Sample records for aerosol optical tweezers

  1. Organic component vapor pressures and hygroscopicities of aqueous aerosol measured by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chen; Stewart, David J; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-hong; Ohm, Peter; Dutcher, Cari S; Clegg, Simon L

    2015-01-29

    Measurements of the hygroscopic response of aerosol and the particle-to-gas partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds are crucial for providing more accurate descriptions of the compositional and size distributions of atmospheric aerosol. Concurrent measurements of particle size and composition (inferred from refractive index) are reported here using optical tweezers to isolate and probe individual aerosol droplets over extended timeframes. The measurements are shown to allow accurate retrievals of component vapor pressures and hygroscopic response through examining correlated variations in size and composition for binary droplets containing water and a single organic component. Measurements are reported for a homologous series of dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid, citric acid, glycerol, or 1,2,6-hexanetriol. An assessment of the inherent uncertainties in such measurements when measuring only particle size is provided to confirm the value of such a correlational approach. We also show that the method of molar refraction provides an accurate characterization of the compositional dependence of the refractive index of the solutions. In this method, the density of the pure liquid solute is the largest uncertainty and must be either known or inferred from subsaturated measurements with an error of <±2.5% to discriminate between different thermodynamic treatments. PMID:25522920

  2. Dynamical stabilisation in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Richards, Christopher J.; Smart, Thomas J.; Cubero, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a study of dynamical stabilisation of an overdamped, microscopic pendulum realised using optical tweezers. We first derive an analytical expression for the equilibrium dynamically stabilised pendulum position in a regime of high damping and high modulation frequency of the pendulum pivot. This model implies a threshold behavior for stabilisation to occur, and a continuous evolution of the angular position which, unlike the underdamped case, does not reach the fully inverted position. We then test the theoretical predictions using an optically trapped microparticle subject to fluid drag force, finding reasonable agreement with the threshold and equilibrium behavior at high modulation amplitude. Analytical theory and experiments are complemented by Brownian motion simulations.

  3. Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Dufresne; Gabriel C. Spalding; Matthew T. Dearing; Steven A. Sheets; David G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Holographic techniques significantly extend the capabilities of laser tweezing, making possible extended trapping patterns for manipulating large numbers of particles and volumes of soft matter. We describe practical methods for creating arbitrary configurations of optical tweezers using computer-generated diffractive optical elements. While the discussion focuses on ways to create planar arrays of identical tweezers, the approach can be generalized to

  4. Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.W. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Hsu, Magnus T. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Bowen, Warwick P. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

  5. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells Author States) ABSTRACT Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells. Keywords: Optical trapping, Optical tweezers

  6. Optical tweezers: light for manipulating microscopic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Raktim

    2012-05-01

    Optical tweezers make use of a tightly focused laser beam to trap, move, guide, rotate and even sort microscopic objects solely with light. Although the basic laser tweezers, making use of a TEM00 laser beam to create a single trap point, have proved to be useful for any applications in areas ranging from physics to biology, a major breakthrough in this field came as the use of computer generated holograms enabled researchers to create multiple trap sites from single laser source (holographic optical tweezers). Coupled with microfluidic techniques, holographic optical tweezers have promised development of optical techniques for high throughput sorting of different cell types under a single micro-chip platform. The holographic methods have also helped the use of specialized laser beams like Laguerre-Gaussian beams instead of the conventional laser beam for interesting applications like orienting/rotating the trapped objects or trapping cells with minimum photodamage. Further, combining optical tweezers with Raman spectroscopy is becoming increasingly popular for studying single cell biochemistry as use of optical forces to immobilize the cells under investigations not only avoids the negative effects of fixing the cells onto substrate but also improve the quality of the recorded spectra. These advanced optical trapping techniques as outlined above along with some illustrative biophotonics applications have been explored.

  7. Optical Tweezers in Colloid and Interface Science David G. Grier

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    of optical tweezers have been reviewed by Svoboda and Block [6]. This review focuses instead used to focus the laser beam into an optical tweezer can be used to image the particle being trapped is the highly versatile optical tweezer recently made by ter­ minating a tapered optical fiber

  8. Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Weitenberg, Christof [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kuhr, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, SUPA, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Moelmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-09-15

    We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 {mu}s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10{sup -3}. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.

  9. Processing carbon nanotubes with holographic optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    ,'' Nature 330, 608--609 (1987). 13. M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, and I. A. Vorobjev, ``Manipulation M. Mueth, 1 and David G. Grier 2 1 Arryx, Inc., 316 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60601 2 Dept and D. G. Grier, ``Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optical

  10. Single and dual fiber nanotip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nanoparticles using fiber­optic laser tweezers with a microspherical focusing lens,'' Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 45Single and dual fiber nano­tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis Jean­Baptiste Decombe tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano­tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping

  11. Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, M.; Kurosawa, T.; Hane, K. [Department of Mechatronics and Precision Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-77 (Japan)] [Department of Mechatronics and Precision Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-77 (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    A microscope is described that uses a {mu}m-sized ball lens, which is here termed micro-objective, manipulated with optical tweezers to image the side view of the arbitrary region of a sample. Since this micro-objective is small in size, it can go into a concave region to produce a local image of the inside which the conventional microscope cannot observe. Preliminary results show good lens performance from the micro-objective when combined with optical tweezers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Optical manipulation of lipid and polymer nanotubes with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Joseph E.; Kishore, Rani; Pfefferkorn, Candace; Wells, Jeffrey; Helmerson, Kristian; Howell, Peter; Vreeland, Wyatt; Forry, Samuel; Locascio, Laurie; Reyes-Hernandez, Darwin; Gaitan, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Using optical tweezers and microfluidics, we stretch either the lipid or polymer membranes of liposomes or polymersomes, respectively, into long nanotubes. The membranes can be grabbed directly with the optical tweezers to produce sub-micron diameter tubes that are several hundred microns in length. We can stretch tubes up to a centimeter in length, limited only by the travel of our microscope stage. We also demonstrate the cross linking of a pulled polymer nanotube.

  13. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  14. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attila Nagy; Keir C Neuman

    2008-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. Here we describe these techniques and illustrate them with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations.

  15. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy Keir C Neuman1 & Attila Nagy2 Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most

  16. A Prototype Optical Tweezer System Employing Adaptive Optics Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nash; S. Bowman; C. Bradley; R. Conan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and characterization of a novel optical tweezer system. The system utilizes a deformable mirror, wavefront sensor and controller to manipulate an optically trapped micro-particle within a small chamber. This method for optical trapping employs technology adopted from astronomical instrumentation; in particular, adaptive optics. A deformable mirror is employed to control the wavefront phase of

  17. Micromanipulation of retinal neurons by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Townes-Anderson, E; St Jules, R S; Sherry, D M; Lichtenberger, J; Hassanain, M

    1998-07-30

    Micromanipulation by optical tweezers has been tested in cultures of mature isolated retinal cells to determine its potential for use in creating synaptic circuits in vitro. Rod and cone photoreceptors as well as other retinal nerve cell types could be optically trapped with a 980 nm diode laser mounted on an inverted light microscope using a 40x oil immersion objective numerical aperture of 1.3. Manipulation was done under sterile conditions using transparent culture dishes. To form cell groups, one half of a culture dish was made less adhesive by application of a thin layer of silicone elastomer. Unattached cells were trapped and relocated next to cells lying on an adhesive culture substrate. Optical trapping did not affect the ability of neurons to subsequently attach to the culture substrate. Up to 60% of trapped cells survived for 2 or more days. The pattern and rate of process outgrowth for manipulated cells was comparable to unmanipulated cells and by 2 days, cell-cell contacts were observed. Cultures were fixed at 2 and 5 days for electron microscopy. Organelle, nuclear and cytoplasmic structure of manipulated cells was completely normal and in photoreceptors, synaptic vesicles and ribbons were intact. Optical tweezers, therefore, provide a benign technique with which to micromanipulate whole neurons. The procedures also bestow increased precision to the study of cell-cell interactions by allowing the selection of potentially interacting cell types at a single cell level. PMID:9701608

  18. Multiplexed spectroscopy with holographic optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibula, Matthew A.; McIntyre, David H.

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a multiplexed holographic optical tweezers system with an imaging spectrometer to manipulate multiple optically trapped nanosensors and detect multiple fluorescence spectra. The system uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the positions of infrared optical traps in the sample so that multiple nanosensors can be positioned into regions of interest. Spectra of multiple nanosensors are detected simultaneously with the application of an imaging spectrometer. Nanosensors are capable of detecting changes in their environment such as pH, ion concentration, temperature, and voltage by monitoring changes in the nanosensors' emitted fluorescence spectra. We use streptavidin labeled quantum dots bound to the surface of biotin labeled polystyrene microspheres to measure temperature changes by observing a corresponding shift in the wavelength of the spectral peak. The fluorescence is excited at 532 nm with a wide field source.

  19. Stretching DNA with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M D; Yin, H; Landick, R; Gelles, J; Block, S M

    1997-01-01

    Force-extension (F-x) relationships were measured for single molecules of DNA under a variety of buffer conditions, using an optical trapping interferometer modified to incorporate feedback control. One end of a single DNA molecule was fixed to a coverglass surface by means of a stalled RNA polymerase complex. The other end was linked to a microscopic bead, which was captured and held in an optical trap. The DNA was subsequently stretched by moving the coverglass with respect to the trap using a piezo-driven stage, while the position of the bead was recorded at nanometer-scale resolution. An electronic feedback circuit was activated to prevent bead movement beyond a preset clamping point by modulating the light intensity, altering the trap stiffness dynamically. This arrangement permits rapid determination of the F-x relationship for individual DNA molecules as short as -1 micron with unprecedented accuracy, subjected to both low (approximately 0.1 pN) and high (approximately 50 pN) loads: complete data sets are acquired in under a minute. Experimental F-x relationships were fit over much of their range by entropic elasticity theories based on worm-like chain models. Fits yielded a persistence length, Lp, of approximately 47 nm in a buffer containing 10 mM Na1. Multivalent cations, such as Mg2+ or spermidine 3+, reduced Lp to approximately 40 nm. Although multivalent ions shield most of the negative charges on the DNA backbone, they did not further reduce Lp significantly, suggesting that the intrinsic persistence length remains close to 40 nm. An elasticity theory incorporating both enthalpic and entropic contributions to stiffness fit the experimental results extremely well throughout the full range of extensions and returned an elastic modulus of approximately 1100 pN. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:9138579

  20. Characterization of objective transmittance for optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N. B.; Rocha, M. S.; Mesquita, O. N.; Mazolli, A.; Neto, P. A. Maia

    2006-06-20

    We have measured the overall transmittance of a laser beam through an oil immersion objective as a function of the transverse size of the laser beam, using the dual-objective method. Our results show that the objective transmittance is not uniform and that its dependence on the radial beam's position can be modeled by a Gaussian function. This property affects the intensity distribution pattern in the sample region and should be taken into account in theoretical descriptions of optical tweezers. Moreover, one must consider this position dependence to determine the local laser power delivered at the sample region by the dual-objective method, especially when the beam overfills the objective's back entrance. If the transmittance is assumed to be uniform, the local power is overestimated.

  1. Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

  2. Exploring the mechanome with optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Brau, Ricardo R. (Ricardo Rafael), 1979-

    2008-01-01

    The combination of optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence into an instrument capable of making combined, coincident measurements adds an observable dimension that allows for the examination of the localized ...

  3. Optical lock-in particle tracking in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael A; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a lock-in particle tracking scheme in optical tweezers based on stroboscopic modulation of an illuminating optical field. This scheme is found to evade low frequency noise sources while otherwise producing an equivalent position measurement to continuous measurement. This was demonstrated to yield up to 20 dB of noise suppression at both low frequencies (< 1 kHz), where low frequency electronic noise was significant, and around 630 kHz where laser relaxation oscillations introduced laser noise. The setup is simple, and compatible with any trapping optics. PMID:23571892

  4. Tunable optical tweezers for wavelength-dependent measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Brooke; Campbell, Gretchen K.; López-Mariscal, Carlos; Filgueira, Carly Levin; Huschka, Ryan; Halas, Naomi J.; Helmerson, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Optical trapping forces depend on the difference between the trap wavelength and the extinction resonances of trapped particles. This leads to a wavelength-dependent trapping force, which should allow for the optimization of optical tweezers systems, simply by choosing the best trapping wavelength for a given application. Here we present an optical tweezer system with wavelength tunability, for the study of resonance effects. With this system, the optical trap stiffness is measured for single trapped particles that exhibit either single or multiple extinction resonances. We include discussions of wavelength-dependent effects, such as changes in temperature, and how to measure them. PMID:22559522

  5. Multiplying optical tweezers force using a micro-lever

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Multiplying optical tweezers force using a micro-lever Chih-Lang Lin1* , Yi-Hsiung Lee2 , Yi-driven micro-lever fabricated to multiply optical forces using the two-photon polymerization 3D- microfabrication technique. The micro-lever is a second class lever comprising an optical trapping sphere, a beam

  6. Optical tweezers-assisted measurements of elastic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, M.; Tuorila, J.; Haapalainen, T.; Karmenyan, A.; Tuchin, V.; Myllylä, R.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers have been used in biophysical studies for over twenty years. Typical application areas are force measurements of subcellular structures and cell biomechanics. Optical tweezers can also be used to manipulate the orientation of objects. Moreover, using various beam shapes, optical tweezers allow measuring light scattering from single and multiple objects by keeping particles and cells in place during the measurement. At single cell level, light scattering yields important information about the object being studied, including its size, shape and refractive index. Also dependent scattering can be studied. In this paper, we review experimental work conducted in this area by our group and show new results relating to optical clearing phenomena at single microparticle level.

  7. Fundamental constraints on particle tracking with optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Michael A; Bowen, Warwick P

    2012-01-01

    A general quantum limit to the sensitivity of particle position measurements is derived following the simple principle of the Heisenberg microscope. The value of this limit is calculated for particles in the Rayleigh and Mie scattering regimes, and with parameters which are relevant to optical tweezers experiments. The minimum power required to observe the zero-point motion of a levitating bead is also calculated, with the optimal particle diameter always smaller than the wavelength. We show that recent optical tweezers experiments are within two orders of magnitude of quantum limited sensitivity, suggesting that quantum optical resources may soon play an important role in high sensitivity tracking applications.

  8. Fundamental constraints on particle tracking with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael A.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2013-02-01

    A general quantum limit to the sensitivity of particle position measurements is derived following the simple principle of the Heisenberg microscope. The value of this limit is calculated for particles in the Rayleigh and Mie scattering regimes, and with parameters which are relevant to optical tweezers experiments. The minimum power required to observe the zero-point motion of a levitating bead is also calculated, with the optimal particle diameter always smaller than the wavelength. We show that recent optical tweezers experiments are within two orders of magnitude of quantum limited sensitivity, suggesting that quantum optical resources may soon play an important role in high sensitivity tracking applications.

  9. Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nanoparticles using fiber-optic laser tweezers with a microspherical focusing lens," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 45Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis Jean-Baptiste Decombe tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano-tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping

  10. Optical tweezers force measurements to study parasites chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Fontes, A.; Almeida, D. B.; Stahl, C. V.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.; Ayres, D. C.; Giorgio, S.; Cesar, C. L.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to study microorganisms chemotaxis in real time using an Optical Tweezers system. Optical Tweezers allowed real time measurements of the force vectors, strength and direction, of living parasites under chemical or other kinds of gradients. This seems to be the ideal tool to perform observations of taxis response of cells and microorganisms with high sensitivity to capture instantaneous responses to a given stimulus. Forces involved in the movement of unicellular parasites are very small, in the femto-pico-Newton range, about the same order of magnitude of the forces generated in an Optical Tweezers. We applied this methodology to investigate the Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) and Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi) under distinct situations.

  11. Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Martín-Badosa; M. Montes-Usategui; A. Carnicer; J. Andilla; E. Pleguezuelos; I. Juvells

    2007-01-01

    We provide a detailed account of the construction of a system of holographic optical tweezers. While a lot of information is available on the design, alignment and calibration of other optical trapping configurations, those based on holography are relatively poorly described. Inclusion of a spatial light modulator in the set-up gives rise to particular design trade-offs and constraints, and the

  12. Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Stephen C.; Germain, Vincent; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    We combine real-time feature recognition with holographic optical tweezers to automatically trap, assemble, and sort micron-sized colloidal particles. Closed loop control will enable new applications of optical micromanipulation in biology, medicine, materials science, and possibly quantum computation. PMID:19096726

  13. Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Chapin; Vincent Germain; Eric R. Dufresne

    2006-01-01

    We combine real-time feature recognition with holographic optical tweezers to automatically trap, assemble, and sort micron-sized colloidal particles. Closed loop control will enable new applications of optical micromanipulation in biology, medicine, materials science, and possibly quantum computation.

  14. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic acids. We use single molecule DNA stretching to show that the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of the yeast retrotransposon Ty3, which is likely to be an ancestor of HIV NC, has optimal nucleic acid chaperone activity with only a single zinc finger. We also show that the chaperone activity of the ORF1 protein is responsible for successful replication of the mouse LINE-1 retrotransposon. LINE-1 is also 17% of the human genome, where it generates insertion mutations and alters gene expression. Retrotransposons such as LINE-1 and Ty3 are likely to be ancestors of retroviruses such as HIV. Human APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits HIV-1 replication via cytidine deamination of the viral ssDNA genome, as well as via a distinct deamination-independent mechanism. Efficient deamination requires rapid on-off binding kinetics, but a slow dissociation rate is required for the proposed deaminase-independent mechanism. We resolve this apparent contradiction with a new quantitative single molecule method, which shows that A3G initially binds ssDNA with fast on-off rates and subsequently converts to a slow binding mode. This suggests that oligomerization transforms A3G from a fast enzyme to a slow binding protein, which is the biophysical mechanism that allows A3G to inhibit HIV replication. A complete understanding of the mechanism of A3G-mediated antiviral activity is required to design drugs that disrupt the viral response to A3G, enhance A3G packaging inside the viral core, and other potential strategies for long-term treatment of HIV infection. We use single molecule biophysics to explore the function of proteins involved in bacterial DNA replication, endogenous retrotransposition of retroelements in eukaryotic hosts such yeast and mice, and HIV replication in human cells. Our quantitative results provide insight into protein function in a range of complex biological systems and have wide-ranging implications for human health.

  15. Dynamic optical tweezers based assay for monitoring early drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuquan; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Feng, Jie; Yuan, X.-C.

    2013-06-01

    In this letter, a dynamic optical tweezers based assay is proposed and investigated for monitoring early drug resistance with Pemetrexed-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The validity and stability of the method are verified experimentally in terms of the physical parameters of the optical tweezers system. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is more convenient and faster than traditional techniques when the capability of detecting small variations of the response of cells to a drug is maintained.

  16. Cellular viscoelasticity probed by active rheology in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Khokhlova, Maria D.; Skryabina, Maria N.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to probe viscoelastic properties of cells based on double trap optical tweezers is reported. Frequency dependence of the tangent of phase difference in the movement of the opposite erythrocyte edges while one of the edges is forced to oscillate by optical tweezers appeared to be highly dependent on the rigidity of the cellular membrane. Effective viscoelastic parameters characterizing red blood cells with different stiffnesses (normal and glutaraldehyde-fixed) are determined. It is shown that the photo-induced effects caused by laser trapping at the power level used in the experiments are negligible giving the possibility to use the offered technique for dynamic monitoring of soft materials viscoelastic properties.

  17. Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    . The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with differentEffects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers Nicholas Hyun Charlie Chandsawangbhuwana Qingyuan Zhu Linda Z. Shi Collin Yang-Wong Michael W. Berns #12;Effects of viscosity on sperm

  18. Advanced optical tweezers for the study of cellular and molecular biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Brouhard; Henry T. Schek; Alan J. Hunt

    2003-01-01

    Optical tweezers are an important tool for studying cellular and molecular biomechanics. We present a robust optical tweezers device with advanced features including: multiple optical traps, acousto-optic trap steering, and back focal plane interferometry position detection. We integrate these features into an upright microscope, with no compromise to its capabilities (differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), fluorescence microscopy, etc.). Acousto-optic deflectors

  19. Probing DNA with micro- and nanocapillaries and optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbock, L. J.; Otto, O.; Skarstam, D. R.; Jahn, S.; Chimerel, C.; Gornall, J. L.; Keyser, U. F.

    2010-11-01

    We combine for the first time optical tweezer experiments with the resistive pulse technique based on capillaries. Quartz glass capillaries are pulled into a conical shape with tip diameters as small as 27 nm. Here, we discuss the translocation of ?-phage DNA which is driven by an electrophoretic force through the nanocapillary. The resulting change in ionic current indicates the folding state of single ?-phage DNA molecules. Our flow cell design allows for the straightforward incorporation of optical tweezers. We show that a DNA molecule attached to an optically trapped colloid is pulled into a capillary by electrophoretic forces. The detected electrophoretic force is in good agreement with measurements in solid-state nanopores.

  20. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. PMID:25523395

  1. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies.

  2. Membrane Tether Formation from Outer Hair Cells with Optical Tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiwei Li; Bahman Anvari; Masayoshi Takashima; Peter Brecht; Jorge H. Torres; William E. Brownell

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-?m polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499±152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142±49 pN). The difference

  3. Orientating Manipulation of Cylindrical Particles with Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiudong; Li, Xuecong; Zhang, Jianlong

    Orientating manipulations of cylindrical particles were performed by optical tweezers. Vertical and horizontal manipulations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were carried out by changing the trapping depth and the focused laser beam shape. It was found that carbon nanotubes bundles (CNTBs) could be rotated in the linear polarized optical trap until it orientated its long axis along the linear polarization direction of the laser beam. However, E.coli could not be orientated in this way. Corresponding mechanisms were discussed based on the anisomeric electric characters of CNTBs. These orientation technologies of cylindrical objects with optical trap have potential applications in assembling nano-electric devices.

  4. Multiplying optical tweezers force using a micro-lever.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Lin, Chin-Te; Liu, Yi-Jui; Hwang, Jiann-Lih; Chung, Tien-Tung; Baldeck, Patrice L

    2011-10-10

    This study presents a photo-driven micro-lever fabricated to multiply optical forces using the two-photon polymerization 3D-microfabrication technique. The micro-lever is a second class lever comprising an optical trapping sphere, a beam, and a pivot. A micro-spring is placed between the short and long arms to characterize the induced force. This design enables precise manipulation of the micro-lever by optical tweezers at the micron scale. Under optical dragging, the sphere placed on the lever beam moves, resulting in torque that induces related force on the spring. The optical force applied at the sphere is approximately 100 to 300 pN, with a laser power of 100 to 300 mW. In this study, the optical tweezers drives the micro-lever successfully. The relationship between the optical force and the spring constant can be determined by using the principle of leverage. The arm ratio design developed in this study multiplies the applied optical force by 9. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation of spring property. PMID:21997068

  5. The optical manipulation and characterisation of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jonathan P.

    2008-08-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in many areas of science, ranging from atmospheric chemistry and physics, to pharmaceutical aerosols and drug delivery to the lungs, to combustion science and spray drying. The development of new methods for characterising the properties and dynamics of aerosol particles is of crucial importance if the complex role that particles play is to be more fully understood. Optical tweezers provide a valuable new tool to address fundamental questions in aerosol science. Single or multiple particles 1-15 ?m in diameter can be manipulated for indefinite timescales. Linear and non-linear Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies can be used to probe particle composition, phase, component mixing state, and size. In particular, size can be determined with nanometre accuracy, allowing accurate measurements of the thermodynamic properties of aerosols, the kinetics of particle transformation and of light absorption. Further, the simultaneous manipulation of multiple particles in parallel optical traps provides a method for performing comparative measurements on particles of different composition. We will present some latest work in which optical tweezers are used to characterise aerosol dynamics, demonstrating that optical tweezers can find application in studies of hygroscopicity, the mixing state of different chemical components, including the phase separation of immiscible phases, and the kinetics of chemical transformation.

  6. A simple optical tweezers for trapping polystyrene particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiddiq, Minarni; Nasir, Zulfa; Yogasari, Dwiyana

    2013-09-01

    Optical tweezers is an optical trap. For decades, it has become an optical tool that can trap and manipulate any particle from the very small size like DNA to the big one like bacteria. The trapping force comes from the radiation pressure of laser light which is focused to a group of particles. Optical tweezers has been used in many research areas such as atomic physics, medical physics, biophysics, and chemistry. Here, a simple optical tweezers has been constructed using a modified Leybold laboratory optical microscope. The ocular lens of the microscope has been removed for laser light and digital camera accesses. A laser light from a Coherent diode laser with wavelength ? = 830 nm and power 50 mW is sent through an immersion oil objective lens with magnification 100 × and NA 1.25 to a cell made from microscope slides containing polystyrene particles. Polystyrene particles with size 3 ?m and 10 ?m are used. A CMOS Thorlabs camera type DCC1545M with USB Interface and Thorlabs camera lens 35 mm are connected to a desktop and used to monitor the trapping and measure the stiffness of the trap. The camera is accompanied by camera software which makes able for the user to capture and save images. The images are analyzed using ImageJ and Scion macro. The polystyrene particles have been trapped successfully. The stiffness of the trap depends on the size of the particles and the power of the laser. The stiffness increases linearly with power and decreases as the particle size larger.

  7. Hybrid optical tweezers for dynamic micro-bead arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Tsutsui, Shogo; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Kitajima, Hiroyuki

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic micro-bead arrays offer great flexibility and potential as sensing tools in various scientific fields. Two optical trapping techniques, the GPC method using a spatial light modulator and a mechanical scanning method using galvano mirrors, are combined in a hybrid optical tweezers system to handle dynamic micro-bead arrays. This system provides greater versatility while the GPC method creates massive micro-bead arrays in a 2D space, where the trapped beads can be manipulated smoothly and very quickly in a 3D space using the mechanical scanning method. Four typical examples are demonstrated in real time.

  8. Optical Tweezers Array System Based on 2D Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xuechang; Wang, Canhui; Li, Yanshuang; Shen, Shaoxin; Liu, Shou

    A simple optical interference method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam, using two dimentional photonic crystals (PhCs) as a diffractive beam splitter, was described. To obtained clear periodic traps, all diffracted beams sould be used and the intensity of each splitted beam should be same. So the period and the surface features of PhCs was adjusted in the present study As a demonstration of this technique, using 2D PhCs with 700 nanometer period, hexagonal lattice patterns with one micrometer period have been implemented. The image of periodic intensity gradient of light fabricated by this method is presented.

  9. Optical tweezers formed by pure phase pupil filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; You, Chenglong; Wang, Mei; Yun, Maojin

    2013-09-01

    The focusing properties of vector beams have attracted great attention and quickly became the subject of extensive worldwide research due to their applications in lithography, optical storage, microscopy, material processing, and optical trapping. Focusing properties of the radially polarized beam and generalized cylindrical vector beams in high numerical aperture system with designed pure phase filter are analyzed in detail by using vector Debye diffraction theory. By utilizing diffractive optical element to partly change the polarization of vector beams, the energy density of light field in the vicinity of focus is studied by the numerical analysis. Numerical simulation result shows that optical bubbles can be obtained by changing the composition and polarization of the incident beams. At last, optical tweezers are constituted by two optical bubbles around the focus.

  10. Rapid rotation of micron and submicron dielectric particles measured using optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Leake, Mark C.

    (`optical tweezers') and back-focal-plane position detector to measure rapid rotation in aqueous solution]. In the latter technique, the emerging laser beam is collimated by a condenser lens and the back focal plane labelled with smaller beads were held at the centre of a microelectrode array by the optical tweezers

  11. Research Highlights 1. Combination of single-molecule FRET & optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Hohng, Sung Chul

    Research Highlights 1. Combination of single-molecule FRET & optical tweezers Understanding as little as possible. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool to combine single-molecule FRET and optical tweezers. Prior attempts, however, exposed great technical

  12. Speckle optical tweezers: micromanipulation with random light fields.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Giorgio; Kurz, Lisa; Callegari, Agnese; Volpe, Giovanni; Gigan, Sylvain

    2014-07-28

    Current optical manipulation techniques rely on carefully engineered setups and samples. Although similar conditions are routinely met in research laboratories, it is still a challenge to manipulate microparticles when the environment is not well controlled and known a priori, since optical imperfections and scattering limit the applicability of this technique to real-life situations, such as in biomedical or microfluidic applications. Nonetheless, scattering of coherent light by disordered structures gives rise to speckles, random diffraction patterns with well-defined statistical properties. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how speckle fields can become a versatile tool to efficiently perform fundamental optical manipulation tasks such as trapping, guiding and sorting. We anticipate that the simplicity of these "speckle optical tweezers" will greatly broaden the perspectives of optical manipulation for real-life applications. PMID:25089434

  13. All-Optical Constant-Force Laser Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Rajalakshmi; Gajraj, Arivalagan; Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2004-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a powerful tool for the study of single biomolecules. Many applications require that a molecule be held under constant tension while its extension is measured. We present two schemes based on scanning-line optical tweezers to accomplish this, providing all-optical alternatives to force-clamp traps that rely on electronic feedback to maintain constant-force conditions for the molecule. In these schemes, a laser beam is rapidly scanned along a line in the focal plane of the microscope objective, effectively creating an extended one-dimensional optical potential over distances of up to 8 ?m. A position-independent lateral force acting on a trapped particle is created by either modulating the laser beam intensity during the scan or by using an asymmetric beam profile in the back focal plane of the microscope objective. With these techniques, forces of up to 2.69 pN have been applied over distances of up to 3.4 ?m with residual spring constants of <26.6 fN/?m. We used these techniques in conjunction with a fast position measurement scheme to study the relaxation of ?-DNA molecules against a constant external force with submillisecond time resolution. We compare the results to predictions from the wormlike chain model. PMID:15345573

  14. Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, D.K.; Sonek, G.J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States); Berns, M.W.; Chapman, C.F.; Tromberg, B.J. [Department of Biophysics, and Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The confinement of liposomes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by infrared (IR) optical tweezers is shown to result in sample heating and temperature increases by several degrees centigrade, as measured by a noninvasive, spatially resolved fluorescence detection technique. For micron-sized spherical liposome vesicles having bilayer membranes composed of the phospholipid 1,2-diacyl-pentadecanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (15-OPC), a temperature rise of {similar_to}1.45{plus_minus}0.15 {degree}C/100 mW is observed when the vesicles are held stationary with a 1.064 {mu}m optical tweezers having a power density of {similar_to}10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2} and a focused spot size of {similar_to}0.8 {mu}m. The increase in sample temperature is found to scale linearly with applied optical power in the 40 to 250 mW range. Under the same trapping conditions, CHO cells exhibit an average temperature rise of nearly 1.15{plus_minus}0.25 {degree}C/100 mW. The extent of cell heating induced by infrared tweezers confinement can be described by a heat conduction model that accounts for the absorption of infrared (IR) laser radiation in the aqueous cell core and membrane regions, respectively. The observed results are relevant to the assessment of the noninvasive nature of infrared trapping beams in micromanipulation applications and cell physiological studies. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Interferometer-Controlled Optical Tweezers Constructed for Nanotechnology and Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to control microparticles was developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the nanotechnology project under NASA's Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research Program. A prototype interferometer-controlled optical tweezers was constructed to manipulate scanning probe microscope (SPM) tips. A laser beam passed through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a microscope objective then produced an optical trap from the coaxial beams. The trap levitated and generated the coarse motion of a 10-mm polystyrene sphere used to simulate a SPM tip. The interference between the beams provided fine control of the forces and moments on the sphere. The interferometer included a piezoelectric-scanned mirror to modulate the interference pattern. The 10-mm sphere was observed to oscillate about 1 mm as the mirror and fringe pattern oscillated. The prototype tweezers proved the feasibility of constructing a more sophisticated interferometer tweezers to hold and manipulate SPM tips. The SPM tips are intended to interrogate and manipulate nanostructures. A more powerful laser will be used to generate multiple traps to hold nanostructures and SPM tips. The vibrating mirror in the interferometer will be replaced with a spatial light modulator. The modulator will allow the optical phase distribution in one leg of the interferometer to be programmed independently at 640 by 480 points for detailed control of the forces and moments. The interference patterns will be monitored to measure the motion of the SPM tips. Neuralnetwork technology will provide fast analysis of the interference patterns for diagnostic purposes and for local or remote feedback control of the tips. This effort also requires theoretical and modeling support in the form of scattering calculations for twin coherent beams from nonspherical particles.

  16. Mechanical properties of a giant liposome studied using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitamichi, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    The mechanical properties of a micrometer-sized giant liposome are studied by deforming it from the inside using dual-beam optical tweezers. As the liposome is extended, its shape changes from a sphere to a lemon shape, and finally, a tubular part is generated. The surface tension ? and the bending rigidity ? of the lipid membrane are obtained from the measured force-extension curve. In a one-phase liposome, it was found that ? increases as the charged component increases but ? remains approximately constant. In a two-phase liposome, the characteristic deformation and the force-extension curve differ from those observed for the one-phase liposome.

  17. TweezPal - Optical tweezers analysis and calibration software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Natan

    2010-11-01

    Optical tweezers, a powerful tool for optical trapping, micromanipulation and force transduction, have in recent years become a standard technique commonly used in many research laboratories and university courses. Knowledge about the optical force acting on a trapped object can be gained only after a calibration procedure which has to be performed (by an expert) for each type of trapped objects. In this paper we present TweezPal, a user-friendly, standalone Windows software tool for optical tweezers analysis and calibration. Using TweezPal, the procedure can be performed in a matter of minutes even by non-expert users. The calibration is based on the Brownian motion of a particle trapped in a stationary optical trap, which is being monitored using video or photodiode detection. The particle trajectory is imported into the software which instantly calculates position histogram, trapping potential, stiffness and anisotropy. Program summaryProgram title: TweezPal Catalogue identifier: AEGR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 44 891 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 792 653 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Borland Delphi Computer: Any PC running Microsoft Windows Operating system: Windows 95, 98, 2000, XP, Vista, 7 RAM: 12 Mbytes Classification: 3, 4.14, 18, 23 Nature of problem: Quick, robust and user-friendly calibration and analysis of optical tweezers. The optical trap is calibrated from the trajectory of a trapped particle undergoing Brownian motion in a stationary optical trap (input data) using two methods. Solution method: Elimination of the experimental drift in position data. Direct calculation of the trap stiffness from the positional variance. Calculation of 1D optical trapping potential from the positional distribution of data points. Trap stiffness calculation by fitting a parabola to the trapping potential. Presentation of X-Y positional density for close inspection of the 2D trapping potential. Calculation of the trap anisotropy. Running time: Seconds

  18. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    E-print Network

    Khan, Manas; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.3272269

    2010-01-01

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that make them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of $Ca^{++}$ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  19. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    E-print Network

    Manas Khan; Harsh Soni; A. K. Sood

    2010-11-15

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that make them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of $Ca^{++}$ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  20. Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan Hyuk Nam; Dongjin Lee; Daehie Hong; Jaewon Chung

    2009-01-01

    Various nano devices such as nanotubes, nanorods, nanoribbon, and nanowires have been extensively studied, since they are\\u000a the essential elements to build nanoelectronic circuits, nanochemical sensors, optical switches, etc. However, because the\\u000a nano devices are very small in size and have different shapes, it is virtually impossible to manipulate them with conventional\\u000a methods. This paper discusses the feasibility of using

  1. A tunable line optical tweezers instrument with nanometer spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W. Benjamin; Crocker, John C.

    2014-04-01

    We describe a simple scanning-line optical tweezers instrument for measuring pair interactions between micrometer-sized colloidal particles. Our instrument combines a resonant scanning mirror and an acousto-optic modulator. The resonant scanning mirror creates a time-averaged line trap whose effective one-dimensional intensity profile, and corresponding trapping potential energy landscape can be programmed using the acousto-optic modulator. We demonstrate control over the confining potential by designing and measuring a family of one-dimensional harmonic traps. By adjusting the spring constant, we balance scattering-induced repulsive forces between a pair of trapped particles, creating a flat potential near contact that facilitates interaction measurements. We also develop a simple method for extracting the out-of-plane motion of trapped particles from their relative brightness, allowing us to resolve their relative separation to roughly 1 nm.

  2. Precision Assembly of Complex Cellular Microenvironments using Holographic Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Glen R.; Britchford, Emily; Upton, Thomas; Ware, James; Gibson, Graham M.; Devaud, Yannick; Ehrbar, Martin; Padgett, Miles; Allen, Stephanie; Buttery, Lee D.; Shakesheff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate study of cellular microenvironments is limited by the lack of technologies that can manipulate cells in 3D at a sufficiently small length scale. The ability to build and manipulate multicellular microscopic structures will facilitate a more detailed understanding of cellular function in fields such as developmental and stem cell biology. We present a holographic optical tweezers based technology to accurately generate bespoke cellular micro-architectures. Using embryonic stem cells, 3D structures of varying geometries were created and stabilized using hydrogels and cell-cell adhesion methods. Control of chemical microenvironments was achieved by the temporal release of specific factors from polymer microparticles positioned within these constructs. Complex co-culture micro-environmental analogues were also generated to reproduce structures found within adult stem cell niches. The application of holographic optical tweezers-based micromanipulation will enable novel insights into biological microenvironments by allowing researchers to form complex architectures with sub-micron precision of cells, matrices and molecules. PMID:25716032

  3. Precision assembly of complex cellular microenvironments using holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Glen R; Britchford, Emily; Upton, Thomas; Ware, James; Gibson, Graham M; Devaud, Yannick; Ehrbar, Martin; Padgett, Miles; Allen, Stephanie; Buttery, Lee D; Shakesheff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate study of cellular microenvironments is limited by the lack of technologies that can manipulate cells in 3D at a sufficiently small length scale. The ability to build and manipulate multicellular microscopic structures will facilitate a more detailed understanding of cellular function in fields such as developmental and stem cell biology. We present a holographic optical tweezers based technology to accurately generate bespoke cellular micro-architectures. Using embryonic stem cells, 3D structures of varying geometries were created and stabilized using hydrogels and cell-cell adhesion methods. Control of chemical microenvironments was achieved by the temporal release of specific factors from polymer microparticles positioned within these constructs. Complex co-culture micro-environmental analogues were also generated to reproduce structures found within adult stem cell niches. The application of holographic optical tweezers-based micromanipulation will enable novel insights into biological microenvironments by allowing researchers to form complex architectures with sub-micron precision of cells, matrices and molecules. PMID:25716032

  4. Label-free free-solution nanoaperture optical tweezers for single molecule protein studies.

    PubMed

    Al Balushi, Ahmed A; Kotnala, Abhay; Wheaton, Skyler; Gelfand, Ryan M; Rajashekara, Yashaswini; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-07-21

    Nanoaperture optical tweezers are emerging as useful label-free, free-solution tools for the detection and identification of biological molecules and their interactions at the single molecule level. Nanoaperture optical tweezers provide a low-cost, scalable, straight-forward, high-speed and highly sensitive (SNR ? 33) platform to observe real-time dynamics and to quantify binding kinetics of protein-small molecule interactions without the need to use tethers or labeling. Such nanoaperture-based optical tweezers, which are 1000 times more efficient than conventional optical tweezers, have been used to trap and isolate single DNA molecules and to study proteins like p53, which has been claimed to be in mutant form for 75% of human cancers. More recently, nanoaperture optical tweezers have been used to probe the low-frequency (in the single digit wavenumber range) Raman active modes of single nanoparticles and proteins. Here we review recent developments in the field of nanoaperture optical tweezers and how they have been applied to protein-antibody interactions, protein-small molecule interactions including single molecule binding kinetics, and protein-DNA interactions. In addition, recent works on the integration of nanoaperture optical tweezers at the tip of optical fiber and in microfluidic environments are presented. PMID:25734189

  5. Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changan Xie; De Chen; Yong-Qing Li

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively manipulated into a clean collection chamber with optical tweezers through

  6. Invited Article: A review of haptic optical tweezers for an interactive microworld exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacoret, Cécile; Régnier, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    This paper is the first review of haptic optical tweezers, a new technique which associates force feedback teleoperation with optical tweezers. This technique allows users to explore the microworld by sensing and exerting picoNewton-scale forces with trapped microspheres. Haptic optical tweezers also allow improved dexterity of micromanipulation and micro-assembly. One of the challenges of this technique is to sense and magnify picoNewton-scale forces by a factor of 1012 to enable human operators to perceive interactions that they have never experienced before, such as adhesion phenomena, extremely low inertia, and high frequency dynamics of extremely small objects. The design of optical tweezers for high quality haptic feedback is challenging, given the requirements for very high sensitivity and dynamic stability. The concept, design process, and specification of optical tweezers reviewed here are focused on those intended for haptic teleoperation. In this paper, two new specific designs as well as the current state-of-the-art are presented. Moreover, the remaining important issues are identified for further developments. The initial results obtained are promising and demonstrate that optical tweezers have a significant potential for haptic exploration of the microworld. Haptic optical tweezers will become an invaluable tool for force feedback micromanipulation of biological samples and nano- and micro-assembly parts.

  7. Measurement of the total optical angular momentum transfer in optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Parkin; Gregor Knöner; Timo A. Nieminen; Norman R. Heckenberg; Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop

    2006-01-01

    We describe a way to determine the total angular momentum, both spin and orbital, transferred to a particle trapped in optical tweezers. As an example an LG02 mode of a laser beam with varying degrees of circular polarisation is used to trap and rotate an elongated particle with a well defined geometry. The method successfully estimates the total optical torque

  8. Non-conservative forces in optical tweezers and Brownian vortexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static, but non-conservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle's thermally-driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force, but rather reflects an interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the non-conservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic machines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that non-conservative optical forces bias the particle's fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.

  9. Dynamic excitations in membranes induced by optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, R; Moses, E; Nelson, P

    1998-01-01

    We present the phenomenology of transformations in lipid bilayers that are excited by laser tweezers. A variety of dynamic instabilities and shape transformations are observed, including the pearling instability, expulsion of vesicles, and more exotic ones, such as the formation of passages. Our physical picture of the laser-membrane interaction is based on the generation of tension in the bilayer and loss of surface area. Although tension is the origin of the pearling instability, it does not suffice to explain expulsion of vesicles, where we observe opening of giant pores and creeping motion of bilayers. We present a quantitative theoretical framework to understand most of the observed phenomenology. The main hypothesis is that lipid is pulled into the optical trap by the familiar dielectric effect, is disrupted, and finally is repackaged into an optically unresolvable suspension of colloidal particles. This suspension, in turn, can produce osmotic pressure and depletion forces, driving the observed transformations. PMID:9649388

  10. Hybrid optical transport trap: loading and unloading of microscale objects using a microfabricated optical fiber into optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Mishra, Yogeshwar N.; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-03-01

    High throughput analysis of trapped samples requires effective loading and unloading into the trap in a microfluidic environment. We demonstrate development of a hybrid optical transport trap (HOTT) which combines a tapered fiberoptic 2D trap for transport of microscopic objects into and out of the optical tweezers trap in an orthogonal geometry. For small cone angle of the tip, the microscopic objects (polystyrene and red blood cells) were found to be trapped in two-dimensions and pushed along the axial direction by domination of scattering force. This was found to be in consistence with the estimated axial forces caused by the beam profiles emerging from the small-cone tapered fiber tip. While for loading of the microscopic objects into the optical tweezers trap, the fiber tip was placed ~ 30?m away from the tweezers trap, unloading was carried out in presence of the tip close (<15 ?m) to the tweezers trap. Further, for a fixed fiber trap and tweezers separation (~ 30 ?m), both loading and unloading could be achieved by reducing the tweezers trap power so that the scattering force exerted by the fiber trap exceeded the transverse gradient force of tweezers trap. Since the tapered tip can be easily integrated onto a microfluidic channel, the proposed configuration can find potential applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. We demonstrate analysis of transported microscopic objects using digital holographic microscopy integrated with the HOTT.

  11. Patterning surfaces with colloidal particles using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, J. P.; Vossen, D. L. J.; Faivre-Moskalenko, C.; Dogterom, M.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2002-06-01

    A method for positioning colloidal particles on surfaces in any designed pattern is described. Optical tweezers are used to bring particles from a reservoir to the substrate where opposite surface charges are used to immobilize particles on the surface. Both chemical surface modification and polyelectrolyte coating of either substrate or colloids make the method generally applicable. We show that using this technique large, two-dimensional patterns can be created that can be dried without distortions by critical point drying. As an example we show the positioning of 79 nm radius metallodielectric particles and we show how two-dimensional patterns can be used to direct three-dimensional epitaxial crystal growth. The method is inexpensive, relatively fast, and can be fully automated.

  12. Using Optical Tweezers to Study Cell Mechanics during Airway Reopening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Huseyin; Wang, Jing; Ghadiali, Samir; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Patients suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) must be mechanically ventilated in order to survive. However, these ventilation protocols may generate injurious hydrodynamic stresses especially during low tidal volume (VT) ventilation when the flow of micron-sized air bubbles displace the surrounding liquid. In-vitro studies in our lab revealed that microbubble flows can severally damage lung epithelial cells (EC). The degree of injury was elevated for sub-confluent monolayers in small channel heights. Under these conditions, the micromechanics of individual EC may influence the degree of cellular injury. To investigate the role of cell mechanics, we used an oscillating Optical Tweezers (OT) technique to measure the intrinsic mechanical properties of EC before and after the flow of microbubbles. Knowledge of how the EC's micromechanical properties influence cell viability may lead to the development of novel treatment therapies that enhance the EC's ability to withstand injurious hydrodynamic stresses during ventilation treatment.

  13. Simultaneous measurements of electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce, Giuseppe; Rusciano, Giulia; Zito, Gianluigi; Sasso, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Herein, charged microbeads handled with optical tweezers are used as a sensitive probe for simultaneous measurements of electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces. We first determine the electric charge carried by a single bead by keeping it in a predictable uniform electric field produced by two parallel planar electrodes, then, we examine same bead's response in proximity to a tip electrode. In this case, besides electric forces, the bead simultaneously experiences non-negligible dielectrophoretic forces produced by the strong electric field gradient. The stochastic and deterministic motions of the trapped bead are theoretically and experimentally analysed in terms of the autocorrelation function. By fitting the experimental data, we are able to extract simultaneously the spatial distribution of electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces around the tip. Our approach can be used for determining actual, total force components in the presence of high-curvature electrodes or metal scanning probe tips.

  14. Measuring red blood cell aggregation forces using double optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Heloise P; Fontes, Adriana; Thomaz, André; Castro, Vagner; Cesar, Carlos L; Barjas-Castro, Maria L

    2013-04-01

    Classic immunohematology approaches, based on agglutination techniques, have been used in manual and automated immunohematology laboratory routines. Red blood cell (RBC) agglutination depends on intermolecular attractive forces (hydrophobic bonds, Van der Walls, electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds) and repulsive interactions (zeta potential). The aim of this study was to measure the force involved in RBC aggregation using double optical tweezers, in normal serum, in the presence of erythrocyte antibodies and associated to agglutination potentiator solutions (Dextran, low ionic strength solution [LISS] and enzymes). The optical tweezers consisted of a neodymium:yattrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser beam focused through a microscope equipped with a minicam, which registered the trapped cell image in a computer where they could be analyzed using a software. For measuring RBC aggregation, a silica bead attached to RBCs was trapped and the force needed to slide one RBC over the other, as a function of the velocities, was determined. The median of the RBC aggregation force measured in normal serum (control) was 1 × 10(-3) (0.1-2.5) poise.cm. The samples analyzed with anti-D showed 2 × 10(-3) (1.0-4.0) poise.cm (p < 0.001). RBC diluted in potentiator solutions (Dextran 0.15%, Bromelain and LISS) in the absence of erythrocyte antibodies, did not present agglutination. High adherence was observed when RBCs were treated with papain. Results are in agreement with the imunohematological routine, in which non-specific results are not observed when using LISS, Dextran and Bromelain. Nevertheless, false positive results are frequently observed in manual and automated microplate analyzer using papain enzyme. The methodology proposed is simple and could provide specific information with the possibility of meansuration regarding RBC interaction. PMID:23402665

  15. Optical tweezers as manufacturing and characterization tool in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Ghadiri, R.; Ksouri, S. I.; Gurevich, E. L.; Ostendorf, A.

    2014-09-01

    Pumping and mixing of small volumes of liquid samples are basic processes in microfluidic applications. Among the number of different principles for active transportation of the fluids microrotors have been investigated from the beginning. The main challenge in microrotors, however, has been the driving principle. In this work a new approach for a very simple magnetic driving principle has been realized. More precisely, we take advantage of optical grippers to fabricate various microrotors and introduce an optical force method to characterize the fluid flow generated by rotating the structures through magnetic actuation. The microrotors are built of silica and magnetic microspheres which are initially coated with Streptavidin or Biotin molecules. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) are used to trap, to position, and to assemble the microspheres with the chemical interaction of the biomolecules leading to a stable binding. Using this technique, complex designs of microrotors can be realized. The magnetic response of the magnetic microspheres enables the rotation and control of the structures through an external magnetic field. The generated fluid flow around the microrotor is measured optically by inserting a probe particle next to the rotor. While the probe particle is trapped by optical forces the flow force leads to a displacement of the particle from the trapping position. This displacement is directly related to the flow velocity and can be measured and calibrated. Variations of the microrotor design and rotating speed lead to characteristic flow fields.

  16. Extended linear detection range for optical tweezers using a stop at the back focal plane of the condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumeh Mousavi, S.; Samadi, Akbar; Hajizadeh, Faegheh; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical tweezers are indispensable micro-manipulation tools. It is known that optical tweezers are force rather than position sensors due to the shorter linear range of their position detection system. In this paper, we have shown for the first time, that positioning an optical stop at the BFP of the condenser can overcome this problem by extending the linear detection range. This method would be valuable for the force spectroscopy applications of optical tweezers.

  17. Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy: comment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Jimmy; Jørgensen, Thomas M.

    2007-05-01

    The authors of the work: ‘Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and raman spectroscopy’ [Opt. Express 14, 5385 (2006], claim that they have been able to identify and differentiate between three human chromosomes with an optical-tweezer Raman Spectroscopic experimental (LTRS) set-up. The results and conclusions as they are presented in the paper are questionable, however, when the spectral data and data analysis are studied in greater detail.

  18. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  19. Design of a high-quality optical conjugate structure in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunguang; An, Ran; Zhang, Chengwei; Lei, Hai; Hu, Xiaodong; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-02-20

    We propose an approach to realize a high-quality optical conjugate of a piezo-driven mirror (PM) in optical tweezers. Misalignments between the optical beam and the steering center of the PM are analyzed mathematically. The decentrations in different directions cause different changes, either a position change of the conjugate plane or a spot variation of the beam during PM steering. On the other hand, these misalignment-introduced problems provide the information to check the assembling errors. Thus a wanted conjugate plane of the PM can be effectively and precisely achieved according to the detection signals. This approach is also available to deal with multifactor coupling error. At the end, the procedure for error analysis is given by testing homebuilt optical tweezers. PMID:25968206

  20. Optical nanofiber integrated into an optical tweezers for particle manipulation and in-situ fiber probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusachenko, Ivan; Frawley, Mary C.; Truong, Viet. G.; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2014-09-01

    Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofiber and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofiber at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fiber transmission. We show that such consistent and reversible transmission modulations depend on both particle and fiber diameter, and may be used as a reference point for in-situ nanofiber or particle size measurement. Therefore we combine SEM size measurements with nanofiber transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fiber assessment. We also demonstrate how the optical tweezers can be used to create a `particle jet' to feed a supply of microspheres to the nanofiber surface, forming a particle conveyor belt. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

  1. Force measurements with optical tweezers inside living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Josep; Farré, Arnau; Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Montes-Usategui, Mario

    2014-09-01

    The force exerted by optical tweezers can be measured by tracking the momentum changes of the trapping beam, a method which is more general and powerful than traditional calibration techniques as it is based on first principles, but which has not been brought to its full potential yet, probably due to practical difficulties when combined with high-NA optical traps, such as the necessity to capture a large fraction of the scattered light. We show that it is possible to measure forces on arbitrary biological objects inside cells without an in situ calibration, using this approach. The instrument can be calibrated by measuring three scaling parameters that are exclusively determined by the design of the system, thus obtaining a conversion factor from volts to piconewtons that is theoretically independent of the physical properties of the sample and its environment. We prove that this factor keeps valid inside cells as it shows good agreement with other calibration methods developed in recent years for viscoelastic media. Finally, we apply the method to measuring the stall forces of kinesin and dynein in living A549 cells.

