Sample records for aerosol raman lidar

  1. LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Balin, Yu S; Bairashin, G S; Kokhanenko, G P; Penner, I E; Samoilova, S V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The scanning LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar, which is aimed at probing atmosphere at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm, is described. The backscattered light is received simultaneously in two regimes: analogue and photon-counting. Along with the signals of elastic light scattering at the initial wavelengths, a 607-nm Raman signal from molecular nitrogen is also recorded. It is shown that the height range of atmosphere probing can be expanded from the near-Earth layer to stratosphere using two (near- and far-field) receiving telescopes, and analogue and photon-counting lidar signals can be combined into one signal. Examples of natural measurements of aerosol stratification in atmosphere along vertical and horizontal paths during the expeditions to the Gobi Desert (Mongolia) and Lake Baikal areas are presented.

  2. Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Ansmann; Maren Riebesell; Claus Weitkamp

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented that permits the determination of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles from measured Raman lidar signals. No critical input parameters are needed, which could cause large uncertainties of the solution, as is the case in the Klett method for the inversion of elastic lidar returns.

  3. Atmospheric Aerosol Distribution and Cloud Properties using Raman Lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachin J. Verghese; C. Russell Philbrick

    Atmospheric aerosol measurements are essential to better understand their role as a feedback process in modifying the Earth's radiation budget as well as their influence on human health. The PSU Raman lidars have been used for a number of years, in different locations, to measure the profiles of molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, water vapor and the rotational Raman scatter (the

  4. Improvement of Raman lidar algorithm for quantifying aerosol extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Felicita; Whiteman, David; Demoz, Belay; Hoff, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Aerosols are particles of different composition and origin and influence the formation of clouds which are important in atmospheric radiative balance. At the present there is high uncertainty on the effect of aerosols on climate and this is mainly due to the fact that aerosol presence in the atmosphere can be highly variable in space and time. Monitoring of the aerosols in the atmosphere is necessary to better understanding many of these uncertainties. A lidar (an instrument that uses light to detect the extent of atmospheric aerosol loading) can be particularly useful to monitor aerosols in the atmosphere since it is capable to record the scattered intensity as a function of altitude from molecules and aerosols. One lidar method (the Raman lidar) makes use of the different wavelength changes that occur when light interacts with the varying chemistry and structure of atmospheric aerosols. One quantity that is indicative of aerosol presence is the aerosol extinction which quantifies the amount of attenuation (removal of photons), due to scattering, that light undergoes when propagating in the atmosphere. It can be directly measured with a Raman lidar using the wavelength dependence of the received signal. In order to calculate aerosol extinction from Raman scattering data it is necessary to evaluate the rate of change (derivative) of a Raman signal with respect to altitude. Since derivatives are defined for continuous functions, they cannot be performed directly on the experimental data which are not continuous. The most popular technique to find the functional behavior of experimental data is the least-square fit. This procedure allows finding a polynomial function which better approximate the experimental data. The typical approach in the lidar community is to make an a priori assumption about the functional behavior of the data in order to calculate the derivative. It has been shown in previous work that the use of the chi-square technique to determine the most likely functional behavior of the data prior to actually calculating the derivative eliminates the need for making a priori assumptions. We note that the a priori choice of a model itself can lead to larger uncertainties as compared to the method that is validated here. In this manuscript, the chi-square technique that determines the most likely functional behavior is validated through numerical simulation and by application to a large body of Raman lidar measurements. In general, we show that the chi-square approach to evaluate aerosol extinction yields lower extinction uncertainty than the traditional technique. We also use the technique to study the feasibility of developing a general characterization of the extinction uncertainty that could permit the uncertainty in Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements to be estimated accurately without the use of the chi-square technique.

  5. Compact airborne Raman lidar for profiling aerosol, water vapor and clouds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Zhien; Cai, Yong; Wechsler, Perry; Kuestner, William; Burkhart, Matthew; Welch, Wayne

    2014-08-25

    A compact airborne Raman lidar system, which can perform water vapor and aerosol measurements both during nighttime and daytime is described. The system design, setup and the data processing methods are described in the paper. The Raman lidar was tested on University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft (UWKA) during the Wyoming King Air PBL Exploratory Experiment (KAPEE) in 2010. An observation showing clouds, aerosols and a dry line is presented to illustrate the lidar detection capabilities. Comparisons of the water vapor and aerosol measurements using the Raman lidar and other in situ airborne instruments show good agreement. PMID:25321266

  6. Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Shane D; Spuler, Scott M

    2004-07-01

    The design features of, and first observations from, a new elastic backscatter lidar system at a wavelength of 1543 nm are presented. The transmitter utilizes stimulated Raman scattering in high-pressure methane to convert fundamental Nd:YAG radiation by means of the 1st Stokes shift. The wavelength-converting gas cell features multipass operation and internal fans. Unlike previous lidar developments that used Raman scattering in methane, the pump beam is not focused in the present configuration. This feature prevents optical breakdown of the gas inside the cell. Additionally, the gas cell is injection seeded by a diode to improve conversion efficiency and beam quality. The receiver uses a 40.6-cm-diameter telescope and a 200-microm InGaAs avalanche photodiode. The system is capable of operating in a dual-wavelength mode (1064 and 1543 nm simultaneously) for comparison or in a completely eye-safe mode. The system is capable of transmitting an energy of more than 200 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz. Aerosol backscatter data from vertical and horizontal pointing periods are shown. PMID:15250558

  7. 2, 75107, 2002 Raman lidar

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 75­107, 2002 Raman lidar measurements of tropospheric aerosols J. Schneider and R. Eixmann of routine Raman lidar measurements of tropospheric aerosols: Planetary boundary layer heights, extinction lidar measurements of tropospheric aerosols J. Schneider and R. Eixmann Title Page Abstract Introduction

  8. Validation of temperature measurements from the airborne Raman ozone temperature and aerosol lidar during SOLVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Burris; Thomas McGee; Walter Hoegy; Leslie Lait; Laurence Twigg; Grant Sumnicht; William Heaps; Chris Hostetler; T. Paul Bui; Roland Neuber; I. Stuart McDermid

    2002-01-01

    The Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature, and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) participated in the recent SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) by providing profiles of aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone, and temperature with high vertical and horizontal resolution. Temperatures were derived from just above the aircraft to ~60 km geometric altitude with a reported vertical resolution of ~0.6 km.

  9. Optical characteristics of biomass burning aerosols over Southeastern Europe determined from UV-Raman lidar measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Amiridis; D. S. Balis; E. Giannakaki; A. Stohl; S. Kazadzis; M. E. Koukouli; P. Zanis

    2009-01-01

    The influence of smoke on the aerosol loading in the free troposphere over Thessaloniki, Greece is examined in this paper. Ten cases during 2001-2005 were identified when very high aerosol optical depth values in the free troposphere were observed with a UV-Raman lidar. Particle dispersion modeling (FLEXPART) and satellite hot spot fire detection (ATSR) showed that these high free tropospheric

  10. Aerosol products by CALIOP at 532 nm and by a ground-based Raman lidar at 355 nm: Intercomparison methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Perrone; F. De Tomasi; P. Burlizzi

    2011-01-01

    A methodology has been implemented to compare ground-based Raman lidar measurements at 355nm to measurements at 532nm with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the Cloud-Aerosol-Lidar and Infrared-Pathfinder-Satellite-Observation (CALIPSO) and contribute to the validation of level 2 (version 2) aerosol products. In particular, lidar measurements performed at Lecce (40°20?N, 18°6?E) in 2006, 2008, and 2009 within the European

  11. Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A.

    2000-01-09

    The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  12. RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    FERRARE,R.A.

    2000-01-09

    We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  13. New Examination of the Raman Lidar Technique for Water Vapor and Aerosols. Paper 1; Evaluating the Temperature Dependent Lidar Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.

    2003-01-01

    The intent of this paper and its companion is to compile together the essential information required for the analysis of Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol data acquired using a single laser wavelength. In this first paper several details concerning the evaluation of the lidar equation when measuring Raman scattering are considered. These details include the influence of the temperature dependence of both pure rotational and vibrational-rotational Raman scattering on the lidar profile. These are evaluated for the first time using a new form of the lidar equation. The results indicate that, for the range of temperatures encountered in the troposphere, the magnitude of the temperature dependent effect can reach 10% or more for narrowband Raman water vapor measurements. Also the calculation of atmospheric transmission is examined carefully including the effects of depolarization. Different formulations of Rayleigh cross section determination commonly used in the lidar field are compared revealing differences up to 5% among the formulations. The influence of multiple scattering on the measurement of aerosol extinction using the Raman lidar technique is considered as are several photon pulse-pileup correction techniques.

  14. Improved method to retrieve aerosol optical properties from combined elastic backscatter and Raman lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jia; Wu, Yonghua; McCormick, M. Patrick; Lei, Liqiao; Lee, Robert B.

    2014-07-01

    An improved method that has the potential to improve the retrieval of aerosol optics properties (backscatter/extinction coefficients) from elastic-Raman lidar data is presented. Aerosol backscatter coefficients can be retrieved by choosing the reference height at near-range rather than conventional far-range when the signal-to-noise ratios are low at the far-range or aloft aerosol layers and clouds appear there. Significant retrieval errors in aerosol backscatter coefficients caused by large uncertainties of the aerosol reference value at far-range can be reduced. To avoid the ill-posed retrievals of aerosol extinction from the conventional Raman method, the new method derives the aerosol extinction and lidar ratio with the constrained Fernald inversions by independent aerosol backscatter coefficients from above proposed method. The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed method provides good accuracy and resolution of aerosol profile retrievals. And the method is also applied to elastic-Raman lidar measurements at the Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia.

  15. Atmospheric aerosol characterization combining multi-wavelength Raman lidar and MAX-DOAS measurements in Gwanjgu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Kwang Chul; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Shin, Sungkyun; Noh, Young M.; Müller, Detlef; Kim, Young J.

    2011-11-01

    Integrated approach has been adopted at the ADvanced Environmental Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. Various active and passive optical remote sensing techniques such as multi-wavelength (3?+2?+1?) Raman LIDAR, sun-photometry, MAX-DOAS, and satellite retrieval have been utilized. This integrated monitoring system approach combined with in-situ surface measurement is to allow better characterization of physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol. Information on the vertical distribution and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol is important for understanding its transport characteristics as well as radiative effect. The GIST multi-wavelength (3? + 2?+1?) Raman lidar system can measure vertical profiles of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols such as extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and depolarization ratio at 532nm. The incomplete overlap between the telescope field-of-view and beam divergence of the transmitting laser significantly affects lidar measurement, resulting in higher uncertainty near the surface where atmospheric aerosols of interest are concentrated. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique is applied as a complementary tool for the detection of atmospheric aerosols near the surface. The passive Multi-Axis DOAS (MAX-DOAS) technique uses scattered sunlight as a light source from several viewing directions. Recently developed aerosol retrieval algorithm based on O4 slant column densities (SCDs) measured at UV and visible wavelengths has been utilized to derive aerosol information (e.g., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol extinction coefficients (AECs)) in the lower troposphere. The aerosol extinction coefficient at 356 nm was retrieved for the 0-1 and 1-2 km layers based on the MAX-DOAS measurements using the retrieval algorithm. Ground-based measurements of tropospheric aerosol using multi-wavelength Raman lidar system and a mobile MAX-DOAS system had been carried out at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST). To evaluate the performance of the integrated measurement system (Lidar + MAX-DOAS), an aerosol retrieval method called STAR (satellite aerosol retrieval) has been applied to compare the satellite AOD products with those based on the Raman lidar and MAX-DOAS measurements. It allows complete monitoring of atmospheric aerosols' vertical profiles for better estimation of their radiative effects on atmospheric environment and climate change.

  16. 2.1 RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE

    E-print Network

    Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI profiles and the temperature profiles from the AERI+GOES temperature retrievals. The water vapor mixing

  17. Optical characteristics of biomass burning aerosols over Southeastern Europe determined from UV-Raman lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiridis, V.; Balis, D. S.; Giannakaki, E.; Stohl, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Koukouli, M. E.; Zanis, P.

    2009-04-01

    The influence of smoke on the aerosol loading in the free troposphere over Thessaloniki, Greece is examined in this paper. Ten cases during 2001-2005 were identified when very high aerosol optical depth values in the free troposphere were observed with a UV-Raman lidar. Particle dispersion modeling (FLEXPART) and satellite hot spot fire detection (ATSR) showed that these high free tropospheric aerosol optical depths are mainly attributed to the advection of smoke plumes from biomass burning regions over Thessaloniki. The biomass burning regions were found to extend across Russia in the latitudinal belt between 45° N-55° N, as well as in Eastern Europe (Baltic countries, Western Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine). The highest frequency of agricultural fires occurred during the summer season (mainly in August). The data collected allowed the optical characterization of the smoke aerosols that arrived over Greece, where limited information has so far been available. Two-wavelength backscatter lidar measurements showed that the backscatter-related Ångström exponent ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 indicating a variety of particle sizes. UV-Raman lidar measurements showed that for smoke particles the extinction to backscatter ratios (so-called lidar ratios) varied between 40 sr for small particles to 100 sr for large particles. Dispersion model estimations of the carbon monoxide tracer concentration profiles for smoke particles indicate that the variability of the optical parameters is a function of the age of the smoke plumes. This information could be useful on the lidar community for reducing uncertainty in the aerosol backscatter coefficient determination due to the lidar ratio assumption, starting from a simply elastic backscatter lidar as the first satellite-borne lidar CALIPSO.

  18. New Examination of the Traditional Raman Lidar Technique II: Temperature Dependence Aerosol Scattering Ratio and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a companion paper, the temperature dependence of Raman scattering and its influence on the Raman water vapor signal and the lidar equations was examined. New forms of the lidar equation were developed to account for this temperature sensitivity. Here we use those results to derive the temperature dependent forms of the equations for the aerosol scattering ratio, aerosol backscatter coefficient, extinction to backscatter ratio and water vapor mixing ratio. Pertinent analysis examples are presented to illustrate each calculation.

  19. Evaluation of Daytime Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor made by an Operational Raman Lidar over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Turner, David; Clayton, Marian; Schmid, Beat; Covert, David; Elleman, Robert; Orgren, John; Andrews, Elisabeth; Goldsmith, John E. M.; Jonsson, Hafidi

    2006-01-01

    Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles acquired during the daytime over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern Oklahoma (36.606 N, 97.50 W, 315 m) are evaluated using profiles measured by in situ and remote sensing instruments deployed during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (IOP). The automated algorithms used to derive these profiles from the Raman lidar data were first modified to reduce the adverse effects associated with a general loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar since early 2002. The Raman lidar water vapor measurements, which are calibrated to match precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from coincident microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements were, on average, 5-10% (0.3-0.6 g/m(exp 3) higher than the other measurements. Some of this difference is due to out-of-date line parameters that were subsequently updated in the MWR PWV retrievals. The Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements were, on average, about 0.03 km(exp -1) higher than aerosol measurements derived from airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical thickness and in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption. This bias, which was about 50% of the mean aerosol extinction measured during this IOP, decreased to about 10% when aerosol extinction comparisons were restricted to aerosol extinction values larger than 0.15 km(exp -1). The lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio and airborne Sun photometer measurements of the aerosol optical thickness were used along with in situ measurements of the aerosol size distribution to retrieve estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo (omega(sub o)) and the effective complex refractive index. Retrieved values of omega(sub o) ranged from (0.91-0.98) and were in generally good agreement with omega(sub o) derived from airborne in situ measurements of scattering and absorption. Elevated aerosol layers located between about 2.6 and 3.6 km were observed by the Raman lidar on May 25 and May 27. The airborne measurements and lidar retrievals indicated that these layers, which were likely smoke produced by Siberian forest fires, were primarily composed of relatively large particles (r(sub eff) approximately 0.23 micrometers), and that the layers were relatively nonabsorbing (omega(sub o) approximately 0.96-0.98). Preliminary results show that major modifications that were made to the Raman lidar system during 2004 have dramatically improved the sensitivity in the aerosol and water vapor channels and reduced random errors in the aerosol scattering ratio and water vapor retrievals by an order of magnitude.

  20. Turnkey Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. M. Goldsmith; Forest H. Blair; Scott E. Bisson; David D. Turner

    1998-01-01

    We describe an operational, self-contained, fully autonomous Raman lidar system that has been developed for unattended, around-the-clock atmospheric profiling of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds. During a 1996 three-week intensive observational period, the system operated during all periods of good weather (339 out of 504 h), including one continuous five-day period. The system is based on a dual-field-of-view design that

  1. Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    A nighttime operating Raman lidar system that is designed for the measurement of high vertical and temporal resolution profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio and the aerosol backscattering ratio is described. The theory of the measurements is presented. Particular attention is given to operational problems that have been solved during the development of the system. Data are presented from Sept. 1987 and described in their meteorological context.

  2. Vertical Profiling of Atmospheric Backscatter with a Raman-Aerosol Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleva, Atanaska D.; Peshev, Zahary Y.; Slesar, Alexander S.; Denisov, Sergey; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols have a strong impact on the planet's thermal balance, air quality, and a variety of atmospheric processes and phenomena. In this work we present some results from a long term lidar observation of tropospheric aerosols over the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, within the framework of the European project "EARLINET-ASSOS." Vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient and range corrected lidar signals are processed and analyzed. The temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosol fields are illustrated by 2D-colormaps in height-time coordinates. We present here several cases of aerosol loading: transport of Saharan dust (at altitudes from 3 km to 5 km), highly situated layers (from 9 km to 15 km), and anthropogenic smog (up to 2 km). All measurements were performed by using the two aerosol spectral channels of a combined Raman-aerosol lidar developed in the Laser Radar Lab, Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It is based on a Q-switched powerful frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (output pulse power: up to 1 J at 1064 nm; up to 100 mJ at 532 nm; pulse duration 15 ns FWHM; repetition rate 2 Hz). A Cassegrain telescope (35 cm diameter, 200 cm focal length) collects the backscattered radiation. The lidar receiving system is based on novel smart high sensitive photo-receiving modules. The acquisition system provides signal registration with spatial resolution of 15 m (100 MHz 14-bit ADC). It allows for detection, storage, and processing of large volume lidar data. Our observations are in good agreement with the forecasts of Barcelona Supercomputing Center, concerning Saharan dust transport.

  3. Optical characteristics of biomass burning aerosols over Southeastern Europe determined from UV-Raman lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiridis, V.; Balis, D. S.; Giannakaki, E.; Stohl, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Koukouli, M. E.; Zanis, P.

    2008-10-01

    The influence of smoke on the aerosol loading in the free troposphere over Thessaloniki, Greece is examined in this paper. Ten cases during 2001 2005 were identified when very high aerosol optical depth values in the free troposphere were observed with a UV-Raman lidar. Particle dispersion modeling (FLEXPART) and satellite hot spot fire detection (ATSR) showed that these high free tropospheric aerosol optical depths are mainly attributed to the advection of smoke plumes from biomass burning regions over Thessaloniki. The biomass burning regions were found to extend across Russia in the latitudinal belt between 45° N 55° N, as well as in Eastern Europe (Baltic countries, Western Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine). The highest frequency of agricultural fires occurred during the summer season (mainly in August). The data collected allowed the optical characterization of the smoke aerosols that arrived over Greece, where limited information has so far been available. Two-wavelength backscatter lidar measurements showed that the backscatter-related Ångström exponent ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 indicating a variety of particle sizes. UV-Raman lidar measurements showed that for smoke particles the extinction to backscatter ratios varied between 40 sr for small particles to 100 sr for large particles. Dispersion model estimations of the carbon monoxide tracer concentration profiles for smoke particles indicate that the variability of the optical parameters is a function of the age of the smoke plumes.

  4. CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Tooman, T. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

  5. CART Raman Lidar Aerosol and Water Vapor Measurements in the Vicinity of Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Marian B.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Turner, David; Newsom, Rob; Sivaraman, Chitra

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol and water vapor profiles acquired by the Raman lidar instrument located at the Climate Research Facility (CRF) at Southern Great Plains (SGP) provide data necessary to investigate the atmospheric variability in the vicinity of clouds near the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Recent CARL upgrades and modifications to the routine processing algorithms afforded the necessarily high temporal and vertical data resolutions for these investigations. CARL measurements are used to investigate the behavior of aerosol backscattering and extinction and their correlation with water vapor and relative humidity.

  6. Observations of atmospheric water vapor, aerosol, and cloud with a Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufeng, Wang; Fei, Gao; Chengxuan, Zhu; Qing, Yan; Dengxin, Hua

    2014-11-01

    To realize the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio and rejection rate for elastic Mie-Rayleigh signals, a set of dichroic mirrors and narrow-band interference filters with high efficiency was proposed to constitute a new spectroscopy for atmospheric water vapor, aerosol, and cloud studies. Based on the curves of signal-to-noise ratio at three different channels, the actual rejection rates of elastic Mie-Rayleigh signals at the Raman channels were found to be higher than eight orders of magnitude with the cloudy conditions. Continuous nighttime observations showed that the statistical error of the water vapor mixing ratio was <10% at a height of 2.3 km with an aerosol backscatter ratio of 17. Temporal variations of water vapor and aerosols were obtained under the conditions of cloud and cloud-free, the change relevance between aerosol and water vapor was analyzed, and the growth characteristics of water vapor and aerosols showed a good agreement within the cloud layers. Obtained results indicate achievement of the continuous detection of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud with a high efficiency and stability by Raman lidar.

  7. Aerosol content survey by mini N 2 -Raman lidar: Application to local and long-range transport aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Philippe; Chazette, Patrick; Lardier, Melody; Sauvage, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    This study shows an aerosol content survey in the low and middle troposphere over Paris with a compact and light Nitrogen-Raman lidar which has been recently developed by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and LEOSPHERE company. This eye-safe and wide field-of-view system (full overlap between 150 and 200 m) is particularly well-adapted to air pollution survey in the vicinity of Megalopolis. Extinction-to-backscatter coefficient (so-called Lidar Ratio LR) profiles obtained with a Tikhonov regularization scheme are presented for long-range transport events of aerosols (volcanic ash plume LR = 48 ± 10 sr, and desert dust, LR = 45 ± 8 sr) which may contribute to the local load of aerosols emitted by traffic and industries in Megalopolis. Due to an insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR < 30), a new dichotomous algorithm has been developed to perform daytime inversions every hour which is in accordance with the typical time evolution of aerosols within the planetary boundary layer. This inversion scheme is based on the constraint of the elastic channel with the aerosol optical depth (between typically 0.2 and 0.7 km) determined with the N 2-Raman channel and thus only gives access to an equivalent LR between 0.2 and 0.7 km with a relative uncertainty lower than 15%. This approach has been applied to retrieve diurnal cycle of LR for polluted continental aerosols over Paris and is compared with Tikhonov regularization applied during the night. We found a mean value of 85 ± 18 sr for polluted continental aerosols which is in agreement with other studies performed around the Paris urban area. Results for aerosol optical properties are presented and the error sources are discussed for each approach.

  8. One year of Raman lidar observations of free tropospheric aerosol layers over South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, E.; Pfüller, A.; Korhonen, K.; Mielonen, T.; Laakso, L.; Vakkari, V.; Baars, H.; Engelmann, R.; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Josipovic, M.; Tiitta, P.; Chiloane, K.; Piketh, S.; Lihavainen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.

    2015-01-01

    Raman lidar data obtained over a one year period has been analyzed in relation to aerosol layers in the free troposphere over the Highveld in South Africa. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30 January 2010-31 January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics, as well as intensive and extensive optical properties were studied. The highest center heights of free tropospheric layers were observed during the South African spring (2520 ± 970 m a.g.l.). The geometrical layer depth was found to be maximum during spring, while it did not show any significant difference for the rest of the seasons. The variability of the analyzed intensive and extensive optical properties was high during all seasons. This was attributed to the mixing state of aerosols and the different transport paths of the aerosol layers. Layers were observed at a mean altitude of 2100 ± 1000 m a.g.l. with an average lidar ratio of 67 ± 25 sr (mean value with one standard deviation) at 355 nm and a mean extinction-related Ångström exponent of 1.9 ± 0.8 between 355 and 532 nm during the period under study. During southern hemispheric spring, the biomass burning activity is clearly reflected in the optical properties of the observed free tropospheric layers. Specifically, lidar ratios at 355 nm were 57 ± 20 sr , 65 ± 23 sr, 59 ± 22 sr and 89 ± 21 sr during summer (December-February), winter (June-August), autumn (March-May) and spring (September-November), respectively. The extinction-related Ångström exponents between 355 and 532 nm measured during summer, winter, autumn and spring were 2.4 ± 0.9, 1.8 ± 0.6, 1.8 ± 0.9 and 1.8 ± 0.6, respectively. The mean columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from lidar measurements was found to be 0.46 ± 0.35 at 355 nm and 0.25 ± 0.2 at 532 nm.The contribution of free tropospheric aerosols on the AOD had a wide range of values with a mean contribution of 46%.

