometric features which have the most effect on performance degradation. Results show that maximum lift and stall angle can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the leading edge minimum thickness. Drag coefficient can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the frequency-weighted average of the Fourier coefficients. Pitching moment correlated with the upper horn angle and to a much lesser extent to the upper and lower horn thicknesses.
Design and performance of a shape memory alloy-reinforced composite aerodynamic profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, J. C.; Boller, C.
2008-04-01
Based on a shape memory alloy (SMA)-reinforced composite developed separately, the applicability of the composite has been demonstrated through realization of a realistically scaled aerodynamic profile of around 0.5 m span by 0.5 m root chord whose skins had been made from this composite. The design, manufacturing and assembly of the profile are described. The curved skins were manufactured with two layers of SMA wires integrated into the layup of aramid fibre prepregs. All SMA wires were connected such that they can be operated as individual sets of wires and at low voltages, similar to the conditions for electrical energy generation in a real aircraft. The profile was then mounted on a vibration test rig and excited by a shaker at its tip which allowed the dynamic performance of the profile to be validated under internal actuation conditions generated through the SMA wires.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.
1987-01-01
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. In addition to direct computational use, the analytical method presented here should provide benchmark criteria for assessing the accuracy of aerodynamic sensitivities obtained by approximate methods such as finite geometry perturbation and differencing. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Dual-Stream Supersonic Plug Nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.; Park, Michael A.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Carlson, Jan-Renee
2015-01-01
Aerodynamic shape optimization was performed on an isolated axisymmetric plug nozzle sized for a supersonic business jet. The dual-stream concept was tailored to attenuate nearfield pressure disturbances without compromising nozzle performance. Adjoint-based anisotropic mesh refinement was applied to resolve nearfield compression and expansion features in the baseline viscous grid. Deformed versions of the adapted grid were used for subsequent adjoint-driven shape optimization. For design, a nonlinear gradient-based optimizer was coupled to the discrete adjoint formulation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations. All nozzle surfaces were parameterized using 3rd order B-spline interpolants and perturbed axisymmetrically via free-form deformation. Geometry deformations were performed using 20 design variables shared between the outer cowl, shroud and centerbody nozzle surfaces. Interior volume grid deformation during design was accomplished using linear elastic mesh morphing. The nozzle optimization was performed at a design cruise speed of Mach 1.6, assuming core and bypass pressure ratios of 6.19 and 3.24, respectively. Ambient flight conditions at design were commensurate with 45,000-ft standard day atmosphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Jameson, Antony
1996-01-01
This work describes the application of a control theory-based aerodynamic shape optimization method to the problem of supersonic aircraft design. The design process is greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and a parallel implementation on distributed memory computers. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods (13, 12, 44, 38). The resulting problem is then implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on higher order computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). In our earlier studies, the serial implementation of this design method (19, 20, 21, 23, 39, 25, 40, 41, 42, 43, 9) was shown to be effective for the optimization of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations using both the potential equation and the Euler equations (39, 25). In our most recent paper, the Euler method was extended to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. Furthermore, during the same conference, we also presented preliminary results demonstrating that the basic methodology could be ported to distributed memory parallel computing architectures [241. In this paper, our concem will be to demonstrate that the combined power of these new technologies can be used routinely in an industrial design environment by applying it to the case study of the design of typical supersonic transport configurations. A particular difficulty of this test case is posed by the propulsion/airframe integration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Jameson, Antony
1996-01-01
This work describes the application of a control theory-based aerodynamic shape optimization method to the problem of supersonic aircraft design. The design process is greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and a parallel implementation on distributed memory computers. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods. The resulting problem is then implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on higher order computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). In our earlier studies, the serial implementation of this design method was shown to be effective for the optimization of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations using both the potential equation and the Euler equations. In our most recent paper, the Euler method was extended to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. Furthermore, during the same conference, we also presented preliminary results demonstrating that this basic methodology could be ported to distributed memory parallel computing architectures. In this paper, our concern will be to demonstrate that the combined power of these new technologies can be used routinely in an industrial design environment by applying it to the case study of the design of typical supersonic transport configurations. A particular difficulty of this test case is posed by the propulsion/airframe integration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyle, Karen H.
2014-01-01
Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation via flighttesting. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the sensitivity analysis of the structural response of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). HIAD architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during re-entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. In the example presented here, the structural parameters of an existing HIAD model have been varied to illustrate the design approach utilizing uncertainty-based methods. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense several orders of magnitude. The suitability of the design is based on assessing variation in the resulting cone angle. The acceptable cone angle variation would rely on the aerodynamic requirements.
Effect of Trailing Edge Shape on the Unsteady Aerodynamics of Reverse Flow Dynamic Stall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya
2015-11-01
This work considers dynamic stall in reverse flow, where flow travels over an oscillating airfoil from the geometric trailing edge towards the leading edge. An airfoil with a sharp geometric trailing edge causes early formation of a primary dynamic stall vortex since the sharp edge acts as the aerodynamic leading edge in reverse flow. The present work experimentally examines the potential merits of using an airfoil with a blunt geometric trailing edge to delay flow separation and dynamic stall vortex formation while undergoing oscillations in reverse flow. Time-resolved and phase-averaged flow fields and pressure distributions are compared for airfoils with different trailing edge shapes. Specifically, the evolution of unsteady flow features such as primary, secondary, and trailing edge vortices is examined. The influence of these flow features on the unsteady pressure distributions and integrated unsteady airloads provide insight on the torsional loading of rotor blades as they oscillate in reverse flow. The airfoil with a blunt trailing edge delays reverse flow dynamic stall, but this leads to greater downward-acting lift and pitching moment. These results are fundamental to alleviating vibrations of high-speed helicopters, where much of the rotor operates in reverse flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1975-01-01
The program SUSSA ACTS, steady and unsteady subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics for aerospace complex transportation system, is presented. Fully unsteady aerodynamics is discussed first, followed by developments on normal wash, pressure distribution, generalized forces, supersonic formulation, numerical results, geometry preprocessor, the user manual, control surfaces, and first order formulation. The ILSWAR program was also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oloso, Amidu Olawale
A hybrid automatic differentiation/incremental iterative method was implemented in the general purpose advanced computational fluid dynamics code (CFL3D Version 4.1) to yield a new code (CFL3D.ADII) that is capable of computing consistently discrete first order sensitivity derivatives for complex geometries. With the exception of unsteady problems, the new code retains all the useful features and capabilities of the original CFL3D flow analysis code. The superiority of the new code over a carefully applied method of finite-differences is demonstrated. A coarse grain, scalable, distributed-memory, parallel version of CFL3D.ADII was developed based on "derivative stripmining". In this data-parallel approach, an identical copy of CFL3D.ADII is executed on each processor with different derivative input files. The effect of communication overhead on the overall parallel computational efficiency is negligible. However, the fraction of CFL3D.ADII duplicated on all processors has significant impact on the computational efficiency. To reduce the large execution time associated with the sequential 1-D line search in gradient-based aerodynamic optimization, an alternative parallel approach was developed. The execution time of the new approach was reduced effectively to that of one flow analysis, regardless of the number of function evaluations in the 1-D search. The new approach was found to yield design results that are essentially identical to those obtained from the traditional sequential approach but at much smaller execution time. The parallel CFL3D.ADII and the parallel 1-D line search are demonstrated in shape improvement studies of a realistic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) wing/body configuration represented by over 100 design variables and 200,000 grid points in inviscid supersonic flow on the 16 node IBM SP2 parallel computer at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation (NAS) facility, NASA Ames Research Center. In addition to making the handling of such a large
Zelenyuk, Alla; Cai, Yong; Imre, Dan G.
2006-03-01
With the advert of aerosol instrumentation it has become possible to simultaneously measure individual particle mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameters. For spherical particles these two diameters yield individual particle density. In contrast, assigning a physical meaning to the mobility or aerodynamic diameter of aspherical particles is not straightforward. This paper presents an experimental exploration of the effect of particle shape on the relationship between mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameters. We make measurements on systems of three types: 1) Agglomerates of spheres, for which the density and the volume are known; 2) Ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, succinic acid and lauric acid irregularly shaped particles of known density; and 3) Internally mixed particles, containing organics and ammonium sulfate, of unknown density and shape. For agglomerates of spheres we observed alignment effects in the DMA and report the first measurements of the dynamic shape factors (DSFs) in free molecular regime. We present here the first experimental determination of the DSF of ammonium sulfate particles. We find for ammonium sulfate particles a DSF that increases from 1.03 to 1.07 as particle mobility diameter increases from 160 nm to 500 nm. Three types of NaC1 particles were generated and characterized: nearly spherical particles with DSF of ~1.02; cubic with DSF that increases from 1.065 to 1.17 as particle mobility diameter increases from 200 nm to 900 nm; and compact agglomerates with DSF 1.3-1.4. Organic particles were found very nearly spherical. The data suggest that particles composed of binary mixtures of ammonium sulfate and succinic acid have lower dynamic shape factors than pure ammonium sulfate particles. However, for internally mixed ammonium sulfate and lauric acid particles we cannot distinguish between nearly spherical particles with low density and particles with DSF of 1.17.
Holden, Daniel; Socha, John J; Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P
2014-02-01
A prominent feature of gliding flight in snakes of the genus Chrysopelea is the unique cross-sectional shape of the body, which acts as the lifting surface in the absence of wings. When gliding, the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi morphs its circular cross-section into a triangular shape by splaying its ribs and flattening its body in the dorsoventral axis, forming a geometry with fore-aft symmetry and a thick profile. Here, we aimed to understand the aerodynamic properties of the snake's cross-sectional shape to determine its contribution to gliding at low Reynolds numbers. We used a straight physical model in a water tunnel to isolate the effects of 2D shape, analogously to studying the profile of an airfoil of a more typical flyer. Force measurements and time-resolved (TR) digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) were used to determine lift and drag coefficients, wake dynamics and vortex-shedding characteristics of the shape across a behaviorally relevant range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The snake's cross-sectional shape produced a maximum lift coefficient of 1.9 and maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 2.7, maintained increases in lift up to 35 deg, and exhibited two distinctly different vortex-shedding modes. Within the measured Reynolds number regime (Re=3000-15,000), this geometry generated significantly larger maximum lift coefficients than many other shapes including bluff bodies, thick airfoils, symmetric airfoils and circular arc airfoils. In addition, the snake's shape exhibited a gentle stall region that maintained relatively high lift production even up to the highest angle of attack tested (60 deg). Overall, the cross-sectional geometry of the flying snake demonstrated robust aerodynamic behavior by maintaining significant lift production and near-maximum lift-to-drag ratios over a wide range of parameters. These aerodynamic characteristics help to explain how the snake can glide at steep angles and over a wide range of angles of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Desmarais, Robert N.
1990-01-01
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin-Bi, Zhang; Lei, Ding; Ying-Ping, Wang; Li, Zhang; Jin-Lei, Wu; Hai-Yang, Zheng; Li, Fang
2016-03-01
Particle shape contributes to understanding the physical and chemical processes of the atmosphere and better ascertaining the origins and chemical compositions of the particles. The particle shape can be classified by the aspect ratio, which can be estimated through the asymmetry factor measured with angularly resolved light scattering. An experimental method of obtaining the asymmetry factor based on simultaneous small forward angle light scattering and aerodynamic size measurements is described briefly. The near forward scattering intensity signals of three detectors in the azimuthal angles at 120° offset are calculated using the methods of T-matrix and discrete dipole approximation. Prolate spheroid particles with different aspect ratios are used as the shape models with the assumption that the symmetry axis is parallel to the flow axis and perpendicular to the incident light. The relations between the asymmetry factor and the optical size and aerodynamic size at various equivalent sizes, refractive indices, and mass densities are discussed in this paper. The numerically calculated results indicate that an elongated particle may be classified at diameter larger than 1.0 μm, and may not be distinguished from a sphere at diameter less than 0.5 μm. It is estimated that the lowest detected aspect ratio is around 1.5:1 in consideration of the experimental errors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41275132).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji; Ido, Atsushi
As the maximum speed of high-speed trains increases, flow-induced vibration of trains in tunnels has become a subject of discussion in Japan. In this paper, we report the result of a study on use of modifications of train shapes as a countermeasure for reducing an unsteady aerodynamic force by on-track tests and a wind tunnel test. First, we conduct a statistical analysis of on-track test data to identify exterior parts of a train which cause the unsteady aerodynamic force. Next, we carry out a wind tunnel test to measure the unsteady aerodynamic force acting on a train in a tunnel and examined train shapes with a particular emphasis on the exterior parts identified by the statistical analysis. The wind tunnel test shows that fins under the car body are effective in reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. Finally, we test the fins by an on-track test and confirmed its effectiveness.
Effects of body shape on the aerodynamics of a body of revolution at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spearman, M. L.
1985-01-01
The aerodnamic characteristics for several bodies of revolution have been determined from wind tunnel tests at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.63. Six bodies, each having a length-to-diameter ratio of 6.67, were investigated. Geometric modifications included forebody shape, afterbody shape, and midsection slope. Significant aerodynamic changes were observed to be functions of geometric change and Mach number. Because of the aerodynamic dependence on geometry as well as Mach number, it is obvious that a number of trades must be considered in selecting a projectile shape.
Not Available
1993-01-01
In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qiang
The effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape on the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils are investigated in compressible, high speed flows. The University of Utah Transonic Wind Tunnel is employed for the experimental part of the study. Two different test sections are designed to produce Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, passage mass flow rates, and physical dimensions, which match values along turbine blades in operating engines: (i) a nonturning test section with a symmetric airfoil, and (ii) a cascade test section with a cambered turbine vane. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional surface roughness is characterized using the equivalent sand grain roughness size. Changing the airfoil surface roughness condition has a substantial effect on wake profiles of total pressure loss coefficients, normalized Mach number, normalized kinetic energy, and on the normalized and dimensional magnitudes of Integrated Aerodynamic Losses produced by the airfoils. Comparisons with results for a symmetric airfoil and a cambered vane show that roughness has more substantial effects on losses produced by the symmetric airfoil than the cambered vane. Data are also provided that illustrate the larger loss magnitudes are generally present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Wake turbulence structure of symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes are also studied experimentally. The effects of surface roughness and freestream turbulence levels on wake distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and power spectral density profiles and vortex shedding frequencies are quantified one axial chord length downstream of the test airfoils. As the level of surface roughness increases, all wake profile quantities broaden significantly and nondimensional vortex shedding frequencies decrease. Wake profiles produced by the symmetric airfoil are more sensitive to variations of surface
Shape reanalysis and sensitivities utilizing preconditioned iterative boundary solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guru Prasad, K.; Kane, J. H.
1992-01-01
The computational advantages associated with the utilization of preconditined iterative equation solvers are quantified for the reanalysis of perturbed shapes using continuum structural boundary element analysis (BEA). Both single- and multi-zone three-dimensional problems are examined. Significant reductions in computer time are obtained by making use of previously computed solution vectors and preconditioners in subsequent analyses. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated for the computation of shape response sensitivities required in shape optimization. Computer times and accuracies achieved using the preconditioned iterative solvers are compared with those obtained via direct solvers and implicit differentiation of the boundary integral equations. It is concluded that this approach employing preconditioned iterative equation solvers in reanalysis and sensitivity analysis can be competitive with if not superior to those involving direct solvers.