  2. Detection and characterization of individual intermolecular bonds using optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, A L

    2001-01-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques has made it possible to examine protein-protein interactions at the level of individual molecular pairs. A calibrated optical tweezers, along with immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated polystyrene microspheres, has been used to detect individual surface-linked Staphylococcus protein A (SpA) molecules and to characterize the strength of the noncovalent IgG-SpA bond. Microspheres containing, on average, less than one IgG per contact area were held in the optical trap while an SpA-coated substrate was scanned beneath them at a distance of approximately 50 nm. This geometry allows the trapped bead to make contact with the surface, from bond formation to rupture, and results in an enhancement of the force applied to a bond due to leverage supplied by the bead itself. Experiments yielded median single-bond rupture forces from 25 to 44 pN for IgG from four mammalian species, in general agreement with predictions based on free energies of association obtained from solution equilibrium constants. PMID:11371470

  3. Manipulation of Suspended Single Cells by Microfluidics and Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Nève, Nathalie; Kohles, Sean S.; Winn, Shelley R.; Tretheway, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    Chondrocytes and osteoblasts experience multiple stresses in vivo. The optimum mechanical conditions for cell health are not fully understood. This paper describes the optical and microfluidic mechanical manipulation of single suspended cells enabled by the ?PIVOT, an integrated micron resolution particle image velocimeter (?PIV) and dual optical tweezers instrument (OT). In this study, we examine the viability and trap stiffness of cartilage cells, identify the maximum fluid-induced stresses possible in uniform and extensional flows, and compare the deformation characteristics of bone and muscle cells. These results indicate cell photodamage of chondrocytes is negligible for at least 20 min for laser powers below 30 mW, a dead cell presents less resistance to internal organelle rearrangement and deforms globally more than a viable cell, the maximum fluid-induced shear stresses are limited to ~15 mPa for uniform flows but may exceed 1 Pa for extensional flows, and osteoblasts show no deformation for shear stresses up to 250 mPa while myoblasts are more easily deformed and exhibit a modulated response to increasing stress. This suggests that global and/or local stresses can be applied to single cells without physical contact. Coupled with microfluidic sensors, these manipulations may provide unique methods to explore single cell biomechanics. PMID:20824110

  4. Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers Matthew J. Langa)

    E-print Network

    Block, Steven

    .g., colloids and quasi-crystals. A full theory of optical tweezers, covering the full range of spatial scales design, optical detection methods, optical trapping theory, mechanical measurements, single molecule unfolding and refolding of proteins or nucleic acids, the strength of receptor-ligand bonding inter- actions

  5. Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Anvari, Bahman; Takashima, Masayoshi; Brecht, Peter; Torres, Jorge H; Brownell, William E

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-microm polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499 +/- 152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142 +/- 49 pN). The difference in the force required to pull tethers is consistent with an extensive cytoskeletal framework associated with the lateral wall known as the cortical lattice. The apparent plasma membrane stiffness, estimated under the static conditions by measuring tether force at different tether length, was 3.71 pN/microm for OHC lateral wall and 4.57 pN/microm for OHC basal end. The effective membrane viscosity was measured by pulling tethers at different rates while continuously recording the tether force, and estimated in the range of 2.39 to 5.25 pN x s/microm. The viscous force most likely results from the viscous interactions between plasma membrane lipids and the OHC cortical lattice and/or integral membrane proteins. The information these studies provide on the mechanical properties of the OHC lateral wall is important for understanding the mechanism of OHC electromotility. PMID:11867454

  6. Automatic real time evaluation of red blood cell elasticity by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Moura, Diógenes S; Silva, Diego C N; Williams, Ajoke J; Bezerra, Marcos A C; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2015-05-01

    Optical tweezers have been used to trap, manipulate, and measure individual cell properties. In this work, we show that the association of a computer controlled optical tweezers system with image processing techniques allows rapid and reproducible evaluation of cell deformability. In particular, the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) plays a key role in the transport of oxygen through the blood microcirculation. The automatic measurement processes consisted of three steps: acquisition, segmentation of images, and measurement of the elasticity of the cells. An optical tweezers system was setup on an upright microscope equipped with a CCD camera and a motorized XYZ stage, computer controlled by a Labview platform. On the optical tweezers setup, the deformation of the captured RBC was obtained by moving the motorized stage. The automatic real-time homemade system was evaluated by measuring RBCs elasticity from normal donors and patients with sickle cell anemia. Approximately 150 erythrocytes were examined, and the elasticity values obtained by using the developed system were compared to the values measured by two experts. With the automatic system, there was a significant time reduction (60 × ) of the erythrocytes elasticity evaluation. Automated system can help to expand the applications of optical tweezers in hematology and hemotherapy. PMID:26026527

  7. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  8. Near-field enhanced optical tweezers utilizing femtosecond-laser nanostructured substrates

    E-print Network

    Kotsifaki, Domna G; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of plasmonic-enhanced optical tweezers, of polystyrene beads in deionized water in the vicinity of metal-coated nanostructures. The optical tweezers operate with a continuous wave (CW) near-infrared laser. We employ a Cu/Au bilayer that significantly improves dissipation of heat generated by the trapping laser beam and avoid de-trapping from heat convection currents. We investigate the improvement of the optical trapping force, the effective trapping quality factor, and observe an exponential distance dependence of the trapping force from the nanostructures, expected from the evanescent plasmon field.

  9. Cleaved fiber optic double nanohole optical tweezers for trapping nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ryan M; Wheaton, Skylar; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate the trapping of single 20 and 40 nm polystyrene spheres at the cleaved end of a fiber optic with a double nanohole aperture in gold and without any microscope optics. An optical transmission increase of 15% indicates a trapping event for the 40 nm particle, and the jump is 2% for the 20 nm particle. This modular technique can be used to replace those used with current optical trapping setups that require complicated free space optics and frequent calibration, with one that is modular and requires no free space optics. This simple arrangement with the potential for fiber translation is of interest for future biosensor and optical nano-pipette devices. PMID:25490482

  10. Manipulation of Metal Nanoparticles using Fiber-Optic Laser Tweezers with a Microspherical Focusing Lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Numata; Atsuo Takayanagi; Yukitoshi Otani; Norihiro Umeda

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the laser manipulation of metal nanoparticles and dielectric particles by fiber-optic laser tweezers with a microspherical focusing lens. In this manner, a small ball lens attached to the end of the core focuses light guided through a single-mode optical fiber. Numerical electromagnetic analysis of the microfocusing structure showed the possibility of metal nanoparticle trapping with this method.

  11. Force Spectroscopy with Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers: Molecular Stiffness Measurements and Coupled Fluctuations Analysis

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Force Spectroscopy with Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers: Molecular Stiffness Measurements and Coupled Fluctuations Analysis M. Ribezzi-Crivellari and F. Ritort * Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de of which is the coupling of fluctuations along different spatial directions, which may affect any optical

  12. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity ? by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  13. Analysis of optical trap mediated aerosol coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, N. S.; Power, R.; Anand, S.; McGloin, D.; Almohamedi, A.; Downie, M.; Reid, J. P.; Hudson, A. J.

    2012-10-01

    The use of optical tweezers for the analysis of aerosols is valuable for understanding the dynamics of atmospherically relevant particles. However to be able to make accurate measurements that can be directly tied to real-world phenomena it is important that we understand the influence of the optical trap on those processes. One process that is seemingly straightforward to study with these techniques is binary droplet coalescence, either using dual beam traps, or by particle collision with a single trapped droplet. This binary coalescence is also of interest in many other processes that make use of dense aerosol sprays such as spray drying and the use of inhalers for drug delivery in conditions such as asthma or hay fever. In this presentation we discuss the use of high speed (~5000 frames per second) video microscopy to track the dynamics of particles as they approach and interact with a trapped aqueous droplet and develop this analysis further by considering elastic light scattering from droplets as they undergo coalescence. We find that we are able to characterize the re-equilibration time of droplets of the same phase after they interact and that the trajectories taken by airborne particles influenced by an optical trap are often quite complex. We also examine the role of parameters such as the salt concentration of the aqueous solutions used and the influence of laser wavelength.

  14. Optical nanofibre integrated into an optical tweezers for particle manipulation, in situ fibre probing, and optical binding studies

    E-print Network

    Gusachenko, Ivan; Frawley, Mary C; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofibre and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofibre at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fibre transmission. We show that such consistent and reversible transmission modulations depend on both particle and fibre diameter, and can be used as a reference point for in situ nanofibre or particle size measurement. Thence, we combine scanning electron microscope (SEM) size measurements with nanofibre transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fibre assessment. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

  15. Numerical study of the properties of optical vortex array laser tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Chu et al. constructed a kind of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGM)-based vortex array laser beams consisting of p x p embedded optical vortexes from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e)(p,p) modes [Opt. Express 16, 19934 (2008)]. Such an IGM-based vortex array laser beams maintains its vortex array profile during both propagation and focusing, and is applicable to optical tweezers. This study uses the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to study the properties of the IGM-based vortex array laser tweezers while it traps dielectric particles. This study calculates the resultant force exerted on the spherical dielectric particles of different sizes situated at the IGM-based vortex array laser beam waist. Numerical results show that the number of trapping spots of a structure light (i.e. IGM-based vortex laser beam), is depended on the relation between the trapped particle size and the structure light beam size. While the trapped particle is small comparing to the beam size of the IGM-based vortex array laser beams, the IGM-based vortex array laser beams tweezers are suitable for multiple traps. Conversely, the tweezers is suitable for single traps. The results of this study is useful to the future development of the vortex array laser tweezers applications. PMID:24216863

  16. Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. BACKGROUND Most cases of severe and fatal malaria in humans

  17. High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taejin L Min; Patrick J Mears; Lon M Chubiz; Christopher V Rao; Yann R Chemla; Ido Golding

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-cell motility assay, which allows the quantification of bacterial swimming in a well-controlled environment, for durations of up to an hour and with a temporal resolution greater than the flagellar rotation rates of ?100 Hz. The assay is based on an instrument combining optical tweezers, light and fluorescence microscopy, and a microfluidic chamber. Using this device we

  18. Combined Optical Tweezers/Ion Beam Technique to Tune Colloidal Masks for

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    a positive surface charge and then patterned with negatively charged colloidal silica particles using optical the mask can be controlled. To create masks with arbitrary geometry, glass or silicon substrates were given tweezers.18,19 Glass microscope cover slides (diameter 19 mm, Chance, thickness #1) and Si(100) wafers were

  19. Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Leitz, Guenther; Fällman, Erik; Tuck, Simon; Axner, Ove

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers have emerged as a powerful technique for micromanipulation of living cells. Although the technique often has been claimed to be nonintrusive, evidence has appeared that this is not always the case. This work presents evidence that near-infrared continuous-wave laser light from optical tweezers can produce stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. A transgenic strain of C. elegans, carrying an integrated heat-shock-responsive reporter gene, has been exposed to laser light under a variety of illumination conditions. It was found that gene expression was most often induced by light of 760 nm, and least by 810 nm. The stress response increased with laser power and irradiation time. At 810 nm, significant gene expression could be observed at 360 mW of illumination, which is more than one order of magnitude above that normally used in optical tweezers. In the 700-760-nm range, the results show that the stress response is caused by photochemical processes, whereas at 810 nm, it mainly has a photothermal origin. These results give further evidence that the 700-760-nm wavelength region is unsuitable for optical tweezers and suggest that work at 810 nm at normal laser powers does not cause stress at the cellular level. PMID:11916877

  20. An optical tweezer actuated, nanoaperture-grid based Optofluidic Microscope implementation

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab Chip 6, 1274 - 1276 (2006). 2. X. Q. Cui, X tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab Chip 4, 196-200 (2004). 7. A. Ashkin, "Forces of a single

  1. Simulation of heart infarction by laser microbeams and induction of arrhythmias by optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Perner; Shamci Monajembashi; Alexander Rapp; Leo Wollweber; Karl Otto Greulich

    2004-01-01

    Laser microbeam and optical tweezers were used for micromanipulation of a heart tissue model consisting of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes and bibroblasts. Using the laser microbeam a would was created, i.e. a sort of artificial heart infarction was generated. The first steps of wound repair were observed by live cell imaging. A complete filling of teh would primarily by migrating fibroblasts

  2. Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte J. INTRODUCTION The deformation of the human erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) has been the topic of detailed, changes in the propensity for large deformation of the erythrocyte are known to influence disease states

  3. Refractive multiple optical tweezers for parallel biochemical analysis in micro-fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenda, Fabrice; Rohner, Johann; Pascoal, Pedro; Fournier, Jean-Marc; Vogel, Horst; Salathé, René-Paul

    2007-02-01

    We present a multiple laser tweezers system based on refractive optics. The system produces an array of 100 optical traps thanks to a refractive microlens array, whose focal plane is imaged into the focal plane of a high-NA microscope objective. This refractive multi-tweezers system is combined to micro-fluidics, aiming at performing simultaneous biochemical reactions on ensembles of free floating objects. Micro-fluidics allows both transporting the particles to the trapping area, and conveying biochemical reagents to the trapped particles. Parallel trapping in micro-fluidics is achieved with polystyrene beads as well as with native vesicles produced from mammalian cells. The traps can hold objects against fluid flows exceeding 100 micrometers per second. Parallel fluorescence excitation and detection on the ensemble of trapped particles is also demonstrated. Additionally, the system is capable of selectively and individually releasing particles from the tweezers array using a complementary steerable laser beam. Strategies for high-yield particle capture and individual particle release in a micro-fluidic environment are discussed. A comparison with diffractive optical tweezers enhances the pros and cons of refractive systems.

  4. Compact interferometric optical tweezer for patterned trapping and manipulation of polystyrene spheres and SWCNTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjeet Kumar; Chandra Shakher; Dalip Singh Mehta

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and compact optical interferometric unit combined with a conventional optical tweezer system for simultaneous multiple trapping and micromanipulation of mono-dispersed polystyrene spheres and aggregation of small-floating clusters of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The interferometric unit was made compact by means of coating a thin layer of aluminum oxide on one side of the cubic beam splitter

  5. Measurements of liposome biomechanical properties by combining line optical tweezers and dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Spyratou, Ellas; Cunaj, Efrosini; Tsigaridas, George; Mourelatou, Elena A; Demetzos, Costas; Serafetinides, Alexander A; Makropoulou, Mersini

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Liposomes are well-known cell simulators and are currently studied as drug delivery systems, for a targeted delivery of higher drug concentrations, in specific cells. Novel biophotonic techniques for manipulation and characterization of liposomes have been developed; among which are optical tweezers. In our work, we demonstrate a novel use of line optical tweezers to manipulate and cause liposome deformations. Optical forces induce tension on liposomes, which are stretched along the line optical trap. The method of dielectrophoresis, combined with optical tweezers, was used to measure the exerted optical forces. As a consequence, in the case of reversible liposome deformations, the value of the shear and bending moduli of liposomes was calculated. We anticipate that the selective manipulation of liposomes will help us toward a better understanding of the cellular-liposome interactions. Studying the biomechanical properties of liposomes will provide an insight into the mechanical behavior of individual living cells, which have recently been implicated in many aspects of human physiology and patho-physiology. The biomechanical properties of cells (i.e. deformability, stiffness and elasticity) can be useful biomarkers for various disease processes and changes of the cell state. PMID:25487171

  6. An Improved Optical Tweezers Assay for Measuring the Force Generation of Single Kinesin Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Rao, Lu; Gennerich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Numerous microtubule-associated molecular motors, including several kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, produce opposing forces that regulate spindle and chromosome positioning during mitosis. The motility and force generation of these motors are therefore critical to normal cell division, and dysfunction of these processes may contribute to human disease. Optical tweezers provide a powerful method for studying the nanometer motility and piconewton force generation of single motor proteins in vitro. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we present a set of step-by-step, optimized protocols for expressing a kinesin construct (K560-GFP) in Escherichia coli, purifying it, and studying its force generation in an optical tweezers microscope. We also provide detailed instructions on proper alignment and calibration of an optical trapping microscope. These methods provide a foundation for a variety of similar experiments. PMID:24633799

  7. A new iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optimal design in holographic optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, P.; Miccio, L.; Merola, F.; Ferraro, P.; Netti, P. A.

    2012-06-01

    We propose a new Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm (IFTA) capable to suppress ghost traps and noise in Holographic Optical Tweezers (HOT), maintaining a high diffraction efficiency in a computational time comparable with the others iterative algorithms. The process consists in the planning of the suitable ideal target of optical tweezers as input of classical IFTA and we show we are able to design up to 4 real traps, in the field of view imaged by the microscope objective, using an IFTA built on fictitious phasors, located in strategic positions in the Fourier plane. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated both for numerical and optical reconstructions and compared with the other techniques known in literature.

  8. Characterization of bacterial spore germination using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingbo Kong; Pengfei Zhang; Guiwen Wang; Jing Yu; Peter Setlow; Yong-qing Li

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes a method combining phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers to characterize the germination of single bacterial spores. The characterization consists of the following steps: (i) loading heat-activated dormant spores into a temperature-controlled microscope sample holder containing a germinant solution plus a nucleic acid stain; (ii) capturing a single spore with optical tweezers; (iii) simultaneously

  9. New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

  10. Microrheology of non mulberry silk varieties by optical tweezer and video microscopy based techniques

    E-print Network

    Yogesha; Raghu A; Siddaraju G N; G Subramanya; Somashekar R; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2011-02-15

    We have carried out a comparative study of the microrheological properties of silk fibroin solutions formed from a variety of silks indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. We present the measured viscoelastic moduli of Tasar silk fibroin solution using both a single and dual optical tweezer at 0.16% and 0.25% (w/v). The bandwidth of the measurements carried out using optical tweezers is extended down to the lower frequency regime by a video microscopy measurement. Further, we have measured the viscoelastic moduli of Eri and Muga varieties of silk fibroin solutions at a higher concentration (1.00% w/v) limiting the tool of measurement to video microscopy, as the reduced optical transparencies of these solutions at higher concentration preclude an optical tweezer based investigation. The choice of a higher concentration of fibroin solution of the latter silk varieties is so as to enable a comparison of the shear moduli obtained from optical methods with their corresponding fibre stiffness obtained from wide angle X-ray scattering data. We report a correlation between the microstructure and microrheological parameters of these silk varieties for the concentration of fibroin solutions studied.

  11. Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok Ambardekar, Amol; Li, Yong-Qing

    2005-07-01

    We report on optical levitation and manipulation of microscopic particles that are stuck on a glass surface with pulsed optical tweezers. An infrared pulse laser at 1.06 ?m was used to generate a large gradient force (up to 10^-9 N) within a short duration (~45 ?s) that overcomes the adhesive interaction between the particles and the glass surface. Then a low-power continuous-wave diode laser at 785 nm was used to capture and manipulate the levitated particle. We have demonstrated that both stuck dielectric and biological micrometer-sized particles, including polystyrene beads, yeast cells, and Bacillus cereus bacteria, can be levitated and manipulated with this technique. We measured the single-pulse levitation efficiency for 2.0 ?m polystyrene beads as a function of the pulse energy and of the axial displacement from the stuck particle to the pulsed laser focus, which was as high as 88%.

  12. An integral imaging method for depth extraction with lens array in an optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shulu; Liu, Wei-Wei; Wang, Anting; Li, Yinmei; Ming, Hai

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a new integral imaging method is proposed for depth extraction in an optical tweezer system. A mutual coherence algorithm of stereo matching are theoretically analyzed and demonstrated feasible by virtual simulation. In our design, optical tweezer technique is combined with integral imaging in a single microscopy system by inserting a lens array into the optical train. On one hand, the optical tweezer subsystem is built based on the modulated light field from a solid laser, and the strong focused beam forms a light trap to capture tiny specimens. On the other hand, through parameters optimization, the microscopic integral imaging subsystem is composed of a microscope objective, a lens array (150x150 array with 0.192mm unit size and 9mm focal length) and a single lens reflex (SLR). Pre-magnified by the microscope objective, the specimens formed multiple images through the lens array. A single photograph of a series of multiple sub-images has recorded perspective views of the specimens. The differences between adjacent sub-images have been analyzed for depth extraction with the mutual coherence algorithm. The experimental results show that the axial resolution can reach to 1?m -1 and lateral resolution can reach to 2 ?m -1.

  13. Measurement of macrophage adhesion using optical tweezers with backward-scattered detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sung-Yang; Su, Yi-Jr; Shih, Po-Chen; Yang, Shih-Mo; Hsu, Long

    2010-08-01

    Macrophages are members of the leukocyte family. Tissue damage causes inflammation and release of vasoactive and chemotactic factors, which trigger a local increase in blood flow and capillary permeability. Then, leukocytes accumulate quickly to the infection site. The leukocyte extravasation process takes place according to a sequence of events that involve tethering, activation by a chemoattractant stimulus, adhesion by integrin binding, and migrating to the infection site. The leukocyte extravasation process reveals that adhesion is an important part of the immune system. Optical tweezers have become a useful tool with broad applications in biology and physics. In force measurement, the trapped bead as a probe usually uses a polystyrene bead of 1 ?m diameter to measure adhesive force between the trapped beads and cell by optical tweezers. In this paper, using the ray-optics model calculated trapping stiffness and defined the linear displacement ranges. By the theoretical values of stiffness and linear displacement ranges, this study attempted to obtain a proper trapped particle size in measuring adhesive force. Finally, this work investigates real-time adhesion force measurements between human macrophages and trapped beads coated with lipopolysaccharides using optical tweezers with backscattered detection.

  14. Stable manipulating of nanowires by line optical tweezers with haptic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Song-Woo; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2007-09-01

    Optical tweezers are widely used for manipulating microscopic objects. Compared to other contact type microscopic manipulators such as micro-grippers that exhibit firm gripping, optical tweezers inherently possess loose gripping. For example, if a user tries to move target objects too fast such that the drag force of the viscous fluid exceeds the trapping force, target objects will escape from the effective trapping region. When this happens in a standard user interface environment with only video feedback, the user would sense this with a visual cue and slow down or slightly reverse the movement of the trap. In this study we enrich the user interface by adding a haptic cue that is a sense of forces and torques so that the user will sense the drag force and torque that is proportional to the gap distance and angle between the line trap and the nanowire. We present some preliminary results of putting haptic cue for manipulating nanowires.

  15. Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, Jenifer F.; Xie, Changan; Li, Yong-Qing; Bertrand, Fred E.; Wiley, John; McConnell, Thomas J.

    2006-06-01

    The ability to identify specific chromosomes with certainty has been established by the development of several cytogenetic techniques based on staining. Here, we report the use of a new optical technique, laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS), to capture and manipulate chromosomes in order to obtain their spectral patterns for molecular analysis without the need for staining. The purpose of this study was to obtain Raman spectroscopy patterns for chromosomes number 1, 2, and 3 and to test if the Raman spectroscopy pattern could be used to distinguish these three chromosomes. In our experiment, optical tweezers were used to capture the individual chromosomes and the Raman spectral patterns were collected for the trapped chromosomes. Then, the captured chromosome was manipulated with the optical tweezers and moved to another chamber through a micro - channel, in which the chromosomes were G banded for positive identification as chromosome number 1, 2, or 3. Generalized discriminate analysis (GDA) was used to compare the Raman signatures. This analysis revealed that chromosomes 1, 2, and 3 could be distinguished and identified based on their Raman spectra. Development of this approach will lead to more rapid automatic methods for chromosome analysis and identification without the use of prior staining. Moreover, the Raman spectral patterns may lend themselves to more detailed analysis of chromosomal structure than is currently available with standard staining protocols. Such analysis may some day be useful for rapid, automated screening and diagnosis for certain cancers.

  16. Single-cell optoporation and transfection using femtosecond laser and optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Waleed, Muhammad; Hwang, Sun-Uk; Kim, Jung-Dae; Shabbir, Irfan; Shin, Sang-Mo; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new single-cell optoporation and transfection technique using a femtosecond Gaussian laser beam and optical tweezers. Tightly focused near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse was employed to transiently perforate the cellular membrane at a single point in MCF-7 cancer cells. A distinct technique was developed by trapping the microparticle using optical tweezers to focus the femtosecond laser precisely on the cell membrane to puncture it. Subsequently, an external gene was introduced in the cell by trapping and inserting the same plasmid-coated microparticle into the optoporated cell using optical tweezers. Various experimental parameters such as femtosecond laser exposure power, exposure time, puncture hole size, exact focusing of the femtosecond laser on the cell membrane, and cell healing time were closely analyzed to create the optimal conditions for cell viability. Following the insertion of plasmid-coated microparticles in the cell, the targeted cells exhibited green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the fluorescent microscope, hence confirming successful transfection into the cell. This new optoporation and transfection technique maximizes the level of selectivity and control over the targeted cell, and this may be a breakthrough method through which to induce controllable genetic changes in the cell. PMID:24049675

  17. Optical determination of motility forces in human spermatozoa with laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Svaasand, Lars O.; Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berns, Michael W.

    1996-12-01

    Laser tweezers may act as optical force transducers. We report on the determination of intrinsic motility forces of human spermatozoa by employing an 800 nm optical trap. The cellular forces were calculated from calibrated trapping forces. The determination of trapping forces based on a hydrodynamic model for ellipsoidal specimens, the measurement of the minimum laser power required to confine a single cell in the trap, and the calculation of viscus forces during the movement of optically trapped sperm heads through a laminar fluid. A mean motility force of 44 plus or minus 24 pN was calculated for spermatozoa of healthy donors.

  18. Analysis of the influence of manufacturing and alignment related errors on an optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, R.; Sinzinger, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present the design process as well as experimental results of an optical system for trapping particles in air. For positioning applications of micro-sized objects onto a glass wafer we developed a highly efficient optical tweezer. The focus of this paper is the iterative design process where we combine classical optics design software with a ray optics based force simulation tool. Thus we can find the best compromise which matches the optical systems restrictions with stable trapping conditions. Furthermore we analyze the influence of manufacturing related tolerances and errors in the alignment process of the optical elements on the optical forces. We present the design procedure for the necessary optical elements as well as experimental results for the aligned system.

  19. Scanning a DNA Molecule for Bound Proteins Using Hybrid Magnetic and Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    van Loenhout, Marijn T. J.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Flebus, Benedetta; den Blanken, Johan F.; Zweifel, Ludovit P.; Hooning, Koen M.; Kerssemakers, Jacob W. J.; Dekker, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The functional state of the genome is determined by its interactions with proteins that bind, modify, and move along the DNA. To determine the positions and binding strength of proteins localized on DNA we have developed a combined magnetic and optical tweezers apparatus that allows for both sensitive and label-free detection. A DNA loop, that acts as a scanning probe, is created by looping an optically trapped DNA tether around a DNA molecule that is held with magnetic tweezers. Upon scanning the loop along the ?-DNA molecule, EcoRI proteins were detected with ?17 nm spatial resolution. An offset of 33±5 nm for the detected protein positions was found between back and forwards scans, corresponding to the size of the DNA loop and in agreement with theoretical estimates. At higher applied stretching forces, the scanning loop was able to remove bound proteins from the DNA, showing that the method is in principle also capable of measuring the binding strength of proteins to DNA with a force resolution of 0.1 pN/. The use of magnetic tweezers in this assay allows the facile preparation of many single-molecule tethers, which can be scanned one after the other, while it also allows for direct control of the supercoiling state of the DNA molecule, making it uniquely suitable to address the effects of torque on protein-DNA interactions. PMID:23755219

  20. Crosstalk elimination in the detection of dual-beam optical tweezers by spatial filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Dino; Oddershede, Lene B., E-mail: oddershede@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr Institute (NBI), University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Reihani, S. Nader S. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, 11369-9161 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In dual-beam optical tweezers, the accuracy of position and force measurements is often compromised by crosstalk between the two detected signals, this crosstalk leading to systematic and significant errors on the measured forces and distances. This is true both for dual-beam optical traps where the splitting of the two traps is done by polarization optics and for dual optical traps constructed by other methods, e.g., holographic tweezers. If the two traps are orthogonally polarized, most often crosstalk is minimized by inserting polarization optics in front of the detector; however, this method is not perfect because of the de-polarization of the trapping beam introduced by the required high numerical aperture optics. Here we present a simple and easy-to-implement method to efficiently eliminate crosstalk. The method is based on spatial filtering by simply inserting a pinhole at the correct position and is highly compatible with standard back focal plane photodiode based detection of position and force. Our spatial filtering method reduces crosstalk up to five times better than polarization filtering alone. The effectiveness is dependent on pinhole size and distance between the traps and is here quantified experimentally and reproduced by theoretical modeling. The method here proposed will improve the accuracy of force-distance measurements, e.g., of single molecules, performed by dual-beam optical traps and hence give much more scientific value for the experimental efforts.

  1. High-refractive index particles in counter-propagating optical tweezers - manipulation and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, Astrid

    2006-09-01

    With a tightly focused single laser beam, also called optical tweezers, particles of a few nanometers up to several micrometers in size can be trapped and manipulated in 3D. The size, shape and refractive index of such colloidal particles are of influence on the optical forces exerted on them in the trap. A higher refractive-index difference between a particle and the surrounding medium will increase the forces. The destabilizing scattering force, however, pushing the particle in the direction of the beam, increases more than the gradient force, directed towards the focus. As a consequence, particles with a certain refractive index cannot be trapped in a single-beam gradient trap, and a limit is set to the force that can be exerted. We developed an experimental setup with two opposing high-numerical objectives. By splitting the laser beam, we created counter-propagating tweezers in which the scattering forces were canceled in the axial direction and high-refractive index and metallic particles could also be trapped. With the use of a separate laser beam combined with a quadrant photodiode, accurate position detection on a trapped particle in the counter-propagating tweezers is possible. We used this to determine trap stiffnesses, and show, with measurements and calculations, an enhancement in trap stiffness of at least 3 times for high-index 1.1-micrometer-diameter titania particles as compared to 1.4-micrometer-diameter silica particles under the same conditions. The ability to exert higher forces with lower laser power finds application in biophysical experiments, where laser damage and heating play a role. The manipulation of high-index and metallic particles also has applications in materials and colloid science, for example to incorporate high-index defects in colloidal photonic crystals. We demonstrate the patterning of high-index particles onto a glass substrate. The sample cell was mounted on a high-accuracy piezo stage combined with a long-range stage with motorized actuators. Because we used image analysis of the patterned structure to accurately find back the starting position and compensate for drift of the sample, we could move far away from the patterning region. This enabled us to select particles from a separate reservoir of a mixture of particles, and, one-by-one, position them at chosen locations. By time-sharing the laser beam using acousto-optic deflectors, we created multiple counter-propagating tweezers. We trapped an array of high-refractive index particles, and were able to move those particles individually. We used such a dynamic array of counter-propagating tweezers to create line-optical tweezers in which we trapped semi-conducting high-refractive index nanorods in three dimensions. We demonstrate full 3D translational and in-plane rotational control over the rods, which could not be held in single-beam line-tweezers. The configuration of two opposing objectives was also used for simultaneous trapping with one objective and confocal imaging of the fluorescently labeled particles using the other objective. By trapping particles with a refractive index contrast in a dispersion of index-matched particles, crystallization could be induced, which was imaged in three dimensions using confocal microscopy.

  2. Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes This article has been.1088/0957-4484/21/24/245102 Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes Hema Ramachandran1 , A K fragmentation of the bundles. Thus, microbubbles may be used for scavenging, transporting and dispersal

  3. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 48, February 2006, pp. S222S225 Rotation of Irregularly Shaped Liposome Using Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    of Irregularly Shaped Liposome Using Optical Tweezers Chung-il Ha and Haeng Sub Wi Department of Physics, Pusan- tating microscopic particles [9­13]. In this paper, we trap an irregularly shaped liposome and rotate it with optical tweezers, even though the liposome does not have a bire- fringent property. We explain

  4. Three-dimensional image and spatial spectrum analysis of behavior of small animal erythrocytes in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui Chi; Shen, Wen-Tai; Kong, Yu-Han; Chuang, Chun-Hao

    2008-02-01

    Because of the softness of membrane, erythrocytes (red blood cell, RBC) have different shapes while being immersed in buffer with different osmotic pressure. While affecting by different viruses and illnesses, RBC may change its shape, or its membrane may become rigid. Moreover, RBC will ford and stretch when it is trapped by optical tweezers. Therefore, the behaviors of RBC in optical tweezers raise more discussion. In this report, we set up an optical tweezers to trap RBC of small animals like feline and canine. By adding a long working distance objective to collect the side-viewing image, a 3-D image system was constructed to detect the motion of trapped RBC. To improve the image quality for side-view, an aperture and narrow glass plate were used. From the video of these images and their spatial spectrum, the shape of trapped RBC was studied.

  5. Three-dimensional parallel particle manipulation and tracking by integrating holographic optical tweezers and engineered point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Conkey, Donald B; Trivedi, Rahul P; Pavani, Sri Rama Prasanna; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Piestun, Rafael

    2011-02-28

    We demonstrate an integrated holographic optical tweezers system with double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) imaging for high precision three-dimensional multi-particle tracking. The tweezers system allows for the creation and control of multiple optical traps in three-dimensions, while the DH-PSF allows for high precision, 3D, multiple-particle tracking in a wide field. The integrated system is suitable for particles emitting/scattering either coherent or incoherent light and is easily adaptable to existing holographic tweezers systems. We demonstrate simultaneous tracking of multiple micro-manipulated particles and perform quantitative estimation of the lateral and axial forces in an optical trap by measuring the fluid drag force exerted on the particles. The system is thus capable of unveiling complex 3D force landscapes that make it suitable for quantitative studies of interactions in colloidal systems, biological materials, and a variety of soft matter systems. PMID:21369208

  6. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation.

    PubMed

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M; Huguet, J M; Ritort, F

    2013-04-01

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces. PMID:23635178

  7. In situ microparticle analysis of marine phytoplankton cells with infrared laser-based optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonek, G. J.; Liu, Y.; Iturriaga, R. H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe the application of infrared optical tweezers to the in situ microparticle analysis of marine phytoplankton cells. A Nd:YAG laser (lambda=3D 1064 nm) trap is used to confine and manipulate single Nannochloris and Synechococcus cells in an enriched seawater medium while spectral fluorescence and Lorenz-Mie backscatter signals are simultaneously acquired under a variety of excitation and trapping conditions. Variations in the measured fluorescence intensities of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and phycoerythrin pigments in phytoplankton cells are observed. These variations are related, in part, to basic intrasample variability, but they also indicate that increasing ultraviolet-exposure time and infrared trapping power may have short-term effects on cellular physiology that are related to Chl a photobleaching and laser-induced heating, respectively. The use of optical tweezers to study the factors that affect marine cell physiology and the processes of absorption, scattering, and attenuation by individual cells, organisms, and particulate matter that contribute to optical closure on a microscopic scale are also described. (c)1995 Optical Society of America

  8. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ritort, F. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  9. NanoTracker: force-sensing optical tweezers for quantitative single-molecule nanomanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Helge A.; van Mameren, Joost; Wozniak, Anna; Jaehnke, Torsten

    2010-02-01

    In the past decade, experiments involving the manipulation and observation of nanostructures with light using optical tweezers methodology have developed from proof-of-principle experiments to an established quantitative technique in fields ranging from (bio)physics to cell biology. With optical tweezers, microscopically small objects can be held and manipulated. At the same time, the forces exerted on the trapped objects can be accurately measured. With the Prism-Award winning NanoTracker a platform for performing experiments using specimen from single molecules to whole cells is available. With two time-continuous traps, it allows the controlled trapping and accurate tracking of nanoparticles, suspended either in a microfluidic multichannel flow chamber or even in a temperaturecontrolled open Petri dish. With its 3D detection system, particle displacements in the trap can be recorded with nanometer precision. Moreover, dynamic forces acting on the particle can be measured with better than picoNewton resolution on a microsecond time-scale. Here, we discuss design features of and measurements done with the NanoTracker platform. In particular, we show how one of the hallmarks of single-molecule biophysics, the overstretching transition of DNA, can be studied in a versatile manner and used for protein-DNA interaction mechanics. Moreover, on the lower side of the force range the other benchmark single-molecule biophysics, kinesin's 8-nm steps and stall forces, are shown to be measurable. With the NanoTracker, optical tweezers finally transcend from the labs of self-building scientists who helped the technique mature, to a turn-key system able to serve a much wider community of researchers in the life sciences.

  10. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuxun; Cheng, Jinping; Kong, Chi-Wing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han Cheng, Shuk; Li, Ronald A.; Sun, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  11. Temporal response of three-dimensional biological cells to high-frequency optical jumping tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyao; Sheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the temporal responses of biological cells in the jumping optical tweezers for tugging, wiggling, and stretching the cells in the time-sharing regime with the finite-element method. We showed that the jumping of local stress and local strain is independently omnipresent on the recovery time of the viscoelastic material and the jumping frequency of the load. We demonstrated that the elongation of a three-dimensional (3-D) viscoelastic object under a jumping load cannot be evaluated using the one-dimensional spring-dashpot material model without considering its 3-D structure.

  12. The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: lessons from the use of optical tweezers and other biophysical tools

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Bruno; Frases, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, representing one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. The main virulence factor of C. neoformans is the polysaccharide capsule; however, many fundamental aspects of capsule structure and function remain poorly understood. Recently, important capsule properties were uncovered using optical tweezers and other biophysical techniques, including dynamic and static light scattering, zeta potential and viscosity analysis. This review provides an overview of the latest findings in this emerging field, explaining the impact of these findings on our understanding of C. neoformans biology and resistance to host immune defenses. PMID:26157436

  13. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  14. Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecevi?ius, Mindaugas; Drevinskas, Rokas; Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a single beam method for generating optical vortices with tunable optical angular momentum without altering the intensity distribution. With the initial polarization state varying from linear to circular, we gradually control the torque transferred to the trapped non-absorbing and non-birefringent silica beads. The continuous transition from the maximum rotation speed to zero without changing the trapping potential gives a way to study the complex tribological interactions.

  15. Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Gecevi?ius, Mindaugas; Drevinskas, Rokas, E-mail: rd1c12@orc.soton.ac.uk; Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    We propose a single beam method for generating optical vortices with tunable optical angular momentum without altering the intensity distribution. With the initial polarization state varying from linear to circular, we gradually control the torque transferred to the trapped non-absorbing and non-birefringent silica beads. The continuous transition from the maximum rotation speed to zero without changing the trapping potential gives a way to study the complex tribological interactions.

  16. Combined versatile high-resolution optical tweezers and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sirinakis, George; Ren, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Xi, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence are two major single-molecule approaches. Their combination has begun to show greater capability to study more complex systems than either method alone, but met many fundamental and technical challenges. We built an instrument that combines base-pair resolution dual-trap optical tweezers with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. The instrument has complementary design and functionalities compared with similar microscopes previously described. The optical tweezers can be operated in constant force mode for easy data interpretation or in variable force mode for maximum spatiotemporal resolution. The single-molecule fluorescence detection can be implemented in either wide-field or confocal imaging configuration. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new instrument, we imaged a single stretched ? DNA molecule and investigated the dynamics of a DNA hairpin molecule in the presence of fluorophore-labeled complementary oligonucleotide. We simultaneously observed changes in the fluorescence signal and pauses in fast extension hopping of the hairpin due to association and dissociation of individual oligonucleotides. The combined versatile microscopy allows for greater flexibility to study molecular machines or assemblies at a single-molecule level. PMID:23020384

  17. Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays Yael Roichman,1

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    driven past an evenly spaced array of potential energy wells or barriers may become kinetically locked in higher dimensions. Re- cently, attention has become focused on the transport of viscously damped sample past stationary patterns of optical traps. All particles consequently traveled past the traps

  18. Evaluating cell matrix mechanics using an integrated nonlinear optical tweezer-confocal imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Berney; Alonzo, Carlo A. C.; Xia, Lawrence; Speroni, Lucia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Cronin-Golomb, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Biomechanics plays a central role in breast epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we have used 3D cultures in which normal breast epithelial cells are able to organize into rounded acini and tubular ducts, the main structures found in the breast tissue. We have identified fiber organization as a main determinant of ductal organization. While bulk rheological properties of the matrix seem to play a negligible role in determining the proportion of acini versus ducts, local changes may be pivotal in shape determination. As such, the ability to make microscale rheology measurements coupled with simultaneous optical imaging in 3D cultures can be critical to assess the biomechanical factors underlying epithelial morphogenesis. This paper describes the inclusion of optical tweezers based microrheology in a microscope that had been designed for nonlinear optical imaging of collagen networks in ECM. We propose two microrheology methods and show preliminary results using a gelatin hydrogel and collagen/Matrigel 3D cultures containing mammary gland epithelial cells.

  19. The efficiency of fiber optical tweezers for cell manipulation using distinct fabrication methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Ribeiro, R. S.; Soppera, O.; Viegas, J.; Guerreiro, A.; Jorge, P. A. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the trapping efficiency of new fiber optical tweezers structures fabricated using photo polymerization and focused ion beam milling techniques is evaluated. The first fabrication methods may present limited capabilities on the tailoring of the structures, and therefore limited operation features. On the other hand, with focused ion beam milling a vast myriad of structures may be accurately fabricated, and contrarily to conventional fabrication methods, more specialized manipulation tools can be developed. In this regard, the performance of FOT for the trapping of yeast cells using spherical lenses (photo polymerization) and spiral phase lenses (FIB) will be presented. In addition, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the full vectorial optical propagation through the designed structures and the corresponding calculation of the optical forces are presented and different designs are evaluated.

  20. Two-photon fluorescence excitation in continuous-wave infrared optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Sonek, G. J.; Berns, M. W.; Konig, K.; Tromberg, B. J.

    1995-11-01

    We report the observation of two-photon fluorescence excitation in a continuous-wave (cw) single-beam gradient force optical trap and demonstrate its use as an in situ probe to study the physiological state of an optically confined sample. In particular, a cw Nd:YAG (1064-nm) laser is used simultaneously to confine, and excite visible fluorescence from submicrometer regions of, cell specimens. Two-photon fluorescence emission spectra are presented for motile human sperm cells and immotile Chinese hamster ovary cells that have been labeled with nucleic acid (Propidium Iodide) and pH-sensitive (Snarf) fluorescent probes. The resulting spectra are correlated to light-induced changes in the physiological state experienced by the trapped cells. This spectral technique should prove extremely useful for monitoring cellular activity and the effects of confinement by optical tweezers.

  1. Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-08-01

    The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

  2. Investigation of the mechanical property of individual cell using axial optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dy, Mary-Clare; Sugiura, Tadao; Minato, Kotaro

    2013-02-01

    Optical tweezers is a technique that can trap and manipulate small objects using a highly focused laser beam. Because optical tweezers can also be used to measure small forces, it has been extensively used for the measurement of the mechanical forces of cells. Previous research works typically study particle manipulation and cell force measurement in the lateral direction, hence excluding valuable insights about the axial mechanical properties of cells. Other works that investigate axial cell force measurements utilize spatial light modulators and other devices that are expensive and complicate the setup. Thus, in our study, we designed a simple scheme that can axially manipulate particles by adjusting the position of one lens, called L1-lens, in our setup. Image processing techniques were utilized to determine the changes in the axial particle translation, providing nanometer sensitivity. We investigated the capability of our system using two different-sized particles and results show that for a given L1-lens default position and movement, a 2-micron particle and a 4.26-micron particle were moved axially for 7.68 µm and 4.83 µm, respectively. Axial trapping stiffness was also measured for the stated bead sizes in different magnification. Using the computed trapping sti_ness, we will investigate the axial reactive forces of cells.

  3. Simulation of heart infarction by laser microbeams and induction of arrhythmias by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Birgit; Monajembashi, Shamci; Rapp, Alexander; Wollweber, Leo; Greulich, Karl Otto

    2004-10-01

    Laser microbeam and optical tweezers were used for micromanipulation of a heart tissue model consisting of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes and bibroblasts. Using the laser microbeam a would was created, i.e. a sort of artificial heart infarction was generated. The first steps of wound repair were observed by live cell imaging. A complete filling of teh would primarily by migrating fibroblasts but not by cardiomyocytes was detected 18 hours after wounding. In another set of experiments erythrocyte mediated force application (EMFA) by optical tweezers was applied for optomechanical manipulatoin of cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Here we demonstrate induction of dramatic distrubances of calcium waves in a group of synchronously beating cardiomyocytes by an optomechanical input that results in cellular deformation. Surprisingly, it was found that putatively non-excitable fibroblasts respond to this mechanical stress with calcium oscillations. The results reported here indicate that the induction of artificial heart infarction can provide insights into healing processes after mycardial injury. EMFA is capable to examine effects of myocardial overload and to provide important information about processes triggered by mechanical stress on the level of single or very few cells. As a perspective, the preseneted techniques may be used to study the influence of drugs on wound healing and coordination of beating in the heart.

  4. Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Nicholas; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z.; Yang-Wong, Collin; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with different viscosities. Multiple experiments were performed to collect motility parameters using customized computer tracking software that measures the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the minimum laser power (Pesc) necessary to hold an individual sperm in an optical trap. The Pesc was measured by using a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser that optically traps motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the focused trap spot. The VCL was measured frame by frame before trapping. In order to study sperm energetics under different viscous conditions sperm were labeled with the fluorescent dye DiOC6(3) to measure membrane potentials of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece. Fluorescence intensity was measured before and during trapping. The results demonstrate a decrease in VCL but an increase in Pesc with increasing viscosity. Fluorescent intensity is the same regardless of the viscosity level indicating no change in sperm energetics. The results suggest that, under the conditions tested, viscosity physically affects the mechanical properties of sperm motility rather than the chemical pathways associated with energetics.

  5. Absolute Position Total Internal Reflection Microscopy with an Optical Tweezer

    E-print Network

    Liu, Lulu; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, in-situ calibration method for Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 $\\mu$m from the surface. This represents an approximate 10x improvement in error and 3x improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique's advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle's scattering intensity vs. height profile in-situ, rather than relying on calculations or inexact system analogs for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle.

  6. Development of a two-photon polymerization and optical tweezers microscope for fabrication and manipulation of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Ninad; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-03-01

    We report development of a two-photon polymerization (TPP) microscope, for micro-fabrication of microstructures, which is capable of optical manipulation by use of optical tweezers. The system is based on an inverted Nikon microscope with a tunable Ti: Sapphire femto-second (fs) laser coupled to the upper back port. While in modelocked condition, nanoparticles and wires were fabricated in photo-polymerizable synthetic materials using TPP. By axial positioning of the focused TPP laser beam, 1D-structures (for use as wave guide) were fabricated at desired height above the surface of the substrate. In the mode lock-OFF condition the same tunable laser microbeam was employed as optical tweezers to the hold the nanostructures and manipulate them even in highly viscous medium before immobilizing. Size of the TPP induced structure was found to depend on the fs laser intensity and exposure. Further, by shaping the fs laser beam to line pattern, linear 1D structures could be fabricated without scanning the beam or stage, which remain aligned along the line intensity profile due to anisotropic trapping force of the line tweezers in X and Y-directions. Use of optical tweezers with two-photon polymerization not only allowed in-situ corrective positioning of the polymerized structures, but also the integration of fluorescent microspheres (resonator/detector) with polymerized waveguide.

  7. Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.; Hansen, J.E.; Mccormick, M.P.; Pollack, J.B. [NASA, Goddard Institute of Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)]|[NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A global stratospheric aerosol database employed for climate simulations is described. For the period 1883-1990, aerosol optical depths are estimated from optical extinction data, whose quality increases with time over that period. For the period 1850-1882, aerosol optical depths are more crudely estimated from volcanological evidence for the volume of ejecta from major known volcanoes. The data set is available over Internet.

  8. Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James E.; Mccormick, M. Patrick; Pollack, James B.

    1993-01-01

    A global stratospheric aerosol database employed for climate simulations is described. For the period 1883-1990, aerosol optical depths are estimated from optical extinction data, whose quality increases with time over that period. For the period 1850-1882, aerosol optical depths are more crudely estimated from volcanological evidence for the volume of ejecta from major known volcanoes. The data set is available over Internet.

  9. Composite SERS-based satellites navigated by optical tweezers for single cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Stetciura, Inna Y; Yashchenok, Alexey; Masic, Admir; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Inozemtseva, Olga A; Drozdova, Maria G; Markvichova, Elena A; Khlebtsov, Boris N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Gorin, Dmitry A; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2015-07-13

    Herein, we have designed composite SERS-active micro-satellites, which exhibit a dual role: (i) effective probes for determining cellular composition and (ii) optically movable and easily detectable markers. The satellites were synthesized by the layer-by-layer assisted decoration of silica microparticles with metal (gold or silver) nanoparticles and astralen in order to ensure satellite SERS-based microenvironment probing and satellite recognition, respectively. A combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy can be used to navigate the satellites to a certain cellular compartment and probe the intracellular composition following cellular uptake. In the future, this developed approach may serve as a tool for single cell analysis with nanometer precision due to the multilayer surface design, focusing on both extracellular and intracellular studies. PMID:26040199

  10. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Manas; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Sood, A. K.

    2005-11-01

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and become twisted in hypertonic phosphate buffer saline and when trapped, experience an unbalanced radiation pressure force. The torque generated from the unbalanced force causes the trapped RBC to rotate. Addition of Ca^{++} ions in the solution, keeping the osmolarity same, makes the cell membranes stiffer and the cells deform less. Thus the speed of rotation of the red blood cells can be controlled, as less deformation and in turn less asymmetry in shape produces less torque under the radiation pressure resulting in slower rotation at the same laser power.

  11. Extended linear detection range for optical tweezers using image-plane detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajizadeh, Faegheh; Masoumeh Mousavi, S.; Khaksar, Zeinab S.; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2014-10-01

    Ability to measure pico- and femto-Newton range forces using optical tweezers (OT) strongly relies on the sensitivity of its detection system. We show that the commonly used back-focal-plane detection method provides a linear response range which is shorter than that of the restoring force of OT for large beads. This limits measurable force range of OT. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that utilizing a second laser beam for tracking could solve the problem. We also propose a new detection scheme in which the quadrant photodiode is positioned at the plane optically conjugate to the object plane (image plane). This method solves the problem without need for a second laser beam for the bead sizes that are commonly used in force spectroscopy applications of OT, such as biopolymer stretching.

  12. Comparison of T-matrix calculation methods for scattering by cylinders in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoqiong; Nieminen, Timo A; Stilgoe, Alexander B; Loke, Vincent L Y; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-08-15

    The T-matrix method, or the T-matrix formulation of scattering, is a framework for mathematically describing the scattering properties of an object as a linear relationship between expansion coefficients of the incident and scattering fields in a basis of vector spherical wave functions (VSWFs). A variety of methods can be used to calculate the T-matrix. We explore the applicability of the extended boundary condition method (EBCM) and point matching (PM) method to calculate the T-matrix for scattering by cylinders in optical tweezers and hence the optical force acting on them. We compare both methods with the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) to measure their accuracy for different sizes and aspect ratios (ARs) for Rayleigh and wavelength-size cylinders. We determine range of sizes and ARs giving errors below 1% and 10%. These results can help researchers choose the most efficient method to calculate the T-matrix for nonspherical particles with acceptable accuracy. PMID:25121885

  13. Optical tweezers and non-ratiometric fluorescent-dye-based studies of respiration in sperm mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Timothy; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mitochondrial membrane potential affects sperm motility using laser tweezers and a non-ratiometric fluorescent probe, DiOC6(3). A 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser was used to trap motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the trap spot. Using customized tracking software, the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the escape force from the laser tweezers were measured. Human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupis familiaris) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) sperm were treated with DiOC6(3) to measure the membrane potential in the mitochondria-rich sperm midpieces. Sperm from all three species exhibited an increase in fluorescence when treated with the DiOC6(3). When a cyanide inhibitor (CCCP) of aerobic respiration was applied, sperm of all three species exhibited a reduction in fluorescence to pre-dye levels. With respect to VCL and escape force, the CCCP had no effect on dog or human sperm, suggesting a major reliance upon anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) for ATP in these two species. Based on the preliminary study on drill sperm, CCCP caused a drop in the VCL, suggesting potential reliance on both glycolysis and aerobic respiration for motility. The results demonstrate that optical trapping in combination with DiOC6(3) is an effective way to study sperm motility and energetics.