  9. New Examination of the Traditional Raman Lidar Technique II: Evaluating the Ratios for Water Vapor and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.

    2003-01-01

    In a companion paper, the temperature dependence of Raman scattering and its influence on the Raman and Rayleigh-Mie lidar equations was examined. New forms of the lidar equation were developed to account for this temperature sensitivity. Here those results are used to derive the temperature dependent forms of the equations for the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol scattering ratio, aerosol backscatter coefficient, and extinction to backscatter ratio (Sa). The error equations are developed, the influence of differential transmission is studied and different laser sources are considered in the analysis. The results indicate that the temperature functions become significant when using narrowband detection. Errors of 5% and more can be introduced in the water vapor mixing ratio calculation at high altitudes and errors larger than 10% are possible for calculations of aerosol scattering ratio and thus aerosol backscatter coefficient and extinction to backscatter ratio.

  10. Investigation of aerosol and cloud properties using multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verghese, Sachin John

    Lidar measurements obtained during several field campaigns have provided an extensive dataset for investigating aerosol characteristics and cloud properties. In this thesis we use measurements of multi-wavelength optical extinction measured with a Raman lidar to infer aerosol and cloud particle size variations. Aerosol extinction depends on both size and number density of the scatterers. The optical extinction at different wavelengths depends on the sixth power of the size parameter for aerosols much smaller than the scattering wavelength, and on the second power of the size parameter for aerosols much larger than the wavelength. Changes in the density of a particular size aerosol lead to a proportional response. The extinction profiles at several wavelengths are simultaneously examined to study changes in the aerosol size distribution over an interesting range of sizes corresponding to accumulation-mode particles. Model calculations based on Mie scattering theory are compared with extinction profiles at different wavelengths, water vapor profiles, and other simultaneous measurements, to investigate the formation and dissipation of cloud structures. The optical scattering measurements from aerosols and cloud particles demonstrate that various characteristics of aerosols and visibility can be determined. We demonstrate the capability of the new technique using the multi-wavelength extinction ratios to profile information about changes in CCN particle size in the range of 50 nm to 0.5 mum. Examples taken from three different field campaigns demonstrate that changes in the size of the cloud particles during the different stages of growth and dissipation are observed in the multi-wavelength aerosol extinction using this technique. We also show the relationship that exists between particle size increase or decrease in cloud regions, based on the extinction coefficients and changes in relative humidity. The deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) is found to exert a strong control on the optical extinction and visibility. Our results show that relative humidity values above 85% accompany drastic drops in visibility in the U.S. north-east regions. Increase in the relative humidity values beyond the DRH results in rapid growth of particle size, which in turn causes a simultaneous increase in the optical extinction and a drop in visibility. Comparison of data from the eastern and western regions of the United States show that different sources control the changes in optical extinction values in the lower boundary layer. During the Southern California Ozone Study (SCOS) campaign an increase of optical extinction was observed after sunset in the nocturnal boundary layer due to the growth of particles caused by the increasing relative humidity. On the other hand, the optical extinction during the North-East Particle and Oxidant Study (NEOPS) campaigns was controlled more by pollutant concentrations and showed an increase in values after sunrise and decreased values after sunset; opposite from that observed at Hesperia, Ca. We used theoretical simulations along with field measurements of multi-wavelength extinction coefficients to investigate the differences that particle growth and pollutant concentration have on the extinction coefficient as well as on the extinction coefficient ratios (visible/ultraviolet). Our results show that the increase in the extinction coefficient in a region of pollutants, typically composed of smaller size particles, depends on the number density of the scatterers, which has the same effect at all wavelengths. We additionally demonstrate the capability of the Raman lidar to measure atmospheric visibility conditions and transmission properties using the optical extinction measurements.

  11. Validation of Temperature Measurements from the Airborne Raman Ozone Temperature and Aerosol Lidar During SOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walter; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Bui, T. Paul; Neuber, Roland; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) participated in the recent Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) by providing profiles of aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone and temperature with high vertical and horizontal resolution. Temperatures were derived from just above the aircraft to approximately 60 kilometers geometric altitude with a reported vertical resolution of between 0.5 and 1.5 km. The horizontal footprint varied from 4 to 70 km. This paper explores the measurement uncertainties associated with the temperature retrievals and makes comparisons with independent, coincident, measurements of temperature. Measurement uncertainties range from 0.1 K to approximately 4 K depending on altitude and integration time. Comparisons between AROTEL and balloon sonde temperatures retrieved under clear sky conditions using both Rayleigh and Raman scattered data showed AROTEL approximately 1 K colder than sonde values. Comparisons between AROTEL and the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on NASA's ER-2 show AROTEL being from 2-3 K colder for altitudes ranging from 14 to 18 km. Temperature comparisons between AROTEL and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's model showed differences of approximately 1 K below approximately 25 km and a very strong cold bias of approximately 12 K at altitudes between 30 and 35 km.

  12. Raman Lidar (RL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2009-03-01

    The Raman lidar at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SGPRL) is an active, ground-based laser remote sensing instrument that measures height and time resolved profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and several cloud- and aerosol-related quantities. The system is a non-commercial custom-built instrument developed by Sandia National Laboratories specifically for the ARM Program. It is fully computer automated, and will run unattended for many days following a brief (~5-minute) startup period. The self-contained system (requiring only external electrical power) is housed in a climate-controlled 8’x8’x20’ standard shipping container.

  13. Combined raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ansmann; M. Riebesell; U. Wandinger; C. Weitkamp; E. Voss; W. Lahmann; W. Michaelis

    1992-01-01

    A combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar has been developed. A XeCl excimer laser is used as the radiation source. Inelastic Raman backscatter signals are spectrally separated from the elastic signal with a filter or grating polychromator. Raman channels can be chosen to register signals from CO2, O2, N2, and H2O. Algorithms for the calculation of the water-vapor mixing ratio from the

  14. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 2; Derivation of Aerosol Real Refractive Index, Single-Scattering Albedo, and Humidification Factor using Raman Lidar and Aircraft Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Poellot, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol size distribution measurements made by a PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe) optical particle counter flown on the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. We describe a technique which uses both lidar and PCASP measurements to derive the dependence of particle size on relative humidity, the aerosol real refractive index n, and estimate the effective single-scattering albedo Omega(sub 0). Values of n ranged between 1.4-1.5 (dry) and 1.37-1.47 (wet); Omega(sub 0) varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The single-scattering albedo derived from this technique is sensitive to the manner in which absorbing particles are represented in the aerosol mixture; representing the absorbing particles as an internal mixture rather than the external mixture assumed here results in generally higher values of Omega(sub 0). The lidar measurements indicate that the change in particle size with relative humidity as measured by the PCASP can be represented in the form discussed by Hattel with the exponent gamma = 0.3 + or - 0.05. The variations in aerosol optical and physical characteristics captured in the lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements are discussed in the context of the meteorological conditions observed during the experiment.

  15. N2-Raman lidar for dust aerosol survey over the southern Spain within the frame of FENNEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Royer, P.; Marnas, F.; Flamant, C.; Doira, P.; Grenier, C.; Sanak, J.

    2012-04-01

    The FENNEC program aims to improve our knowledge of both the role of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) on the West African monsoon and the interactions between the African continent and the Mediterranean basin through the Saharan dust transport. The Saharan desert is the major source of mineral dust in the world and may significantly impact the air quality over the Western Europe by increasing the particular matter content. We will present the contribution of the French ground-based lidar to the FENNEC program. A N2-Raman lidar equipped with co-polar and cross-polar channels has been implemented in the South-Eastern part of Spain, close to Marbella, in the center of San Pedro de Alcantara on a building flat roof. The lidar worked in synergy with a sunphotometer, which data are now a contribution to the AERONET network. The lidar measurements have been performed continuously by about 2.5 months between the 6 June and 26 August 2011. It is a valuable asset for monitoring dust aerosols within the atmospheric column and to separate their contribution from the local aerosol production. Indeed, several dust events with aerosol optical thickness larger than 0.5 at 355 nm were sampled, influencing the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere until ~7 km height. Such events have been shown to be more originating from Morocco and Algeria, although more distant contribution can occur from Mauritania sources.

  16. One year of regular aerosol observations with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preissler, Jana; Wagner, Frank; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Silva, Ana Maria

    2011-11-01

    Data of one year (January to December 2010) has been analyzed regarding aerosol layers in the free troposphere. In total, 120 layers were observed above the boundary layer during 56 out of 78 performed measurements. The investigated aerosol types were anthropogenic (15% of all layers), forest fire plumes (10%), volcanic from Eyjafjallajokull (6%), desert dust (17%) and aerosol transported over the sea below an altitude of 2 km (18%). The remaining 35% of the layers could not be assigned to one aerosol type unambiguously. The seasonal variability was investigated as well. In winter, only 8% of the aerosol layers were detected. Most layers were observed during spring (40%) and summer (34%). The aerosol layer mean height, layer depth, lidar ratios, Angstrom exponents and aerosol optical depths as well as relative humidity were investigated with the aim of a characterization of the individual aerosol types. The variations of most of the analyzed properties within one cluster were high. This is partly due to differences in, aerosol mixing close to the source, aging processes or different transport paths of the aerosol layers in one cluster. Lidar ratios at 355 nm and extinction-related Angstrom exponents from 355 to 532 nm were (51 +/- 17) sr and 1.7 +/- 0.7, respectively, for anthropogenic aerosol, (43 +/- 13) sr and 1.4 +/- 0.5 for forest fire aerosol, (50 +/- 11) sr and 1.9 +/- 1.0 for volcanic aerosol, (58 +/- 20) sr and 0.5 +/- 0.3 for desert dust, (52 +/- 20) sr and 1.8 +/- 0.8 for aerosol transported over the sea below 2 km and (54 +/- 21) sr and 1.8 +/- 1.0 for all layers, which could not be assigned to any of the types.

  17. Retrieval of aerosol and volcanic ash properties from Raman lidar with optimal estimation

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    extinction and backscatter from two-channel Raman lidar observations. Optimal estimation A schematic then be shown that the iteration, xi+1 = xi + [(1 + i)S-1 a + KT i S-1 y Ki]-1 {KT i S-1 y [y - F(xi, b)] - S-1 from six simulated cases (dashed) when retrieving backscatter and extinction (green) or log backscatter

  18. Raman lidar and sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balis, D. S.; Amiridis, V.; Zerefos, C.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Andreae, M.; Zanis, P.; Kazantzidis, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Papayannis, A.

    The influence of biomass burning smoke on the aerosol loading in the free troposphere over Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5°N, 22.9°E) is discussed in this paper. A selected case during summer 2001 is presented, when very high aerosol optical depth values were observed, benefiting from the synergy of various remote sensing instruments. The data that were collected allow the characterization of the optical properties of the aerosols in this region, where only little information has so far been available. Four-day back trajectories indicated that air masses were advected from Bulgaria and the northern coast of the Black Sea, where strong forest fires occurred in early August 2001. In order to investigate the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols, we used a two-wavelength lidar system that combines Raman and elastic-backscatter observations, in addition to a Brewer spectrophotometer, a nephelometer and a multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer. The lidar measurements on 9 August 2001 recorded an integrated aerosol optical depth at 355 nm of the order of 1.35 during cloud-free conditions. The estimated mean extinction-to-backscatter ratios from the Raman lidar were 60 sr for 355 nm and 50 sr for 532 nm. Estimated values of the single scattering albedo, using spectral UV measurements and modeling were of the order of 0.90, consistent with previous findings, indicating a weak contribution of absorption to the total extinction. The Angstrom exponent, calculated from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer exhibited also high values around 1.78, indicating the presence of rather small particles.

  19. Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL) in 2010: instrument status and two-component wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Shane D.

    2010-10-01

    This paper and corresponding seminar given on 20 September 2010 at the 16th International School for Quantum Electronics in Nesebar, Bulgaria, will describe the key hardware aspects of the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and recent advances in extracting two-component wind vector fields from the images it produces. The REAL is an eye-safe, ground-based, scanning, elastic aerosol backscatter lidar operating at 1.54 microns wavelength. Operation at this wavelength offers several advantages compared to other laser wavelengths including: (1) maximum eye-safety, (2) invisible beam, (3) superior performance photodetectors compared with those used at longer wavelengths, (4) low atmospheric molecular scattering when compared with operation at shorter wavelengths, (5) good aerosol backscattering, (6) atmospheric transparency, and (7) availability of optical and photonic components used in the modern telecommunations industry. A key issue for creating a high-performance direct-detection lidar at 1.5 microns is the use of InGaAs avalanche photodetectors that have active areas of at most 200 microns in diameter. The small active area imposes a maximum limitation on the field-of-view of the receiver (about 0.54 mrad full-angle for REAL). As a result, a key requirement is a transmitter that can produce a pulsed (>10 Hz) beam with low divergence (<0.25 mrad full-angle), high pulse-energy (>150 mJ), and short pulse-duration (<10 ns). The REAL achieves this by use of a commercially-available flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a custom high-pressure methane gas cell for wavelength shifting via stimulated Raman scattering. The atmospheric aerosol features in the images that REAL produces can be tracked to infer horizontal wind vectors. The method of tracking macroscopic aerosol features has an advantage over Doppler lidars in that two components of motion can be sensed. (Doppler lidars can sense only the radial component of flow.) Two-component velocity estimation is done by computing two-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and noting the displacement of the peak of the CCF with respect to the origin. Motion vectors derived from this method are compared with coincident sonic anemometer measurements at 1.6 km range. Preliminary results indicate the method performs best when the atmosphere is stable with light winds.

  20. In-situ, sunphotometer and Raman lidar observations of aerosol transport events in the western Mediterranean during the June 2013 ChArMEx campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totems, Julien; Sicard, Michael; Bertolin, Santi; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Chazette, Patrick; Comeron, Adolfo; Dulac, Francois; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Lange, Diego; Marnas, Fabien; Munoz, Constantino; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2014-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aerosol observations performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean at two stations set up in Barcelona and Menorca (Spain) in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project. The Barcelona station was equipped with the following fixed instruments belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC): an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun-photometer, an MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) lidar and the UPC multi-wavelength lidar. The MPL lidar works at 532 nm and has a depolarization channel, while the UPC lidar works at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and also includes two N2- (at 387 and 607 nm) and one H2O-Raman (at 407 nm) channels. The MPL system works continuously 24 hour/day. The UPC system was operated on alert in coordination with the research aircrafts plans involved in the campaign. In Cap d'en Font, Menorca, the mobile laboratory of the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement hosted an automated (AERONET) and a manual (Microtops) 5-lambda sunphotometer, a 3-lambda nephelometer, a 7-lambda aethalometer, as well as the LSCE Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI). This mini Raman lidar, first developed and validated for the HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) campaign in 2012, works at 355 nm for eye safety and is designed with a short overlap distance (<300m) to probe the lower troposphere. It includes depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels. H2O observations have been calibrated on-site by different methods and show good agreement with balloon measurements. Observations at Cap d'en Font were quasi-continuous from June 10th to July 3rd, 2013. The lidar data at both stations helped direct the research aircrafts and balloon launches to interesting plumes of particles in real time for in-situ measurements. Among some light pollution background from the European continent, a typical Saharan dust event and an unusual American dust/biomass burning event are highlighted in our measurements. The lidar ratio, depolarization ratio and water content, as well as the usual aerosol vertical distribution and extinction properties provided by the Raman lidars, and the size distributions provided by AERONET, prove very helpful in characterizing particle types and sources, especially for the multi-layer situations observed. Further on, the study of parameters extracted during this campaign will allow us an assessment of the local direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  1. Raman Lidar Retrievals of Mixed Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Clayton, M.; Turner, D. D.; Newsom, R. K.; Goldsmith, J.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate determination of the atmospheric mixing layer (ML) height is important for modeling the transport of aerosols and aerosol precursors and forecasting air quality. Aerosol and water vapor profiles measured by the DOE ARM SGP and the new TWP (Darwin) ground based Raman lidars provide direct measurements of the vertical structure of ML. We have developed automated algorithms to identify sharp gradients in aerosols and water vapor at the top of the ML and have used these algorithms to derive ML heights for extended periods over the last few years. During the afternoon, these ML heights generally compare favorably with ML heights derived from potential temperature profiles derived from coincident radiosondes. However, retrieving ML heights via lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol gradients is problematic in the presence of elevated aerosol and water vapor layers which are often observed, especially at night. Consequently, we take advantage of recent modifications to these lidars that permit continuous temperature profiling, and compute ML heights using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements. The resulting ML heights agree well with ML heights derived from radiosondes and provide a more realistic representation of the diurnal ML behavior. We use the Raman lidar aerosol and water vapor profiles and ML heights to derive the fractions of total column precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical thickness within and above the ML and show how the ML heights and these fractions vary with time of day and season. The SGP Raman lidar measurements show that the fraction of the aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor above the ML increases from 30-60% during the day to 60-80% at night. The Darwin Raman lidar measurements reveal a shallow, moist cloud-topped ML with little diurnal variability during the austral summer and deeper ML with more diurnal variability during the austral winter. The Darwin Raman lidar measurements of the diurnal and seasonal variabilities of ML heights and the aerosol and water vapor distributions relative to these ML heights will also be presented.

  2. Vertical profiling of Asian dust with multi-wavelength aerosol depolarization Raman lidar in Gwangju, Korea during DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, D.; Mueller, D.; Noh, Y.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) campaign, which was carried out in Korea from March to May 2013, aimed at validating satellite remote sensing data of aerosol optical and microphysical parameters. Anthropogenic pollution and Asian dust from the East Asian Mainland prevailed over the Korean peninsula during the DRAGON campaign. Validation of the data products requires knowledge on the vertical distribution of aerosol pollution and the knowledge of aerosol types, e.g., urban haze and dust. For this purpose we operated a multi-wavelength aerosol depolarization Raman lidar on the campus of the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) in Gwangju, Korea (35.10° N, 126.53° E). The system provides us with particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, and the linear particle depolarization ratio at 532nm. Two upgraded sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) with improved capabilities for dust measurements were also deployed. In our contribution we will present optical properties of Asian dust on the basis of lidar and sun photometer observations. One sun photometer was equipped with a measurement channel at 1640 nm channel and the second sun photometer carried out polarization measurements. Data could be collected on thirty-eight days We analyzed the geometrical and optical properties of Asian dust on the basis of backward trajectories in order to identify the main source regions of the observed dust layers. The height resolved statistical analysis of the DRAGON dataset reveals that the geometrical depth of the Asian dust layers was between 1 km and 4 km in 72% of all cases. Geometrical depths above 4 km were found in 20% of all cases. We found geometrical depths of 10 km in 3.3% of all cases. The vertical distribution of the dust layers was typically located in two different heights. In 51.5% of the measurements we observed Asian dust between 4 and 11km height above sea level. In 48.5% of the cases dust was below 4 km height above sea level.

  3. Application of the polarization Raman Mie lidar system to monitor the particulate matter and water vapor in the aerosol pollution and haze episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chenbo; Zhao, Ming; Shang, Zhen; Wang, Bangxin; Zhong, Zhiqing; Liu, Dong; Wang, Yingjian

    2014-11-01

    To monitor the temporal and spatial characteristics of particulate matter and water vapor in the aerosol pollution and haze episodes, the polarization Raman Mie lidar system has been developed. The lidar system includes four detection channels and it can measure the extinction coefficient and depolarization ratio of particulate matter as well as water vapor mixing ratio. The extinction coefficient indicates the visibility of atmosphere and it associates with the concentration of particulate matter. The depolarization ratio demonstrates the nonsphericity of particulate matter and is useful to distinguish the dust and pollution aerosol. The water vapor mixing ratio denotes the content of water vapor in the air and it is an important factor to influence of the hygroscopic growth on the pollution aerosol. The lidar system can operate in the automatic and continuous modes through a window on the roof of the observation room regards of the weather, and it takes continuous measurement from 20 November 2013 to 6 February 2014 over Hefei, China. During the experiment, the typical results of particulate matter measured with lidar in clear air, aerosol pollution and haze, and dust episodes are analyzed and given. The lidar observations are also compared with the air quality data and the meteorological data on the ground.

  4. Advanced Raman water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith A.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Staley, O. Glenn; Disilvestre, Raymond W.; Gorin, Inna; Kirks, Kenneth R.; Mamakos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Water vapor and aerosols are important atmospheric constituents. Knowledge of the structure of water vapor is important in understanding convective development, atmospheric stability, the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface, and energy feedback mechanisms and how they relate to global warming calculations. The Raman Lidar group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed an advanced Raman Lidar for use in measuring water vapor and aerosols in the earth's atmosphere. Drawing on the experience gained through the development and use of our previous Nd:YAG based system, we have developed a completely new lidar system which uses a XeF excimer laser and a large scanning mirror. The additional power of the excimer and the considerably improved optical throughput of the system have resulted in approximately a factor of 25 improvement in system performance for nighttime measurements. Every component of the current system has new design concepts incorporated. The lidar system consists of two mobile trailers; the first (13m x 2.4m) houses the lidar instrument, the other (9.75m x 2.4m) is for system control, realtime data display, and analysis. The laser transmitter is a Lambda Physik LPX 240 iCC operating at 400 Hz with a XeF gas mixture (351 nm). The telescope is a .75m horizontally mounted Dall-Kirkham system which is bore sited with a .8m x 1.1m elliptical flat which has a full 180 degree scan capability - horizon to horizon within a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the trailer. The telescope and scan mirror assembly are mounted on a 3.65m x .9m optical table which deploys out the rear of the trailer through the use of a motor driven slide rail system. The Raman returns from water vapor (403 nm), nitrogen (383 nm) and oxygen (372 nm) are measured in addition to the direct Rayleigh/Mie backscatter (351). The signal from each of these is split at about a 5/95 ratio between two photomultiplier detectors. The 5 percent detector is used for measurements below about 4.0 km, while the 95 percent detector provides the information above this level.

  5. Arrange and average algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol parameters from multiwavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar/Raman lidar data.

    PubMed

    Chemyakin, Eduard; Müller, Detlef; Burton, Sharon; Kolgotin, Alexei; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of a feasibility study in which a simple, automated, and unsupervised algorithm, which we call the arrange and average algorithm, is used to infer microphysical parameters (complex refractive index, effective radius, total number, surface area, and volume concentrations) of atmospheric aerosol particles. The algorithm uses backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm as input information. Testing of the algorithm is based on synthetic optical data that are computed from prescribed monomodal particle size distributions and complex refractive indices that describe spherical, primarily fine mode pollution particles. We tested the performance of the algorithm for the "3 backscatter (?)+2 extinction (?)" configuration of a multiwavelength aerosol high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) or Raman lidar. We investigated the degree to which the microphysical results retrieved by this algorithm depends on the number of input backscatter and extinction coefficients. For example, we tested "3?+1?," "2?+1?," and "3?" lidar configurations. This arrange and average algorithm can be used in two ways. First, it can be applied for quick data processing of experimental data acquired with lidar. Fast automated retrievals of microphysical particle properties are needed in view of the enormous amount of data that can be acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center's airborne "3?+2?" High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). It would prove useful for the growing number of ground-based multiwavelength lidar networks, and it would provide an option for analyzing the vast amount of optical data acquired with a future spaceborne multiwavelength lidar. The second potential application is to improve the microphysical particle characterization with our existing inversion algorithm that uses Tikhonov's inversion with regularization. This advanced algorithm has recently undergone development to allow automated and unsupervised processing; the arrange and average algorithm can be used as a preclassifier to further improve its speed and precision. First tests of the performance of arrange and average algorithm are encouraging. We used a set of 48 different monomodal particle size distributions, 4 real parts and 15 imaginary parts of the complex refractive index. All in all we tested 2880 different optical data sets for 0%, 10%, and 20% Gaussian measurement noise (one-standard deviation). In the case of the "3?+2?" configuration with 10% measurement noise, we retrieve the particle effective radius to within 27% for 1964 (68.2%) of the test optical data sets. The number concentration is obtained to 76%, the surface area concentration to 16%, and the volume concentration to 30% precision. The "3?" configuration performs significantly poorer. The performance of the "3?+1?" and "2?+1?" configurations is intermediate between the "3?+2?" and the "3?." PMID:25402885

  6. Airborne Raman lidar.

    PubMed

    Heaps, W S; Burris, J

    1996-12-20

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions. PMID:21151318

  7. Aerosol lidar ``M4``

    SciTech Connect

    Shelevoy, C.D.; Andreev, Y.M. [Super Computer Devices Co. Ltd., Tomsk (Russian Federation); [Siberian State Medical Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Small carrying aerosol lidar in which is used small copper vapor laser ``Malachite`` as source of sounding optical pulses is described. The advantages of metal vapor laser and photon counting mode in acquisition system of lidar gave ability to get record results: when lidar has dimensions (1 x .6 x .3 m) and weight (65 kg), it provides the sounding of air industrial pollutions at up to 20 km range in scanning sector 90{degree}. Power feed is less than 800 Wt. Lidar can be disposed as stationary so on the car, helicopter, light plane. Results of location of smoke tails and city smog in situ experiments are cited. Showed advantages of work of acquisition system in photon counting mode when dynamic range of a signal is up to six orders.