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Three-Dimensional Ice Shapes on a NACA 23012 Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jun, Garam; Oliden, Daniel; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Tsao, Jen-Ching
2014-01-01
The present study identifies a process for performing computational fluid dynamic calculations of the flow over full three-dimensional (3D) representations of complex ice shapes deposited on aircraft surfaces. Rime and glaze icing geometries formed on a NACA23012 airfoil were obtained during testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The ice shape geometries were scanned as a cloud of data points using a 3D laser scanner. The data point clouds were meshed using Geomagic software to create highly accurate models of the ice surface. The surface data was imported into Pointwise grid generation software to create the CFD surface and volume grids. It was determined that generating grids in Pointwise for complex 3D icing geometries was possible using various techniques that depended on the ice shape. Computations of the flow fields over these ice shapes were performed using the NASA National Combustion Code (NCC). Results for a rime ice shape for angle of attack conditions ranging from 0 to 10 degrees and for freestream Mach numbers of 0.10 and 0.18 are presented. For validation of the computational results, comparisons were made to test results from rapid-prototype models of the selected ice accretion shapes, obtained from a separate study in a subsonic wind tunnel at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The computational and experimental results were compared for values of pressure coefficient and lift. Initial results show fairly good agreement for rime ice accretion simulations across the range of conditions examined. The glaze ice results are promising but require some further examination.
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Three-Dimensional Ice Shapes on a NACA 23012 Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jun, GaRam; Oliden, Daniel; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Tsao, Jen-Ching
2014-01-01
The present study identifies a process for performing computational fluid dynamic calculations of the flow over full three-dimensional (3D) representations of complex ice shapes deposited on aircraft surfaces. Rime and glaze icing geometries formed on a NACA23012 airfoil were obtained during testing in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The ice shape geometries were scanned as a cloud of data points using a 3D laser scanner. The data point clouds were meshed using Geomagic software to create highly accurate models of the ice surface. The surface data was imported into Pointwise grid generation software to create the CFD surface and volume grids. It was determined that generating grids in Pointwise for complex 3D icing geometries was possible using various techniques that depended on the ice shape. Computations of the flow fields over these ice shapes were performed using the NASA National Combustion Code (NCC). Results for a rime ice shape for angle of attack conditions ranging from 0 to 10 degrees and for freestream Mach numbers of 0.10 and 0.18 are presented. For validation of the computational results, comparisons were made to test results from rapid-prototype models of the selected ice accretion shapes, obtained from a separate study in a subsonic wind tunnel at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The computational and experimental results were compared for values of pressure coefficient and lift. Initial results show fairly good agreement for rime ice accretion simulations across the range of conditions examined. The glaze ice results are promising but require some further examination.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, C. G., III
1982-01-01
Pressure distributions, aerodynamic coefficients, and shock shapes were measured on blunt bodies of revolution in Mach 6 CF4 and in Mach 6 and Mach 10 air. The angle of attack was varied from 0 deg to 20 deg in 4 deg increments. Configurations tested were a hyperboloid with an asymptotic angle of 45 deg, a sonic-corner paraboloid, a paraboloid with an angle of 27.6 deg at the base, a Viking aeroshell generated in a generalized orthogonal coordinate system, and a family of cones having a 45 deg half-angle with spherical, flattened, concave, and cusp nose shapes. Real-gas effects were simulated for the hperboloid and paraboloid models at Mach 6 by testing at a normal-shock density ratio of 5.3 in air and 12 CF4. Predictions from simple theories and numerical flow field programs are compared with measurement. It is anticipated that the data presented in this report will be useful for verification of analytical methods for predicting hypersonic flow fields about blunt bodies at incidence.
Additional Investigations of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.
2006-01-01
A second parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this work was to further investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD and appendix C icing conditions. A previous study concluded that it was feasible to use changes in ice shape features (e.g., ice horn angle, ice horn thickness, and ice shape mass) to detect relatively small variations in icing spray condition parameters (LWC, MVD, and temperature). The subject of this current investigation extends the scope of this previous work, by also examining the effect of icing tunnel spray-bar parameter variations (water pressure, air pressure) on ice shape feature changes. The approach was to vary spray-bar water pressure and air pressure, and then evaluate the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes. This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results.
Boundary formulations for shape sensitivity of temperature dependent conductivity problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, James H.; Wang, Hua
1992-01-01
Used in concert with the Kirchhoff transformation, implicit differentiation of the discretized boundary integral equations governing the conduction of heat in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity is shown to generate an accurate and economical approach for computation of shape sensitivities. For problems with specified temperature and heat flux boundary conditions, a linear problem results for both the analysis and sensitivity analysis. In problems with either convection or radiation boundary conditions, a nonlinear problem is generated. Several iterative strategies are presented for the solution of the resulting sets of nonlinear equations and the computational performances examined in detail. Multizone analysis and zone condensation strategies are demonstrated to provide substantive computational economies in this process for models with either localized nonlinear boundary conditions or regions of geometric insensitivity to design variables. A series of nonlinear example problems is presented that have closed form solutions. Exact analytical expressions for the shape sensitivities associated with these problems are developed and these are compared with the sensitivities computed using the boundary element formulation.
Automated divertor target design by adjoint shape sensitivity analysis and a one-shot method
Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.
2014-12-01
As magnetic confinement fusion progresses towards the development of first reactor-scale devices, computational tokamak divertor design is a topic of high priority. Presently, edge plasma codes are used in a forward approach, where magnetic field and divertor geometry are manually adjusted to meet design requirements. Due to the complex edge plasma flows and large number of design variables, this method is computationally very demanding. On the other hand, efficient optimization-based design strategies have been developed in computational aerodynamics and fluid mechanics. Such an optimization approach to divertor target shape design is elaborated in the present paper. A general formulation of the design problems is given, and conditions characterizing the optimal designs are formulated. Using a continuous adjoint framework, design sensitivities can be computed at a cost of only two edge plasma simulations, independent of the number of design variables. Furthermore, by using a one-shot method the entire optimization problem can be solved at an equivalent cost of only a few forward simulations. The methodology is applied to target shape design for uniform power load, in simplified edge plasma geometry.
Shape-sensitive Pauli blockade in a bent carbon nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András
2015-01-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [F. Pei et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 630 (2012), 10.1038/nnano.2012.160], we theoretically study the Pauli blockade transport effect in a double quantum dot embedded in a bent carbon nanotube. We establish a model for the Pauli blockade, taking into account the strong g -factor anisotropy that is linked to the local orientation of the nanotube axis in each quantum dot. We provide a set of conditions under which our model is approximately mapped to the spin-blockade model of Jouravlev and Nazarov [O. N. Jouravlev and Y. V. Nazarov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 176804 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.176804]. The results we obtain for the magnetic anisotropy of the leakage current, together with their qualitative geometrical explanation, provide a possible interpretation of previously unexplained experimental results. Furthermore, we find that in a certain parameter range, the leakage current becomes highly sensitive to the shape of the tube, and this sensitivity increases with increasing g -factor anisotropy. This mutual dependence of the electron transport and the tube shape allows for mechanical control of the leakage current, and for characterization of the tube shape via measuring the leakage current.
Preliminary Investigation of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.
2005-01-01
A parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this preliminary work was to investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD icing conditions. It was desired to identify the minimum change (threshold) in a parameter value, which yielded an observable change in the ice shape. Liquid Water Content (LWC), drop size distribution (MVD), and tunnel static temperature were varied about a nominal value, and the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes were documented. The resulting differences in ice shapes were compared on the basis of qualitative and quantitative criteria (e.g., mass, ice horn thickness, ice horn angle, icing limits, and iced area). This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results, followed by a discussion of recommendations for future research.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using control theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony
1995-01-01
This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for wing and wing-body design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for airfoils and wings in which the shape and the surrounding body-fitted mesh are both generated analytically, and the control is the mapping function. Recently, the method has been implemented for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations using an alternative formulation which employs numerically generated grids, so that it can more easily be extended to treat general configurations. Here results are presented both for the optimization of a swept wing using an analytic mapping, and for the optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using a general mesh.
Calculation of Compressible Flows past Aerodynamic Shapes by Use of the Streamline Curvature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perl, W
1947-01-01
A simple approximate method is given for the calculation of isentropic irrotational flows past symmetrical airfoils, including mixed subsonic-supersonic flows. The method is based on the choice of suitable values for the streamline curvature in the flow field and the subsequent integration of the equations of motion. The method yields limiting solutions for potential flow. The effect of circulation is considered. A comparison of derived velocity distributions with existing results that are based on calculation to the third order in the thickness ratio indicated satisfactory agreement. The results are also presented in the form of a set of compressibility correction rules that lie between the Prandtl-Glauert rule and the von Karman-Tsien rule (approximately). The different rules correspond to different values of the local shape parameter square root sign YC sub a, in which Y is the ordinate and C sub a is the curvature at a point on an airfoil. Bodies of revolution, completely supersonic flows, and the significance of the limiting solutions for potential flow are also briefly discussed.
On the proper treatment of grid sensitivities in continuous adjoint methods for shape optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavvadias, I. S.; Papoutsis-Kiachagias, E. M.; Giannakoglou, K. C.
2015-11-01
The continuous adjoint method for shape optimization problems, in flows governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, can be formulated in two different ways, each of which leads to a different expression for the sensitivity derivatives of the objective function with respect to the control variables. The first formulation leads to an expression including only boundary integrals; it, thus, has low computational cost but, when used with coarse grids, its accuracy becomes questionable. The second formulation comprises a sum of boundary and field integrals; due to the field integrals, it has noticeably higher computational cost, obtaining though higher accuracy. In this paper, the equivalence of the two formulations is revisited from the mathematical and, particularly, the numerical point of view. Internal and external aerodynamics cases, in which the objective function is either the total pressure losses or the force exerted on a solid body, are examined and differences in the computed gradients are discussed. After identifying the reason behind these discrepancies, the adjoint formulation is enhanced by the adjoint to a (hypothetical) grid displacement model and the new approach is proved to reproduce the accuracy of the second adjoint formulation while maintaining the low cost of the first one.
Sensitivity Analysis in Engineering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adelman, Howard M. (Compiler); Haftka, Raphael T. (Compiler)
1987-01-01
The symposium proceedings presented focused primarily on sensitivity analysis of structural response. However, the first session, entitled, General and Multidisciplinary Sensitivity, focused on areas such as physics, chemistry, controls, and aerodynamics. The other four sessions were concerned with the sensitivity of structural systems modeled by finite elements. Session 2 dealt with Static Sensitivity Analysis and Applications; Session 3 with Eigenproblem Sensitivity Methods; Session 4 with Transient Sensitivity Analysis; and Session 5 with Shape Sensitivity Analysis.
An initial investigation into methods of computing transonic aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1991-01-01
The three dimensional quasi-analytical sensitivity analysis and the ancillary driver programs are developed needed to carry out the studies and perform comparisons. The code is essentially contained in one unified package which includes the following: (1) a three dimensional transonic wing analysis program (ZEBRA); (2) a quasi-analytical portion which determines the matrix elements in the quasi-analytical equations; (3) a method for computing the sensitivity coefficients from the resulting quasi-analytical equations; (4) a package to determine for comparison purposes sensitivity coefficients via the finite difference approach; and (5) a graphics package.
Sensitivity of aerodynamic forces in laminar and turbulent flow past a square cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meliga, Philippe; Boujo, Edouard; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, François
2014-10-01
We use adjoint-based gradients to analyze the sensitivity of the drag force on a square cylinder. At Re = 40, the flow settles down to a steady state. The quantity of interest in the adjoint formulation is the steady asymptotic value of drag reached after the initial transient, whose sensitivity is computed solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of the stable base solution. At Re = 100, the flow develops to the time-periodic, vortex-shedding state. The quantity of interest is rather the time-averaged mean drag, whose sensitivity is computed integrating backwards in time an unsteady adjoint problem from knowledge of the entire history of the vortex-shedding solution. Such theoretical frameworks allow us to identify the sensitive regions without computing the actually controlled states, and provide a relevant and systematic guideline on where in the flow to insert a secondary control cylinder in the attempt to reduce drag, as established from comparisons with dedicated numerical simulations of the two-cylinder system. For the unsteady case at Re = 100, we also compute an approximation to the mean drag sensitivity solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of only the mean flow solution, and show the approach to carry valuable information in view of guiding relevant control strategy, besides reducing tremendously the related numerical effort. An extension of this simplified framework to turbulent flow regime is examined revisiting the widely benchmarked flow at Reynolds number Re = 22 000, the theoretical predictions obtained in the frame of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling being consistent with experimental data from the literature. Application of the various sensitivity frameworks to alternative control objectives such as increasing the lift and reducing the fluctuating drag and lift is also discussed and illustrated with a few selected examples.
A biodegradable shape-memory nanocomposite with excellent magnetism sensitivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xiongjun; Zhou, Shaobing; Zheng, Xiaotong; Guo, Tao; Xiao, Yu; Song, Botao
2009-06-01
This paper reports a kind of biodegradable nanocomposite which can show an excellent shape-memory property in hot water or in an alternating magnetic field with f = 20 kH and H = 6.8 kA m-1. The nanocomposite is composed of crosslinked poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (c-PCL) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The crosslinking reaction in PCL with linear molecular structure was realized using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator. The biocompatible Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm were synthesized according to a chemical coprecipitation method. The initial results from c-PCL showed crosslinking modification had brought about a large enhancement in shape-memory effect for PCL. Then a series of composites made of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and c-PCL were prepared and their morphological properties, mechanical properties, thermodynamic properties and shape-memory effect were investigated in succession. Significantly, the photos of the shape-memory process confirmed the anticipatory magnetically responsive shape-recovery effect of the nanocomposites because inductive heat from Fe3O4 can be utilized to actuate the c-PCL vivification from their frozen temporary shape. All the results imply a very feasible method to fabricate shape-memory PCL-based nanocomposites since just a simple modification is required. Additionally, this modification would endow an excellent shape-memory effect to all other kinds of polymers so that they could broadly serve in various fields, especially in medicine.
Shape-coupled magnetoresistive structures: a new approach to higher sensitivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyuzhev, N. A.; Yurov, A. S.; Preobrazhenskii, R. Yu.; Mazurkin, N. S.; Chinenkov, M. Yu.
2016-05-01
A new type of anisotropic magnetoresistive structures is proposed in which the shape of ferromagnetic elements repeats the shape of nonmagnetic conducting shunts. The results of numerical simulations with allowance for inhomogeneous magnetization distribution showed that these shape-coupled structures exhibit a significant (~70%) increase in sensitivity as compared to that of classical barber-pole structures.
Aero-Structural Interaction, Analysis, and Shape Sensitivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, James C., III
1999-01-01
A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis technique that has been shown to be independent of step-size selection is examined further. The accuracy of this step-size independent technique, which uses complex variables for determining sensitivity derivatives, has been previously established. The primary focus of this work is to validate the aero-structural analysis procedure currently being used. This validation consists of comparing computed and experimental data obtained for an Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2). Since the aero-structural analysis procedure has the complex variable modifications already included into the software, sensitivity derivatives can automatically be computed. Other than for design purposes, sensitivity derivatives can be used for predicting the solution at nearby conditions. The use of sensitivity derivatives for predicting the aero-structural characteristics of this configuration is demonstrated.