  14. The stiffness of rabbit skeletal actomyosin cross-bridges determined with an optical tweezers transducer.

    PubMed Central

    Veigel, C; Bartoo, M L; White, D C; Sparrow, J C; Molloy, J E

    1998-01-01

    Muscle contraction is brought about by the cyclical interaction of myosin with actin coupled to the breakdown of ATP. The current view of the mechanism is that the bound actomyosin complex (or "cross-bridge") produces force and movement by a change in conformation. This process is known as the "working stroke." We have measured the stiffness and working stroke of a single cross-bridge (kappa xb, dxb, respectively) with an optical tweezers transducer. Measurements were made with the "three bead" geometry devised by Finer et al. (1994), in which two beads, supported in optical traps, are used to hold an actin filament in the vicinity of a myosin molecule, which is immobilized on the surface of a third bead. The movements and forces produced by actomyosin interactions were measured by detecting the position of both trapped beads. We measured, and corrected for, series compliance in the system, which otherwise introduces large errors. First, we used video image analysis to measure the long-range, force-extension property of the actin-to-bead connection (kappa con), which is the main source of "end compliance." We found that force-extension diagrams were nonlinear and rather variable between preparations, i.e., end compliance depended not only upon the starting tension, but also upon the F-actin-bead pair used. Second, we measured kappa xb and kappa con during a single cross-bridge attachment by driving one optical tweezer with a sinusoidal oscillation while measuring the position of both beads. In this way, the bead held in the driven optical tweezer applied force to the cross-bridge, and the motion of the other bead measured cross-bridge movement. Under our experimental conditions (at approximately 2 pN of pretension), connection stiffness (kappa con) was 0.26 +/- 0.16 pN nm-1. We found that rabbit heavy meromyosin produced a working stroke of 5.5 nm, and cross-bridge stiffness (kappa xb) was 0.69 +/- 0.47 pN nm-1. PMID:9726944

  15. Rotational analysis of birefringent crystal particles based on modified theory in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong; Zhu, Yanying; Yao, Wenying; Pei, Huan

    2015-04-01

    In order to achieve high-precision, controllable rotation of uniaxial birefringent crystal particles, we study the principle of optical rotation due to the transfer of spin angular momentum from light to birefringent crystal particles. The interaction process between the beam and particles is affected by various factors existed actually, for instance: the reflection of beam on the crystal surface, laser power, the set of angle between the crystal optical axis and surface, radius, phase difference between the ordinary ray and extraordinary ray. According to the analysis of these factors, the theoretical model of optical rotation is reconstructed. The theoretical curves of calcium carbonate and silicon particles chosen as experimental material between the rotational frequency and the radius are simulated and calculated. The result shows that the rotation frequency is inversely proportional to the cube of radius, and compared the performance of modified model with traditional model. The birefringent particles are rotated by optical tweezers in the experiment, and rotation frequency is measured with the same laser power. According to the experimental results of optical rotation, the modified Friese theoretical model is proved to be the reasonably and excellence, in addition, the result shows the maximum frequency of calcium carbonate is 19.1Hz, and the maximum frequency of silicon particles is 11.5Hz. The rationality of our experiment is testified by compared with theoretical analysis. Our study has great directive significance to the design of optical driven micro-mechanical motor and the material selection of rotor.

  16. Mechanism of termination of bacteriophage DNA packaging investigated with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delToro, Damian J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    The genomes of many dsDNA viruses are replicated by a mechanism that produces a long concatemer of multiple genomes. These viruses utilize multifunctional molecular motor complexes referred to as "terminases" that can excise a unit genome length of DNA and package it into preformed viral shells. Remarkably, the terminase motor can initiate packaging at the appropriate start point, translocate DNA, sense when a sufficient length has been packaged, and then switch into a mode where it arrests and cleaves the DNA to release a filled virus particle. We have recently developed an improved method to measure single phage lambda DNA packaging using dual-trap optical tweezers and pre-stalled motor-DNA-procapsid complexes. We are applying this method to test proposed mechanisms for the sensor that triggers termination; specifically a velocity-monitor model vs. energy-monitor model vs. capsid-filling monitor model.

  17. Double nanohole optical tweezers visualize protein p53 suppressing unzipping of single DNA-hairpins

    PubMed Central

    Kotnala, Abhay; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the use of double-nanohole (DNH) optical tweezers as a label-free and free-solution single-molecule probe for protein–DNA interactions. Using this approach, we demonstrate the unzipping of individual 10 base pair DNA-hairpins, and quantify how tumor suppressor p53 protein delays the unzipping. From the Arrhenius behavior, we find the energy barrier to unzipping introduced by p53 to be 2 × 10?20 J, whereas cys135ser mutant p53 does not show suppression of unzipping, which gives clues to its functional inability to suppress tumor growth. This transformative approach to single molecule analysis allows for ultra-sensitive detection and quantification of protein–DNA interactions to revolutionize the fight against genetic diseases. PMID:24940547

  18. Studies of cochlear outer hair cell membrane mechanics using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, David R.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-06-01

    An optical tweezers system was used to study the mechanical characteristics of outer hair cell (OHC) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell plasma membranes. The effect of the cationic amphipath chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the equilibrium tethering force, (Feq) force relaxation time constant,(?) and effective membrane viscosity (?eff) was measured. The Feq for the OHC lateral wall plasma membrane was ~60 pN and was unchanged by addition of CPZ. A significantly greater ? value was observed in CPZ-treated OHCs (30.5 +/- 12.6 s) than in control OHCs (19.0 +/- 13.2 s). The Feq and ? values for control HEK cells were >60% lower than the respective OHC values but increased by ~3 times following CPZ addition. Effective viscosity ranged between 1.49-1.81 pN•s/?m for CPZ-treated OHCs. This represents a decrease from reported control OHC membrane viscosities.

  19. Optical tweezers study of viscoelastic properties in the outer hair cell plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, David R.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Qian, Feng; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-06-01

    An optical tweezers system was used to study the mechanical characteristics of the outer hair cell (OHC) lateral wall by forming plasma membrane tethers. A 2nd order generalized Kelvin model was applied to describe the viscoelastic behavior of OHC membrane tethers. The measured parameters included equilibrium tethering force, (Feq), force relaxation times (?), stiffness values (?), and coefficients of friction (?). An analysis of force relaxation in membrane tethers indicated that the force decay is a biphasic process containing both an elastic and a viscous phase. In general, we observed an overall negative trend in the measured parameters upon application of the cationic amphipath chlorpromazine (CPZ). CPZ was found to cause up to a 40 pN reduction in Feq in OHCs. A statistically significant reduction in relaxation times and coefficients of friction was also observed, suggesting an increase in rate of force decay and a decrease in plasma membrane viscosity.

  20. Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S. N. S.; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the “killing time” of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

  1. Accurate measurement of force and displacement with optical tweezers using DNA molecules as metrology standards

    PubMed Central

    delToro, Damian; Smith, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers facilitate measurement of piconewton-level forces and nanometer-level displacements and have broad applications in biophysics and soft matter physics research. We have shown previously that DNA molecules can be used as metrology standards to define such measurements. Force-extension measurements on two DNA molecules of different lengths can be used to determine four necessary measurement parameters. Here, we show that the accuracy of determining these parameters can be improved by more than 7-fold by incorporating measurements of the DNA overstretching transition and using a multi-step data analysis procedure. This method results in very robust and precise fitting of DNA force-extension measurements to the worm-like chain model. We verify the accuracy through independent measurements of DNA stretching, DNA unzipping, and microsphere contact forces. PMID:25316922

  2. Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; Milstein, Joshua N.

    2014-09-01

    Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices.

  3. Measurements of the force fields within an acoustic standing wave using holographic optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Bassindale, P. G.; Drinkwater, B. W. [Faculty of Engineering, Queens building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Phillips, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Barnes, A. C. [Department of Physics, H.H.Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-21

    Direct measurement of the forces experienced by micro-spheres in an acoustic standing wave device have been obtained using calibrated optical traps generated with holographic optical tweezers. A micro-sphere, which is optically trapped in three dimensions, can be moved through the acoustic device to measure forces acting upon it. When the micro-sphere is subjected to acoustic forces, it's equilibrium position is displaced to a position where the acoustic forces and optical forces are balanced. Once the optical trapping stiffness has been calibrated, observation of this displacement enables a direct measurement of the forces acting upon the micro-sphere. The measured forces are separated into a spatially oscillating component, attributed to the acoustic radiation force, and a constant force, attributed to fluid streaming. As the drive conditions of the acoustic device were varied, oscillating forces (>2.5 pN{sub pp}) and streaming forces (<0.2 pN) were measured. A 5??m silica micro-sphere was used to characterise a 6.8?MHz standing wave, ??=?220??m, to a spatial resolution limited by the uncertainty in the positioning of the micro-sphere (here to within 2?nm) and with a force resolution on the order of 10 fN. The results have application in the design and testing of acoustic manipulation devices.

  4. Development of microfluidic system and optical tweezers for electrophysiological investigations of an individual cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrifaiy, A.; Bitaraf, N.; Lindahl, O.; Ramser, K.

    2010-08-01

    We present a new approach of combining Lab-on-a-chip technologies with optical manipulation technique for accurate investigations in the field of cell biology. A general concept was to develop and combine different methods to perform advanced electrophysiological investigations of an individual living cell under optimal control of the surrounding environment. The conventional patch clamp technique was customized by modifying the open system with a gas-tight multifunctional microfluidics system and optical trapping technique (optical tweezers). The system offers possibilities to measure the electrical signaling and activity of the neuron under optimum conditions of hypoxia and anoxia while the oxygenation state is controlled optically by means of a spectroscopic technique. A cellbased microfluidics system with an integrated patch clamp pipette was developed successfully. Selectively, an individual neuron is manipulated within the microchannels of the microfluidic system under a sufficient control of the environment. Experiments were performed to manipulate single yeast cell and red blood cell (RBC) optically through the microfluidics system toward an integrated patch clamp pipette. An absorption spectrum of a single RCB was recorded which showed that laser light did not impinge on the spectroscopic spectrum of light. This is promising for further development of a complete lab-on-a-chip system for patch clamp measurements.

  5. Determination of femto Newton forces and fluid viscosity using optical tweezers: application to Leishmania amazonensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes B., Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Marques, Gustavo P.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this research is to use the displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) as a force transducer in mechanical measurements in life sciences. To do this we compared the theoretical optical and hydrodynamic models with experimental data under a broad variation of parameters such as fluid viscosity, refractive index, drag velocity and wall proximities. The laser power was measured after the objective with an integration sphere because normal power meters do not provide an accurate measurement for beam with high numerical apertures. With this careful laser power determination the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under very different conditions shows an almost 45 degrees straight line. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces and vice-versa. With this calibration we observed the forces of polystyrene bead attached to the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. The force range is from 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons and these experiments shows that OT can be used for infection mechanism and chemotaxis studies in parasites. The other application was to use the optical force to measure viscosities of few microliters sample. Our result shows 5% accuracy measurements.

  6. Simultaneous three-dimensional tracking of individual signals from multi-trap optical tweezers using fast and accurate photodiode detection.

    PubMed

    Ott, Dino; Nader, S; Reihani, S; Oddershede, Lene B

    2014-09-22

    Multiple-beam optical traps facilitate advanced trapping geometries and exciting discoveries. However, the increased manipulation capabilities come at the price of more challenging position and force detection. Due to unrivaled bandwidth and resolution, photodiode based detection is preferred over camera based detection in most single/dual-beam optical traps assays. However, it has not been trivial to implement photodiode based detection for multiple-beam optical traps. Here, we present a simple and efficient method based on spatial filtering for parallel photodiode detection of multiple traps. The technique enables fast and accurate 3D force and distance detection of multiple objects simultaneously manipulated by multiple-beam optical tweezers. PMID:25321832

  7. Combining digital holographic microscopy and optical tweezers: a new route in microfluidic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Paturzo, M.; Finizio, A.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2012-04-01

    An optical configuration is realized to obtain quantitative phase-contrast maps able to characterize particles floating in a microfluidic chamber by interference microscopy. The novelty is the possibility to drive the sample and measure it thorough the same light path. That is realized by an optical setup made of two light beams coming from the same laser source. One beam provides the optical forces for driving the particle along the desired path and, at same time, it works as object beam in the digital holographic microscope (DHM). The second one acts as reference beam, allowing recording of an interference fringe pattern (i.e., the digital hologram) in an out-of-focus image plane. This work finds application in the field of micromanipulation as, the devise developed allows to operate in microfluidic chambers driving samples flowing in very small volumes. Recently, the field of optical particle micro-manipulation has had rapid growth, due to Optical Tweezers development. A particle is trapped or moved along certain trajectories according to the intensity and phase distribution of the laser beam used. Here, particles freely floating are driven by optical forces along preferential directions and then analyzed by a DHM to numerically calculate their phase-contrast signature. The improvement is that one laser source is employed for making two jobs: driving and analyze the sample. We use two slightly off-axis laser beams coming from a single laser source. The interference between them gives the possibility to record in real-time a sequence of digital holograms, while one of the beam creates the driving force. By this method, a great amount of particles can be analyzed by a real-time recording of DH movies. This allows one to examine each particle at time and characterize it. The optical configuration and the working method are illustrated. Experimental results are shown for polymeric particles and in-vitro.

  8. The ?PIVOT: an integrated particle image velocimeter and optical tweezers instrument for microenvironment investigations

    PubMed Central

    Nève, N; Lingwood, J K; Zimmerman, J; Kohles, S S; Tretheway, D C

    2008-01-01

    A novel instrument to manipulate and characterize the mechanical environment in and around microscale objects in a fluidic environment has been developed by integrating two laser-based techniques: micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (?PIV) and optical tweezers (OT). This instrument, the ?PIVOT, enables a new realm of microscale studies, yet still maintains the individual capabilities of each optical technique. This was demonstrated with individual measurements of optical trap stiffness (?70 pN ?m?1 for a 20 ?m polystyrene sphere and a linear relationship between trap stiffness and laser power) and fluid velocities within 436 nm of a microchannel wall. The integrated device was validated by comparing computational flow predictions to the measured velocity profile around a trapped particle in either a uniform flow or an imposed, gravity-driven microchannel flow (R2 = 0.988, RMS error = 13.04 ?m s?1). Interaction between both techniques is shown to be negligible for 15 ?m to 35 ?m diameter trapped particles subjected to fluid velocities from 50 ?m s?1 to 500 ?m s?1 even at the highest laser power (1.45 W). The integrated techniques will provide a unique perspective toward understanding microscale phenomena including single-cell biomechanics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and single particle or particle–particle hydrodynamics. PMID:18953424

  9. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-02-01

    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  10. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  11. Determination of fluid viscosity and femto Newton forces of Leishmania amazonensis using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes, Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; de Y. Pozzo, Liliana; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2005-08-01

    The displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences such as the measurement of forces of living microorganisms or the viscosity of local fluids. The technique we used allowed us to measure forces on the 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons range of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. These observations can be used to understand the infection mechanism and chemotaxis of these parasites. The same technique was used to measure viscosities of few microliters sample with agreement with known samples better than 5%. To calibrate the force as a function of the microsphere displacement we first dragged the microsphere in a fluid at known velocity for a broad range of different optical and hydrodynamical parameters. The hydrodynamical model took into account the presence of two walls and the force depends on drag velocity, fluid viscosity and walls proximities, while the optical model in the geometric optics regime depends on the particle and fluid refractive indexes and laser power. To measure the high numerical (NA) aperture laser beam power after the objective we used an integration sphere to avoid the systematic errors of usual power meters for high NA beams. After this careful laser power measurement we obtained an almost 45 degrees straight line for the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle horizontal displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under variation of all the parameters described below. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces, as we have done for the parasite force measurement, or vice-versa, as we did for the viscosity measurements.

  12. Combined optical tweezers and laser dissector for controlled ablation of functional connections in neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difato, Francesco; Dal Maschio, Marco; Marconi, Emanuele; Ronzitti, Giuseppe; Maccione, Alessandro; Fellin, Tommasso; Berdondini, Luca; Chieregatti, Evelina; Benfenati, Fabio; Blau, Axel

    2011-05-01

    Regeneration of functional connectivity within a neural network after different degrees of lesion is of utmost clinical importance. To test pharmacological approaches aimed at recovering from a total or partial damage of neuronal connections within a circuit, it is necessary to develop a precise method for controlled ablation of neuronal processes. We combined a UV laser microdissector to ablate neural processes in vitro at single neuron and neural network level with infrared holographic optical tweezers to carry out force spectroscopy measurements. Simultaneous force spectroscopy, down to the sub-pico-Newton range, was performed during laser dissection to quantify the tension release in a partially ablated neurite. Therefore, we could control and measure the damage inflicted to an individual neuronal process. To characterize the effect of the inflicted injury on network level, changes in activity of neural subpopulations were monitored with subcellular resolution and overall network activity with high temporal resolution by concurrent calcium imaging and microelectrode array recording. Neuronal connections have been sequentially ablated and the correlated changes in network activity traced and mapped. With this unique combination of electrophysiological and optical tools, neural activity can be studied and quantified in response to controlled injury at the subcellular, cellular, and network level.

  13. Measuring electrical and mechanical properties of red blood cells with a double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-08-01

    The fluid lipid bilayer viscoelastic membrane of red blood cells (RBC) contains antigen glycolproteins and proteins which can interact with antibodies to cause cell agglutination. This is the basis of most of the immunohematologic tests in blood banks and the identification of the antibodies against the erythrocyte antigens is of fundamental importance for transfusional routines. The negative charges of the RBCs creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. The first counterions cloud strongly binded moving together with the RBC is called the compact layer. This report proposes the use of a double optical tweezers for a new procedure for measuring: (1) the apparent membrane viscosity, (2) the cell adhesion, (3) the zeta potential and (4) the compact layer's size of the charges formed around the cell in the electrolytic solution. To measure the membrane viscosity we trapped silica beads strongly attached to agglutinated RBCs and measured the force to slide one RBC over the other as a function of the relative velocity. The RBC adhesion was measured by slowly displacing two RBCs apart until the disagglutination happens. The compact layer's size was measured using the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied voltage and the zeta potential was obtained by measuring the terminal velocity after releasing the RBC from the optical trap at the last applied voltage. We believe that the methodology here proposed can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  14. Measurement of adhesive forces between bacteria and protein-coated surfaces using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Kathryn H.; Bowden, Gabriela; Hook, Magnus; Anvari, Bahman

    2002-05-01

    Bacterial adhesion is a primary cause of failure in implanted medical devices. Bacteria commonly found in device-related infections, such as S. aureus, have multiple cell surface adhesins which mediate specific adhesion to molecules found in extracellular matrix and blood plasma. Adhesins recognizing fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen, and elastin molecules have been isolated in S. aureus. We have used optical tweezers to measure the adhesive force between a single bacterium and a protein-coated surface. Various concentrations of fibronectin, fibrinogen, or whole plasma were immobilized onto 10-micrometers diameter polystyrene microspheres. We optically trapped a bacterium with a titanium-sapphire laser tuned to 830 nm and contacted the cell with a coated bead. We determined the minimum force necessary to separate the cell and bead. For beads coated with fibronectin and fibrinogen, detachment force values occurred as approximate integer multiples of an estimated single bond detachment force. With plasma-coated beads, only cells lacking the fibrinogen adhesin could be detached; therefore, we believe that either this adhesin is prevalent on wilde-type cells, or it is preferentially adsorbed onto the beads. Additionally, the whole plasma detachment forces appeared random; therefore, we believe that many adhesins participate in boding to plasma.

  15. Haptic Manipulation of Microspheres Using Optical Tweezers Under the Guidance of Artificial Force Fields

    E-print Network

    Bukusoglu, Ibrahim; Kiraz, Alper; Kurt, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    Using optical tweezers and a haptic device, microspheres having diameters ranging from 3 to 4 um (floating in a fluid solution) are manipulated in order to form patterns of coupled optical microresonators by assembling the spheres via chemical binding. For this purpose, biotin-coated microspheres trapped by a laser beam are steered and chemically attached to an immobilized streptavidin-coated sphere (i.e. anchor sphere) one by one using an XYZ piezo scanner controlled by a haptic device. The positions of all spheres in the scene are detected using a CCD camera and a collision-free path for each manipulated sphere is generated using the potential field approach. The forces acting on the manipulated particle due to the viscosity of the fluid and the artificial potential field are scaled and displayed to the user through the haptic device for better guidance and control during steering. In addition, a virtual fixture is implemented such that the desired angle of approach and strength are achieved during the bind...

  16. An Interactive Virtual Reality Simulation for Nanoparticle Manipulation for Nanoassembly using Optical Tweezers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bhavaraju, Krishna

    Nanotechnology and nano devices is believed to be one of the most promising steps that science is taking to the future. This paper proposes virtual reality (VR) as a tool to simulate nano particle manipulation using optical tweezers towards achieving nano- assembly for effectively handling issues such as difficulty in viewing, perceiving and controlling the nano-scale objects. The nano simulation is modeled, using virtual reality, displaying all the forces acting on nano particle during the manipulation. The simulation is developed for particles that belong to Rayleigh region and, represents interactions of OT (a laser beam) with the nano particle. The laser beam aimed on to the nano particle traps the particle by applying optical forces. The trapped particle is then moved by moving the laser beam. The proposed VR based simulation tool with its capabilities can be easily extended and used for creating an open system framework by connecting it to a real OT setup to control nano particles manipulation. In addition, a feedback system can be build to increase of precision of movement.

  17. Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Sischka, Andy; Spiering, Andre; Khaksar, Maryam; Laxa, Miriam; König, Janine; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-11-17

    We investigated the threading and controlled translocation of individual lambda-DNA (?-DNA) molecules through solid-state nanopores with piconewton force sensitivity, millisecond time resolution and picoampere ionic current sensitivity with a set-up combining quantitative 3D optical tweezers (OT) with electrophysiology. With our virtually interference-free OT set-up the binding of RecA and single peroxiredoxin protein molecules to ?-DNA was quantitatively investigated during dynamic translocation experiments where effective forces and respective ionic currents of the threaded DNA molecule through the nanopore were measured during inward and outward sliding. Membrane voltage-dependent experiments of reversible single protein/DNA translocation scans yield hysteresis-free, asymmetric single-molecule fingerprints in the measured force and conductance signals that can be attributed to the interplay of optical trap and electrostatic nanopore potentials. These experiments allow an exact localization of the bound protein along the DNA strand and open fascinating applications for label-free detection of DNA-binding ligands, where structural and positional binding phenomena can be investigated at a single-molecule level. PMID:21339608

  18. Optical tweezers and multiphoton microscopies integrated photonic tool for mechanical and biochemical cell processes studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Faustino, W. M.; Fontes, A.; Fernandes, H. P.; Barjas-Castro, M. d. L.; Metze, K.; Giorgio, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2007-09-01

    The research in biomedical photonics is clearly evolving in the direction of the understanding of biological processes at the cell level. The spatial resolution to accomplish this task practically requires photonics tools. However, an integration of different photonic tools and a multimodal and functional approach will be necessary to access the mechanical and biochemical cell processes. This way we can observe mechanicaly triggered biochemical events or biochemicaly triggered mechanical events, or even observe simultaneously mechanical and biochemical events triggered by other means, e.g. electricaly. One great advantage of the photonic tools is its easiness for integration. Therefore, we developed such integrated tool by incorporating single and double Optical Tweezers with Confocal Single and Multiphoton Microscopies. This system can perform 2-photon excited fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation microscopies together with optical manipulations. It also can acquire Fluorescence and SHG spectra of specific spots. Force, elasticity and viscosity measurements of stretched membranes can be followed by real time confocal microscopies. Also opticaly trapped living protozoas, such as leishmania amazonensis. Integration with CARS microscopy is under way. We will show several examples of the use of such integrated instrument and its potential to observe mechanical and biochemical processes at cell level.

  19. Drug-DNA interactions at single molecule level: A view with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramanathan, Thayaparan

    Studies of small molecule--DNA interactions are essential for developing new drugs for challenging diseases like cancer and HIV. The main idea behind developing these molecules is to target and inhibit the reproduction of the tumor cells and infected cells. We mechanically manipulate single DNA molecule using optical tweezers to investigate two molecules that have complex and multiple binding modes. Mononuclear ruthenium complexes have been extensively studied as a test for rational drug design. Potential drug candidates should have high affinity to DNA and slow dissociation kinetics. To achieve this, motifs of the ruthenium complexes are altered. Our collaborators designed a dumb-bell shaped binuclear ruthenium complex that can only intercalate DNA by threading through its bases. Studying the binding properties of this complex in bulk studies took hours. By mechanically manipulating a single DNA molecule held with optical tweezers, we lower the barrier to thread and make it fast compared to the bulk experiments. Stretching single DNA molecules with different concentration of drug molecules and holding it at a constant force allows the binding to reach equilibrium. By this we can obtain the equilibrium fractional ligand binding and length of DNA at saturated binding. Fitting these results yields quantitative measurements of the binding thermodynamics and kinetics of this complex process. The second complex discussed in this study is Actinomycin D (ActD), a well studied anti-cancer agent that is used as a prototype for developing new generations of drugs. However, the biophysical basis of its activity is still unclear. Because ActD is known to intercalate double stranded DNA (dsDNA), it was assumed to block replication by stabilizing dsDNA in front of the replication fork. However, recent studies have shown that ActD binds with even higher affinity to imperfect duplexes and some sequences of single stranded DNA (ssDNA). We directly measure the on and off rates by stretching the DNA molecule to a certain force and holding it at constant force while adding the drug and then while washing off the drug. Our finding resolves the long lasting controversy of ActD binding modes, clearly showing that both the dsDNA binding and ssDNA binding converge to the same single mode. The result supports the hypothesis that the primary characteristic of ActD that contributes to its biological activity is its ability to inhibit cellular replication by binding to transcription bubbles and causing cell death.

  20. Stretching Short Sequences of DNA with Constant Force Axial Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Raghunathan, Krishnan; Milstein, Joshua N.; Meiners, Jens -Christian

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques for stretching DNA of contour lengths less than a kilobase are fraught with experimental difficulties. However, many interesting biological events such as histone binding and protein-mediated looping of DNA1,2, occur on this length scale. In recent years, the mechanical properties of DNA have been shown to play a significant role in fundamental cellular processes like the packaging of DNA into compact nucleosomes and chromatin fibers3,4. Clearly, it is then important to understand the mechanical properties of short stretches of DNA. In this paper, we provide a practical guide to a single-molecule optical tweezing technique that we have developed to study the mechanical behavior of DNA with contour lengths as short as a few hundred basepairs. The major hurdle in stretching short segments of DNA is that conventional optical tweezers are generally designed to apply force in a direction lateral to the stage5,6, (see Fig. 1). In this geometry, the angle between the bead and the coverslip, to which the DNA is tethered, becomes very steep for submicron length DNA. The axial position must now be accounted for, which can be a challenge, and, since the extension drags the microsphere closer to the coverslip, steric effects are enhanced. Furthermore, as a result of the asymmetry of the microspheres, lateral extensions will generate varying levels of torque due to rotation of the microsphere within the optical trap since the direction of the reactive force changes during the extension. Alternate methods for stretching submicron DNA run up against their own unique hurdles. For instance, a dual-beam optical trap is limited to stretching DNA of around a wavelength, at which point interference effects between the two traps and from light scattering between the microspheres begin to pose a significant problem. Replacing one of the traps with a micropipette would most likely suffer from similar challenges. While one could directly use the axial potential to stretch the DNA, an active feedback scheme would be needed to apply a constant force and the bandwidth of this will be quite limited, especially at low forces. We circumvent these fundamental problems by directly pulling the DNA away from the coverslip by using a constant force axial optical tweezers7,8. This is achieved by trapping the bead in a linear region of the optical potential, where the optical force is constant-the strength of which can be tuned by adjusting the laser power. Trapping within the linear region also serves as an all optical force-clamp on the DNA that extends for nearly 350 nm in the axial direction. We simultaneously compensate for thermal and mechanical drift by finely adjusting the position of the stage so that a reference microsphere stuck to the coverslip remains at the same position and focus, allowing for a virtually limitless observation period. PMID:22025209

  1. A New Optical Aerosol Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonda, Mark; Malcolmson, Andrew; Bonin, Mike; Stratton, David; Rogers, C. Fred; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring aerosol particle size distributions from 0.02 to 100 micrometers has been developed. This instrument combines several optical methods in one, in-situ configuration; it can provide continuous data collection to encompass the wide dynamic size ranges and concentrations found in studies of modeled planetary atmospheres as well as terrestrial air quality research. Currently, the system is incorporated into an eight liter capacity spherical pressure vessel that is appropriate both for flowthrough and for in-situ particle generation. The optical sizing methods include polarization ratio, The scattering, and forward scattering detectors, with illumination from a fiber-coupled, Argon-ion laser. As particle sizes increase above 0.1 micrometer, a customized electronics and software system automatically shifts from polarization to diffraction-based measurements as the angular scattering detectors attain acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. The number concentration detection limits are estimated to be in the part-per-trillion (ppT by volume) range, or roughly 1000 submicron particles per cubic centimeter. Results from static experiments using HFC134A (approved light scattering gas standard), flow-through experiments using sodium chloride (NaCl) and carbon particles, and dynamic 'Tholin' (photochemical produced particles from ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated acetylene and nitrogen) experiments have been obtained. The optical spectrometer data obtained with particles have compared well with particle sizes determined by electron microscopy. The 'Tholin' tests provided real-time size and concentration data as the particles grew from about 30 nanometers to about 0.8 micrometers, with concentrations ranging from ppT to ppB, by volume. Tests are still underway, to better define sizing accuracy and concentration limits, these results will be reported.

  2. Absence of a barrier to backwards rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor demonstrated with optical?tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Richard M.; Berg, Howard C.

    1997-01-01

    A cell of the bacterium Escherichia coli was tethered covalently to a glass coverslip by a single flagellum, and its rotation was stopped by using optical tweezers. The tweezers acted directly on the cell body or indirectly, via a trapped polystyrene bead. The torque generated by the flagellar motor was determined by measuring the displacement of the laser beam on a quadrant photodiode. The coverslip was mounted on a computer-controlled piezo-electric stage that moved the tether point in a circle around the center of the trap so that the speed of rotation of the motor could be varied. The motor generated ?4500 pN nm of torque at all angles, regardless of whether it was stalled, allowed to rotate very slowly forwards, or driven very slowly backwards. This argues against models of motor function in which rotation is tightly coupled to proton transit and back-transport of protons is severely limited. PMID:9405630

  3. Aerosol Optical Properties Observed during CHAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, L. K.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.; Hubbe, J. M.; Lee, Y.; Yu, X.

    2008-12-01

    During the CHAPS, the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft was used to make in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties. The flight pattern was designed to allow for measurements below cloud, within the cloud layer, and above the clouds in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. Two different inlets were used on the G-1: an isokinetic inlet for sampling dry aerosols smaller than approximately 2 ?m in diameter, and a Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) that excluded unactivated aerosols, but which allows cloud droplets to enter. A suite of paired instruments, including a nephelometer, Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), was used to measure the aerosol optical properties from both sampling streams. Below the clouds, the single-scattering albedo measured inside the Oklahoma City plume was generally smaller than that observed outside of the plume. Within the cloud layer, but far from the clouds, there is little difference in the aerosol scattering measured inside and outside of the plume. These observations indicate that the vertical transport by the shallow clouds is very localized. Both aerosol extensive and intensive properties are discussed. For example, the total aerosol scattering and the mass-scattering efficiency measured inside the clouds was slightly larger for clouds that have roots within the Oklahoma City plume. Using data from the AMS in conjunction with the CVI inlet reveals that these in-cloud aerosols also have a relatively large amount of nitrate. Possible explanations for this increase nitrate will be discussed.

  4. Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory John Bechhoefera)

    E-print Network

    Bechhoefer, John

    used passively, to record the forces induced on a bead, for example, by kinesin molecules3 and myosin'' instability in lipid vesicles.5 The tweezer-induced motion of a bead also can be used to measure local

  5. The Elasticity of Single Titin Molecules Using a Two-Bead Optical Tweezers Assay

    PubMed Central

    Leake, Mark C.; Wilson, David; Gautel, Mathias; Simmons, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Titin is responsible for the passive elasticity of the muscle sarcomere. The mechanical properties of skeletal and cardiac muscle titin were characterized in single molecules using a novel dual optical tweezers assay. Antibody pairs were attached to beads and used to select the whole molecule, I-band, A-band, a tandem-immunoglobulin (Ig) segment, and the PEVK region. A construct from the PEVK region expressing >25% of the full-length skeletal muscle isoform was chemically conjugated to beads and similarly characterized. By elucidating the elasticity of the different regions, we showed directly for the first time, to our knowledge, that two entropic components act in series in the skeletal muscle titin I-band (confirming previous speculations), one associated with tandem-immunoglobulin domains and the other with the PEVK region, with persistence lengths of 2.9 nm and 0.76 nm, respectively (150 mM ionic strength, 22°C). Novel findings were: the persistence length of the PEVK component rose (0.4–2.7 nm) with an increase in ionic strength (15–300 mM) and fell (3.0–0.3 nm) with a temperature increase (10–60°C); stress-relaxation in 10–12-nm steps was observed in the PEVK construct and hysteresis in the native PEVK region. The region may not be a pure random coil, as previously thought, but contains structured elements, possibly with hydrophobic interactions. PMID:15298915

  6. Automated focusing of nuclei for time lapse experiments on single cells using holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Emma; Engström, David; Scrimgeour, Jan; Goksör, Mattias

    2009-03-30

    Experiments on single cells are currently gaining more and more interest. Single cell studies often concerns the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescent proteins inside living cells, visualized using fluorescence microscopy. In order to extract quantitative information from such experiments it is necessary to image the sample with high spatial and temporal resolution while keeping the photobleaching to a minimum. The analysis of the spatial distribution of proteins often requires stacks of images at each time point, which exposes the sample to unnecessary amounts of excitation light. In this paper we show how holographic optical tweezers combined with image analysis can be used to optimize the axial position of trapped cells in an array in order to bring the nuclei into a single imaging plane, thus eliminating the need for stacks of images and consequently reducing photobleaching. This allows more images to be collected, as well as increasing the time span and/or the time resolution in time lapse studies of single cells. PMID:19333326

  7. Mechanics of protein-DNA interaction studied with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The lac operon is a well known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). LacI and other DNA-binding proteins bind their specific target sequences with rates higher than allowed by 3D diffusion alone. Generally accepted models predict a combination of free 3D diffusion and 1D sliding along non-specific DNA. We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with two different DNA constructs: a construct with two copies of the O1 operator separated by 300 bp and a construct containing the native E.coli operator sequences. Our measurements show at least two classes of LacI-DNA interactions: long (in the tens of s range) and short (tens of ms). Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences (long events) and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences (short events). Moreover, we observe continuous sliding of the protein along DNA, passively driven by the force applied with the optical tweezers.

  8. Induction of sustained glycolytic oscillations in single yeast cells using microfluidics and optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Anna-Karin; Adiels, Caroline B.; Goksör, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    Yeast glycolytic oscillations have been studied since the 1950s in cell free extracts and in intact cells. Until recently, sustained oscillations have only been observed in intact cells at the population level. The aim of this study was to investigate sustained glycolytic oscillations in single cells. Optical tweezers were used to position yeast cells in arrays with variable cell density in the junction of a microfluidic flow chamber. The microfluidic flow chambers were fabricated using soft lithography and the flow rates in the different inlet channels were individually controlled by syringe pumps. Due to the low Reynolds number, the solutions mixed by diffusion only. The environment in the junction of the chamber could thus be controlled by changing the flow rates in the inlet channels, with a complete change of environment within 2 s. The optimum position of the cell array was determined by simulations, to ensure complete coverage of the intended solution without any concentration gradients over the cell array. Using a DAPI filter set, the NADH auto fluorescence could be monitored in up to 100 cells simultaneously. Sustained oscillations were successfully induced in individual, isolated cells within specific flow rates and concentrations of glucose and cyanide. By changing the flow rates without changing the surrounding solution, it was found that the cell behavior was dependent on the concentration of chemicals in the medium rather than the flow rates in the range tested. Furthermore, by packing cells tightly, cell-to-cell interaction and synchronization could be studied.

  9. Aerosol optical properties during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Bundke; G. Hänel; H. Horvath; W. Kaller; S. Seidl; H. Wex; A. Wiedensohler; M. Wiegner; V. Freudenthaler

    2002-01-01

    The optical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles were measured close to ground level using different methods at Lindenberg\\/Falkenberg (Germany) during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98), 13 July 1998 to 14 August 1998 [Ansmann et al., 2002]. The experimental setup consisted of (a) an aerosol photometer, which measured a complete set of aerosol optical properties, such as extinction, scattering,

  10. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring electrical and mechanical properties with a double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. The basis of the immunohematologic tests is the interaction between antigens and antibodies that causes hemagglutination. The identification of antibodies and antigens is of fundamental importance for the transfusional routine. This agglutination is induced by decreasing the zeta-potential through the introduction of artificial potential substances. This report proposes the use of the optical tweezers to measure the membrane viscosity, the cell adhesion, the zeta-potential and the size of the double layer of charges (CLC) formed around the cell in an electrolytic solution. The adhesion was quantified by slowly displacing two RBCs apart until the disagglutination. The CLC was measured using the force on the bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied voltage. The zeta-potential was obtained by measuring the terminal velocity after releasing the RBC from the optical trap at the last applied voltage. For the membrane viscosity experiment, we trapped a bead attached to RBCs and measured the force to slide one RBC over the other as a function of the relative velocity. After we tested the methodology, we performed measurements using antibody and potential substances. We observed that this experiment can provide information about cell agglutination that helps to improve the tests usually performed in blood banks. We also believe that this methodology can be applied for measurements of zeta-potentials in other kind of samples.

  11. Wavefront analysis and optimization from conventional liquid crystal displays for low-cost holographic optical tweezers and digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andreas; Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Schröder, Werner

    2011-05-01

    In different study fields the manipulation and imaging of micro-sized particles is essential. The use of holographic optical tweezers (HOT) and digital holographic microscopy (DHM) facilitates this task in a non-mechanical way by providing the proper computer generated hologram and the required amount of light. Electrically addressed spatial light modulators (EASLM) found in holographic optical tweezers are typically of the reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type which can achieve a phase shift of more than 2? but they are expensive. Similar components like transmissive twisted nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are produced in large quantities, their optical characteristics improve rapidly and they are inexpensive. Under certain circumstances these devices can be used instead of expensive spatial light modulators. Consumer grade objectives are not always well corrected for spherical aberration. In that case conventional liquid crystal displays can also compensate these undesired optical effects. For this purpose software-corrected computer generated holograms are calculated. Procedures to analyze and compensate different parameters of a conventional low-cost liquid crystal display, e.g. phase shift evaluation and aberration correction of objectives by Zernike polynomials approximation are explained. The applied software compensation of the computer generated hologram has shown significant improvement of the focus quality. An important price reduction of holographic devices could be achieved by replacing special optical elements if correction algorithms for conventional liquid crystal displays are provided.

  12. Mechanical properties of neuronal growth cone membranes studied by tether formation with laser optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, J.; Sheetz, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    Many cell phenomena involve major morphological changes, particularly in mitosis and the process of cell migration. For cells or neuronal growth cones to migrate, they must extend the leading edge of the plasma membrane as a lamellipodium or filopodium. During extension of filopodia, membrane must move across the surface creating shear and flow. Intracellular biochemical processes driving extension must work against the membrane mechanical properties, but the forces required to extend growth cones have not been measured. In this paper, laser optical tweezers and a nanometer-level analysis system were used to measure the neuronal growth cone membrane mechanical properties through the extension of filopodia-like tethers with IgG-coated beads. Although the probability of a bead attaching to the membrane was constant irrespective of treatment; the probability of forming a tether with a constant force increased dramatically with cytochalasin B or D and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). These are treatments that alter the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. The force required to hold a tether at zero velocity (F0) was greater than forces generated by single molecular motors, kinesin and myosin; and F0 decreased with cytochalasin B or D and DMSO in correlation with the changes in the probability of tether formation. The force of the tether on the bead increased linearly with the velocity of tether elongation. From the dependency of tether force on velocity of tether formation, we calculated a parameter related to membrane viscosity, which decreased with cytochalasin B or D, ATP depletion, nocodazole, and DMSO. These results indicate that the actin cytoskeleton affects the membrane mechanical properties, including the force required for membrane extension and the viscoelastic behavior. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:7756561

  13. Modeled Aerosol Optical Properties During the SAFARI 2000 Campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kuzmanoski; M. Box; B. Schmid; P. Russell; B. Holben; J. Redemann

    2006-01-01

    We calculated aerosol optical properties, in particular single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter and lidar ratio, from aerosol size distributions retrieved from aerosol layer optical thickness spectra, measured using the airborne AATS-14 sunphotometer during SAFARI 2000. The focus was on two layers with different aerosol loadings and particle sizes (the corresponding Angstrom exponents were 1.95 and 1.18). The retrieved aerosol

  14. Single-cell adhesion probed in-situ using optical tweezers: A case study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelain, Mickaël; Rouxhet, Paul G.; Pignon, Frédéric; Magnin, Albert; Piau, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-01

    A facile method of using optical trapping to measure cell adhesion forces is presented and applied to the adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glass, in contact with solutions of different compositions. Trapping yeast cells with optical tweezers (OT) is not perturbed by cell wall deformation or cell deviation from a spherical shape. The trapping force calibration requires correction not only for the hydrodynamic effect of the neighboring wall but also for spherical aberrations affecting the focal volume and the trap stiffness. Yeast cells trapped for up to 5 h were still able to undergo budding but showed an increase of doubling time. The proportion of adhering cells showed the expected variation according to the solution composition. The detachment force varied in the same way. This observation and the fact that the detachment stress was exerted parallel to the substrate surface point to the role of interactions involving solvated macromolecules. Both the proportion of adhering cells and the removal force showed a distribution which, in our experimental conditions, must be attributed to a heterogeneity of surface properties at the cell level or at the subcellular scale. As compared with magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and more conventional ways of studying cell adhesion (shear-flow cells), OT present several advantages that are emphasized in this paper.

  15. Cell-scaffold adhesion dynamics measured in first seconds predicts cell growth on days scale – optical tweezers study.

    PubMed

    Podlipec, Rok; Štrancar, Janez

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the cell-biomaterial interface from the very first contact is of crucial importance for their successful implementation and function in damaged tissues. However, the lack of bio- and mechano-analytical methods to investigate and probe the initial processes on the interface, especially in 3D, raises the need for applying new experimental techniques. In our study, optical tweezers combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy were optimized to investigate the initial cell-scaffold contact and to investigate its correlation with the material-dependent cell growth. By the optical tweezers-induced cell manipulation accompanied by force detection up to 100 pN and position detection by fluorescence microscopy, accurate adhesion dynamics and strength analysis was implemented, where several attachment sites were formed on the interface in the first few seconds. More importantly, we have shown that dynamics of cell adhesion on scaffold surfaces correlates with cell growth on the days scale, which indicates that the first seconds of the contact could markedly direct further cell response. Such a contact dynamics analysis on 3D scaffold surfaces, applied for the first time, can thus serve to predict scaffold biocompatibility. PMID:25764169

  16. Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Smirnov; Brent N. Holben; Yoram J. Kaufman; Oleg Dubovik; Thomas F. Eck; Ilya Slutsker; Christophe Pietras; Rangasayi N. Halthore

    2002-01-01

    Systematic characterization of aerosol over the oceans is needed to understand the aerosol effect on climate and on transport of pollutants between continents. Reported are the results of a comprehensive optical and physical characterization of ambient aerosol in five key island locations of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of sun and sky radiometers, spanning over 2-5 yr. The results are

  17. Stratospheric aerosol particles and their optical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Cadle; G. W. Grams

    1975-01-01

    This review emphasizes those aspects of aerosol particles in the stratosphere that have not been covered by other reviews. This approach is not severely limiting because of the almost explosive increase in our knowledge of such particulate matter during the last few years. Furthermore, this review places special emphasis on the optical properties of the particles. Stratospheric particles have been

  18. Three-Dimensional Optical Trapping of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle using Low Numerical Aperture Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Brzobohatý, Oto; Šiler, Martin; Trojek, Jan; Chvátal, Lukáš; Karásek, Vít?zslav; Paták, Aleš; Pokorná, Zuzana; Mika, Filip; Zemánek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    It was previously believed that larger metal nanoparticles behave as tiny mirrors that are pushed by the light beam radiative force along the direction of beam propagation, without a chance to be confined. However, several groups have recently reported successful optical trapping of gold and silver particles as large as 250?nm. We offer a possible explanation based on the fact that metal nanoparticles naturally occur in various non-spherical shapes and their optical properties differ significantly due to changes in localized plasmon excitation. We demonstrate experimentally and support theoretically three-dimensional confinement of large gold nanoparticles in an optical trap based on very low numerical aperture optics. We showed theoretically that the unique properties of gold nanoprisms allow an increase of trapping force by an order of magnitude at certain aspect ratios. These results pave the way to spatial manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles using an optical fibre, with interesting applications in biology and medicine. PMID:25630432

  19. Three-Dimensional Optical Trapping of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle using Low Numerical Aperture Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzobohatý, Oto; Šiler, Martin; Trojek, Jan; Chvátal, Lukáš; Karásek, Vít?zslav; Paták, Aleš; Pokorná, Zuzana; Mika, Filip; Zemánek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    It was previously believed that larger metal nanoparticles behave as tiny mirrors that are pushed by the light beam radiative force along the direction of beam propagation, without a chance to be confined. However, several groups have recently reported successful optical trapping of gold and silver particles as large as 250 nm. We offer a possible explanation based on the fact that metal nanoparticles naturally occur in various non-spherical shapes and their optical properties differ significantly due to changes in localized plasmon excitation. We demonstrate experimentally and support theoretically three-dimensional confinement of large gold nanoparticles in an optical trap based on very low numerical aperture optics. We showed theoretically that the unique properties of gold nanoprisms allow an increase of trapping force by an order of magnitude at certain aspect ratios. These results pave the way to spatial manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles using an optical fibre, with interesting applications in biology and medicine.

  20. An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Holben; D. Tanré; A. Smirnov; T. F. Eck; I. Slutsker; N. Abuhassan; W. W. Newcomb; J. S. Schafer; B. Chatenet; F. Lavenu; Y. J. Kaufman; J. Vande Castle; A. Setzer; B. Markham; D. Clark; R. Frouin; R. Halthore; A. Karneli; N. T. O'Neill; C. Pietras; R. T. Pinker; K. Voss; G. Zibordi

    2001-01-01

    Long-term measurements by the AERONET program of spectral aerosol optical depth, precipitable water, and derived Angstrom exponent were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology. Quality assured monthly means are presented and described for 9 primary sites and 21 additional multiyear sites with distinct aerosol regimes representing tropical biomass burning, boreal forests, midlatitude humid climates, midlatitude dry climates,

  1. Measurements of aerosol vertical profiles and optical properties during INDOEX

    E-print Network

    (MPL) systems were used to measure aerosol properties during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) 1999 trajectories, radiosonde profiles of temperature and humidity, and aerosol concentration and optical the entire cruise. The average value and standard deviation of aerosol optical parameters were determined

  2. Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The Software Package OPAC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hess; P. Koepke; I. Schult

    1998-01-01

    The software package OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds) is described. It easily provides optical properties in the solar and terrestrial spectral range of atmospheric particulate matter. Microphysical and optical properties of six water clouds, three ice clouds, and 10 aerosol components, which are considered as typical cases, are stored as ASCII files. The optical properties are the extinction,

  3. Using optical tweezers for measuring the interaction forces between human bone cells and implant surfaces: System design and force calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Martin; Madgavkar, Ashwin; Stjerndahl, Maria; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Duran, Randy; Niehren, Stefan; Mustafa, Kamal; Arvidson, Kristina; Wennerberg, Ann [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Molecular Machines and Industries GmbH, Breslauerstrasse 2, 85386 Eching (Germany); Center for Clinical Dental Research, University of Bergen, N-5009 Bergen (Norway); Department of Prosthodontics/Dental Material Science, University of Goeteborg, S-40530 Goeteborg, Sweden and Department of Biomaterials, University of Goeteborg, S-40530 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Optical tweezers were used to study the interaction and attachment of human bone cells to various types of medical implant materials. Ideally, the implant should facilitate cell attachment and promote migration of the progenitor cells in order to decrease the healing time. It is therefore of interest, in a controlled manner, to be able to monitor the cell adhesion process. Results from such studies would help foresee the clinical outcome of integrating medical implants. The interactions between two primary cell culture models, human gingival fibroblasts and bone forming human osteoblast cells, and three different implant materials, glass, titanium, and hydroxyapatite, were studied. A novel type of optical tweezers, which has a newly designed quadrant detector and a powerful 3 W laser was constructed and force calibrated using two different methods: one method in which the stiffness of the optical trap was obtained by monitoring the phase lag between the trap and the moved object when imposing a forced oscillation on the trapped object and another method in which the maximum trapping force was derived from the critical velocity at which the object escapes the trap. Polystyrene beads as well as cells were utilized for the calibrations. This is the first time that cells have been used directly for these types of force calibrations and, hence, direct measurements of forces exerted on cells can be performed, thus avoiding the difficulties often encountered when translating the results obtained from cell measurements to the calibrations obtained with reference materials. This more straightforward approach represents an advantage in comparison to established methods.

  4. The interaction of lipopolysaccharide-coated polystyrene particle with membrane receptor proteins on macrophage measured by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ming-Tzo; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Hsu, Jowey; Karmenyan, Artashes; Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Chiou, Arthur

    2006-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the cell wall components of Gram-positive bacteria recognized by and interacted with receptor proteins such as CD14 on macrophage cells. Such a process plays an important role in our innate immune system. In this paper, we report the application of optical tweezers (? = 1064nm Gaussian beam focused by a water-immersed objective lens with N.A. = 1.0) to the study of the dynamics of the binding of a LPS-coated polystyrene particle (diameter = 1.5?m) onto the plasma membrane of a macrophage cell. We demonstrated that the binding rate increased significantly when the macrophage cell was pre-treated with the extract of Reishi polysaccharides (EORP) which has been shown to enhance the cell surface expression of CD14 (receptor of LPS) on macrophage cells.

  5. The Effect of Aerosol Hygroscopicity and Volatility on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources can influence optical properties of ambient aerosol by altering its hygroscopicity and contributing to light absorption directly via formation of brown carbon and indirectly by enhancing light absorption by black carbon ("lensing effect"). The magnitude of these effects remains highly uncertain. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of relative humidity and temperature on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). The sample-conditioning system provided measurements at ambient RH, 10%RH ("dry"), 85%RH ("wet"), and 200 C ("TD"). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) and a variable residence time constant temperature TD in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. We will present results of the on-going analysis of the collected data set. We will show that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. SOA appears to increase aerosol light absorption by about 10%. TD measurements suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology.

  6. Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Smirnov; B. N. Holben; O. Dubovik; T. F. Eck; I. Slutsker

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol optical properties over the oceans based on the AERONET data are presented. The results are compared with the historical shipborne data acquired over the last 30 years. A model of the maritime aerosol component derived using AERONET data from island locations in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean is presented. Maritime aerosol properties in the Central Pacific are

  7. Magnetic Tweezers for Single-Molecule Experiments

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    , optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy have made important contributions of Technology, Lorentzweg 1 2628 CJ Delft The Netherlands 371P. Hinterdorfer, A. van Oijen (eds.), Handbook, the struc- tural forms of nucleic acids are not necessarily static structures but are instead constantly

  8. Relative humidity and its effect on aerosol optical depth in the vicinity of convective clouds

    E-print Network

    Altaratz, O

    The hygroscopic growth of aerosols is controlled by the relative humidity (RH) and changes the aerosols' physical and hence optical properties. Observational studies of aerosol–cloud interactions evaluate the aerosol ...

  9. Microphysical, optical and radiation properties of the Arctic aerosol (Review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Sokolik

    1992-01-01

    Data cited in the Russian and foreign literature on the properties of the Arctic aerosol are discussed. Data on the optical depth and its seasonal behavior and geographical distribution are considered together with microphysical, optical, and radiation characteristics of the aerosol, which is important for modeling its radiative and thermal effects.

  10. Microphysical, optical, and radiative properties of the Arctic aerosol (Review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Sokolik

    1992-01-01

    Data cited in the Russian and foreign literature on the properties of the Arctic aerosol are discussed. Consideration is given to data on optical depths, their seasonal variations and geographical distribution, and on microphysical, optical, and radiative characteristics of the aerosol, which are necessary for modeling its radiative and temperature effects.

  11. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with significant dominance of fine mode particles.