  8. Atmospheric Science Research Using Raman Lidar at NASA/GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A broad overview of the research that is taking place in the Code 924 Raman Lidar group will be presented. The measurement capabilities of two instruments, the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) and the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL), will be discussed. Case studies to be presented include: 1) high resolution measurements of water vapor during a boundary layer bore wave event; 2) a study of the influence of thin cirrus clouds on satellite retrievals of water vapor; 3) the retrieval of warm cloud properties such as droplet radius and number density; and 4) remote aerosol characterization using multiwavelength lidar and others.

  9. Operational detection of aerosols by the calibrated RAman LIDAR for Meteorological Observation (RALMO) and the CHM15K ceilometer at Payerne, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Giovanni; Haefele, Alexander; Calpini, Bertrand; Simeonov, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Ceilometers have become increasingly present across the globe at airports, national meteorological Services and research centers. More sophisticated LIDARs based on both elastic and inelastic scattering principles are currently available at several national research institutions and meteorological services. A growing need to optimize the generation of real-time data from these Automatic LIDARs and ceilometers (ALC) is also proven by new European programmes aiming at integrating a significant number of ALC instruments into large networks (e.g. E-PROFILE, http://www.eumetnet.eu/e-profile). The use of ALC instruments for operational detection of aerosols and clouds is submitted to their cost effectiveness as well as to the availability of scientific expertise for data monitoring and interpretation. Essential for data use and interpretation is the calibration procedure aimed to provide system-independent LIDAR products. An example of data calibration for backscatter and extinction coefficient measured with an automated RAman LIDAR (RALMO) and a CHM15K ceilometer will be presented. The temporal and vertical stability of the incomplete overlap correction function and of the Rayleigh calibration constant have been studied for both systems. Two cases of detection of long-range transported aerosol, from Canadian biomass burning and Saharan dust by the two calibrated systems will also be presented.

  10. YAG aerosol lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Atmospheric Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Mission, using the NASA DC-8 aircraft platform, is designed to provide the magnitude and statistical distribution of atmospheric backscatter cross section at lidar operating wavelengths. This is a fundamental parameter required for the Doppler lidar proposed to be used on a spacecraft platform for global wind field measurements. The prime measurements will be made by a CO2 lidar instrument in the 9 to 10 micron range. These measurements will be complemented with the Goddard YAG Aerosol Lidar (YAL) data in two wavelengths, 0.532 and 1.06 micron, in the visible and near-infrared. The YAL, is being designed to utilize as much existing hardware, as feasible, to minimize cost and reduce implementation time. The laser, energy monitor, telescope and detector package will be mounted on an optical breadboard. The optical breadboard is mounted through isolation mounts between two low boy racks. The detector package will utilize a photomultiplier tube for the 0.532 micron channel and a silicon avalanche photo detector (APD) for the 1.06 micron channel.

  11. Aerosol microphysical properties from inversion of tropospheric optical Raman lidar data

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    detailed information about an aerosol size distribution,a finite number of extinction and backscatter extinction and backscatter at var- ious wavelengths can be predicted with useful accu- racy using PCA COMPONENT ANALYSIS The Mie solutions of Maxwell's equations in the far field give the extinction

  12. Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Amiridis, V.; Remoundaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kokkalis, P.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Nenes, A.; Fountoukis, C.

    2012-05-01

    A strong Saharan dust event that occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E) between 27 March and 3 April 2009 was followed by a synergy of three instruments: a 6-wavelength Raman lidar, a CIMEL sun-sky radiometer and the MODIS sensor. The BSC-DREAM model was used to forecast the dust event and to simulate the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the lidar only during the cloud-free day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients) properties of aerosols in the troposphere. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) values derived from the CIMEL ranged from 0.33-0.91 (355 nm) to 0.18-0.60 (532 nm), while the lidar ratio (LR) values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 75-100 sr (355 nm) and 45-75 sr (532 nm). Inside a selected dust layer region, between 1.8 and 3.5 km height, mean LR values were 83 ± 7 and 54 ± 7 sr, at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, while the Ångström-backscatter-related (ABR355/532) and Ångström-extinction-related (AER355/532) were found larger than 1 (1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.11 ± 0.02, respectively), indicating mixing of dust with other particles. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index) inside the selected atmospheric layers. Thus, the mean value of the retrieved refractive index was found to be 1.49( ± 0.10) + 0.007( ± 0.007)i, and that of the effective radiuses was 0.30 ± 0.18 ?m. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to provide a possible aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved refractive index values. Thus, the inferred chemical properties showed 12-40% of dust content, sulfate composition of 16-60%, and organic carbon content of 15-64%, indicating a possible mixing of dust with haze and smoke. PM10 concentrations levels, PM10 composition results and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray) analysis results on sizes and mineralogy of particles from samples during the Saharan dust transport event were used to evaluate the retrieval.

  13. JPL-TMF multiwavelength aerosol lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haner, David A.; McDermid, I. Stuart

    1995-01-01

    The JPL-TMF Lidar Facility began operation in 1985 with the completion of a XeCl excimer based stratospheric ozone DIAL system. As an adjunct to this system a Nd:YAG based tropospheric ozone and aerosol system was assembled. The tropospheric ozone system was designed to utilize the fourth harmonic (266 nm) of the Nd:YAG to produce 289 nm, 294 nm or 299 nm by SRS in the isotopic hydrogen gases. The aerosol lidar was developed using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic of the Nd:YAG (532 nm). Following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo most of the effort was put into obtaining data on the layer structure of the volcanic aerosol as a function of altitude and time on a regular basis. During this period the tropospheric ozone DIAL was not employed on a regular schedule. The stratospheric measurements were of primary interest; however with the volcanic aerosol concentrated at the 16 - 26 km altitude the ozone concentration profile was perturbed. The aerosol interference in the ozone measurements caused the lidar community to seek techniques of measurement of the aerosol which could be used in making realistic corrections to the ozone measurements. It is generally accepted that a reasonable technique of measurement would include at least one channel of Raman scattering from a blue wavelength and a minimum of three other supporting wavelengths. With the primary transmitters available at TMF, a four wavelength system was considered for configuration. The four wavelength aerosol lidar is based on the Nd:YAG fundamental, the second and third harmonics of the transmitter. The receiver will separate these three wavelengths as well as the Raman scattering from atmospheric nitrogen of the third harmonic.

  14. [Raman Lidar measuring tropospheric temperature profiles with many rotational Raman lines].

    PubMed

    Su, Jia; Zhang, Yin-chao; Hu, Shun-xing; Cao, Kai-fa; Zhao, Pei-tao; Wang, Shao-lin; Xie, Jun

    2008-08-01

    Due to lower tropospheric aerosols, the Rayleigh and vibrational Raman methods can't measure lower tropospheric temperature profiles accurately. By using N2 and O2 molecular pure rotational Raman scattering signals, lower tropospheric temperature profiles can be gained without influence of lower tropospheric aerosols. So we decide to use a pure rotational Raman Lidar to get lower tropospheric temperature profiles. At present, because the most light-splitting systems of pure rotational Raman Lidar measure temperature by gaining a single rotational Raman line, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of these Lidar systems are very low. So we design a new kind of Lidar light-splitting system which can sum different rotational Raman lines and it can improve SNR And we can find the sensitivity of the temperature of the ratios of multi rotational Raman lines is as same as single rotational Raman line's through theoretical analysis. Moreover, we can obtain the temperature profiles with good SNR fromthis new the system with a normal laser and a small telescope up to several kilometers. At last, with the new light-splitting system, the lower tropospheric temperature profiles are measured from 0.3 km to 5 km altitude. They agree well with radiosonde observations, which demonstrate the results of our rotational Raman lidar are reasonable. PMID:18975802

  15. Raman and Rayleigh holographic lidar.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Geoff; Brasseur, Jason K; Knize, Randall J; Haris, Paul

    2002-03-20

    We have designed a novel rotational Raman and Rayleigh lidar system that incorporates a simple holographic optical element. The hologram simultaneously disperses and focuses the backscattered signal light so that narrow spectral features can be isolated and detected with high efficiency. By measuring the relative strength of several nitrogen rotational Raman lines, we can obtain an accurate temperature of the atmosphere at a given altitude without the need for external calibration. Simultaneous photon counting of the Rayleigh backscatter signal permits temperature measurements at much higher altitudes. PMID:11921811

  16. Geometrical characteristics of desert dust layers over Thessaloniki estimated with backscatter\\/Raman lidar and the BSC\\/DREAM model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitris Balis

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a multiyear study of Saharan dust intrusions over Thessaloniki, Greece. Observations were performed at Thessaloniki with a combined Raman\\/elastic lidar system from January 2001 to December 2006 in the framework of European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). During this period we collected a dataset of 33 Raman\\/lidar observations when Saharan dust was present in the

  17. Raman lidar observations of particle hygroscopicity during COPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelitano, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.

    2012-04-01

    The characterization of particle hygroscopicity has primary importance for climate monitoring and prediction. Model studies have demonstrated that relative humidity (RH) has a critical influence on aerosol climate forcing. The relationship between aerosol backscattering and relative humidity has been investigated in numerous studies (among others, Pahlow et al., 2006; Wulfmeyer and Feingold, 2000; Veselovskii et al., 2009). Hygroscopic properties of aerosols influence particle size distribution and refractive index and hence their radiative effects. Aerosol particles tend to grow at large relative humidity values as a result of their hygroscopicity. Raman lidars with aerosol, water vapour and temperature measurement capability are potentially attractive tools for studying aerosol hygroscopicity as in fact they can provide continuous altitude-resolved measurements of particle optical, size and microphysical properties, as well as relative humidity, without perturbing the aerosols or their environment. Specifically, the University of Basilicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) considered for the present study, has the capability to perform all-lidar measurements of relative humidity based on the application of both the rotational and the vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL was operational in Achern (Black Forest, Lat: 48.64 ° N, Long: 8.06 ° E, Elev.: 140 m) between 25 May and 30 August 2007 in the framework of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). During COPS, BASIL collected more than 500 hours of measurements, distributed over 58 measurement days and 34 intensive observation periods (IOPs). The present analysis is focused on selected case studies characterized by the presence of different aerosol types with different hygroscopic behaviour. The observed behaviour, dependent upon aerosol composition, may range from hygrophobic to strongly hygroscopic. Results from the different case studies will be illustrated and discussed at the Conference.

  18. Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Mueller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Hu Min; Zhang Yuanghang

    2007-09-01

    Aerosol Raman lidar observations of profiles of the particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and the respective extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) were performed under highly polluted conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China in October 2004 and at Beijing during a clear period with moderately polluted to background aerosol conditions in January 2005. The anthropogenic haze in the PRD is characterized by volume light-extinction coefficients of particles ranging from approximately 200 to800 Mm-1 and lidar ratios mostly between 40 and 55 sr (average of47{+-}6 sr). Almost clean air masses were observed throughout the measurements of the Beijing campaign. These air masses originated from arid desert-steppe-like regions (greater Gobi area).Extinction values usually varied between 100 and300 Mm-1, and the lidar ratios were considerably lower (compared with PRD values) with values mostly from 30 to 45 sr (average of38{+-}7 sr). Gobi dust partly influenced the observations. Unexpectedly low lidar ratios of approximately 25 sr were found for a case of background aerosol with a low optical depth of 0.05. The low lidar ratios are consistent with Mie-scattering calculations applied to ground-based observations of particle size distributions.

  19. Advanced Aerosol Lidar Ratio Determination Algorithms Using Aerosol Covariance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Omar, A. H.; Burton, S. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rogers, R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Reagan, J. A.; McPherson, C.

    2011-12-01

    We present an algorithm to determine the extinction to backscatter (lidar) ratio (Sa), an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction and subsequently the optical depth from lidar backscatter measurements. This scheme applies to Sa determination at 532 nm and 1064 nm for a space-based two-wavelength lidar such as CALIOP on the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. The algorithm applies the Mahalanobis distance to CALIOP measurements of backscatter and depolarization and initial estimates of Sa at both wavelengths to identify the most likely aerosol model from a family of a priori probability distributions of lidar ratio, backscatter and depolarization determined from previously generated classification of High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) aerosol measurements. The HSRL record includes aerosol type specific distributions of Sa at 532 nm. We use auxiliary measurements of pairs of 532 nm and 1064 nm Sa for Urban, Smoke, Marine, and Dust aerosols from AERONET and field measurements, the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) and Shoreline Environmental Aerosol Study (SEAS), to develop piecewise covariance matrices using the HSRL distributions of these four aerosol types. Covariance matrices including lidar ratio at both wavelengths can also be obtained through the Enhanced Constrained Ratio Aerosol Method (E-CRAM) applied to HSRL data. We explore the application of the aerosol model matching method to CALIOP data and compare the results with HSRL 532 nm Sa distributions for coincident flights.

  20. The mobile Water vapor Aerosol Raman LIdar and its implication in the framework of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs: application to a dust transport process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.

    2014-06-01

    The increasing importance of the coupling of water and aerosol cycles in environmental applications requires observation tools that allow simultaneous measurements of these two fundamental processes for climatological and meteorological studies. For this purpose, a new mobile Raman lidar, WALI (Water vapor and Aerosol LIdar), has been developed and implemented within the framework of the international HyMeX and ChArMEx programs. This paper presents the key properties of this new device and its first applications to scientific studies. The lidar uses an eye-safe emission in the ultraviolet range at 354.7 nm and a set of compact refractive receiving telescopes. Cross-comparisons between rawinsoundings performed from balloon or aircraft and lidar measurements have shown a good agreement in the derived water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR). The discrepancies are generally less than 0.5 g kg-1 and therefore within the error bars of the respective instruments. A detailed study of the uncertainty of the WVMR retrieval was conducted and shows values between 7 and 11%, which is largely constrained by the quality of the lidar calibration. It also proves that the lidar is able to measure the WVMR during daytime over a range of about 1 km. In addition the WALI system provides measurements of aerosol optical properties such as the lidar ratio (LR) or the particulate depolarization ratio (PDR). An important example of scientific application addressing the main objectives of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs is then presented, following an event of desert dust aerosols over the Balearic Islands in October 2012. This dust intrusion may have had a significant impact on the intense precipitations that occurred over southwestern France and the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. During this event, the LR and PDR values obtained are in the ranges of ~45-63 ± 6 and 0.10-0.19 ± 0.01 sr, respectively, which is representative of dust aerosols. The dust layers are also shown to be associated with significant WVMR, i.e., between 4 and 6.7 g kg-1.

  1. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  2. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  3. Two-component horizontal wind vectors from the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Two-component horizontal wind vectors were calculated by applying a cross-correlation algorithm to square image blocks extracted from consecutive pairs of elastic backscatter lidar scans. The resulting vector components were compared with corresponding horizontal wind components from tower-mounted sonic anemometers located at the center of the image blocks at a range of 1.61 km. 180245 pairs of vectors derived from 75 days of field data collected between 19 March and 11 June 2007 were used in the analysis. Examples of time series comparisons from 4-h periods during light, strong, and changing wind conditions will be presented. The correlation between lidar-derived components and sonic anemometer components changes as a function of the mean backscatter signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the block area, maxima of the cross-correlation function (CCF), observed wind speed, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The correlation between the lidar-derived velocity components and sonic anemometer wind components tends to be highest during light wind conditions with low TKE. Although the correlation of high frequency perturbations tends to be poor during windy and turbulent conditions, the technique is capable of sensing the mean flow. Examples of 2-dimensional, 2-component, flow fields will be presented. The NSF/NCAR REAL at California State University Chico. Streamlined flow field from 2-component vectors derived from 2 scans of the REAL and application of the cross-correlation technique. The area of the image spans 4 km by 4 km.

  4. Experimental determination of Raman lidar geometric form factor combining Raman and elastic return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Chen, Binglong

    2014-12-01

    A straightforward method is presented for the determination of the geometric form factor in Raman-Mie lidar by using elastic backscatter signal from different altitudes and derived particle backscatter coefficients. The theory is briefly described. The error of this method is discussed and a comparison with the method proposed by Wandinger and Ansmann indicates the improved accuracy of the new method. The effect of the determined geometric form factor error on aerosol extinction coefficient retrieval is further discussed. The results of the experiment show that the derived aerosol extinction coefficient profile is less affected by the geometric form factor error when the atmospheric aerosol concentration is higher.

  5. Raman lidar water vapor measurements performed at CNR-IMAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, C.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Madonna, F.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2005-12-01

    A Raman lidar system for water vapor measurements is operational at Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (IMAA),in Tito Scalo, Potenza, (Southern Italy, 40°36'N, 15°44'E, 760 m above sea level) since July 2002. The Raman technique is widely employed for tropospheric water vapor measurements with high vertical and temporal resolution. In principle, Raman lidar measurement of water vapor can be calibrated in absolute terms, but present uncertainties in the ratio of Raman lidar cross section of water vapor and nitrogen limit this calibration accuracy to about 10%. In order to obtain good accuracy, the Raman lidar water vapor measurements are typically calibrated to independent water vapor measurements. In May-June 2002, an intensive measurement campaign was performed at CNR-IMAA in order to calibrate the IMAA Raman lidar system for water vapor profiling by means of contemporary and co-located Vaisala RS80-A radiosondes measurements. The radiosonde data have been corrected for temperature dependence error and for dry bias due to chemical contamination error. Moreover, from July 2002 more than 100 lidar and radiosonde simultaneous measurements have been performed and have been used to check the stability of the lidar calibration constant, that remains within 5%. Since February 2004, a 12 channels microwave radiometer is operative at CNR-IMAA, providing temperature, relative humidity and liquid water profiles up to 10 km of altitude, and the integrated precipitable water vapor and integrated liquid water measurements. Since this radiometer provides good accuracy measurements of the integrated water vapor column content, every 5 minutes, 24 hours per day, it is the best candidate for routinely check of the stability of the Raman lidar system calibration constant: the calibration constant has been checked comparing the integrated water vapor column content measured by microwave radiometer and the corresponding quantity measured by the Raman lidar, obtained integrating lidar water vapor vertical profile from the ground up to the tropopause. This allows to overall all the problems related to radiosounding water vapor measurements, like dry bias, different investigated air volumes, and high costs. The IMAA Raman lidar system is able to provide water vapor mixing ratio vertical profiles up to the tropopause in night-time and up to 5 km of altitude in daytime conditions, with a typical temporal resolution of 10 minutes. Systematic measurements have been performed in the period July 2002 - July 2003 in the framework of the validation program of ENVISAT, in order to validate MIPAS water vapor products. Moreover, after the validation campaign, systematic measurements are still in progress. Besides systematic measurements, this system has been employed in special measurements campaigns, as the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) field campaign in summer 2004 and the European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment (EAQUATE) Italian phase in the 6-10 September 2004. In addition, in autumn 2005, the IMAA Raman lidar system for water vapor measurements will be involved in the international Lindenberg anniversary campaign for Assessment of hUmidity aNd Cloud profiling systems and its impact on High-resolution modelling (LAUNCH- 2005). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The financial support of this work by the European Space Agency under grant ESA-ESTEC Contract No. 16040/02/NL/SF, ``Ground based observations of water vapour and aerosol for the validation of ENVISAT products'', is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Studying Taklamakan aerosol properties with lidar (STAPL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, Paul; Mueller, Detlef; Shin, Dong-Ho; Zhang, Xiao Xiao; Feng, Guanglong; McKendry, Ian; Strawbridge, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    By now, the global impacts of atmospheric dust have been well-established. Nevertheless, relevant properties such as size distribution, depolarization ratio, and even single-scattering albedo have been shown to vary substantially between dust producing regions and are also strongly dependant on the conditions under which the dust is emitted. Even greater variations have been documented during the process of long-range transport. With continued improvement of detection technologies, research focus is increasingly turning to refinement of our knowledge of these properties of dust in order to better account for the presence of dust in models and data analysis. The purpose of this study is to use a combination of lidar data and models to directly observe the changing properties of dust layers as they are transported from their origin in the Taklamakan Desert of western China. With the co-operation of the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, a portable micropulse lidar system was installed at Aksu National Field on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin in late April 2013, during the Spring dust storm season. Over six days, data were collected on the optical properties of dust emissions passing over this location. The measurements of this lidar have shown the dust over Aksu on these days to have a significantly higher depolarization ratio than has been previously reported for the region. Model results show this dust was then transported across the region at least as far as Korea and Japan. Models from the Naval Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) show that during transport the dust layers became intermixed with sulfate emissions from industrial sources in China as well as smoke from wildfires burning in south-east Asia and Siberia. The multi-wavelength raman-elastic lidar located in Gwangju South Korea was used to observe the vertical structure of the layers as well as optical properties such as colour ratio, depolarization ratio and extinction coeffcient after regional-scale transportation and mixing with other aerosols. By comparing the observations of the Gwangju lidar with those taken near the source at Aksu, we investigate the extent of the change in optical properties of the dust layers over time. There is some evidence that the layers were also transported in some form to North America but these observations are preliminary and will require further investigation.

  7. The mobile Water vapor Aerosol Raman LIdar and its implication in the frame of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs: application to a dust transport process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing importance of the coupling of water and aerosol cycles in environmental applications requires observation tools which allow simultaneous measurements of these two fundamental processes for climatological and meteorological studies. In this purpose, a new mobile Raman lidar, WALI (Water vapor and Aerosol LIDAR), has been developed and implemented within the framework of the international HyMeX/IODA-MED and ChArMEx programs. This paper presents the key properties of this new device and its first applications to scientific studies. The lidar uses an eye-safe emission in the ultra-violet range at 354.7 nm and a set of compact refractive receptors. Cross-comparisons between rawindsoundings performed from balloon or aircraft and lidar measurements have shown a good agreement in the derived water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR). The discrepancies are generally less than 0.5 g kg-1 and therefore within the error bars of the instruments. A detailed study of the uncertainties was conducted and shows a 7 to 11% accuracy of the WVMR retrieval, which is largely constrained by the quality of the calibration. It also proves that the lidar is able to measure the WVMR during the day over a range of about 1 km. The WALI system otherwise provides measurements of aerosol optical properties such as the lidar ratio (LR) or the particulate depolarization ratio (PDR). An important example of scientific application addressing the main objectives of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs is then presented, following an event of desert dust aerosols over the Balearic Islands. This dust intrusion may have had a significant impact on the intense precipitations that occurred over southwestern France and the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. During this event, the LR and PDR values obtained are in the ranges of ~ 45-63 ± 6 sr and 0.1-0.19 ± 0.01, respectively, which is representative of dust aerosols. The dust layers are also shown to be associated with significant WVMR, i.e. between 4 and 6.7 g kg-1.

  8. Infrared lidar observations of stratospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Forrister, H N; Roberts, D W; Mercer, A J; Gimmestad, G G

    2014-06-01

    We observed the stratospheric aerosol layer at 34° north latitude with a photon-counting 1574 nm lidar on three occasions in 2011. During all of the observations, we also operated a nearby 523.5 nm micropulse lidar and acquired National Weather Service upper air data. We analyzed the lidar data to find scattering ratio profiles and the integrated aerosol backscatter at both wavelengths and then calculated the color ratio and wavelength exponent for lidar backscattering from the stratospheric aerosols. The visible-light integrated backscatter values of the layer were in the range 2.8-3.5×10?? sr?¹ and the infrared integrated backscatter values ranged from 2.4 to 3.7×10????sr?¹. The wavelength exponent was determined to be 1.9±0.2. PMID:24922442

  9. North-south cross sections of the vertical aerosol distribution over the Atlantic Ocean from multiwavelength Raman/polarization lidar during Polarstern cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanitz, T.; Ansmann, A.; Engelmann, R.; Althausen, D.