Shape Sensitive Assembly and Colloidal Superball Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soni, Vishal; Rossi, Laura; Ashton, Douglas J.; Pine, David J.; Philipse, Albert P.; Chaikin, Paul M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Sacanna, Stefano; Irvine, William T. M.
Guiding the self-assembly of materials by controlling the shape of the individual particle constituents is a powerful approach to material design. In particular the assembly of colloidal particles driven by depletants is a versatile playground for investigating this potential. We find that colloidal ``superballs'' may assemble into distinct phases that depend on both their shape and the size of the depletants. By using a mixture of depletants, one of which is size-tunable, we can explore reversible transitions between these phases.
Shape-sensitive crystallization in colloidal superball fluids
Rossi, Laura; Soni, Vishal; Ashton, Douglas J.; Pine, David J.; Philipse, Albert P.; Chaikin, Paul M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Sacanna, Stefano; Irvine, William T. M.
2015-01-01
Guiding the self-assembly of materials by controlling the shape of the individual particle constituents is a powerful approach to material design. We show that colloidal silica superballs crystallize into canted phases in the presence of depletants. Some of these phases are consistent with the so-called “Λ1” lattice that was recently predicted as the densest packing of superdisks. As the size of the depletant is reduced, however, we observe a transition to a square phase. The differences in these entropically stabilized phases result from an interplay between the size of the depletants and the fine structure of the superball shape. We find qualitative agreement of our experimental results both with a phase diagram computed on the basis of the volume accessible to the depletants and with simulations. By using a mixture of depletants, one of which is thermosensitive, we induce solid-to-solid phase transitions between square and canted structures. The use of depletant size to leverage fine features of the shape of particles in driving their self-assembly demonstrates a general and powerful mechanism for engineering novel materials. PMID:25870301
Stiffness-matrix condition number and shape sensitivity errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, Raphael T.
1990-01-01
This paper derives an error magnification index for assessing the sensitivity of the displacement field to errors in the load vector. It is shown that the error magnification index is less conservative than the stiffness-matrix condition number and that, for some cases, no error magnification occurs even when the condition number is very high. The proposed index was used to calculate the derivatives of beam response to changes in the beam structural parameters, using a semianalytical method. It is shown that the proposed index discriminates well between the calculation of the derivative with respect to length, which is very sensitive to errors, and the calculation of the derivative with respect to cross-sectional height, which is not sensitive.
High Sensitivity of Tidewater Glacier Dynamics to Shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enderlin, E. M.; Howat, I. M.; Vieli, A.
2012-12-01
Tidewater outlet glaciers in close proximity to each other, and therefore likely exposed to similar external forcing, display contrasting dynamic behavior. This variability has been attributed to differences in outlet shape (i.e., bed elevation and width), but this dependence has not been investigated in detail. We apply a one-dimensional (depth-integrated, flow-line) numerical ice flow model to glaciers of varying width and bed topography, based on observations from Greenland, and compare their response to perturbation at the calving front, designed to simulate a reduction in buttressing. Each glacier is initially grounded on a shoal, immediately seaward of a basal depression, and perturbed from steady state by increasing the strain rate across the calving front. Following this perturbation, all glaciers undergo initial retreat and thinning as the glacier geometry adjusts to the new stress balance. Narrower glaciers and those with higher shoals tend to reach a new steady state before they become ungrounded from the shoal, resulting in little total retreat and thinning. On the other hand, wider glaciers and those with deeper shoals are initially closer to flotation, so that thinning results in ungrounding over the basal depression and rapid, unstable retreat. Once triggered, along-flow differences in outlet shape influence both the timing and magnitude of this retreat. The difference in initial thickness between several glaciers that remain stable and those that undergo unstable retreat is on the order of 10's of meters, and small (< 35 m) changes in bed height can result in switching from stable to unstable retreat. Since these differences are similar to the resolution of ice thickness measurements, it is unclear whether observations can adequately constrain prognostic models of glacier dynamics.
On 3-D modeling and automatic regridding in shape design sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Kyung K.; Yao, Tse-Min
1987-01-01
The material derivative idea of continuum mechanics and the adjoint variable method of design sensitivity analysis are used to obtain a computable expression for the effect of shape variations on measures of structural performance of three-dimensional elastic solids.
Shape design sensitivities using fully automatic 3-D mesh generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Botkin, M. E.
1990-01-01
Previous work in three dimensional shape optimization involved specifying design variables by associating parameters directly with mesh points. More recent work has shown the use of fully-automatic mesh generation based upon a parameterized geometric representation. Design variables have been associated with a mathematical model of the part rather than the discretized representation. The mesh generation procedure uses a nonuniform grid intersection technique to place nodal points directly on the surface geometry. Although there exists an associativity between the mesh and the geometrical/topological entities, there is no mathematical functional relationship. This poses a problem during certain steps in the optimization process in which geometry modification is required. For the large geometrical changes which occur at the beginning of each optimization step, a completely new mesh is created. However, for gradient calculations many small changes must be made and it would be too costly to regenerate the mesh for each design variable perturbation. For that reason, a local remeshing procedure has been implemented which operates only on the specific edges and faces associated with the design variable being perturbed. Two realistic design problems are presented which show the efficiency of this process and test the accuracy of the gradient computations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomson, Robert G.
1959-01-01
A study has been made of the effects of varying the shape, solidity, and heat-transfer coefficient of thin wings with regard to their influence on the torsional-stiffness reduction induced by aerodynamic heating. The variations in airfoil shape include blunting, flattening, and combined blunting and flattening of a solid wing of symmetrical double-wedge cross section. Hollow double-wedge wings of constant skin thickness with and without internal webs also are considered. The effects of heat-transfer coefficients appropriate for laminar and turbulent flow are investigated in addition to a step transition along the chord from a lower to a higher constant value of heat-transfer coefficient. From the results given it is concluded that the flattening of a solid double wedge decreases the reduction in torsional stiffness while slight degrees of blunting increase the loss. The influence of chordwise variations in heat-transfer coefficient due to turbulent and laminar boundary-layer flow on the torsional stiffness of solid wings is negligible. The effect of a step transition in heat-transfer coefficient along the chord of a solid wing can, however, become appreciable. The torsional-stiffness reduction of multiweb and hollow double-wedge wings is substantially less than that calculated for a solid wing subjected to the same heating conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Jack N.
1988-01-01
The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, R. T. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
An airfoil is examined that has an upper surface shaped to control flow accelerations and pressure distribution over the upper surface and to prevent separation of the boundary layer due to shock wave formulation at high subsonic speeds well above the critical Mach number. A highly cambered trailing edge section improves overall airfoil lifting efficiency. Diagrams illustrating supersonic flow and shock waves over the airfoil are shown.
Deep Neural Networks as a Computational Model for Human Shape Sensitivity
Op de Beeck, Hans P.
2016-01-01
Theories of object recognition agree that shape is of primordial importance, but there is no consensus about how shape might be represented, and so far attempts to implement a model of shape perception that would work with realistic stimuli have largely failed. Recent studies suggest that state-of-the-art convolutional ‘deep’ neural networks (DNNs) capture important aspects of human object perception. We hypothesized that these successes might be partially related to a human-like representation of object shape. Here we demonstrate that sensitivity for shape features, characteristic to human and primate vision, emerges in DNNs when trained for generic object recognition from natural photographs. We show that these models explain human shape judgments for several benchmark behavioral and neural stimulus sets on which earlier models mostly failed. In particular, although never explicitly trained for such stimuli, DNNs develop acute sensitivity to minute variations in shape and to non-accidental properties that have long been implicated to form the basis for object recognition. Even more strikingly, when tested with a challenging stimulus set in which shape and category membership are dissociated, the most complex model architectures capture human shape sensitivity as well as some aspects of the category structure that emerges from human judgments. As a whole, these results indicate that convolutional neural networks not only learn physically correct representations of object categories but also develop perceptually accurate representational spaces of shapes. An even more complete model of human object representations might be in sight by training deep architectures for multiple tasks, which is so characteristic in human development. PMID:27124699
Deep Neural Networks as a Computational Model for Human Shape Sensitivity.
Kubilius, Jonas; Bracci, Stefania; Op de Beeck, Hans P
2016-04-01
Theories of object recognition agree that shape is of primordial importance, but there is no consensus about how shape might be represented, and so far attempts to implement a model of shape perception that would work with realistic stimuli have largely failed. Recent studies suggest that state-of-the-art convolutional 'deep' neural networks (DNNs) capture important aspects of human object perception. We hypothesized that these successes might be partially related to a human-like representation of object shape. Here we demonstrate that sensitivity for shape features, characteristic to human and primate vision, emerges in DNNs when trained for generic object recognition from natural photographs. We show that these models explain human shape judgments for several benchmark behavioral and neural stimulus sets on which earlier models mostly failed. In particular, although never explicitly trained for such stimuli, DNNs develop acute sensitivity to minute variations in shape and to non-accidental properties that have long been implicated to form the basis for object recognition. Even more strikingly, when tested with a challenging stimulus set in which shape and category membership are dissociated, the most complex model architectures capture human shape sensitivity as well as some aspects of the category structure that emerges from human judgments. As a whole, these results indicate that convolutional neural networks not only learn physically correct representations of object categories but also develop perceptually accurate representational spaces of shapes. An even more complete model of human object representations might be in sight by training deep architectures for multiple tasks, which is so characteristic in human development. PMID:27124699
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaquet, Byron M.
1961-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was made at a Mach number of 3.10 (Reynolds number per foot of 16.3 x 10(exp 6) to 16.9 x 10(exp 6)) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of various modifications of the payload section of the fourth stage of the Scout research vehicle. It was found that, for the combination of stages 3 and 4, increasing the size of the nose of the basic Scout to provide a cylindrical section of the same diameter as the third stage increased the normal-force slope by about 30 percent, the axial force by about 39 percent, and moved the center of pressure forward by about one fourth-stage base diameter. By reducing the diameter of the cylinder, at about one nose length behind the base of the enlarged nose frustum, to that of the basic Scout and thereafter retaining the shape of the basic Scout, the center of pressure was moved rearward by about one-half fourth-stage base diameter at the expense of an additional 19-percent increase in axial force. A spike-hemisphere configuration had the largest forces and moments and the most forward center-of-pressure location of the configurations considered. Except for the axial force and pitching-moment slope, the experimental trends or magnitudes could not be estimated with the desired accuracy by Newtonian or-slender body theory.
Effects of sensitizer length on radiation crosslinked shape-memory polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, Taylor; Voit, Walter; Gall, Ken
2010-04-01
Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can be designed to retain a metastable state and upon activation, recover a preprogrammed shape. In this study, poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) is blended with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) of various molecular weights in various concentrations and subsequently exposed to ionizing radiation. PEGDA sensitizes the radiation crosslinking of PMA, lowering the minimum absorbed dose for gelation and increasing the rubbery modulus, after crosslinking. Minimum dose for gelation, as determined by the Charlesby-Pinner equation, decreases from 25.57 kGy for unblended PMA to 2.06 kGy for PMA blended with 10.00 mole% PEGDA. Moreover, increase in the blend concentration of PEGDA increases the crosslinking density of the resulting networks. Sensitizer length, namely Mn of PEGDA, also affects crosslinking and final mechanical properties. Increase in the length of the PEGDA molecule at a constant molar ratio increases the efficacy of the molecule as a radiation sensitizer as determined by the increase in gel fraction and rubbery modulus across doses. However, at a constant weight ratio of PEGDA to PMA, shorter PEGDA chains sensitize more crosslinking because they have more reactive ends per weight fraction. Sensitized samples of PMA with PEGDA were tested for shape-memory properties and showed shape fixity of greater than 99%. Samples had a glass transition temperature near 28 °C and recovered between 97% and 99% of the induced strain when strained to 50%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yuan; Wang, Renxin; Zhang, Guojun; Du, Jin; Zhao, Long; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun
2015-07-01
This paper presents methods of promoting the sensitivity of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) vector hydrophone by increasing the sensing area of cilium and perfect insulative Parylene membrane. First, a low-density sphere is integrated with the cilium to compose a "lollipop shape," which can considerably increase the sensing area. A mathematic model on the sensitivity of the "lollipop-shaped" MEMS vector hydrophone is presented, and the influences of different structural parameters on the sensitivity are analyzed via simulation. Second, the MEMS vector hydrophone is encapsulated through the conformal deposition of insulative Parylene membrane, which enables underwater acoustic monitoring without any typed sound-transparent encapsulation. Finally, the characterization results demonstrate that the sensitivity reaches up to -183 dB (500 Hz 0dB at 1 V/ μPa ), which is increased by more than 10 dB, comparing with the previous cilium-shaped MEMS vector hydrophone. Besides, the frequency response takes on a sensitivity increment of 6 dB per octave. The working frequency band is 20-500 Hz and the concave point depth of 8-shaped directivity is beyond 30 dB, indicating that the hydrophone is promising in underwater acoustic application.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou
1992-01-01
The performance of a recently introduced statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion is studied here for rigid particles injected into a round turbulent jet. Both uniform and isosceles triangle pdfs are used. The statistical sensitivity to parcel pdf shape is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Joseph
2006-01-01
Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.
Effects of X-shaped reduction-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymer on drug delivery.
Xiao, Haijun; Wang, Lu
2015-01-01
To study the effects of X-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers on delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and the reduction-sensitive property on drug release, a novel reduction-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 with a Gemini-like X-shape, was successfully synthesized. The formation of nanomicelles was proved with respect to the blue shift of the emission fluorescence as well as the fluorescent intensity increase of coumarin 6-loaded particles. The X-shaped polymers exhibited a smaller critical micelle concentration value and possessed higher micellar stability in comparison with those of linear ones. The size of X-shaped (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 polymer nanomicelles (XNMs) was much smaller than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. The reduction sensitivity of polymers was confirmed by the increase of micellar sizes as well as the in vitro drug release profile of DTX-loaded XNMs (DTX/XNMs). Cytotoxicity assays in vitro revealed that the blank XNMs were nontoxic against A2780 cells up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL, displaying good biocompatibility. DTX/XNMs were more toxic against A2780 cells than other formulations in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Cellular uptake assay displayed a higher intracellular drug delivery efficiency of XNMs than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. Besides, the promotion of tubulin polymerization induced by DTX was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis, and the acceleration of apoptotic process against A2780 cells was also imaged using a fluorescent staining method. Therefore, this X-shaped reduction-sensitive (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 copolymer could effectively improve the micellar stability and significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DTX by increasing the cellular uptake and selectively accelerating the drug release inside cancer cells. PMID:26346880
Effects of X-shaped reduction-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymer on drug delivery
Xiao, Haijun; Wang, Lu
2015-01-01
To study the effects of X-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers on delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and the reduction-sensitive property on drug release, a novel reduction-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 with a Gemini-like X-shape, was successfully synthesized. The formation of nanomicelles was proved with respect to the blue shift of the emission fluorescence as well as the fluorescent intensity increase of coumarin 6-loaded particles. The X-shaped polymers exhibited a smaller critical micelle concentration value and possessed higher micellar stability in comparison with those of linear ones. The size of X-shaped (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 polymer nanomicelles (XNMs) was much smaller than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. The reduction sensitivity of polymers was confirmed by the increase of micellar sizes as well as the in vitro drug release profile of DTX-loaded XNMs (DTX/XNMs). Cytotoxicity assays in vitro revealed that the blank XNMs were nontoxic against A2780 cells up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL, displaying good biocompatibility. DTX/XNMs were more toxic against A2780 cells than other formulations in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Cellular uptake assay displayed a higher intracellular drug delivery efficiency of XNMs than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. Besides, the promotion of tubulin polymerization induced by DTX was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis, and the acceleration of apoptotic process against A2780 cells was also imaged using a fluorescent staining method. Therefore, this X-shaped reduction-sensitive (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 copolymer could effectively improve the micellar stability and significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DTX by increasing the cellular uptake and selectively accelerating the drug release inside cancer cells. PMID:26346880
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Jennifer Hansen
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.