  12. Global Aerosol Optical Models and Lookup Tables for the New MODIS Aerosol Retrieval over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Loraine A.; Dubovik, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Since 2000, MODIS has been deriving aerosol properties over land from MODIS observed spectral reflectance, by matching the observed reflectance with that simulated for selected aerosol optical models, aerosol loadings, wavelengths and geometrical conditions (that are contained in a lookup table or 'LUT'). Validation exercises have showed that MODIS tends to under-predict aerosol optical depth (tau) in cases of large tau (tau greater than 1.0), signaling errors in the assumed aerosol optical properties. Using the climatology of almucantur retrievals from the hundreds of global AERONET sunphotometer sites, we found that three spherical-derived models (describing fine-sized dominated aerosol), and one spheroid-derived model (describing coarse-sized dominated aerosol, presumably dust) generally described the range of observed global aerosol properties. The fine dominated models were separated mainly by their single scattering albedo (omega(sub 0)), ranging from non-absorbing aerosol (omega(sub 0) approx. 0.95) in developed urban/industrial regions, to neutrally absorbing aerosol (omega(sub 0) approx.90) in forest fire burning and developing industrial regions, to absorbing aerosol (omega(sub 0) approx. 0.85) in regions of savanna/grassland burning. We determined the dominant model type in each region and season, to create a 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid of assumed aerosol type. We used vector radiative transfer code to create a new LUT, simulating the four aerosol models, in four MODIS channels. Independent AERONET observations of spectral tau agree with the new models, indicating that the new models are suitable for use by the MODIS aerosol retrieval.

  13. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  14. Aerosol optical properties measurement by recently developed cavity-enhanced aerosol single scattering albedometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Zhang, Qilei; Fang, Bo; Qian, Xiaodong; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weijun

    2015-04-01

    Development of appropriate and well-adapted measurement technologies for real-time in-situ measurement of aerosol optical properties is an important step towards a more accurate and quantitative understanding of aerosol impacts on climate and the environment. Aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, ?), the ratio between the scattering (?scat) and extinction (?ext) coefficients, is an important optical parameter that governs the relative strength of the aerosol scattering and absorption capacity. Since the aerosol extinction coefficient is the sum of the absorption and scattering coefficients, a commonly used method for the determination of SSA is to separately measure two of the three optical parameters - absorption, scattering and extinction coefficients - with different instruments. However, as this method involves still different instruments for separate measurements of extinction and absorption coefficients under different sampling conditions, it might cause potential errors in the determination of SSA value, because aerosol optical properties are very sensitive to the sampling conditions such as temperature and relative humidity (RH). In this paper, we report on the development of a cavity-enhanced aerosol single scattering albedometer incorporating incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) and an integrating sphere (IS) for direct in-situ measurement of aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients on the exact same sample volume. The cavity-enhanced albedometer holds great promise for high-sensitivity and high-precision measurement of ambient aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients (hence absorption coefficient and SSA determination) and for absorbing trace gas concentration. In addition, simultaneous measurements of aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients enable a potential application for the retrieval of particle number size distribution and for faster retrieval of aerosols' complex RI. The albedometer was deployed to characterize the aerosol optical properties in the Haze Observation Project Especially for Jing-Jin-Ji Area (HOPE-J3A) during Nov. 2014 - Jan. 2015 and the primary measurement results will be presented.

  15. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  16. Experimental study of the Stokes-Einstein relation by using oscillating optical tweezers and a position tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Chungil; Kim, Sung-Jin; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-02-01

    Transportation and delivery of microscopic materials in very small and complex systems such as biological organisms are mainly done by physical diffusion. This phenomenon in a fluid system with a low Reynolds number can be explained using the Stokes-Einstein relation D = k B T/?, where D is the diffusion coefficient, T is the temperature of the system, and ? is the viscous friction coefficient of the background fluid. For a spherical particle with radius a in a fluid of viscosity ?, ? = 6 ??a. As far as we know, all the experimental tests of this relation before ours measured only D, ?, a, and T due to the experimental difficulties in measuring ? directly. In this research, we tested this relation from a different perspective. The diffusion coefficient D and the viscous friction coefficient ? were experimentally measured in the same system by using a position tracking method and an oscillating optical tweezers technique, respectively. We found that our experimental results supported the Stokes-Einstein relation very well.

  17. Studies of viral DNA packaging motors with optical tweezers: a comparison of motor function in bacteriophages ?29, ?, and T4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas E.; Fuller, Derek N.; Raymer, Dorian M.; Rickgauer, Peter; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Catalano, Carlos E.; Kottadiel, Vishal; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2007-09-01

    A key step in the assembly of many viruses is the packaging of double-stranded DNA into a viral procapsid (an empty protein shell) by the action of an ATP-powered portal motor complex. We have developed methods to measure the packaging of single DNA molecules into single viral proheads in real time using optical tweezers. We can measure DNA binding and initiation of translocation, the DNA translocation dynamics, and the filling of the capsid against resisting forces. In addition to studying bacteriophage ?29, we have recently extended these methods to study the E. coli bacteriophages ? and T4, two important model systems in molecular biology. The three systems have different capsid sizes/shapes, genome lengths, and biochemical and structural differences in their packaging motors. Here, we compare and contrast these three systems. We find that all three motors translocate DNA processively and generate very large forces, each exceeding 50 piconewtons, ~20x higher force than generated by the skeletal muscle myosin 2 motor. This high force generation is required to overcome the forces resisting the confinement of the stiff, highly charged DNA at high density within the viral capsids. However, there are also striking differences between the three motors: they exhibit different DNA translocation rates, degrees of static and dynamic disorder, responses to load, and pausing and slipping dynamics.

  18. FACS-sorted particles reduce the data variance in optical tweezers-assisted dynamic force spectroscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Stangner, T; Singer, D; Wagner, C; Gutsche, C; Ueberschär, O; Hoffmann, R; Kremer, F

    2013-08-01

    By combining optical tweezers-assisted dynamic force spectroscopy experiments with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), we demonstrate a new approach to reducing the data variance in measuring receptor-ligand interactions on a single molecule level by ensuring similar coating densities. Therefore, the carboxyfluorescein-labelled monophosphorylated peptide tau226-240[pThr231] is anchored on melamine resin beads and these beads are sorted by FACS to achieve a homogeneous surface coverage. To quantify the impact of the fluorescence dye on the bond parameters between the phosphorylated peptide and the corresponding phosphorylation specific anti-human tau monoclonal antibody HPT-104, we perform dynamic force spectroscopy and compare the results to data using unsorted beads covered with the non-fluorescence peptide analogue. Finally, we demonstrate that the data variance of the relative binding frequency is significantly decreased by a factor of 3.4 using pre-sorted colloids with a homogeneous ligand coating compared to using unsorted colloids. PMID:23788010

  19. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; de Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability.

  20. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; De Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability. PMID:25762511

  1. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; De Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability. PMID:25762511

  2. Physiological Monitoring of Optically Trapped Cells: Studying the Effects of Confinement by 1064 NM Lazer Tweezers Using Microfluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yagang

    A novel technique that combines microfluorometric detection and optical laser trapping has been developed for in-situ assessing the physiological state of an optically trapped biological sample. This optical diagnostic technique achieves high sensitivity (>30 dB signal -to-noise ratio) and high spatial resolution (~ 1 ?m) over a broad spectral range (>400 nm). The fluorescence spectra derived from exogenous fluorescent probes, including laurdan, acridine orange, propidium iodide and Snarf, are used to assess the effects of optical confinement with respect to temperature, DNA structure, cell viability, and intracellular pH, respectively. In the latter three cases, fluorescence is excited via a two-photon absorption process, using the cw laser trap itself as the fluorescence excitation source. This enables the cw near infrared laser trapping beam to be used simultaneously as an optical diagnostic probe as well as an optical micromanipulator. Using microfluorometry, a temperature increase of less than several degrees centigrade was measured for test samples, including liposomes, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human sperm cells that were held stationary by 1064 nm optical tweezers having a power density of ~10^7 W/cm^2. Additional physiological monitoring experiments indicated that there is no observable denaturation of DNA, or change of intracellular pH under typical continuous wave laser trapping conditions (P <= 400 mW). Under some circumstances, however, it was possible to achieve a decrease in cell viability with cw trapping, as monitored by a live/dead vital stain. In comparison, significant DNA denaturation and cellular physiological changes (e.g. cell death) were observed when a Q-switched pulsed laser at a threshold of ~30mu J/pulse was used as trapping source. These results generally support the conclusion that cw laser trapping at 1064 nm wavelength is a safe, non-invasive process and should prove to be of great value for understanding the mechanisms of laser microirradiation effects on living cells held stationary in a near-infrared trapping beam.

  3. Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    .17. The annual mean aerosol single scattering albedo and mean aerosol asymmetry factor at 440 nm are 0.90 and 0). The annual mean aerosol optical depth at 500 nm is 0.77, and mean A° ngstrom wavelength exponent is 1 properties suggest aerosol hygroscopic growth greatly modifies aerosol properties. The annual mean aerosol

  4. Simulation Procedure for Optical Wave Propagation through Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairat, Mazen; Voelz, David

    2012-10-01

    The effects of atmospheric aerosols on optical propagation have been studied primarily for a homogeneous medium and in a time-averaged sense. We describe an approach for including the effects of aerosol scatter in the wave optics simulation format. The aerosol medium is modeled using a series of phase screens placed along the propagation path in such a way that their distribution depends on the aerosol's density. The aerosol scattering point spread function is translated into a collection of phase screen realizations. The results obtained emphasize that the simulation procedure is applicable in non homogenous medium with varying scatter phase functions. Indeed, the procedure can be combined with other wave optics simulation procedures such as the propagation through turbulence.

  5. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  6. Aerosol Optical Properties in Southeast Asia From AERONET Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Boonjawat, J.; Le, H. V.; Schafer, J. S.; Reid, J. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2003-12-01

    There is little published data available on measured optical properties of aerosols in the Southeast Asian region. The AERONET project and collaborators commenced monitoring of aerosol optical properties in February 2003 at four sites in Thailand and two sites in Viet Nam to measure the primarily anthropogenic aerosols generated by biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion/ industrial emissions. Automatic sun/sky radiometers at each site measured spectral aerosol optical depth in 7 wavelengths from 340 to 1020 nm and combined with directional radiances in the almucantar, retrievals were made of spectral single scattering albedo and aerosol size distributions. Angstrom exponents, size distributions and spectral single scattering albedo of primarily biomass burning aerosols at rural sites are compared to measurements made at AERONET sites in other major biomass burning regions in tropical southern Africa, South America, and in boreal forest regions. Additionally, the aerosol single scattering albedo and size distributions measured in Bangkok, Thailand are compared with those measured at other urban sites globally. The influences of aerosols originating from other regions outside of Southeast Asia are analyzed using trajectory analyses. Specifically, cases of aerosol transport and mixing from Southern China and from India are presented.

  7. Correlation between ground-based aerosol optical depth and TOMS aerosol index: a comparison between measurements and MODTRAN simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulia Pavese; Francesco Esposito; Carmine Serio

    2002-01-01

    A comparison between simulated data and measurements performed by means of a spectroradiometer has been done. We searched a correlation between Aerosol Optical Depth, measured the over a wide spectral range, and TOMS Aerosol Index, which is satellite retrieved. This comparison has been done for both desertic aerosol (measurements taken in Namibia, 1998) and rural aerosol (measurements realized in Southern

  8. Laboratory Comparison of Aerosol Optical Property Measurement Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Ravishankara, A.; Lovejoy, E.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol particles influence the global radiative balance with their optical properties, i.e., the ability of scattering and/or absorbing the incoming solar radiation (aerosol direct effect). Because this ability depends on aerosol characteristics such as composition, size distribution and mixing state, it is critical to link aerosol optical,physical and chemical properties to emissions for better assessing the regional and global impact of different aerosol types. During 2006, NOAA ERSL/CSD performed a series of laboratory based comparison studies to address the performance, uncertainties, and biases of both existing and newly developed instruments to measure aerosol optical properties. These investigations included measurements of extinction using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRD-AES),scattering by a TSI nephelometer, and absorption by a Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) and a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). In this work we compare the optical properties derived for several aerosol types and mixtures by using various combinations of CRD-AES, nephelometer, and PSAP measurements. Our results indicate that such properties significantly depend on composition and mixing state of aerosols. We complete the study with top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing estimates and we compare the newly obtained values with what has been reported in past calculations.

  9. Fabrication of a material assembly of silver nanoparticles using the phase gradients of optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zijie; Sajjan, Manas; Scherer, Norbert F

    2015-04-10

    Optical matter can be created using the intensity gradient and electrodynamic (e.g., optical binding) forces that nano- and microparticles experience in focused optical beams. Here we show that the force associated with phase gradient is also important. In fact, in optical line traps the phase gradient force is crucial in determining the structure and stability of optical matter arrays consisting of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). NP lattices can be repeatedly assembled and disassembled simply by changing the sign of the phase gradient. The phase gradient creates a compressive force (and thus a stress) in the optically bound Ag NP lattices, causing structural transitions (a stress response) from 1D "chains" to 2D lattices, and even to amorphous structures. The structural transitions and dynamics of driven transport are well described by electrodynamics simulations and modeling using a drift-diffusion Langevin equation. PMID:25910124

  10. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  11. Hydroxyl radical oxidation of glucose in aqueous aerosol studied in single levitated droplets by laser Raman tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. King; O. R. Hunt; A. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted that cloud processing of atmospheric contaminants changes the optical properties of these clouds. Airborne particulate matter plays a crucial role in determining the climate and weather of the Earth. The chemical composition of particulate matter affects climate directly, by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly, owing to its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei,

  12. Comparison of MODIS and AERONET derived aerosol optical depth over the Ganga Basin, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Tripathi; Sagnik Dey; A. Chandel; S. Srivastava; Ramesh P. Singh; B. N. Holben

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard EOS Terra measures global aerosol optical depth and optical properties since 2000. MODIS aerosol products are freely available and are being used for numerous studies. In this paper, we present a comparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODIS with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for the year 2004 over Kanpur, an

  13. Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chih-Ming [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuarn-Jang [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)] [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wei-Ting [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chien-Ting [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Jing-Shin [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chien-Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Ou, Keng-Liang [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. {yields} The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. {yields} Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M). {yields} The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol{sup -1} at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (K{sub A}) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining K{sub A} for PD153035, where K{sub A} is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that K{sub A} = 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M) at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

  14. Leishmania amazonensis chemotaxis under glucose gradient studied by the strength and directionality of forces measured with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Ayres, Diana Copi; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2007-02-01

    Chemotaxis is the mechanism microorganisms use to sense the environment surrounding them and to direct their movement towards attractive, or away from the repellent, chemicals. The biochemical sensing is almost the only way for communication between unicellular organisms. Prokaryote and Eukaryote chemotaxis has been mechanically studied mainly by observing the directionality and timing of the microorganisms movements subjected to a chemical gradient, but not through the directionality and strength of the forces it generates. To observe the vector force of microorganisms under a chemical gradient we developed a system composed of two large chambers connected by a tiny duct capable to keep the chemical gradient constant for more than ten hours. We also used the displacements of a microsphere trapped in an Optical Tweezers as the force transducer to measure the direction and the strength of the propulsion forces of flagellum of the microorganism under several gradient conditions. A 9?m diameter microsphere particle was trapped with a Nd:YAG laser and its movement was measured through the light scattered focused on a quadrant detector. We observed the behavior of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis (eukaryote) under several glucose gradients. This protozoa senses the gradient around it by swimming in circles for three to five times following by tumbling, and not by the typical straight swimming/tumbling of bacteria. Our results also suggest that force direction and strength are also used to control its movement, not only the timing of swimming/tumbling, because we observed a higher force strength clearly directed towards the glucose gradient.

  15. 3D interferometric optical tweezers using a single spatial light modulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan Schonbrun; Rafael Piestun; Pamela Jordan; Jon Cooper; Kurt D. Wulff; Johannes Courtial; Miles Padgett

    2005-01-01

    Hexagonal arrays of micron sized silica beads have been trapped in three-dimensions within an optical lattice formed by the interference of multiple plane-waves. The optical lattice design with sharply peaked intensity gradients produces a stronger trapping force than the traditionally sinusoidal intensity distributions of other interferometric systems. The plane waves were generated using a single, phase-only, spatial light modulator (SLM),

  16. Closure Evaluation of Laboratory Aerosols Optical and Hygroscopic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Rood, M.

    2006-12-01

    Closure analysis of the optical and hygroscopic properties of selected pure inorganic aerosol (e.g., ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride), pure organic aerosol (e.g., glutaric acid and succinic acid), and two inorganic and organic aerosol mixtures will be evaluated. Focus will be on the effect of particulate organic matter (POM) content on an aerosol's optical hygroscopicity. The Mie-Lorentz light scattering ("BHMIE") code is used to predict the total light scattering and backscattering coefficients (?sp and ?bsp, respectively) at given RH values. The "BHMIE" code uses measured aerosol particle number size distributions by Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA), and refractive indices as major model inputs. As a subset of the optical closure study, another closure on the real refractive indices of the aerosols will also be completed by comparing results from the partial molar refraction (PMR) approach to the experimentally determined values using two independent optical devices - ellipsometer and refractometer at different sub-saturated solute mass concentrations. Meanwhile, a scanning relative humidity (RH) nephelometry system, humidograph, is used to measure ?bsp and ?bsp at controlled RH values between 35% and 85%. Comparisons of the extensive aerosol optical properties, ?sp and ?bsp, and intensive derived ones, such as hygroscopic response in ?sp (f?sp), single scattering albedo ( ?), Ångström exponent (å), and hemispheric backscatter fraction (b) at select RH values will be made to accomplish the closure evaluations. In addition, particle growth (g(RH)), effect of temperature (T) and RH uncertainties and sample heating on measurements of aerosol optical properties will also be quantified.

  17. Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-print Network

    that collision rate should be enhanced at small velocities due to thermal excitations. However, in the current into an optical trap that was translated from the `production chamber' into a separate vacuum chamber: the `science chamber'. Typically, we transferred 2-3 million condensed atoms in less than 2 s. This transport

  18. Single molecule biochemistry using optical tweezers Amit D. Mehta*, Katherine A. Pullen, James A. Spudich

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    studied example is kinesin, a two-headed motor observed to transport vesicles along microtubules. A single Biochemical Societies. Key words: Optical trap; Single molecule; Myosin; Kinesin; Titin 1. Introduction kinesin molecule can move along its microtubule track for micrometres before dissociating [3

  19. Estimation of aerosol optical properties from all-sky imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Salamalikis, Vasilios; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are one of the most important constituents in the atmosphere that affect the incoming solar radiation, either directly through absorbing and scattering processes or indirectly by changing the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. Under clear skies, aerosols become the dominant factor that affect the intensity of solar irradiance reaching the ground. It has been shown that the variability in direct normal irradiance (DNI) due to aerosols is more important than the one induced in global horizontal irradiance (GHI), while the uncertainty in its calculation is dominated by uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties. In recent years, all-sky imagers are used for the detection of cloud coverage, type and velocity in a bouquet of applications including solar irradiance resource and forecasting. However, information about the optical properties of aerosols could be derived with the same instrumentation. In this study, the aerosol optical properties are estimated with the synergetic use of all-sky images, complementary data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and calculations from a radiative transfer model. The area of interest is Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), Tabernas, Spain and data from a 5 month period are analyzed. The proposed methodology includes look-up-tables (LUTs) of diffuse sky radiance of Red (R), Green (G) and Blue (B) channels at several zenith and azimuth angles and for different atmospheric conditions (Angström ? and ?, single scattering albedo, precipitable water, solar zenith angle). Based on the LUTS, results from the CIMEL photometer at PSA were used to estimate the RGB radiances for the actual conditions at this site. The methodology is accompanied by a detailed evaluation of its robustness, the development and evaluation of the inversion algorithm (derive aerosol optical properties from RGB image values) and a sensitivity analysis about how the pre-mentioned atmospheric parameters affect the results.

  20. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Pulsed optoacoustic effect in aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Zharov; A. E. Negin; Ya O. Simanovskii

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the optoacoustic effect in water aerosols interacting with CO2 laser pulses. Saturation of the optoacoustic signal was observed when the energy density exceeded 5 J\\/cm2. This was attributed to a change in the particle size distribution of the aerosol during a laser pulse. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see

  1. To Study the Effect of Paclitaxel on the Cytoplasmic Viscosity of Murine Macrophage Immune Cell RAW 264.7 Using Self-Developed Optical Tweezers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-chun; Wu, Chien-ming

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, optical tweezers have become one of the tools to measure the mechanical properties of living cells. In this study, we first constructed an optical tweezers to investigate the cytoplasmic viscosity of immune cells. In addition to measuring viscosity of cells in a normal condition, we also treated cells with anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, and in order to study its effect on the cytoplasmic viscosity. The results showed that the viscosity decreased dramatically during the first 3 h. After 3 h, the change started to slow down and it remained nearly flat by the end of the experiment. In addition, we used the confocal laser scanning microscope to observe the cytoskeleton of the cell after drug treatment for 3 and 5 h, respectively, and found that actin filaments were disrupted and that the nucleus had disintegrated in some drug-treated cells, similar to the process of apoptosis. This study presents a new way for measuring the changes in cytoplasmic viscosity, and to determine if a cell is going into apoptosis as a result of a drug treatment.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Aerosol Dynamics Models Using Aerosol Optical Observations of Boreal Smoke Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, N. T.; Thulasiraman, S.; Holben, B. N.; Aubé, M.; McConnell, J. C.; Menard, R.; Royer, A.; Kaminski, J. W.; Lupu, A.; Neary, L.

    2004-05-01

    We have compared the estimates of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from two models, viz., the Canadian GEM-AQ air quality model and AODSEM (Aerosol Optical Depth Spatio-temporal Evolution Model). GEM-AQ is a multi-scale, chemical/aerosol dynamics model with size discriminated aerosols, cloud processing of aerosols and dynamic biomass-emission sources. AODSEM is a simpler model incorporating a rationalized set of aerosol processes tied to an AOD assimilation algorithm. Initial comparison efforts have been concentrated on large-signal smoke events over Canada (most notably the Québec smoke event of July 2002). The AOD estimates were evaluated against ground-based AERONET/AEROCAN data, GOES animations and MODIS AOD imagery. The comparisons were carried out with the objective of better understanding which assumptions, processes and techniques were important within the (relatively relaxed) constraints of columnar optics and space-time dependent AOD errors. The discussion will include an analysis of the model capacity for capturing the fine-mode size enhancement which we often observe in the AOD spectra of aged smoke.

  3. Aerosol Optical Properties From Jeju Island, South Korea During Ace-Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jefferson; J. A. Ogren; J. Schauer

    2002-01-01

    Much of the uncertainties associated with direct aerosol radiative forcing stem from the difficulty in predicting the aerosol optical properties as well as meteorological parameters. The Ace-Asia IOP campaign afforded us the opportunity to study the variability in aerosol optical properties as they relate to both source region and meteorology. We present in-situ measurements of aerosol scattering coefficients as a

  4. Interference model for back-focal-plane displacement detection in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Gittes, F; Schmidt, C F

    1998-01-01

    The lateral position of an optically trapped object in a microscope can be monitored with a quadrant photodiode to within nanometers or better by measurement of intensity shifts in the back focal plane of the lens that is collimating the outgoing laser light. This detection is largely independent of the position of the trap in the field of view. We provide a model for the essential mechanism of this type of detection, giving a simple, closed-form analytic solution with simplifying assumptions. We identify intensity shifts as first-order far-field interference between the outgoing laser beam and scattered light from the trapped particle, where the latter is phase advanced owing to the Gouy phase anomaly. This interference also reflects momentum transfer to the particle, giving the spring constant of the trap. Our response formula is compared with the results of experiments. PMID:18084394

  5. Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chu; Y. J. Kaufman; C. Ichoku; L. A. Remer; D. Tanré; B. N Holben

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol optical depths (?a) are derived operationally for the first time from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) measurements over vegetated and partially vegetated land at 0.47 and 0.66 ?m wavelengths. The extensive validation made during July – September 2000 encompasses 315 co-located ?a in space and time derived by MODIS and AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) from more than 30

  6. Aerosol optical depth retrieval using the MERIS observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Rozanov, Vladimir; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Surface reflectance determination and aerosol type selection are the two main challenges for space-borne aerosol remote sensing, especially for those instruments lacking of near-infrared channels, high-temporal observations, multi-angles abilities and/or polarization information. However, space based instruments like the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and the successor, Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with high calibration accuracy and high spatial resolution provide unique abilities for obtaining valuable aerosol information for a better understanding of the impact of aerosols on climate, which is still one of the largest uncertainties of global climate change evaluation. In this study, a new Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval algorithm is presented. Global aerosol type and surface spectral dataset were used for the aerosol type selection and surface reflectance determination. A modified Ross-Li mode is used to describe the surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) effect. The comparison with operational MODIS C6 product and the validation using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) show promising results.

  7. Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing Derived from Sea WiFS-Inferred Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Wang, Menghua

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties inferred from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) radiance measurements are used to compute the aerosol shortwave radiative forcing using a radiative transfer model. The aerosol optical thickness at the wavelength of 865-nm is taken from the SeaWIFS archive. It is found that the nominal optical thickness over oceans ranges from 0.1 to 0.2. Using a maritime aerosol model and the radiances measured at the various SeaWiFS channels, the Angstrom exponent is determined to be 0.2174, the single-scattering albedo to be 0.995, and the asymmetry factor to be 0.786. The radiative transfer model has eight bands in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions and three bands in the near infrared. It includes the absorption due to aerosols, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, and the scattering due to aerosols and gases (Rayleigh scattering). The radiative forcing is computed over global oceans for four months (January, April, July, and October, 1998) to represent four seasons. It is found that the aerosol radiative forcing is large and changes significantly with seasons near the continents with large-scale forest fires and desert dust. Averaged over oceans and the four months, the aerosol radiative forcing is approximately 7 W/sq m at the top of the atmosphere. This large radiative forcing is expected to have a significant cooling effect on the Earth's climate as implied from simulations of a number of general circulation models.

  8. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, Charles R. P., E-mail: c.r.p.courtney@bath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy [Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35?MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-?m-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

  9. Comparisons of aerosol optical depth and surface shortwave irradiance and their effect on the aerosol surface radiative forcing estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Woo Kim; Anne Jefferson; Soon-Chang Yoon; Ellsworth G. Dutton; John A. Ogren; Francisco P. J. Valero; Jiyoung Kim; Brent N. Holben

    2005-01-01

    Column aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface shortwave irradiance (SSI) measurements relevant to computation of the aerosol surface radiative forcing (?F) and forcing efficiency (?) were taken as part of Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) at the Gosan surface site in Korea in April 2001. We compare the AOD and SSI derived from three different types of Sun photometers and three

  10. Tube length-assisted optimized aerosol trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, S. Mohammad-Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad; Madadi, Ebrahim; S. Reihani, S. Nader

    2014-10-01

    Trapping a single aerosol using optical tweezers could be of great importance for environmental sciences. Though a single nanoparticle as small as 10 nm is successfully trapped in aqueous media using optical tweezers, due to spherical aberration only large clusters of nanoparticles were stably trapped in air. In this paper we provide our theoretical and experimental results on optimized trapping of aerosols as small as 400 nm in radius by the introduction of an extra spherical aberration source in order to minimize the total spherical aberration of the system. Our method allows for trapping of high refractive index particles such as polystyrene beads in air. It also provides considerably large trappable depth range which endows in-depth trapping. Our theoretical and experimental results are in very good agreement.

  11. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  12. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Derived From SeaWIFS - Retrieved Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Mong-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Wang, Menghua; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To understand climatic implications of aerosols over global oceans, the aerosol optical properties retrieved from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) are analyzed, and the effects of the aerosols on the Earth's radiation budgets (aerosol radiative forcing, ARF) are computed using a radiative transfer model. It is found that the distribution of the SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical thickness is distinctively zonal. The maximum in the equatorial region coincides with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the maximum in the Southern Hemispheric high latitudes coincides with the region of prevailing westerlies. The minimum aerosol optical thickness is found in the subtropical high pressure regions, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. These zonal patterns clearly demonstrate the influence of atmospheric circulation on the oceanic aerosol distribution. Over global oceans, aerosols reduce the annual mean net downward solar flux by 5.4 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere and by 6.1 W m-2 at the surface. The largest ARF is found in the tropical Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, the coastal regions of Southeast and East Asia, and the Southern Hemispheric high latitudes. During the period of the Indonesian big fires (September-December 1997), the cooling due to aerosols is greater than 15 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere and greater than 30 W m(exp -1) at the surface in the vicinity of the maritime continents. The atmosphere receives extra solar radiation by greater than 15 W m(exp -1) over a large area. These large changes in radiative fluxes are expected to have enhanced the atmospheric stability, weakened the atmospheric circulation, and augmented the drought condition during that period. It would be very instructive to simulate the regional climatic. The model-calculated clear sky solar flux at the top of the atmosphere is compared with that derived from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The net downward solar flux of CERES is systematically larger than the model calculations by -3 W M-2. In the equatorial region, the CERES-derived net downward solar flux is even larger than the model calculations without including aerosols. It is possible that the CERES incorrectly identified regions of high humidity and high aerosol concentration as being cloud contaminated and, hence, overestimated the clear sky net downward solar flux.

  13. Trends in aerosol optical depth for cities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porch, William; Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Mavendra; Massie, Steven

    Recent analysis of trends in global short-wave radiation measured with pyranometers in major cities in India support a decrease in solar radiation in many of those cities since 1990. Since direct and diffuse radiation measurements include cloud effects, spring and summer dust and the variable summer monsoon rains, we concentrate in this paper on wintertime (November-February) aerosol optical depth measurements. The aerosol optical depth is derived from cloud-free turbidity measurements beginning in the 1960s and more recent sun photometer direct aerosol optical depth measurements. We compare the sun photometer derived trends with the pyranometer-derived trends using a radiative transfer model. These results are then compared to total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite-derived regional aerosol optical depths from 1980 to 2000. The results show that inclusion of the earlier turbidity measurements helps to establish an increasing regional turbidity trend. However, most of the increasing trend is confined to the larger cities in the Ganges River Basin of India (mainly Calcutta and New Delhi) with other cities showing a much less increase. Regional satellite data show that there is an increasing trend in aerosol off the coast of India and over the Ganges River Basin. The increase over the Ganges River Basin is consistent with population trends over the region during 1980-2000.

  14. Toward Investigating Optically Trapped Organic Aerosols with CARS Microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, L. F.

    2009-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change notes the huge uncertainty in the effect that atmospheric aerosols play in determining overall global temperature, specifically in their ability to nucleate clouds. To better understand aerosol chemistry, the novel coupling of gradient force optical trapping with broad bandwidth coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is being developed to study single particles suspended in air. Building on successful designs employed separately for the techniques, this hybrid technology will be used to explain how the oxidation of organic compounds changes the chemical and physical properties of aerosols. By trapping the particles, an individual aerosol can be studied for up to several days. Using a broad bandwidth pulse for one of the incident beams will result in a Raman vibrational spectrum from every laser pulse. Combined with signal enhancement due to resonance and coherence of nonlinear CARS spectroscopy, this technique will allow for acquisition of data on the millisecond time scale, facilitating the study of dynamic processes. This will provide insights on how aerosols react with and absorb species from the gas phase. These experiments will increase understanding of aerosol oxidation and growth mechanisms and the effects that aerosols have on our atmosphere and climate. Progress in efforts developing this novel technique to study model systems is presented.

  15. MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth retrieval over South America: sensitivity on modeled aerosol from improved AERONET regional climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, C.; Correia, A. L.; Paixao, M.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect climate directly, through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, and indirectly, altering cloud formation mechanisms and properties. The radiation balance is a critical component of climate system and an increase in aerosol concentration causes a net change in radiation budget. Estimating aerosol direct radiative forcing combines, as input to radiative transfer codes, aerosol optical and microphysical models obtained through surface remote sensing and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite data. Besides information on aerosol, atmospheric and surface conditions play also significant role along the estimation process. The purpose of this work is to study the sensitivity of AOD MODIS retrievals over South America to regional aerosol properties from AERONET ground-based data, and to typical atmospheric and surface conditions observed from satellite. Since May 2007, INPE counts on a regional system of aerosol retrieval from MODIS, based on NASA/GSFC algorithms. A new version of this product is under development, with changes on aerosol properties assumed inside the retrieval. Long-term measurements (1999-2006) from 9 AERONET sites over South America were used by LFA (Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, USP) to produce a new set of regional aerosol models, allowing better characterization of aerosol types over this region. These models were combined with AOD from MODIS data as input to SBDART. The obtained results show that sensitivity of retrieved AOD on modeled microphysical and optical properties is much larger than that on atmospheric vertical profile. For instance, differences between the typical single scattering albedo observed at different AERONET sites create large discrepancies on regional scale MODIS retrievals. The results allow us to conclude that improvements on aerosol optical and microphysical modeling inside MODIS aerosol retrievals are critical in order to obtain a much more reliable tool on estimating aerosol radiative forcing. The use of AERONET climatology to produce regional aerosol models appears as a key method to this goal.

  16. optical tweezers tractor beams

    E-print Network

    . Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, S. M. Block, Science 365, 721 (1993). J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, J., Matteo, J. A., Dinsmore, A. D., and Yodh, A. G. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4352­4355 (1999). Meiners, J. C favourite setup... holograms. Why care? applications etc. Movies! #12;A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E

  17. The deconvolution of aerosol backscattered optical pulses to obtain system-independent aerosol signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, D.; Conner, M.

    1981-06-01

    Means are discussed for extracting system-independent aerosol signatures from aerosol backscatter measurements obtained with a specific pencil beam active optical detection system. Such signatures are required before the backscatter data can be applied to various proposed optical fuze designs for determining their aerosol vulnerability and to the investigation of aerosol discrimination schemes. The measurement system, which has been used in numerous experiments to probe such aerosols as weather clouds and military smokes, is a short pulse GaAs laser probe (pulse width + or - 10 nanoseconds whose range sensitivity extends from near the system to beyond 10 meters. A computationally fast numerical deconvolution algorithm is devised together with a comprehensive supporting analysis. Both indicate that severe signal-to-noise ratio constraints apply to the achievement of meaningful superresolution. While the signal-to-noise ratios typical of recent measurements are likely to satisfy the severe constraints discovered, many of the earlier data are too noisy and thus require other signature determination methods.

  18. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Properties under Thin Cirrus from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew Mark.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of aerosol optical properties using shortwave bands from passive satellite sensors, such as MODIS, is typically limited to cloud-free areas. However, if the clouds are thin enough (i.e. thin cirrus) such that the satellite-observed reflectance contains signals under the cirrus layer, and if the optical properties of this cirrus layer are known, the TOA reflectance can be corrected for the cirrus layer to be used for retrieving aerosol optical properties. To this end, we first correct the TOA reflectances in the aerosol bands (0.47, 0.55, 0.65, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.12 micron for ocean algorithm and 0.412, 0.47, and 0.65 micron for deep blue algorithm) for the effects of thin cirrus using 1.38 micron reflectance and conversion factors that convert cirrus reflectance in 1.38 micron band to those in aerosol bands. It was found that the conversion factors can be calculated by using relationships between reflectances in 1.38 micron band and minimum reflectances in the aerosol bands (Gao et al., 2002). Refer to the example in the figure. Then, the cirrus-corrected reflectance can be calculated by subtracting the cirrus reflectance from the TOA reflectance in the optically thin case. A sensitivity study suggested that cloudy-sky TOA reflectances can be calculated with small errors in the form of simple linear addition of cirrus-only reflectances and clear-sky reflectances. In this study, we correct the cirrus signals up to TOA reflectance at 1.38 micron of 0.05 where the simple linear addition is valid without extensive radiative transfer simulations. When each scene passes the set of tests shown in the flowchart, the scene is corrected for cirrus contamination and passed into aerosol retrieval algorithms.

  19. A Multi-angle Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Retrieval Algorithm for GOES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhang; A. Lyapustin; Y. Wang; S. Kondragunta; I. Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval from a geostationary satellite has high temporal resolution compared to a polar orbiting satellite, which enables us to monitor aerosol motion. However, the current GOES imager has only one visible channel for retrieving aerosol, and hence its accuracy is low compared to polar-orbiting satellites which carry the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The operational GOES aerosol optical depth

  20. Trapping and transporting aerosols with a single optical bottle

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhigang

    and Technological Economy Development Area (TEDA) Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457, ChinaTrapping and transporting aerosols with a single optical bottle beam generated by moiré techniques Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA 3 National Key Laboratory of Tunable Laser Technology, Harbin

  1. Antifouling coatings for optoelectronic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Lau, Aldrich N K; Ohta, Aaron T; Phan, Huan L; Hsu, Hsan-Yin; Jamshidi, Arash; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Wu, Ming C

    2009-10-21

    Optoelectronic tweezers enables parallel manipulation of individual single cells using optical addressing and optically induced dielectrophoretic force. This provides a useful platform for performing a variety of biological functions, such as cell manipulation, cell sorting, and cell electroporation. However, in order to obtain more reliable cellular manipulation, especially of adherent mammalian cells, antifouling coatings need to be used to avoid non-specific cell adherence. Two antifouling coatings are discussed here, which can reduce the amount of non-specific adherence by as much as a factor of 30. PMID:19789749

  2. Aerosol optical depth trends over different regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, S.; Kedia, Sumita; Srivastava, Rohit

    2012-03-01

    Seasonal and annual mean trends in aerosol optical depths (AODs) for the last decade are derived using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 2 10 km × 10 km remote sensing data over different locations in India. AODs have increased across India in the last decade. AOD trends exhibit spatial, seasonal and annual mean variations. Annual mean AODs have increased by >40% during 2000-2009 in Jaipur, Hyderabad and Bengaluru. The increase in AODs over Hyderabad and Bengaluru, major high-tech cities, can be ascribed to the increase in urbanization. An increase in AODs over New Delhi where manmade aerosols are dominant can be attributed to an increase in the amount of aerosols from fossil fuel and biomass burning, while an increasing trend in AODs in the northeast, indicates an increase in the amount of aerosols produced from biomass burning and forest fires. AODs decreased in the high altitude sites of Shimla and Dehradun. AODs and wind speeds increased over Jaipur, while they decreased in Trivandrum during the last decade. An increase in wind speeds led to an increase in soil derived dust particles over Jaipur, an arid site, while a decrease in wind speeds over Trivandrum, contributed to a decrease in sea spray aerosols thereby causing a decrease in AOD. Annual rainfall increased by ?1% in most locations. Both AODs and rainfall have increased in the last decade over most study locations. These findings become important and useful in the context of regional and global climate change due to aerosols.

  3. Retrieval of aerosol optical properties over land using PMAp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Ruediger; Poli, Gabriele; Holdak, Andriy

    2015-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol optical properties is an important task for industry and climate forecasting. An ideal instrument should include observations with moderate spectral and high spatial resolutions for a wide range of wavelengths (from the UV to the TIR), measurements of the polarization state at different wavelengths and measurements of the same scene for different observation geometries. As such an ideal instrument is currently unavailable the usage of different instruments on one satellite platform is an alternative choice. Since February 2014, the Polar Multi sensor Aerosol product (PMAp) is delivered as operational GOME product to our customers. The algorithms retrieve aerosol optical properties over ocean (AOD, volcanic ash, aerosol type) using a multi-sensor approach (GOME, AVHRR, IASI). The next releases of PMAp will provide an extended set of aerosol and cloud properties which include AOD over land and an improved volcanic ash retrieval combining AVHRR and IASI. This presentation gives an overview on the existing product and the prototypes in development. The major focus is the discussion of the AOD retrieval over land implemented in the upcoming PMAp2 release. In addition, the results of our current validation studies (e.g. comparisons to AERONET, other satellite platforms and model data) are shown.

  4. Relating Aerosol Mass and Optical Depth in the Summertime Continental Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Wagner, N.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Attwood, A. R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brown, S. S.; McComiskey, A. C.; Gordon, T. D.; Welti, A.; Carlton, A. G.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD), the column-integrated ambient aerosol light extinction, is determined from satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements. AOD is the parameter most often used to validate earth system model simulations of aerosol mass. Relating aerosol mass to AOD, however, is problematic due to issues including aerosol water uptake as a function of relative humidity (RH) and the complicated relationship between aerosol physicochemical properties and light extinction. Measurements of aerosol microphysical, chemical, and optical properties help to constrain the relationship between aerosol mass and optical depth because aerosol extinction at ambient RH is a function of the abundance, composition and size distribution of the aerosol. We use vertical profiles of humidity and dry aerosol extinction observed in the southeastern United States (U.S.) to examine the relationship between submicron aerosol mass concentration and extinction at ambient RH. We show that the ?-Köhler parameterization directly, and without additional Mie calculations, describes the change in extinction with varying RH as a function of composition for both aged aerosols typical of the polluted summertime continental boundary layer and the biomass burning aerosols we encountered. We calculate how AOD and the direct radiative effect in the eastern U.S. have likely changed due to trends in aerosol composition in recent decades. We also examine the sensitivity of AOD to the RH profile and to aerosol composition, size distribution and abundance.

  5. Measurements of surface aerosol optical properties in winter of Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Renjian; Cheng, Tiantao; Leng, Chunpeng; Chen, Jianmin; Huang, Guanghan; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Zhaoqin

    2012-06-01

    Aerosol optical properties were continuously measured at an urban site in Shanghai of China from December 2010 to March 2011, and aerosol scattering (?scat) and absorption (?abs) coefficients and single scattering albedo (SSA) were examined. During the entire period, mean ?scat, ?abs, SSA were 293 Mm- 1, 66 Mm- 1 and 0.81, respectively. Higher ?scat and ?abs occurred in December while relatively lower values were observed in March, and SSA was just opposite to them. ?scat and ?abs coefficients behaved an apparent bi-peak pattern in diurnal variation: maxima of 319, 76 Mm- 1 at 8:00 LT during traffic rush hours and sub-maxima of 280, 71 Mm- 1 at 20:00 LT. SSA also behaved a bi-peak diurnal cycle with maximum 0.85 at 13:00 LT and sub-maximum 0.82 at 4:00 LT. ?scat and ?abs coefficients showed a clear negative correlation with atmospheric visibility. PM2.5 and black carbon were major contributors to large optical parameters because their concentrations were 2 times higher during haze episode than in clean days. ?scat and ?abs were low in magnitude when northeasterly winds bring "clean" air from the China Yellow Sea arriving the observation site, and were relatively high when air masses from the north or northwest pass through continental areas or/and industrial regions, indicating impacts of various aerosol origins on aerosol optical properties.

  6. An operational retrieval algorithm for determining aerosol optical properties in the ultraviolet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Taylor; Tristan S. L'Ecuyer; James R. Slusser; Graeme L. Stephens; Christian D. Goering

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a number of practical considerations concerning the optimization and operational implementation of an algorithm used to characterize the optical properties of aerosols across part of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. The algorithm estimates values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) at seven wavelengths in the UV, as well as total column ozone (TOC)

  7. Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties, vertical distribution and associated radiative effects

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    of aerosol optical depths (AOD), Ångstrom exponents, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (ASY smaller effects in winter. The annual mean aerosol direct shortwave radiative forcing (efficiency, such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), the single scattering albedo (SSA), the asymmetry factor (ASY

  8. Optical characterization of continental and biomass-burning aerosols over Bozeman, Montana: A case study of the aerosol direct effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, Amin R.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Reagan, John A.; Carlsten, John L.

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol optical properties were observed from 21 to 27 September 2009 over Bozeman, Montana, during a transitional period in which background polluted rural continental aerosols and well-aged biomass-burning aerosols were the dominant aerosol types of extremely fresh biomass-burning aerosols resulting from forest fires burning in the northwestern United States and Canada. Aerosol optical properties and relative humidity profiles were retrieved using an eye-safe micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) (MP-DIAL), a single-channel backscatter lidar, a CIMEL solar radiometer as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), a ground-based integrating nephelometer, and aerosol products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua. Aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured during the case study ranged between 0.03 and 0.17 (0.015 and 0.075) at 532 nm (830 nm) as episodic combinations of fresh and aged biomass-burning aerosols dominated the optical depth of the pristinely clean background air. Here, a pristinely clean background refers to very low AOD conditions, not that the aerosol scattering and absorption properties are necessarily representative of a clean aerosol type. Diurnal variability in the aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio (Sa) of the background atmosphere derived from the two lidars, which ranged between 55 and 95 sr (50 and 90 sr) at 532 nm (830 nm), showed good agreement with retrievals from AERONET sun and sky measurements over the same time period but were consistently higher than some aerosol models had predicted. Sa measured during the episodic smoke events ranged on average from 60 to 80 sr (50 to 70 sr) at 532 nm (830 nm) while the very fresh biomass-burning aerosols were shown to exhibit significantly lower Sa ranging between 20 and 40 sr. The shortwave direct radiative forcing that was due to the intrusion of biomass-burning aerosols was calculated to be on average -10 W/m2 and was shown to compare favorably with regional-scale forcing calculations using MODIS-Terra and AERONET data in an effort to assess the accuracy of estimating the regional-scale aerosol direct radiative forcing effect using aerosol optical properties measured from a single rural site such as Bozeman, Montana.

  9. Recent trends in aerosol optical properties derived from AERONET measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Carlson, B. E.; Dubovik, O.; Lacis, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has been providing high-quality retrievals of aerosol optical properties from the surface at worldwide locations for more than a decade. Many sites have continuous and consistent records for more than 10 years, which enables the investigation of long-term trends of aerosol properties at these locations. In this study, we present trend analysis of AERONET data at 63 selected locations. In addition to commonly studied parameters such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Ångström Exponent (AE), we also focus on Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (ABS), Scattering Optical Depth (SCT), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE). Two statistical methods are used to detect and estimate the trend: Mann-Kendall test associated with Sen's slope and linear least square fitting. Their results agree well in terms of the significance of the trend for the majority of the cases. The results indicate that Europe and North America experienced a uniform decrease in AOD and SCT, while significant (> 90%) increases of these two parameters are found for Kanpur, India. Most of European and North American sites also show negative trends for ABS, as well as three East Asian stations. The reduction in ABS results in positive SSA trends for these locations. The increase of SCT also leads to a positive SSA trend for Kanpur. Negative SSA trends are mostly found over South America, Australia and a few West European stations, which are mainly attributed to the increase of absorption. Fewer stations are found with significant trends for AE and AAE. In general, the trends do not exhibit obvious seasonality for the majority of the parameters and stations.

  10. Aerosol particle vertical distributions and optical properties over Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Boon Ning; Campbell, James R.; Salinas, Santo V.; Chang, Chew Wai; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Holben, Brent N.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2013-11-01

    As part of the Seven Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and a Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) instrument have been deployed at Singapore to study the regional aerosol environment of the Maritime Continent (MC). Using coincident AERONET Level 2.0 and MPLNET Level 2.0a data from 24 September 2009 to 31 March 2011, the seasonal variability of aerosol particle vertical distributions and optical properties is examined. On average, the bulk (˜65%) of aerosol extinction is found below 1.5 km with substantial aerosol loading (˜35%) above. Possibly due to the transition from El Niño to La Niña conditions and subsequent reduction in fire events, the MPLNET mean integrated aerosol extinction is observed to be the lowest for July-September 2010, which coincides with the typical MC biomass burning season. On the other hand, the highest mean integrated extinctions are derived for January-March 2010 and 2011, which can be attributed to off-season MC biomass burning smoke and anthropogenic pollution. The seasonal lidar ratios also show higher occurrences ?60 sr, which are indicative of biomass burning smoke, for October 2009-June 2010, but such occurrences decrease from July 2010 to March 2011 when La Niña conditions prevail. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) identifies five primary aerosol vertical profile types over Singapore, i.e. strongly-capped/deep near-surface layer (SCD; 0-1.35 km), enhanced mid-level layer (EML; 1.35-2.4 km), enhanced upper-level layer (EUL; 2.4-3.525 km), deep contiguous layer (DCL; 3.525-4.95 km) and deep multi-layer (DML; >4.95 km). PCA also identifies an off-season MC biomass burning smoke event from 22 February to 8 March 2010, which is subsequently examined in detail.

  11. Comparisons of aerosol optical depth and surface shortwave irradiance and their effect on the aerosol surface radiative forcing estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Woo Kim; Anne Jefferson; Soon-Chang Yoon; Ellsworth G. Dutton; John A. Ogren; Francisco P. J. Valero; Jiyoung Kim; Brent N. Holben

    2005-01-01

    Column aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface shortwave irradiance (SSI) measurements relevant to computation of the aerosol surface radiative forcing (DeltaF) and forcing efficiency (beta) were taken as part of Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) at the Gosan surface site in Korea in April 2001. We compare the AOD and SSI derived from three different types of Sun photometers and three

  12. Estimation of aerosol optical properties considering hygroscopicity and light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the influences of water solubility and light absorption on the optical properties of organic aerosols were investigated. A size-resolved model for calculating optical properties was developed by combining thermodynamic hygroscopic growth and aerosol dynamics models. The internal mixtures based on the homogeneous and core-shell mixing were compared. The results showed that the radiative forcing (RF) of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC) aerosol can be estimated to range from -0.07 to -0.49 W/m2 for core-shell mixing and from -0.09 to -0.47 W/m2 for homogeneous mixing under the simulation conditions (RH = 60%). The light absorption properties of WSOC showed the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of WSOC can be estimated 0.43-0.5 m2/g, which accounts for 5-10% of the MAE of elemental carbon (EC). The effect on MAE of increasing the imaginary refractive index of WSOC was also calculated, and it was found that increasing the imaginary refractive index by 0.001i enhanced WSOC aerosol absorption by approximately 0.02 m2/g. Finally, the sensitivity test results revealed that changes in the fine mode fraction (FMF) and in the geometric mean diameter of the accumulation mode play important roles in estimating RF during hygroscopic growth.

  13. Seasonal variability of aerosol optical depth over Indian subcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prasad, A.K.; Singh, R.P.; Singh, A.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ganga basin extends 2000 km E-W and about 400 km N-S and is bounded by Himalayas in the north. This basin is unequivocally found to be affected by high aerosols optical depth (AOD) (>0.6) throughout the year. Himalayas restricts movement of aerosols toward north and as a result dynamic nature of aerosol is seen over the Ganga basin. High AOD in this region has detrimental effects on health of more than 460 million people living in this part of India besides adversely affecting clouds formation, monsoonal rainfall pattern and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Severe drought events (year 2002) in Ganga basin and unexpected failure of monsoon several times, occurred in different parts of Indian subcontinent. Significant rise in AOD (18.7%) over the central part of basin (Kanpur region) have been found to cause substantial decrease in NDVI (8.1%) since 2000. A negative relationship is observed between AOD and NDVI, magnitude of which differs from region to region. Efforts have been made to determine general distribution of AOD and its dominant departure in recent years spatially using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The seasonal changes in aerosol optical depth over the Indo-Gangetic basin is found to very significant as a result of the increasing dust storm events in recent years. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  14. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ? 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  15. Optical characteristics of aerosol in the coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakalova, Toni; Grigorov, Ivan; Parvanov, Orlin; Kolev, Ivan N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper continues our previous investigations, based on the backscattering coefficient distribution, of the optical properties of aerosol in a coastal zone. The material presents some results of an elastic-backscattering lidar experiment carried out in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area in September 1992. The lidar experimental results are presented as 2-D images of the cross-sections of the variation of the extinction as a function of the height and the distance along the sounded path at different elevations. The value of the volume extinction coefficient is calculated according to Klett's inversion method, based on single elastic scattering of the laser emission. Along with the lidar measurements a conventionally measured meteorological parameters are presented. The experimental data considered in the paper demonstrates the lidar sensitivity to underlying surface influence over the optical characteristics of the aerosol.

  16. Aerosol optical depth increase in partly cloudy conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Duli; Wood, R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Rasch, Philip J.; Miller, Steven D.; Schichtel, Bret; Moore, Tom

    2012-09-14

    Remote sensing observations of aerosol from surface and satellite instruments are extensively used for atmospheric and climate research. From passive sensors, the apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds often appears to be brighter then further away from the clouds, leading to an enhancement in the retrieved aerosol optical depth. Mechanisms contributing to this enhancement, including contamination by undetected clouds, hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles, and meteorological conditions, have been debated in recent literature, but an extent to which each of these factors influence the observed enhancement is poorly known. Here we used 11 years of daily global observations at 10x10 km2 resolution from the MODIS on the NASA Terra satellite to quantify as a function of cloud fraction (CF). Our analysis reveals that, averaged over the globe, the clear sky is enhanced by ? = 0.05 which corresponds to relative enhancements of 25% in cloudy conditions (CF=0.8-0.9) compared with relatively clear conditions (CF=0.1-0.2). Unlike the absolute enhancement ?, the relative increase in ? is rather consistent in all seasons and is 25-35% in the subtropics and 15-25% at mid and higher latitudes. Using a simple Gaussian probability density function model to connect cloud cover and the distribution of relative humidity, we argue that much of the enhancement is consistent with aerosol hygroscopic growth in the humid environment surrounding clouds. Consideration of these cloud-dependent effects will facilitate understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and reduce the uncertainty in estimates of aerosol radiative forcing by global climate models.