    2013-03-01

    Shipborne aerosol lidar observations were performed aboard the research vessel Polarstern in 2009 and 2010 during three north-south cruises from about 50°N to 50°S. The aerosol data set provides an excellent opportunity to characterize and contrast the vertical aerosol distribution over the Atlantic Ocean in the polluted northern and relatively clean southern hemisphere. Three case studies, an observed pure Saharan dust plume, a Patagonian dust plume east of South America, and a case of a mixed dust/smoke plume west of Central Africa are exemplarily shown and discussed by means of their optical properties. The meridional transatlantic cruises were used to determine the latitudinal cross section of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Profiles of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients are presented as mean profiles for latitudinal belts to contrast northern- and southern-hemispheric aerosol loads and optical effects. Results of lidar observations at Punta Arenas (53°S), Chile, and Stellenbosch (34°S), South Africa, are shown and confirm the lower frequency of occurrence of free-tropospheric aerosol in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. The maximum latitudinal mean AOT of 0.27 was found in the northern tropics (0- 15°N) in the Saharan outflow region. Marine AOT is typically 0.05 ± 0.03. Particle optical properties are presented separately for the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere. Concerning the contrast between the anthropogenically influenced midlatitudinal aerosol conditions in the 30- 60°N belt and the respective belt in the southern hemisphere over the remote Atlantic, it is found that the AOT and extinction coefficients for the vertical column from 0-5km (total aerosol column) and 1-5km height (lofted aerosol above the marine boundary layer) are a factor of 1.6 and 2 higher at northern midlatitudes than at respective southern midlatitudes, and a factor of 2.5 higher than at the clean marine southern-hemispheric site of Punta Arenas. The strong contrast is confined to the lowermost 3km of the atmosphere.

  10. North-south cross sections of the vertical aerosol distribution over the Atlantic Ocean from multiwavelength Raman/polarization lidar during Polarstern cruises

    PubMed Central

    Kanitz, T; Ansmann, A; Engelmann, R; Althausen, D

    2013-01-01

    Shipborne aerosol lidar observations were performed aboard the research vessel Polarstern in 2009 and 2010 during three north-south cruises from about 50°N to 50°S. The aerosol data set provides an excellent opportunity to characterize and contrast the vertical aerosol distribution over the Atlantic Ocean in the polluted northern and relatively clean southern hemisphere. Three case studies, an observed pure Saharan dust plume, a Patagonian dust plume east of South America, and a case of a mixed dust/smoke plume west of Central Africa are exemplarily shown and discussed by means of their optical properties. The meridional transatlantic cruises were used to determine the latitudinal cross section of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Profiles of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients are presented as mean profiles for latitudinal belts to contrast northern- and southern-hemispheric aerosol loads and optical effects. Results of lidar observations at Punta Arenas (53°S), Chile, and Stellenbosch (34°S), South Africa, are shown and confirm the lower frequency of occurrence of free-tropospheric aerosol in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. The maximum latitudinal mean AOT of 0.27 was found in the northern tropics (0– 15°N) in the Saharan outflow region. Marine AOT is typically 0.05 ± 0.03. Particle optical properties are presented separately for the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere. Concerning the contrast between the anthropogenically influenced midlatitudinal aerosol conditions in the 30– 60°N belt and the respective belt in the southern hemisphere over the remote Atlantic, it is found that the AOT and extinction coefficients for the vertical column from 0–5km (total aerosol column) and 1–5km height (lofted aerosol above the marine boundary layer) are a factor of 1.6 and 2 higher at northern midlatitudes than at respective southern midlatitudes, and a factor of 2.5 higher than at the clean marine southern-hemispheric site of Punta Arenas. The strong contrast is confined to the lowermost 3km of the atmosphere.

  11. Lidar sounding of ozone and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuev, V. E.

    1992-01-01

    The present report is devoted to the problem of clarifying the mechanism of interaction of ozone molecules with aerosol particles in the atmosphere. It is necessary to take into account the meteorological conditions and the synoptic situation. We have built a unique lidar facility that provides simultaneous sounding of ozone and aerosols at different heights of the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. Simultaneous with the retrieval of the standard scattering ratio profiles, data are obtained on the profiles of the microphysical parameters of the aerosols (particle size distribution and particle concentration) using the method of multifrequency lidar sounding developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics.

  12. Observations of marine aerosol by a shipborne multiwavelength lidar over the Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangjun; Du, Libin; Li, Xianxin; Meng, Xiangqian; Chen, Chao; Qu, Junle; Wang, Xiufen; Liu, Xingtao; Kabanov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol particles are important both because they affect atmospheric processes and, after deposition to the sea surface, because they affect processes in sea water. Aerosols have a strong impact on climate both due to scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation (direct effect) and through their effects on cloud properties and associated cloud albedo (first indirect effect) and precipitation (second indirect effect). A shipborne multiwavelength Mie/Raman/Polarization aerosol lidar developed for marine aerosol is presented. The shipborne aerosol lidar (SAL) is able to measure aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient as well as depolarization in the altitude range 0 to 20 km. The instrument is installed in a 2 m*2 m*2 m container. Preliminary results of investigation of marine aerosol properties on the basis of multiwavelength lidar onboard the Xiangyanghong Number 8 Research ship on the Yellow Sea and Jiaozhou Bay of China are presented.

  13. Improvement of NIES lidar network observations by adding Raman scatter measurement function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, A.

    2012-11-01

    We have conducted ground-based lidar network observations in wide areas of East Asia using two-wavelength (532 and 1064nm) backscatter and one-wavelength (532nm) depolarization Mie-scatter lidars for more than ten years. To realize more advanced aerosol classification and retrieval, we improved the Mie-scatter lidars at several main sites by adding a N2 Raman scatter measurement channel (607nm). This Mie-Raman lidar system provides 1?+2?+1? data at nighttime: extinction coefficient (?) at 532nm, backscatter coefficients (?) at 532 and 1064nm, and depolarization ratio (?) at 532nm. We also developed an algorithm to estimate vertical profiles of 532nm extinction coefficients of black carbon, dust, sea-salt, and air-pollution aerosols consisting of a mixture of sulfate, nitrate, and organic carbon substances (SF-NT-OC) using the 1?+2?+1? data. With this method, we assume an external mixture of aerosol components and prescribe their size distributions, refractive indexes, and particle shapes. The measured lidar data are automatically transferred to the NIES data server. We developed an algorithm to estimate particle optical properties (1?+2?+1? data), planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, and scene classification identifiers representing molecule-rich, aerosol-rich, or cloud-rich layer automatically and provide their quick-looks in semi-realtime on the website (http://www-lidar.nies.go.jp/shingakujutsu/Raman/).

  14. Characterization of aerosols in East Asia with the Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-Net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro; Jin, Yoshitaka

    2014-11-01

    Continuous observations of aerosols are being conducted with the Asian Dust and aerosol lidar observation Network (AD-Net). Currently, two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) polarization-sensitive (532 nm) lidars are operated at 20 stations in East Asia. At the primary stations (6 stations), nitrogen vibrational Raman scattering is also measured to obtain the extinction coefficient at 532 nm. Recently, continuous observations with a three-wavelength (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) lidar having a high-spectral-resolution receiver at 532 nm and a Raman receiver at 355 nm and polarization-sensitive receivers at 532 nm and 355 nm) was started in Tsukuba. Also, continuous observations with multi-wavelength Raman lidars are being prepared in Fukuoka, Okinawa Hedo, and Toyama. A data analysis method for deriving distributions of aerosol components (weak absorption fine (such as sulfate), weak absorption coarse (sea salt), strong absorption fine (black carbon), non-spherical (dust)) has been developed for these multi-parameter lidars. Major subjects of the current studies with AD-Net include data assimilation of multi-parameter lidars, mixing states of Asian dust with air pollution particulate matter, and validation of EarthCARE ATLID based on the aerosol component analysis method.

  15. Raman lidar characterization of PBL structure during COPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summa, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Stelitano, D.; Di Iorio, T.

    2012-04-01

    The planetary boundary layer includes the portion of the atmosphere which is directly influenced by the presence of the Earth's surface. Aerosol particles trapped within the PBL can be used as tracers to study boundary-layer vertical structure and time variability. Aerosols can be dispersed out of the PBL during strong convection or temporary breaks of the capping temperature inversion. As a result of this, elastic backscatter signals collected by lidar systems can be used to determine the height and the internal structure of the PBL. Our analysis considers a method based on the first order derivative of the range-corrected elastic signal (RCS), which is a modified version of the method defined by Seibert et al. (2000) and Sicard et al. (2006). The analysis is focused on selected case studies collected by the Raman lidar system BASIL during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), held in Southern Germany and Eastern France in the period 01 June - 31 August 2007. Measurements were performed by the Raman lidar system BASIL, which was operational in Achern (Black Forest, Lat: 48.64 ° N, Long: 8.06 ° E, Elev.: 140 m). During COPS, BASIL collected more than 500 hours of measurements, distributed over 58 measurement days and 34 intensive observation periods (IOPs), covering both night-time and daytime and the transitions between the two. Therefore BASIL data during COPS represent a unique source of information for the study of the boundary layer structure and evolution. Potential temperature profiles obtained from the radiosonde data were used to get an additional estimate of the boundary layer height. Estimates of the PBL height and structure for specific case studies obtained from the lidar data and their comparison with estimates obtained from the radiosonde data will be illustrated and discussed at the Conference.

  16. Scanning mobile lidar for aerosol tracking and biological aerosol identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-Y. He; F. Gao; S. Stanic; D. Veberic; K. Bergant; A. Dolzan; X.-Q. Song

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a scanning mobile Mie-fluorescence lidar for the detection and identification of biological and non-biological aerosols in the lower troposphere. Our lidar system has the capability to perform azimuth and elevation angle scans with an angular resolution of 0.1° in both day-time and night-time conditions. As the transmitter, we use a solid state Nd:YAG laser

  17. Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthais, Volker; Freudenthaler, Volker; Amodeo, Aldo; Balin, Ioan; Balis, Dimitris; Bösenberg, Jens; Chaikovsky, Anatoly; Chourdakis, Georgius; Comeron, Adolfo; Delaval, Arnaud; de Tomasi, Ferdinando; Eixmann, Ronald; Ha?Ga?Rd, Arne; Komguem, Leonce; Kreipl, Stephan; Matthey, Renaud; Rizi, Vincenzo; Rodrigues, José António; Wandinger, Ulla; Wang, Xuan

    2004-02-01

    In the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology (EARLINET), 19 aerosol lidar systems from 11 European countries were compared. Aerosol extinction or backscatter coefficient profiles were measured by at least two systems for each comparison. Aerosol extinction coefficients were derived from Raman lidar measurements in the UV (351 or 355 nm), and aerosol backscatter profiles were calculated from pure elastic backscatter measurements at 351 or 355, 532, or 1064 nm. The results were compared for height ranges with high and low aerosol content. Some systems were additionally compared with sunphotometers and starphotometers. Predefined maximum deviations were used for quality control of the results. Lidar systems with results outside those limits could not meet the quality assurance criterion. The algorithms for deriving aerosol backscatter profiles from elastic lidar measurements were tested separately, and the results are described in Part 2 of this series of papers [Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004)]. In the end, all systems were quality assured, although some had to be modified to improve their performance. Typical deviations between aerosol backscatter profiles were 10% in the planetary boundary layer and 0.1 × 10-6 m-1 sr-1 in the free troposphere.

  18. Demonstration of Aerosol Property Profiling by Multi-wavelength Lidar Under Varying Relative Humidity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D.N.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Korenskii, M.; Andrews, E.

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of using a multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar based on a tripled Nd:YAG laser for profiling aerosol physical parameters in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) under varying conditions of relative humidity (RH) is studied. The lidar quantifies three aerosol backscattering and two extinction coefficients and from these optical data the particle parameters such as concentration, size and complex refractive index are retrieved through inversion with regularization. The column-integrated, lidar-derived parameters are compared with results from the AERONET sun photometer. The lidar and sun photometer agree well in the characterization of the fine mode parameters, however the lidar shows less sensitivity to coarse mode. The lidar results reveal a strong dependence of particle properties on RH. The height regions with enhanced RH are characterized by an increase of backscattering and extinction coefficient and a decrease in the Angstrom exponent coinciding with an increase in the particle size. We present data selection techniques useful for selecting cases that can support the calculation of hygroscopic growth parameters using lidar. Hygroscopic growth factors calculated using these techniques agree with expectations despite the lack of co-located radiosonde data. Despite this limitation, the results demonstrate the potential of multi-wavelength Raman lidar technique for study of aerosol humidification process.

  19. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-08-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET, was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive, and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET has continued to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue, which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last 13 years. Since 2000, EARLINET has developed greatly in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution: from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000 to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has developed greatly also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multiwavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing, and the dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase in the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions, and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are aimed at continuous measurements and near-real-time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, such as in the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) www.actris.net, and with the modeling and satellite community, linking the research community with the operational world, with the aim of establishing of the atmospheric part of the European component of the integrated global observing system.

  20. Development of eye-safe lidar for aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Wilderson, Thomas D.

    1990-01-01

    Research is summarized on the development of an eye safe Raman conversion system to carry out lidar measurements of aerosol and clouds from an airborne platform. Radiation is produced at the first Stokes wavelength of 1.54 micron in the eye safe infrared, when methane is used as the Raman-active medium, the pump source being a Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 micron. Results are presented for an experimental study of the dependence of the 1.54 micron first Stokes radiation on the focusing geometry, methane gas pressure, and pump energy. The specific new technique developed for optimizing the first Stokes generation involves retroreflecting the backward-generated first Stokes light back into the Raman cell as a seed Stokes beam which is then amplified in the temporal tail of the pump beam. Almost 20 percent conversion to 1.54 micron is obtained. Complete, assembled hardware for the Raman conversion system was delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center for a successful GLOBE flight (1989) to measure aerosol backscatter around the Pacific basin.

  1. Characterization of particle hygroscopicity by Raman lidar: Selected case studies from the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelitano, Dario; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato

    2013-05-01

    The characterization of particle hygroscopicity has primary importance for climate monitoring and prediction. Model studies have demonstrated that relative humidity (RH) has a critical influence on aerosol climate forcing. Hygroscopic properties of aerosols influence particle size distribution and refractive index and hence their radiative effects. Aerosol particles tend to grow at large relative humidity values as a result of their hygroscopicity. Raman lidars with aerosol, water vapor and temperature measurement capability are potentially attractive tools for studying aerosol hygroscopicity as in fact they can provide continuous altitude-resolved measurements of particle optical, size and microphysical properties, as well as relative humidity, without perturbing the aerosols or their environment. Specifically, the University of Basilicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) considered for the present study, has the capability to perform all-lidar measurements of relative humidity based on the application of both the rotational and the vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL was operational in Achern (Black Forest, Lat: 48.64° N, Long: 8.06° E, Elev.: 140 m) between 25 May and 30 August 2007 in the framework of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). The present analysis is focused on selected case studies characterized by the presence of different aerosol types with different hygroscopic behavior. The observed behavior, dependent upon aerosol composition, may range from hygrophobic to strongly hygroscopic.

  2. Performance Modeling of an Airborne Raman Water Vapor Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Schwemmer, G.; Berkoff, T.; Plotkin, H.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2000-01-01

    A sophisticated Raman lidar numerical model had been developed. The model has been used to simulate the performance of two ground-based Raman water vapor lidar systems. After tuning the model using these ground-based measurements, the model is used to simulate the water vapor measurement capability of an airborne Raman lidar under both day-and night-time conditions for a wide range of water vapor conditions. The results indicate that, under many circumstances, the daytime measurements possess comparable resolution to an existing airborne differential absorption water vapor lidar while the nighttime measurement have higher resolution. In addition, a Raman lidar is capable of measurements not possible using a differential absorption system.

  3. A combined Raman lidar for low tropospheric studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arshinov, Y. F.; Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Zuev, V. E.; Nadeev, A. I.; Shelevoy, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    One of the main goals of laser sensing of the atmosphere was the development of techniques and facilities for remote determination of atmospheric meteorological and optical parameters. Of lidar techniques known at present the Raman-lidar technique occupies a specific place. On the one hand Raman lidar returns due to scattering on different molecular species are very simple for interpretation and for extracting the information on the atmospheric parameters sought, but, on the other hand, the performance of these techniques in a lidar facility is overburdened with some serious technical difficulties due to extremely low cross sections of Raman effect. Some results of investigations into this problem is presented which enables the construction of a combined Raman lidar capable of acquiring simultaneously the profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and some optical characteristics in the ground atmospheric layer up to 1 km height. The operation of this system is briefly discussed.

  4. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-03-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET is continuing to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last thirteen years. Since 2000, EARLINET has strongly developed in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution, from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000, to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has strongly developed also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing and dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase of the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are in the direction of continuous measurements and near real time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, as in the ACTRIS research infrastructure, and with the modelling and satellite community, bridging the research community with the operational world towards the establishment of the atmospheric part of the European component of the integrated global observing system.

  5. A permanent Raman lidar station in the Amazon: description, characterization, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barja, B.; Pauliquevis, T.; Gouveia, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Santos, R. M. N.; Oliveira, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    A permanent UV Raman lidar station, designed to perform continuous measurements of aerosols and water vapor and aiming to study and monitor the atmosphere from weather to climatic time scales, became operational in the central Amazon in July 2011. The automated data acquisition and internet monitoring enabled extended hours of daily measurements when compared to a manually operated instrument. This paper gives a technical description of the system, presents its experimental characterization and the algorithms used for obtaining the aerosol optical properties and identifying the cloud layers. Data from one week of measurements during the dry season of 2011 were analyzed as a mean to assess the overall system capability and performance. Both Klett and Raman inversions were successfully applied. A comparison of the aerosol optical depth from the lidar and from a co-located Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer showed a correlation coefficient of 0.86. By combining nighttime measurements of the aerosol lidar ratio (50-65 sr), back-trajectory calculations and fire spots observed from satellites, we showed that observed particles originated from biomass burning. Cirrus clouds were observed in 60% of our measurements. Most of the time they were distributed into three layers between 11.5 and 13.4 km a.g.l. The systematic and long-term measurements being made by this new scientific facility have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the climatic implications of the anthropogenic changes in aerosol concentrations over the pristine Amazonia.

  6. Scanning mobile lidar for aerosol tracking and biological aerosol identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, T.-Y.; Gao, F.; Stani?, S.; Veberi?, D.; Bergant, K.; Dolžan, A.; Song, X.-Q.

    2010-10-01

    We report on the development of a scanning mobile Mie-fluorescence lidar for the detection and identification of biological and non-biological aerosols in the lower troposphere. Our lidar system has the capability to perform azimuth and elevation angle scans with an angular resolution of 0.1° in both day-time and night-time conditions. As the transmitter, we use a solid state Nd:YAG laser with simultaneous emission of 8 ns light pulses at 1064 nm and 266 nm with a maximum repetition rate of 10 Hz. Scattered light is collected by a Newtonian telescope with a diameter of 300 mm. The receiver consists of three channels for the detection of elastic scattering signals at 1064 nm and 266 nm as well as the fluorescence signal of the amino-acid tryptophan intrinsic to biological substances with a local peak at 295 nm. An important benchmark of the system are the aerosol loading measurements pending the eruption of the Icelandic Eyjafjallajokull volcano on 14 April 2010. Experiments on 20 April 2010 showed an elevated aerosol layer at an altitude of 2500 m a.s.l., which was confirmed as a layer of volcanic ash by other experiments. We also present first two-dimensional measurements of aerosol loading in urban areas, which can be of assistance in locating the aerosol sources, their dispersal trajectories, and simulation results for tryptophan fluorescence signal from biological aerosols.

  7. Rotational Raman Lidar for Lower Tropospheric Temperature Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takao; Taira, Takunori; Yamamoto, Takanobu; Hori, Akihiro; Kitada, Toshinobu

    1992-01-01

    Accurate sensing of the tropospheric temperature profile is basically needed in meteorology and 3D mapping of the boundary layer atmospheric temperature over urban and industrial areas. Several temperature lidar techniques were investigated, including Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), rotational and vibrational Raman, Rayleigh and high resolution Rayleigh schemes. For the tropospheric applications, the rotational Raman scheme looks potentially advantageous, but several stringent technical problems still remain to be solved. Reported here are the continuing efforts of the system development of the rotational Raman lidar.

  8. Lidar observations of Nabro volcano aerosol layers in the stratosphere over Gwangju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, D.; Müller, D.; Lee, K.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y. J.; Song, C. K.; Noh, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first Raman lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol layers in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Korea. The data were taken with the multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar at Gwangju (35.10° N, 126.53° E), Korea. The volcanic ash particles and gases were released around 12 June 2011 during the eruption of the Nabro volcano (13.37° N, 41.7° E) in Eritrea, east Africa. Forward trajectory computations show that the volcanic aerosols were advected from North Africa to East Asia. The first observation of the stratospheric aerosol layers over Korea was on 19 June 2011. The stratospheric aerosol layers appeared between 15 and 17 km height a.s.l. The aerosol layers' maximum value of the backscatter coefficient and the linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm were 1.5 ± 0.3 Mm-1 sr-1 and 2.2%, respectively. We found these values at 16.4 km height a.s.l. 44 days after this first observation, we observed the stratospheric aerosol layer again. We continuously probed the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for this aerosol layer during the following 5 months, until December 2011. The aerosol layers typically occurred between 10 and 20 km height a.s.l. The stratospheric aerosol optical depth and the maximum backscatter coefficient at 532 nm decreased during these 5 months.

  9. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and sun photometers during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment. Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scanning Raman lidar system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W); are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and root-mean-square differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a) = 60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements. The lidar measurements of AOT are found to be generally within 25% of the AOT measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-6). However, during certain periods the lidar and Sun photometer measurements of AOT differed significantly, possibly because of variations in the aerosol physical characteristics (e.g., size, composition) which affect S(sub a). Estimates of PWV, derived from water vapor mixing ratio profiles measured by LASE, are within 5-10% of PWV derived from the airborne Sun photometer. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by both lidars show that aerosols were generally concentrated in the lowest 2-3 km.

  10. Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip B. Russell; Thomas J. Swissler; M. Patrick McCormick

    We present a methodology for objective and automated determination of the uncertainty in aerosol measure- ments made by lidar. The methodology is based on standard error-propagation procedures, a large data base on atmospheric behavior, and considerable experience in processing lidar data. It yields algebraic ex- pressions for probable error as a function of the atmospheric, background lighting, and lidar parameters.

  11. Identification of aerosol composition from multi-wavelength lidar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop the potential of lidar for the identification of the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols. Available numerical computations suggest that aerosols can be identified by the wavelength dependence of aerosol optical properties. Since lidar can derive the volume backscatter coefficient as a function of wavelength, a multi-wavelength lidar system may be able to provide valuable information on the composition of aerosols. This research theoretically investigates the volume backscatter coefficients for the aerosol classes, sea-salts, and sulfates, as a function of wavelength. The results show that these aerosol compositions can be characterized and identified by their backscatter wavelength dependence. A method to utilize multi-wavelength lidar measurements to discriminate between compositionally different thin aerosol layers is discussed.

  12. Raman lidar characterization using a reference lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; da Silva Lopes, Fábio J.

    2014-10-01

    The determination of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere using lidar is a calibration dependent technique. Different collocated instruments are used for this purpose, like radiossoundings and microwave radiometers. When there are no collocated instruments available, an independente lamp mapping calibration technique can be used. Aiming to stabilish an independ technique for the calibration of the six channels Nd-YAG Raman lidar system located at the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA), S˜ao Paulo, Brazil, an optical characterization of the system was first performed using a reference tungsten lamp. This characterization is useful to identify any possible distortions in the interference filters, telescope mirror and stray light contamination. In this paper we show three lamp mapping caracterizations (01/16/2014, 01/22/2014, 04/09/2014). The first day is used to demostrate how the tecnique is useful to detect stray light, the second one how it is sensible to the position of the filters and the third one demostrates a well optimized optical system.

  13. Aerosol speckle effects on atmospheric pulsed lidar backscattered signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Lidar systems using atmospheric aerosols as targets exhibit return signal amplitude and power fluctuations which indicate speckle effects. The effects of refractive turbulence along the path on the aerosol speckle field propagation and on the decorrelation time are studied for coherent pulsed lidar systems.