Gao, Hong-fei; Zhang, Shu-hai; Ren, Fu-de; Gou, Rui-jun; Han, Gang; Wu, Jing-bo; Ding, Xiong; Zhao, Wen-hu
2016-05-01
Multilayer-shaped compression and slide models were employed to investigate the complex sensitive mechanisms of cocrystal explosives in response to external mechanical stimuli. Here, density functional theory (DFT) calculations implementing the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) with the Tkatchenko-Scheffler (TS) dispersion correction were applied to a series of cocrystal explosives: diacetone diperoxide (DADP)/1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TCTNB), DADP/1,3,5-tribromo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TBTNB) and DADP/1,3,5-triiodo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TITNB). The results show that the GGA-PBE-TS method is suitable for calculating these cocrystal systems. Compression and slide models illustrate well the sensitive mechanism of layer-shaped cocrystals of DADP/TCTNB and DADP/TITNB, in accordance with the results from electrostatic potentials and free space per molecule in cocrystal lattice analyses. DADP/TCTNB and DADP/TBTNB prefer sliding along a diagonal direction on the a-c face and generating strong intermolecular repulsions, compared to DADP/TITNB, which slides parallel to the b-c face. The impact sensitivity of DADP/TBTNB is predicted to be the same as that of DADP/TCTNB, and the impact sensitivity of DADP/TBTNB may be slightly more insensitive than that of DADP and much more sensitive than that of TBTNB. PMID:27094730
Sensitivity-based operational mode shape normalisation: Application to a bridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parloo, E.; Cauberghe, B.; Benedettini, F.; Alaggio, R.; Guillaume, P.
2005-01-01
Recently, an innovative sensitivity-based technique was introduced for the normalisation of operational mode shapes purely on a basis of output-only data. The technique is based on the use of a controlled mass modification experiment and does not involve any analytical models. Moreover, it allows to extend the applicability of many modal analysis based applications towards the domain of in-operation modal testing. Previously, this method was successfully tested by means of experiments on various mechanical engineering structures. The focus of this contribution is the validation of the sensitivity-based normalisation technique on a civil structure. For this purpose, measurements were performed on a bridge.
Spin-sensitive shape asymmetry of adatoms on noncollinear magnetic substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serrate, D.; Yoshida, Y.; Moro-Lagares, M.; Kubetzka, A.; Wiesendanger, R.
2016-03-01
The spin-resolved density of states of Co atoms on a noncollinear magnetic support displays a distinct shape contrast, which is superimposed on the regular height contrast in spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. The apparent atom height follows the well-known cosine dependence on the angle formed by the tip and adatom local magnetization directions, whereas the shape contrast exhibits a sine dependence. We explain this effect in terms of a noncollinear spin density induced by the substrate, which in our case is the spin spiral of the Mn monolayer on W(110). The two independent contrast channels, apparent height and shape, are identified with the Co magnetization projections onto two orthogonal axes. As a result, all components of the overall atom magnetic moment vector can be determined with a single spin-sensitive tip in the absence of an external magnetic field. This result should be general for any atom deposited on noncollinear magnetic layers.
Accuracy of the domain method for the material derivative approach to shape design sensitivities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, R. J.; Botkin, M. E.
1987-01-01
Numerical accuracy for the boundary and domain methods of the material derivative approach to shape design sensitivities is investigated through the use of mesh refinement. The results show that the domain method is generally more accurate than the boundary method, using the finite element technique. It is also shown that the domain method is equivalent, under certain assumptions, to the implicit differentiation approach not only theoretically but also numerically.
Modal Response of Trapezoidal Wing Structures Using Second Order Shape Sensitivities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.
2000-01-01
The modal response of wing structures is very important for assessing their dynamic response including dynamic aeroelastic instabilities. Moreover, in a recent study an efficient structural optimization approach was developed using structural modes to represent the static aeroelastic wing response (both displacement and stress). In this paper, the modal response of general trapezoidal wing structures is approximated using shape sensitivities up to the 2nd order. Also different approaches of computing the derivatives are investigated.
Structural shape optimization in multidisciplinary system synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
1988-01-01
Structural shape optimization couples with other discipline optimization in the design of complex engineering systems. For instance, the wing structural weight and elastic deformations couple to aerodynamic loads and aircraft performance through drag. This coupling makes structural shape optimization a subtask in the overall vehicle synthesis. Decomposition methods for optimization and sensitivity analysis allow the specialized disciplinary methods to be used while the disciplines are temporarily decoupled, after which the interdisciplinary couplings are restored at the system level. Application of decomposition methods to structures-aerodynamics coupling in aircraft is outlined and illustrated with a numerical example of a transport aircraft. It is concluded that these methods may integrate structural and aerodynamic shape optimizations with the unified objective of the maximum aircraft performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua
2000-01-01
At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.
Natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods assembly of broccoli shape based solar cells.
Yuvapragasam, Akila; Muthukumarasamy, N; Agilan, S; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Senthil, T S; Sundaram, Senthilarasu
2015-07-01
TiO2 nanorods based thin films with rutile phase have been synthesized using template free low temperature hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the prepared TiO2 samples were made of TiO2 nanorods and the nanorods had arranged by itself to form a broccoli like shape. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the prepared TiO2 samples exhibit rutile phase. The grown TiO2 nanorods had been sensitized using the flowers of Sesbania (S) grandiflora, leaves of Camellia (C) sinensis and roots of Rubia (R) tinctorum. Dye sensitized solar cells had been fabricated using the natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods based thin film photoelectrode and the open circuit voltage and short circuit current density were found to lie in the range of 0.45-0.6 V and 5.6-6.4 mA/cm(2) respectively. The photovoltaic performance of all the fabricated natural dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells indicate that natural dyes have the potential to be used as effective sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:25974906
Stangel, Christina; Bagaki, Anthi; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Charalambidis, Georgios; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanasios G
2014-11-17
Two novel "spider-shaped" porphyrins, meso-tetraaryl-substituted 1PV-Por and zinc-metalated 1PV-Zn-Por, bearing four oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) pyridyl groups with long dodecyloxy chains on the phenyl groups, have been synthesized. The presence of four pyridyl groups in both porphyrins, which allow them to act as anchoring groups upon coordination to various Lewis acid sites, the conjugated oPPV bridges, which offer the possibility of electronic communication between the porphyrin core and the pyridyl groups, and the dodecyloxy groups, which offer the advantage of high solubility in a variety of organic solvents of different polarities and could prevent porphyrin aggregation, renders porphyrins 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photophysical measurements, together with electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations, suggest that both porphyrins have frontier molecular orbital energy levels that favor electron injection and dye regeneration in DSSCs. Solar cells sensitized by 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por were fabricated, and it was found that they show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.28 and 5.12%, respectively. Photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) together with incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency spectra of the two cells reveal that the higher PCE value of the DSSC based on 1PV-Zn-Por is ascribed to higher short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and dye loading values. Emission spectra and electrochemistry experiments suggest a greater driving force for injection of the photogenerated electrons into the TiO2 conduction band for 1PV-Zn-Por rather than its free-base analogue. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the utilization of 1PV-Zn-Por as a sensitizer offers a high charge recombination resistance and, therefore, leads to a longer electron lifetime. PMID:25365138
Wang, Huaguang; Li, Binghui; Yodh, Arjun G; Zhang, Zexin
2016-08-16
The dynamic manipulation of colloidal particle shape offers a novel design mechanism for the creation of advanced responsive materials. To this end, we introduce a versatile new strategy for shape control of anisotropic polymeric colloidal particles. The concept utilizes temperature-sensitive absorption of a suitable solvent from a binary mixture. Specifically, increasing the temperature in the vicinity of the demixing transition of a binary mixture causes more solvent to be absorbed into the polymeric colloidal particle, which, in turn, lowers the glass transition temperature of the polymer inside the particle, with a concomitant decrease in viscosity. The balance between the internal viscosity and surface tension of the particle is thus disrupted, and the anisotropic shape of the particle shifts to become more spherical. Subsequent rapid temperature quenching can halt the process, leaving the particle with an intermediate anisotropy. The resultant shape anisotropy control provides new routes for studies of the phase transitions of anisotropic colloids and enables the fabrication of unique particles for materials applications. PMID:27409766
Boundary-element shape sensitivity analysis for thermal problems with nonlinear boundary conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, James H.; Wang, Hua
1991-01-01
Implicit differentiation of the discretized boundary integral equations governing the conduction of heat in solid objects subjected to nonlinear boundary conditions is shown to generate an accurate and economical approach for the computation of shape sensitivities for this class of problems. This approach involves the employment of analytical derivatives of boundary-element kernel functions with respect to shape design variables. A formulation is presented that can consistently account for both temperature-dependent convection and radiation boundary conditions. Several iterative strategies are presented for the solution of the resulting sets of nonlinear equations and the computational performances examined in detail. Multizone analysis and zone condensation strategies are demonstrated to provide substantive computational economies in this process for models with either localized nonlinear boundary conditions or regions of geometric insensitivity to design variables. A series of nonlinear example problems are presented that have closed-form solutions.
Imaging structure sensitive catalysis on different shape-controlled platinum nanoparticles.
Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M; Solla-Gullón, José; Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J; Aldaz, Antonio; Montiel, Vicente; Herrero, Enrique
2010-04-28
The structure sensitive catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles (NPs) is directly imaged using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). We synthesize and compare four types of Pt NPs: spherical, cubic, hexagonal, and tetrahedral-octahedral. Our SECM images show the hexagonal Pt NPs displaying the highest activity for ORR in two acid electrolytes. Meanwhile, cubic and tetrahedral-octahedral NPs drastically change their activity depending on specific adsorption of the different anions in solution. The NPs morphology produces predominant crystallographic planes at the surface of these shape-controlled Pt NPs, which are responsible for their different catalytic activity. Our results translate the studies on Pt single crystal electrodes present in the literature into Pt NPs that are useful as a catalyst in real fuel cells. PMID:20359217
Investigations of sensitivity and resolution of ECG and MCG in a realistically shaped thorax model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mäntynen, Ville; Konttila, Teijo; Stenroos, Matti
2014-12-01
Solving the inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) is often referred to as cardiac source imaging. Spatial properties of ECG and MCG as imaging systems are, however, not well known. In this modelling study, we investigate the sensitivity and point-spread function (PSF) of ECG, MCG, and combined ECG+MCG as a function of source position and orientation, globally around the ventricles: signal topographies are modelled using a realistically-shaped volume conductor model, and the inverse problem is solved using a distributed source model and linear source estimation with minimal use of prior information. The results show that the sensitivity depends not only on the modality but also on the location and orientation of the source and that the sensitivity distribution is clearly reflected in the PSF. MCG can better characterize tangential anterior sources (with respect to the heart surface), while ECG excels with normally-oriented and posterior sources. Compared to either modality used alone, the sensitivity of combined ECG+MCG is less dependent on source orientation per source location, leading to better source estimates. Thus, for maximal sensitivity and optimal source estimation, the electric and magnetic measurements should be combined.
Comparing the Shape of Contrast Sensitivity Functions for Normal and Low Vision
Chung, Susana T. L.; Legge, Gordon E.
2016-01-01
Purpose The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) provides a detailed description of an individual's spatial-pattern detection capability. We tested the hypothesis that the CSFs of people with low vision differ from a “normal” CSF only in their horizontal and vertical positions along the spatial frequency (SF) and contrast sensitivity (CS) axes. Methods Contrast sensitivity for detecting horizontal sinewave gratings was measured with a two temporal-interval forced-choice staircase procedure, for a range of SFs spanning 5 to 6 octaves, for 20 low-vision observers and five adults with normal vision. An asymmetric parabolic function was used to fit the aggregate data of the normal-vision observers, yielding the “normal template.” Each of the 20 low-vision CSFs was fit in two ways, by using a shape-invariant version of the normal template (with the width parameters fixed) that was shifted along the log-SF and log-CS axes, and by an unconstrained asymmetric parabolic function (“free-fit”). Results The two fitting methods yielded values of the peak CS, the SF corresponding to peak CS, and the high cut-off SF that were highly correlated and in good agreement with each other. In addition, the width parameters of the low-vision CSFs were comparable with those of the normal template, implying that low-vision CSFs are similar in shape to the normal CSF. Conclusions The excellent agreement of parameters estimated by the two fitting methods suggests that low-vision CSFs can be approximated by a normal CSF shifted along the log-SF and log-CS axes to account for the impaired acuity and contrast sensitivity. PMID:26795826
Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii.
Royer, Dana L; McElwain, Jennifer C; Adams, Jonathan M; Wilf, Peter
2008-01-01
* Variation in the size and shape (physiognomy) of leaves has long been correlated to climate, and paleobotanists have used these correlations to reconstruct paleo-climate. Most studies focus on site-level means of largely nonoverlapping species sets. The sensitivity of leaf shape to climate within species is poorly known, which limits our general understanding of leaf-climate relationships and the value of intraspecific patterns for paleoclimate reconstructions. * The leaf physiognomy of two species whose native North American ranges span large climatic gradients (Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii) was quantified and correlated to mean annual temperature (MAT). Quercus kelloggii was sampled across a wide elevation range, but A. rubrum was sampled in strictly lowland areas. * Within A. rubrum, leaf shape correlates with MAT in a manner that is largely consistent with previous site-level studies; leaves from cold climates are toothier and more highly dissected. By contrast, Q. kelloggii is largely insensitive to MAT; instead, windy conditions with ample plant-available water may explain the preponderance of small teeth at high elevation sites, independent of MAT. * This study highlights the strong correspondence between leaf form and climate within some species, and demonstrates that intraspecific patterns may contribute useful information towards reconstructing paleoclimate. PMID:18507771
PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishita, Sadao
2010-02-01
The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami
1993-02-01
A design sensitivity calculation technique based on the implicit differentiation method is formulated for isoparametric boundary elements for three-dimensional (3D) shape optimization problems. The practical sensitivity equations for boundary displacements and stresses are derived, and the efficiency and accuracy of the technique are compared with the semi-analytic method by implementing the sensitivity analysis of typical and basic shape design problems numerically. The sensitivity calculation technique is then applied to the minimum weight design problems of 3D bodies under stress constraints, such as the shape optimization of the ellipsoidal cavity in a cube and the connecting rod, where the Taylor series approximation, based on the boundary element sensitivity analysis at current design point, is adopted for the efficient implementation of the optimization.
Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.