  17. Evaluating UVA aerosol optical depth using a smartphone camera.

    PubMed

    Igoe, Damien P; Parisi, Alfio V; Carter, Brad

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates a smartphone complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor's ability to detect and quantify incident solar UVA radiation and subsequently, aerosol optical depth at 340 and 380 nm. Earlier studies revealed that the consumer grade CMOS sensor has inherent UVA sensitivities, despite attenuating effects of the lens. Narrow bandpass and neutral density filters were used to protect the image sensor and to not allow saturation of the solar images produced. Observations were made on clear days, free from clouds. The results of this research demonstrate that there is a definable response to changing solar irradiance and aerosol optical depth can be measured within 5% and 10% error margins at 380 and 340 nm respectively. The greater relative error occurs at lower wavelengths (340 nm) due to increased atmospheric scattering effects, particularly at higher air masses and due to lower signal to noise ratio in the image sensor. The relative error for solar irradiance was under 1% for observations made at 380 nm. The results indicate that the smartphone image sensor, with additional external narrow bandpass and neutral density filters can be used as a field sensor to evaluate solar UVA irradiance and aerosol optical depth. PMID:23581749

  18. Investigating Molecular Level Stress-Strain Relationships in Entangled F-Actin Networks by Combined Force-Measuring Optical Tweezers and Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kent; Henze, Dean; Robertson-Anderson, Rae

    2013-03-01

    Actin is an important cytoskeletal protein involved in cell structure and motility, cancer invasion and metastasis, and muscle contraction. The intricate viscoelastic properties of filamentous actin (F-actin) networks allow for the many dynamic roles of actin, thus warranting investigation. Exploration of this unique stress-strain/strain-rate relationship in complex F-actin networks can also improve biomimetic materials engineering. Here, we use optical tweezers with fluorescence microscopy to study the viscoelastic properties of F-actin networks on the microscopic level. Optically trapped microspheres embedded in various F-actin networks are moved through the network using a nanoprecision piezoelectric stage. The force exerted on the microspheres by the F-actin network and subsequent force relaxation are measured, while a fraction of the filaments in the network are fluorescent-labeled to observe filament deformation in real-time. The dependence of the viscoelastic properties of the network on strain rates and amplitudes as well as F-actin concentration is quantified. This approach provides the much-needed link between induced force and deformation over localized regimes (tens of microns) and down to the single molecule level.

  19. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean) 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pace; A. di Sarra; D. Meloni; S. Piacentino; P. Chamard

    2005-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth andÅngström exponent were obtained from multi filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) observations carried out at the island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean, in the period July 2001-September 2003. The average aerosol optical depth at 495.7 nm, tau, is 0.24±0.14; the averageÅngström exponent, alpha, is 0.86±0.63. The observed values of tau range from 0.03 to 1.13, and

  20. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean). 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pace; A. di Sarra; D. Meloni; S. Piacentino; P. Chamard

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent were obtained from multi filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) observations carried out at the island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean, in the period July 2001-September 2003. The average aerosol optical depth at 495.7 nm, tau, is 0.24±0.14; the average Ångström exponent, alpha, is 0.86±0.63. The observed values of tau range from 0.03 to

  1. Optical conveyors: Active tractor beams for colloids, emulsions and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, David; Grier, David

    2013-03-01

    A tractor beam is a travelling wave that transports material back to its source. We experimentally demonstrate such a beam by coherently superposing coaxial Bessel beams. These optical conveyors have periodic intensity variations along their axes that act as highly effective optical traps for micrometer-scale objects. Varying the Bessel beams' relative phase shifts the traps axially and thereby selectively transports trapped objects either downstream or upstream along the length of the beam. The same methods used to project a single optical conveyor can project arrays of independent optical conveyors, allowing bidirectional motion. This opens up new possibilities for three dimensional transport of colloids, emulsion droplets and aerosol particles with sub-micrometer resolution over ranges extending to 50 micrometers and potentially beyond.

  2. Relation between optical and chemical properties of dust aerosol over Beijing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan Huang; Guoshun Zhuang; Yanfen Lin; Juan Li; Yele Sun; Wenjie Zhang; Joshua S. Fu

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of optical and chemical properties of dust aerosol over Beijing and their relation were studied in the spring dust season, 2006 to understand the impact of dust and anthropogenic aerosol on the regional climate. Two dust plumes (DS1 and DS2) were identified with contrasting physicochemical properties. Strong absorbing of aerosol at 439 nm was observed, probably due to the

  3. Climatological aspects of the optical properties of fine/coarse mode aerosol mixtures

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    Climatological aspects of the optical properties of fine/coarse mode aerosol mixtures T. F. Eck,1 that are in and/or downwind of major global aerosol emission source regions. Multiyear monitoring data at Aerosol), and Ilorin (Nigeria, Sudanian zone of West Africa) were utilized to study the climatological characteristics

  4. Can satellite-derived aerosol optical depth quantify the surface aerosol radiative forcing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Ceamanos, Xavier; Roujean, Jean-Louis; Carrer, Dominique; Xue, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the climate of the Earth through aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). Nowadays, aerosol particles are detected, quantified and monitored by remote sensing techniques using low Earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) satellites. In the present article, the use of satellite-derived AOD (aerosol optical depth) products is investigated in order to quantify on a daily basis the ARF at the surface level (SARF). By daily basis we mean that an average SARF value is computed every day based upon the available AOD satellite measurements for each station. In the first part of the study, the performance of four state-of-art different AOD products (MODIS-DT, MODIS-DB, MISR, and SEVIRI) is assessed through comparison against ground-based AOD measurements from 24 AERONET stations located in Europe and Africa during a 6-month period. While all AOD products are found to be comparable in terms of measured value (RMSE of 0.1 for low and average AOD values), a higher number of AOD estimates is made available by GEO satellites due to their enhanced frequency of scan. Experiments show a general lower agreement of AOD estimates over the African sites (RMSE of 0.2), which show the highest aerosol concentrations along with the occurrence of dust aerosols, coarse particles, and bright surfaces. In the second part of this study, the lessons learned about the confidence in aerosol burden derived from satellites are used to estimate SARF under clear sky conditions. While the use of AOD products issued from GEO observations like SEVIRI brings improvement in the SARF estimates with regard to LEO-based AOD products, the resulting absolute bias (13 W/m2 in average when AERONET AOD is used as reference) is judged to be still high in comparison with the average values of SARF found in this study (from - 25 W/m2 to - 43 W/m2) and also in the literature (from - 10 W/m2 to - 47 W/m2).

  5. Africa Aerosol Optical Depth Obtained From MISR

    E-print Network

    Frank, Thomas D.

    OpticalDepth Central African Republic Chad Djibouti Egypt Ethiopia Libya Kenya Somalia Sudan Uganda #12;Southern Africa Ethiopia Libya Kenya Somalia Sudan Uganda #12;Southern Africa 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Mean Seasonal Morocco Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Tunisia Western Sahara #12;Southern Africa MISR vs AERONET

  6. Combining remote sensing and in situ aerosol measurements for the determination of aerosol optical properties and radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, Jens

    1999-10-01

    The largest uncertainty in the estimates of the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate stems from the uncertainties in the determination of their microphysical properties, including the aerosol complex index of refraction which in turn determines the optical properties of the aerosols. In this thesis, methodologies to estimate the aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ size distribution and remote sensing measurements during NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B) and the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) are developed. In particular, the remote sensing of aerosols with airborne lidar is utilized to derive vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter. For the PEM West-B data analysis, a modified Klett inversion algorithm was adopted to utilize the aerosol in situ size distribution data to provide the height dependent lidar ratio and the aerosol backscatter at the aircraft altitude. In all three PEM West-B cases studied, the aerosol measurements could be explained using a two-layer aerosol model with distinct aerosol refractive indices as indicated by a best-fit backscatter refractive index estimation method. The real parts of the aerosol refractive indices retrieved are in between 1.42 and 1.60, while the imaginary part ranges from 10-6 to 0.163. For the TARFOX data analysis, the incorporation of aerosol optical depth measurements obtained using an airborne sunphotometer system yields an additional constraint on the estimate of the complex aerosol index of refraction. The aerosol refractive indices thus retrieved are generally smaller than the values estimated for the PEM study, with values ranging from 1.33 to 1.45 for the real part and 0.001 to 0.008 for the imaginary part, respectively. The methodology devised in this study provides, for the first time, a complete set of vertically resolved aerosol size distribution and refractive index data, yielding the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties required for the determination of aerosol induced radiative flux changes. Calculations with the 18 channel broadband Fu-Liou radiative transfer model indicate instantaneous shortwave aerosol radiative forcings at the top of the atmosphere between -0.5 Wm-2 and +4.5 Wm-2 for the PEM case studies and values of the order of -36 Wm-2 for the TARFOX case studies, respectively. The vertical structure of the aerosol induced flux changes is important to climate studies, since it affects local heating rates and thereby convective processes, the formation and lifetime of clouds, and the distribution of chemical constituents in the troposphere. To the author's knowledge, the calculations carried out in this work represent the first observationally-based estimate of the vertical structure of the aerosol radiative forcing. Therefore, these results are quite significant for the design of future field campaigns aimed at the determination of aerosol climatic effects.

  7. Aerosol Optical Properties During The SAMUM-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano, C.; Freudenthaler, V.; Gross, S.; Seefeldner, M.; Gasteiger, J.; Garhammer, M.; Esselborn, M.; Wiegner, M.; Koepke, P.

    2009-03-01

    A field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-2) took place in the Cape Verde islands in January-February 2008, to investigate the properties of long-range transported dust over the Atlantic. The Meteorological Institute of the University of Munich deployed a set of active and passive remote sensing instruments: one sun photometer, for the measurement of the direct sun irradiance and sky radiances; a broad-band UV radiometer; and 2 tropospheric lidar systems. The measurements were made in close cooperation with the other participating groups. During the measurement period the aerosol scenario over Cape Verde mostly consisted of a dust layer below 2 km and a smoke layer above 2 km height. The Saharan dust arrived in the site from the NE, whereas the smoke originated in the African equatorial region is transported from the SE. The aerosol load was also very variable over this area, with AOD (500 nm) ranging from 0.04 to 0.74. The optical properties of the layers are shown: extinction and particle depolarization ratio profiles at 3 wavelengths, as well as aerosol optical depth (in the range 340-1550 nm), Ångström exponent, size distribution and single scattering albedo.

  8. Optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of aerosol properties in Kishinev, Moldova are being carried out within the framework of the international AERONET program managed by NASA/GSFC since 1999. Direct solar and sky diffuse radiances are measured by using of sunphotometer Cimel-318. Aerosol optical properties are retrieved from measured radiances by using of smart computational procedures developed by the AERONET's team. The instrument is situated at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station giving the opportunity to make simultaneous spectral (win sunphotometer) and broadband (with the set of sensors from radiometric complex) solar radiation. Detailed description of the station and investigations in progress can be found at the http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E; 205 m a.s.l). Summary of aerosol optical and microphysical properties retrieved from direct solar and diffuse sky radiance observations at Moldova site from September 1999 to June 2009 are presented below. Number of measurements (total): 1695 Number of measurements (for ?o, n, k): 223 Range of aerosol optical depth (AOD) @440 nm: 0.03 < ?(440) < 2.30, < ?(440)>=0.25 Range of Ångström parameter < ?440_870 >: 0.14 < ? < 2.28 Asymmetry factor (440/670/870/1020): 0.70/0.63/0.59/0.58 ±0.04 Refraction (n) and absorption (k) indices@440 nm: 1.41 ± 0.06; 0.009 ± 0.005 Single scattering albedo < ?o >(440/670/870/1020): 0.93/0.92/0.90/0.89 ±0.04 Parameters of volume particle size distribution function: (fine mode) volume median radius r v,f , ?m: 0.17 ± 0.06 particle volume concentration Cv,f, ?m3/?m2: 0.04 ± 0.03 (coarse mode) volume median radius rv,c , ?m: 3.08 ± 0.64 particle volume concentration Cv,c, ?m3/?m2: 0.03 ± 0.03 Climatic norms of AOD@500 nm and Ångström parameter < ?440_870 > at the site of observation are equal to 0.21 ± 0.06 and 1.45 ± 0.14, respectively. The aerosol type in Moldova may be considered as 'urban-industrial and mixed' in accordance with the classification of aerosol type models systematized and developed by AERONET team (O.Dubovik et al., 2002, J. Atmosph. Sci., 59, 590-608) on the basis of datasets acquired from worldwide observations at the network of sunphotometers. It should be noted the presence of increased value of absorption index and reduced values of albedo. This may be due to influence of absorptive aerosols (soot). These aerosols are originated from local dust sources and exhausts from intensive urban traffic, from sources of biomass and household garbage burning both in and around the city, and from long-range transport over regions with high loading of aerosols (dust, smoke).

  9. Measurements of Optical Properties of Aerosols by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy in Mega-City Tokyo, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nakayama; R. Hagino; Y. Matsumi; A. Yamazaki; R. Kudo; A. Uchiyama; K. Tonokura; Y. Sakamoto; M. Kawasaki

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol particles have an important role in radiation balance in the atmosphere by scattering and absorbing incident light. Therefore, accurate determination of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols is essential. There are two components to aerosol optical extinction: scattering and absorption. Extinction coefficients of atmospheric aerosol have commonly been determined by measuring scattering coefficients using nephelometer (Neph) and absorption coefficients

  10. The Optical Constants of Several Atmospheric Aerosol Species: Ammonium Sulfate, Aluminum Oxide, and Sodium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen B. Toon; James B. Pollack; Bishun N. Khare

    1976-01-01

    The optical constants of substances composing atmospheric aerosols are required to evaluate properly the effects of aerosols on the earth's radiation balance. We briefly review techniques for determining optical constants and also discuss pitfalls in using measured optical constants to simulate the optical constants of the real particles found in the atmosphere. We then compile the optical constants of (NH4hSO4,

  11. Response of optically trapped aerosol droplets to changes in the ambient relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. W.; Knox, K. J.; Chasovskikh, E.; Restivo, A. D.; Signorell, R.

    2012-12-01

    The evaporation and condensation of water from aerosol droplets in response to changes in ambient relative humidity affect aerosol solute concentration and chemical composition. Recent studies suggest that some aerosols can, below the glass transition relative humidity, exist in a glassy state, thus limiting the rates of water mass transfer within the droplets. We explore these processes by using two counter-propagating Bessel beams to optically capture and confine individual aerosol droplets. Single aerosols exposed to varying relative humidity conditions are characterized by collection and analysis of elastically scattered light at the trapping wavelength (532 nm). In this study, aerosols of radii between 800 and 4000 nm were investigated; the size of the aerosols isolated was controlled by varying the size of the Bessel beam core in the trapping region. The evaluation of the droplet response to changes in ambient relative humidity is expected to contribute to an increased understanding of the mass transfer behavior of aerosols and aerosol chemical composition.

  12. Single-molecule force measurement via optical tweezers reveals different kinetic features of two BRaf mutants responsible for cardio-facial-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cheng; Ye, Anpei

    2013-01-01

    BRaf (B- Rapid Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) protein is an important serine/threonine-protein kinase. Two domains on BRaf can independently bind its upstream kinase, Ras (Rat Sarcoma) protein. These are the Ras binding domain (RBD) and cysteine-rich-domain (CRD). Herein we use customized optical tweezers to compare the Ras binding process in two pathological mutants of BRaf responsible for CFC syndrome, abbreviated BRaf (A246P) and BRaf (Q257R). The two mutants differ in their kinetics of Ras-binding, though both bind Ras with similar increased overall affinity. BRaf (A246P) exhibits a slightly higher Ras/CRD unbinding force and a significantly higher Ras/RBD unbinding force versus the wild type. The contrary phenomenon is observed in the Q257R mutation. Simulations of the unstressed-off rate, koff(0), yield results in accordance with the changes revealed by the mean unbinding force. Our approach can be applied to rapidly assess other mutated proteins to deduce the effects of mutation on their kinetics compared to wild type proteins and to each other. PMID:24409384

  13. Retrieval and Validation of Aerosol Optical Properties over East Asia from TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Mijin; Choi, Myungje; Go, Sujung; Lim, HyunKwang; Ou, Mi-Lim; Goo, Tae-Young; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol is a significant component on air quality and climate change. In particular, spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol shows large variability over East Asia, thus has large effect in retrieving carbon dioxide from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). An aerosol retrieval algorithm was developed from TANSO- Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) onboard the GOSAT. The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD), size distribution of aerosol, and aerosol type in 0.1 degree grid resolution and surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method. To test aerosol absorptivity, the reflectance difference method was considered using channels of TANSO-CAI. In this study, the retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) was compared with those of Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) and MODerate resolution Imaging Sensor (MODIS) dataset from September 2011 and August 2014. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and CAI show the reasonably good correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.77 and regression slope of 0.87 for the whole period. Moreover, those between MODIS and CAI for the same period show correlations with correlation coefficient of 0.7 ~ 0.9 and regression slope of 0.7 ~ 1.2, depending on season and comparison regions however, the largest error source in aerosol retrieval has been surface reflectance. Over ocean and some Land, surface reflectance tends to be overestimated, and thereby CAI-AOD tends to be underestimated. Based on the results with CAI algorithm developed, the algorithm is continuously improved for better performance.

  14. Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  15. Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols, Natural Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: Broadband Optical Properties and Sensitivity Studies

    E-print Network

    Yi, Bingqi

    2013-07-09

    This dissertation aims to study the broadband optical properties and radiative effects of dust aerosols and ice clouds. It covers three main topics: the uncertainty of dust optical properties and radiative effects from the dust particle shape...

  16. Characteristics of spectral aerosol optical depths over India during ICARB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Babu, S. Suresh; Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Reddy, R. Ramakrishna; Gopal, K. Rama; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Niranjan, K.; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Behera, M.; Jeyaram, A.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Gogoi, M. M.; Singh, Sacchidanand; Pant, P.; Dumka, U. C.; Kant, Yogesh; Kuniyal, J. C.; Singh, Darshan

    2008-07-01

    Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, carried out regularly from a network of observatories spread over the Indian mainland and adjoining islands in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, are used to examine the spatio-temporal and spectral variations during the period of ICARB (March to May 2006). The AODs and the derived Ångström parameters showed considerable variations across India during the above period. While at the southern peninsular stations the AODs decreased towards May after a peak in April, in the north Indian regions they increased continuously from March to May. The Ångström coefficients suggested enhanced coarse mode loading in the north Indian regions, compared to southern India. Nevertheless, as months progressed from March to May, the dominance of coarse mode aerosols increased in the columnar aerosol size spectrum over the entire Indian mainland, maintaining the regional distinctiveness. Compared to the above, the island stations showed considerably low AODs, so too the northeastern station Dibrugarh, indicating the prevalence of cleaner environment. Long-range transport of aerosols from tshe adjoining regions leads to remarkable changes in the magnitude of the AODs and their wavelength dependencies during March to May. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows that enhanced long-range transport of aerosols, particularly from the west Asia and northwest coastal India, contributed significantly to the enhancement of AOD and in the flattening of the spectra over entire regions; if it is the peninsular regions and the island Minicoy are more impacted in April, the north Indian regions including the Indo Gangetic Plain get affected the most during May, with the AODs soaring as high as 1.0 at 500 nm. Over the islands, the Ångström exponent ( ?) remained significantly lower (˜1) over the Arabian Sea compared to Bay of Bengal (BoB) (˜1.4) as revealed by the data respectively from Minicoy and Port Blair. Occurrences of higher values of ?, showing dominance of accumulation mode aerosols, over BoB are associated well with the advection, above the boundary layer, of fine particles from the east Asian region during March and April. The change in the airmass to marine in May results in a rapid decrease in ? over the BoB.

  17. Optical properties of urban aerosols in the region Bratislava–Vienna—II: Comparisons and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kocifaj; H. Horvath; J. Hrvo?

    2006-01-01

    The optical and microphysical properties of aerosols in highly urbanized region Bratislava–Vienna were determined by means of ground-based optical methods during campaign in August and September 2004. Although both cities are close to each other forming a common metropolitan region, the features of their aerosol systems are distinct. While urban and suburban zones around Vienna have mostly a clean air

  18. Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: Means, variability, and controlling factors

    E-print Network

    of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, A°ngstro¨m, number size distribution, and scattering and absorption coefficients. In addition, vertical profiles exponent, and optical depth. All results except aerosol optical depth are reported at the measurement

  19. Improved algorithm for MODIS satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depths over western North America

    E-print Network

    Chance, Kelly

    Improved algorithm for MODIS satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depths over western North for the MODIS satellite instrument using locally derived surface reflectances and CTM aerosol optical properties for the 0.47, 0.65, and 2.13 mm MODIS channels. Assuming negligible atmospheric reflectance at 2.13 mm

  20. Optical Properties of Aerosol in Seoul from MODIS and Skyradiometer Measurements

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuhang

    1 Optical Properties of Aerosol in Seoul from MODIS and Skyradiometer Measurements Ja-Ho Koo, Jhoon Properties ­ June peak of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in 2006 ­ AOD trend retrieved from MODIS measurement are investigated in this study using Skyradiometer at Yonsei University (126.98E, 37.57N) with assistance of MODIS

  1. Optical modeling of aerosol extinction for remote sensing in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    A microphysical model is presented for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 ?m particles in different geographic sites. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH) are investigated. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro (Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles) are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained from the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) and the Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM). Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  2. Field Studies of Broadband Aerosol Optical Extinction in the Ultraviolet Spectral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. In the case of brown carbon, its wavelength-dependent absorption in the ultraviolet spectral region has been suggested as an important component of aerosol radiative forcing. We describe a new field instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We deployed this instrument during the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment during Fall 2012 to measure biomass burning aerosol, and again during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study in summer 2013 to measure organic aerosol in the Southeastern U.S. In both field experiments, we determined aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength and can interpret this together with size distribution and composition measurements to characterize the aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing.

  3. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Above Clouds from OMI Observations: Sensitivity Analysis, Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol load reaching the free troposphere is frequently located above low clouds. Most commonly observed aerosols above clouds are carbonaceous particles generally associated with biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and mineral aerosols originated in arid and semi-arid regions and transported across large distances, often above clouds. Because these aerosols absorb solar radiation, their role in the radiative transfer balance of the earth atmosphere system is especially important. The generally negative (cooling) top of the atmosphere direct effect of absorbing aerosols, may turn into warming when the light-absorbing particles are located above clouds. The actual effect depends on the aerosol load and the single scattering albedo, and on the geometric cloud fraction. In spite of its potential significance, the role of aerosols above clouds is not adequately accounted for in the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing effects due to the lack of measurements. In this paper we discuss the basis of a simple technique that uses near-UV observations to simultaneously derive the optical depth of both the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud for overcast conditions. The two-parameter retrieval method described here makes use of the UV aerosol index and reflectance measurements at 388 nm. A detailed sensitivity analysis indicates that the measured radiances depend mainly on the aerosol absorption exponent and aerosol-cloud separation. The technique was applied to above-cloud aerosol events over the Southern Atlantic Ocean yielding realistic results as indicated by indirect evaluation methods. An error analysis indicates that for typical overcast cloudy conditions and aerosol loads, the aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 54% whereas the cloud optical depth can be derived within 17% of the true value.

  4. Influence of Observed Diurnal Cycles of Aerosol Optical Depth on Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Eck, T. F.; Huttunen, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Lindfors, A. V.; Myhre, G.; Smirinov, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE). The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally.We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast) does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on 24 h ADRE was typically around 0.1-0.2W/sq m (both positive and negative) in absolute values, 5-10% in relative ones.

  5. Baseline Maritime Aerosol: Methodology to Derive the Optical Thickness and Scattering Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Dubovik, Oleg; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite Measurements of the global distribution of aerosol and their effect on climate should be viewed in respect to a baseline aerosol. In this concept, concentration of fine mode aerosol particles is elevated above the baseline by man-made activities (smoke or urban pollution), while coarse mode by natural processes (e.g. dust or sea-spray). Using 1-3 years of measurements in 10 stations of the Aerosol Robotic network (ACRONET we develop a methodology and derive the optical thickness and properties of this baseline aerosol for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Defined as the median for periods of stable optical thickness (standard deviation < 0.02) during 2-6 days, the median baseline aerosol optical thickness over the Pacific Ocean is 0.052 at 500 am with Angstrom exponent of 0.77, and 0.071 and 1.1 respectively, over the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Improving Radiative Assessments of Aerosol Chemical, Physical and Optical Properties Through Aerosol Volatility Studies Over Optically Effective Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A.; Howell, S.; Kapustin, V.

    2002-12-01

    In order to interpret in-situ and satellite observations of complex aerosol mixtures such as those encountered during ACE-ASIA and TRACE-P as well as to model them, optical effects due to each component of particles in a given size needs to be determined. Here we present recently refined techniques applied to particles with optically effective sizes over 0.1 - 14 ?m. These provide constraints on the real and imaginary refractive indices, as required for both scattering and absorbing particles. We will also demonstrate the application of this approach to ACE-Asia and TRACE-P data. The size distribution during ACE-Asia was measured by Optical Particle Counter (OPC, custom LAS-X, Particle Measurement Systems) with thermal analysis at 150°C and 300°C that inferred the volatile and refractory components of the particles. Calibrations of this optical measurement based upon wide-angle scattering provided the optically effective diameters of particles sized by the OPC rather than physical diameters. This allows direct Mie modeling of optical properties and reduces related uncertainties common to instruments that size particles based on other techniques (eg. aerodynamic - problematic for nonspherical particles and uncertain refractive index; forward scattering instruments - uncertain for large aerosol and very sensitive to refractive index ; impactors - uncertainties due to size cuts and inversions and refractive index; etc.). These optically effective size distributions are then used in the following manner: 1) Integration of optical sizes over scattering angles seen by a nephelometer provides a direct closure without having to make estimated nephelometer truncation corrections. For large particle dust events these approaches indicate that standard truncation corrections for nephelometer data appear to underestimate required corrections. 2) Volatility is related to concurrently measured soluble species (PILS-particle in liquid sampler, R. Weber) providing chemical characterization and associated refractive indices for the volatile component. This also allows correction of effective optical sizes to actual physical sizes if needed. 3) Submicrometer refractory (300°C) component is linked to the absorbing soot and dust components to refine effective refractive index for this size class. 4) The calculated optical properties enable us to provide a constrained estimate of the actual refractive indices of the dust and soot components through comparison with direct measurements of scattering by nephelometer and absorption by Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). 5) If measurements such as f(RH) are available, this size-resolved volatility can also be used to predict this humidity response and confirming the approach for modeling properties at ambient humidity as required for closure and satellite comparisons.

  7. The Smallest Tweezers in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewalle, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    A pair of fine tweezers and a steady hand may well be enough to pick up a grain of sand, but what would you use to hold something hundreds of times smaller still, the size of only one micron? The answer is to use a device that is not mechanical in nature but that relies instead on the tiny forces that light exerts on small particles: "optical

  8. Biological Physics Prize talk: Grabbing the Cat by the Tail: Studies of DNA Packaging by Single ? 29 Bacteriophage Particles Using Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Carlos

    2002-03-01

    I will present our recent results on the packaging of DNA by the connector motor at the base of the head of bacteriophage ? 29. As part of their infection cycle, many viruses must package their newly replicated genomes inside a protein capsid to insure its proper transport and delivery to other host cells. Bacteriophage ? 29 packages its 6.6 mm long double-stranded DNA into a 42 nm dia. x 54 nm high capsid via a portal complex that hydrolyses ATP. This process is remarkable because entropic, electrostatic, and bending energies of the DNA must be overcome to package the DNA to near-crystalline density. We have used optical tweezers to pull on single DNA molecules as they are packaged, thus demonstrating that the portal complex is a force generating motor. We find that this motor can work against loads of up to ~57 picoNewtons on average, making it one of the strongest molecular motors ever reported. Movements of over 5 mm are observed, indicating high processivity. Pauses and slips also occur, particularly at higher forces. We establish the force-velocity relationship of the motor and find that the rate-limiting step of the motor's cycle is force dependent even at low loads. Interestingly, the packaging rate decreases as the prohead is filled, indicating that an internal pressure builds up due to DNA compression. We estimate that at the end of the packaging the capsid pressure is ~15 MegaPascals, corresponding to an internal force of ~50 pN acting on the motor. The biological implications of this internal pressure and the mechano-chemical efficiency of the engine are discussed.

  9. Climatology of aerosol optical properties at ACRF sites in the tropical warm pool region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bangsheng; Min, Qilong

    2013-03-01

    long-term multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer measurements at three Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Climate Research Facility sites of Darwin, Nauru, and Manus have been processed to develop the climatology of aerosols in the tropical warm pool region at the interannual, seasonal, and diurnal temporal scales. Due to their unique geolocations and associated large-scale circulation patterns, aerosols at the Nauru site exhibit background oceanic characteristics (strongly correlated with the sea surface wind), aerosols at the Darwin site show strong influences by biomass-burning aerosols, particularly in the dry season, and aerosols at the Manus site have climatologic characteristics in between the Darwin and Nauru sites. There are no obvious trends of aerosol loading for past decades at all three sites. El Niño/Southern Oscillation has its impacts on aerosol optical depth, as well as particle size and composition, at all three sites. Madden-Julian Oscillation modulates aerosol optical depth at the Manus and Nauru sites along the equator but has no apparent impact at the Darwin site. The annual or seasonal variation of aerosols is closely linked with Indo-Australian monsoons, exhibiting wet and dry season differences. The aerosol loading is significant lower with relatively larger particles in the wet season than in the dry season. There are significant diurnal cycles in both aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent at the Darwin site: low values of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent in the midday and the two peaks in the early morning and late afternoon. There are noticeable changes between the dry and wet seasons. The amplitude of diurnal variation during La Niña periods is greater than that during El Niño periods. However, there are no significant diurnal variations of aerosol loading at the Manus and Nauru sites.

  10. Aeronet-based Microphysical and Optical Properties of Smoke-dominated Aerosol near Source Regions and Transported over Oceans, and Implications for Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol cycle. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of size distribution and refractive index reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke transported to coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at near-source sites. Two broad families of aerosol properties are found, corresponding to sites dominated by boreal forest burning (larger, broader fine mode, with midvisible SSA 0.95), and those influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning with additional forest contributions (smaller, narrower particles with SSA 0.88-0.9 in the midvisible). The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savanna at Mongu (Zambia), with average SSA 0.85 in the midvisible. These can serve as candidate sets of aerosol microphysicaloptical properties for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean are often insufficiently absorbing to represent these biomass burning aerosols. A corollary of this is an underestimate of AOD in smoke outflow regions, which has important consequences for applications of these satellite datasets.

  11. Are Satellite-Retrieved Correlations Between Cloud-Top-Height and Aerosol Optical Depth Evidence of Aerosol Invigoration of Convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, P.; Gryspeerdt, E.; Grandey, B. S.; Wagner, T. M.; Kipling, Z.

    2013-12-01

    A robust negative correlation between cloud top pressure (CTP) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been documented in a number of studies and triggered hypotheses on aerosol invigoration of convective clouds. However, correlation based analysis is limited in its explanatory power as it does not directly establish physical causality between the correlated properties which may be cross-correlated with other meteorological factors. In this study we combine the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM with mechanistic coupling of the aerosol microphysics (HAM) to the two-moment cloud microphysics in the Convective Cloud Field Model (CCFM) and satellite data from SEVIRI, MODIS, ISCCP, CALIOP and CloudSat. CCFM explicitly simulates a spectrum of convective cloud top heights within each grid box, providing enhanced realism over traditional mass flux schemes. Consistency is established through sampling of the models at satellite overpass times and the use of ISCCP and COSP satellite simulators in the model. We employ this setup to investigate the contributions of aerosol-cloud interactions and meteorological cross-correlations to AOD--CTP correlations. Our analysis shows that a significant fraction of the observed AOD-CTP relationship is driven by the meteorological link between CTP and cloud fraction (CF), which itself is strongly linked to AOD via the humidification of aerosol in humid (hence preferentially cloudy) environments. Our results shed light on this controversial issue with potentially significant climate implications and emphasise the difficulty to constrain for meteorological variability in observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions.

  12. Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The featured molecules for this month are drawn from the "Research Advances" column by Angela G. King, and represent some of the structures from the research on molecular tweezers (published in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 8124). The structures below are based on the figure on page 1690 showing two types of receptors that switch between U and W shapes upon coordination of soft metal cations, acting in the manner of mechanical tweezers. When viewing these molecules in Chime you must render in ball and stick or space filling modes in order to see the incorporated metal ions. In several cases the torsion angles connecting the anthracene substituents to the rest of the molecule are not well defined and have been drawn as either coplanar or orthogonal to the central ring system. At a moderate level of theory, the torsion angle in those instances where it has been set to 90° displays a broad minimum ranging for 50?130°.

  13. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, D. J.; Pekour, M. S.; Zhang, Q.; Setyan, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles (defined here as particles with aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 2.5 microns), yielding ? = 0.1-0.15 and 0.9-1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea-salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.

  14. Measurement of urban aerosol optical properties by ground counter-look elastic lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changbo; Boselli, Antonella; He, Yuntao; Sannino, Alessia; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Many lidar systems have been developed and implemented for measurements of aerosol optical properties and for air pollution studies in urban areas. However, most of these lidar systems are elastic lidar. In order to retrieve aerosol optical properties from elastic backscatter lidar returns, it is necessary to assume some hypotheses that directly regard the nature of the particles, such as lidar ratio. In this paper, a new elastic lidar, named counter-look elastic lidar, will be presented. This counter-look elastic lidar utilizes two identical elastic lidars to measure aerosol optical properties without any hypotheses. The two elastic lidars are located at different places and face to each other. Each lidar receives the return signal scattered by the same aerosol and molecules in laser irradiation path between two places. Then a simple retrieval method can be used to calculate the aerosol optical properties between the two places. Compared to Elastic-Raman lidar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar, the proposed counter-look elastic lidar can use low power eye-safe laser and all available wavelengths. The counter-look elastic lidar is low cost and can be used in both day time and night time. With this lidar, urban aerosol optical properties and their spatial distribution can be directly measured, including backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient and lidar ratio. To demonstrate the proposed measurement, a couple of counter-look elastic lidars have been developed and tested by using 532nm wavelength laser and elastic receiving channels. In this experiment, two elastic lidars were put in two different places to across an urban area. Lidar return signal has been acquired in both day and night time and urban aerosol optical properties have been calculated directly basing on those signals. According to aerosol optical properties, the characterization of aerosols was obtained and the aerosol of anthropic and natural origin can be distinguished.

  15. Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Christopher Moffet

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of aerosol physical, chemical, optical properties is essential for judging the effect that particulates have on human health, climate and visibility. The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) is capable of measuring, in real-time, the size and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols. This was exemplified by the recent deployments of the ATOFMS to Mexico City and Riverside. The ATOFMS provided

  16. Nighttime Measurements of Aerosol Optical Thickness with the VIIRS Day-Night Band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Shettle; R. N. Halthore

    2005-01-01

    Currently the planned measurements of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the National Polar-orbiting Operational Satellite System (NPOESS) will be limited to daytime, since they use reflected solar radiation. The primary aerosol instruments are the Visible\\/Infrared Imager\\/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol Polarimeter Sensor (APS). The VIIRS instrument also includes a Daytime\\/Nighttime Visible Imagery band or the Day-Night Band (DNB) which

  17. Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays Yael Roichman, 1 Victor Wong, 2 and David G. Grier 1

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    driven past an evenly spaced array of potential energy wells or barriers may become kinetically locked in higher dimensions. Re­ cently, attention has become focused on the transport of viscously damped past stationary patterns of optical traps. All particles consequently traveled past the traps

  18. Scientists at the Ris National Laboratory in Roskilde, Denmark, have developed an optical tweezers system that moves tiny particles in

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    optical imaging methods of the skin detected singly backscattered photons to achieve spatial resolution mm with rat skin, but the team believes that they can obtain much higher penetrations--up to 5 cm, and depth information was obtained by measuring the time of return of the ultrasound pulse. A 15- m depth

  19. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, G.; Flores, J. M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-02-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While these types of extensive BB events are not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m = 1.53(±0.03) + 0.07i(±0.03), during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m = 1.54(±0.01) + 0.04i(±0.01) compared to m = 1.49(±0.01) + 0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  20. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, G.; Flores, J. M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2010-10-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Hi-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While extensive BB is not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m=1.53(±0.03)+0.07i(±0.03), during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m=1.54(±0.01)+0.04i(±0.01) compared to m=1.49(±0.01)+0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  1. Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

  2. Improved understanding of aerosol processes using satellite observations of aerosol optical properties 

    E-print Network

    Bulgin, Claire Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the largest remaining uncertainty in the Earth’s radiative budget and it is important that we improve our knowledge of aerosol processes if we are to understand current radiative forcing and ...

  3. Optical Properties of Laboratory Generated Organic Aerosol Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzana, K. J.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties play a large role in determining the effect that particles have on climate. All particles scatter light, and a purely scattering particle will cause a cooling effect, while absorbing particles will cause less cooling or even warming. The complex refractive index quantifies the amount of light scattered and absorbed, but directly measuring the absorption is difficult, which leads to uncertainties in the derived refractive index. We have constructed a combination cavity ring-down/photoacoustic spectrometer instrument that operates at both 532 nm (the mid-visible) and 405 nm (close to the UV). The cavity ring-down measures extinction (the sum of scattering and absorption), while the photoacoustic directly measures absorption, allowing for accurate retrievals of the complex refractive index, and consequently allows us to quantify the impact of particles on radiative forcing. The instrument characterization and the results from several laboratory systems containing organic compounds will be presented.

  4. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects (supplement)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A digest of technical papers is presented. Topics include aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation with scattering measurements; comparison of extinction and backscattering coefficients for measured and analytic stratospheric aerosol size distributions; using hybrid methods to solve problems in radiative transfer and in multiple scattering; blue moon phenomena; absorption refractive index of aerosols in the Denver pollution cloud; a two dimensional stratospheric model of the dispersion of aerosols from the Fuego volcanic eruption; the variation of the aerosol volume to light scattering coefficient; spectrophone in situ measurements of the absorption of visible light by aerosols; a reassessment of the Krakatoa volcanic turbidity, and multiple scattering in the sky radiance.

  5. Aerosol optical properties over the midcontinental United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Markham, Brian L.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Aro, Theo. O.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and sky radiation measurements were analyzed to obtain aerosol properties such as the optical thickness and the size distribution. The measurements were conducted as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment during the second intensive field campaign (IFC) from June 25 to July 14, 1987, and the fifth IFC from July 25 to August 12, 1989, on the Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. Correlations with climatological and meteorological parameters show that during the period of observations in 1987, two types of air masses dominated the area: an air mass with low optical thickness and low temperature air associated with a northerly breeze, commonly referred to as the continental air, and an air mass with a higher optical thickness and higher temperature air associated with a southerly wind which we call 'Gulf air'. The size distributions show a predominance of the larger size particles in 'Gulf air'. Because of the presence of two contrasting air masses, correlations with parameters such as relative humidity, specific humidity, pressure, temperature, and North Star sky radiance reveal some interesting aspects. In 1989, clear distinctions between continental and Gulf air cannot be made; the reason for this will be discussed.

  6. Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of motile sperm cells and CHO cells in an optical trap (laser tweezers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Liu, Yagang; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Patrizio, Pasquale; Tadir, Yona; Sonek, Gregory J.; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    We describe fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging studies of optically trapped single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and motile human sperm cells. The NIR trapping beam was provided by a tunable, multimode continuous wave Ti:Sapphire laser. The beam was introduced into an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Fluorescence of cells in the single- beam gradient force optical trap was excited with a 488 nm microbeam (laser scanning microscopy) or with 365 nm radiation from a high- pressure mercury lamp. Modifications to NADH-attributed autofluorescence and Rhodamine- and Propidium Iodide-attributed xenofluorescence indicate a significant cell-damaging effect of 760 nm trapping beams. 760 nm effects produce a biological response comparable to UVA-induced oxidative stress and appear to be a consequence to two-photon absorption.

  7. Using Artificial Sky Glow to Retrieve Night Time Aerosol Optical Depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aubé; N. T. O'Neill; J.-D. Giguère; A. Royer

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is of particular importance in monitoring aerosol contributions to global radiative forcing. Most measuring methods are based on direct or indirect observation of sunlight and thus are only available for use during daylight hours. Attempts have been made to measure AOD behavior at night from star photometry, and more recently moon photometry. Star photometry

  8. Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Hoppel; J. W. Fitzgerald; G. M. Frick; R. E. Larson; E. J. Mack

    1990-01-01

    Measurements and analyses of the aerosol size distribution and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during the 1983 USNS Lynch cruise from Charleston, South Carolina, to Scotland via Canary Islands are presented. The data given are the most extensive and accurate measurements of the submicron marine aerosol size distribution to date and are supplemented by extensive meteorological

  9. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992–2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Michalsky; Frederick Denn; Connor Flynn; Gary Hodges; Piotr Kiedron; Annette Koontz; James Schlemmer; Stephen E. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at

  10. Aerosol Optical Properties and Chemical Composition Measured on the Ronald H. Brown During ACE-Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Quinn; T. S. Bates; T. L. Miller; D. Coffman

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties were made onboard the NOAA R\\/V Ronald H. Brown during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program to characterize Asian aerosol as it was transported across the Pacific Ocean. The ship traveled across the Pacific from Hawaii to Japan and into the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan. Trajectories indicate that remote

  11. CALIPSO AERONET Aerosol Optical Depth Intercomparisons: One Size Fits None

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, A. H.; Winker, D. M.; Tackett, J. L.; Schuster, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    We compare the optical depth measurements retrieved from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) backscatter measurements at a number of AERONET coincidence points. Coincidence criteria at the AERONET site are within 2 hours and 40 km of the CALIPSO over pass. Most of the coincidences (>80%) occur within 30 minutes of over pass. The CALIPSO data is cloud cleared to preclude cloud contamination and several filters are used to ensure the integrity of the comparisons. We examine the differences in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements under several environmental and geographic conditions. Results show a low bias in CALIPSO AODs especially at low optical depths (<0.1). Of the 1081 total coincidences, 261 points are uncorrelated. While some of the differences are due to retrieval errors, physical reasons why most of these do not correlate include cloud contamination, scene inhomogeneity, differences in the air masses observed by the two instruments and measurement (detection) noise. Optical depth filters were used to screen out unusually low CALIPSO and unusually high AERONET AODs. The median relative bias between the two measurements is 0.24 (or 24% of the AERONET AOD) and the mean relative bias is 0.095 with a standard deviation of 0.71 when we screen out low (<0.05) CALIPSO AODs and high (>1.5) AERONET AODs. When filters are applied to preclude scene inhomogeneity, cloud contamination in the CALIPSO measurement, and extinction quality control flags that identify extinction retrievals with high uncertainty the median relative bias between the two measurements is 0.30 (or 30% of the AERONET AOD) and the mean relative bias is 0.35 with a standard deviation of 0.31. The studies also show that, because of the small footprint of the lidar, the AERONET-CALIPSO AOD comparisons are adversely affected by orographic formations much more than they affect AOD comparisons with large swath passive measurements. While not a direct objective of this study, we find that CALIPSO and AERONET do not agree on the cloudiness of coincident scenes in more than 45% of the coincident measurements.

  12. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, G.; Flores, M.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols of a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Hi-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While extensive BB is not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). EBRI during the smoldering phase of the fires was m=1.54(±0.01)+0.04i(±0.01) compared to m=1.49(±0.01)+0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  13. DISSERTATION THE OPTICAL, CHEMICAL, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROSOLS AND

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    of strongly light-absorbing elemental carbon. Smoldering-phase fires produced aerosol with large mass for light absorbing aerosol. #12;iv A two component model--featuring elemental carbon with a weak wavelength absorption could rival that of elemental carbon for aerosol dominated by organic carbon. If ignored

  14. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic matter, and dust found for the ACE Asia aerosol are comparable to values estimated for ACE 1, Aerosols99, and INDOEX. Unique to the ACE Asia aerosol was the large mass fractions of dust, the dominance of dust in controlling the aerosol optical properties, and the interaction of dust with soot aerosol.

  15. Analysis of satellite-based aerosol optical thickness over China in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, F.; Cao, C. Y.; Shao, X.

    2014-11-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in regional aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over China during 2013 were investigated in this study using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aerosol intermediate product (IP) data obtained from the NOAA CLASS. It is found that high level AOT in China mainly occurs in the spring and summer. The study compared the aerosols in the economically developed eastern China to those in the western region; urban areas versus rural areas; inland versus coastal cities. Further investigation was also performed to validate VIIRS derived AOT data and aerosol type with in situ ground measurements.

  16. Characteristic aerosol optical depths during the Harmattan season on sub-Sahara Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Idemudia, G.; Aro, T. O.

    1994-01-01

    Aerosol optical depths were derived from sun photometer measurements in three narrow bands centered at 500, 675 and 875 nm, taken at Ilorin, Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan Africa. Selected results will be presented on the diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variability of spectral aerosol optical depth for two Harmattan seasons, during 1987-1989. At 500 nm values between 0.9-1.6 were quite common while the averages were between 1-1.2.

  17. Aerosol optical properties and related chemical apportionment at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. F. Cheng; A. Wiedensohler; H. Eichler; H. Su; T. Gnauk; E. Brueggemann; H. Herrmann; J. Heintzenberg; J. Slanina; T. Tuch; M. Hu; Y. H. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) of sub-10 mu m particles under dry\\u000a conditions (relative humidity (RH) 20\\\\%) were investigated at Xinken\\u000a in Pearl River Delta of China from 4 October to 5 November 2004. Severe\\u000a aerosol optical pollution has been found characterized by strongly\\u000a light-absorbing particles. At 550 nm, the magnitude of the light\\u000a scattering (333 +\\/- 138 Mm(-1)) and absorption

  18. Climatological Aspects of the Optical Properties of Fine/Coarse Mode Aerosol Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Sinyuk, A.; Pinker, R. T.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Chatenet, B.; Li, Z.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S.N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Dubovik O.; O'Neill, N. T.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, P.; Xia, X.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol mixtures composed of coarse mode desert dust combined with fine mode combustion generated aerosols (from fossil fuel and biomass burning sources) were investigated at three locations that are in and/or downwind of major global aerosol emission source regions. Multiyear monitoring data at Aerosol Robotic Network sites in Beijing (central eastern China), Kanpur (Indo-Gangetic Plain, northern India), and Ilorin (Nigeria, Sudanian zone of West Africa) were utilized to study the climatological characteristics of aerosol optical properties. Multiyear climatological averages of spectral single scattering albedo (SSA) versus fine mode fraction (FMF) of aerosol optical depth at 675 nm at all three sites exhibited relatively linear trends up to 50% FMF. This suggests the possibility that external linear mixing of both fine and coarse mode components (weighted by FMF) dominates the SSA variation, where the SSA of each component remains relatively constant for this range of FMF only. However, it is likely that a combination of other factors is also involved in determining the dynamics of SSA as a function of FMF, such as fine mode particles adhering to coarse mode dust. The spectral variation of the climatological averaged aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) was nearly linear in logarithmic coordinates over the wavelength range of 440-870 nm for both the Kanpur and Ilorin sites. However, at two sites in China (Beijing and Xianghe), a distinct nonlinearity in spectral AAOD in logarithmic space was observed, suggesting the possibility of anomalously strong absorption in coarse mode aerosols increasing the 870 nm AAOD.

  19. Case study of modeled aerosol optical properties during the SAFARI 2000 campaign.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanoski, Maja; Box, Michael A; Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B; Redemann, Jens

    2007-08-01

    We present modeled aerosol optical properties (single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and lidar ratio) in two layers with different aerosol loadings and particle sizes, observed during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2,000 (SAFARI 2,000) campaign. The optical properties were calculated from aerosol size distributions retrieved from aerosol layer optical thickness spectra, measured using the NASA Ames airborne tracking 14-channel sunphotometer (AATS-14) and the refractive index based on the available information on aerosol chemical composition. The study focuses on sensitivity of modeled optical properties in the 0.3-1.5 microm wavelength range to assumptions regarding the mixing scenario. We considered two models for the mixture of absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol components commonly used to model optical properties of biomass burning aerosol: a layered sphere with absorbing core and nonabsorbing shell and the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium model. In addition, comparisons of modeled optical properties with the measurements are discussed. We also estimated the radiative effect of the difference in aerosol absorption implied by the large difference between the single scattering albedo values (approximately 0.1 at midvisible wavelengths) obtained from different measurement methods for the case with a high amount of biomass burning particles. For that purpose, the volume fraction of black carbon was varied to obtain a range of single scattering albedo values (0.81-0.91 at lambda=0.50 microm). The difference in absorption resulted in a significant difference in the instantaneous radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and can result in a change of the sign of the aerosol forcing at TOA from negative to positive. PMID:17676140

  20. Aerosol Optical and Chemical Properties Within and Without Clouds During an Airborne Field Campaign in Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, E.; Lee, Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Hubbe, J. M.; Ogren, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are one of the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles' lifetime in the atmosphere. Here we present preliminary results showing aerosol optical and chemical properties obtained during the CHAPS field campaign within cloud drops and outside of clouds. The Cumulis Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS), sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program (ASP), took place in the vicinity of Oklahoma City in June, 2007. The intention of the study was to investigate the influence of clouds on aerosols and of aerosol on clouds. Duplicate sets of in-situ aerosol optical instruments were deployed on the ASP G-1 aircraft during the CHAPS campaign. One set of instruments was downstream of an isokinetic inlet designed to sample the ambient aerosol, the other set was downstream of a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) designed to sample and dry cloud droplets so that the cloud drop nuclei could be studied. Each instrument set comprised a 3-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and integrating nephelometer to provide spectral aerosol absorption, scattering and back-scattering and a particle counter to obtain aerosol number concentration. In addition, a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS) was able to sample on either inlet to provide information about the non-refractory chemical composition of the aerosol and cloud drop residuals. The data presented here will describe both how aerosol optical properties change upstream and downstream of a mid-size conurbation (Oklahoma City) and how ambient aerosol optical properties differ from those of the cloud drop nuclei. These changes in aerosol optical properties will be placed in the context of differences in chemical composition derived from the ToF-AMS.

  1. Evaluating inter-continental transport of fine aerosols: (1) Methodology, global aerosol distribution and optical depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junfeng Liu; Denise L. Mauzerall; Larry W. Horowitz; Paul Ginoux; Arlene M. Fiore

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives are to evaluate inter-continental source-receptor relationships for fine aerosols and to identify the regions whose emissions have dominant influence on receptor continents. We simulate sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and mineral dust aerosols using a global coupled chemistry-aerosol model (MOZART-2) driven with NCEP\\/NCAR reanalysis meteorology for 1997–2003 and emissions approximately representing year 2000. The concentrations of

  2. Assessment of 10 Year Record of Aerosol Optical Depth from OMI UV Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Changwoo; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption in the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Another important advantage of using near UV observations for aerosol characterization is the low surface albedo of all terrestrial surfaces in this spectral region that reduces retrieval errors associated with land surface reflectance characterization. In spite of the 13 × 24 square kilometers coarse sensor footprint, the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single-scattering albedo under cloud-free conditions from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nanometers. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. OMAERUV's performance is also evaluated with respect to those of the Aqua-MODIS Deep Blue and Terra-MISR AOD algorithms over arid and semi-arid regions in Northern Africa. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability.