  14. Scanning Mobile Lidar for Aerosol Tracking and Biological Aerosol Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tingyao; Bergant, Klemen; Filip?i?, Andrej; Forte, Biagio; Gao, Fei; Stani?, Samo; Veberi?, Darko; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2010-05-01

    Optical properties of non-biological aerosols containing aromatic hydrocarbons, such as industrial chemicals and engine exhausts, have already been thoroughly studied using remote sensing techniques. However, because of their complex composition and characteristics, the identification of biological aerosols, such as fungi, pollen and bacteria that are present in the environment remains a rather difficult task. The collection of information on both non-biological and biological aerosols is of great importance for understanding their interrelation, physical and chemical properties and their influence on human health and the environment. Biological and non-biological aerosols can be simultaneously detected, tracked and identified by a scanning mobile Mie-fluorescence lidar. The device developed at the University of Nova Gorica can perform azimuth and zenith angle scans with an angular resolution of 0.1°, as well as operate in both day and night-time conditions. Aerosols of biological origin are identified through the detection of the fluorescence of the amino acid tryptophan which is present in almost all substances of biological origin. In our system, the transmitter is a solid state Nd:YAG laser which is capable of simultaneous emission of light at a base wavelength of 1064 nm (IR) and its quadrupled wavelength of 266 nm (UV) at a maximum repetition rate of 10 Hz. Tryptophan contained in biological aerosols is excited by the 266 nm laser pulses and the returning fluorescence signals are detected in the spectral band centered at 295 nm. The receiver is a Newtonian telescope which uses a 300 mm parabolic mirror to direct received light into three detection channels - two elastic backscatter channels (IR and UV) and a fluorescence channel. First experiments show that the detection range of the lidar reaches 10 km in the IR channel and 3 km in the UV channel. Based on the preliminary simulations of the signal-to-noise ratio, the detection range for biological fluorescence signals at 295 nm is estimated to be 2 km. The measurements of the time-series indicate that the mobile lidar is capable of detecting and profiling clouds and aerosols in its detection range. Our future plans include establishing an automated, unattended environmental monitoring system that will allow full time continuous measurements in the desired solid angle around the lidar station.

  15. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN EVAPOTRANSPIRATION USING RAMAN LIDAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Los Alamos Raman lidar has been used to make high resolution (25m) estimates of the evapotranspiration rate over adjacent corn and soybean canopies. The lidar makes three-dimensional measurements of the water vapor content of the atmosphere directly above the canopy that are inverted using Monin...

  16. Dustsonde and lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols - A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H., Jr.; Rosen, J. M.; Pepin, T. J.; Hofmann, D. J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1974-01-01

    Comparison of lidar and in situ measurements of stratospheric aerosol profiles obtained by backscattered ruby laser light and by direct in situ sampling over Laramie, Wyoming, on two nights in mid-September 1972. The lidar backscattering and the particle number density profiles correlated well. Based on these initial comparative experiments, the ground-based lidar coupled with temperature soundings appears to be a possible method for determining the relative aerosol profile under given stratospheric loading conditions.

  17. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt; Rabenhorst, Scott; Welch, Wayne; Cadirola, Martin; McIntire, Gerry; Russo, Felicita; Adam, Mariana; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Veselovskii, Igor; Forno, Ricardo; Mielke, Bernd; Stein, Bernhard; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart; Voemel, Holger

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance Raman lidar operating in the UV portion of the spectrum has been used to acquire, for the first time using a single lidar, simultaneous airborne profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, aerosol extinction, aerosol depolarization and research mode measurements of cloud liquid water, cloud droplet radius, and number density. The Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) system was installed in a Beechcraft King Air B200 aircraft and was flown over the mid-Atlantic United States during July August 2007 at altitudes ranging between 5 and 8 km. During these flights, despite suboptimal laser performance and subaperture use of the telescope, all RASL measurement expectations were met, except that of aerosol extinction. Following the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Satellite/Sondes (WAVES_2007) field campaign in the summer of 2007, RASL was installed in a mobile trailer for groundbased use during the Measurements of Humidity and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE-II) field campaign held during October 2007 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Table Mountain Facility in southern California. This ground-based configuration of the lidar hardware is called Atmospheric Lidar for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education (ALVICE). During theMOHAVE-II field campaign, during which only nighttime measurements were made, ALVICE demonstrated significant sensitivity to lower-stratospheric water vapor. Numerical simulation and comparisons with a cryogenic frost-point hygrometer are used to demonstrate that a system with the performance characteristics of RASL ALVICE should indeed be able to quantify water vapor well into the lower stratosphere with extended averaging from an elevated location like Table Mountain. The same design considerations that optimize Raman lidar for airborne use on a small research aircraft are, therefore, shown to yield significant dividends in the quantification of lower-stratospheric water vapor. The MOHAVE-II measurements, along with numerical simulation, were used to determine that the likely reason for the suboptimal airborne aerosol extinction performance during theWAVES_2007 campaign was amisaligned interference filter. With full laser power and a properly tuned interference filter,RASL is shown to be capable ofmeasuring themain water vapor and aerosol parameters with temporal resolutions of between 2 and 45 s and spatial resolutions ranging from 30 to 330 m from a flight altitude of 8 km with precision of generally less than 10%, providing performance that is competitive with some airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) water vapor and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) aerosol instruments. The use of diode-pumped laser technology would improve the performance of an airborne Raman lidar and permit additional instrumentation to be carried on board a small research aircraft. The combined airborne and ground-based measurements presented here demonstrate a level of versatility in Raman lidar that may be impossible to duplicate with any other single lidar technique.

  18. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Holben, B.; Remer, L.; Smirnov, A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment). Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W), are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and rms differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a)=60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements.

  19. Considerations about the lognormality of the aerosol lidar signal fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdev, Ljuan L.; Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Peshev, Zahary Y.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2015-01-01

    Physical analysis and mathematical description are given of the factors conditioning the formation and the fluctuation statistics of the aerosol lidar signals. The considerations are based on the assumption of incoherent scattering from aerosol particles occupying the "scattering laser-pulse volume" having specific cross-section and length. The influence of the atmospheric refractive turbulence is also taken into account. Different types of statistics of the aerosol field and different design parameters of the lidar system are considered as well, as essential factors determining the fluctuation level and distribution. It is shown that the aerosol lidar signal fluctuations can indeed have nearly log-normal distribution, as is frequently assumed, under determinate environment and lidar-design conditions including the probability density distribution and the mean number and variance of the scattering aerosol particles, the temporal and spatial correlation characteristics of the aerosol concentration, the refractive turbulence intensity, the radii of and the distance between the scattering volume and the aperture of the lidar receiving optical system, etc. Thus, the modeling of aerosol lidar signals and the interpretation of aerosol lidar data may be based on the assumption of log-normal statistics of the signal fluctuations whose level is derived on the basis of reasonable physical concepts and determined by the above-indicated conditions and parameters of concern.

  20. Two years of free-tropospheric aerosol layers observed over Portugal by lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PreißLer, J.; Wagner, F.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Silva, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Multi-wavelength Raman light detection and ranging (lidar) observations were analyzed, which were performed in Évora, Portugal, during more than 2 years on a regular basis in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). An aerosol characterization in terms of the lidar ratios at 355 and 532 nm and the extinction and backscatter related Ångström exponents is presented. Aerosol layers in the free troposphere were classified according to their origin. Clear differences in the intensive optical properties were found for layers of mineral dust from the Sahara and from Asia, of anthropogenic aerosol from Europe and from North America, as well as of biomass burning smoke from the Iberian Peninsula and from North America, respectively. In general, the mean Ångström exponents of aerosol layers of the same type, but from closer source regions, were smaller than those from aerosol layers transported over a longer distance. This hints at the deposition of large particles along the transportation path, especially for anthropogenic aerosol and mineral dust. Besides, the seasonal behavior of aerosol in the free troposphere over Évora was studied. Seventy-three percent of the detected layers were observed during spring and summer. On average, the layers were highest in summer with an overall mean layer height of (3.8 ±1.9) km above sea level (asl), and lowest in winter with (2.3 ±0.9) km asl.

  1. Characterization of the planetary boundary layer height and structure by Raman lidar: comparison of different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summa, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Stelitano, D.; Cacciani, M.

    2013-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) includes the portion of the atmosphere which is directly influenced by the presence of the earth's surface. Aerosol particles trapped within the PBL can be used as tracers to study the boundary-layer vertical structure and time variability. As a result of this, elastic backscatter signals collected by lidar systems can be used to determine the height and the internal structure of the PBL. The present analysis considers three different methods to estimate the PBL height. The first method is based on the determination of the first-order derivative of the logarithm of the range-corrected elastic lidar signals. Estimates of the PBL height for specific case studies obtained through this approach are compared with simultaneous estimates from the potential temperature profiles measured by radiosondes launched simultaneously to lidar operation. Additional estimates of the boundary layer height are based on the determination of the first-order derivative of the range-corrected rotational Raman lidar signals. This latter approach results to be successfully applicable also in the afternoon-evening decaying phase of the PBL, when the effectiveness of the approach based on the elastic lidar signals may be compromised or altered by the presence of the residual layer. Results from these different approaches are compared and discussed in the paper, with a specific focus on selected case studies collected by the University of Basilicata Raman lidar system BASIL during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS).

  2. Characterization of the planetary boundary layer height and structure by Raman lidar: comparison of different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summa, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Stelitano, D.; Cacciani, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) includes the portion of the atmosphere which is directly influenced by the presence of the Earth's surface. Aerosol particles trapped within the PBL can be used as tracers to study the boundary-layer vertical structure and time variability. As a result of this, elastic backscatter signals collected by lidar systems can be used to determine the height and the internal structure of the PBL. The present analysis considers three different methods to estimate the PBL height. A first method is based on the determination of the first order derivative of the logarithm of the range-corrected elastic lidar signals. Estimates of the PBL height for specific case studies obtained from this approach are compared with simultaneous estimates from the potential temperature profiles measured by radiosondes launched simultaneously to lidar operation. Additional estimates of the boundary layer height are based on the determination of the first order derivative of the range-corrected rotational Raman lidar signals. This latter approach results to be successfully applicable also in the afternoon-evening decaying phase of the PBL, when the effectiveness of the approach based on the elastic lidar signals may be compromised or altered by the presence of the residual layer. Results from these different approaches are compared and discussed in the paper, with a specific focus on selected case studies collected by the University of Basilicata Raman lidar system BASIL during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS).

  3. Advances in Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor, Cirrus Clouds and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Potter, John R.; Tola, Rebecca; Rush, Kurt; Veselovskii, Igor; Cadirola, Martin; Comer, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Narrow-band interference filters with improved transmission in the ultraviolet have been developed under NASA-funded research and used in the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) in ground- based, upward-looking tests. RASL is an airborne Raman Lidar system designed to measure water vapor mixing ratio, and aerosol backscatter/extinction/depolarization. It also possesses the capability to make experimental measurements of cloud liquid water and carbon dioxide. It is being prepared for first flight tests during the summer of 2006. With the newly developed filters installed in RASL, measurements were made of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus cloud optical properties and carbon dioxide that improve upon any previously demonstrated using Raman lidar. Daytime boundary layer profiling of water vapor mixing ratio is performed with less than 5% random error using temporal and spatial resolution of 2-minutes and 60 - 210, respectively. Daytime cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction- to-backscatter ratio measurements are made using 1-minute average. Sufficient signal strength is demonstrated to permit the simultaneous profiling of carbon dioxide and water vapor mixing ratio into the free troposphere during the nighttime. Downward-looking from an airborne RASL should possess the same measurement statistics with approximately a factor of 5 - 10 decrease in averaging time. A description of the technology improvements are provided followed by examples of the improved Raman lidar measurements.

  4. Geometrical form factor determination with Raman backscattering signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunxing Hu; Xiaobin Wang; Yonghua Wu; Chen Li; Huanling Hu

    2005-01-01

    A new method is presented to determine the geometrical form factor in Raman lidar. Mie and Raman backscattering signals are acquired by L625 Raman lidar; then the aerosol backscattering ratio and atmospheric molecular density are derived. By normalizing the molecular density of Raman lidar with radiosonde measurements, the geometrical form factors of lidar are obtained. Experimental results indicate this method

  5. Retrieval of aerosol mass concentration from elastic lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, Christian C.

    Agricultural aerosol sources can contribute significantly to air pollution in many regions of the country. Characterization of the aerosol emissions of agricultural operations is required to establish a scientific basis for crafting regulations concerning agricultural aerosols. A new lidar instrument for measuring aerosol emissions is described, as well as two new algorithms for converting lidar measurements into aerosol concentration data. The average daily aerosol emission rate is estimated from a dairy using lidar. The Aglite Lidar is a portable scanning lidar for mapping the concentration of particulate matter from agricultural and other sources. The instrument is described and performance and lidar sensitivity data are presented. Its ability to map aerosol plumes is demonstrated, as well as the ability to extract wind-speed information from the lidar data. An iterative least-squares method is presented for estimating the solution to the lidar equation. The method requires a priori knowledge of aerosol relationships from point sensors. The lidar equation is formulated and solved in vector form. The solution is stable for signals with extremely low signal-to-noise ratios and for signals at ranges far beyond the boundary point. Another lidar algorithm is also presented as part of a technique for estimating aerosol concentration and particle-size distribution. This technique uses a form of the extended Kalman filter, wherein the target aerosol is represented as a linear combination of basis-aerosols. For both algorithms, the algorithm is demonstrated using both synthetic test data and field measurements of biological aerosol simulants. The estimated particle size distribution allows straightforward calculation of parameters such as volume-fraction concentration and effective radius. Particulate matter emission rates from a dairy in the San Joaquin Valley of California were investigated during June 2008. Vertical particulate matter concentration profiles were measured both upwind and downwind of the facility using lidar, and a mass balance technique was used to estimate the average emission rate. Emission rates were also estimated using an inverse modeling technique coupled with the filter-based measurements. The concentrations measured by lidar and inverse modeling are of similar magnitude to each other, as well as to those from studies with similar conditions.

  6. mESY LIDAR - a new cost-effective, versatile and powerful lidar configuration for tropospheric aerosols, clouds and water vapor investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazacu, M. M.; Ristori, P.; Tudose, O.; Balanici, A.; Nicolae, D.; Ristici, V.; Balin, D.; Balin, I.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of remote sensing tools development for the monitoring of relevant atmospheric parameters triggering crucial processes in troposphere this work is presenting a new mini lidar system i.e mESY LIDAR. The basic configuration of this lidar is dedicated for tropospheric (100m to 12-15 Km ASL) aerosols and clouds high temporal (minutes) and spatial resolution (meters) investigation. Based on powerful Nd:YAG 30 Hz pulsed laser (35 mJ at 355 nm, 100 mJ at 532 nm, 200 mJ at 1064 nm), a 16" Newtonian telescope and a new easy up-gradable opto-mechanics the mESY LIDAR is a cost-effective and powerful equipment useful both for atmospherically researches and didactic - educational - lidar training activities also. The basic configuration (two detection channels) may be used either for depolarization studies (at 532, 355 or 1064nm) or the choice of two elastic and is ideal for continuous monitoring of planetary boundary layer dynamic i.e. PBL. The Raman Nitrogen at 387 nm and water vapor channels at 408 nm may be upgraded easily. The design of this lidar, developed within the research partnership between Switzerland and Romanian academic - private partnership institutions, is the standard lidar proposed for ROLINET (ROmanian LIdar NETwork) project with the final aim to be integrated in the EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork) in 2010.

  7. Spaceborne observations of the lidar ratio of marine aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, K. W.; Meskhidze, N.; Josset, D.; Gassó, S.

    2015-03-01

    Retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite sensor require the assumption of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, also known as the lidar ratio. This paper evaluates a new method to calculate the lidar ratio of marine aerosols using two independent sources: the AOD from the Synergized Optical Depth of Aerosols (SODA) project and the integrated attenuated backscatter from CALIOP. With this method, the particulate lidar ratio can be derived for individual CALIOP retrievals in single aerosol layer, cloud-free columns over the ocean. Global analyses are carried out using CALIOP level 2, 5 km marine aerosol layer products and the collocated SODA nighttime data from December 2007 to November 2010. The global mean lidar ratio for marine aerosols was found to be 26 sr, roughly 30% higher than the current value prescribed by the CALIOP standard retrieval algorithm. Data analysis also showed considerable spatiotemporal variability in the calculated lidar ratio over the remote oceans. The calculated marine aerosol lidar ratio is found to vary with the mean ocean surface wind speed (U10). An increase in U10 reduces the mean lidar ratio for marine regions from 32 ± 17 sr (for 0 < U10 < 4 m s-1) to 22 ± 7 sr (for U10 > 15 m s-1). Such changes in the lidar ratio are expected to have a corresponding effect on the marine AOD from CALIOP. The outcomes of this study are relevant for future improvements of the SODA and CALIOP operational product and could lead to more accurate retrievals of marine AOD.

  8. Aerosol Lidar and MODIS Satellite Comparisons for Future Aerosol Loading Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell; Szykman, James; Severance, Kurt; Chu, D. Allen; Rosen, Rebecca; Al-Saadi, Jassim

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the concentration and distribution of atmospheric aerosols using both airborne lidar and satellite instruments is a field of active research. An aircraft based aerosol lidar has been used to study the distribution of atmospheric aerosols in the California Central Valley and eastern US coast. Concurrently, satellite aerosol retrievals, from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, were take over the Central Valley. The MODIS Level 2 aerosol data product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical depth (AOD) and size distribution) globally over ocean and land at a spatial resolution of 10 km. The Central Valley topography was overlaid with MODIS AOD (5x5 sq km resolution) and the aerosol scattering vertical profiles from a lidar flight. Backward air parcel trajectories for the lidar data show that air from the Pacific and northern part of the Central Valley converge confining the aerosols to the lower valley region and below the mixed layer. Below an altitude of 1 km, the lidar aerosol and MODIS AOD exhibit good agreement. Both data sets indicate a high presence of aerosols near Bakersfield and the Tehachapi Mountains. These and other results to be presented indicate that the majority of the aerosols are below the mixed layer such that the MODIS AOD should correspond well with surface measurements. Lidar measurements will help interpret satellite AOD retrievals so that one day they can be used on a routine basis for prediction of boundary layer aerosol pollution events.

  9. Automated detection of particulate layers and retrieval of their extinction from the ARM Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.; Turner, D. D.; Newsom, R. K.; Comstock, J. M.; Sivaraman, C.

    2013-12-01

    The DOE ARM program operates two Raman lidars (RLs), one near Lamont, Oklahoma and one in Darwin, Australia. These systems are far more advance than the ARM program's primary lidar the MPL (micropulse lidar) with the ability to directly measure extinction and a shorter wavelength laser--- which reduces the impact of solar background noise in the elastic channel. In this work, we make improvements to existing RL data products to take advantage of the full capabilities of the Raman lidar. We identify the presence of particulate (cloud and aerosol) layers using a context-sensitive threshold method applied to three quantities: (1) a scattering ratio calculated using a modeled clear-sky signal, (2) a scattering ratio calculated using the nitrogen channel, and (3) the depolarization ratio. Extinction in these layers are directly retrieved using the RL's nitrogen channel. However the nitrogen signal-to-noise ratio is much lower than the elastic channel. Therefore a careful examination of signal noise is made to determine when it is appropriate to use the nitrogen channel. In cases when the full profile of extinction cannot be directly measured, we use the elastic channel only to retrieve extinction by either using the transmission method or by assuming lidar ratio. From these three methods of extinction retrieval a best estimate of extinction is made along with uncertainty estimates derived from the analysis of signal noise.

  10. Lidar vertical profiling of water vapor and aerosols in the Great Lakes Region: A tool for understanding lower atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Basheer, Watheq; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2015-02-01

    Results of a recently developed water vapor Raman lidar instrument at Environment Canada's Center for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE) are shown for selected days of summer and winter seasons. The basic components of the Raman water vapor lidar consist of a 30 Hz, Q-switched Nd:YAG high-powered laser utilizing the third harmonic (355 nm), beam steering optics, a 0.76 m Cassegrain telescope and three detection channels to simultaneously observe the vertical profiles of aerosols, water vapor, and nitrogen from near ground up to 9.5 km. By manipulating the inelastic backscattering lidar signals from the Raman nitrogen channel (386.7 nm) and Raman water vapor channel (407.5 nm), vertical profiles of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) are deduced, calibrated, and compared against WVMR profiles obtained from coincident and collocated radiosonde profiles. The average standard deviation, in the water vapor mixing ratio, is estimated to be less than 10% between the sonde and lidar measurements. In addition, comparisons between simultaneous WVMR profiles and aerosol profiles obtained from a simple aerosol backscatter lidar, also located at the CARE facility, provide insight into the complex dynamic mixing of the lower atmosphere and their subsequent impact on climate and air quality.

  11. Improvements in Raman Lidar Measurements Using New Interference Filter Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Potter, John R.; Tola, Rebecca; Veselovskii, Igor; Cadirola, Martin; Rush, Kurt; Comer, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Narrow-band interference filters with improved transmission in the ultra-violet have been developed under NASA-funded research and used in the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) in ground-based, upward-looking tests. Measurements were made of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus cloud optical properties and carbon dioxide that improve upon any previously demonstrated using Raman lidar. Daytime boundary and mixed layer profiling of water vapor mixing ratio up to an altitude of approximately 4 h is performed with less than 5% random error using temporal and spatial resolution of 2-minutes and 60 - 210, respectively. Daytime cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction-to-backscatter ratio measurements are made using 1 -minute average. Sufficient signal strength is demonstrated to permit the simultaneous profiling of carbon dioxide and water vapor mixing ratio into the free troposphere during the nighttime. A description of the filter technology developments is provided followed by examples of the improved Raman lidar measurements.

  12. Arctic aerosol and clouds studied by bistatic lidar technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Frans G. Olofson; Erik A. Svensson; Georg Witt; Jan B. C. Pettersson

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud studies were carried out with a polarimetric bistatic lidar setup at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) in Andenes (69°N, 16E°), Norway. The measurements were performed from 10 to 23 October 2006 and covered altitudes between 1.5 and 11 km, corresponding to scattering angles between 130 and 170°. The degree of linear polarization, PL,

  13. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

    PubMed

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

    2014-12-20

    In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis. PMID:25608203

  14. Bayesian assessment of uncertainty in aerosol size distributions and index of refraction retrieved from multiwavelength lidar measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin R. Herman; Barry Gross; Fred Moshary; Samir Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the assessment of uncertainty in the inference of aerosol size distributions from backscatter and extinction measurements that can be obtained from a modern elastic\\/Raman lidar system with a Nd:YAG laser transmitter. To calculate the uncertainty, an analytic formula for the correlated probability density function (PDF) describing the error for an optical coefficient ratio is derived based on a

  15. PollyNET: a network of multiwavelength polarization Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Heese, Birgit; Kanitz, Thomas; Komppula, Mika; Giannakaki, Eleni; Pfüller, Anne; Silva, Ana Maria; Preißler, Jana; Wagner, Frank; Rascado, Juan Luis; Pereira, Sergio; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Tesche, Matthias; Stachlewska, Iwona S.

    2013-10-01

    PollyNET is a growing global network of automatized multiwavelength polarization Raman lidars of type Polly (Althausen et al., 2009). The goal of this network is to conduct advanced remote measurements of aerosol profiles and clouds by the same type of instrument. Since 2006 this network assists the controlling and adjustment activities of Polly systems. A central facility receives the data from the Polly measurements. The observational data are displayed in terms of quicklooks at http://polly:tropos.de in near real time. In this way, the network serves as a central information platform for inquisitive scientists. PollyNET comprises permanent stations at Leipzig (Germany), Kuopio (Finland), Evora (Portugal), Baengnyeong Island (South Korea), Stockholm (Sweden), and Warsaw (Poland). Non-permanent stations have been used during several field experiments under both urban and very remote conditions - like the Amazon rainforest. These non-permanent stations were lasting from several weeks up to one year and have been located in Brazil, India, China, South Africa, Chile, and also aboard the German research vessels Polarstern and Meteor across the Atlantic. Within PollyNET the interaction and knowledge exchange is encouraged between the Polly operators. This includes maintenance support in system calibration procedures and distribution of latest hardware and software improvements. This presentation introduces the PollyNET. Main features of the Polly systems will be presented as well as recent instrumental developments. Some measurement highlights achieved within PollyNET are depicted.

  16. Effective Lidar Ratios of Dense Dust Aerosol Layers over North Africa Observed by the CALIPSO Lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Liu; D. M. Winker; A. H. Omar; M. Vaughan; C. R. Trepte; Y. Hu; C. A. Hostetler; W. Sun; B. Lin

    2009-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, a joint US and French mission, was launched three years ago to provide new insight into the role that clouds and aerosols play in regulating Earth's weather, climate, and air quality. A key instrument on board the CALIPSO payload is a two-wavelength, polarization-sensitive backscatter lidar. With its capabilities of depolarization

  17. Application of resonance Raman LIDAR for chemical species identification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Heglund, D.L.; Ray, M.D.; Harder, D.; Dobert, R.; Leung, K.P.; Wu, M.; Sedlacek, A.