Zhang, Hong-Xia; Ryoo, Young-Jae; Byun, Kyung-Seok
2016-01-01
The torque sensor is used to measure the joint torque of a robot manipulator. Previous research showed that the sensitivity and the stiffness of torque sensors have trade-off characteristics. Stiffness has to be sacrificed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor. In this research, a new torque sensor with high sensitivity (TSHS) is proposed in order to resolve this problem. The key idea of the TSHS comes from its 4-bar linkage shape in which the angular displacement of a short link is larger than that of a long link. The sensitivity of the torque sensor with a 4-bar link shape is improved without decreasing stiffness. Optimization techniques are applied to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. An actual TSHS is constructed to verify the validity of the proposed mechanism. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of TSHS can be increased 3.5 times without sacrificing stiffness. PMID:27376304
Zhang, Hong-Xia; Ryoo, Young-Jae; Byun, Kyung-Seok
2016-01-01
The torque sensor is used to measure the joint torque of a robot manipulator. Previous research showed that the sensitivity and the stiffness of torque sensors have trade-off characteristics. Stiffness has to be sacrificed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor. In this research, a new torque sensor with high sensitivity (TSHS) is proposed in order to resolve this problem. The key idea of the TSHS comes from its 4-bar linkage shape in which the angular displacement of a short link is larger than that of a long link. The sensitivity of the torque sensor with a 4-bar link shape is improved without decreasing stiffness. Optimization techniques are applied to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. An actual TSHS is constructed to verify the validity of the proposed mechanism. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of TSHS can be increased 3.5 times without sacrificing stiffness. PMID:27376304
A High Sensitivity Three-Dimensional-Shape Sensing Patch Prepared by Lithography and Inkjet Printing
Huang, Yi-Ren; Kuo, Sheng-An; Stach, Michal; Liu, Chia-Hsing; Liao, Kuan-Hsun; Lo, Cheng-Yao
2012-01-01
A process combining conventional photolithography and a novel inkjet printing method for the manufacture of high sensitivity three-dimensional-shape (3DS) sensing patches was proposed and demonstrated. The supporting curvature ranges from 1.41 to 6.24 × 10−2 mm−1 and the sensing patch has a thickness of less than 130 μm and 20 × 20 mm2 dimensions. A complete finite element method (FEM) model with simulation results was calculated and performed based on the buckling of columns and the deflection equation. The results show high compatibility of the drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing with photolithography and the interferometer design also supports bi-directional detection of deformation. The 3DS sensing patch can be operated remotely without any power consumption. It provides a novel and alternative option compared with other optical curvature sensors. PMID:22666025
On the Shape Sensitivity of the First Dirichlet Eigenvalue for Two-Phase Problems
Dambrine, M.; Kateb, D.
2011-02-15
We consider a two-phase problem in thermal conductivity: inclusions filled with a material of conductivity {sigma}{sub 1} are layered in a body of conductivity {sigma}{sub 2}. We address the shape sensitivity of the first eigenvalue associated with Dirichlet boundary conditions when both the boundaries of the inclusions and the body can be modified. We prove a differentiability result and provide the expressions of the first and second order derivatives. We apply the results to the optimal design of an insulated body. We prove the stability of the optimal design thanks to a second order analysis. We also continue the study of an extremal eigenvalue problem for a two-phase conductor in a ball initiated by Conca et al. (Appl. Math. Optim. 60(2):173-184, 2009) and pursued in Conca et al. (CANUM 2008, ESAIM Proc., vol. 27, pp. 311-321, EDP Sci., Les Ulis, 2009).
Evaluation of thermographic phosphor technology for aerodynamic model testing
Cates, M.R.; Tobin, K.W.; Smith, D.B.
1990-08-01
The goal for this project was to perform technology evaluations applicable to the development of higher-precision, higher-temperature aerodynamic model testing at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahmoa, Tennessee. With the advent of new programs for design of aerospace craft that fly at higher speeds and altitudes, requirements for detailed understanding of high-temperature materials become very important. Model testing is a natural and critical part of the development of these new initiatives. The well-established thermographic phosphor techniques of the Applied Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are highly desirable for diagnostic evaluation of materials and aerodynamic shapes as studied in model tests. Combining this state-of-the-art thermographic technique with modern, higher-temperature models will greatly improve the practicability of tests for the advanced aerospace vehicles and will provide higher precision diagnostic information for quantitative evaluation of these tests. The wavelength ratio method for measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models was demonstrated in measurements made for this project. In particular, it was shown that the appropriate phosphors could be selected for the temperature range up to {approximately}700 {degree}F or higher and emission line ratios of sufficient sensitivity to measure temperature with 1% precision or better. Further, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional image- processing methods, using standard hardware, can be successfully applied to surface thermography of aerodynamic models for AEDC applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul; Singh, Sachchidanand; Agarwal, Poornima
2015-04-01
Aerosol properties changes with the change in mixing state of aerosols and thus aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. A detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out during 2007-2008. These results were used to examine the sensitivity of optical properties to the aerosol mixing state. Black carbon, BC was measured directly by Aethalometer. The species are grouped into four major components; dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS) and BC. To infer the probable mixing state of aerosols in the Delhi NCR, eight different mixing cases, external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell type mixing which includes two modes of dust (accumulation and coarse) have been considered. Core-shell mixing cases are considered to be as follows - BC over dust, WS over dust, BC over WS and, WS over BC. These core shell mixed components are then externally mixed with rest of the aerosol species. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing state cases are calculated. These optical properties are utilized to estimate the radiative forcing using a radiative transfer model. The surface-reaching fluxes for each of the cases are compared with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux. MISR aerosol products were also analyzed to understand the seasonal variations of the bulk aerosol properties that may help in interpreting the sensitivity results. We observed that for the pre-monsoon season (MAMJ), core shell mixed case; BC coated over WS (surface DRF is -10.52 Wm-2) and BC over coarse dust (surface DRF is -2.81 Wm-2) are the most probable mixing states. For monsoon season (JAS,) BC coated over coarse dust (often referred to as polluted dust) (surface DRF is -0.60 Wm-2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, F. J.
1976-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored-thrust concept in which jet-exhaust nozzles were located in the fuselage at or near the wing trailing edge. The effects of moving twin rectangular nozzles rearward from the wing trailing edge and of round nozzles at the trailing edge only were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, angles of attack up to 14 deg, and thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Nozzle deflection angle varied from 0 deg to 45 deg. Separate force balances were used to determine both total aerodynamic and thrust forces and thrust forces alone which allowed for a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. The Reynolds number per meter varied from 8.20 x 1 million to 13.12 x 1 million.
Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics
Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick
2004-10-17
Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeGostin, Matthew B.; Nakajo, Arata; Cassenti, Brice N.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Nelson, George J.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.
2015-09-01
A rapid microstructural assessment tool has previously been developed to support electrode design efforts by modeling charge transport and surface electrochemistry through networks of transport channels represented by ideal axisymmetric electrochemical fins. Analytical solutions have allowed these fins to take the form of a positive curvature sphere, a neutral curvature conical frustum, and a negative curvature smooth exponential profile. The present paper aims to enhance the geometric sensitivity of the network modeling tool by fitting ideal fin shapes to individual channels within the microstructure via dimensionless parameters describing channel morphology. The tool is used to directly compute effective transport properties of a range of microstructures, including artificial packed sphere structures and real solid oxide fuel cell electrode and gas membrane material microstructures imaged by X-ray nanotomography. Results obtained are compared with detailed finite element analyses and predictions from percolation theory. It is shown that the model can capture transport losses associated with microstructure on the particle scale, highlighting its potential as a less computationally demanding complement to detailed numerical models such as finite element or lattice Boltzmann methods for preliminary electrode design screening. Results also emphasize the importance of capturing local microstructural effects of specific transport networks, as electrochemical fin results provide more accurate performance predictions than percolation theory for structures near their percolation threshold.
Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes
Zabow, G.; Dodd, S. J.; Koretsky, A. P.
2015-01-01
Fluorescent and plasmonic labels and sensors have revolutionized molecular biology, helping visualize in vitro cellular and biomolecular processes1–3. Increasingly, such probes are now designed to respond to wavelengths in the near infrared region, where reduced tissue autofluorescence and photon attenuation enable subsurface in vivo sensing4. But even in the near infrared, optical resolution and sensitivity decrease rapidly with increasing depth. Here we present a sensor design that obviates the need for optical addressability by operating in the NMR radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, where signal attenuation and distortion by tissue and biological media are negligible, where background interferences vanish, and where sensors can be spatially located using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The RF-addressable sensor assemblies presented here are comprised of pairs of magnetic disks spaced by swellable hydrogel material; they reversibly reconfigure in rapid response to chosen stimuli, to give geometry-dependent, dynamic NMR spectral signatures. Sensors can be made from biocompatible materials, are detectable down to low concentrations, and offer potential responsive NMR spectral shifts approaching a million times those of traditional magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Inherent adaptability should allow such shape-changing systems to measure numerous different environmental and physiological indicators, affording broadly generalizable, MRI-compatible, RF analogues to optically-based probes for use in basic chemical, biological and medical research. PMID:25778701
DeGostin, Matthew B.; Nakajo, Arata; Cassenti, Brice N.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Nelson, George J.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.
2015-09-01
A rapid microstructural assessment tool has previously been developed to support electrode design efforts by modeling charge transport and surface electrochemistry through networks of transport channels represented by ideal axisymmetric electrochemical fins. Analytical solutions have allowed these fins to take the form of a positive curvature sphere, a neutral curvature conical frustum, and a negative curvature smooth exponential profile. Our paper aims to enhance the geometric sensitivity of the network modeling tool by fitting ideal fin shapes to individual channels within the microstructure via dimensionless parameters describing channel morphology. The tool is used to directly compute effective transport properties of a range of microstructures, including artificial packed sphere structures and real solid oxide fuel cell electrode and gas membrane material microstructures imaged by X-ray nanotomography. The results we obtained are compared with detailed finite element analyses and predictions from percolation theory. It is shown that the model can capture transport losses associated with microstructure on the particle scale, highlighting its potential as a less computationally demanding complement to detailed numerical models such as finite element or lattice Boltzmann methods for preliminary electrode design screening. Results also emphasize the importance of capturing local microstructural effects of specific transport networks, as electrochemical fin results provide more accurate performance predictions than percolation theory for structures near their percolation threshold.
Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes.
Zabow, G; Dodd, S J; Koretsky, A P
2015-04-01
Fluorescent and plasmonic labels and sensors have revolutionized molecular biology, helping visualize cellular and biomolecular processes. Increasingly, such probes are now being designed to respond to wavelengths in the near-infrared region, where reduced tissue autofluorescence and photon attenuation enable subsurface in vivo sensing. But even in the near-infrared region, optical resolution and sensitivity decrease rapidly with increasing depth. Here we present a sensor design that obviates the need for optical addressability by operating in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio-frequency spectrum, where signal attenuation and distortion by tissue and biological media are negligible, where background interferences vanish, and where sensors can be spatially located using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The radio-frequency-addressable sensor assemblies presented here comprise pairs of magnetic disks spaced by swellable hydrogel material; they reversibly reconfigure in rapid response to chosen stimuli, to give geometry-dependent, dynamic NMR spectral signatures. The sensors can be made from biocompatible materials, are themselves detectable down to low concentrations, and offer potential responsive NMR spectral shifts that are close to a million times greater than those of traditional magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Inherent adaptability should allow such shape-changing systems to measure numerous different environmental and physiological indicators, thus providing broadly generalizable, MRI-compatible, radio-frequency analogues to optically based probes for use in basic chemical, biological, medical and engineering research. PMID:25778701
Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabow, G.; Dodd, S. J.; Koretsky, A. P.
2015-04-01
Fluorescent and plasmonic labels and sensors have revolutionized molecular biology, helping visualize cellular and biomolecular processes. Increasingly, such probes are now being designed to respond to wavelengths in the near-infrared region, where reduced tissue autofluorescence and photon attenuation enable subsurface in vivo sensing. But even in the near-infrared region, optical resolution and sensitivity decrease rapidly with increasing depth. Here we present a sensor design that obviates the need for optical addressability by operating in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio-frequency spectrum, where signal attenuation and distortion by tissue and biological media are negligible, where background interferences vanish, and where sensors can be spatially located using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The radio-frequency-addressable sensor assemblies presented here comprise pairs of magnetic disks spaced by swellable hydrogel material; they reversibly reconfigure in rapid response to chosen stimuli, to give geometry-dependent, dynamic NMR spectral signatures. The sensors can be made from biocompatible materials, are themselves detectable down to low concentrations, and offer potential responsive NMR spectral shifts that are close to a million times greater than those of traditional magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Inherent adaptability should allow such shape-changing systems to measure numerous different environmental and physiological indicators, thus providing broadly generalizable, MRI-compatible, radio-frequency analogues to optically based probes for use in basic chemical, biological, medical and engineering research.
Khoshgoftar, M; Vrancken, A C T; van Tienen, T G; Buma, P; Janssen, D; Verdonschot, N
2015-06-01
Since meniscal geometry affects the cartilage contact pressures, it is essential to carefully define the geometry of the synthetic meniscal implant that we developed. Recently, six independent modes of size- and shape-related geometry variation were identified through 3D statistical shape modeling (SSM) of the medial meniscus. However, this model did not provide information on the functional importance of these geometry characteristics. Therefore, in this study finite element simulations were performed to determine the influence of anatomically-based meniscal implant size and shape variations on knee cartilage contact pressures. Finite element simulations of the knee joint were performed for a total medial meniscectomy, an allograft, the average implant geometry, six implant sizes and ten shape variations. The geometries of the allograft and all implant variations were based on the meniscus SSM. Cartilage contact pressures and implant tensile strains were evaluated in full extension under 1200N of axial compression. The average implant induced cartilage peak pressures intermediate between the allograft and meniscectomy and also reduced the cartilage area subjected to pressures >5MPa compared to the meniscectomy. The smaller implant sizes resulted in lower cartilage peak pressures and compressive strains than the allograft, yet high implant tensile strains were observed. Shape modes 2, 3 and 6 affected the cartilage contact stresses but to a lesser extent than the size variations. Shape modes 4 and 5 did not result in changes of the cartilage stress levels. The present study indicates that cartilage contact mechanics are more sensitive to implant size than to implant shape. Down-sizing the implant resulted in more favorable contact mechanics, but caused excessive material strains. Further evaluations are necessary to balance cartilage contact pressures and material strains to ensure cartilage protection and longevity of the implant. PMID:25766390
Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun
2011-01-01
A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.
Leek, E Charles; Roberts, Mark; Oliver, Zoe J; Cristino, Filipe; Pegna, Alan J
2016-08-01
Here we investigated the time course underlying differential processing of local and global shape information during the perception of complex three-dimensional (3D) objects. Observers made shape matching judgments about pairs of sequentially presented multi-part novel objects. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure perceptual sensitivity to 3D shape differences in terms of local part structure and global shape configuration - based on predictions derived from hierarchical structural description models of object recognition. There were three types of different object trials in which stimulus pairs (1) shared local parts but differed in global shape configuration; (2) contained different local parts but shared global configuration or (3) shared neither local parts nor global configuration. Analyses of the ERP data showed differential amplitude modulation as a function of shape similarity as early as the N1 component between 146-215ms post-stimulus onset. These negative amplitude deflections were more similar between objects sharing global shape configuration than local part structure. Differentiation among all stimulus types was reflected in N2 amplitude modulations between 276-330ms. sLORETA inverse solutions showed stronger involvement of left occipitotemporal areas during the N1 for object discrimination weighted towards local part structure. The results suggest that the perception of 3D object shape involves parallel processing of information at local and global scales. This processing is characterised by relatively slow derivation of 'fine-grained' local shape structure, and fast derivation of 'coarse-grained' global shape configuration. We propose that the rapid early derivation of global shape attributes underlies the observed patterns of N1 amplitude modulations. PMID:27396674
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T. (Compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim
1992-01-01
The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George
1990-01-01
Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)
2008-01-01
Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.