  3. Optical tweezers Optical-Tweezers Study of Topoisomerase Inhibition**

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    proliferation as selective actuators against uncontrolled cellular growth. Topoisomerase (Topo) I from wheat are more susceptible to the DNA damage inflicted.[6] Understanding the mechanism of action of the enzyme

  4. Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    1 Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque Authors: Jan n.h.dekker@tudelft.nl Corresponding author: Nynke H. Dekker Keywords: magnetic tweezers, magnetic torque tweezers, freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, twist, torque

  5. Effect of Wind Speed on Aerosol Optical Depth over Remote Oceans, Based on Data from the Maritime Aerosol Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, A.; Sayer, A. M.; Holben, B. N.; Hsu, N. C.; Sakerin, S. M.; Macke, A.; Nelson, N. B.; Courcoux, Y.; Smyth, T. J.; Croot, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Sciare, J.; Gulev, S. K.; Piketh, S.; Losno, R.; Kinne, S.; Radionov, V. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. The MAN archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we investigate correlations between ship-borne aerosol optical depth (AOD) and near-surface wind speed, either measured (onboard or from satellite) or modeled (NCEP). According to our analysis, wind speed influences columnar aerosol optical depth, although the slope of the linear regression between AOD and wind speed is not steep (approx. 0.004 - 0.005), even for strong winds over 10m/s. The relationships show significant scatter (correlation coefficients typically in the range 0.3 - 0.5); the majority of this scatter can be explained by the uncertainty on the input data. The various wind speed sources considered yield similar patterns. Results are in good agreement with the majority of previously published relationships between surface wind speed and ship-based or satellite-based AOD measurements. The basic relationships are similar for all the wind speed sources considered; however, the gradient of the relationship varies by around a factor of two depending on the wind data used

  6. An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol Component Modules of Global Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, H.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horrowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-05-29

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment global fields for mass and for mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among aerosol component modules of 21 different global models. There is general agreement among models for the annual global mean of component combined aot. At 0.12 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca 0.14) and space (MODIS-MISR composite ca 0.16). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture have remained. Of particular concern is the large model diversity for contributions by dust and carbon, because it leads to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since not only aot but also aab influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) and space (e.g. correlations between retrieved aerosol and cloud properties).

  7. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Zhang, Qi; Setyan, Ari; Zelenyuk, Alla; Cappa, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 CARES study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles, yielding ? = 0.1–0.15 and 0.9–1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.

  8. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Lum, J.; Kolesar, K. R.; Cziczo, D. J.; Pekour, M. S.; Zhang, Q.; Setyan, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Cappa, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 CARES study around Sacramento, CA are reported. The observed influence of water uptake, characterized through the dimensionless optical hygroscopicity parameter ?, is compared with calculations constrained by observed particle size distributions and size-dependent particle composition. A closure assessment has been carried out that allowed for determination of the average hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 85% relative humidity and the dimensionless hygroscopicity parameter ? for oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and for supermicron particles, yielding ? = 0.1-0.15 and 0.9-1.0, respectively. The derived range of oxygenated OA ? values are in line with previous observations. The relatively large values for supermicron particles is consistent with substantial contributions of sea salt-containing particles in this size range. Analysis of time-dependent variations in the supermicron particle hygroscopicity suggest that atmospheric processing, specifically chloride displacement by nitrate and the accumulation of secondary organics on supermicron particles, can lead to substantial depression of the observed GF.

  9. Aerosol optical properties in the Marine Environment during the TCAP-I campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, D.; Berg, L. K.; Barnard, J.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Burton, S. P.; Chapman, E. G.; Comstock, J. M.; Fast, J. D.; Ferrare, R. A.; Connor, F. J.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hubbe, J.; Kluzek, C.; Mei, F.; Pekour, M. S.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Schmid, B.; Shilling, J. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk-Imre, A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. Much of this uncertainty comes from the limited knowledge of observed aerosol optical properties. In this presentation we discuss derived aerosol optical properties based on measurements made during the summer 2012 Two-Column Aerosol Project-I (TCAP) campaign and relate these properties to the corresponding chemical and physical properties of the aerosol. TCAP was designed to provide simultaneous, in-situ observations of the size distribution, chemical properties, and optical properties of aerosol within and between two atmospheric columns over the Atlantic Ocean near the eastern seaboard of the United States. These columns are separated by 200-300 km and were sampled in July 2012 during a summer intensive operation period (IOP) using the U.S. Department of Energy's Gulfstream-1 (G-1) and NASA's B200 aircraft, winter IOP using G-1 aircraft in February 2013, and the surface-based DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) located on Cape Cod. In this presentation we examine the spectral dependence of the aerosol optical properties measured from the aircraft over the TCAP-I domain, with an emphasis on in-situ derived intensive properties measured by a 3-? Nephelometer, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), a humidograph (f(RH)), and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Preliminary results indicate that the aerosol are more light-absorbing as well as more hygroscopic at higher altitudes (2-4 km) compared to the corresponding values made within residual layers near the surface (0-2 km altitude). The average column (0-4 km) single scattering albedo (?) and hygroscopic scattering factor (F) are found to be ~0.96 and 1.25, respectively. Additional results on key aerosol intensive properties such as the angstrom exponent (å), asymmetry parameter (g), backscattering fraction (b), and gamma parameter (?) will be presented and discussed.

  10. Long term measurements of the estimated hygroscopic enhancement of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, Maxime; Sellegri, Karine; Pichon, Jean Marc; Roger, Jean Claude; Laj, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Water vapour has a major impact on aerosol optical properties, thus on the Radiative Forcing for aerosol-radiation interaction (RFari). However there is few studies measuring this impact over a large period. Optical properties of aerosols were measured at the GAW Puy de Dôme station (1465m) over a seven year period (2006-2012). The impact of hygroscopicity on aerosol optical properties was calculated over a two year period (2010-2011). The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of the dry optical properties showed that while no long term trend was found, a clear seasonal and diurnal variation was observed on the extensive parameters (scattering, absorption). Scattering and absorption coefficients were highest during the warm season and daytime, in concordance with the seasonality and diurnal variation of the planetary boundary layer height reaching the site. Intensive parameters (single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, refractive index) did not show such a strong diurnal variability, but still indicated different values depending on the season. Both extensive and intensive optical parameters were sensitive to the air mass origin. A strong impact of hygroscopicity on aerosol optical properties was calculated, mainly on aerosol scattering, with a dependence on the aerosol type and the season. At 90% humidity, the scattering factor enhancement (fsca) was more than 4.4 for oceanic aerosol that have mixed with a pollution plume. Consequently, the aerosol radiative forcing was estimated to be 2.8 times higher at RH= 90% and 1.75 times higher at ambient RH when hygroscopic growth of the aerosol was considered. The hygroscopicity enhancement factor of the scattering coefficient was parameterized as a function of humidity and air mass type. To our knowledge, these results are one of the first presenting the impact of water vapour on the aerosol optical properties for a long period, and the first for a site at the border between the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere. Acknowledgements. The authors would like to acknowledge the OPGC and its staff and INSU/CNRS for their contribution to establishing and maintaining the PdD measurement site. This work was performed in the frame of the european EUSAAR (R113-CT-2006-026140) and EUCAARI (0136833-2) and the french ORAURE SOERE.

  11. Preliminary Study on Remote Sensing of Aerosol Optical Properties over Ocean around the Korean Peninsula from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lee; J. Kim; J. Ryu; Y. Ahn

    2009-01-01

    An aerosol retrieval algorithm for the first Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) to be launched in September 2009 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) is presented by applying the algorithm to the MODIS data. Over clear water, the algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) and fine-mode fraction (FMF) together with aerosol type in 1 km × 1 km

  12. Aerosol optical, chemical and physical properties at Gosan, Korea during Asian dust and pollution episodes in 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Woo Kim; Soon-Chang Yoon; Anne Jefferson; John A. Ogren; Ellsworth G. Dutton; Jae-Gwang Won; Young Sung Ghim; Byung-Il Lee; Jin-Seok Han

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of dust and anthropogenic pollution aerosols on regional climate in East Asia, we analyzed the aerosol optical, chemical and physical properties for two cases with high aerosol loading and assessed the radiative forcing of these cases. The 1st case study is a heavy dust episode (DE) in April (during ACE-Asia) 2001 and the 2nd

  13. Comparison of aerosol optical properties and water vapor among ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during TARFOX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ferrare; S. Ismail; E. Browell; V. Brackett; M. Clayton; S. Kooi; S. H. Melfi; D. Whiteman; G. Schwemmer; K. Evans; P. Russell; J. Livingston; B. Schmid; B. Holben; L. Remer; A. Smirnov; P. V. Hobbs

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment. Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering

  14. Long-term changes of aerosol optical and radiative properties and their role in global dimming and brightening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hatzianastassiou; C. D. Papadimas; C. Matsoukas; K. Pavlakis; A. Fotiadi; M. Wild; I. Vardavas

    2009-01-01

    Global dimming and brightening (GDB) have profound effects on the Earth's environment. For example, GDB counteracts or supplements greenhouse warming. Atmospheric aerosols, through their interaction with solar radiation (direct, indirect and semi-direct effects) can affect GDB. Changes in aerosol burden or other physical and optical properties can modify tendencies of GDB. For example, satellite observations of aerosol amounts, available since

  15. VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Products for Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, A. K.; Zhang, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.

    2014-12-01

    The air quality community uses satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) for a variety of applications, including daily air quality forecasting, retrospective event analysis, and justification for Exceptional Events. AOD is suitable for ambient air quality applications because is related to particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5) concentrations in the atmosphere; higher values of AOD correspond to higher concentrations of particulate matter. AOD is useful for identifying and tracking areas of high PM2.5 concentrations that correspond to air quality events, such as wildfires, dust storms, or haze episodes. Currently, the air quality community utilizes AOD from the MODIS instrument on NASA's polar-orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites and from NOAA's GOES geostationary satellites (e.g, GASP). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi-NPP satellite is making AOD measurements that are similar to MODIS AOD, but with higher spatial resolution. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750 m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6 km resolution Environmental Data Record (EDR) product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. These VIIRS AOD products offer a substantial increase in spatial resolution compared to the MODIS AOD 3 km and 10 km AOD products, respectively. True color (RGB) imagery is also available from VIIRS as a decision aid for air quality applications. It serves as a complement to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke, haze, and blowing dust in the atmosphere. Case studies of VIIRS AOD and RGB data for recent air quality events will be presented, with a focus on wildfires, and the relative pros and cons of the VIIRS AOD IP and EDR for air quality applications will be discussed in comparison to MODIS AOD products. Improvements to VIIRS aerosol products based on user feedback as part of the NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground (AQPG) will be outlined, and an overview of future outreach activities will be provided, including training events designed to build the capacity of users.

  16. Comparative Optical Measurements of Airspeed and Aerosols on a DC-8 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney; McGann, Rick; Wagener, Thomas; Abbiss, John; Smart, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden supported a cooperative flight test program on the NASA DC-8 aircraft in November 1993. This program evaluated optical airspeed and aerosol measurement techniques. Three brassboard optical systems were tested. Two were laser Doppler systems designed to measure free-stream-referenced airspeed. The third system was designed to characterize the natural aerosol statistics and airspeed. These systems relied on optical backscatter from natural aerosols for operation. The DC-8 aircraft carried instrumentation that provided real-time flight situation information and reference data on the aerosol environment. This test is believed to be the first to include multiple optical airspeed systems on the same carrier aircraft, so performance could be directly compared. During 23 hr of flight, a broad range of atmospheric conditions was encountered, including aerosol-rich layers, visible clouds, and unusually clean (aerosol-poor) regions. Substantial amounts of data were obtained. Important insights regarding the use of laser-based systems of this type in an aircraft environment were gained. This paper describes the sensors used and flight operations conducted to support the experiments. The paper also briefly describes the general results of the experiments.

  17. Biogenic aerosols from Amazonia: Composition, size distributions and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, L. V.; Artaxo, P. P.; Brito, J. F.; Barbosa, H. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Martin, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is an excellent laboratory to study atmospheric processes that are characteristic of natural conditions, as they existed prior to the impact of industrialization on the regional and global atmosphere. Biogenic aerosols dominate the particle population in Amazonia, showing a strong link between forest biology and atmospheric composition. In the fine fraction, aerosols are mostly secondary organic particles formed from biogenic emissions of trace gases, with a contribution of primary particles. In the coarse mode, primary biogenic particles dominates the picture. Aerosols have been continuously measured at the TT34 LBA tower at the ZF2 ecological station about 55 Km North of Manaus since January 2008. Fine mode aerosol mass concentration is very low in Amazonia, with PM2.5 of about 1.3×0.7 ?g m-3 and 3.4×2.0 ?g m-3 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. In terms of particle number concentrations a median value of 220 cm-3 in the wet season and 2,200 cm-3 in the dry season were observed. An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed in 2013, and it shows that organic aerosol account to 81% to the non-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while in the dry season, a high 93% content of organic particles was observed. Size distribution shows the occurrence of bursts of particles with about 20 nanometers at night time, possibly associated with biological process. Very few events of new particle formation are observed. Aerosol light scattering and absorption coefficients at the TT34 site were low during the wet season, increasing by a factor of 5, approximately, in the dry season due to long range transport of biomass burning aerosols reaching the forest site. Aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) ranged from 0.84 in the wet season up to 0.91 in the dry, indicating a surprising high absorption in the wet season, associated with biogenic particles.

  18. AEROSOL EFFECTS ON SATELLITE RETRIEVALS OF CLOUD OPTICAL PROPERTIES IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    AEROSOL EFFECTS ON SATELLITE RETRIEVALS OF CLOUD OPTICAL PROPERTIES IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN optical depth and effective radius are shown to be underestimated in the South Atlantic Ocean, where layer is elevated above a liquid cloud in the South Atlantic Ocean. Both absorbing and scattering

  19. Calculation of aerosol optical properties under different assumptions on mixing state, refractive index, density and hygroscopicity: uncertainties and importance of representation of aerosol mixing state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curci, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The calculation of aerosol optical properties from aerosol mass is a process subject to uncertainty related to necessary assumptions on the treatment of the chemical species mixing state, density, refractive index, and hygroscopic growth. We used the FlexAOD post-processing tool to calculate the optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g)) from chemistry-transport model aerosol profiles, using a wide range of assumptions on aerosol chemical and physical properties. We calculated that the most important factor of uncertainty is the assumption about the mixing state, for which we estimate an uncertainty of 30-35% on the simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The choice of the core composition in the core-shell representation is of minor importance for calculation of AOD, while it is critical for the SSA. Other factors of uncertainty tested here have a maximum average impact of 10% each on calculated AOD, and an impact of a few percent on SSA and g. We then tested simple parameterizations of the aerosol mixing state, expressed as a function of the aerosol aging, and verified that they may be helpful in reducing the uncertainty when comparing simulations with AERONET retrievals.

  20. First measurements of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent number from AERONET's Kuching site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Chew, Boon N.; Mohamad, M.; Mahmud, M.; Liew, Soo C.

    2013-10-01

    We report our first measurements, over the 2011 dry season period, of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent number and its fine mode counterpart obtained from photometric measurements at AERONET's newest site located at the city of Kuching, Sarawak, East Malaysia. This site was set up as part of the collaborative efforts of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7SEAS) regional aerosol measurements initiative. Located at the converging zone between peninsular Malaysia and the land masses of Sumatra, Borneo, Java and Sulawesi, this site is expected to provide first hand evidence about the physical and optical characteristics of the regional aerosol environment, specially during the biomass burning months. Moreover, given its relative proximity to our Singapore radiation measurement super-site, Kuching is expected to provide further insight on aerosol transport pathways caused by seasonal winds transporting smoke to other parts of the maritime continent and the South Asia region.

  1. Aircraft-based Assessment of Relationships between CCN Concentration and Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; Nenes, A.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Flynn, C. J.; Schmid, B.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud microphysics rests on the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), not on aerosol optical properties. Yet, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its variants weighted by the spectral dependence over visible and near infrared (VNIR) wavelengths, being retrievable from satellite sensors (e.g., MODIS), are commonly substituted for CCN in evaluating aerosol microphysical effects on clouds. Such remote sensing/modeling methods can be justified only if the VNIR AOD spectrum is related to the CCN concentration and if the relationship is accurately parameterized. We assess the realism, limitations and potential improvements in the satellite-based inference of CCN, by characterizing the actual relationships between CCN and VNIR AOD using airborne observations. We find analytical fits to the data collected in multiple field campaigns including ARCTAS and TCAP. We will explain the deviation of individual data points from the fits by examining the aerosol size distribution, particle hygroscopicity, humidity effect on extinction, vertical profile, horizontal variability and measurement noise.

  2. Investigating Methods for Nighttime Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval Using the VIIRS Day/Night Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHardy, T. M.; Zhang, J.; Reid, J. S.; Hyer, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the existing aerosol sensitive passive sensors focus on detecting day time aerosol properties. The Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) contains a Day/Night Band (DNB) which is capable of remote sensing of aerosol signals at night. This brings an opportunity for studying nighttime aerosol optical properties at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Using VIIRS DNB data, several methods are developed for retrieving aerosol optical depth values over regions with artificial city lights. These methods are based on changes in diffuse scattering of artificial light due to particles in the atmosphere. The first method compares average radiance values of artificial light sources against that of nearby dark pixels. The second method examines the dispersion of radiance values above an artificial light source. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are investigated over selected artificial city light sources that are within close proximity to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. This study suggests that nighttime retrievals of aerosol properties at high spatial and temporal resolution using the VIIRS DNB may be viable in the future.

  3. Optical Properties of Aerosol Types from Satellite and Ground-based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Liu, Gin-Rong; Liu, Chian-Yi

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the properties of aerosol types are characterized from the aspects of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Particles of dust, smoke and anthropogenic pollutant are selected as the principal types in the study. The measurements of AERONET sites and MODIS data, during the dust storm and biomass burning events in the period from 2002 to 2008, suggest that the aerosol species can be discriminated sufficiently based on the dissimilarity of AE (Ångström exponent) and SSA (single scattering albedo) properties. However, the physicochemical characteristics of source aerosols can be altered after the external/internal combination along the pathway of transportation, thus induce error to the satellite retrievals. In order to eliminate from this kind of errors, the optical properties of mixed aerosols (external) are also simulated with the database of dust and soot aggregates in this study. The preliminary results show that SSA value (at 470 nm) of mineral dust may decay 5-11 % when external mixed with 15-30 % soot aggregates, then result in 11-22 % variation of reflectance observed from satellite which could lead to sufficiently large uncertainty on the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness. As a result, the effect of heterogeneous mixture should be taken into account for more accurate retrieval of aerosol properties, especially after the long-range transport. Keywords: Aerosol type, Ångström exponent, Single scattering albedo, AERONET, MODIS, External mixture

  4. An inexpensive active optical remote sensing instrument for assessing aerosol distributions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, John E; Sharma, Nimmi C P

    2012-02-01

    Air quality studies on a broad variety of topics from health impacts to source/sink analyses, require information on the distributions of atmospheric aerosols over both altitude and time. An inexpensive, simple to implement, ground-based optical remote sensing technique has been developed to assess aerosol distributions. The technique, called CLidar (Charge Coupled Device Camera Light Detection and Ranging), provides aerosol altitude profiles over time. In the CLidar technique a relatively low-power laser transmits light vertically into the atmosphere. The transmitted laser light scatters off of air molecules, clouds, and aerosols. The entire beam from ground to zenith is imaged using a CCD camera and wide-angle (100 degree) optics which are a few hundred meters from the laser. The CLidar technique is optimized for low altitude (boundary layer and lower troposphere) measurements where most aerosols are found and where many other profiling techniques face difficulties. Currently the technique is limited to nighttime measurements. Using the CLidar technique aerosols may be mapped over both altitude and time. The instrumentation required is portable and can easily be moved to locations of interest (e.g. downwind from factories or power plants, near highways). This paper describes the CLidar technique, implementation and data analysis and offers specifics for users wishing to apply the technique for aerosol profiles. PMID:22442935

  5. Aerosol optical properties and types over the tropical urban region of Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Rani Sharma, Anu; Kvs, Badarinath; Kambezidis, H. D.

    India is densely populated, industrialized and in the recent years has witnessed an impressive economic development. Aerosols over and around India not only affect the Indian monsoon but also the global climate. The growing population coupled with revolution in industry has resulted in higher demands for energy and transport. With more and more urbanization the usage pattern of fossil and bio-fuels are leading to changes in aerosol properties, which may cause changes in precipitation and can decelerate the hydrological cycle. Over urban areas of India aerosol emissions from fossil fuels such as coal, petrol and diesel oil dominate. Further-more, the Indian subcontinent exhibits different land characteristics ranging from vegetated areas and forests to semiarid and arid environments and tall mountains. India experiences large seasonal climatic variations, which result in extreme temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity. These meteorological and climatic features introduce large variabilities in aerosol op-tical and physico-chemical characteristics at spatial and temporal scales. In the present study, seasonal variations in aerosol properties and types were analysed over tropical urban region of Hyderabad, India during October 2007-September 2008 using MICROTOPS II sun photometer measurements. Higher aerosol optical depth (AOD) values are observed in premonsoon, while the variability of the ?ngstrüm exponent (?) seems to be more pronounced with higher values A in winter and premonsoon and lower in the monsoon periods. The AOD at 500 nm (AOD500 ) is very large over Hyderabad, varying from 0.46±0.17 in postmonsoon to 0.65±0.22 in premon-soon periods. A discrimination of the different aerosol types over Hyderabad is also attempted using values of AOD500 and ?380-870. Such discrimination is rather difficult to interpret since a single aerosol type can partly be identified only under specific conditions (e.g. anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or dust outbreaks), while the presence of mixed aerosols, without dominance of the coarse or accumulation mode is the usual situation. According to the analysis the three individual components of differing origin, composition and optical characteristics are, a) an urban/industrial aerosol type composed of aerosols produced locally and all year round by combustion activities in the city or long-range transported (mainly in spring) biomass burning, b) an aerosol type of mineral origin raised by the wind in the deserts (mainly in premonsoon) or constitutes coarse-mode aerosols under high relative humidity conditions mainly in the monsoon period, and c) an aerosol type with a marine influence under background conditions occurred in monsoon and postmonsoon periods. Nevertheless, the mixed or undetermined aerosol type dominates with percentages varying from 44.3% (premonsoon) to 72.9% (postmonsoon). Spec-tral AOD and ? data are analyzed to obtain information about the adequacy of the simple use of the ?ngstrüm exponent for characterizing the aerosols. This is achieved by taking advantage A of the spectral variation of lnAOD vs ln?, the so-called curvature. The results show that the spectral curvature can be effectively used as a tool for aerosol types discrimination, since the fine-mode aerosols exhibit negative curvature, while the coarse-mode particles positive. The present study is among the first over Hyderabad focusing on the seasonal pattern of aerosol properties and types and aiming at associating them with local emissions, regional climatology and long-range transport. Keywords: AOD, aerosol types; sun photometer; back trajectories; Hyderabad; India

  6. Optical and chemical properties of aerosols transported to Mount Bachelor during spring 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Fischer; K. D. Perry; D. A. Jaffe

    2011-01-01

    We report on springtime 2010 observations of aerosol optical properties and size-resolved elemental composition from Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO; 2763 meters above sea level). Observations included multiwavelength aerosol scattering and absorption, made with a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer, and size-resolved composition, made using a rotating DRUM impactor with substrates analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. Our main tool

  7. Direct measurements of mass-specific optical cross sections of single-component aerosol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Radney, James G; Ma, Xiaofei; Gillis, Keith A; Zachariah, Michael R; Hodges, Joseph T; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2013-09-01

    The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols vary widely, being dependent upon particle composition, morphology, and mixing state. This diversity and complexity of aerosols motivates measurement techniques that can discriminate and quantify a variety of single- and multicomponent aerosols that are both internally and externally mixed. Here, we present a new combination of techniques to directly measure the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections of laboratory-generated aerosols that are relevant to atmospheric studies. Our approach employs a tandem differential mobility analyzer, an aerosol particle mass analyzer, cavity ring-down and photoacoustic spectrometers, and a condensation particle counter. This suite of instruments enables measurement of aerosol particle size, mass, extinction and absorption coefficients, and aerosol number density, respectively. Taken together, these observables yield the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections without the need to model particle morphology or account for sample collection artifacts. Here we demonstrate the technique in a set of case studies which involve complete separation of aerosol by charge, separation of an external mixture by mass, and discrimination between particle types by effective density and single-scattering albedo. PMID:23875772

  8. Modeling of microphysics and optics of aerosol particles in the marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady

    2013-05-01

    We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 ?m particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, height above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH), are investigated. At present, the model covers the ranges H = 0 - 25 m, U = 3 - 18 km s-1, X ? 120 km and RH = 40 - 98%. The latest version of the Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles model (MaexPro) is described and applied for the computation and analysis of the spectral profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients ?(?) in the wavelength band ? = 0.2-12 ?m. MaexPro is based on the aforementioned aerosol model assuming spherically shaped aerosol particles and the well-known Mie theory. The spectral profiles of ?(?) calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigating the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  9. Automated transportation of single cells using robot-tweezer manipulation system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Songyu; Sun, Dong

    2011-08-01

    Manipulation of biological cells becomes increasingly important in biomedical engineering to address challenge issues in cell-cell interaction, drug discovery, and tissue engineering. Significant demand for both accuracy and productivity in cell manipulation highlights the need for automated cell transportation with integrated robotics and micro/nano manipulation technologies. Optical tweezers, which use highly focused low-power laser beams to trap and manipulate particles at micro/nanoscale, have emerged as an essential tool for manipulating single cells. In this article, we propose to use a robot-tweezer manipulation system to solve the problem of automatic transportation of biological cells, where optical tweezers function as special robot end effectors. Dynamics equation of the cell in optical tweezers is analyzed. A closed-loop controller is designed for transporting and positioning cells. Experiments are performed on live cells to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in effective cell positioning. PMID:21764021

  10. A numerical model to improve the derivation of aerosols optical parameters from elastic backscatter lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, Doina; Talianu, Camelia; Nemuc, Anca; Carstea, Emil; Ciuciu, Jeni; Cristescu, Constantin

    2006-09-01

    LIDAR systems have demonstrated their ability to map aerosol variations throughout the atmospheric column and therefore they have has become a central technology in current strategies for tropospheric aerosol research. Its use is complicated, however, by the fact that the lidar signal contains a convolution of two basic optical properties of the aerosol particles: the backscatter coefficient and the extinction coefficient. A quantitative retrieval of either property requires knowledge of their relationship along the laser path which is referred as lidar ratio. If the lidar ratio can not be measured by high spectral resolution lidar, or Raman lidar, then either an assumed value of LR a must be used in the lidar retrieval, leading to very large uncertainties in light extinction , or models can be used for determination of LR a profile. Our research refers to the development of an iterative hybrid regularization technique for elastic backscatter lidar data processing and retrieval of the aerosols optical parameters using the atmospheric model, Mie model and Fernald-Klett, but also Ackermann algorithm for lidar ratio calculation based on relative humidity profile. This study focuses on a numerical investigation about the lidar ratio of tropospheric aerosols characterizing Romanian atmosphere. The model can be also used for other type of atmosphere in order to improve the derivation of aerosols optical parameters from elastic backscatter lidar data when no other information than meteorological data are available.

  11. Determination of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles from LIDAR data using the optical depth solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparna, John; Satheesh, S. K.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2006-12-01

    The LIDAR equation contains four unknown variables in a two-component atmosphere where the effects caused by both molecules and aerosols have to be considered. The inversion of LIDAR returns to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles, thus, calls for some functional relationship to be assumed between these two. The Klett's method, assumes a functional relationship between the extinction and backscatter. In this paper, we apply a different technique, called the optical depth solution, where we made use of the total optical depth or transmittance of the atmosphere along the LIDAR-measurement range. This method provides a stable solution to the LIDAR equation. In this study, we apply this technique to the data obtained using a micro pulse LIDAR (MPL, model 1000, Science and Engineering Services Inc) to retrieve the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction coefficient. The LIDAR is equipped with Nd-YLF laser at an operating wavelength of 523.5 nm and the data were collected over Bangalore. The LIDAR data are analyzed to get to weighted extinction coefficient profiles or the weighted sum of aerosol and molecular extinction coefficient profiles. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol column optical depth (at 500 nm) using a Microtops sun photometer were used in the retrievals. The molecular extinction coefficient is determined assuming standard atmospheric conditions. The aerosol extinction coefficient profiles are determined by subtracting the molecular part from the weighted extinction coefficient profiles. The details of the method and the results obtained are presented.

  12. Aerosol optical properties in the mega-cities Beijing and Guangzhou: Measurements and implications for regional air pollution, aerosol sources and remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Garland; H. Yang; O. Schmid; D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured in two mega-city regions in China. The first site (Backgarden) was in a rural area approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in south China and was part of the \\

  13. Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Hair, Johnathan W; Hostetler, Chris A; Cook, Anthony L; Harper, David B; Ferrare, Richard A; Mack, Terry L; Welch, Wayne; Isquierdo, Luis Ramos; Hovis, Floyd E

    2008-12-20

    A compact, highly robust airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) that provides measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients and aerosol depolarization at two wavelengths has been developed, tested, and deployed on nine field experiments (over 650 flight hours). A unique and advantageous design element of the HSRL system is the ability to radiometrically calibrate the instrument internally, eliminating any reliance on vicarious calibration from atmospheric targets for which aerosol loading must be estimated. This paper discusses the design of the airborne HSRL, the internal calibration and accuracy of the instrument, data products produced, and observations and calibration data from the first two field missions: the Joint Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment--Phase B (INTEX-B)/Megacity Aerosol Experiment--Mexico City (MAX-Mex)/Megacities Impacts on Regional and Global Environment (MILAGRO) field mission (hereafter MILAGRO) and the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study/Texas Air Quality Study II (hereafter GoMACCS/TexAQS II). PMID:19104525

  14. Global and Seasonal Aerosol Optical Depths Derived From Ultraviolet Observations by Satellites (TOMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Torres, O.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that absorbing aerosols (dust, smoke, volcanic ash) can be detected in the ultraviolet wavelengths (331 nm to 380 nm) from satellite observations (TOMS, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over both land and water. The theoretical basis for these observations and their conversions to optical depths is discussed in terms of an aerosol index AI or N-value residue (assigned positive for absorbing aerosols). The theoretical considerations show that negative values of the AI frequently represent the presence of non-absorbing aerosols (NA) in the troposphere (mostly pollution in the form of sulfates, hydrocarbons, etc., and some natural sulfate aerosols) with particle sizes near 0.1 to 0.2 microns or less. The detection of small-particle non-absorbing aerosols from the measured backscattered radiances is based on the observed wavelength dependence from Mie scattering after the background Rayleigh scattering is subtracted. The Mie scattering from larger particles, 1 micron or more (e.g., cloud water droplets) has too small a wavelength dependence to be detected by this method. In regions that are mostly cloud free, aerosols of all sizes can be seen in the single channel 380 nm or 360 nm radiance data. The most prominent Al feature observed is the strong asymmetry in aerosol amount between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, with the large majority of NA occurring above 20degN latitude. The maximum values of non-absorbing aerosols are observed over the eastern U.S. and most of western Europe corresponding to the areas of highest industrial pollution. Annual cycles in the amount of NA are observed over Europe and North America with maxima occurring in the summer corresponding to times of minimum wind transport. Similarly, the maxima in the winter over the Atlantic Ocean occurs because of wind borne transport from the land. Most regions of the world have the maximum amount of non-absorbing aerosol in the December to January period except for the eastern North America and Europe. Comparisons of the estimated TOMS aerosol optical depths show good agreement in magnitude and seasonal dependence with sun-photometer optical depths obtained at Goddard Space Flight Center (39degN 76.88degW) in the U.S. and in Lille (50.63degN 3.07degE) in France. The study of these aerosols is important for detecting the sources of industrial pollution and its redistribution by winds on a global basis, as well as its effect on reducing the UV irradiance at the Earth's surface.

  15. Statistical Estimation of the Atmospheric Aerosol Absorption Coefficient Based on the Data of Optical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhegov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Pkhalagov, Yu.A.; Pol'kin, V.V.; Terpugova, S.A.; Shmargunov, V.P.; Yausheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    The problem of the choice of the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges is very important for calculation of the global albedo of the atmosphere in climatic models. The available models of the aerosol optical constants obtained for the prescribed chemical composition of particles (see, for example, Ivlev et al. 1973; Ivlev 1982; Volz 1972), often are far from real aerosol. It is shown in (Krekov et al. 1982) that model estimates of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere depending on the correctness of real and imaginary parts of the aerosol complex refractive index can differ by some hundreds percent. It is known that the aerosol extinction coefficient {alpha}({lambda}) obtained from measurements on a long horizontal path can be represented as {alpha}({lambda})={sigma}({lambda})+{beta}({lambda}), where {sigma} is the directed light scattering coefficient, and {beta} is the aerosol absorption coefficient. The coefficient {sigma}({lambda}) is measured by means of a nephelometer. Seemingly, if measure the values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}), it is easy to determine the value {beta}({lambda}). However, in practice it is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Firstly, the real values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}) are very close to each other, and the estimate of the parameter {beta}({lambda}) is concealed by the errors of measurements. Secondly, the aerosol optical characteristics on the long path and in the local volume of nephelometer can be different, that also leads to the errors in estimating {beta}({lambda}). Besides, there are serious difficulties in performing spectral measurements of {sigma}({lambda}) in infrared wavelength range. Taking into account these circumstances, in this paper we consider the statistical technique, which makes it possible to estimate the absorption coefficient of real aerosol on the basis of analysis of simultaneous measurements of the spectral aerosol extinction coefficients {alpha}({lambda}), the directed scattering coefficient of dry aerosol {sigma}{sub 0}(0.55) and the mass concentration of aerosol containing BC (black carbon) Ms.

  16. Retrieval of aerosol optical and micro-physical properties with 2D-MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Hair, Johnathan; Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Berg, Larry; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Hodges, Gary; Lantz, Kathy; Wagner, Thomas; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Recent retrievals of 2 dimensional (2D) Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2D-MAX-DOAS) have highlighted its importance in order to infer diurnal horizontal in-homogeneities around the measurement site. In this work, we expand the capabilities of 2D measurements in order to estimate simultaneously aerosol optical and micro-physical properties. Specifically, we present a retrieval method to obtain: (1) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in the boundary layer (BL) and free troposphere (FT) and (2) the effective complex refractive index and the effective radius of the aerosol column size distribution. The retrieval method to obtain AOT is based on an iterative comparison of measured normalized radiances, oxygen collision pair (O4), and absolute Raman Scattering Probability (RSP) with the forward model calculations derived with the radiative transfer model McArtim based on defined aerosol extinction profiles. Once the aerosol load is determined we use multiple scattering phase functions and single scattering albedo (SSA) obtained with Mie calculations which then constrain the RTM to forward model solar almucantar normalized radiances. The simulated almucantar normalized radiances are then compared to the measured normalized radiances. The best-fit, determined by minimizing the root mean square, retrieves the complex refractive index, and effective radius. We apply the retrieval approach described above to measurements carried out during the 2012 intensive operation period of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) held on Cape Cod, MA, USA. Results are presented for two ideal case studies with both large and small aerosol loading and similar air mass outflow from the northeast coast of the US over the West Atlantic Ocean. The aerosol optical properties are compared with several independent instruments, including the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) for highly resolved extinction profiles during the overpasses, and with the co-located Multi Filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer (MFRSR), and the Cimel Sun photometer for aerosol load at several wavelengths. To test aerosol horizontal homogeneity we use quantitatively analysis of asymmetry of solar azimuth normalized radiances and RSP. The aerosol column microphysical properties will be compared with merged size distribution of several in-situ instruments from airborne measurements during overpasses of the DoE-G1 aircraft around the ground measurement site.

  17. Boundary layer aerosol characteristics at Mahabubnagar during CAIPEEX-IGOC: modeling the optical and radiative properties.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Tiwari, S

    2014-01-15

    An Integrated Ground Observational Campaign (IGOC) was conducted at Mahabubnagar--a tropical rural station in the southern peninsular India, under the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) program during the period from July to November 2011. Measured chemical composition and carbonaceous aerosols from PM2.5 samples were used in an aerosol optical model to deduce crucial aerosol optical properties, which were then used in a radiative transfer model for radiative forcing estimations. The model derived aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm), varied from 0.13 to 0.76 (mean of 0.40 ± 0.18) whereas Ångström exponent (AE) between 0.10 and 0.65 (mean of 0.33 ± 0.17) suggests relative dominance of coarse particles over the station. On the other hand, single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) was found to vary from 0.78 to 0.92 (mean of 0.87 ± 0.04) during the measurement period. The magnitude of absorption Ångström exponent (AAE), varied from 0.83 to 1.33 (mean of 1.10 ± 0.15), suggests mixed type aerosols over the station. Aerosol direct radiative forcing was estimated and found to vary from -8.9 to -49.3 W m(-2) (mean of -27.4 ± 11.8 W m(-2)) at the surface and +9.7 to +44.5 W m(-2) (mean of +21.3 ± 9.4 W m(-2)) in the atmosphere during the course of measurements. The atmospheric forcing was observed to be ~30% higher during October (+ 29 ± 9 W m(-2)) as compared to August (+21 ± 7 W m(-2)) when the station is mostly influenced by continental polluted aerosols. The result suggests an additional atmospheric heating rate of 0.24 K day(-1) during October, which may be crucial for various boundary layer processes in favorable atmospheric conditions. PMID:24103256

  18. Investigating relationships between aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction using satellite, aerosol reanalysis and general circulation model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandey, B. S.; Stier, P.; Wagner, T. M.

    2013-03-01

    Strong positive relationships between cloud fraction (fc) and aerosol optical depth (?) have been reported. Data retrieved from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument show positive fc-? relationships across most of the globe. A global mean fc increase of approximately 0.2 between low and high ? conditions is found for both ocean and land. However, these relationships are not necessarily due to cloud-aerosol interactions. Using state-of-the-art Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) reanalysis-forecast ? data, which should be less affected by retrieval artefacts, it is demonstrated that a large part of the observed fc-? signal may be due to cloud contamination of satellite-retrieved ?. For longer MACC forecast time steps of 24 h, which likely contain less cloud contamination, some negative fc-? relationships are found. The global mean fc increase between low and high ? conditions is reduced to 0.1, suggesting that cloud contamination may account for approximately one half of the satellite-retrieved increase in fc. ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model (GCM) simulations further demonstrate that positive fc-? relationships may arise due to covariation with relative humidity. Widespread negative simulated fc-? relationships in the tropics are shown to arise due to scavenging of aerosol by convective precipitation. Wet scavenging events are likely poorly sampled in satellite-retrieved data, because the properties of aerosol below clouds cannot be retrieved. Quantifying the role of wet scavenging, and assessing GCM representations of this important process, remains a challenge for future observational studies of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions.

  19. A Three-Wavelength Optical Extinction Cell for Measuring Aerosol Light Extinction and Its Application to Determining Light Absorption Coefficient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aki Virkkula; Norman C. Ahlquist; Patrick J. Sheridan; William P. Arnott; John A. Ogren

    2005-01-01

    An optical extinction cell (OEC) was used to measure aerosol particle extinction coefficient ?EP at three wavelengths, 467, 530, and 660 nm. The details of the design and the results of its use in the Reno Aerosol Optics Study (RAOS) in June 2002 are presented. The OEC agreed well with the scattering coefficient ?SP measured using an integrating nephelometer for

  20. Variability in aerosol optical and physical characteristics over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea deduced from Ångström exponents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumita Kedia; S. Ramachandran

    2009-01-01

    Spectral distribution of aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured in the 0.4–0.875 ?m wavelength region using a Sun photometer over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during the 2006 premonsoon season are analyzed to obtain more interesting information on the physical and optical characteristics of aerosols. Examination of spectral AODs measured over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea by

  1. Influence of dust storms on the aerosol optical properties over the Indo-Gangetic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sagnik; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Ramesh P.; Holben, B. N.

    2004-10-01

    Dust storms are considered natural hazards, which affect day-to-day life for a short time from a few hours to a few days. They are common in India especially in the western Rajasthan Province, which is covered by the Thar Desert. In this paper, we present the effects of the dust events on the aerosol parameters retrieved over Kanpur (located in heart of the Indo-Gangetic basin) from ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. The aerosol parameters show strong seasonal variability in this region, with least spectral dependence of aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the premonsoon season, characterized by dust loading. The aerosol optical properties over the Indo-Gangetic basin are controlled by the diurnal and seasonal cycles of urban pollutants, but the dust storms are so significant that the local cycle is completely overshadowed. A rise in AOD by more than 50% and corresponding decrease in angstrom parameter by 70-90% have been observed after each dust event. The diurnal variations of AOD during the dust events have been found to be controlled by the onset of the dust storms. The changes in the single scattering albedo (SSA) and real n(?) and imaginary k(?) parts of the refractive index indicate that the 27 May 2002 event influences the optical state to be absorbing, whereas for the other four events the aerosols are found to be dominantly scattering in nature. SSA has been found to increase sharply at higher wavelengths (? > 440 nm) during the dust events, whereas n(?) and k(?) increase 2-3 times more at ? = 440 nm compared to those at higher wavelengths. The contrasting change in the spectral variations of the optical properties is due to the difference in the nature of the aerosols loading during the events. Aerosol volume concentration at coarse mode is found to increase three times after the dust events, whereas no significant change has been observed in the volume concentration at fine mode. Concentration of the particulate matters less than 10 ?m (PM10) is also found to increase by ˜150 ?g m-3 after each dust event except on the 27 May 2002 event, when heavy rainfall after the dust storm washed out the suspended particulate matters from the atmosphere, and the ground level PM10 concentration was not influenced by the advected dust particles on that day. Aerosol index values in successive Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) images over the region support the characterization of the aerosols in this region in terms of their optical properties, which are being transported over the Indo-Gangetic basin from the western Thar Desert and the Gulf regions depending upon the size of the particles, shown by the air mass trajectories.

  2. The regional distribution characteristics of aerosol optical depth over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; You, C.; Zhu, Z. K.

    2015-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is representative of typical clean atmospheric conditions. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is higher over Qaidam Basin than the rest of the TP all the year. Different monthly variation patterns of AOD are observed over the southern and northern TP, whereby the aerosol load is usually higher in the northern TP than in the southern part. The aerosol load over the northern part increases from April to June, peaking in May. The maximum concentration of aerosols over the southern TP occurs in July. Aerosols appear to be more easily transported over the main body of the TP across the northeastern edge rather than the southern edge. This is may be because the altitude is much lower at the northeastern edge than that of the Himalayas located along the southern edge of the TP. Three-dimensional distributions of dust, polluted dust, polluted continental and smoke are also investigated based on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data. Dust is found to be the most prominent aerosol type on the TP, and other types of aerosols affect the atmospheric environment slightly. A natural boundary seems to extend to an altitude of 6-8 km a.s.l., which may act as a dividing line of higher dust occurrence in the northern TP and lower dust occurrence in the southern TP, especially in spring and summer. This boundary appears around 33-35° N in the middle of the plateau, and it is possibly associated with the high altitude terrain in the same geographic location. Comparisons of CALIPSO and MISR data show that this natural boundary extending to upper troposphere is consistent with the spatial pattern of aerosol loading. The whole TP blocks the atmospheric aerosols transported from surrounding regions, and the extreme high mountains on the TP also cause an obstruction to the transport of aerosols. The aerosol distribution patterns are primarily driven by atmospheric circulation. Northerly winds prevail above the TP in spring, which also facilitates the transport of aerosols from the Tarim Basin and Qaidam Basin to the main body of the TP. Nevertheless, aerosols above the TP can originate from both the northern and southern sides of the TP during summer.

  3. Optical properties of urban aerosols in the region Bratislava-Vienna—II: Comparisons and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.; Horvath, H.; Hrvo?, J.

    The optical and microphysical properties of aerosols in highly urbanized region Bratislava-Vienna were determined by means of ground-based optical methods during campaign in August and September 2004. Although both cities are close to each other forming a common metropolitan region, the features of their aerosol systems are distinct. While urban and suburban zones around Vienna have mostly a clean air without major influences of emissions from industry, Bratislava itself need to be classified as polluted area—the optical data collected in the measuring site are influenced mainly by Technické Sklo factory (NW positioned), Matador (SSE), Istrochem (ENE) and Slovnaft (ESE). In contrary to an observed smooth evolution of the aerosol system in Vienna, the aerosol environment is quite unstable in Bratislava and usually follows the day changes of the wind directions (as they correspond to the position of individual sources of pollution). The particle sizes in Bratislava are predominately larger compared to Vienna. A subsidiary mode within surface size distribution frequently occurs at radius about 0.7 ?m in Bratislava but not in Vienna. The size distribution of airborne particles in Vienna is more dependent on relative humidity than in Bratislava. It suggests the particles in Bratislava are larger whenever, or non-deliquescent to a great extent. The spectral attenuation of solar radiation by aerosol particles shows a typical mode at ??0.4?m in Bratislava, which is not observed in the spectral aerosol extinction coefficient in Vienna. In Bratislava, the average aerosol optical thickness grows from morning hours to the evening, while an opposite effect can be observed in Vienna in the same time.

  4. Aerosol Optical Depth spatiotemporal variability and contribution of different aerosol types over Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Alexandri, Georgia; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Zanis, Prodromos; Pöschl, Ulrich; Lelieveld, Jos; Levy, Robert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we study the aerosol spatiotemporal variability over the region of Eastern Mediterranean, for the time period 2000-2012, using a 0.1-degree gridded dataset compiled from level-2 MODIS TERRA and MODIS AQUA AOD550 and FMR550 data. A detailed validation of the AOD550 data was implemented using ground-based observations from the AERONET, also showing that the gridding methodology we followed allows for the detection of several local hot spots that cannot be seen using lower resolutions or level-3 data. By combining the MODIS data with data from other satellite sensors (TOMS, OMI), data from a global chemical-aerosol-transport model (GOCART), and reanalysis data from MACC and ERA-interim, we quantify the relative contribution of different aerosol types to the total AOD550 for the period of interest. For this reason, we developed an optimized algorithm for regional studies based on results from previous global studies. Over land, anthropogenic, dust, and fine-mode natural aerosols contribute to the total AOD550, while anthropogenic, dust and maritime AODs are calculated over the ocean. The dust AOD550 over the region was compared against dust AODs from the LIVAS CALIPSO product, showing a similar seasonal variability. Finally, we also look into the aerosol load short-term trends over the region for each aerosol type separately, the results being strongly affected by the selected time period. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Social Fund (ESF) and national resources under the operational programme Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the framework of the Action "Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers" (QUADIEEMS project) and from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement no. 226144 (C8 project).

  5. Simultaneously inferring above-cloud absorbing aerosol optical thickness and underlying liquid phase cloud optical and microphysical properties using MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo

    2015-06-01

    The regional haze over the southeast (SE) Atlantic Ocean induced by biomass burning in southern Africa can be problematic for passive imager-based retrievals of the underlying quasi-permanent marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds and for estimates of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE). Here an algorithm is introduced to simultaneously retrieve above-cloud aerosol optical thickness (AOT), the cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud effective particle radius (CER) of the underlying MBL clouds while also providing pixel-level estimates of retrieval uncertainty. This approach utilizes reflectance measurements at six Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) channels from the visible to the shortwave infrared. Retrievals are run under two aerosol model assumptions on 8 years (2006-2013) of June-October Aqua MODIS data over the SE Atlantic, from which a regional cloud and above-cloud aerosol climatology is produced. The cloud retrieval methodology is shown to yield COT and CER consistent with those from the MODIS operational cloud product (MOD06) when forcing AOT to zero, while the full COT-CER-AOT retrievals that account for the above-cloud aerosol attenuation increase regional monthly mean COT and CER by up to 9% and 2%, respectively. Retrieved AOT is roughly 3 to 5 times larger than the collocated 532 nm Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) retrievals, though closer agreement is observed with the CALIOP 1064 nm retrievals, a result consistent with previous case study analyses. Regional cloudy-sky above-cloud aerosol DRE calculations are also performed that illustrate the importance of the aerosol model assumption and underlying cloud retrievals.

  6. Microphysical properties of transported biomass burning aerosols in coastal regions, and application to improving retrievals of aerosol optical depth from SeaWiFS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the limited measurement capabilities of heritage and current spaceborne passive imaging radiometers, algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and related quantities must make assumptions relating to aerosol microphysical properties and surface reflectance. Over the ocean, surface reflectance can be relatively well-modelled, but knowledge of aerosol properties can remain elusive. Several field campaigns and many studies have examined the microphysical properties of biomass burning (smoke) aerosol. However, these largely focus on properties over land and near to the source regions. In coastal and open-ocean regions the properties of transported smoke may differ, due to factors such as aerosol aging, wet/dry deposition, and mixture with other aerosol sources (e.g. influence of maritime, pollution, or mineral dust aerosols). Hence, models based on near-source aerosol observations may be less representative of such transported smoke aerosols, introducing additional uncertainty into satellite retrievals of aerosol properties. This study examines case studies of transported smoke from select globally-distributed coastal and island Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. These are used to inform improved models for over-ocean transported smoke aerosol for AOD retrievals from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). These models are used in an updated version of the SeaWiFS Ocean Aerosol Retrieval (SOAR) algorithm, which has been combined with the Deep Blue algorithm over land to create a 13-year (1997-2010) high-quality record of AOD over land and ocean. Applying these algorithms to other sensors will enable the creation of a long-term global climate data record of spectral AOD.

  7. Spectral aerosol optical properties from AERONET Sun-photometric measurements over West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. O. Ogunjobi; Z. He; C. Simmer

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties including Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, ?a?), Angstrom exponent (?), size distribution, single scattering albedo (wo) were examined using long-term ground-based radiometric measurements at five West African sites; Dakar (14°42'N 17°29?W), Banizoumbou (13°45?N, 02°39?E), Agoufou (15°21'N,1°29?W), Ilorin (08°32?N, 04°34?E), and Ouagadougou (12°22?N, 1°31?W). Also included were observations made at the Cape Verde Islands (16° 45?N, 22° 57?W) to

  8. CALIOP and AERONET Aerosol Optical Depth Comparisons: One Size Fits None

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, A. H.; Winker, D. M.; Tackett, J. L.; Giles, D. M.; Kar, J.; Liu, Z.; Vaughan, M. A.; Powell, K. A.; Trepte, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    We compare the aerosol optical depths (AOD) retrieved from backscatter measurements of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite with coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. Overpass coincidence criteria of +/- 2 h and within a 40 km radius are satisfied at least once at 149 globally distributed AERONET sites from 2006 to 2010. Most data pairs (>80%) use AERONET measurements acquired +/- 30 min of the overpass. We examine the differences in AOD estimates between CALIOP and AERONET for various aerosol, environmental, and geographic conditions. Results show CALIOP AOD are lower than AERONET AOD especially at low optical depths as measured by AERONET (500 nm AOD<0.1). Furthermore, the median relative AOD difference between the two measurements is 25% of the AERONET AOD for AOD>0.1. Differences in AOD between CALIOP and AERONET are possibly due to cloud contamination, scene inhomogeneity, instrument view angle differences, CALIOP retrieval errors, and detection limits. Comparison of daytime to nighttime number of 5 km 60m (60m in the vertical) features detected by CALIOP show that there are 20% more aerosol features at night. We find that CALIPSO and AERONET do not agree on the cloudiness of scenes. Of the scenes that meet the above coincidence criteria, CALIPSO finds clouds in more than 45% of the coincident atmospheric columns AERONET classifies as clear.

  9. Aerosol characterizaton in El Paso-Juarez airshed using optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Angel Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The assessment and characterization of atmospheric aerosols and their optical properties are of great significance for several applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric visibility, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and impacts on climate change. Decades ago, the interest in atmospheric aerosols was primarily for visibility impairment problems; however, recently interest has intensified with efforts to quantify the optical properties of aerosols, especially because of the uncertainties surrounding the role of aerosols in climate change. The main objective of the optical characterization of aerosols is to understand their properties. These properties are determined by the aerosols' chemical composition, size, shape and concentration. The general purpose of this research was to contribute to a better characterization of the aerosols present in the Paso del Norte Basin. This study permits an alternative approach in the understanding of air pollution for this zone by analyzing the predominant components and their contributions to the local environment. This dissertation work had three primary objectives, in which all three are intertwined by the general purpose of the aerosol characterization in the Paso del Norte region. The first objective was to retrieve the columnar aerosol size distribution for two different cases (clean and polluted scenarios) at each season (spring, summer, fall and winter) of the year 2009. In this project, instruments placed in buildings within the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) as well as a monitoring site (CAMS 12) from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) provided the measurements that delimited the aerosol size distribution calculated by our model, the Environmental Physics Inverse Reconstruction (EPIRM) model. The purpose of this objective was to provide an alternate method of quantifying and size-allocating aerosols in situ, by using the optical properties of the aerosols and inversely reconstruct and retrieve the size distribution of them. This method permits the assessment of aerosols in the ambient in-situ, without physically extracting them from their current state, as the filter technique does. The second objective was an analysis and comparison of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data between ground-based instruments and satellite data. In this project, the groundbased instruments are the Multi Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) installed at UTEP and the nearest sun photometer facility, a NASA's Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), located at White Sands, New Mexico. The satellite data is provided by the NASA's Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MISR) instrument located in the Terra satellite. Finally, the third objective was to estimate ground particulate matter concentration of particles no greater than 2.5 mum in diameter (PM2.5) by using the MISR's satellite data. This objective was achieved by implementing an empirical mathematical model that includes measured data. In addition, this model addressed the geographic characteristics of the region as well as several factors such as season, relative humidity (RH) and the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL).