    1997-07-01

    BNL has been developing a remote sensing technique for the detection of atmospheric pollutants based on the phenomenon of resonance Raman LIDAR that has also incorporated a number of new techniques/technologies designed to extend it`s performance envelope. When the excitation frequency approaches an allowed electronic transition of the molecule, an enormous enhancement of the inelastic scattering cross-section can occur, often up to 2 to 4 orders-of-magnitude, and is referred to as resonance Raman (RR), since the excitation frequency is in resonance with an allowed electronic transition. Exploitation of this enhancement along with new techniques such as pattern recognition algorithms to take advantage of the spectral fingerprint and a new laser frequency modulation technique designed to suppress broadband fluorescence, referred to as Frequency modulated Excitation Raman Spectroscopy (FreMERS) and recent developments in liquid edge filter technology, for suppression of the elastic channel, all help increase the overall performance of Raman LIDAR.

  18. Nonlinear Raman spectroscopy without tunable laser and application to lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Mitsuo; Oki, Yuji; Nonaka, Yujii; Nakazono, Shinichiro; Vasa, Nilesh J.

    2001-02-01

    Various kinds of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy (SRGS), photo-acoustic Raman spectroscopy (PARS), and thermal-lens Raman spectroscopy (TLRS), can be applied for the detection of molecules in the atmosphere. In traditional nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, two lasers whose frequency difference was tuned to the Raman shift frequency had to be prepared. We proposed a new configuration using a Nd:YAG laser and a Raman prepared. We proposed a new configuration using a Nd:YAG laser and a Raman shifter. The Raman shifter contained the same kind of gas to be measured, so that efficient Raman-shifted beam was automatically generated in this simple configuration. We demonstrated sensitive detection of H2 and CH4 in the atmosphere by various kinds of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy above mentioned.The detection limit was approximately 1-30 ppm level in every method using a sample gas cell. In the case of SRGS, remote sensing is possible, and the detection sensitivity can be increased using long optical pass as in the absorption spectroscopy, because the signal is obtained by a coherent light beam and there is no limitation caused by phase-matching condition. Using the Mie scattering in the atmosphere as a distributed mirror, a new type of nonlinear Raman lidar can be constructed. In this paper, we discussed on the possibilities of long-pass and lidar measurement for the detection of CH4, H2 and CO2 by SRGS using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

  19. The application of lidar to stratospheric aerosol studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The global climatology and understanding of stratospheric aerosols evolving primarily from lidar and satellite measurements is presented. The importance of validation of these remotely sensed data with in situ measurements is also discussed. The advantage of lidar for providing high vertical and horizontal resolution and its independence from a remote source for measurement will become evident with examples of long term lidar data sets at fixed sites and the use of lidar on airborne platforms. Volcanic impacts of the last 20 years are described with emphasis on the last 8 years where satellite data are available. With satellite and high resolution lidar measurements, an understanding of the global circulation of volcanic material is attempted along with the temporal change of aerosol physical parameters and the stratospheric cleansing or decay times associated with these eruptions.

  20. First results from the aerosol lidar and backscatter sonde intercomparison campaign STRAIT'1997 at table mountain facility during February-March 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, G.; Gross, M. R.; Haner, D. A.; Kjome, N. T.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Schaefer, H. - J.; Schrems, O.

    1998-01-01

    First results of an intercomparison measurement campaign between three aerosol lidar instruments and in-situ backscatter sondes performed at Table Mountain Facility (34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg E, 2280 m asl) in February-March 1997 are presented. During the campaign a total of 414 hours of lidar data were acquired by the Aerosol-Temperature-Lidar (ATL, Goddard Space Flight Center) the Mobile-aerosol-Raman-Lidar (MARL, Alfred Wegener Institute), and the TMF-Aerosol-Lidar (TAL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and four backscatter sondes were launched. From the data set altitude profiles of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization of stratospheric background aerosols at altitudes between 15 and 25 km and optically thin high-altitude cirrus clouds at altitudes below 13 km are derived. On the basis of a sulfuric acid aerosol model color ratio profiles obtained from two wavelength lidar data are compared to the corresponding profiles derived from the sonde observations. We find an excellent agreement between the in-situ and ATL lidar data with respect to backscatter and color ratio. Cirrus clouds were present on 16 of 26 nights during the campaign. Lidar observations with 17 minute temporal and 120-300 m spatial resolution indicate high spatial and temporal variability of the cirrus layers. Qualitative agreement is found between concurrent lidar measurements of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization.

  1. Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; McFarlane, SA

    2012-10-31

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) value-added product (VAP) and the procedures used to derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the raw RL measurements. Sections 2 and 4 describe the input and output variables, respectively. Section 3 discusses the theory behind the measurement and the details of the algorithm, including calibration and overlap correction.

  2. Lidar-radar synergy for characterizing properties of ultragiant volcanic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, F.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Giunta, A.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2011-12-01

    The atmospheric aerosol has a relevant effect on our life influencing climate, aviation safety, air quality and natural hazards. The identification of aerosol layers through inspection of continuous measurements is strongly recommended for quantifying their contribution to natural hazards and air quality and to establish suitable alerting systems. In particular, the study of ultragiant aerosols may improve the knowledge of physical-chemical processes underlying the aerosol-cloud interactions and the effect of giant nuclei as a potential element to expedite the warm-rain process. Moreover, the identification and the characterization of ultragiant aerosols may strongly contribute to quantify their impact on human health and their role in airplane engine damages or in visibility problems, especially in case of extreme events as explosive volcanic eruptions. During spring 2010, volcanic aerosol layers coming from Eyjafjallajökull volcano were observed over most of the European countries, using lidar technique. From 19 April to 19 May 2010, they were also observed at CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) with the multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems of the Potenza EARLINET station (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l), Southern Italy. During this period, ultragiant aerosol were also observed at CIAO using a co-located Ka-band MIRA-36 Doppler microwave radar operating at 8.45 mm (35.5 GHz). The Ka-band radar observed in four separate days (19 April, 7, 10, 13 May) signatures consistent with the observations of non-spherical ultragiant aerosol characterized by anomalous values of linear depolarization ratio higher than -4 dB, probably related to the occurrence of multiple effects as particle alignment and presence of an ice coating. 7-days backward trajectory analysis shows that the air masses corresponding to the ultragiant aerosol observed by the radar were coming from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano area. Only in one case the trajectories do not come directly from Iceland, but from Central Europe where many lidar observations confirm the presence of volcanic aerosol in the previous days. Therefore, both CIAO lidar observations and the backtrajectory analysis suggests a volcanic origin of the ultragiant aerosol observed by the radar, revealing that these particles might have travelled for more than 4000 km after their injection into the atmosphere. The reported observation fostered a study, reported in this work, about the performances of multi-wavelength Raman lidars in the identification and the characterization of ultragiant aerosols layers in the troposphere. Results from simulations using Mie, T-Matrix and ray-tracing codes will be presented and compared with the observations performed in April-May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Sensitivity ranges in detection of aerosol layer are pointed out in terms of experimental limits of both lidar and radar techniques and of aerosol optical depth. Moreover, recommendations for use of a combined lidar-radar approach for the aerosol typing and for the retrieval of their microphysical properties are reported.

  3. Analysis and interpretation of lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained with a 48 in. telescope lidar system are compared with results obtained using a one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol model to analyze various microphysical processes influencing the formation of this aerosol. Special attention is given to the following problems: (1) how lidar data can help determine the composition of the aerosol particles and (2) how the layer corresponds to temperature profile variations. The lidar record during the period 1974 to 1979 shows a considerable decrease of the peak value of the backscatter ratio. Seasonal variations in the aerosol layer and a gradual decrease in stratospheric loading are observed. The aerosol model simulates a background stratospheric aerosol layer, and it predicts stratospheric aerosol concentrations and compositions. Numerical experiments are carried out by using the model and by comparing the theoretical results with the experimentally obtained lidar record. Comparisons show that the backscatter profile is consistent with the composition when the particles are sulfuric acid and water; it is not consistent with an ammonium sulfate composition. It is shown that the backscatter ratio is not sensitive to the composition or stratospheric loading of condensation nuclei such as meteoritic debris.

  4. Global Aerosol Profiling by Orbital Lidar, GLAS Results and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. GLAS is approaching six months of on orbit data operation. These data from thousands of orbits illustrate the ability of space lidar to accurately and dramatically measure the height distribution of global aerosol to an unprecedented degree. There were many intended science applications of the GLAS data and significant results have already been realized, profiling is a fundamentally new measurement from space with multiple applications. A most important aerosol application is providing input to global aerosol generation transport models. Another is improved measurement of aerosol optical depth. A main approach to verify the aerosol optical depth retrieval is comparison to surface measurements by Aeronet. A special feature of the GLAS satellite bus is to rapidly point the lidar instrument at off nadir targets with less than 100 m accuracy. About a dozen selected Aeronet sites were pointed at whenever the GLAS lidar came within 5 degrees of zenith. These plus a more general comparison to nearby sites support the GLAS data product values. In addition the GLAS data can be used to add vertical distribution information to Aeronet aerosol measurements. As an EOS project instrument, GLAS data products are openly available to the science community. First year results from GLAS are summarized.

  5. Global Aerosol Profiling by Orbital Lidar, GLAS Results and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. GLAS is approaching six months of on orbit data operation. These data from thousands of orbits illustrate the ability of space lidar to accurately and dramatically measure the height distribution of global aerosol to an unprecedented degree. There were many intended science applications of the GLAS data and significant results have already been realized. profiling is a fundamentally new measurement from space with multiple applications. A most important aerosol application is providing input to global aerosol generation and transport models. Another is improved measurement of aerosol optical depth. A main approach to verify the aerosol optical depth retrieval is comparison to surface measurements by Aeronet. A special feature of the GLAS satellite bus is to rapidly point the lidar instrument at off nadir targets with less than 100 m accuracy. About a dozen selected Aeronet sites were pointed at whenever the G U S lidar came within 5 degrees of zenith. These plus a more general comparison to nearby sites support the G U S data product values. In addition the GUS data can be used to add vertical distribution information to Aeronet aerosol measurements.. As an EOS project instrument, GLAS data products are openly available to the science community. First year results from G U S are summarized.

  6. Raman Lidar Profiles Best Estimate Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Newson, R

    2012-01-18

    The ARM Raman lidars are semi-autonomous ground-based systems that transmit at a wavelength of 355 nm with 300 mJ, {approx}5 ns pulses, and a pulse repetition frequency of 30Hz. Signals from the various detection channels are processed to produce time- and height-resolved estimates of several geophysical quantities, such as water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol scattering ratio, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization ratio. Data processing is currently handled by a suite of six value-added product (VAP) processes. Collectively, these processes are known as the Raman Lidar Profiles VAP (RLPROF). The top-level best-estimate (BE) VAP process was introduced in order to bring together the most relevant information from the intermediate-level VAPs. As such, the BE process represents the final stage in data processing for the Raman lidar. Its principal function is to extract the primary variables from each of the intermediate-level VAPs, perform additional quality control, and combine all of this information into a single output file for the end-user. The focus of this document is to describe the processing performed by the BE VAP process.

  7. Methods of assessing uncertainty in aerosol properties as interpreted from lidar measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin R. Herman

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation into how measurements of backscatter and extinction from lidar can be interpreted to gain information about other aerosol properties by determining uncertainties of aerosol size distributions and refractive indexes. A derivation of aerosol optical properties from particle size distributions and their resulting effect on lidar signals is shown. Procedures for retrieving optical properties from lidar

  8. NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Clouds During IHOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Comer, Joe; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Rei-Fong; Evans, Keith; Veselovskii, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U.S. The SRL acquired measurements of water vapor, aerosols, cloud liquid and ice water, and temperature for more than 200 hours during IHOP. Here we report on the SRL water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements with particular emphasis being given to the measurements of June 19-20, 2002, which are motivating cirrus cloud model comparison studies.

  9. LIDAR Measurements of Tropospheric Aerosols and Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Lelli, L.; Stalmaszczyk, K.; Frey, S.; Woeste, L.

    Tropospheric aerosols have effects on climate directly through sun light attenuation as well as indirectly due to their influence on cloud formation. The knowledge of aerosol variation is crucial to consider their effects on the radiation of the atmosphere. Due to different radiative conditions (day and night, high surface albedo) the aerosols may have a strong influence on the radiative budget. Aerosols clouds can cause cooling and warming. This effect depends on the size of aerosols and index of refraction of the particles as well as Albedo of the underlying surface. Indirectly the aerosols can affect the climate and weather through cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and Ice Nuclei (IN) which are precursor for cloud particles in the atmosphere. CCN and IN can influence the cloud optical and microphysical properties. This can change the earth's Albedo and the hydrological cycle. Keeping in view, the significance of data on aerosols distribution, LIDAR investigations of tropospheric aerosols were performed at Berlin City (52°N, 13°W) during the month of August 2003, using the Charite LIDAR station built recently by Institute of Experimental Physics, Free University Berlin. Backscatter signals at laser wavelengths of 353, 532, and 1064 nm and depolarization signals at 532 nm in altitudes ranging from the 200 m to 14 km were measured and analyzed. Depolarization profiles suggest that the aerosol layer consisted of spherical (water soluble like sulphates, nitrates and water soluble organic substances) and non spherical aerosols (such as dust, soot, minerals and pollen). LIDAR measured profiles of the aerosol backscatter coefficient and depolarization. for the month of august will be presented. In many cases we could demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric aerosols in the day and night time in the atmosphere. The aerosols data measured at different altitudes were applied for prediction of boundary layer heights for various clear sunny days and cloud free nights. The latest results will be presented at the time of conference.

  10. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  11. Inter-comparison of lidar and ceilometer retrievals for aerosol and Planetary Boundary Layer profiling over Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaknakis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Kokkalis, P.; Amiridis, V.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Georgoussis, G.; Avdikos, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an inter-comparison of two active remote sensors (lidar and ceilometer) in determining the structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and in retrieving tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles over Athens, Greece. This inter-comparison was performed under various strongly different aerosol concentrations (urban air pollution, biomass burning and Saharan dust event), implementing two different lidar systems (one portable Raymetrics S.A. lidar system running at 355 nm and one multi-wavelength Raman lidar system running at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm) and one CL31 Vaisala S.A. ceilometer (running at 910 nm). To convert the ceilometer data to data having the same wavelengths as those from the lidar, the backscatter-related Ångström exponent was estimated using ultraviolet multi-filter radiometer (UV-MFR) data. The inter-comparison was based on two parameters: the mixing layer structure and height determined by the presence of the suspended aerosols and the aerosol backscatter coefficient. Additionally, radiosonde data were used to derive the PBL height. In general a good agreement is found between the ceilometer and the lidar techniques in both inter-compared parameters in the height range from 500 m to 5000 m, while the limitations of each instrument are also examined.

  12. Simultaneous analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Mielke, Bernd; Clayton, Marian F.; Ferrare, Richard; Sivaraman, Chitra

    2009-07-10

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Raman Lidar was upgraded in 2004 with a new data system that provides simultaneous measurements of both the photomultiplier analog output voltage and photon counts. This paper describes recent improvements to the algorithm used to merge these two signals into a single signal with improved dynamic range. The impact of modifications to the algorithm are evaluated by comparing profiles of water vapor mixing ratio from the lidar with sonde measurements. The modifications that were implemented resulted in a reduction of the mean bias in the daytime mixing ratio from a 4% dry bias to well within 1%.

  13. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  14. Lower atmospheric temperature profile measurements using a Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman lidar system was used to measure the temperature profile of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The system consists of a tripled Nd-YAG laser and a 1.5 meter diameter telescope. Two photomultipliers are used at the output of the telescope to allow for measurements at both the laser wavelength and at the Raman shifted wavelength due to atmospheric nitrogen. The signal from the photomultipliers is recorded as photon counts in 1 microsec bins. The results of a number of laser shots are summed together to provide atmospheric returns which have acceptable signal to noise characteristics. Measurements of the Raman nitrogen return were acquired up to an altitude in excess of 20 km. Temperature profiles were retrieved from the attenuation corrected Raman nitrogen return assuming the atmosphere to be in hydrostatic equilibrium and using the ideal gas law. Retrieved temperature profiles are shown compared with independent temperature measurements.

  15. Aerosol Models for the CALIPSO Lidar Inversion Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Won, Jae-Gwang

    2003-01-01

    We use measurements and models to develop aerosol models for use in the inversion algorithms for the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Imager Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO). Radiance measurements and inversions of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET1, 2) are used to group global atmospheric aerosols using optical and microphysical parameters. This study uses more than 105 records of radiance measurements, aerosol size distributions, and complex refractive indices to generate the optical properties of the aerosol at more 200 sites worldwide. These properties together with the radiance measurements are then classified using classical clustering methods to group the sites according to the type of aerosol with the greatest frequency of occurrence at each site. Six significant clusters are identified: desert dust, biomass burning, urban industrial pollution, rural background, marine, and dirty pollution. Three of these are used in the CALIPSO aerosol models to characterize desert dust, biomass burning, and polluted continental aerosols. The CALIPSO aerosol model also uses the coarse mode of desert dust and the fine mode of biomass burning to build a polluted dust model. For marine aerosol, the CALIPSO aerosol model uses measurements from the SEAS experiment 3. In addition to categorizing the aerosol types, the cluster analysis provides all the column optical and microphysical properties for each cluster.

  16. Lidar determination of the composition of atmosphere aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the feasibility of using DIfferential SCatter (DISC) lidar to measure the composition of atmospheric aerosols are described. This technique involves multiwavelength measurements of the backscatter cross section of aerosols in the middle infrared, where a number of materials display strong restrahlen features that significantly modulate the backscatter spectrum. The theoretical work indicates that a number of materials of interest, including sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, and silicates, can be discriminated among with a CO2 lidar. An initial evaluation of this procedure was performed in which cirrus clouds and lower altitude tropospheric aerosols were developed. The observed ratio spectrum of the two types of aerosol displays structure that is in crude accord with theoretical expectations.

  17. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2006-04-10

    The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique.

  18. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2006-04-10

    The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. PMID:16623245

  19. Global estimation of above-cloud aerosols using spaceborne LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, D.; Wood, R.; Anderson, T. L.; Satheesh, S. K.; Leahy, L.

    2008-12-01

    Estimates of global mean direct climate forcing by absorbing aerosols located above boundary layer clouds are large, uncertain, and almost entirely unconstrained by observations. Spaceborne lidar offers a new opportunity of estimating the aerosols at global scale. Here we use two recently available techniques quantifying the above-cloud aerosols using liquid water clouds as lidar targets from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) [Chand et al., 2008]. Both methods can quantify aerosols above clouds and are based on their self-calibrating techniques. We used one year of global data between 70N-70S to show that day time calibration constants are different than night time calibrations constants. A clear latitudinal dependence is observed in the calibrations constants in CALIPSO observations. Using these 'self-calibration' constants, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom exponent (AE) of 'above- cloud' aerosols are quantified. Biomass burning is a major source of fine mode aerosols in different regions of world. For example, it is observed that June is the onset of the biomass burning fires in Southern Africa, peaking in August and September and then slowly decreasing until November, with a corresponding signature in aerosol optical depth. Layers with aerosol optical depth greater than 0.3 are commonly observed up to several thousand kilometers away from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean. The 'above-cloud' AOD as high as 1.5 is observed in the peak months. Despite of large variations is AOD, mean AE of these aerosols is about 1.6, without any systematic variability away from the source region. The results estimating the aerosols above clouds, including other regions at global scale, will be presented in the AGU meeting. Chand, D., T. L. Anderson, R. Wood, R. J. Charlson, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, and M. Vaughan (2008), Quantifying above-cloud aerosol using spaceborne lidar for improved understanding of cloudy-sky direct climate forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D13206, doi:10.1029/2007JD009433.

  20. Comparison of Aerosol Classification From Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Ferrare, Rich A.; Omar, Ali H.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Hostetler, Chris a.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of aerosol composition and vertical distribution is crucial for assessing the impact of aerosols on climate. In addition, aerosol classification is a key input to CALIOP aerosol retrievals, since CALIOP requires an inference of the lidar ratio in order to estimate the effects of aerosol extinction and backscattering. In contrast, the NASA airborne HSRL-1 directly measures both aerosol extinction and backscatter, and therefore the lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio). Four aerosol intensive properties from HSRL-1 are combined to infer aerosol type. Aerosol classification results from HSRL-1 are used here to validate the CALIOP aerosol type inferences.

  1. Lidar measurements at Garmisch, conversion model, and midlatitude aerosol effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Lidar backscatter soundings of stratospheric aerosol layer were routinely made at the IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen. After 1979 significant perturbations of the stratosphere were observed after volcano eruptions from 1980 to 1985. A volcanically quiescent period followed until the eruption at the end of 1989. Determinations of particle extinction, mass and surface area of the stratospheric particulate load are important in climatic considerations and heterogeneous chemistry effects. Balloon-borne particle counter measurements are used to derive height and time resolved conversion factors to convert lidar backscatter data to extinction, mass and surface area values. This is done by combining particle size distributions with Mie backscatter and extinction functions. These conversion factors are applicable to midlatitude lidar observations and were used to convert ruby lidar measurement at the IFU.

  2. Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the

    E-print Network

    Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer- derived

  3. Aerosol analysis techniques and results from micro pulse lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Dennis L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Campbell, James R.; Reagan, John A.; Powell, Donna

    1998-01-01

    The effect of clouds and aerosol on the atmospheric energy balance is a key global change problem. Full knowledge of aerosol distributions is difficult to obtain by passive sensing alone. Aerosol and cloud retrievals in several important areas can be significantly improved with active remote sensing by lidar. Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is an aerosol and cloud profilometer that provides a detailed picture of the vertical structure of boundary layer and elevated dust or smoke plume aerosols. MPL is a compact, fully eyesafe, ground-based, zenith pointing instrument capable of full-time, long-term unattended operation at 523 nm. In October of 1993, MPL began taking full-time measurements for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and has since expanded to ARM sites in the Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). Other MPL's are moving out to some of the 60 world-wide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites which are already equipped with automatic sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers providing total column optical depth measurements. Twelve additional MPL's have been purchased by NASA to add to the aerosol and cloud database of the EOS ground validation network. The original MPL vertical resolution was 300 meters but the newer versions have a vertical resolution of 30 meters. These expanding data sets offer a significant new resource for atmospheric radiation analysis. Under the direction of Jim Spinhirne, the MPL analysis team at NASA/GSFC has developed instrument correction and backscatter analysis techniques for ARM to detect cloud boundaries and analyze vertical aerosol structures. A summary of MPL applications is found in Hlavka (1997). With the aid of independent total column optical depth instruments such as the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at the ARM sites or sun photometers at the AERONET sites, the MPL data can be calibrated, and time-resolved vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth as well as aerosol extinction can be calculated. The techniques used to calibrate the lidar, calculate the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, and produce profiles of aerosol extinction and aerosol optical depths, will be described. Results using these techniques will be presented for case studies at the ARM site in the Tropical West Pacific and later in the Southern Great Plains.

  4. Airborne lidar aerosol measurements during the ASSESS II mission.

    PubMed

    Werner, C; Bachstein, F; Dietz, S; Herrmann, H; Köpp, F; Löffler, H

    1978-07-01

    During May 1977 the Airborne Science Spacelab Experiments System Simulation (ASSESS II) took place, using the NASA CV 990 aircraft. A ND:glass lidar system, measuring the aerosol mass concentration over large areas, was proxy operated by trained ''Payload Specialists.'' The main part of this paper is concerned with the lidar experiment and its results. The participants in the mission viewed it as a tool for judging their spacelab science management and as the final stage of a guide for future planning of experiments. A general result that has emerged is that, for a real spacelab mission, the handling of remote sensing experiments should be fully automatic. PMID:18699235

  5. Inter-comparison of lidar and ceilometer retrievals for aerosol and Planetary Boundary Layer profiling over Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaknakis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Kokkalis, P.; Amiridis, V.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Georgoussis, G.; Avdikos, G.