Hu, Fang Xin; Xie, Jia Le; Bao, Shu Juan; Yu, Ling; Li, Chang Ming
2015-08-15
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule released by most cancer cells under drug stimulation or/and disease development but it is extremely challenging to in situ while real-time sensitively detect NO due to its large diffusivity, low concentration and fast decay. Herein, shape-controlled reduced graphene oxide nanocomposing with ceria (rGO-CeO2) was synthesized via hydrothermal reaction to construct a highly sensitive real-time sensing platform for NO detection. The crystal shape of CeO2 nanoparticles in rGO-CeO2 composites significantly affects the sensing performance of rGO-CeO2, of which the regular hexagonal nanocrystal CeO2 achieves the highest sensitivity (1676.06 mA cm(-2) M(-1)), a wide dynamic range (18.0 nM to 5.6 µM) and a low detection limit (9.6 nM). This attributes to a synergical effect from high catalytic activity of the specifically shaped CeO2 nanocrystal and good conductivity/high surface area of rGO. This work demonstrates a way by rationally compose individual merit components while well control the nanostructure for a superior synergistic effect to build a smart sensing platform, while offering a great application potential to sensitively real-time detect NO released from living cells for diagnosis or/and studies of complicated biological processes. PMID:25840016
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singhvi, Sarvesh; Kapania, Rakesh K.
1992-01-01
In the present determination of the derivatives of natural frequencies and mode shapes of a generally laminated tapered skew plate, with respect to various shape parameters, springs are used to simulate the essential boundary conditions. The independent shape parameters are plate surface area, aspect ratio, taper ratio, and sweep angle. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are approximated over the range of the variable using linear, exponential, and pseudoexponential approximation schemes, and are compared with reanalysis-obtained values. Numerical results are presented for symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated plates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchowiecki, Marcin
2016-05-01
The ratios of partition functions at different temperatures are calculated and its dependence on potential energy shape is analyzed. The role of anharmonicity and non-rigidity of rotations is discussed in the context of the angular frequency and the shape of potential energy curve. A role of inflection point of potential energy curve for the quality of rigid rotor harmonic oscillator and rigid rotor Morse oscillator is elucidated.
Nostril Aerodynamics of Scenting Animals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Settles, G. S.
1997-11-01
Dogs and other scenting animals detect airborne odors with extraordinary sensitivity. Aerodynamic sampling plays a key role, but the literature on olfaction contains little on the external aerodynamics thereof. To shed some light on this, the airflows generated by a scenting dog were visualized using the schlieren technique. It was seen that the dog stops panting in order to scent, since panting produces a turbulent jet which disturbs scent-bearing air currents. Inspiratory airflow enters the nostrils from straight ahead, while expiration is directed to the sides of the nose and downward, as was found elsewhere in the case of rats and rabbits. The musculature and geometry of the dog's nose thus modulates the airflow during scenting. The aerodynamics of a nostril which must act reversibly as both inlet and outlet is briefly discussed. The eventual practical goal of this preliminary work is to achieve a level of understanding of the aerodynamics of canine olfaction sufficient for the design of a mimicking device. (Research supported by the DARPA Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Neutralization Program.)
Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.
2003-01-01
The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.
Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhong-Sheng; Li, Yue; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Min
2016-01-01
Electrostatic sensor arrays (ESAs) are promising in industrial applications related to charged particle monitoring. Sensitivity is a fundamental and commonly-used sensing characteristic of an ESA. However, the usually used spatial sensitivity, which is called static sensitivity here, is not proper for moving particles or capable of reflecting array signal processing algorithms integrated in an ESA. Besides, reports on ESAs for intermittent particles are scarce yet, especially lacking suitable array signal processing algorithms. To solve the problems, the dynamic sensitivity of ESA is proposed, and a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) along with its application in intermittent particle monitoring are taken as an example. In detail, a sensing model of the HSESCA is built. On this basis, its array signals are analyzed; the dynamic sensitivity is thereupon defined by analyzing the processing of the array signals. Besides, a component extraction-based array signal processing algorithm for intermittent particles is proposed, and the corresponding dynamic sensitivity is analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, simulated and experimental results are discussed, which validate the accuracy of the models and the effectiveness of the relevant approaches. The proposed dynamic sensitivity of ESA, as well as the array signal processing algorithm are expected to provide references in modeling, designing and using ESAs. PMID:27589767
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, A. G.
1958-01-01
Heat-transfer measurements were made on a simulated glide-rocket shape in free flight at Mach numbers up to 10 and free-stream Reynolds numbers of 2 x 10 based on distance along surface from apex and 3 x 10 based on nominal leading-edge diameter. The model simulated the bottom of a 75 deg delta wing at 8O deg angle of attack. The data indicated that for the test conditions a modified three-dimensional stagnation-point theory will predict to reasonable engineering accuracy the heating on a highly swept wing leading edge, the heating being reduced by sweep by the 3/2 power of the cosine of the sweep angle. The data also indicate that laminar heating rates over the windward surface of a highly swept flat glider wing at moderate angles of attack can be predicted with reasonable engineering accuracy by flat-plate theory using wedge local flow conditions and basing Reynolds numbers on lengths from the wing leading edge parallel to the surface center line.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jiashuai; Jiao, Jie; Fang, Cong; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu
2016-05-01
In this paper both linear and nonlinear magnetoelectric (ME) effects have been investigated intensively. In order to obtain magnetic amplification, we fabricated 3 multi-push-pull mode magnetoelectric laminated composites metglas/PMNT/metglas based on dumbbell-shaped metglas. The linear magnetoelectric charge coefficient is enhanced to 2600 pC/Oe at 2 Hz based on dumbbell-shaped metglas and it increases as the end-flange width of the dumbbell-shaped metglas increases at 2 Hz, respectively. Based on these 3 ME composites, we establish an active mode nonlinear modulation system for ME magnetic sensor, the sensitivity of which are enhanced to 80, 100 and 102 pT / √ Hz at 1 Hz for the composites with the end-flange width 20, 15 and 10 mm, respectively, via nonlinear ME modulation method. Strain distribution simulations illustrate the theoretically accurate amplification of the dumbbell-shaped geometry. The center strains of 3 dumbbell-shaped metglas decrease as the width of end-flanges decreases
Shape Transformation Following Reduction-Sensitive PEG Cleavage of Polymer/DNA Nanoparticles
Williford, John-Michael; Ren, Yong; Huang, Kevin; Pan, Deng; Mao, Hai-Quan
2014-01-01
PEGylated polycation/DNA micellar nanoparticles have been developed that can undergo shape transformation upon cleavage of the PEG grafts in response to an environmental cue. As a proof-of-principle, DNA nanoparticles with higher PEG grafting density adopting long, worm- and rod-like morphologies, transition to more condensed nanoparticles with spherical and short-rod morphologies upon cleavage of a fraction of the PEG grafts from the copolymer. This shape transformation leads to increased surface charges, correlating with improved transfection efficiency. PMID:25530853
The effect of fragment shape and species' sensitivity to habitat edges on animal population size.
Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K
2007-08-01
Habitat fragmentation causes extinction of local animal populations by decreasing the amount of viable "core" habitat area and increasing edge effects. It is widely accepted that larger fragments make better nature reserves because core-dwelling species have a larger amount of suitable habitat. Nevertheless, fragments in real landscapes have complex, irregular shapes. We modeled the population sizes of species that have a representative range of preferences for or aversions to habitat edges at five spatial scales (within 10, 32, 100, 320, and 1000 m of an edge) in a nation-wide analysis of forest remnants in New Zealand. We hypothesized that the irregular shapes of fragments in real landscapes should generate statistically significant correlations between population density and fragment area, purely as a "geometric" effect of varying species responses to the distribution of edge habitat. Irregularly shaped fragments consistently reduced the population size of core-dwelling species by 10-100%, depending on the scale over which species responded to habitat edges. Moreover, core populations within individual fragments were spatially discontinuous, containing multiple, disjunct populations that inhabited small spatial areas and had reduced population size. The geometric effect was highly nonlinear and depended on the range of fragment sizes sampled and the scale at which species responded to habitat edges. Fragment shape played a strong role in determining population size in fragmented landscapes; thus, habitat restoration efforts may be more effective if they focus on connecting disjunct cores rather than isolated fragments. PMID:17650243
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabhu, M.; Mayandi, J.; Mariammal, R. N.; Vishnukanthan, V.; Pearce, J. M.; Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K.
2015-06-01
This paper describes a simple, low-temperature and cost effective chemical precipitation method in aqueous media to synthesis uniformly distributed zinc oxide (ZnO) microstructures for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The size and morphology of the ZnO microstructures are systematically controlled by adjusting the concentration of the precursors, zinc acetate dihydrate and ammonium hydroxide. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy are used for the structural characterizations and photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to characterize the optical properties of the ZnO, respectively. The results reveal that ZnO crystallites exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along c-axis. The effect of ammonia concentration on the crystallinity, morphology and optical properties of ZnO microstructures and the concomitant effect on the efficiency of DSSCs is also quantified. The peanut-shaped ZnO microstructure, which was found to increase DSSCs performance over other microstructure, is studied in detail in order to develop a formation mechanism. A sandwich type eosin yellow sensitized solar cell is prepared using peanut-shaped ZnO microstructures, which showed an efficiency of 0.37%. Ammonia was found to play a crucial role in the evolution of ZnO morphologies. These results are promising and provide a path towards low-cost high-performance DSSCs based on peanut-shaped ZnO microstructures and produced with only relatively simple wet chemistry synthesis.
Human detection in sensitive security areas through recognition of omega shapes using MACH filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Saad; Riaz, Farhan; Hassan, Ali; Liaquat, Muwahida; Young, Rupert
2015-03-01
Human detection has gained considerable importance in aggravated security scenarios over recent times. An effective security application relies strongly on detailed information regarding the scene under consideration. A larger accumulation of humans than the number of personal authorized to visit a security controlled area must be effectively detected, amicably alarmed and immediately monitored. A framework involving a novel combination of some existing techniques allows an immediate detection of an undesirable crowd in a region under observation. Frame differencing provides a clear visibility of moving objects while highlighting those objects in each frame acquired by a real time camera. Training of a correlation pattern recognition based filter on desired shapes such as elliptical representations of human faces (variants of an Omega Shape) yields correct detections. The inherent ability of correlation pattern recognition filters caters for angular rotations in the target object and renders decision regarding the existence of the number of persons exceeding an allowed figure in the monitored area.
Heating Rate Sensitive Multi-Shape Memory Polypropylene: A Predictive Material.
Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C
2016-06-01
Here we report on a novel type of smart material that is capable of specifically responding to the changing rate of an environmental signal. This is shown on the example of lightly cross-linked syndiotactic polypropylene that reacts to a temperature increase by adapting its shape change according to the applied heating rate. In general, a material with such properties can be used to predict a system failure when used in a defined environment and is therefore called "predictive material". PMID:27203229
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ewing, Anthony
2005-01-01
Solar sail propulsive performance is dependent on sail membrane optical properties and on sail membrane shape. Assumptions of an ideal sail (flat, perfect reflector) can result in errors which can affect spacecraft control, trajectory analyses, and overall evaluation of solar sail performance. A MATLAB(R) program has been developed to generate sail shape point cloud files for two square-architecture solar sail designs. Simple parabolic profiles are assumed for sail shape under solar pressure loading. These files are then input into the Solar Vectoring Evaluation Tool (SVET) software to determine the propulsive force vector, center of pressure, and moments about the sail body axes as a function of sail shape and optical properties. Also, the impact of the center-line angle, due to non-perfect optical properties, is addressed since this constrains sail force vector cone angle and is often overlooked when assuming ideal-reflector membranes. Preliminary sensitivity analysis using these tools aids in determining the key geometric and optical parameters that drive solar sail propulsive performance.
AERODYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS WITH AEROSOL CENTRIFUGES
The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. he sites of deposition in the human respiratory system are primarily related to the mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhaled particle siz...
An aerodynamic load criterion for airships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, D. E.
1975-01-01
A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.
Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.
1991-01-01
The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvořák, Rudolf
2016-03-01
Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.
Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.
2003-01-01
An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.
Computation of dragonfly aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafson, Karl; Leben, Robert
1991-04-01
Dragonflies are seen to hover and dart, seemingly at will and in remarkably nimble fashion, with great bursts of speed and effectively discontinuous changes of direction. In their short lives, their gossamer flight provides us with glimpses of an aerodynamics of almost extraterrestrial quality. Here we present the first computer simulations of such aerodynamics.
Sombrero-Shaped Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Molecular-Level Sensitivity and Multifunctionality
2011-01-01
We demonstrate top-down synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic nanoparticles designed to contain internal Raman hot spots. Our Raman-active nanoparticles are fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and thin-film deposition and are composed of novel internal structures with sublithographic dimensions: a disk-shaped Ag core, a Petri-dish-shaped SiO2 base whose inner surface is coated with Ag film, and a sub-10 nm scale circular gap between the core and the base. Confocal Raman measurements and electromagnetic simulations show that Raman hot spots appear at the inside perimeter of individual nanoparticles and serve as the source of a 1000-fold improvement of minimum molecular detection level that enables detection of signals from a few molecules near hot spots. A multimodality version of these nanoparticles, which includes the functionality offered by magnetic multilayers, is also demonstrated. These results illustrate the potential of direct fabrication for creating exotic monodisperse nanoparticles, which combine engineered internal nanostructures and multilayer composite materials, for use in nanoparticle-based molecular imaging and detection. PMID:21732686
Hearon, Keith; Smith, Sarah E.; Maher, Cameron A.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.
2012-01-01
The effects of free radical inhibitor on the electron beam crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of novel radiation crosslinkable polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) blended with acrylic radiation sensitizers have been determined. The SMPs in this study possess novel processing capabilities—that is, the ability to be melt processed into complex geometries as thermoplastics and crosslinked in a secondary step using electron beam irradiation. To increase susceptibility to radiation crosslinking, the radiation sensitizer pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) was solution blended with thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs made from 2-butene-1,4-diol and trimethylhexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI). Because thermoplastic melt processing methods such as injection molding are often carried out at elevated temperatures, sensitizer thermal instability is a major processing concern. Free radical inhibitor can be added to provide thermal stabilization; however, inhibitor can also undesirably inhibit radiation crosslinking. In this study, we quantified both the thermal stabilization and radiation crosslinking inhibition effects of the inhibitor 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) on polyurethane SMPs blended with PETA. Sol/gel analysis of irradiated samples showed that the inhibitor had little to no inverse effects on gel fraction at concentrations of 0-10,000 ppm, and dynamic mechanical analysis showed only a slight negative correlation between BQ composition and rubbery modulus. The 1,4-benzoquinone was also highly effective in thermally stabilizing the acrylic sensitizers. The polymer blends could be heated to 150°C for up to five hours or to 125°C for up to 24 hours if stabilized with 10,000 ppm BQ and could also be heated to 125°C for up to 5 hours if stabilized with 1000 ppm BQ without sensitizer reaction occurring. We believe this study provides significant insight into methods for manipulation of the competing mechanisms of radiation crosslinking and thermal
Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.