  10. Validation of Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) aerosol optical thickness measurements using Aerosol Robotic Network

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    retrievals from MISR or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The agreement between MISR with an orbital period of 99 minutes and repeats its ground track every 16 days. Among the five instruments aboard Terra, MISR was designed to measure tropospheric aerosol properties with repeat coverage over a specific

  11. Lidar and Sunphotometer observations of aerosol optical properties over Egbert, ON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, T.; O'Neill, N. T.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Freemantle, J.

    2006-05-01

    Optical properties of aerosols are routinely monitored using Lidar and Sunphotometer/Sky radiometer measurements over Egbert, ON. The objectives of this monitoring program are to better understand the optical coherency of these active and passive remote sensing techniques and eventually to achieve a climatology of extensive parameters such as the extinction-to-backscatter ratio required for lidar optical depth retrievals. Observations made within the context of this program revealed some interesting events related to the long and short range transport of smoke aerosols to the observing site. An interesting case study on June 2, 2003 showed smoke layers between 4 and 9 km in both the Zenith and Scanning Lidar data. Co-located CIMEL Sunphotometric/Sky radiometric measurements also showed an increase in fine mode aerosol optical depths corresponding to the Lidar smoke layer observations. Data from some of the AERONET stations in the Eastern US also indicated the presence of these smoke layers. A detailed study of backtrajectories and MODIS imagery indicate that the source of these smoke layers was the intense forest fire activity that occurred during the whole of the summer of 2003 in the Lake Baikal region of Siberia. In addition an interesting regional smoke event which originated from Lake Nipigon (Northwestern Ontario) forest fires was observed on June 23, 2005. Optical and physical properties observed and retrieved for these long and short range cases of smoke aerosol transport will be analyzed and compared.

  12. Evaluating the impact of aerosol particles above cloud on cloud optical depth retrievals from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Contreras, Ricardo; Zhang, Jianglong; Campbell, James R.; Holz, Robert E.; Reid, Jeffrey S.

    2014-05-01

    Using two different operational Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical depth (COD) retrievals (0.86 versus 1.6 µm), we evaluate the impact of above-cloud smoke aerosol particles on near-IR (0.86 µm) COD retrievals. Aerosol Index (AI) from the collocated Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to identify above-cloud aerosol particle loading over the southern Atlantic Ocean, including both smoke and dust from the African subcontinent. Collocated Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data constrain cloud phase and provide contextual above-cloud aerosol optical depth. The frequency of occurrence of above-cloud aerosol events is depicted on a global scale for the spring and summer seasons from OMI and Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization. Seasonal frequencies for smoke-over-cloud off the southwestern Africa coastline reach 20-50% in boreal summer. We find a corresponding low COD bias of 10-20% for standard MODIS COD retrievals when averaged OMI AI are larger than 1. No such bias is found over the Saharan dust outflow region off northern Africa, since both MODIS 0.86 and 1.6 µm channels are vulnerable to radiance attenuation due to dust particles. A similar result is found for a smaller domain, in the Gulf of Tonkin region, from smoke advection over marine stratocumulus clouds and outflow into the northern South China Sea in spring. This study shows the necessity of accounting for the above-cloud aerosol events for future studies using standard MODIS cloud products in biomass burning outflow regions, through the use of collocated OMI AI and supplementary MODIS 1.6 µm COD products.

  13. Aerosol Optical Properties at NEAQS 2002 From Lidar, Sunphotometer, and Integrating Nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, W. L.; Senff, C. J.; Quinn, P. K.; Alvarez, R. J.; McCarty, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Optical measurements of aerosols were performed from the NOAA Research Vessel Ron Brown near the east coast of the United States for 3 weeks starting mid-July 2002. The instruments included a lidar (355 nm wavelength), a handheld sunphotometer (380, 440, 500, 675, and 870 nm), and an integrating nephelometer (450, 550, and 700 nm). Lidar extinction profiles are derived with constraint from the sunphotometer aerosol optical depth data when available. Typical extinction-to-backscatter values from these measurements for the same airmass types are used to retrieve extinction profiles at night and in cloudy periods. Temperature profile and wind shear data from radiosondes and vertical smoothness of the lidar backscatter profile are used to determine the vertical extent of the layer in which the aerosol particles can be considered well mixed. The fraction of the total column aerosol that is characterized by the near-surface in situ measurements is estimated from the lidar profile and depth of the mixed layer. Extinction values from the lowest gates of the lidar are compared with the nephelometer's aerosol scatter data when the atmosphere is apparently well mixed between the two heights. The optical characteristics for various sources (urban, rural, and maritime) are contrasted.

  14. Empirical analysis of aerosol and thin cloud optical depth effects on CO2 retrievals from GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Strong, K.; Nakajima, T.; Uchino, O.; Shiobara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based sunphotometer observations of aerosol and cloud optical properties at AEROCAN / AERONET sites co-located with TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) were used to investigate the aerosol and cloud influence on column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) retrieved from the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - FTS) of GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite). This instrument employs high resolution spectra measured in the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) band to retrieve XCO2estimates. GOSAT XCO2 retrievals are nominally corrected for the contaminating backscatter influence of aerosols and thin clouds. However if the satellite-retrieved aerosol and thin cloud optical depths applied to the CO2 correction is biased then the correction and the retrieved CO2 values will be biased. We employed independent ground based estimates of both cloud screened and non cloud screened AOD (aerosol optical depth) in the CO2 SWIR channel and compared this with the GOSAT SWIR-channel OD retrievals to see if that bias was related to variations in the (generally negative) CO2 bias (?XCO2= XCO2(GOSAT) - XCO2(TCCON)). Results are presented for a number of TCCON validation sites.

  15. Trends in sulfate and organic aerosol mass in the Southeast U.S.: Impact on aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, A. R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brock, C. A.; Hu, W.; Baumann, K.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Edgerton, E. S.; Murphy, D. M.; Palm, B. B.; McComiskey, A.; Wagner, N. L.; Sá, S. S.; Ortega, A.; Martin, S. T.; Jimenez, J. L.; Brown, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    Emissions of SO2 in the United States have declined since the early 1990s, resulting in a decrease in aerosol sulfate mass in the Southeastern U.S. of -4.5(±0.9)% yr-1 between 1992 and 2013. Organic aerosol mass, the other major aerosol component in the Southeastern U.S., has decreased more slowly despite concurrent emission reductions in anthropogenic precursors. Summertime measurements in rural Alabama quantify the change in aerosol light extinction as a function of aerosol composition and relative humidity. Application of this relationship to composition data from 2001 to 2013 shows that a -1.1(±0.7)% yr-1 decrease in extinction can be attributed to decreasing aerosol water mass caused by the change in aerosol sulfate/organic ratio. Calculated reductions in extinction agree with regional trends in ground-based and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth. The diurnally averaged summertime surface radiative effect has changed by 8.0 W m-2, with 19% attributed to the decrease in aerosol water.

  16. Aerosol vertical distribution, optical properties and transport over Corsica (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léon, J.-F.; Augustin, P.; Mallet, M.; Bourrianne, T.; Pont, V.; Dulac, F.; Fourmentin, M.; Lambert, D.; Sauvage, B.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the aerosol vertical distribution observed in the western Mediterranean between February and April 2011 and between February 2012 and August 2013. An elastic backscattering lidar was continuously operated at a coastal site in the northern part of Corsica Island (Cap Corse) for a total of more than 14 000 h of observations. The aerosol extinction coefficient retrieved from cloud-free lidar profiles are analyzed along with the SEVIRI satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD). The SEVIRI AOD was used to constrain the retrieval of the aerosol extinction profiles from the lidar range-corrected signal and to detect the presence of dust or pollution aerosols. The daily average AOD at 550 nm is 0.16 (±0.09) and ranges between 0.05 and 0.80. A seasonal cycle is observed with minima in winter and maxima in spring-summer. High AOD days (above 0.3 at 550 nm) represent less than 10% of the totality of daily observations and correspond to the large scale advection of desert dust from Northern Africa or pollution aerosols from Europe. The respective origin of the air masses is confirmed using FLEXPART simulations in the backward mode. Dust events are characterized by a large turbid layer between 2 and 5 km height while pollution events show a lower vertical development with a thick layer below 3 km in altitude. However low level dust transport is also reported during spring while aerosol pollution layer between 2 and 4 km height has been also observed. We report an effective lidar ratio at 355 nm for pollution aerosols 68 (±13) Sr while it is 63 (±18) Sr for dust. The daily mean AOD at 355 nm for dust events is 0.61 (±0.14) and 0.71 (±0.16) for pollution aerosols events.

  17. Correlation of the PM10 surface concentrations and aerosol optical thickness from AERONET observations over Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemuc, Anca; Filip, Luminita; Stefan, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    SSpatial and temporal variation of aerosol particles is very important for human health and also for air quality and climate change studies. The columnar AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) is an aerosol optical property that is commonly used as aerosol load indicator. Worldwide the AOT is routinely monitored by sun-photometers and also accessible from satellite measurements. This work aims to find a relationship between in situ measurements of PM 10(Particulate Matter) mass concentrations and daily mean AOT values of atmospheric columns in different spectral regions at two sites in Bucharest area (Magurele and Baneasa) located far from local pollution sources. Measurements were performed with sun-photometers part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) for AOT, and low-volume samplers near-ground for in situ PM mass concentrations. The analysis was applied for July and August of 2007, June and August 2008 and August 2009. Although, several factors like aerosol vertical distribution or hygroscopic growth factor could affect the linkage between PM10 ground concentrations and aerosol optical thickness, our linear regression analysis results have shown significant correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.60 to 0.80. Therefore the columnar observation can be transferred to near surface conditions, for the meteorological situations observed during our analysis. Consequently, due to this correlation PM10 mass concentration can be computed at ground level by using AERONET AOT for the specified location. The uncertainties of this approach have been investigated including influence of relative humidity and dust intrusions in the free troposphere from long range transport. This study showed that it is possible to use Sun photometric measurements in order to improve existent air quality surveillance or to extend their spatial coverage.

  18. Determination of motility forces on isolated chromosomes with laser tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Nima; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rocha, Yesenia; Cruz, Gladys M.; Loke, Vince; Shi, Linda Z.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative determination of the motility forces of chromosomes during cell division is fundamental to understanding a process that is universal among eukaryotic organisms. Using an optical tweezers system, isolated mammalian chromosomes were held in a 1064?nm laser trap. The minimum force required to move a single chromosome was determined to be ?0.8–5?pN. The maximum transverse trapping efficiency of the isolated chromosomes was calculated as ?0.01–0.02. These results confirm theoretical force calculations of ?0.1–12?pN to move a chromosome on the mitotic or meiotic spindle. The verification of these results was carried out by calibration of the optical tweezers when trapping microspheres with a diameter of 4.5–15?µm in media with 1–7?cP viscosity. The results of the chromosome and microsphere trapping experiments agree with optical models developed to simulate trapping of cylindrical and spherical specimens. PMID:25359514

  19. Characteristics of aerosol optical properties in pollution and Asian dust episodes over Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chenbo; Nishizawa, Tomoki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Wang, Zifa

    2008-09-20

    Aerosol optical properties were continuously measured with the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) compact Raman lidar over Beijing, China, from 15 to 31 December 2007. The results indicated that in a moderate pollution episode, the averaged aerosol extinction below 1 km height was 0.39+/-0.15 km(-1) and the lidar ratio was 60.8+/-13.5 sr; in heavy pollution episode, they were 1.97+/-0.91 km(-1) and 43.7+/-8.3 sr; in an Asian dust episode, they were 0.33+/-0.11 km(-1) and 38.3+/-9.8 sr. The total depolarization ratio was mostly below 10% in the pollution episode, whereas it was larger than 20% in the Asian dust episode. The distinct characteristics of aerosol optical properties in moderate and heavy pollution episodes were attributed to the difference in air mass trajectory and the ambient atmospheric conditions such as relative humidity. PMID:18806856

  20. SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Menghua; Bailey, Sean; McClain, Charles R.

    Atmospheric aerosols directly influence radiative transfer in the atmosphere and hence change the radiance reflected to space. They also indirectly affect the radiation budget by providing cloud condensation nucleii that lead to cloud formation. Since 1981, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has routinely retrieved the aerosol optical thickness over the ocean with measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) using a single wavelength algorithm [Rao et al., 1989]. Continuous efforts have been made in recent years to collect ground in situ measurements and remotely retrieve aerosol optical properties using air-and spaceborne sensors [King et al., 1999]. The primary goals of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) [Hooker et al., 1992], which was successfully launched on August 1, 1997, are to routinely measure global ocean color and generate ocean biooptical property products.

  1. Optical properties of different aerosol types: seven years of combined Raman-elastic backscatter lidar measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, E.; Balis, D. S.; Amiridis, V.; Zerefos, C.

    2010-05-01

    We present our combined Raman/elastic backscatter lidar observations which were carried out at the EARLINET station of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the period 2001-2007. The largest optical depths are observed for Saharan dust and smoke aerosol particles. For local and continental polluted aerosols the measurements indicate high aerosol loads. However, measurements associated with the local path indicate enhanced aerosol load within the Planetary Boundary Layer. The lowest value of aerosol optical depth is observed for continental aerosols, from West directions with less free tropospheric contribution. The largest lidar ratios, of the order of 70 sr, are found for biomass burning aerosols. A significant and distinct correlation between lidar ratio and backscatter related Ångström exponent values were estimated for different aerosol categories. Scatter plot between lidar ratio values and Ångström exponent values for local and continental polluted aerosols does not show a significant correlation, with a large variation in both parameters possibly due to variable absorption characteristics of these aerosols. Finally for continental aerosols with west and northwest directions that follow downward movement when arriving at our site constantly low lidar ratios almost independent of size are found.

  2. Real Effect or Artifact of Cloud Cover on Aerosol Optical Thickness?

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, M-J.; Li, Z.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol measurements over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud And Radiation Test bed (CART) site under Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program characterize the temporal variability, vertical distribution, and optical properties of aerosols in the region. They were made by the Cimel sunphotometer and Multifilter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), Raman Lidar, In situ Aerosol Profiling (IAP) flights, and the Aerosol Observing System (AOS). The spatial variability of aerosols relies a network of MFRSR at the Central Facility (CF) and Extended Facilities (EF), together with satellite remote sensing. The current state-of-art satellite-based estimates over land--e.g., MODerate resolution Imaging Scanner (MODIS) aerosol optical thickness--still suffer from large uncertainties. Contamination due to sub-pixel and/or thin cirrus clouds is believed to be one of the major sources of uncertainties. Retrievals near clouds are discouraged to use, which reduces considerably the amount of useful data. In this regard, cloud is considered as an artifact. However, cloud could have a real impact on AOT by changing humidity, which affects aerosol through the aerosol swelling effect. As a preliminary study, we first investigate the effects of cloud cover and humidity on the retrievals of AOT from ground-based Cimel sunphotometer measurements, in order to help us sort out the real influence and artifact. In general, it is very difficult to verify and quantify the effects of cloud on satellite retrieval of aerosol quantities. Speculation and warning of cloud contamination have been made whenever there is a correlation between the retrieved AOT and cloud fraction or their spatial variabilities, while it has also been argued that aerosol humidification effect (AHE) might be at work. The ample measurements available from ARM over the SGP region may allow us to unravel this complex issue. Our ultimate goals are to (1) evaluate various effects on the retrievals of AOT from both satellite and ground sensors; (2) separate artifact from real effect; (3) create ''clean'' aerosol products for studying their direct and indirect effect. Presented are some very preliminary findings.

  3. Optical properties and cross-sections of biological aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Thrush; D. M. Brown; N. Salciccioli; J. Gomes; A. Brown; K. Siegrist; M. E. Thomas; N. T. Boggs; C. C. Carter

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop standoff sensing of biological agents in aerosolized clouds. In support of the Joint Biological Standoff Detection System (JBSDS) program, lidar systems have been a dominant technology and have shown significant capability in field tests conducted in the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). The release of biological agents in

  4. Polarization resolved angular optical scattering of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Pan, Y.; Wang, C.; Videen, G.; Cao, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Real-time detection and identification of bio-aerosol particles are crucial for the protection against chemical and biological agents. The strong elastic light scattering properties of airborne particles provides a natural means for rapid, non-invasive aerosol characterization. Recent theoretical predictions suggested that variations in the polarization dependent angular scattering cross section could provide an efficient means of classifying different airborne particles. In particular, the polarization dependent scattering cross section of aggregate particles is expected to depend on the shape of the primary particles. In order to experimentally validate this prediction, we built a high throughput, sampling system, capable of measuring the polarization resolved angular scattering cross section of individual aerosol particles flowing through an interrogating volume with a single shot of laser pulse. We calibrated the system by comparing the polarization dependent scattering cross section of individual polystyrene spheres with that predicted by Mie theory. We then used the system to study different particles types: Polystyrene aggregates composed 500 nm spheres and Bacillus subtilis (BG, Anthrax simulant) spores composed of elongated 500 nm × 1000 nm cylinder-line particles. We found that the polarization resolved scattering cross section depends on the shape of the constituent elements of the aggregates. This work indicates that the polarization resolved scattering cross section could be used for rapid discrimination between different bio-aerosol particles.

  5. Comparison of aerosol optical depth between CALIOP and MODIS-Aqua for CALIOP aerosol subtypes over the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man-Hae; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Omar, Ali H.

    2013-12-01

    Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been compared with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua AOD using Level 2 products of both instruments. Such comparisons have been performed for five different aerosol subtypes classified by CALIOP algorithm, namely clean marine, dust, polluted dust, polluted continental, and biomass burning, over the ocean from June 2006 to December 2010. MODIS AOD at 550 nm (0.111 ± 0.079) for the collocated data pairs is about 63% higher than CALIOP AOD at 532 nm (0.068 ± 0.073). For clean marine, MODIS AOD (0.110 ± 0.064) is almost twice the CALIOP AOD (0.056 ± 0.038), and the difference between the AOD values has a strong latitude dependence likely related to the surface wind speed over the ocean. The difference in AOD for dust (13%) is observed to be the lowest among the five aerosol types under consideration, but it shows a slight regional variation. The discrepancy of AOD for dust also shows strong dependency on the layer mean of the particulate depolarization ratio. CALIOP AOD is higher than MODIS AOD for both polluted dust and polluted continental by 15% and 29%, respectively, for most of the ocean. One of the possible reasons for the difference is the misclassification of clean marine (or marine + dust) as polluted dust and polluted continental in the CALIOP algorithm. For biomass burning, uncertainty in the layer base altitude is thought to be one of the main reasons for the lower value of CALIOP AOD.

  6. An operational retrieval algorithm for determining aerosol optical properties in the ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Thomas E.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Slusser, James R.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Goering, Christian D.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a number of practical considerations concerning the optimization and operational implementation of an algorithm used to characterize the optical properties of aerosols across part of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. The algorithm estimates values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) at seven wavelengths in the UV, as well as total column ozone (TOC) and wavelength-independent asymmetry factor (g) using direct and diffuse irradiances measured with a UV multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (UV-MFRSR). A novel method for cloud screening the irradiance data set is introduced, as well as several improvements and optimizations to the retrieval scheme which yield a more realistic physical model for the inversion and increase the efficiency of the algorithm. Introduction of a wavelength-dependent retrieval error budget generated from rigorous forward model analysis as well as broadened covariances on the a priori values of AOD, SSA and g and tightened covariances of TOC allows sufficient retrieval sensitivity and resolution to obtain unique solutions of aerosol optical properties as demonstrated by synthetic retrievals. Analysis of a cloud screened data set (May 2003) from Panther Junction, Texas, demonstrates that the algorithm produces realistic values of the optical properties that compare favorably with pseudo-independent methods for AOD, TOC and calculated Ångstrom exponents. Retrieval errors of all parameters (except TOC) are shown to be negatively correlated to AOD, while the Shannon information content is positively correlated, indicating that retrieval skill improves with increasing atmospheric turbidity. When implemented operationally on more than thirty instruments in the Ultraviolet Monitoring and Research Program's (UVMRP) network, this retrieval algorithm will provide a comprehensive and internally consistent climatology of ground-based aerosol properties in the UV spectral range that can be used for both validation of satellite measurements as well as regional aerosol and ultraviolet transmission studies.

  7. Optical constants of Titan aerosols and their tholins analogs: Experimental results and modeling/observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

    2015-05-01

    Since Bishun Khare's pioneer works on Titan tholins, many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of the optical constants of Titan tholins. The determination of the optical constants of Titan aerosols is indeed essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of the optical properties is also crucial to analyze and better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. This review paper critically summarizes these new results and presents constraints on Titan's aerosols optical constants. Finally, the information lacking in this field is highlighted as well as some possible investigations that could be carried out to fill these gaps.

  8. Large scale modulations of spectral aerosol optical depths by atmospheric planetary waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Naseema Beegum; K. Krishna Moorthy; S. Suresh Babu; R. Ramakrishna Reddy; K. Rama Gopal

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 6 years of spectral aerosol optical depths (AOD), obtained during boreal winter at the tropical semi-arid location Anantapur, India, revealed significant modulations (to the seasonal mean AOD) by planetary scale atmospheric waves. Most significant contributions came from 30 to 50 day, and quasi-16 day periodicities; each contributing ?10% to 24%, and jointly up to 45% to the seasonal

  9. Hygroscopic and optical properties of organic sea salt aerosol and consequences for climate forcing

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    humidity (DRH), salt particles abruptly take up water to form saturated droplets. Conversely, when the RH of inorganic salts, organic compounds, and water. Several studies have observed organic compounds internallyHygroscopic and optical properties of organic sea salt aerosol and consequences for climate forcing

  10. Characteristics of aerosol optical properties in pollution and Asian dust episodes

    E-print Network

    Characteristics of aerosol optical properties in pollution and Asian dust episodes over Beijing Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan 2 Center Beijing, China, from 15 to 31 December 2007. The results indicated that in a moderate pollution episode

  11. MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI?2000 Dry Season Campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Diner; W. A. Abdou; C. J. Bruegge; J. E. Conel; K. A. Crean; B. J. Gaitley; M. C. Helmlinger; R. A. Kahn; J. V. Martonchik; S. H. Pilorz; B. N. Holben

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, retrievals of aerosol optical depths from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer (MISR) observations over land. Application of the MISR operational algorithm to data taken over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign yields results that compare favorably with coincident surface-based measurements taken by the AERONET radiometer network.

  12. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  13. Aerosol optical depth and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements: global validation and intersensor comparisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. F. Grey; Peter R. J. North; Sietse O. Los; Ross M. Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results and satellite intercomparisons for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and land surface bidirectional reflectance using the Multiangle Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). The algorithm developed is based on inversion of a physical model of light scattering that requires no a priori knowledge of the land surface. The model is evaluated for a number

  14. Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa Hawaii: 1982-1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellsworth G. Dutton; Patrick Reddy; Steve Ryan; John J. DeLuisi

    1994-01-01

    Spectral aerosol optical depth, taua, observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for the past 11 years is analyzed for background variations and the effects of two major volcanic eruptions: El Chichón in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo in 1991. A previously known annual variation and near-background levels are present in the record. The data are of high accuracy, being primarily obtained from

  15. On the sources of bias in aerosol optical depth retrieval in the UV range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Arola; Tapani Koskela

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and evaluate the systematic sources of bias in aerosol optical depth (AOD) values in the UV range due to (1) the entrance of diffuse light into the finite field of view, (2) diurnal atmospheric changes of ozone under urban conditions, (3) the influence of omitting the effect of NO2 absorption, and (4) stray light of

  16. Measurements of Intensive Aerosol Optical Properties During TexAQS II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Atkinson; J. G. Radney; M. E. Wright

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the bulk extensive aerosol optical properties - particle extinction coefficient (bext) and particle scattering coefficient (bscat) - and particle number concentrations were made as part of the six-week TRAMP experiment during the TexAQS II (2006) study. These measurements were done at a nominal surface site (the roof of an 18 story building) on the University of Houston

  17. Aerosol optical thickness trends and population growth in the Indian subcontinent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Kishcha; Boris Starobinets; Olga Kalashnikova; Pinhas Alpert

    2011-01-01

    The Indian subcontinent occupies 2.4% of the world land mass and is home to ?17% of the world population. It is characterized by a wide range of population density (P), significant population growth and high levels of air pollution. The quantification of the effect of urbanization on aerosol optical thickness (AOT) trends was carried out by analysing 8-year (March 2000

  18. Ultrahigh Frequency Lensless Ultrasonic Transducers for Acoustic Tweezers Application

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Lin, Anderson; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Eun Sok; Shung, Kirk Koping

    2014-01-01

    Similar to optical tweezers, a tightly focused ultrasound microbeam is needed to manipulate microparticles in acoustic tweezers. The development of highly sensitive ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducers is crucial for trapping particles or cells with a size of a few microns. As an extra lens would cause excessive attenuation at ultrahigh frequencies, two types of 200-MHz lensless transducer design were developed as an ultrasound microbeam device for acoustic tweezers application. Lithium niobate single crystal press-focused (PF) transducer and zinc oxide self-focused transducer were designed, fabricated and characterized. Tightly focused acoustic beams produced by these transducers were shown to be capable of manipulating single microspheres as small as 5 ?m two-dimensionally within a range of hundreds of micrometers in distilled water. The size of the trapped microspheres is the smallest ever reported in the literature of acoustic PF devices. These results suggest that these lensless ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducers are capable of manipulating particles at the cellular level and that acoustic tweezers may be a useful tool to manipulate a single cell or molecule for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:23042219

  19. Optical Properties of Aerosols from the Central Himalayas during Rawex - Gvax Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumka, U. C.; Naja, M.; Singh, N.; Phanikumar, D.; Pant, P.; Sagar, R.; Satheesh, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Jefferson, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region in the Northern India is one of the most populated regions of the world and it encompasses a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic source of aerosols and pollutants due to rapidly growing industrialization and expanding urbanization in recent years. The observed aerosol layer covers the vast expansion during the winter and early spring of each year extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the Bay of Bengal (BoB). However, the ground based observations are very limited to verify the same. Based on the modeling, the vertical lifting of aerosols/ pollutants from this region and the wide spread transport of aerosols and pollutants during the prevailing higher wind speed, hence influencing the radiation budget and thereby climate change over the wide region. In view of this, the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement mobile facility (AMF1) has been set-up at ARIES, Nainital (29.4oN, 79.5oE, 1958m above mean sea level) under the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX)-Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) project. Under this program the observations of physical, optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters are being made during June 2011 to March 2012. The aerosol optical properties derived from the measurements carried out with Aerosol Observation System (AOS) are presented in this paper. The preliminary analysis of the data obtained during the above said period shows significant signature of the transport of atmospheric aerosols and pollutants to the observational site with the prevailing and episodic winds over the region and suggest different origins for the air masses arriving at the observational site. The nominal particle concentration ranges from 200 to 5000 cm-3 during the study period and such values are typical for a high altitude site. A distinct diurnal variation of aerosol optical properties is observed, with highest values during late evening and minimum values appear at night and early morning hours. The low values of scattering coefficient are observed during Indian summer monsoon period and it showed increasing trend after the monsoon period. Considering the large increase in the aerosol scattering coefficient between the Indian summer monsoon and post monsoon seasons, there is little variability in the aerosol intensive properties. In general, aerosols observed over the observational site have a relatively high value of single scattering albedo and low value of Ångström exponent, indicating relatively large particles with the low absorption. The hygroscopic growth factors (ratio of scattering at 85/40% Relative Humidity) are moderate to low and indicate that the aerosol isn't highly oxidized. The observed surface radiative forcing efficiency ranges from -3 to -20 W m-2. Detailed discussion will be made during the presentation.

  20. Comparison of trend between aerosol optical depth and PM in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, S. H.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Jeong, U.

    2014-12-01

    East Asia is one of major source region of aerosol emission. For decades, vast amount of aerosol, which is emitted and transported from emission region such as desert and industrialized area, has significant effect in the air quality and public health. Moreover, by scattering solar radiation and moderating cloud microphysical system, aerosol plays an important role in climate system. As the Korean peninsula is located in the downwind side of East Asia, the distribution of aerosol in this region is affected by continental outflow and local emission, This study shows the long-term trend and regional distribution of PM10 concentration over 28 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) at 550nm channel during the period from March 2011 to March 2014. Though AOD is a good indicator of PM10 concentration, there are some uncertainties in AOD caused largely by aerosol type, surface reflectance, and those in PM by relative humidity (RH), boundary layer height (BLH) and so on. In this study, retrieved AODs were compared with the observed PM10, and trends and correlations between AOD and PM10 have been calculated for different region and season over the Korean peninsula.

  1. A Comparison of Aerosol Optical Property Measurements Made During the DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period and Their Effects on Regional Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Hallar, A. G.; Arnott, W. P.; Covert, D.; Elleman, R.; Ogren, J.; Schmid, B.; Luu, A.

    2004-01-01

    The amount of radiant energy an aerosol absorbs has profound effects on climate and air quality. It is ironic that aerosol absorption coefficient is one of the most difficult to measure aerosol properties. One of the main purposes of the DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period (IOP) flown in May, 2003 was to assess our ability to measure absorption coefficient in situ. This paper compares measurements of aerosol optical properties made during the IOP. Measurements of aerosol absorption coefficient were made by Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) aboard the CIRPAS Twin-Otter (U. Washington) and on the DOE Cessna 172 (NOAA-C,MDL). Aerosol absorption coefficient was also measured by a photoacoustic instrument (DRI) that was operated on an aircraft for the first time during the IOP. A new cavity ring-down (CRD) instrument, called Cadenza (NASA-AkC), measures the aerosol extinction coefficient for 675 nm and 1550 nm light, and simultaneously measures the scattering coefficient at 675 nm. Absorption coefficient is obtained from the difference of measured extinction and scattering within the instrument. Measurements of absorption coefficient from all of these instruments during appropriate periods are compared. During the IOP, several significant aerosol layers were sampled aloft. These layers are identified in the remote (AATS-14) as well as in situ measurements. Extinction profiles measured by Cadenza are compared to those derived from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14, NASA-ARC). The regional radiative impact of these layers is assessed by using the measured aerosol optical properties in a radiative transfer model.

  2. Long-term observations of aerosol optical properties at Wuhan, an urban site in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lunche; Gong, Wei; Xia, Xiangao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Jun; Zhu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (?), single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distribution and refractive index at urban Wuhan in Central China are investigated based on the measurements from a CIMEL sun-photometer during 2007-2013. AOD500 nm is found to be relatively high all year round and the highest value 1.52 occurs in June 2012 and the lowest (0.57) in November 2012. ? shows a significant monthly variation, with the highest value in June 2010 (1.71) and the lowest value (0.78) in April 2012. Analysis of AOD and ? frequencies indicate that this region is populated with fine-mode particles. Monthly variations of SSA for total, fine and coarse-mode particles are closely related to the aerosol hygroscopic growth, fossil fuel and biomass burning. The aerosol volume size distributions (bi-modal pattern) show distinct differences in particle radius for different seasons, the radius for fine-mode particles generally increase from spring to summer month, for example, the highest peak is around radius 0.15 ?m in March, while the peak radius is around 0.25 ?m in June. Finally, monthly statistics of real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index are analyzed, the highest averages of real (1.50) and imaginary parts (0.0395) are found in spring and autumn, respectively at wavelength 440-1020 nm.

  3. Columnar-integrated aerosol optical properties and classification of different aerosol types over the semi-arid region, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    K, Rama Gopal; S Md, Arafath; G, Balakrishnaiah; K, Raja Obul Reddy; N, Siva Kumar Reddy; A P, Lingaswamy; S, Pavan Kumari; K, Uma Devi; R R, Reddy; S, Suresh Babu

    2015-09-15

    This study presents a characterization of aerosol columnar properties measured at a semi-arid station Anantapur in the southern part of India during the period from October 2012 to September 2013. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (?) have been retrieved from Microtops II Sunphotometer over the observation site. The results show that a pronounced spectral and monthly variability in the optical properties of aerosols is mainly due to anthropogenic sources. The results show that the spectral curvature can effectively be used as a tool for aerosol type discrimination, since the fine-mode aerosols exhibit negative curvature, while the coarse-mode particles are positive. The classification of aerosols is also proposed by using the values of AOD at 500nm and Angstrom exponent values (?(380-870)) by applying threshold values obtained from the frequency distribution of AOD. The results of the analysis were identified by four individual components (anthropogenic/biomass burning, coarse/dust, coarse/marine, clean continental) of different origin and compositions. The most frequent situations observed over the site are that due to the anthropogenic/biomass burning situations which account for about 45.37%, followed by coarse/dust (43.64%), clean continental (7.2%) and coarse/marine (3.82%) during summer. The identification of the aerosol source type and the modification processes are analyzed by using the Gobbi et al. (2007) classification scheme based on the measured scattering properties (?, d?) derived from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. PMID:26005994

  4. A novel method to retrieve Aerosol Optical Thickness from high-resolution optical satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. T.; Milton, E. J.; Nield, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data has many important applications including atmospheric correction of satellite imagery and monitoring of particulate matter air pollution. Current data products are generally available at a kilometre-scale resolution, but many applications require far higher resolutions. For example, particulate matter concentrations vary on a metre-scale, and thus data products at a similar scale are required to provide accurate assessments of particle densities and allow effective monitoring of air quality and analysis of local air quality effects on health. A novel method has been developed which retrieves per-pixel AOT values from high-resolution (~30m) satellite data. This method is designed to work over a wide range of land covers - including both bright and dark surfaces - and requires only standard visible and near-infrared data, making it applicable to a range of data from sensors such as Landsat, DMC, SPOT and Pleiades. The method is based upon an extension of the Haze Optimized Transform (HOT). The HOT was originally designed for assessing areas of thick haze in satellite imagery by calculating a ';haziness' value for each pixel in an image as the distance from a ';Clear Line' in feature space, defined by the high correlation between visible bands. Here, we adapt the HOT method and use it to provide AOT data instead. Significant extensions include Monte Carlo estimation of the ';Clear Line', object-based correction for land cover, and Bayesian estimation of AOT from the haziness values through radiative transfer modelling. This novel method will enable many new applications of AOT data that were impossible with previously available low-resolution data, and has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the air quality on health, the accuracy of satellite image atmospheric correction and the role of aerosols in the climate system.

  5. Evaluation of SAGE II and Balloon-Borne Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements: Evaluation of Aerosol Measurements from SAGE II, HALOE, and Balloonborne Optical Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark; Deshler, Terry; Moddrea, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements from the University of Wyoming balloonborne optical particle counters (OPCs), the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) were compared in the period 1982-2000, when measurements were available. The OPCs measure aerosol size distributions, and HALOE multiwavelength (2.45-5.26 micrometers) extinction measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol size distributions. Aerosol extinctions at the SAGE II wavelengths (0.386-1.02 micrometers) were computed from these size distributions and compared to SAGE II measurements. In addition, surface areas derived from all three experiments were compared. While the overall impression from these results is encouraging, the agreement can change with latitude, altitude, time, and parameter. In the broadest sense, these comparisons fall into two categories: high aerosol loading (volcanic periods) and low aerosol loading (background periods and altitudes above 25 km). When the aerosol amount was low, SAGE II and HALOE extinctions were higher than the OPC estimates, while the SAGE II surface areas were lower than HALOE and the OPCS. Under high loading conditions all three instruments mutually agree to within 50%.

  6. Linking surface in-situ measurements to columnar aerosol optical properties at Hyytiälä, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, P.; Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, V.; Äijälä, M.; Backman, J.; Ehn, M.; Hong, J.; Krejci, R.; Laborde, M.; de Leeuw, G.; Petäjä, T.; Pfüller, A.; Rosati, B.; Tesche, M.; Väänänen, R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient optical properties of aerosols strongly depend on the particles' hygroscopicity and the relative humidity (RH) of the surrounding air. The key parameter to describe the influence of RH on the particle light scattering is the scattering enhancement factor f(RH), which is defined as the particle light scattering coefficient at defined RH divided by its dry value. Knowledge of this hygroscopicity effect is of crucial importance for climate forcing calculations and is needed for the comparison or validation of remote sensing with in-situ measurements. We will present results of an intensive field campaign carried out in summer 2013 at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Finland, which was part of the EU-FP7 project PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas-Aerosols-climate interaction Study). Ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol optical, chemical and microphysical properties were conducted. The f(RH) measured at ground by a humidified nephelometer was found to be significantly lower (1.53 ± 0.24 at RH=85% and wavelength ?=450 nm) than observed at other European sites (Zieger et al., 2013). One reason is the high organic mass fraction of the boreal aerosol as measured by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM). A closure study using Mie theory showed the consistency of the ground based in-situ measurements. Our measurements allowed to determine the ambient particle light extinction coefficient. Together with intensive aircraft measurements (lasting one month) of the particle number size distribution and ambient humidity, different columnar values were determined and compared to direct measurements and inversions of the AERONET Sun photometer (e.g., the columnar aerosol volume size distribution). The aerosol optical depth strongly correlated (R2?0.9 for ?=440 nm to R2?0.6 for ?=1020 nm) with the in situ derived values, but was significantly lower compared to the direct measurements of the Sun photometer (slope ?0.5). This was explained by the loss of coarse mode particles within the in-situ measurements and by elevated aerosol layers (>3 km) from long-range transport layers that were observed using an aerosol LIDAR at Kuopio, Finland, about 210 km east of Hyytiälä. Zieger, P., Fierz-Schmidhauser, R., Weingartner, E. and Baltensperger, U. (2013). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13,10609-10631.

  7. Optical properties and cross-sections of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrush, E.; Brown, D. M.; Salciccioli, N.; Gomes, J.; Brown, A.; Siegrist, K.; Thomas, M. E.; Boggs, N. T.; Carter, C. C.

    2010-04-01

    There is an urgent need to develop standoff sensing of biological agents in aerosolized clouds. In support of the Joint Biological Standoff Detection System (JBSDS) program, lidar systems have been a dominant technology and have shown significant capability in field tests conducted in the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). The release of biological agents in the open air is forbidden. Therefore, indirect methods must be developed to determine agent cross-sections in order to validate sensor against biological agents. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and liquid suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index of refraction from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long wave infrared (LWIR). Using that result and the aerosols' particle size distribution as inputs to Mie calculations yields the backscatter and extinction cross-sections as a function of wavelength. Recent efforts to model field measurements from the UV to the IR have been successful. Measurements with aerodynamic and geometric particle sizers show evidence of particle clustering. Backscatter simulations of these aerosols show these clustered particles dominate the aerosol backscatter and depolarization signals. In addition, these large particles create spectral signatures in the backscatter signal due to material absorption. Spectral signatures from the UV to the IR have been observed in simulations of field releases. This method has been demonstrated for a variety of biological simulant materials such as Ovalbumin (OV), Erwinia (EH), Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) and male specific bacteriophage (MS2). These spectral signatures may offer new methods for biological discrimination for both stand-off sensing and point detection systems.

  8. Ground-based aerosol climatology of China: aerosol optical depths from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) 2002-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, H.; Zhang, X.; Xia, X.; Goloub, P.; Holben, B.; Zhao, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Wang, H.; Blarel, L.; Damiri, B.; Zhang, R.; Deng, X.; Ma, Y.; Wang, T.; Geng, F.; Qi, B.; Zhu, J.; Yu, J.; Chen, Q.; Shi, G.

    2015-04-01

    Long-term measurements of aerosol optical depths (AOD) and Angstrom exponents (Alpha) made for CARSNET were compiled into a climatology of aerosol optical properties for China. Quality-assured monthly mean AODs are presented for 50 sites representing remote, rural, and urban areas. AODs were 0.14, 0.34, 0.42, 0.54, and 0.74 at remote stations, rural/desert regions, the Loess Plateau, central and eastern China, and urban sites, respectively, and the corresponding Alpha values were 0.97, 0.55, 0.82, 1.19, and 1.05. AODs increased from north to south, with low values (< 0.20) over the Tibetan Plateau and northwestern China and high AODs (> 0.60) in central and eastern China where industrial emissions and anthropogenic activities were likely sources. AODs were 0.20-0.40 in semi-arid and arid regions and some background areas in north and northeast China. Alphas were > 1.20 over the southern reaches of the Yangtze River and at clean sites in northeastern China. In the northwestern deserts and industrial parts of northeast China, Alphas were lower (< 0.80) compared with central and eastern regions. Dust events in spring, hygroscopic particle growth during summer, and biomass burning contribute the high AODs, especially in northern and eastern China. The AODs show decreasing trends from 2006 to 2009 but increased ~ 0.03 yr-1 from 2009 to 2013.

  9. Continuous measurements of Arctic boundary layer aerosol physical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Lihavainen, H.; Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Reshetnikov, A.; Ivakhov, V.; Uttal, T.; Makshtas, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded on the shore of the Arctic Ocean, in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71_360N; 128_530E) has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol particle physical and optical properties. Measurements were initiated in summer 2010 and further extended in summer 2013. Together with the FMI measurements in Pallas GAW station in northern Finland since 1999, these complete our understanding on the Arctic aerosol annual cycles and allow for infer their climatic impacts. Here, we will present the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol concentrations, which is characterized by winter minimum and spring and summer maxima. We will show the most important Arctic aerosol source regions and their variability with seasons. We will present the aerosol radiative forcing and compare these measured values with those provided by the current earth-system model calculations. In more detail we will look at the process of new particle formation, which takes frequently place at both the two stations and in particular in spring season, and estimate its impact on aerosol radiative properties.

  10. Multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer calibration for spectral aerosol optical depth retrievals over São Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Rosário, Nilton; Yamasoe, Márcia Akemi; Sayão, André; Siqueira, Ricardo

    2008-03-20

    Multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) calibration values for aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals were determined by means of the general method formulated by Forgan [Appl. Opt.33, 4841 (1994)] at a polluted urban site. The obtained precision is comparable with the classical method, the Langley plot, applied on clean mountaintops distant of pollution sources. The AOD retrieved over São Paulo City with both calibration procedures is compared with the Aerosol Robotic Network data. The observed results are similar, and, except for the shortest wavelength (415 nm), the MFRSR's AOD is systematically overestimated by approximately 0.03. PMID:18709060

  11. Multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer calibration for spectral aerosol optical depth retrievals over São Paulo City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Rosário, Nilton; Akemi Yamasoe, Márcia; Sayão, André; Siqueira, Ricardo

    2008-03-01

    Multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) calibration values for aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals were determined by means of the general method formulated by Forgan [Appl. Opt.33, 4841 (1994)] at a polluted urban site. The obtained precision is comparable with the classical method, the Langley plot, applied on clean mountaintops distant of pollution sources. The AOD retrieved over São Paulo City with both calibration procedures is compared with the Aerosol Robotic Network data. The observed results are similar, and, except for the shortest wavelength (415 nm), the MFRSR's AOD is systematically overestimated by ~0.03.

  12. Smartphone based Android app for determining UVA aerosol optical depth and direct solar irradiances.

    PubMed

    Igoex, Damien P; Parisi, Alfio; Carter, Brad

    2013-10-12

    This research describes the development and evaluation of the accuracy and precision of an Android app specifically designed, written and installed on a smartphone for detecting and quantifying incident solar UVA radiation and subsequently, aerosol optical depth at 340 nm and 380 nm. Earlier studies demonstrated that a smartphone image sensor can detect UVA radiation and the responsivity can be calibrated to measured direct solar irradiance. This current research provides the data collection, calibration, processing, calculations and display all on a smartphone. A very strong coefficient of determination of 0.98 was achieved when the digital response was recalibrated and compared to the Microtops sunphotometer direct UVA irradiance observations. The mean percentage discrepancy discrepancy for derived direct solar irradiance was only 4% and 6% for observations at 380 nm and 340 nm respectively, lessening with decreasing solar zenith angle. An 8% mean percent difference discrepancy was observed when comparing aerosol optical depth, also decreasing as solar zenith angle decreases. The results indicate that a specifically designed Android app linking and using a smartphone image sensor, calendar and clock, with additional external narrow bandpass and neutral density filters can be used as a field sensor to evaluate both direct solar UVA irradiance and low aerosol optical depths for areas with low aerosol loads. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:24117514

  13. Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retreival method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aube; L. Franchomme-Fosse; P. Robert-Staehler; V. Houle

    2005-01-01

    Tracking the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is of particular importance in monitoring aerosol contributions to global radiative forcing. Until now, the two standard techniques used for retrieving AOD were; (i) sun photometry, and (ii) satellite-based approaches, such as based DDV (Dense Dark Vegetation) inversion algorithms. These methods are only available for use during daylight time since they are based on

  14. Comparison of optical properties of nitrate and sulfate aerosol and the direct radiative forcing due to nitrate in China

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    Comparison of optical properties of nitrate and sulfate aerosol and the direct radiative forcing due to nitrate in China H. Zhang a, , Z. Shen a,b , X. Wei a,c , M. Zhang d , Z. Li e,f a Laboratory the direct radiative forcing (DRF) due to nitrate aerosols. Ensuing errors have not been rigorously evaluated

  15. Biomass burning and pollution aerosol over North America: Organic components and their influence on spectral optical properties and humidification response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Clarke; C. McNaughton; V. Kapustin; Y. Shinozuka; S. Howell; J. Dibb; J. Zhou; B. Anderson; V. Brekhovskikh; H. Turner; M. Pinkerton

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analysis of aerosol size distributions provided size resolved volatility up to temperatures of 400°C during extensive flights over North America (NA) for the INTEX\\/ICARTT experiment in summer 2004. Biomass burning and pollution plumes identified from trace gas measurements were evaluated for their aerosol physiochemical and optical signatures. Measurements of soluble ionic mass and refractory black carbon (BC) mass, inferred

  16. FLEXAOD: A CHEMISTRY-TRANSPORT MODEL POST-PROCESSING TOOL FOR A FLEXIBLE CALCULATION OF AEROSOL OPTICAL PROPERTIES

    E-print Network

    Curci, Gabriele

    , ...) and anthropogenic (fossil fuel combustion, agricultural practices, ...) sources and from secondary formation via and it is used in comparison with multi-spectral aerosol measurements from satellites and AERONET network offline the aerosol optics calculations performed online within the GEOS-Chem global CTM. The original

  17. Impact of modeled versus satellite measured tropical precipitation on regional smoke optical thickness in an aerosol transport model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Xian; Jeffrey S. Reid; Joseph F. Turk; Edward J. Hyer; Douglas L. Westphal

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol and climate models are dependent on the parameterizations of the underlying meteorological model. Precipitation schemes in global meteorological models are designed to close the regional water budget, without concern for representative wet removal. By substituting numerical model precipitation for a multi-satellite precipitation dataset, we demonstrate the impact of modeled versus satellite-derived precipitation on aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the

  18. Aerosol Optical Properties and Component Extinction from Measurements on the Ronald H. Brown During ACE-Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Quinn; T. S. Bates; D. Coffman; T. Miller; J. Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties were made onboard the NOAA R\\/V Ronald H. Brown during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program to characterize Asian aerosol as it was transported across the Pacific Ocean. The ship traveled across the Pacific from Hawaii to Japan and into the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan. Based on trajectory analysis,

  19. Regional comparison and assimilation of GOCART and MODIS aerosol optical depth across the eastern U.S.

    E-print Network

    Niyogi, Dev

    Regional comparison and assimilation of GOCART and MODIS aerosol optical depth across the eastern U Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport, 2000 to December 31, 2001. The Terra MODIS Level-3 (collection 4) AOD at 0.55 mm has better correlation

  20. Analysis and evaluation of the global aerosol optical properties simulated by an online aerosol-coupled non-hydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tie; Shi, Guangyu; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2015-06-01

    Aerosol optical properties are simulated using the Spectral Radiation Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS) coupled with the Non-hydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM). The 3-year global mean all-sky aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 550 nm, the Ångström Exponent (AE) based on AOTs at 440 and 870 nm, and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 550 nm are estimated at 0.123, 0.657 and 0.944, respectively. For each aerosol species, the mean AOT is within the range of the AeroCom models. Both the modeled all-sky and clear-sky results are compared with observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The simulated spatiotemporal distributions of all-sky AOTs can generally reproduce the MODIS retrievals, and the correlation and model skill can be slightly improved using the clear-sky results over most land regions. The differences between clear-sky and all-sky AOTs are larger over polluted regions. Compared with observations from AERONET, the modeled and observed all-sky AOTs and AEs are generally in reasonable agreement, whereas the SSA variation is not well captured. Although the spatiotemporal distributions of all-sky and clear-sky results are similar, the clear-sky results are generally better correlated with the observations. The clear-sky AOT and SSA are generally lower than the all-sky results, especially in those regions where the aerosol chemical composition is contributed to mostly by sulfate aerosol. The modeled clear-sky AE is larger than the all-sky AE over those regions dominated by hydrophilic aerosol, while the opposite is found over regions dominated by hydrophobic aerosol.

  1. Implications of Satellite Swath Width on Global Aerosol Optical Thickness Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; Kahn, Ralph; Remer, Lorraine; Levy, Robert; Welton, Ellsworth

    2012-01-01

    We assess the impact of swath width on the statistics of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieved by satellite as inferred from observations made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We sub-sample the year 2009 MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft along several candidate swaths of various widths. We find that due to spatial sampling there is an uncertainty of approximately 0.01 in the global, annual mean AOT. The sub-sampled monthly mean gridded AOT are within +/- 0.01 of the full swath AOT about 20% of the time for the narrow swath sub-samples, about 30% of the time for the moderate width sub-samples, and about 45% of the time for the widest swath considered. These results suggest that future aerosol satellite missions with only a narrow swath view may not sample the true AOT distribution sufficiently to reduce significantly the uncertainty in aerosol direct forcing of climate.

  2. Automated Solar Tracking Spectrophotometer for Remote Sensing of Column Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, B.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Karr, D.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere are poorly understood in terms of how they affect weather and climate. In an effort to advance this knowledge, an automated solar tracking spectrophotometer has been constructed to measure direct solar radiation from the ultraviolet to infrared. This instrument facilitates determination of solar irradiance, precipitable water, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and the Ångström turbidity exponent related to aerosol size distribution. Measurements with a CIMEL CE-318 sun photometer (part of the global NASA AERONET network) and a manual solar spectrophotometer are being used to evaluate the accuracy of our instrument. Upon successful evaluation, this instrument will provide a basis for research into spectral information that will supplement CIMEL measurements. Presented is the design of this instrument and measurement comparisons with the aforementioned instruments for the air above Reno, Nevada, USA.

  3. In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 ?m), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 ?g m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 9 and 6 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar. During the pre-monsoon the concentrations in Gual Pahari were only twofold compared to Mukteshwar. The monsoon cleans the atmosphere from particulate matter so that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reduced to more than half compared to pre-monsoon values. We also found a very clear diurnal cycle on both station, except during the monsoon season. However the phase of the cycle was different between stations. This annual and diurnal variation is controlled besides emissions by evolution of boundary layer and transport of aerosols from Indo- Gangetic plains to the background site in Mukteshwar. Basically all measured aerosol properties behaved similarly. We also analyzed the data to observe the so called elevated heat pump hypothesis and trends in long term aerosol properties, although six years of data is not enough to make solid conclusions.

  4. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

    2013-08-01

    The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, China) slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near the emission source at Pokhara, while does not at the other two stations in remote regions. AOD increases during daytime due to the valley winds at EVK2-CNR, while this diurnal variation of AOD is absent at the other two stations. The surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollutions to the surrounding areas. The Himalayas blocks most of the coarse particles across the mountains. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed to make atmospheric composition more complex on the southern slope in spring, which leads to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE) at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  5. MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Bias Adjustment Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albayrak, Arif; Wei, Jennifer; Petrenko, Maksym; Lary, David; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the earth atmosphere and its surface changes, satellite based instruments collect continuous data. While some of the data is directly used, some others such as aerosol properties are indirectly retrieved from the observation data. While retrieved variables (RV) form very powerful products, they don't come without obstacles. Different satellite viewing geometries, calibration issues, dynamically changing atmospheric and earth surface conditions, together with complex interactions between observed entities and their environment affect them greatly. This results in random and systematic errors in the final products.