    2011-06-01

    This study presents an inter-comparison of two active remote sensors (lidar and ceilometer) to determine the mixing layer height and structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and to retrieve tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles over Athens, Greece. This inter-comparison was performed under various strongly different aerosol loads/types (urban air pollution, biomass burning and Saharan dust event), implementing two different lidar systems (one portable Raymetrics S.A. lidar system running at 355 nm and one multi-wavelength Raman lidar system running at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm) and one CL31 Vaisala S.A. ceilometer (running at 910 nm). Spectral conversions of the ceilometer's data were performed using the Ångström exponent estimated by ultraviolet multi-filter radiometer (UV-MFR) measurements. The inter-comparison was based on two parameters: the mixing layer height determined by the presence of the suspended aerosols and the attenuated backscatter coefficient. Additionally, radiosonde data were used to derive the PBL height. In general, a good agreement was found between the ceilometer and the lidar techniques in both inter-compared parameters in the height range from 500 m to 5000 m, while the limitations of each instrument are also examined.

  6. Tracking aerosol plumes: lidar, modeling, and in situ measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, Ron J.; Heap, Robert; Sommer, Jeffrey; Princevac, Marko; Peccia, Jordan; Fernando, H.

    2004-09-01

    The authors report on recent progress of on-going research at Arizona State University for tracking aerosol plumes using remote sensing and modeling approaches. ASU participated in a large field experiment, Joint Urban 2003, focused on urban and suburban flows and dispersion phenomena which took place in Oklahoma City during summer 2003. A variety of instruments were deployed, including two Doppler-lidars. ASU deployed one lidar and the Army Research deployed the other. Close communication and collaboration has produced datasets which will be available for dual Doppler analysis. The lidars were situated in a way to provide insight into dynamical flow structures caused by the urban core. Complementary scanning by the two lidars during the July 4 firework display in Oklahoma City demonstrated that smoke plumes could be tracked through the atmosphere above the urban area. Horizontal advection and dispersion of the smoke plumes were tracked on two horizontal planes by the ASU lidar and in two vertical planes with a similar lidar operated by the Army Research Laboratory. A number of plume dispersion modeling systems are being used at ASU for the modeling of plumes in catastrophic release scenarios. Progress using feature tracking techniques and data fusion approaches is presented for utilizing single and dual radial velocity fields from coherent Doppler lidar to improve dispersion modeling. The possibility of producing sensor/computational tools for civil and military defense applications appears worth further investigation. An experiment attempting to characterize bioaerosol plumes (using both lidar and in situ biological measurements) associated with the application of biosolids on agricultural fields is in progress at the time of writing.

  7. Error analysis of Raman differential absorption lidar ozone measurements in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, J

    2000-11-20

    A formalism for the error treatment of lidar ozone measurements with the Raman differential absorption lidar technique is presented. In the presence of clouds wavelength-dependent multiple scattering and cloud-particle extinction are the main sources of systematic errors in ozone measurements and necessitate a correction of the measured ozone profiles. Model calculations are performed to describe the influence of cirrus and polar stratospheric clouds on the ozone. It is found that it is sufficient to account for cloud-particle scattering and Rayleigh scattering in and above the cloud; boundary-layer aerosols and the atmospheric column below the cloud can be neglected for the ozone correction. Furthermore, if the extinction coefficient of the cloud is ?0.1 km(-1), the effect in the cloud is proportional to the effective particle extinction and to a particle correction function determined in the limit of negligible molecular scattering. The particle correction function depends on the scattering behavior of the cloud particles, the cloud geometric structure, and the lidar system parameters. Because of the differential extinction of light that has undergone one or more small-angle scattering processes within the cloud, the cloud effect on ozone extends to altitudes above the cloud. The various influencing parameters imply that the particle-related ozone correction has to be calculated for each individual measurement. Examples of ozone measurements in cirrus clouds are discussed. PMID:18354611

  8. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  9. Toward aerosols LiDAR scattering plots clustering and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Amr H.; Iftekharuddin, Khan; Karim, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    A compact light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system is used for the purpose of aerosols profile measurements by identifying the aerosol scattering ratio as function of the altitude. These color plots can be treated as images with high intensities referring to high scattering ratios and low intensities referring to low scattering ratios. In this paper, we explore the clustering of these plots into homogeneous regions via unsupervised clustering techniques such as fuzzy techniques and evaluate their performance on this type of data. We introduce a new clustering technique to work efficiently on this type of images and compare its results against the regular techniques. By capturing different aerosols profiles at different times, we are able to describe the aerosol existence structure in the area of our interest.

  10. Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieudonné, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

    2014-11-01

    In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the 10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from Western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The BER in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 0.017 ± 0.009 sr-1 in average during the campaign, with slightly higher values in background conditions near Lake Baikal (0.021 ± 0.010 sr-1 in average) corresponding to dust-like particles. PDR values observed in Russian cities (>1.7%) are higher than the ones measured in European cities (<1.3%) due to the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads with a bad tarmac. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit BER values ranging from 0.010 to 0.015 sr-1 and from 2 to 3% for the PDR. Desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a BER (PDR) of 0.022 sr-1 (21%) for pure dust, and 0.011 sr-1 (15%) for a mix between dust and biomass burning. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

  11. Compact Efficient Lidar Receiver for Measuring Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gili, Christopher; De Young, Russell

    2006-01-01

    A small, light weight, and efficient aerosol lidar receiver was constructed and tested. Weight and space savings were realized by using rigid optic tubes and mounting cubes to package the steering optics and detectors in a compact assembly. The receiver had a 1064nm channel using an APD detector. The 532nm channel was split (90/10) into an analog channel (90%) and a photon counting channel (10%). The efficiency of the 1064nm channel with optical filter was 44.0%. The efficiency of the analog 532nm channel was 61.4% with the optical filter, and the efficiency of the 532nm photon counting channel was 7.6% with the optical filter. The results of the atmospheric tests show that the detectors were able to consistently return accurate results. The lidar receiver was able to detect distinct cloud layers, and the lidar returns also agreed across the different detectors. The use of a light weight fiber-coupled telescope reduced weight and allowed great latitude in detector assembly positioning due to the flexibility enabled by the use of fiber optics. The receiver is now ready to be deployed for aircraft or ground based aerosol lidar measurements.

  12. Water vapour profiling in cloudy conditions integrating Raman lidar and passive microwave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, Fabio; Boselli, Antonella; Amodeo, Aldo; Cornacchia, Carmela; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Giunta, Aldo; Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2010-10-01

    At the Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-IMAA) an advanced observatory for the ground-based remote sensing of the atmosphere is operative. This facility is equipped with several instruments including two multi-wavelength Raman lidars, one of which mobile, a microwave profiler, a 36 GHz Doppler polarimetric radar, two laser ceilometers, a sun photometer, a surface radiation station and three radiosounding stations. CNR-IMAA atmospheric observatory (CIAO) is located in Southern Italy on the Apennine mountains (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l.), less than 150 km from the West, South and East coasts. The site is in a valley surrounded by low mountains (<1100 m a.s.l.) and this location offers an optimal opportunity to study different kinds of weather and climate regimes. CIAO represents an optimal site where testing possible synergies between active and passive techniques for improving the profiling capabilities of several atmospheric key variables, such as aerosol, water vapour and clouds, and for the development of an integration strategy for their long-term monitoring. CIAO strategy aims at the combination of observations provided by active and passive sensors for providing advanced retrievals of atmospheric parameters exploiting both the high vertical resolution of active techniques and the typical operational capabilities of passive sensors. This combination offers a high potential for profiling atmospheric parameters in an enlarged vertical range nearly independently on the atmospheric conditions. In this work, we describe two different integration approaches for the improvement of water vapour profiling during cloudy condition through the combination of Raman lidar and microwave profiler measurements. These approaches are based on the use of Kalman filtering and Tikhonov regularization methods for the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the microwave region. The accuracy of the retrieved water vapour profiles during cloudy conditions is improved by the use of the water vapour Raman lidar profiles, retrieved up to a maximum height level located around the cloud base region (depending on their optical thickness), as a constraint to the obtained solution set. The presented integration approaches allow us to provide physically consistent solution to the inverse problem in the microwave region retrieving water vapour vertical profiles also in presence of thick clouds. The integration of Raman lidar and microwave measurements also provides a continuous high-resolution estimation of the water vapour content in the full troposphere and, therefore, a useful tool for the evaluation of model capability to capture mean aspects of the water vapour field in nearly all weather conditions as well as for the identification of possible discrepancies between observations and models.

  13. Polar stratospheric clouds over Finland in the 2012/2013 Arctic winter measured by two Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Kivi, Rigel; Schrems, Otto; Immler, Franz; Komppula, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Already in December 2012, the Arctic stratospheric vortex reached temperatures sufficiently low for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation over wide areas of Northern Europe and whole Finland. Within Finland, stratospheric aerosol lidar measurements have been and are performed with two Raman lidar systems, the PollyXT, owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and situated well below the Arctic circle close to Kuopio (63 N, 27 E) and the MARL lidar owned by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), and situated at the FMI Arctic Research Centre in Sodankylä (67 N, 26 E). The PollyXT has been designed as an autonomous tropospheric lidar system, but it has proven to be able to detect aerosol backscatter and depolarization at least as high up as 25 km. Measurements are ongoing as far as low clouds allow for stratospheric analysis with both lidars until the end of PSC season in February. For the winter 2012/2013, PSC occurrence frequency, types and characteristics will be determined. Comparative analysis with Calipso lidar profiles covering Finland will be performed. Preliminary results from December 17-24 show PSCs detected in Kuopio during seven days with the PollyXT lidar. The altitude of the clouds varied in the range of 17-25 km. In Sodankylä the measurements were running on one day during the period and PSCs were observed between altitudes 17-25 km. For the same time period (December 17-24, 2012) CALIPSO has observed stratospheric layers at all overpasses over Finland (9 tracks on five days). The clouds were observed between 18.5 and 26 km, with varying geometric and optical thickness.

  14. Tropospheric ozone differential-absorption lidar using stimulated Raman scattering in carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazato, Masahisa; Nagai, Tomohiro; Sakai, Tetsu; Hirose, Yasuo

    2007-04-01

    A UV ozone differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) utilizing a Nd:YAG laser and a single Raman cell filled with carbon dioxide (CO2) is designed, developed, and evaluated. The generated wavelengths are 276, 287, and 299 nm, comprising the first to third Stokes lines of the stimulated Raman scattering technique. The correction terms originated from the aerosol extinction, the backscatter, and the absorption by other gases are estimated using a model atmosphere. The experimental results demonstrate that the emitted output energies were 13 mJ/pulse at 276 nm and 287 nm and 5 mJ/pulse at 299 nm, with pump energy of 91 mJ/pulse and a CO2 pressure of 0.7 MPa. The three Stokes lines account for 44.0% of the available energy. The use of argon or helium as a buffer gas in the Raman cell was also investigated, but this leads to a dramatic decrease in the third Stokes line, which makes this wavelength practically unusable. Our observations confirmed that 30 min of integration were sufficient to observe ozone concentration profiles up to 10 km. Aerosol extinction and backscatter correction are estimated and applied. The aerosol backscatter correction profile using 287 and 299 nm as reference wavelengths is compared with that using 355 nm. The estimated statistical error is less than 5% at 1.5 km and 10% at 2.6 km. Comparisons with the operational carbon-iodine type chemical ozonesondes demonstrate 20% overestimation of the ozone profiles by the DIAL technique.

  15. Stable Calibration of Raman Lidar Water-Vapor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been devised to ensure stable, long-term calibration of Raman lidar measurements that are used to determine the altitude-dependent mixing ratio of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Because the lidar measurements yield a quantity proportional to the mixing ratio, rather than the mixing ratio itself, calibration is necessary to obtain the factor of proportionality. The present method involves the use of calibration data from two sources: (1) absolute calibration data from in situ radiosonde measurements made during occasional campaigns and (2) partial calibration data obtained by use, on a regular schedule, of a lamp that emits in a known spectrum determined in laboratory calibration measurements. In this method, data from the first radiosonde campaign are used to calculate a campaign-averaged absolute lidar calibration factor (t(sub 1)) and the corresponding campaign-averaged ration (L(sub 1)) between lamp irradiances at the water-vapor and nitrogen wavelengths. Depending on the scenario considered, this ratio can be assumed to be either constant over a long time (L=L(sub 1)) or drifting slowly with time. The absolutely calibrated water-vapor mixing ratio (q) obtained from the ith routine off-campaign lidar measurement is given by q(sub 1)=P(sub 1)/t(sub 1)=LP(sub 1)/P(sup prime)(sub 1) where P(sub 1) is water-vapor/nitrogen measurement signal ration, t(sub 1) is the unknown and unneeded overall efficiency ratio of the lidar receiver during the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, and P(sup prime)(sub 1) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the ith routine off-campaign measurement run. If L is assumed constant, then the lidar calibration is routinely obtained without the need for new radiosonde data. In this case, one uses L=L(sub 1) = P(sup prime)(sub 1)/t(sub 1), where P(sub 1)(sup prime) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the first radiosonde campaign. If L is assumed to drift slowly, then it is necessary to postpone calculation of a(sub 1) until after a second radiosonde campaign. In this case, one obtains a new value, L(sub 2), from the second radiosonde campaign, and for the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, one uses an intermediate value of L obtained by simple linear time interpolation between L(sub 1) and L(sub 2).

  16. The Refurbishment and Upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D.; Goldsmith, J.E.M.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Raman lidar (CARL) is an autonomous, turn-key system that profiles water vapor, aerosols, and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle for days without attention (Goldsmith et al. 1998). CARL was first deployed to the Southern Great Plains CRF during the summer of 1996 and participated in the 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive operational periods (IOPs). Since February 1998, the system has collected over 38,000 hrs of data (equivalent of almost 4.4 years), with an average monthly uptime of 62% during this time period. This unprecedented performance by CARL makes it the premier operational Raman lidar in the world. Unfortunately, CARL began degrading in early 2002. This loss of sensitivity, which affected all observed variables, was very gradual and thus was not identified until the autumn of 2003. Analysis of the data suggested the problem was not associated with the laser or transmit portion of the system, but rather in the detection subsystem, as both the background values and the peak signals showed a marked decreases over this time period. The loss of sensitivity of a factor of 2-4, depending on the channel, resulted in higher random error in the retrieved products, such as the aerosol backscatter coefficient and water vapor mixing ratio. Figure 1 shows the random error at 2 km for aerosol backscatter coefficient (top) and water vapor mixing ratio (middle), in terms of percent of the signal for both average daytime (red) and nighttime (blue) data from 1998 to 2005. The seasonal variation of water vapor is easily seen in the random error in the water vapor mixing ratio data. The loss of sensitivity also affected the maximum range of the usable data, as illustrated by the dramatic decrease in the maximum height seen in the water vapor mixing ratio data (bottom). This degradation, which results in much larger random errors, greatly hinders the analysis of data sets such as the Aerosol IOP (March 2003) and the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment (December 2003). The degradation and its impact on the Aerosol IOP analysis are reported in Ferrare et al. 2005.

  17. [Ultraviolet Mie lidar observations of aerosol extinction in a dust storm case over Macao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiao-jun; Cheng, A Y S; Zhu, Jian-hua; Fong, S K; Chang, S W; Tam, K S; Viseu, A

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol over Macao was monitored by using a 355 nm Mie scattering lidar during the dust event on March 22nd, 2010. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients were obtained and correlated with local PM10 concentration. The near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients have good agreement with PM10 concentration values. The aerosol extinction vertical profiles showed that there were distinct layers of dust aerosol concentration. The source and tracks of dust aerosol were analyzed by back-trajectory simulation. Observations showed that this lidar could run well even in dust storm episode, and it would help to further the study on aerosol properties over Macao. PMID:22582620

  18. Aglite Lidar: A Portable Elastic Lidar System for Investigating Aerosol and Wind Motions at or Around Agricultural Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aglite Lidar is a portable scanning lidar that can be quickly deployed at agricultural and other air quality study sites. The purpose of Aglite is to map the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in aerosol plumes from agricultural and other sources. Aglite uses a high-repetition rate low-pulse energy...

  19. AGLITE Lidar: A Portable Elastic Lidar System for Investigating Aerosol and Wind Motions at or Around Agricultural Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AGLITE Lidar is a portable scanning lidar that can be quickly deployed at agricultural and other air quality study sites. The purpose of AGLITE is to map the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in aerosol plumes from agricultural sources. AGLITE uses a high-repetition rate low-pulse-energy 3-wavelen...

  20. Simulation of the Raman lidar signal for localized source of atmospheric pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.

    2014-11-01

    A mathematical model of the process of the atmosphere sounding based on the Raman scattering effect in UV region of the spectrum is considered. The developed model allows to calculate an expected value of the lidar signal and optimize the characteristics of the Raman lidar using spectroscopic information about the detected object, parameters of the radiation propagation medium, and parameters of the transceiver equipment. The results of calculations of remote detection of vapors of some chemical compounds in the atmosphere using Raman lidar constructed on the basis of a KrF excimer laser are presented.

  1. Vertically resolved aerosol properties by multi-wavelength lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, M. R.; De Tomasi, F.; Gobbi, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    An approach based on the graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) is introduced to estimate the dependence on altitude of the aerosol fine mode radius (Rf) and of the fine mode contribution (?) to the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from three-wavelength lidar measurements. The graphical method of Gobbi and co-authors (2007) was applied to AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) spectral extinction observations and relies on the combined analysis of the Ångstrom exponent (å) and its spectral curvature ?å. Lidar measurements at 355, 532 and 1064 nm were used in this study to retrieve the vertical profiles of å and ?å and to estimate the dependence on altitude of Rf and ?(532 nm) from the å-?å combined analysis. Lidar measurements were performed at the Department of Mathematics and Physics of the Universita' del Salento, in south-eastern Italy. Aerosol from continental Europe, the Atlantic, northern Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea are often advected over south-eastern Italy and as a consequence, mixed advection patterns leading to aerosol properties varying with altitude are dominant. The proposed approach was applied to ten measurement days to demonstrate its feasibility in different aerosol load conditions. The selected days were characterized by AOTs spanning the 0.26-0.67, 0.15-0.39, and 0.04-0.27 range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively. Mean lidar ratios varied within the 31-83, 32-84, and 11-47 sr range at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively, for the high variability of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties. å values calculated from lidar extinction profiles at 355 and 1064 nm ranged between 0.1 and 2.5 with a mean value ± 1 standard deviation equal to 1.3 ± 0.7. ?å varied within the -0.1-1 range with mean value equal to 0.25 ± 0.43. Rf and ?(532 nm) values spanning the 0.05-0.3 ?m and the 0.3-0.99 range, respectively, were associated with the å-?å data points. Rf and ? values showed no dependence on the altitude. 60% of the data points were in the ?å-å space delimited by the ? and Rf curves varying within 0.80-0.99 and 0.05-0.15 ?m, respectively, for the dominance of fine-mode particles in driving the AOT over south-eastern Italy. Vertical profiles of the linear particle depolarization ratio retrieved from lidar measurements, aerosol products from AERONET sun photometer measurements collocated in space and time, analytical back trajectories, satellite true colour images, and dust concentrations from the BSC-DREAM (Barcelona Super Computing Center-Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) model were used to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.

  2. Analysis and Calibration of CRF Raman Lidar Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D.

    2007-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Raman lidar (RL), located at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF), is a unique state-of-the-art active remote sensor that is able to measure profiles of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud properties at high temporal and vertical resolution throughout the diurnal cycle. In October 2005, the capability of the RL was extended by the addition of a new detection channel that is sensitive to the Raman scattering of liquid water. This new channel permits the system, in theory, to measure profiles of liquid water content (LWC) by the RL. To our knowledge, the ARM RL is the only operation lidar with this capability. The liquid water Raman backscattering cross-section is a relatively weak and spectrally broad feature, relative to the water vapor Raman backscatter signal. The wide bandpass required to achieve reasonable signal-to-noise in the liquid water channel essentially eliminates the ability to measure LWC profiles during the daytime in the presence of large solar background, and thus all LWC observations are nighttime only. Additionally, the wide bandpass increases the probability that other undesirable signals, such as fluorescence from aerosols, may contaminate the observation. The liquid water Raman cross-section has a small amount of overlap with the water vapor Raman cross-section, and thus there will be a small amount of ‘cross-talk’ between the two signals, with water vapor contributing a small amount of signal to the LWC observation. And finally, there is significant uncertainty in the actual strength of the liquid water Raman cross-section in the literature. The calibrated LWC profiles, together with the coincident cloud backscatter observations also made by the RL, can be used to derive profiles of cloud droplet effective radius. By combining these profiles of effective radius in the lower portion of the cloud with the aerosol extinction measurements made below the cloud by the RL, the first aerosol indirect effect can be investigated using a single instrument, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with aligning the different sampling periods and fields of view of multiple instruments. We have applied a “first principles” calibration to the LWC profiles. This approach requires that the relative differences in optical efficiency between the water vapor and liquid water channels be known; this relative difference is easily computed using the efficiency values of the beam splitters and interference filters in the lidar that were provided by the vendors of these components. The first principles approach then transfers the calibration from the water vapor mixing ratio to the LWC using the difference in the optical efficiency and an interpolated value of the liquid water Raman cross section from the literature, and the better established water vapor Raman cross section. After accounting for all known error sources, the vertical integral of LWC was compared against a similar value retrieved from a co-located ground-based infrared radiometer. The RL and infrared radiometer have significantly different fields of view; thus to compare the two sensors the data were averaged to 5 min intervals where only cloudy samples were included in the average of each. While there is fair scatter in the data (r=0.47), there is also a clear indication of a positive correlation between the infrared and the RL values. The value of the slope of the regression is 0.49, which indicates a tendency of the RL measurements to underestimate the total liquid amount with respect to the infrared retrieval. Research continues to investigate the source of the bias, but the most likely candidate is the large uncertainty in the liquid water Raman cross-section as there have been no direct measurements made of this parameter at the lidar’s laser wavelength of 355 nm. The calibrated LWC profile was then used together with the cloud backscatter coefficient profile from the RL to derive profiles of cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number density. These profiles o

  3. Lidar measurements of tropospheric aerosol and water vapor profiles during the winter season campaigns over the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Moreira, Gregori A.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Andrade, Maria F.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    The so-called Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, one of the largest megacities in the world, faces several problems related to the air quality due the high concentrations of aerosols produced either by local sources or by long-range transporting. Concerned with the elevated concentrations of aerosol and their impact in the air quality and the climate changes inside MASP, a measurement campaign were conducted during the South hemisphere winter of 2012, when the low temperatures and the low level of precipitation contribute to the poor dispersion of aerosols. A Raman Lidar system and air quality monitoring stations from University of São Paulo and Environment Agency of São Paulo State (CETESB) were employed in order to monitor the increasing of aerosol load in the atmosphere. Satellite data, in synergy with HYSPLIT air masses backward trajectories, were applied to track the aerosol from the long-range distanced regions to Metropolitan Area of São Paulo. In the beginning of September 2012, MASP experienced episodes of high air pollution concentration, reaching Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values up to 0.89 at 550 nm and particulate matter concentration up to 293 µ g/cm3 . Particle lidar ratio values of 60 to 70 sr retrieved by a Raman Lidar system at 532 nm provided information of the aerosol type, helping to determine the influence of biomass burning advected from large range distance to megacities such as São Paulo

  4. Measurement of the Lidar Ratio for Atmospheric Aerosols using a 180-Backscatter Nephelometer

    E-print Network

    Measurement of the Lidar Ratio for Atmospheric Aerosols using a 180°-Backscatter Nephelometer, and Environmental Optics Doherty, S.J., T.L. Anderson, and R.J. Charlson, Measurement of the lidar ratio-1832. #12;1 Abstract: Laser radar (lidar) can be used to estimate atmospheric extinction coefficients due

  5. Lidar validation of SAGE II aerosol measurements after the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Lidar validation of SAGE II aerosol measurements after the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption Juan Carlos the possibility of filling the vertical gaps using lidar data. We compare every coincident backscattering measurement (at a wavelength of 0.694 mm) from two lidars, at Mauna Loa, Hawaii (19.5°N, 155.6°W

  6. Multifrequency lidar in atmospheric studies: solution of the inverse problem for two models of marine aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Piskozub

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the multifrequency lidar inverse problem in aerosol research is given. Two models of marigenic aerosol are described for water and water\\/salt aerosol ensembles. The Tikhonov functional solution method of the inverse problem for both models is described. The algorithms for calculating the values of the scattering medium optical parameters and the size- distribution functions of the aerosol

  7. Novel Co:MgF2 lidar for aerosol profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharekar, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Lidars are of great interest because of their unique capabilities in remote sensing applications in sounding of the atmosphere, meteorology, and climatology. In this small business innovative research (SBIR) phase II program, laser sources including Co:MgF2, CTH:YAG, CTH:YSGG, CT:YAG, and Er:Glass were evaluated. Modulator of fused silica and TeO2 materials with Brewster's angle end faces were used with these lasers as acousto-optical (AO) Q-switches. A higher hold-off energy and hence a higher Q-switched energy was obtained by using a high power RF driver. The report provides performance characteristics of these lasers. The tunable (1.75-2.50 microns) Co:MgF2 laser damaged the TeO2 Q-switch cell. However, the CTH:YAG laser operating at 2.09 microns provided output energy of over 300 mJ/p in 50 ns pulse width using the fused silica Q-switch. This Q-switched CTH:YAG laser was used in a breadboard vertical aerosol profiler. A 40 cm diameter telescope, InSb and InGaAs detectors were used in the receiver. The data obtained using this lidar is provided in the report. The data shows that the eye safe lidar using CTH:YAG laser for the vertical aerosol density and range measurements is the viable approach.