2015-11-01
Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.
Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications.
Peppe, Daniel J; Royer, Dana L; Cariglino, Bárbara; Oliver, Sofia Y; Newman, Sharon; Leight, Elias; Enikolopov, Grisha; Fernandez-Burgos, Margo; Herrera, Fabiany; Adams, Jonathan M; Correa, Edwin; Currano, Ellen D; Erickson, J Mark; Hinojosa, Luis Felipe; Hoganson, John W; Iglesias, Ari; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Johnson, Kirk R; Jordan, Gregory J; Kraft, Nathan J B; Lovelock, Elizabeth C; Lusk, Christopher H; Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep; Rapson, Gillian; Wing, Scott L; Wright, Ian J
2011-05-01
• Paleobotanists have long used models based on leaf size and shape to reconstruct paleoclimate. However, most models incorporate a single variable or use traits that are not physiologically or functionally linked to climate, limiting their predictive power. Further, they often underestimate paleotemperature relative to other proxies. • Here we quantify leaf-climate correlations from 92 globally distributed, climatically diverse sites, and explore potential confounding factors. Multiple linear regression models for mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) are developed and applied to nine well-studied fossil floras. • We find that leaves in cold climates typically have larger, more numerous teeth, and are more highly dissected. Leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen), local water availability, and phylogenetic history all affect these relationships. Leaves in wet climates are larger and have fewer, smaller teeth. Our multivariate MAT and MAP models offer moderate improvements in precision over univariate approaches (± 4.0 vs 4.8°C for MAT) and strong improvements in accuracy. For example, our provisional MAT estimates for most North American fossil floras are considerably warmer and in better agreement with independent paleoclimate evidence. • Our study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional leaf traits that are functionally linked to climate improves paleoclimate reconstructions. This work also illustrates the need for better understanding of the impact of phylogeny and leaf habit on leaf-climate relationships. PMID:21294735
Butman, John A; Suga, Nobuo
2016-01-01
For the processing of target-distance information, delay-tuned auditory neurons of the mustached bat show facilitative responses to a combination of signal elements of a biosonar pulse-echo pair with a specific echo delay. They are initially produced in the inferior colliculus by facilitative responses based on the coincidence of the rebound response following glycinergic inhibition to the first harmonic of the pulse and a short-latency response to the 2nd-4th harmonics of its echo. Here, we report that further facilitative responses to pulse-echo pairs of thalamic delay-tuned neurons are mediated by glutamate receptors (NMDA and non-NMDA receptors), and that GABAergic inhibition shortens the duration of facilitative responses mediated by NMDA-receptors, without changing the delay tuning of thalamic delay-tuned neurons. Different from collicular delay-tuned neurons, thalamic ones respond much more to pulse-echo pairs than individual signal elements. The neural mechanisms involved in shaping thalamic delay-tuning support a model of hierarchical signal processing in the auditory system. PMID:26519094
Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: Global patterns and paleoclimatic applications
Peppe, D.J.; Royer, D.L.; Cariglino, B.; Oliver, S.Y.; Newman, S.; Leight, E.; Enikolopov, G.; Fernandez-Burgos, M.; Herrera, F.; Adams, J.M.; Correa, E.; Currano, E.D.; Erickson, J.M.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Hoganson, J.W.; Iglesias, A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Johnson, K.R.; Jordan, G.J.; Kraft, N.J.B.; Lovelock, E.C.; Lusk, C.H.; Niinemets, U.; Penuelas, J.; Rapson, G.; Wing, S.L.; Wright, I.J.
2011-01-01
Paleobotanists have long used models based on leaf size and shape to reconstruct paleoclimate. However, most models incorporate a single variable or use traits that are not physiologically or functionally linked to climate, limiting their predictive power. Further, they often underestimate paleotemperature relative to other proxies. Here we quantify leaf-climate correlations from 92 globally distributed, climatically diverse sites, and explore potential confounding factors. Multiple linear regression models for mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) are developed and applied to nine well-studied fossil floras. We find that leaves in cold climates typically have larger, more numerous teeth, and are more highly dissected. Leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen), local water availability, and phylogenetic history all affect these relationships. Leaves in wet climates are larger and have fewer, smaller teeth. Our multivariate MAT and MAP models offer moderate improvements in precision over univariate approaches (??4.0 vs 4.8??C for MAT) and strong improvements in accuracy. For example, our provisional MAT estimates for most North American fossil floras are considerably warmer and in better agreement with independent paleoclimate evidence. Our study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional leaf traits that are functionally linked to climate improves paleoclimate reconstructions. This work also illustrates the need for better understanding of the impact of phylogeny and leaf habit on leaf-climate relationships. ?? 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist ?? 2011 New Phytologist Trust.
A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.
2013-06-01
Aerodynamic contrails are defined in this paper as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data, first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Finally we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally we give an argument for our believe that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.
Epigenetic mechanisms and environmental shaping of the brain during sensitive periods of development
Roth, Tania L.; Sweatt, J. David
2010-01-01
Experiences during early development profoundly affect development of the CNS to impart either risk for or resilience to later psychopathology. Work in the developmental neuroscience field is providing compelling data that epigenetic marking of the genome may underlie aspects of this process. Experiments in rodents continue to show that experiences during sensitive periods of development influence DNA methylation patterns of several genes. These experience-induced DNA methylation patterns represent stable epigenetic modifications that alter gene transcription throughout the lifespan and promote specific behavioral outcomes. We discuss the relevance of these findings to humans, and also briefly discuss these findings in the broader contexts of cognition and psychiatric disorder. We conclude by discussing the implications of these observations for future research. PMID:20626526
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, Manav
Aerospace structures operate under extreme thermal environments. Hot external aerothermal environment at high Mach number flight leads to high structural temperatures. At the same time, cold internal cryogenic-fuel-tanks and thermal management concepts like Thermal Protection System (TPS) and active cooling result in a high temperature gradient through the structure. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of such structures requires a design-oriented approach to this problem. The broad goal of this research effort is to advance the existing state of the art towards MDO of large scale aerospace structures. The components required for this work are the sensitivity analysis formulation encompassing the scope of the physical phenomena being addressed, a set of efficient approximations to cut-down the required CPU cost, and a general purpose design-oriented numerical analysis tool capable of handling problems of this scope. In this work finite element discretization has been used to solve the conduction partial differential equations and the Poljak method has been used to discretize the integral equations for internal cavity radiation. A methodology has been established to couple the conduction finite element analysis to the internal radiation analysis. This formulation is then extended for sensitivity analysis of heat transfer and coupled thermal-structural problems. The most CPU intensive operations in the overall analysis have been identified, and approximation methods have been proposed to reduce the associated CPU cost. Results establish the effectiveness of these approximation methods, which lead to very high savings in CPU cost without any deterioration in the results. The results presented in this dissertation include two cases: a hexahedral cavity with internal and external radiation with conducting walls, and a wing box which is geometrically similar to the orbiter wing.
Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chawla, Kalpana
1995-01-01
The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.
Moran Jay, Brighid; Howard, David; Hughes, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette; Anandarajah, Gabrial
2014-01-01
Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public's socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway) as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD) which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY) that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO) where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD) and all show increased cost (especially in ECO). PMID:24587735
Influence of elliptical shaped holes on the sensitivity and Q factor in 2D photonic crystals sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmerkhi, A.; Bouchemat, M.; Bouchemat, T.
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate the refractive index sensor based on L2 photonic crystal cavity where neighboring holes are locally infiltrated with polymers. The photonic crystal is composed of periodic triangular hole array patterned perpendicularly to an InP-based confining heterostructure. The number of the holes surrounding a L2 cavity and their shape were modified in order to optimize the sensitivity and quality factor. From this study we have selected two structures that have good results. The first one is called locally which has a very high Q factor and a good sensitivity. Their values are 6.03 × 106 and 163 nm/RIU, respectively. The second optimized structure is called design B, which has a high sensitivity toward 227.78 nm/RIU with a Q factor of 5 × 105. The calculated detect limit for the two designs are lower than 1.59 × 10-6 and 1.4 × 10-5 RIU, respectively.
Moran Jay, Brighid
2014-01-01
Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public's socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway) as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD) which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY) that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO) where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD) and all show increased cost (especially in ECO). PMID:24587735
Simultaneous Aerodynamic and Structural Design Optimization (SASDO) for a 3-D Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.; Newman, Perry A.
2001-01-01
The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic and Structural Design Optimization (SASDO) is shown as an extension of the Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) method. It is extended by the inclusion of structure element sizing parameters as design variables and Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis responses as constraints. The method aims to reduce the computational expense. incurred in performing shape and sizing optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, FEM structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. SASDO is applied to a simple. isolated, 3-D wing in inviscid flow. Results show that the method finds the saine local optimum as a conventional optimization method with some reduction in the computational cost and without significant modifications; to the analysis tools.
Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) for a 3-D Flexible Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.
2001-01-01
The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) are extended from single discipline analysis (aerodynamics only) to multidisciplinary analysis - in this case, static aero-structural analysis - and applied to a simple 3-D wing problem. The method aims to reduce the computational expense incurred in performing shape optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, Finite Element Method (FEM) structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. Results for this small problem show that the method reaches the same local optimum as conventional optimization. However, unlike its application to the win,, (single discipline analysis), the method. as I implemented here, may not show significant reduction in the computational cost. Similar reductions were seen in the two-design-variable (DV) problem results but not in the 8-DV results given here.
Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.
Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer
2015-03-01
Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899
Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel
2011-01-01
This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weltner, Klaus
1990-01-01
Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.
1985-01-01
The aeromechanical stability of a helicopter in ground resonance was analyzed, by incorporating five different aerodynamic models in the coupled rotor/fuselage analysis. The sensitivity of the results to changes in aerodynamic modelling was carefully examined. The theoretical results were compared with experimental data and useful conclusions are drawn regarding the role of aerodynamic modeling on this aeromechanical stability problem. The aerodynamic model which provided the best all around correlation with the experimental data was identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, Raymond H.
1992-01-01
Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.
Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin
2014-01-01
We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.
Facial synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticle film for efficient fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Ming; Cai, Xin; Fu, Yongping; Yu, Xiao; Liu, Suqi; Deng, Bing; Hany, Kafafy; Zou, Dechun
2014-02-01
SnO2 nanoparticle film is directly prepared by in situ thermal calcining isopropanol solution of tin tetraisopropoxide, and is used to construct the SnO2-TiO2 junction on titanium wire substrate. The titanium wire supported SnO2-TiO2 junction is further applied to fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSCs). High efficiency of 5.8% (Normal Model) and 12.4% (Diffuse Model) are achieved. Our results indicate that Jsc enhancement derived by SnO2-TiO2 junction and the recombination shielding effect of the compact TiO2 film could synergistically contribute to high efficiencies. This study offers a novel and alternative strategy for achieving efficient SnO2-TiO2 junction based solar cells in a facile, scalable and cost-effective way.
Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.
García-López, Juan; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Peleteiro, José; Martínez, Alfredo Córdova; Villa, José Gerardo
2008-02-01
The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31% higher in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic drag by 14%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists. The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2%). In conclusion, we measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists. Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field testing were addressed. PMID:17943597
Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.
1988-01-01
This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.
Planform effects on the supersonic aerodynamics of multibody configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmillin, Naomi; Wood, Richard M.
1987-01-01
An experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of planform on the supersonic aerodynamics of low-fineness-ratio multibody configurations was conducted. Longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic and flow visualization data were obtained on three multibody configurations. The data indicated that planform has a small effect on the zero lift drag of a multibody configuration. The longitudinal data obtained at lifting conditions showed a sensitivity to planform shape. Lateral-directional data obtained for all configurations did not uncover any unusual stability traits for this class of configuration. A comparison study was also made between the planform effects observed on single-body and multibody configurations. Results from this study indicate that the multibody concept appears to offer a mechanism for employing a low-sweep wing with no significant increase in zero-lift drag but still retaining high-performance characteristics at high-lift conditions. Evaluation of the linear-theory prediction methods revealed a general inability of the methods to predict the characteristics of low-fineness-ratio geometries.
A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.
2013-11-01
Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.
1992-01-01
Fundamental equations of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis and approximate analysis for the two dimensional thin layer Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed, and special boundary condition considerations necessary to apply these equations to isolated lifting airfoils on 'C' and 'O' meshes are discussed in detail. An efficient strategy which is based on the finite element method and an elastic membrane representation of the computational domain is successfully tested, which circumvents the costly 'brute force' method of obtaining grid sensitivity derivatives, and is also useful in mesh regeneration. The issue of turbulence modeling is addressed in a preliminary study. Aerodynamic shape sensitivity derivatives are efficiently calculated, and their accuracy is validated on two viscous test problems, including: (1) internal flow through a double throat nozzle, and (2) external flow over a NACA 4-digit airfoil. An automated aerodynamic design optimization strategy is outlined which includes the use of a design optimization program, an aerodynamic flow analysis code, an aerodynamic sensitivity and approximate analysis code, and a mesh regeneration and grid sensitivity analysis code. Application of the optimization methodology to the two test problems in each case resulted in a new design having a significantly improved performance in the aerodynamic response of interest.
Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance
Graham, Sean C.
2006-03-07
A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.
Compendium of NASA Langley reports on hypersonic aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sabo, Frances E.; Cary, Aubrey M.; Lawson, Shirley W.
1987-01-01
Reference is made to papers published by the Langley Research Center in various areas of hypersonic aerodynamics for the period 1950 to 1986. The research work was performed either in-house by the Center staff or by other personnel supported entirely or in part by grants or contracts. Abstracts have been included with the references when available. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Aerodynamic Measurements - Single Shapes; (2) Aerodynamic Measurements - Configurations; (3) Aero-Heating; (4) Configuration Studies; (5) Propulsion Integration Experiment; (6) Propulsion Integration - Study; (7) Analysis Methods; (8) Test Techniques; and (9) Airframe Active Cooling Systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemsch, Michael J. (Editor); Nielsen, Jack N. (Editor)
1986-01-01
The present conference on tactical missile aerodynamics discusses autopilot-related aerodynamic design considerations, flow visualization methods' role in the study of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, low aspect ratio wing behavior at high angle-of-attack, supersonic airbreathing propulsion system inlet design, missile bodies with noncircular cross section and bank-to-turn maneuvering capabilities, 'waverider' supersonic cruise missile concepts and design methods, asymmetric vortex sheding phenomena from bodies-of-revolution, and swept shock wave/boundary layer interaction phenomena. Also discussed are the assessment of aerodynamic drag in tactical missiles, the analysis of supersonic missile aerodynamic heating, the 'equivalent angle-of-attack' concept for engineering analysis, the vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking, paneling methods with vorticity effects and corrections for nonlinear compressibility, the application of supersonic full potential method to missile bodies, Euler space marching methods for missiles, three-dimensional missile boundary layers, and an analysis of exhaust plumes and their interaction with missile airframes.
Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.
2007-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.
Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steers, L.
1978-01-01
Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.
On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tianshu; Bencic, T.; Sullivan, J. P.
1999-01-01
This article reviews new advances and applications of pressure sensitive paints in aerodynamic testing. Emphasis is placed on important technical aspects of pressure sensitive paint including instrumentation, data processing, and uncertainty analysis.
Applied computational aerodynamics
Henne, P.A.
1990-01-01
The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.
Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, Robert J
1951-01-01
The effects of fineness ratio (14.2 and 12.2) and boattailing on aerodynamic characteristics of four bodies of revolution at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 1.99 within a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees 10 degrees at an approximate Reynolds number of 35x10(superscript)6 based on body length were investigated. A comparison of experimental data with available theory is included. At zero angle of attack, fineness ratio has no appreciable effect on model characteristics while boattailing and boattail convergence significantly affect fore drag and base drag. At angle of attack the effects are singular. The theory presented by H. J. Allen is a significant improvement over linearized potential theory in predicting aerodynamic characteristics.
Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward
1989-01-01
Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.
Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cozzolongo, J. V.
1984-01-01
The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.
Yang, Zhanjun; Tang, Yan; Li, Juan; Zhang, Yongcai; Hu, Xiaoya
2014-04-15
A tetragonal columnar-shaped TiO2 (TCS-TiO2) nanorods are synthesized via a facile route for the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx). A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor is constructed based on the direct electrochemistry of GOx at TCS-TiO2 modified glassy carbon electrode. The fabricated biosensor is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The immobilized enzyme molecules on TCS-TiO2 nanorods retain its native structure and bioactivity and show a surface controlled, quasi-reversible and fast electron transfer process. The TCS-TiO2 nanorods have large surface area and provide a favorable microenvironment for enhancing the electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. The constructed glucose biosensor shows wide linear range from 5.0×10(-6) to 1.32×10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 23.2 mA M(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit is calculated to be 2.0×10(-6) M at signal-to-noise of 3. The proposed glucose biosensor also exhibits excellent selectivity, good reproducibility, and acceptable operational stability. Furthermore, the biosensor can be successfully applied in the detection of glucose in serum sample at the applied potential of -0.50 V. The TCS-TiO2 nanorods provide an efficient and promising platform for the immobilization of proteins and development of excellent biosensors. PMID:24325982
Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols
Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel
2014-02-24
High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1 m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.
Aerodynamics Improve Wind Wheel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, V. W.
1982-01-01
Modifications based on aerodynamic concepts would raise efficiency of wind-wheel electric-power generator. Changes smooth airflow, to increase power output, without increasing size of wheel. Significant improvements in efficiency anticipated without any increase in size or number of moving parts and without departing from simplicity of original design.
Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus
Kim, K.
1986-08-12
An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.
Interdisciplinary optimization combining electromagnetic and aerodynamic methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sullivan, Anders James
The design of missile body shapes often requires a compromise between aero-dynamic and electromagnetic performance goals. In general, the missile shape producing the lowest radar signature will be different from the preferred aero-dynamic shape. Interdisciplinary shape optimization is utilized to combine multiple disciplines to determine the best possible shape for a hybrid aerodynamic-electromagnetic problem. A composite missile body consisting of an axisymmetric body of revolution (BOR) and two thin flat plate attachments is considered. The goal is to minimize the drag and backscatter associated with this composite shape. The body is assumed to be perfectly conducting, and flying at zero degrees angle of attack. The variable nose shape serves as the optimization design parameter. To characterize the system performance, a cost function is defined which is comprised of weighted values of the drag and backscatter. To solve the electromagnetic problem, methods to treat electrically large complex bodies are investigated. Hybrid methods which combine the method of moments (MoM) with physical optics (PO) are developed to calculate the scattering from simple two-dimensional bodies. A surface-wave hybrid approach is shown to effectively approximate the traveling wave currents on the smooth interior portions of a BOR. Asymptotic methods are used to solve the resulting integral equations more efficiently. The hybrid methods are shown to produce MoM-quality results, while requiring less computational resources. To solve the composite body problem, an iterative technique is developed that preserves the simplicity of the original BOR scheme. In this formulation, the current over each part of the composite body is solved independently. The results from one part of the body are used to update the fields incident on the other part of the body. This procedure is repeated until the solution converges. To solve the aerodynamic problem, slender body theory is used to calculate the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Ross B
1957-01-01
An investigation has been made in the Langley 4-by-4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a series of missile configurations having low-aspect-ratio wings at a Mach number of 2.01. The effects of wing plan form and size, length-diameter ratio, forebody and afterbody length, boattailed and flared afterbodies, and component force and moment data are presented for combined angles of attack and sideslip to about 28 degrees. No analysis of the data was made in this report.
The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes
Peterson, C.W.
1987-06-01
A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic wind tunnel data on hemisflo and 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes behind several forebody shapes and diameters are discussed. Test techniques were derived which avoided many of the opportunities to obtain erroneous supersonic parachute drag data in wind tunnels. Preliminary correlations of supersonic parachute drag with Mach number, forebody shape and diameter, canopy porosity, inflated canopy diameter and stability are presented. Supersonic parachute design considerations are discussed and applied to a M = 2 parachute system designed and tested at Sandia. It is shown that the performance of parachutes in supersonic flows is a strong function of parachute design parameters and their interactions with the payload wake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavvadias, I. S.; Papoutsis-Kiachagias, E. M.; Dimitrakopoulos, G.; Giannakoglou, K. C.
2015-11-01
In this article, the gradient of aerodynamic objective functions with respect to design variables, in problems governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the k-ω SST turbulence model, is computed using the continuous adjoint method, for the first time. Shape optimization problems for minimizing drag, in external aerodynamics (flows around isolated airfoils), or viscous losses in internal aerodynamics (duct flows) are considered. Sensitivity derivatives computed with the proposed adjoint method are compared to those computed with finite differences or a continuous adjoint variant based on the frequently used assumption of frozen turbulence; the latter proves the need for differentiating the turbulence model. Geometries produced by optimization runs performed with sensitivities computed by the proposed method and the 'frozen turbulence' assumption are also compared to quantify the gain from formulating and solving the adjoint to the turbulence model equations.
Aerodynamics of the Mars Microprobe Entry Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitcheltree, R. A.; Moss, J. N.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Greene, F. A.; Braun, R. D.
1997-01-01
The selection of the unique aeroshell shape for the Mars Microprobes is discussed. A description of its aerodynamics in hypersonic rarefied, hypersonic continuum, supersonic and transonic flow regimes is then presented. This description is based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo analyses in the rarefied-flow regime, thermochemical nonequilibrium Computational Fluid Dynamics in the hypersonic regime, existing wind tunnel data in the supersonic and transonic regime, additional computational work in the transonic regime, and finally, ballistic range data. The aeroshell is shown to possess the correct combination of aerodynamic stability and drag to convert the probe's initial tumbling attitude and high velocity at atmospheric-interface into the desired surface-impact orientation and velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.
2005-02-01
The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.
Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
1999-01-01
A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.
The design of missile's dome that fits both optical and aerodynamic needs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Qun; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Hongguang
2010-10-01
Optical guidance missiles requires a dome which fits both optical and aerodynamic needs when they attack at 3 Ma. In this study, ellipse is the figure chosen to be the dome's shape. The ellipticity ɛ is the main variable should to be decided. The optimized function was built by optical and aerodynamic performance function multiply by their weights. The optical and aerodynamic functions were all obtained by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation's results after normalization. In this study, the optical and aerodynamic performances have equal weights, after optimzing the ellipticity ɛis 2 for the missile.
Aerodynamic-structural model of offwind yacht sails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mairs, Christopher M.
An aerodynamic-structural model of offwind yacht sails was created that is useful in predicting sail forces. Two sails were examined experimentally and computationally at several wind angles to explore a variety of flow regimes. The accuracy of the numerical solutions was measured by comparing to experimental results. The two sails examined were a Code 0 and a reaching asymmetric spinnaker. During experiment, balance, wake, and sail shape data were recorded for both sails in various configurations. Two computational steps were used to evaluate the computational model. First, an aerodynamic flow model that includes viscosity effects was used to examine the experimental flying shapes that were recorded. Second, the aerodynamic model was combined with a nonlinear, structural, finite element analysis (FEA) model. The aerodynamic and structural models were used iteratively to predict final flying shapes of offwind sails, starting with the design shapes. The Code 0 has relatively low camber and is used at small angles of attack. It was examined experimentally and computationally at a single angle of attack in two trim configurations, a baseline and overtrimmed setting. Experimentally, the Code 0 was stable and maintained large flow attachment regions. The digitized flying shapes from experiment were examined in the aerodynamic model. Force area predictions matched experimental results well. When the aerodynamic-structural tool was employed, the predictive capability was slightly worse. The reaching asymmetric spinnaker has higher camber and operates at higher angles of attack than the Code 0. Experimentally and computationally, it was examined at two angles of attack. Like the Code 0, at each wind angle, baseline and overtrimmed settings were examined. Experimentally, sail oscillations and large flow detachment regions were encountered. The computational analysis began by examining the experimental flying shapes in the aerodynamic model. In the baseline setting, the
Experimental study of full-scale iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance using sub-scale simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busch, Greg T.
Determining the aerodynamic effects of ice accretion on aircraft surfaces is an important step in aircraft design and certification. The goal of this work was to develop a complete sub-scale wind tunnel simulation methodology based on knowledge of the detailed iced-airfoil flowfield that allows the accurate measurement of aerodynamic penalties associated with the accretion of ice on an airfoil and to validate this methodology using full-scale iced-airfoil performance data obtained at near-flight Reynolds numbers. In earlier work, several classifications of ice shape were developed based on key aerodynamic features in the iced-airfoil flowfield: ice roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and tall and short spanwise-ridge ice. Castings of each of these classifications were acquired on a full-scale NACA 23012 airfoil model and the aero-dynamic performance of each was measured at a Reynolds number of 12.0 x 106 and a Mach number = 0.20. In the current study, sub-scale simple-geometry and 2-D smooth simulations of each of these castings were constructed based on knowledge of iced-airfoil flowfields. The effects of each simulation on the aerodynamic performance of an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model was measured in the University of Illinois 3 x 4 ft. wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 106 and a Mach number of 0.18 and compared with that measured for the corresponding full-scale casting at high Reynolds number. Geometrically-scaled simulations of the horn-ice and tall spanwise-ridge ice castings modeled C l,maxto within 2% and Cd,min to within 15%. Good qualitative agreement in the Cp distributions suggests that important geometric features such as horn and ridge height, surface location, and angle with respect to the airfoil chordline were appropriately modeled. Geometrically-scaled simulations of the ice roughness, streamwise ice, and short-ridge ice tended to have conservative C l,max and Cd. The aerodynamic performance of simulations of these types of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.
1976-01-01
Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.
Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert
Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.
Chen, Liang; Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Yingjie; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang
2014-11-28
An excellent, platinum free fiber counter electrode (CE) was successfully fabricated, consisting of porous, single crystalline titanium nitride (TiN) nanoplates grown on carbon fibers (CF). The fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the TiN-CF CE show a high conversion efficiency of 7.20%, comparable or even superior to that of the Pt wire (6.23%). PMID:25068835
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Baysal, Oktay
1997-01-01
A gradient-based shape optimization based on quasi-analytical sensitivities has been extended for practical three-dimensional aerodynamic applications. The flow analysis has been rendered by a fully implicit, finite-volume formulation of the Euler and Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes (TLNS) equations. Initially, the viscous laminar flow analysis for a wing has been compared with an independent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code which has been extensively validated. The new procedure has been demonstrated in the design of a cranked arrow wing at Mach 2.4 with coarse- and fine-grid based computations performed with Euler and TLNS equations. The influence of the initial constraints on the geometry and aerodynamics of the optimized shape has been explored. Various final shapes generated for an identical initial problem formulation but with different optimization path options (coarse or fine grid, Euler or TLNS), have been aerodynamically evaluated via a common fine-grid TLNS-based analysis. The initial constraint conditions show significant bearing on the optimization results. Also, the results demonstrate that to produce an aerodynamically efficient design, it is imperative to include the viscous physics in the optimization procedure with the proper resolution. Based upon the present results, to better utilize the scarce computational resources, it is recommended that, a number of viscous coarse grid cases using either a preconditioned bi-conjugate gradient (PbCG) or an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) method, should initially be employed to improve the optimization problem definition, the design space and initial shape. Optimized shapes should subsequently be analyzed using a high fidelity (viscous with fine-grid resolution) flow analysis to evaluate their true performance potential. Finally, a viscous fine-grid-based shape optimization should be conducted, using an ADI method, to accurately obtain the final optimized shape.
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.
1983-01-01
The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.
AERODYNAMIC SIZE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE FIBERS AND HEALTH EFFECTS IMPLICATIONS
The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. lthough the deposition sites of particles in the human respiratory system are primarily related to their aerodynamic diameters, for rod-like ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Ding, Chunling; Wu, Ying
2016-02-01
It is important to control and tune the Fano-resonance spectra to achieve a large slope with, in addition, a relatively high extinction ratio for low-power optical switching and high-sensitivity sensing. Here, we explore the evolution of sharp asymmetric Fano-like line shapes in a three-cavity array with local parity-time (PT ) symmetry. In this three-cavity configuration, a single cavity is coupled to a PT -symmetric combination of two cavities via a common waveguide. The influences of local PT symmetry on the asymmetric Fano-like line shapes are investigated by monitoring the output transmission spectra at various system parameters. It is found that both the slope and the extinction ratio within the sharp asymmetric line shapes can be significantly enhanced by introducing the PT -symmetric unit, compared with the configuration of two indirectly coupled cavities. Subsequently we discuss the application of such a PT -assisted configuration as a family of high-sensitivity refractive index sensors by numerical analysis. For practical parameters based on microring resonators, the best sensitivity of refractive index sensors is more than five orders of magnitude larger than two indirectly coupled lossy cavities. The proposed scheme can be implemented in current state-of-the-art experiments. This investigation can help us to understand the interplay between the Fano resonance and PT symmetry.
Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report
Sean Graham
2007-10-31
Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products
Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.
2013-01-01
The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.
Influence of Different Diffuser Angle on Sedan's Aerodynamic Characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xingjun; Zhang, Rui; Ye, Jian; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Zhiming
The aerodynamic characteristics have a great influence on the fuel economics and the steering stability of a high speed vehicle. The underbody rear diffuser is one of important aerodynamic add-on devices. The parameters of the diffuser, including the diffuser angle, the number and the shape of separators, the shape of the end plate and etc, will affect the underbody flow and the wake. Here, just the influence of the diffuser angle was investigated without separator and the end plate. The method of Computational Fluid Dynamics was adopted to study the aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified sedan with a different diffuser angle respectively. The diffuser angle was set to 0°, 3°, 6°, 9.8° and 12° respectively. The diffuser angle of the original model is 9.8°. The conclusions were drawn that when the diffuser angle increases, the underbody flow and especially the wake change greatly and the pressure change correspondingly; as a result, the total aerodynamic drag coefficients of car first decrease and then increases, while the total aerodynamic lift coefficients decrease.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, R. D.
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.
1985-01-01
The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.