  6. Creating a consistent dark-target aerosol optical depth record from MODIS and VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.; Patadia, F.; Holz, R.

    2014-12-01

    To answer fundamental questions about our changing climate, we must quantify how aerosols are changing over time. This is a global question that requires regional characterization, because in some places aerosols are increasing and in others they are decreasing. Although NASA's Moderate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors have provided quantitative information about global aerosol optical depth (AOD) for more than a decade, the creation of an aerosol climate data record (CDR) requires consistent multi-decadal data. With the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP, there is potential to continue the MODIS aerosol time series. Yet, since the operational VIIRS aerosol product is produced by a different algorithm, it is not suitable to continue MODIS to create an aerosol CDR. Therefore, we have applied the MODIS Dark-target (DT) algorithm to VIIRS observations, taking into account the slight differences in wavelengths, resolutions and geometries between the two sensors. More specifically, we applied the MODIS DT algorithm to a dataset known as the Intermediate File Format (IFF), created by the University of Wisconsin. The IFF is produced for both MODIS and VIIRS, with the idea that a single (MODIS-like or ML) algorithm can be run either dataset, which can in turn be compared to the MODIS Collection 6 (M6) retrieval that is run on standard MODIS data. After minimizing or characterizing remaining differences between ML on MODIS-IFF (or ML-M) and M6, we have performed apples-to-apples comparison between ML-M and ML on VIIRS IFF (ML-V). Examples of these comparisons include time series of monthly global mean, monthly and seasonal global maps at 1° resolution, and collocations as compared to AERONET. We concentrate on the overlapping period January 2012 through June 2014, and discuss some of the remaining discrepancies between the ML-V and ML-M datasets.

  7. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Owano, T.; Castaneda, R.; Baer, D. S.; Paldus, B. A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This abstract describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5/Mm). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  8. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Castaneda, Rene; Owano, Thomas; Baer, Douglas S.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This paper describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5 M/m). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  9. Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA

    E-print Network

    Leuba, Sanford

    Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA transcription. Magnetic tweezers surface magnetic bead F DNA external magnets F =kBT l/> l F x surface Instrumental set-up video camera beam condenser hollow bearing with magnet 90x oil

  10. The uncertainty of MODIS C6 aerosol optical depth product over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yerong; de Graaf, Martin; Menenti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has an important impact on climate change and air quality. A number of AOD satellite data products have been released, like Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD product, which are further applied for monitoring PM2.5, for long-term aerosol trend analysis, and for estimating aerosol radiative forcing. However, the accuracy of MODIS AOD product with ±0.03 or 15-20% of global mean value over land is still low for extensive scientific research. To investigate the accuracy of the product, a synthetic experiment was designed where the errors introduced by both radiometry and algorithm, e.g. instrument calibration, gas correction and cloud mask, and some assumptions on aerosol properties can be removed. Through analysis of the mean value of retrieved AOD over 1520 observational configurations, the algorithm performs very well with small errors (up to 0.2%) for most cases, while for some extreme cases (eg., AOD=5.0), it performs less accurately (> 3%). The uncertainty also shows a trend related to the geometry of observations (e.g., scattering angle). The results suggest higher accuracy at large scattering angles, and lower accuracy at small scattering angles. The main reason for the uncertainty is an inappropriate assumption on surface reflectance, where surface reflectance is regarded as a function of aerosol loading and mixing ratio. Therefore, a more accurate representation of the surface reflectance will increase the accuracy of the MODIS AOD product.

  11. Retrieval of aerosol size distribution based on GCV regularization with optical data of lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hua, Dengxin; Di, Huige; Wang, Yufeng; Zhao, Huan; Mao, Jiandong

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation balance both directly and indirectly. The aerosol size distribution (ASD) is one of the most important microphysical properties. In this paper, the generalized cross-validation (GCV) regularization method is used for the retrieval of ASD from three-wavelength lidar optical data. The numerical simulations are carried out using synthetic backscatter and extinction coefficients. Simulations results demonstrate that the ASD depends on particle refractive index. Choosing the suitable refractive index is crucial to retrieve aerosol size distribution accurately. Moreover, the numerical results show that, for the same refractive index, it is more suitable to retrieve broad ASD, which has larger mode width ?. The GCV regularization method has been tested for a set of experimental data from three-wavelength lidar, which provides backscatter coefficient at 355, 532 and 1064 nm and extinction coefficient at 355 and 532 nm. Experimental result shows that the retrieved size distribution belongs to the urban industrial type and fine mode. The result shows good agreement with the actural atmospheric aerosol size distribution of local area. Both the simulation and the expriment demonstrate that the GCV regularization method is feasible to retrieve the aerosol size distribution.

  12. What's the real role of iron-oxides in the optical properties of dust aerosols?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Wu, G. J.; Zhang, C. L.; Xu, T. L.; Zhou, Q. Q.

    2015-02-01

    Iron oxides compounds constitute an important component of mineral dust aerosol. Several previous studies have shown that these minerals are strong absorbers at visible wavelengths and thus that they play a critical role in the overall climate forcing caused by dust aerosol. When compiling a database of complex refractive indices of possible mineral species of iron-oxides to study their optical properties, we found that uniformly continuous optical constants for a single type of iron-oxides in the wavelength range between 0.2 and 50 ?m is very scarce and that the use of hematite to represent all molecular or mineral iron-oxides types is a popular hypothesis. However, the crucial problem is that three continuous datasets for complex refractive indices of hematite are employed in climate models, but there are significant differences between them. Thus, the real role of iron-oxides in the optical properties of dust aerosols becomes a key scientific question, and we address this problem by considering different refractive indices, size distributions, and more logical weight fractions and mixing states of hematite. Based on the microscopic observations, a semi-external mixture that employs an external mixture between Fe-aggregates and other minerals and partly internal mixing between iron-oxides and aluminosilicate particles is advised as the optimal approximation. The simulations demonstrate that hematite with a spectral refractive indices from Longtin et al. (1988) shows approximately equal absorbing capacity to the mineral illite over the whole wavelength region from 0.55 to 2.5 ?m, and only enhances the optical absorption of aerosol mixture at ? < 0.55 ?m. Using the dataset from Querry (1985) may overestimate the optical absorption of hematite at both visible and near-infrared wavelengths. More laboratory measurements of the refractive index of iron-oxides, especially for hematite and goethite in the visible spectrum, should therefore be taken into account when assessing the effect of mineral dust on climate forcing.

  13. How do the optical properties of Asian aerosols change when they cross the Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jaffe, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Primary and secondary aerosols from Asia may have important climate implications. These aerosols are emitted locally, but can then be lofted into the free troposphere and advected across the Pacific. In this analysis we used observations from the Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in conjunction with satellite data to identify the dominant aerosol types in specific Asian plumes that crossed the Pacific. In situ data from MBO is used to understand the observed changes in radiative properties. A suite of gas phase and aerosol measurements were made during spring 2008 and spring 2009 at MBO (2763 masl), located in central Oregon. Here we focus on observations of dry sub-?m aerosol scattering (?sp) and absorption (?ap), made with an integrating nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). Using a combination of backward trajectory calculations and satellite observations, we identified 7 well defined plumes of Asian origin. These plumes included the highest ?sp (34.8 Mm-1 hourly average) and ?ap (4.8 Mm-1 hourly average) observed at MBO over the 2008 and 2009 spring campaigns. Of interest in this analysis is 1) whether the intensive optical properties differ between these 7 Asian events, 2) whether these differences can be linked to differences in composition, and 3) whether the intensive optical properties differ from those observed closer to the Asian source region. Preliminary results show that the plumes clustered in terms of their optical properties; plumes hypothesized to contain a large fraction of mineral dust were the most distinct. We also observed larger variability in the average scattering Ångstrom exponent of the plumes and a higher average single scatter albedo than observations closer to the Asian coast. This work will be extended to compare observations at MBO with the most recent observations from Asia as they become available.

  14. Case study of absorption aerosol optical depth closure of black carbon over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, M.; Moteki, N.; Khatri, P.; Takamura, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Hashioka, H.; Matsui, H.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.

    2014-01-01

    aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements made by sun-sky photometers are currently the only constraint available for estimates of the global radiative forcing of black carbon (BC), but their validation studies are limited. In this paper, we report the first attempt to compare AAODs derived from single-particle soot photometer (SP2) and ground-based sun-sky photometer (sky radiometer, SKYNET) measurements. During the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) experiments, BC size distribution and mixing state vertical profiles were measured using an SP2 on board a research aircraft near the Fukue Observatory (32.8°N, 128.7°E) over the East China Sea in spring 2009 and late winter 2013. The aerosol extinction coefficients (bext) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 500 nm were calculated based on aerosol size distribution and detailed BC mixing state information. The calculated aerosol optical depth (AOD) agreed well with the sky radiometer measurements (2 ± 6%) when dust loadings were low (lidar-derived nonspherical particle contribution to AOD less than 20%). However, under these low-dust conditions, the AAODs obtained from sky radiometer measurements were only half of the in situ estimates. When dust loadings were high, the sky radiometer measurements showed systematically higher AAODs even when all coarse particles were assumed to be dust for in situ measurements. These results indicate that there are considerable uncertainties in AAOD measurements. Uncertainties in the BC refractive index, optical calculations from in situ data, and sky radiometer retrieval analyses are discussed.

  15. Characterization of aerosol optical properties, chemical composition and mixing states in the winter season in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Huang, Yuanlong; Li, Ling; Chen, Hong; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin; Gao, Song; Gross, Deborah S

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of ambient aerosols at the single particle level were studied in Shanghai from December 22 to 28, 2009. A Cavity-Ring-Down Aerosol Extinction Spectrometer (CRD-AES) and a nephelometer were deployed to measure aerosol light extinction and scattering properties, respectively. An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used to detect single particle sizes and chemical composition. Seven particle types were detected. Air parcels arrived at the sampling site from the vicinity of Shanghai until mid-day of December 25, when they started to originate from North China. The aerosol extinction, scattering, and absorption coefficients all dropped sharply when this cold, clean air arrived. Aerosol particles changed from a highly aged type before this meteorological shift to a relatively fresh type afterwards. The aerosol optical properties were dependent on the wind direction. Aerosols with high extinction coefficient and scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) were observed when the wind blew from the west and northwest, indicating that they were predominantly fine particles. Nitrate and ammonium correlated most strongly with the change in aerosol optical properties. In the elemental carbon/organic carbon (ECOC) particle type, the diurnal trends of single scattering albedo (SSA) and elemental carbon (EC) signal intensity had a negative correlation. We also found a negative correlation (r=-0.87) between high mass-OC particle number fraction and the SSA in a relatively clean period, suggesting that particulate aromatic components might play an important role in light absorption in urban areas. PMID:25499489

  16. Aerosol climatology over Mexico City basin: Characterization of their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali-Sandoval, Giovanni; Valdéz-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonso, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Estévez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    Climatology of aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size parameters were analyzed using a 15-year (1999-2014) data set from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observations over Mexico City basin. Since urban air pollution is one of the biggest problems that face this megacity, many studies addressing these issues have been published. However few studies have examined the climatology of aerosol taking into account their optical properties over long-time period. Pollution problems in Mexico City have been generated by the daily activities of some 21 million people coupled with the vast amount of industry located within the city's metropolitan area. Another contributing factor is the unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City. The basin covers approximately 5000 km2 of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (ASL) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3000 m ASL. In this work we present preliminary results of aerosol climatology in Mexico City.

  17. Complex experiment on stydying the microphysical, chemical, and optical propertires of aerosol particles and estimating the contribution of atmospheric aerosol to Earth radiation budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, G. G.; Belan, B. D.; Panchenko, M. V.; Romanovskii, O. A.; Sakerin, S. M.; Kabanov, D. M.; Turchinovich, S. A.; Turchinovich, Y. S.; Eremina, T. A.; Kozlov, V. S.; Terpugova, S. A.; Pol'kin, V. V.; Yausheva, E. P.; Chernov, D. G.; Zhuravleva, T. B.; Bedareva, T. V.; Odintsov, S. L.; Burlakov, V. D.; Nevzorov, A. V.; Arshinov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, G. A.; Savkin, D. E.; Fofonov, A. V.; Gladkikh, V. A.; Kamardin, A. P.; Balin, Yu. S.; Kokhanenko, G. P.; Penner, I. E.; Samoilova, S. V.; Antokhin, P. N.; Arshinova, V. G.; Davydov, D. K.; Kozlov, A. V.; Pestunov, D. A.; Rasskazchikova, T. M.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Sklyadneva, T. K.; Tolmachev, G. N.; Belan, S. B.; Shmargunov, V. P.; Kozlov, A. S.; Malyshkin, S. B.

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of the Complex Aerosol Experiment was measurement of microphysical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosol particles in the surface air layer and free atmosphere. The measurement data were used to retrieve the whole set of aerosol optical parameters, necessary for radiation calculations. Three measurement cycles were performed within the Experiment during 2013: in spring, when the aerosol generation is maximal; in summer (July), when atmospheric boundary layer altitude and, hence, mixing layer altitude are maximal; and in late summer - early autumn, during the period of nucleation of secondary particles. Numerical calculations were compared with measurements of downward solar fluxes on the Earth's surface, performed in the clear-sky atmosphere in summer periods in 2010-2012 in a background region of the boreal zone of Siberia. It has been shown that, taking into account the instrumental errors and errors of atmospheric parameters, the relative differences between model and experimental values of direct and global solar radiation fluxes do not exceed, on the average, 1 and 3%, respectively. Thus, independently obtained data on the optical, meteorological, and microphysical parameters of the atmosphere allows intercalibration and inter-complement of the data and, thereby, provide for qualitatively new information which explains the physical nature of the processes that form the vertical structure of the aerosol field.

  18. Measuring aerosol UV absorption optical thickness by combining use of shadowband and almucantar techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Herman, Jay R.; Slusser, James; Scott, Gwen; Labow, Gordon; Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Eck, Thomas; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent

    2004-10-01

    We report final results of an aerosol UV absorption closure experiment where a UV-shadow-band radiometer (UV-MFRSR, USDA UVB Monitoring and Research Network) and 4 rotating sun-sky radiometers (CIMEL, NASA AERONET network) were run side-by-side continuously for 17 months at NASA/GSFC site in Greenbelt, MD. The aerosol extinction optical thickness ?ext, was measured by the CIMEL direct-sun technique in the visible and at two UV wavelengths 340 and 380 nm. These results were used for UV-MFRSR daily on-site calibration and 3-min measurements of ?ext at 325nm, 332nm and 368nm. The ?ext measurements were used as input to the radiative transfer model along with AERONET retrievals of the column-integrated particle size distribution (PSD)to infer an effective imaginary part of the UV aerosol refractive index, k, by fitting MFRSR measured voltage ratios. Using all cases for cloud-free days, we derive diurnal and seasonal dependence of the aerosol absorption optical thickness, ?abs with an uncertainty 0.01¡-0.02. At our site ?abs follows pronounced seasonal dependence with maximum values ~0.07 at 368nm (~0.15 at 325nm) occurring in summer hazy conditions and <0.02 in winter-fall seasons, when aerosol loadings are small. Inferred values of k allow calculation of the single scattering albedo, ?, in UVA and comparisons with AERONET almucantar ?440 retrievals at 440nm. Overall, ? was slightly lower in UV than in the visible: case average =0.93 compared to =0.95. However, the differences ( ~0.02, rms difference ~0.016) are smaller than uncertainties of both retrievals (??~0.03). Low values are consistent with higher values for imaginary refractive index, k: ~0.01 compare to ~0.006. However, mean differences in k (~0.004) were only slightly larger than AERONET retrieval uncertainty ?k ~0.00327. We also found that ? decreases with decrease in ?ext, suggesting different aerosol composition in summer and winter months. So far, our results do not allow explaining the causes of apparent larger aerosol absorption in UV. Continuing co-located measurements at GFSC is important to improve the comparison statistics, but conducting aerosol absorption measurements at different sites with varying conditions is also desirable.

  19. Potential-well model in acoustic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2010-06-01

    Standing-wave acoustic tweezers are popularly used for non-invasive and non-contact particle manipulation. Because of their good penetration in biological tissue, they also show promising prospects for in vivo applications. According to the concept of an optical vortex, we propose an acoustics-vortex- based trapping model of acoustic tweezers. A four-element 1-MHz planar transducer was used to generate 1-MHz sine waves at 1 MPa, with adjacent elements being driven with a pi/2-rad phase difference. Each element was a square with a side length of 5.08 mm, with kerfs initially set at 0.51 mm. An acoustic vortex constituting the spiral motion of an acoustic wave around the beam axis was created, with an axial null. Applying Gor'kov's theory in the Rayleigh regime yielded the potential energy and radiation force for use in subsequent analysis. In the transverse direction, the vortex structure behaved as a series of potential wells that tended to drive a suspended particle toward the beam axis. They were highly fragmented in the near field that is very close to the transducer where there was spiral interference, and well-constructed in the far field. We found that the significant trapping effect was only present between these two regions in the transverse direction--particles were free to move along the beam axis, and a repulsive force was observed in the outer acoustic vortex. Because the steepness of the potential gradient near an axial null dominates the trapping effect, the far field of the acoustic vortex is inappropriate for trapping. Particles too close to the transducer are not sufficiently trapped because of the fragmented potential pattern. We suggest that the ideal distance from the transducer for trapping particles is in front of one-fourth of the Rayleigh distance, based on the superposition of the wavefronts. The maximum trapping force acting on a 13-mum polystyrene sphere in the produced acoustic vortex was 50.0 pN, and it was possible to trap approximately 10(6) particles within a plane; the maximum repulsive force was 24.5 pN, and this was reduced to less than 13 pN by smoothing the outer gradient. Most stiff and dense particles can be used in this model. The presence of transverse trapping and the long working distance make the model useful for 2-D manipulation, particularly in in vivo applications. This paper details the trapping properties in the acoustic vortex and describes methods for improving the design of the transducer. The results obtained support the feasibility of the potential-well model of acoustic tweezers. PMID:20529720

  20. Mixing State and Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosol during the SAMBBA 2012 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Jennifer; Brooks, Barbara; McQuaid, Jim; Osborne, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of black carbon are a global phenomenon associated with combustion activities with an estimated 40 % of global emissions from biomass burning. These emissions are typically dominated in regional hotspots, such as along the edges of the Amazon Basin, and contribute to the regional air quality and have associated health impacts as well as the global climatic impacts of this major source of black carbon as well as other radiatively active species. New airborne measurements will be presented of biomass burning emissions across the Amazon region from the South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) campaign based at Porto Vehlo, Rondônia, Brazil in September 2012. This airborne campaign aboard the FAAM BAe-146 coincided with the seasonal peak in South American biomass burning emissions, which make up the most dominant source of atmospheric pollutants in the region at this time. SAMBBA included dedicated flights involving in-situ measurements and remote sensing of single plume studies through to multi-plume sampling of smouldering and flaming vegetation fires, regional haze sampling, and measurements of biogenic aerosol and gases across Amazonas. This presentation summarises early findings from the SAMBBA aircraft observations focusing on the relationship between biomass burning aerosol properties; size distributions, aerosol mixing state and optical properties from a suite of instruments onboard the FAAM BAe-146. The interplay of these properties influences the regional radiative balance impacting on weather and climate. The Leeds airborne VACC (Volatile Aerosol Concentration and Composition) instrument is designed to investigate the volatility properties of different aerosol species in order to determine aerosol composition; furthermore it can be used to infer the mixing state of the aerosol. Size distributions measured with the volatility system will be compared with ambient size distribution measurements this allows information on organic coating loadings to be derived. Cases of different aerosol mixing state have been identified from almost entirely externally mixed aerosol with a mono-modal size distribution across the rainforest of Amazonas in contrast to sampled Rondônian regional haze which was identified to be externally mixed with a coated non-volatile core with a volatile mode. Future and ongoing analysis from SAMBBA will improve the knowledge of the regional and climatic implications of biomass burning activities in the Amazon basin which are a significant issue globally.

  1. Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic Coastal Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.

  2. Aerosol spectral optical depths - Jet fuel and forest fire smokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Livingston, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Ames autotracking airborne sun photometer was used to investigate the spectral depth between 380 and 1020 nm of smokes from a jet fuel pool fire and a forest fire in May and August 1988, respectively. Results show that the forest fire smoke exhibited a stronger wavelength dependence of optical depths than did the jet fuel fire smoke at optical depths less than unity. At optical depths greater than or equal to 1, both smokes showed neutral wavelength dependence, similar to that of an optically thin stratus deck. These results verify findings of earlier investigations and have implications both on the climatic impact of large-scale smokes and on the wavelength-dependent transmission of electromagnetic signals.

  3. Novel high resolution optical scanner actuated by aerosol deposited PZT films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuaki Asai; Riki Matsuda; Mitsuyoshi Watanabe; Haruhisa Takayama; Shoji Yamada; Atsuhiro Mase; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Karuo Sato; Maxim Lebedev; Jun Akedo

    2003-01-01

    A performance of a new type of optical 1-D scanner with high resolution for a raster scanning laser display was investigated. PZT actuators were integrated on the scanning device for the mirror driving by using aerosol deposition method. We realized the high resonant frequency of 33.4 kHz and the large scan angle (peak to peak value) of more than 25

  4. Tropical intercontinental optical measurement network of aerosol, precipitable water and total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Reagan, J. A.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Vermote, E.; Vassiliou, G. D.; Lavenu, F.

    1992-01-01

    A new generation of automatic sunphotometers is used to systematically monitor clear sky total column aerosol concentration and optical properties, precipitable water and total column ozone diurnally and annually in West Africa and South America. The instruments are designed to measure direct beam sun, solar aureole and sky radiances in nine narrow spectral bands from the UV to the near infrared on an hourly basis. The instrumentation and the algorithms required to reduce the data for subsequent analysis are described.

  5. Nanostructure-enhanced laser tweezers for efficient trapping and alignment of particles

    E-print Network

    Lin, Lih Y.

    ­1316 (2003). 11. P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 436(7049), 370­372 (2005). 12. L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, "Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured

  6. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, Joseph; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor; Hodges, Gary; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  7. Aerosol optical depth measurements in eastern China and a new calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwon H.; Li, Zhanqing; Cribb, M. C.; Liu, Jianjun; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Youfei; Xia, Xiangao; Chen, Hongbin; Li, Bai

    2010-04-01

    We present a new calibration method to derive aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the MultiFilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) under extremely hazy atmospheric conditions during the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment in China. MFRSR measurements have been made at Xianghe since September 2004 and at Taihu and Shouxian since March and May 2008, respectively. Aerosol property retrievals from CIMEL Electonique, Paris, Sun and sky radiometers located at each site show that aerosol loading is substantial and highly variable during a given year (averaged daily AOD550 = 0.80 ± 0.14). The conventional application of the Langley method to calibrate the MFRSR is not possible at these sites because there is a dearth of stable atmospheric and low-AOD conditions. To overcome this limitation of the traditional Langley plot method, highest irradiance values at a given air mass during a given period are used here. These highest values can represent the clear-sky and minimum aerosol loading conditions. A scatterplot of the AOD estimated by this method with the CIMEL Sun and sky radiometer AOD shows very good agreement: correlation coefficients are on the order of 0.98-0.99, slopes range from 0.93 to 0.97, and offsets are less than 0.02 for the three sites. AOD and Ångström exponents were derived from application of the method to all MFRSR data acquired at the three sites. AOD values at 500 nm are ?500 = 0.99 ± 0.71 (?500-870 = 1.45 ± 0.59) at Xianghe, 0.87 ± 0.54 (1.14 ± 0.31) at Taihu, and 0.84 ± 0.43 (1.15 ± 0.28) at Shouxian. Anthropogenic aerosols appear to dominate in the study region with significant contributions from large dust particles and influence of hydroscopic growth.

  8. Aerosol optical properties at Pasadena, CA during CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jonathan E.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Adachi, Kouji; Zhang, Xiaolu; Liu, Jiumeng; Weber, Rodney J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2012-08-01

    Aerosol optical properties measured at the Pasadena, CA site during the CalNex field campaign in May-June 2010 are summarized. Average measurements of PM2.5 aerosol extinction, scattering, absorption coefficients, and single scattering albedo (bext, bscat, babs and SSA) at ? = 532 nm were 62 Mm-1, 58 Mm-1, 4 Mm-1, and 0.92, respectively. The aerosol optical densities were 5 times lower than during the SCAQS study in 1987, highlighting major progress in PM control in the Los Angeles area in the last two decades. The period May 30-June 8 2010 was characterized by exceptionally high aerosol loading (bext up to 250 Mm-1). During this period, bext, bscat, and SSA tended to peak during the mid-morning. Correlation of PM2.5bext, bscat with mass concentration data yielded mass scattering and mass extinction coefficients of 3.5-5.1 m2 g-1 for 532 nm. Aerosol babs were compared directly to mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) yielding a campaign average mass absorption cross section (M.A.C.) of 5.7 ± 1.8 m2 g-1. TEM analysis of particles suggests soot was often internally mixed or adhering to sulfate and/or organics. Total non-refractory PM1 mass was a good quantitative indicator of coated soot fraction. Alteration of M.A.C. with mixing/coating state was not detected, however, increases in M.A.C. were linked to the presence of light absorbing, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) suggesting a possible role of this material invisible light absorption in the LA basin.

  9. Long-term measurements of aerosol optical parameters in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despoina; Liakakou, Eleni; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol chemical composition was studied in conjunction with its optical properties in the area of Athens Greece. For this purpose, sampling of fine aerosol fraction (PM2,5) took place on a daily basis from August 2010 to April 2013 at an urban background location. The samples are subsequently analyzed for their content in organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), major ions and trace metals, resulting in the exercise of chemical mass closure. In parallel, the optical properties of aerosols are recorded using a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP), leading to the calculation of scattering (?scat) and absorption (?abs) coefficients, respectively; while single scattering albedo (SSA) and mass scattering and absorption efficiencies are thereinafter calculated. Daily ?scat values provide an average of 30.1±3.9 ?m-1 while, the average of ?abs is 5.2±1.4 ?m-1. The seasonal cycle of ?scat presents maximum during summer and in November, due to long-range transport of aerosol from continental Europe and dust transfer from Africa, respectively. The estimated mass absorption efficiency of EC is estimated to be 8.3±0.2 m2 g-1 for the whole studied period, while the corresponding estimated mass scattering efficiency of PM2.5 is 1.7±0.1 m2 g-1 and does not affected by the presence of dust. The average SSA equals to 0.87±0.11 for the three-year period. On a seasonal basis, SSA presents maximum values during summer that is consistent with the reduction of EC - the main absorbing specie. Finally, the reconstruction of scattering coefficients was performed taking into consideration the measured chemistry of fine aerosol.

  10. Large differences in aerosol optical properties over the north-west Atlantic Ocean during the TCAP field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, D.; Berg, L. K.; Comstock, J. M.; Fast, J. D.; Flynn, C. J.; Hubbe, J. M.; Kassianov, E.; Mei, F.; Pekour, M. S.; Schmid, B.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Tomlinson, J. M.; Shilling, J. E.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing is an important parameter in the Earth's radiation budget and can be an important driver of atmospheric circulation and the hydrological cycle. Accurate estimation of aerosol radiative forcing requires measurement of both the extensive and intensive optical properties of aerosols. While the intensive optical properties are independent of aerosol mass or number, they are critical inputs when calculating radiative forcing with applications to climate research, satellite remote sensing and model validations. The key aerosol intensive properties that need to be evaluated include single scattering albedo (SSA), the angstrom exponent, the asymmetry parameter, the radiative forcing efficiency, and the hygroscopic scattering factor. We report here on values of these variables over the Cape Cod and nearby northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). The average SSA shows a distinct profile having higher SSA values below the top of well-mixed residual layer (RL) and lower SSA above it. Aerosol in the free troposphere (FT) were found to have less spectral dependence in their optical properties, lower back scatter fraction and higher hygroscopic growth relative to aerosols found in the RL. Analysis of individual particle composition suggests that that ratio of aged to fresh aerosol numbers in the FT is 70% higher compared to aerosols measured in the RL, and that smoke from biomass burning contributed ~10% to this number. Single particle analysis also reveals that the fraction and variability of coated black carbon (BC) aerosol is higher in the FT relative to that measured in the residual layer. The daily radiative forcing efficiency of these aerosols in the FT is factor 2 higher than below RL. Seven years (2007-2013) of CALIPSO satellite observations show that the mean altitude of the top of smoke layers (~3.3 km) consistent with these in situ observations from TCAP. Overall, the long term CALIPSO observations characterizes 13% of aerosol layers as smoke over TCAP region and indicate that these smoke layers have been present over this area every year. The aircraft and satellite observations both suggest that while smoke contributes around 10% of total aerosol, it must be taken into account, as the radiative forcing estimates are sensitive to the amount of absorbing aerosol.

  11. Quantitative Modeling and Optimization of Magnetic Tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Lipfert; Xiaomin Hao; Nynke H. Dekker

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers are a powerful tool to manipulate single DNA or RNA molecules and to study nucleic acid-protein interactions in real time. Here, we have modeled the magnetic fields of permanent magnets in magnetic tweezers and computed the forces exerted on superparamagnetic beads from first principles. For simple, symmetric geometries the magnetic fields can be calculated semianalytically using the Biot-Savart

  12. Magnetic tweezers to study DNA motors

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Magnetic tweezers to study DNA motors Maria Mañosas Ritort lab UB Barcelona Croquette-Bensimon lab ENS France #12;· Introduction to MT (magnetic tweezers) · Applications: 1. Tracking DNA motors: (i) Helicases (ii) Annealing motor 2. Studying a multiprotein system: DNA replication Outline #12;· Atomic force

  13. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Panday, A.; Cong, Z. Y.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

    2014-03-01

    The Himalaya mountains along the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau act as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at two Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites on the southern side of the Himalaya (Pokhara, 812 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and EVK2-CNR, 5079 m a.s.l. in Nepal) and one on the northern side (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, 4076 m a.s.l. in China). While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is a lower-elevation suburban site with much higher aerosol load due to both the influence of local anthropogenic activities and to its proximity to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the investigated period was 0.05 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large-scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites, wind erosion and hydrated/cloud-processed aerosols lead to an increase in coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than at QOMS_CAS in August and September, indicating that the transport of coarse mode aerosols from the southern to the northern side may be effectively reduced. The effect of precipitation scavenging is clearly seen at Pokhara, which sees significantly reduced aerosol loads during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. The diurnal pattern in precipitation appears to contribute to diurnal changes in AOD through the effect of precipitation scavenging. AOD exhibits diurnal patterns related to emissions in Pokhara, while it does not at the other two high-altitude sites. At EVK2-CNR, the daytime airflow carries aerosols up from lower-altitude polluted regions, leading to increasing AOD, while the other two stations are less influenced by valley winds. Surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollution to the surrounding areas. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed together on the southern side of the Himalaya in spring, which may lead to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE) at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  14. Application of spectral analysis techniques in the intercomparison of aerosol data: Part III. Using combined PCA to compare spatiotemporal variability of MODIS, MISR, and OMI aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2014-04-01

    Satellite measurements of global aerosol properties are very useful in constraining aerosol parameterization in climate models. The reliability of different data sets in representing global and regional aerosol variability becomes an essential question. In this study, we present the results of a comparison using combined principal component analysis (CPCA), applied to monthly mean, mapped (Level 3) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). This technique effectively finds the common space-time variability in the multiple data sets by decomposing the combined AOD field. The results suggest that all of the sensors capture the globally important aerosol regimes, including dust, biomass burning, pollution, and mixed aerosol types. Nonetheless, differences are also noted. Specifically, compared with MISR and OMI, MODIS variability is significantly higher over South America, India, and the Sahel. MODIS deep blue AOD has a lower seasonal variability in North Africa, accompanied by a decreasing trend that is not found in either MISR or OMI AOD data. The narrow swath of MISR results in an underestimation of dust variability over the Taklamakan Desert. The MISR AOD data also exhibit overall lower variability in South America and the Sahel. OMI does not capture the Russian wild fire in 2010 nor the phase shift in biomass burning over East South America compared to Central South America, likely due to cloud contamination and the OMI row anomaly. OMI also indicates a much stronger (boreal) winter peak in South Africa compared with MODIS and MISR.

  15. Application of GOES-12 Aerosol Optical Depths and OMI Aerosol Indices to Evaluate NOAA/NESDIS Hazard Mapping System Smoke Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, J.; Kondragunta, S.

    2006-05-01

    NOAA/NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS) provides biomass burning fires and smoke analysis products to users. The smoke analysis is done by human analysts by inspecting visible imagery and fire locations. Analysts have difficulty in drawing plumes once the plumes are removed from the source (fires) and mixed with clouds and other types of aerosols. NOAA/NESDIS also provides GOES Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product to the users. The AOD product is derived from visible radiance measurements using a look-up table which is created assuming a continental aerosol model. In this study we examine the usefulness of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aerosol Index (AI) in evaluating the analyst drawn smoke plumes and GOES AODs corresponding to smoke plumes. OMI AI in the near UV and visible bands is capable of distinguishing between absorbing aerosols and non-absorbing aerosols. We will present analysis of GOES AODs, OMI AI, and HMS smoke analysis product for several prescribed and natural fires observed during 2005. This analysis is expected to provide information on average percent area overlap between GOES AOD and HMS smoke plumes, OMI AI and HMS smoke plumes, and GOES AOD and OMI AI that will lead to an assessment of HMS smoke analysis.

  16. Monitoring the Haze Using Multi-sensor Aerosol Optical Depth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. W.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y. J.; Guang, J.; Yang, L. K.; Xu, H.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols play a significant role in earth-atmospheric radiant balance and global climate changes, and can directly affect air quality. So accurate aerosol monitoring is very significant. Satellite remote sensing can get the earth's atmospheric and underlying information macroscopically and dynamically. It is an effective method to detect the areosol' spatial and temporal distribution. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval is an important parameter which describe the aerosol' extinction and can be retrieved from satellite data relatively easily. Many satellites have been launched into space in the past decades, so there are many sensors that can be used to retrieved AOD and following many aerosol retrieval algorithms for different satellites and sensors such as dark dense vegetation (DDV), deep blue and structure function method, etc. On June 25, 2009, a thick haze was blown eastward off the coast of China, over Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea. The haze appears as a dingy blue-gray veil extending over land and water. Haze frequently builds up in eastern China during the winter when weather conditions trap pollutants over the plain. To monitor the thick haze effectively and real-timely and know its geographic distribution quantitatively, we use the Synergetic Retrieval of Aerosol Properties (SRAP) method to retrieve AOD over the Northeast China On June 25, 2009 from the multispectral Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The retrieval results were compared to the ground-based aerosol measurements by CE318 automatic sun tracking photometer at the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites and show that the AOD retrieved by SRAP have good precision. The correlation coefficient is about 0.95. The results are also validated quantitatively with multi-sensor measurements, such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER) and Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). On the other hand, detection of haze with multi-sensor measurements is also executed in this paper. Using different data sets from multiple satellite sensors is a powerful method for studying Earth-atmosphere problems. We can utilize the strengths of the individual sensors that may not be otherwise possible. In this paper, we compare the AODs retrieved from multi-sensor, find the advantages in haze monitoring respectively, especially the AOD retrieved by the SRAP method.

  17. Measurements of Intensive Aerosol Optical Properties During TexAQS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Wright, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the bulk extensive aerosol optical properties - particle extinction coefficient (bext) and particle scattering coefficient (bscat) - and particle number concentrations were made as part of the six-week TRAMP experiment during the TexAQS II (2006) study. These measurements were done at a nominal surface site (the roof of an 18 story building) on the University of Houston campus near downtown Houston, Texas. Our ground-based tandem cavity ring-down transmissometer/nephelometer instrument (CRDT/N) provided the aerosol optical property measurements. A commercial Condensation Particle Counter (TSI 3007) was used to measure the number concentrations during part of the study period. The optical data was used to construct the intensive aerosol optical properties single scattering albedo ?0 at 532 nm and the Angstrom exponent for extinction between 532 nm and 1064 nm. Recent validation studies of size- selected laboratory generated aerosols are presented to illustrate the soundness of this approach using our instrument. The Angstrom exponent is compared to values from other instruments operating in the area and is found to be a characteristic of the regional air mass under some conditions. Size distributions measured during the study were used to create a new empirical adjustment to scattering measured by the Radiance Research nephelometer, resulting in improved results for particle absorption coefficient and single scattering albedo. The study average value of ?0(532 nm) = 0.78 is lower than expected from comparable field studies and even lower values are experienced during the study. Possible causes of this discrepancy are examined and the utility of using the current version of the CRDT/N instrument to measure the key radiative property ?0 is assessed. Observed episodes of rapid increases in particle number concentration with little corresponding growth in the optical properties can presumably be used to signal the occurrence of particle nucleation or growth via gas-phase condensation. These results may be confirmed by other data taken during the TRAMP experiment. These results will be discussed in the context of aerosol effects on regional and larger scale climate.

  18. Thermodynamic and optical properties of mixed-salt aerosols of atmospheric importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ignatius N.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive water activity, density, and refractive index data at 25°C are reported for mixed-salt solutions, NaCl-KCl, NaCl-NaNO3, NaCl-Na2SO4, Na2SO4-NaNO3, and (NH4)2SO4-Na2SO4. The data are obtained from hydration experiments using the single-particle levitation technique developed recently for measuring the thermodynamic and optical properties of microdroplets. These data, covering the whole concentration range from dilute solutions to high supersaturations, provide an opportunity to explore the light-scattering properties of both internal and external mixtures of the chloride, sulfate, and nitrate aerosols of atmospheric importance. It is shown that for sulfate and nitrate aerosols as solution droplets, the light-scattering properties do not differ appreciably among all mixture types and compositions, as long as the dry-salt aerosols have the same particle-size distribution. However, for mixed-salt aerosols containing NaCl, the light-scattering properties do depend upon the composition and particle-size distribution, although not so much on the mixture type.

  19. Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyi; Khalizov, Alexei F.; Pagels, Joakim; Zhang, Dan; Xue, Huaxin; McMurry, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric effects of soot aerosols include interference with radiative transfer, visibility impairment, and alteration of cloud formation and are highly sensitive to the manner by which soot is internally mixed with other aerosol constituents. We present experimental studies to show that soot particles acquire a large mass fraction of sulfuric acid during atmospheric aging, considerably altering their properties. Soot particles exposed to subsaturated sulfuric acid vapor exhibit a marked change in morphology, characterized by a decreased mobility-based diameter but an increased fractal dimension and effective density. These particles experience large hygroscopic size and mass growth at subsaturated conditions (<90% relative humidity) and act efficiently as cloud-condensation nuclei. Coating with sulfuric acid and subsequent hygroscopic growth enhance the optical properties of soot aerosols, increasing scattering by ?10-fold and absorption by nearly 2-fold at 80% relative humidity relative to fresh particles. In addition, condensation of sulfuric acid is shown to occur at a similar rate on ambient aerosols of various types of a given mobility size, regardless of their chemical compositions and microphysical structures. Representing an important mechanism of atmospheric aging, internal mixing of soot with sulfuric acid has profound implications on visibility, human health, and direct and indirect climate forcing. PMID:18645179

  20. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  1. MISR UAE2 Aerosol Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-21

    ... UAE 2  Aerosol Versioning MISR-retrieved aerosol optical depths are "Stage-2 Validated," whereas the MISR ... . Kahn , R., B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and B. Holben, 2005a, MISR global aerosol optical depth validation ...

  2. Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

    2014-05-01

    During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are available. Therefore it would be very useful to get more laboratory data and especially from Tran et al (2013), Mahjoub et al. (2012) and Imanaka et al. (2012) samples in these spectral regions since their refractive indexes match observational and theoretical data in other spectral ranges. This presentation will critically summarize these recent results and present detailled constraints on the optical constants Titan's aerosols. In addition, specific lacks of data will be highlighted as well as some possible investigations to be carried out to fill these gaps. References: Cable, M. L., et al., 2012. Titan Tholins: Simulating Titan Organic Chemistry in the Cassini-Huygens Era. Chemical Reviews. 112, 1882-1909. Imanaka, H., et al., 2012. Optical constants of Titan tholins at mid-infrared wavelengths (2.5-25 µm) and the possible chemical nature of Titan's haze particles. Icarus. 218, 247-261. Khare, B. N., et al., 1984. Optical-Constants of Organic Tholins Produced in a Simulated Titanian Atmosphere - from Soft-X-Ray to Microwave-Frequencies. Icarus. 60, 127-137. Kim, S. J., Courtin, R., 2013. Spectral characteristics of the Titanian haze at 1-5 micron from Cassini/VIMS solar occultation data. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 557, L6. Mahjoub, A., et al., 2012. Influence of methane concentration on the optical indices of Titan's aerosols analogues. Icarus. 221, 670-677. Raulin, F., et al., 2012. Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan. Chemical Society Reviews. 41, 5380-5393. Sagan, C., Khare, B. N., 1979. Tholins - Organic-Chemistry of Inter-Stellar Grains and Gas. Nature. 277, 102-107. Tran, B. N., et al., 2003. Simulation of Titan haze formation using a photochemical flow reactor - The optical constants of the polymer. Icarus. 165, 379-390. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  3. Aerosol Optical Depth and Ångström Coefficient retrievals over the Amazon Forest during 2007 biomass burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Rosário, Nilton E.; Yamasoe, Márcia A.; Longo, Karla M.

    2009-03-01

    An intensive measurement campaign aiming to study Photosynthetically Active Radiation profiles inside the canopy at the Amazon Forest took place during 2007 biomass burning season, from 22 August to 30 October. During this period, aerosol optical properties were monitored using distinct radiometers: a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), the AERONET sunphotometer, a handheld Microtops sunphotometer and Moderate Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua satellites. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) varied strongly during the campaign with the daily average at 670 nm reaching values from 0.5 to 3.0. Ångström coefficient (?) calculated with AOD at 670 and 870 nm increase from 1.5, before the burning season, to 2.0 as a result of an increase of fine particles into the atmosphere. In early October, the AOD decreased and, as a consequence of the increasing frequency of rain events, AOD went back to the levels observed before burning season. Despite the fact that the distance of AERONET sunphotometer from the experimental site was 80 km, the retrievals obtained from all ground-based radiometers were consistent and showed good agreement. On the other hand, MODIS retrievals overestimated the AOD during high aerosol concentration when compared with ground-based radiometers.

  4. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, A; Ha, S; Joshirao, P; Manchanda, V; Bak, M S; Kim, T

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ? 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories. PMID:26133876

  5. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Bak, M. S.; Kim, T.

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ? 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  6. Highly parallel magnetic tweezers by targeted DNA tethering.

    PubMed

    De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; van Loenhout, Marijn T J; Pfeiffer, Indriati; Huijts, Julius; Kerssemakers, Jacob W J; Katan, Allard J; van Langen-Suurling, Anja; van der Drift, Emile; Wyman, Claire; Dekker, Cees

    2011-12-14

    Single-molecule force-spectroscopy methods such as magnetic and optical tweezers have emerged as powerful tools for the detailed study of biomechanical aspects of DNA-enzyme interactions. As typically only a single molecule of DNA is addressed in an individual experiment, these methods suffer from a low data throughput. Here, we report a novel method for targeted, nonrandom immobilization of DNA-tethered magnetic beads in regular arrays through microcontact printing of DNA end-binding labels. We show that the increase in density due to the arrangement of DNA-bead tethers in regular arrays can give rise to a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in data-throughput in magnetic tweezers experiments. We demonstrate the applicability of this technique in tweezers experiments where up to 450 beads are simultaneously tracked in parallel, yielding statistical data on the mechanics of DNA for 357 molecules from a single experimental run. Our technique paves the way for kilo-molecule force spectroscopy experiments, enabling the study of rare events in DNA-protein interactions and the acquisition of large statistical data sets from individual experimental runs. PMID:22017420

  7. Global Aerosol Optical Thickness Trends from SeaWiFS, MODIS and MISR over Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vountas, Marco; Yoon, Jongmin; Schlundt, Cornelia; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang; Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    Aside from adverse health effects urban aerosols can have significant impact on regional and potentially global climate. In this study Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals over land are performed to study the medium to long-term trends of aerosols in largest urban agglomerations (aka megacities) to investigate recent changes related to potential "brightening" or "dimming" effects due to aerosols. For this study, suitable instruments need to provide sufficiently long data records on a global scale. Space borne sensors can be an interesting choice but need excellent in-flight performance/calibration. Instruments meeting the objective to provide long, well-calibrated data records are SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra/Aqua and MISR. As SeaWiFS does not provide reliable AOD retrievals operationally we have used the Bremen AErosol Retrieval (BAER) algorithm to retrieve AOD. For all others we have used L2 data and applied a modified linear long term trend analysis. Here, AOD trends over several of the world's largest urban agglomerations have been studied using BAER based on SeaWiFS (SEA) data for one decade - from 1998 to 2007, and L2 data from MODIS-Terra (MOD) for 2000-2009, MISR (MIS) from 2000-2010 and MODIS-Aqua (MYD) (2003-2008). All comparisons are focussing on 550 nm. Trends have been gridded to 1° x 1° except for MIS, where 0.5° x 0.5° were used globally/regionally. Regional analysis is done for the eleven largest megacities (and the German Rhein-Ruhr-Region, assigned with "l").

  8. Anthropogenic and natural contributions to regional trends in aerosol optical depth, 1980-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Yan, F.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Mahowald, N.; Schultz, M.; Wild, M.; Wu, Y.; Yu, C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois; NASA; Cornell Univ.; Forschungszentrum; Inst.for Atmospheric and Climate Science; Tsinghua Univ.

    2009-07-28

    Understanding the roles of human and natural sources in contributing to aerosol concentrations around the world is an important step toward developing efficient and effective mitigation measures for local and regional air quality degradation and climate change. In this study we test the hypothesis that changes in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over time are caused by the changing patterns of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursors. We present estimated trends of contributions to AOD for eight world regions from 1980 to 2006, built upon a full run of the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model for the year 2001, extended in time using trends in emissions of man-made and natural sources. Estimated AOD trends agree well (R > 0.5) with observed trends in surface solar radiation in Russia, the United States, south Asia, southern Africa, and East Asia (before 1992) but less well for Organization for Economic Co-operative Development (OECD) Europe (R < 0.5). The trends do not agree well for southeast Asia and for East Asia (after 1992) where large-scale inter- and intraannual variations in emissions from forest fires, volcanic eruptions, and dust storms confound our approach. Natural contributions to AOD, including forest and grassland fires, show no significant long-term trends (<1%/a), except for a small increasing trend in OECD Europe and a small decreasing trend in South America. Trends in man-made contributions to AOD follow the changing patterns of industrial and economic activity. We quantify the average contributions of key source types to regional AOD over the entire time period.

  9. Aerosol Optical Depth Climatology Derived from Micropulse Lidar Data at Various ARM Sites World-wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, D. N.; Coulter, R.

    2011-12-01

    Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems have been running at all US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites including 5 permanent and 2 mobile facilities. The locations of the sites represent a broad range of climate conditions around the world [http://www.arm.gov/sites]. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the extinction of solar radiation due to aerosols; liquid and solid particles suspended in the air from natural or man-made sources. In the absence of clouds, the MPL, operating at 532 nm, produces profiles of atmospheric scattering that result from aerosols (Mie-scattering) and molecules (Rayleigh-scattering). In combination with AOD data from the nearly co-located multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), these data can be used to calculate profiles of AOD. The raw data used in this study are averaged in time for 30 seconds and 30 meters in altitude. MPL backscatter observations at the DOE ARM sites from 2007 through 2010 have been examined and used in this AOD climatology. The AOD values at Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are also compared with the corresponding values obtained from a nearly co-located Raman Lidar (RL) operating at 355 nm. The comparison shows good agreement. A multi-year vertical profile of AOD climatology at different ARM sites, including diurnal and seasonal variability will be presented. These results are expected to be of significant importance to the scientific community to understand the aerosol properties and the boundary layer dynamics better as well as to improve global climate models by better incorporating the aerosol radiative effects.

  10. Estimation of aerosol optical thickness over land using dual angle panchromatic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Mehul R.

    2006-12-01

    Estimation of atmospheric aerosols by remote sensing is very important because aerosols cool/warm the Earth atmosphere system through scattering/absorption of solar radiation. The information on aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is also essential in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery. Due to non-uniformity and extreme reflectivity of land targets, it is challenging to monitor aerosols over land-surfaces. This paper reports a new approach of estimating AOT over land using dual viewing angle observations (FORE: 26 degree and AFT: -5 degree) in panchromatic channel (0.50- 0.85?m) of Cartosat-1 satellite. Differential responses of targets observed in two atmospheric path lengths through Fore and Aft observations of Cartosat-1 were analyzed using atmospheric radiative transfer model (6S-code). A number of forward simulations over dark to bright targets (having 1-70% reflectivity) were carried out to derive top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for various AOT conditions to arrive at a particular reflectance condition called- cross over reflectance (? co: a reflectance value for which the difference between TOA Aft and TOA Fore equals zero). The shift in position of ? co for dual look angle was modeled as a function of AOT. Using this method, AOT was estimated for two sites representing clear and turbid atmosphere conditions. A cross over reflectance of 11 percent and 13 percent was observed for clear and turbid atmospheres, respectively. Corresponding modeled AOT estimates were 0.32 and 0.78, respectively. Validation of these estimates with the MODIS AOT showed good agreement with 0.26 in clear and 0.68 in turbid atmosphere case. The present approach enables to retrieve single AOT value for a scene and for known aerosol meteorology. Initial results are encouraging, however further analyses are in progress to verify it in different atmospheric conditions.

  11. Magnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to study DNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motors

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Magnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to study DNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motors MariaMariaMariaMaria MañosasMañosasMañosasMañosas RitortCroquetteCroquetteCroquette----BensimonBensimonBensimonBensimon lablablablab ENS FranceENS FranceENS FranceENS France #12;· Introduction to MT (magnetic tweezers

  12. Detecting distortions of the time structure of an optical pulse that has passed through an aerosol layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrikov, V. K.; Korenev, V. G.

    1981-07-01

    The passage of short light pulses through an aerosol layer is associated with the spatial and temporal distortions of the signal. The propagation of an isolated pulse of coherent radiation, having a wavelength of 0.53 micron, is studied in an artificial fog. An observed increase in the duration of the light pulse is described by formulas of Bucher (1973), Ishimaru (1975), and Stotts (1978). Oscillograms of pulses of radiation, passing through a water aerosol layer are compared to the original time structures of pulses at various values of optical thickness. The dependence of the temporal broadening of the optical pulse on the optical thickness of the fog is examined.

  13. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  14. Cell rotation using optoelectronic tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan-Li; Huang, Yuan-Peng; Lu, Yen-Sheng; Hou, Max T.; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A cell rotation method by using optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is reported. The binary image of a typical OET device, whose light and dark sides act as two sets of parallel plates with different ac voltages, was used to create a rotating electric field. Its feasibility for application to electrorotation of cells was demonstrated by rotating Ramos and yeast cells in their pitch axes. The electrorotation by using OET devices is dependent on the medium and cells’ electrical properties, the cells’ positions, and the OET device’s geometrical dimension, as well as the frequency of the electric field. PMID:21267435

  15. Cell rotation using optoelectronic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-Li; Huang, Yuan-Peng; Lu, Yen-Sheng; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A cell rotation method by using optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is reported. The binary image of a typical OET device, whose light and dark sides act as two sets of parallel plates with different ac voltages, was used to create a rotating electric field. Its feasibility for application to electrorotation of cells was demonstrated by rotating Ramos and yeast cells in their pitch axes. The electrorotation by using OET devices is dependent on the medium and cells' electrical properties, the cells' positions, and the OET device's geometrical dimension, as well as the frequency of the electric field. PMID:21267435

  16. Aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer measurement on board R/V Shirase during the JARE Japan Antarctica cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, M.; Yabuki, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Hashida, G.; Sakuraba, T.; Yamano, M.; Muraji, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Sky radiometer measurement on board the Antarctic R/V Shirase has been continued for investigating the aerosol optical properties over the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Antarctic Ocean during the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) Japan Antarctica annual cruises since 2000. The Prede POM-01 Mark II sky-radiometer is designed for shipboard measurements and was put on the upper deck of R/V Shirase for full-automatic operations being controlled by a PC placed in a laboratory room during cruises. In this paper, a brief summary of results from the 2000 - 2005 cruises is shown and discussed on optical properties such as the aerosol optical thickness, single scattering albedo, complex refractive index, etc. to be compared with those which have been