  8. A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements Chuanfeng algorithm to detect aerosols and clouds based on micropulse lidar measurements. A semidiscretization is then introduced. Combined with empirical threshold values, we determine if the signal waves indicate clouds

  9. Feasibility Study For A Spaceborne Ozone/Aerosol Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard E.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Carswell, Allan I.; Ulitsky, Arkady

    1997-01-01

    Because ozone provides a shield against harmful ultraviolet radiation, determines the temperature profile in the stratosphere, plays important roles in tropospheric chemistry and climate, and is a health risk near the surface, changes in natural ozone layers at different altitudes and their global impact are being intensively researched. Global ozone coverage is currently provided by passive optical and microwave satellite sensors that cannot deliver high spatial resolution measurements and have particular limitations in the troposphere. Vertical profiling DIfferential Absorption Lidars (DIAL) have shown excellent range-resolved capabilities, but these systems have been large, inefficient, and have required continuous technical attention for long term operations. Recently, successful, autonomous DIAL measurements have been performed from a high-altitude aircraft (LASE - Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment), and a space-qualified aerosol lidar system (LITE - Laser In-space Technology Experiment) has performed well on Shuttle. Based on the above successes, NASA and the Canadian Space Agency are jointly studying the feasibility of developing ORACLE (Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiments), an autonomously operated, compact DIAL instrument to be placed in orbit using a Pegasus class launch vehicle.

  10. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  11. MPLNET lidar data assimilation in the ECMWF MACC-II Aerosol system: evaluation of model performances at NCU lidar station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Benedetti, Angela; Jones, Luke; Suttie, Martin; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric profiles of the optical aerosol properties through the retrieved backscattering or extinction coefficients by lidar measurements can improve drastically the MACC-II aerosol model performances on vertical dimension. Currently the MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth data (both from Terra and Aqua) are assimilated into the model. Being a columnintegrated quantity, these data do not modify the model aerosol vertical profile, especially if the aerosols are not interactive with the meteorology. Since 1999, the MPLNET lidar network provides continuously lidar data measurements from worldwide permanent stations (currently 21), deployed from the Arctic to the Antarctic regions and in tropical and equatorial zones. The purpose of this study is to show the first preliminary results of the intercomparison of MPLNET lidar data against the ECWMF MACC-II aerosol model, for a selected MPLNET permanent observational site at National Central University of Taiwan. Assessing the model performances it is the first step for future near-real time lidar data assimilation into MACC-II aerosol model forecast.

  12. Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Sasano; Edward V. Browell

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the potential of a multiple-wavelength lidar for discriminating between several aerosol types on the basis of the wavelength dependence of the aerosol backscatter coefficient. The two-component lidar equation was solved under the assumption of similarity in the derived profiles of backscatter coefficients for each wavelength. It is shown that a three-wavelength lidar system operating at 300,

  13. Lidar Investigation of Aerosol Pollution Distribution near a Coal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsev, TS.; Kolarov, G.

    1992-01-01

    Using aerosol lidars with high spatial and temporal resolution with the possibility of real-time data interpretation can solve a large number of ecological problems related to the aerosol-field distribution and variation and the structure of convective flows. Significantly less expensive specialized lidars are used in studying anthropogenic aerosols in the planetary boundary layer. Here, we present results of lidar measurements of the mass-concentration field around a coal-fired power plant with intensive local aerosol sources. We studied the pollution evolution as a function of the emission dynamics and the presence of retaining layers. The technique used incorporates complex analysis of three types of lidar mapping: horizontal map of the aerosol field, vertical cross-section map, and a series of profiles along a selected path. The lidar-sounding cycle was performed for the time of atmosphere's quasi-stationarity.

  14. Performance modeling of ultraviolet Raman lidar systems for daytime profiling of atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Bisson, S. E.; Lapp, M.

    1991-01-01

    We describe preliminary results from a comprehensive computer model developed to guide optimization of a Raman lidar system for measuring daytime profiles of atmospheric water vapor, emphasizing an ultraviolet, solar-blind approach.

  15. Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ina Mattis; Albert Ansmann; Dietrich Althausen; Volker Jaenisch; Ulla Wandinger; Detlef Muller; Yuri F. Arshinov; Sergej M. Bobrovnikov; Ilya B. Serikov

    2002-01-01

    We describe a Raman-lidar-based approach to acquiring profiles of the relative humidity of air. For this purpose we combined in one instrument the Raman-lidar techniques that are used for the profiling of water vapor and temperature. This approach enabled us to acquire, for the first time to our knowledge, vertical profiles of relative humidity through the entire troposphere exclusively from

  16. Raman lidar calibration for the DMSP SSM\\/T-2 microwave water vapor sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Wessel; Steven M. Beck; Yat C. Chan; Robert W. Farley; Jerry A. Gelbwachs

    2000-01-01

    Campaigns were conducted at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, investigating Raman lidar as a method to improve calibration of the DMSP SSM\\/T-2 microwave water vapor profiling instrument. Lidar mixing ratios were calibrated against AIR and Vaisala radiosondes and the calibration was tested in the vicinity of clouds. Above 6 km, radiosondes reported anomalously low relative humidity in

  17. Airborne lidar measurements of El Chichon stratospheric aerosols, January 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick; Osborn, M. T.

    1987-01-01

    A lidar-equipped NASA Electra aircraft was flown in January 1984 between the latitude of 38 and 90 deg N. One of the primary purposes of this mission was to determine the spatial distribution and aerosol characteristics of El Chichon produced stratospheric material. Lidar data from that portion of the flight mission between 38 deg N and 77 deg N is presented. Representative profiles of lidar backscatter ratio, a plot of the integral backscattering function versus latitude, and contours of backscatter mixing ratio versus altitude and latitude are given. In addition, tables containing numerical values of the backscatter ratio and backscattering function versus altitude are applied for each profile. These data clearly show that material produced by the El Chichon eruptions of late March-early April 1982 had spread throughout the latitudes covered by this mission, and that the most massive portion of the material resided north of 55 deg N and was concentrated below 17 km in a layer that peaked at 13 to 15 km. In this latitude region, peak backscatter ratios at a wavelength of 0.6943 microns were approximately 3 and the peak integrated backscattering function was about 15 X 10 to the -4/sr corresponding to a peak optical depth of approximately 0.07. This report presents the results of this mission in a ready-to-use format for atmospheric and climatic studies.

  18. Airborne lidar measurements of El Chichon stratospheric aerosols, May 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental survey flight to determine the spatial distribution and aerosol characteristics of the El Chichon-produced stratospheric aerosol was conducted in May 1983. The mission included several different sensors flown abroad the NASA Convair 990 at latitudes between 72 deg. and 56 deg. S. This report presents the lidar data from that flight mission. Representative profiles of lidar backscatter ratio, plots of integrated backscattering function versus latitude, and contours of backscatter mixing ratio versus altitude and latitude are given. In addition, tables containing numerical values of the backscatter ratio and backscattering function versus altitude are supplied for each profile. By May 1983, material produced by the El Chichon eruptions of late March-early April 1982 had spread throughout the latitudes covered by this mission. However, the most massive portion of the material resided north of 33 deg. N and was concentrared below 21 km. In this latitude region (33 deg. N to 72 deg. N), peak backscatter ratios at a wavelength of 0.6943 microns varied between 3.5 and 4.5, and the peak integratred backscattering function was about 18 X 10 to the -4 power/sr, corresponding to a peak optical depth calculated to be approximately 0.08. This report presents the results of this mission in a ready-to-use format for atmospheric and climatic studies.

  19. Feasibility study of water vapor and temperature retrieval using a combined vibrational rotational Raman and Mie scattering multi-wavelength lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Min; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Zhanqing

    2014-11-01

    A multi-wavelength Raman lidar system which includes both vibrational rotational Raman and Mie scattering spectra has been designed and described. A retrieval algorithm for water vapor and temperature has also been developed based on the potential observations from this Raman lidar system. The performance of this retrieval method and the new lidar system has been evaluated with a synthetic test. Using the U.S. standard atmosphere model and main parameters of this lidar system, we have obtained signal to noise ratio (SNR) of water-vapor backscatter signals under different circumstances of aerosol content, pulse emission energy and signal integration time. With the model calculated backscatter signals, both atmospheric water-vapor and temperature profiles have been retrieved and their uncertainties have been analyzed. These synthetic tests indicate that our new lidar system can obtain profiles of water-vapor and temperature at both day and night time, but with different detection heights. The retrieval algorithm shows less than 30% relative error for water vapor mixing ratio and good accuracy with a minimum detection of temperature less than 2 K.

  20. A short-standoff bistatic lidar system for aerosol cloud backscatter and fluorescence cross section, and depolarization ratio measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, C.; Schmitt, R. L.; Sickafoose, S.; Johnson, M. S.; Shagam, R.; Reichardt, T.; Sanchez, A.; Servantes, B.

    2012-12-01

    We have designed a short-standoff bistatic lidar system, used for the direct measurement of the optical backscatter at 355-nm and 1064-nm and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) cross sections as well as depolarization ratio of aerosols inside a vacuum sealed, aerosol flow chamber. The 355- and 1064-nm beams are sent through the aerosol chamber at an angle of ~2° with respect to the field of view of the receiver optics to ensure that measurements reflect true backscatter. This bistatic lidar configuration naturally defines a limited region in space where the laser beams and the receiver field of view overlap, a region that can be easily quantified using a standard calibration procedure. Our technique also takes advantage of a specially designed vacuum sealed, aerosol flow chamber that provides a well-mixed, uniform aerosol distribution over the region of sensitivity. Both modeling results and experimental measurements confirm that little particle loss is observed inside the aerosol flow chamber. A TSI aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) is used to measure the aerosol concentration in the chamber, and the N2 concentration can be calculated using the measured temperature and pressure of the air inside the chamber. Optical backscatter and LIF cross sections are determined by comparing the measured elastic and LIF signals with the N2 Raman scattering signal from the same sample volume, a technique which eliminates the need for absolute radiometric calibration of the system. Instead, all detectors in the system are calibrated relative to the N2 Raman channel and the unknown aerosol cross sections are determined by taking the ratio of the backscatter (or LIF) signals to the Raman signal and multiplying by the well-known Raman cross section of N2. Particulate population depolarization parameters are determined by measuring the rejected polarized light from a Glan Laser prism polarizer and comparing those intensity measurements with that of the direct backscatter intensity. This work will focus on particle specific optical backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios for atmospherically relevant particle populations including Arizona road dust, black carbon, ammonium sulfate, and sodium chloride. Preliminary results of the absolute scattering cross-section and polarization parameters will be presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Two-wavelength backscattering lidar for stand off detection of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Gawlikowski, Andrzej; Gietka, Andrzej; Kaszczuk, Miroslawa; Knysak, Piotr; Mlodzianko, Andrzej; Muzal, Michal; Piotrowski, Wies?aw; Wojtanowski, Jacek

    2008-10-01

    Following article presents LIDAR for stand off detection of aerosols which was constructed in Institute of Optoelectronics in Military University of Technology. LIDAR is a DISC type system (DIfferential SCattering) and is based on analysis of backscattering signal for two wavelengths (?1 = 1064 nm and ?2 = 532 nm) - the first and the second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser. Optical receiving system is consisted of aspherical mirror lens, two additional mirrors and a system of interference filters. In detection system of LIDAR a silicon avalanche photodiode and two different amplifiers were used. Whole system is mounted on a specialized platform designed for possibility of LIDAR scanning movements. LIDAR is computer controlled. The compiled software enables regulation of the scanning platform work, gain control, and control of data processing and acquisition system. In the article main functional elements of LIDAR are shown and typical parameters of system work and construction are presented. One presented also first results of research with use of LIDAR. The aim of research was to detect and characterize scattering aerosol, both natural and anthropogenic one. For analyses of natural aerosols, cumulus cloud was used. For analyses of anthropogenic aerosols one used three various pyrotechnic mixtures (DM11, M2, M16) which generate smoke of different parameters. All scattering centers were firstly well described and theoretical analyses were conducted. Results of LIDAR research were compared with theoretical analyses and general conclusions concerning correctness of LIDAR work and its application were drawn.

  2. Macrophysical Properties of Tropical Cirrus Clouds from the CALIPSO Satellite and from Ground-based Micropulse and Raman Lidars

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, D.; Turner, David D.

    2013-08-27

    Lidar observations of cirrus cloud macrophysical properties over the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Darwin, Australia site are compared from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and In- frared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the ground-based ARM micropulse lidar (MPL), and the ARM Raman lidar (RL). Comparisons are made using the subset of profiles where the lidar beam is not fully attenuated. Daytime measurements using the RL are shown to be relatively unaffected by the solar background and are therefore suited for checking the validity of diurnal cycles. RL and CALIPSO cloud fraction profiles show good agreement while the MPL detects significantly less cirrus, particularly during the daytime. Both MPL and CALIPSO observations show that cirrus clouds occur less frequently during the day than at night at all altitudes. In contrast, the RL diurnal cy- cle is significantly different than zero only below about 11 km; where it is the opposite sign (i.e. more clouds during the daytime). For cirrus geomet- rical thickness, the MPL and CALIPSO observations agree well and both datasets have signficantly thinner clouds during the daytime than the RL. From the examination of hourly MPL and RL cirrus cloud thickness and through the application of daytime detection limits to all CALIPSO data we find that the decreased MPL and CALIPSO cloud thickness during the daytime is very likely a result of increased daytime noise. This study highlights the vast im- provement the RL provides (compared to the MPL) in the ARM program's ability to observe tropical cirrus clouds as well as a valuable ground-based lidar dataset for the validation of CALIPSO observations and to help im- prove our understanding of tropical cirrus clouds.

  3. Single-scattering albedo profiling of mixed Asian dust plumes with multiwavelength Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Young M.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents results of vertically-resolved single-scattering albedo of mixed Asian dust plumes, i.e. the total single-scattering albedo. The mixed Asian dust plumes are comprised of a mixture of pure dust particles and the non-dust part, e.g. urban/industrial pollution and smoke from biomass burning. The mixed Asian dust plumes were observed with multiwavelength Raman lidar which provides vertical profiles of particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm. The optical data serve as input for an inversion algorithm that provides profiles of microphysical particle properties which subsequently are used for computing single-scattering albedo. This study presents results of dust plumes observed on 24 February 2004, 9 and 18 March 2004, 2 April 2004, and 24 February and 4 May 2005. The lidar measurements were carried out at Gwangju (35.10° N, 126.53° E), South Korea. The optical data of the mixed-dust plumes were separated into the pure dust content and the non-dust part. We used the linear particle depolarization ratio measured at 532 nm for this separation. The backscatter and extinction coefficients then were used to derive single-scattering albedo of the non-dust part of the mixed-dust plumes. The value 0.96 ± 0.02 at 532 nm for the single-scattering albedo of pure dust part was used. This value was obtained from single-scattering albedo of dust observed in various dust source regions. In another step the “total” single-scattering albedo of these mixed-dust plumes was calculated by using the optical depth of the dust and the non-dust part as weighting function. The single-scattering albedo of the non-dust particles of the mixed-dust plume varied from 0.63 to 0.93 for all observations presented in this study. The single-scattering albedo of the mixed-dust plumes was 0.71-0.95, and it was always higher than the single-scattering albedo of the non-dust part of the mixed-dust plumes. Single-scattering albedo varied with height on each measurement day. These differences seem to be quantitatively related to the degree of mixing of dust with urban pollution and the light-absorption properties of the pollution (non-dust) particles in these plumes which traveled along different transport pathways to the lidar site. The layer-mean lidar-derived single-scattering albedos of the examples shown in this study were compared to single-scattering albedo derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) Sun/sky radiometer observations. This radiometer is located next to the lidar. The total layer-mean lidar-derived single-scattering albedos (at 532 nm) on 18 March and 2 April 2004, and on 24 February and 4 May 2005 were 0.91 ± 0.02, 0.90 ± 0.03, 0.91 ± 0.02, and 0.92 ± 0.02, respectively. The lidar-derived single-scattering albedos are similar to those based on the Sun/sky radiometer data if the different measurement wavelengths of the lidar and Sun/sky radiometer are taken account of.

  4. Saturation correction near the ground for pure rotational Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, He; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Saturation correction for photon counting near the Earth's surface can improve the accuracy of temperature measurement in the troposphere by pure rotational Raman lidar (PRRL). The PRRL system uses a 532-nm band as a light source, and the echo signals of high-J and low-J channels separated by a double grating monochromator are used for temperature profile inversion. The pulse-height distribution and the discriminator level selection in the system, which comprise a photomultiplier and a photon counter, saturate photon counting near the ground and affect the echo signals from the higher layer for calibration. Given its nonlinear effect on the photomultiplier tubes, the correction method is applied to the echo signals of the calibration interval in troposphere temperature measurements. The method not only reduces the error in temperature measurement (the root-mean-square error of temperature reaches 1.5 K), but also accurately indicates the distribution of the inversion layer within the boundary layer. It can be applied to deal with the saturation phenomenon of a photomultiplier tube.

  5. Comparative study of aerosols observed by YAG lidar and airborne detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirono, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Shibata, T.

    1985-01-01

    The causal relationships of very large (tropical) volcanic eruptions and El Nino Southern Oscillations (ENSO) based on the unequal atmospheric heating by aerosols observed by lidar and airborne detectors are discussed.

  6. Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and Backscatter Relationships

    E-print Network

    Cho, Hyoun-Myoung

    2012-02-14

    comparison of mineral dust aerosol retrievals from two instruments, MODIS and CALIPSO lidar. And, we implement and evaluate a new mineral dust detection algorithm based on the analysis of thin dust radiative signature. In comparison, three commonly used...

  7. Laser frequency converters for aerosol and gas lidar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Yuri M.; Geiko, Pavel P.

    2000-12-01

    Estimations are carried out on creation possibilities of all solid state laser sources capable significantly or fully to solve the problem of the universal Aerosol-Gas Lidar System design. 'Best existing Ho2+:ILF and Nd:YAG lasers supplied with LBO, KTA, KTP, BBO, CLBO, DLAP; GaSe, GaSe:In, AgGaxIn1-xSe2, LiInS2, LiInSe2, AgGaS2, AgGaxIn1-xS2, and HgGa2S4 frequency converters are considered. The investigation results show development of UV to FIR laser source is really to carry out with efficiencies from one-two up to several tens pro cents in several ways.

  8. Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: Maritime and desert-dust cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Barnaba; Gian Paolo Gobbi

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model, based on a Monte Carlo approach, is presented to determine functional relationships linking backscatter and other important properties as extinction, surface area, and volume of tropospheric aerosols. If existing, such relationships allow for a direct estimate of such properties by means of a single-wavelength lidar measurement. To be employed in a lidar inversion procedure, the extinction to

  9. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  10. A straightforward signal-to-noise ratio estimator for elastic\\/Raman lidar signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesc Rocadenbosch; Micha Sicard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the opto-electronic receiver output of both elastic and Raman lidar channels by means of parametric estimation of the total noise variance affecting the lidar system. In the most general case, the total noise variance conveys contributions from photo-induced signal-shot, dark-shot and thermal noise components. While photo-inducted signal-shot variance is proportional

  11. New algorithm to derive the microphysical properties of the aerosols from lidar measurements using OPAC aerosol classification schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talianu, Camelia; Labzovskii, Lev; Toanca, Florica

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to retrieve the aerosol complex refractive index and effective radius from multiwavelength lidar data, using an integrated model-measurement approach. In the model, aerosols are assumed to be a non-spherical ensemble of internally mixed components, with variable proportions. OPAC classification schemes and basic components are used to calculate the microphysical properties, which are then fed into the T-matrix calculation code to generate the corresponding optical parameters. Aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratios, extinction and backscatter Angstrom coefficients, and linear particle depolarization ratios) are computed at the altitude of the aerosol layers determined from lidar measurements, and iteratively compared to the values obtained by simulation for a certain aerosol type, for which the critical component's proportion in the overall mixture is varied. Microphysical inversion based on the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) algorithm is performed for selected cases of spherical aerosols, and comparative results of the two methods are shown. Keywords: Lidar, aerosols, Data inversion, Optical parameters, Complex Refractive Index Acknowledgments: This work has been supported by grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programme for Research- Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project numbers 38/2012 - CAPESA and 55/2013 - CARESSE, and by the European Community's FP7-INFRASTRUCTURES-2010-1 under grant no. 262254 - ACTRIS and by the European Community's FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN under grant no. 289923 - ITARS

  12. Comparison of aerosol extinction between lidar and SAGE II over Gadanki, a tropical station in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Ramachandran, S.

    2015-03-01

    An extensive comparison of aerosol extinction has been performed using lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II data over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), a tropical station in India, following coincident criteria during volcanically quiescent conditions from 1998 to 2005. The aerosol extinctions derived from lidar are higher than SAGE II during all seasons in the upper troposphere (UT), while in the lower-stratosphere (LS) values are closer. The seasonal mean percent differences between lidar and SAGE II aerosol extinctions are > 100% in the UT and < 50% above 25 km. Different techniques (point and limb observations) played the major role in producing the observed differences. SAGE II aerosol extinction in the UT increases as the longitudinal coverage is increased as the spatial aerosol extent increases, while similar extinction values in LS confirm the zonal homogeneity of LS aerosols. The study strongly emphasized that the best meteorological parameters close to the lidar measurement site in terms of space and time and Ba (sr-1), the ratio between aerosol backscattering and extinction, are needed for the tropics for a more accurate derivation of aerosol extinction.

  13. Retrieval of aerosol backscatter and extinction from airborne coherent Doppler wind lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Groß, S.; Rahm, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Toledano, C.; Weinzierl, B.

    2015-02-01

    A novel method for calibration and quantitative aerosol optical properties retrieval from Doppler wind lidars (DWL) is presented in this work. Due to the strong wavelength dependence of the atmospheric molecular backscatter and the low sensitivity of the coherent detection to spectrally broad signals, calibration methods for aerosol lidars cannot be applied to a coherent DWLs usually operating at wavelengths between 1.5-2 ?m. Instead, concurrent measurements of an airborne DWL at 2 ?m and the POLIS ground-based aerosol lidar at 532 nm are used in this work, in combination with sun photometer measurements, for the calibration and retrieval of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles. The proposed method was applied to measurements from the SALTRACE experiment in June-July 2013, which aimed at quantifying the aerosol transport and change in aerosol properties from the Sahara desert to the Caribbean. The retrieved backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles from the airborne DWL are within 20% of POLIS aerosol lidar and CALIPSO satellite measurements. Thus the proposed method extends the capabilities of coherent DWL to measure profiles of the horizontal and vertical wind towards aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles, which is of high benefit for aerosol transport studies.

  14. A theoretical/experimental program to develop active optical pollution sensors: Quantitative remote Raman lidar measurements of pollutants from stationary sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poultney, S. K.; Brumfield, M. L.; Siviter, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Typical pollutant gas concentrations at the stack exits of stationary sources can be estimated to be about 500 ppm under the present emission standards. Raman lidar has a number of advantages which makes it a valuable tool for remote measurements of these stack emissions. Tests of the Langley Research Center Raman lidar at a calibration tank indicate that night measurements of SO2 concentrations and stack opacity are possible. Accuracies of 10 percent are shown to be achievable from a distance of 300 m within 30 min integration times for 500 ppm SO2 at the stack exits. All possible interferences were examined quantitatively (except for the fluorescence of aerosols in actual stack emissions) and found to have negligible effect on the measurements. An early test at an instrumented stack is strongly recommended.

  15. Water Vapor Measurements by Howard University Raman Lidar during the WAVES 2006 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, M.; Demoz, B. B.; Whiteman, D. N.; Venable, D. D.; Joseph E.; Gambacorta, A.; Wei, J.; Shephard, M. W.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Barnet, C. D.; Herman, R. L.; Fitzgibbon, J.; Connell, R.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio using the Howard University Raman Lidar is presented with emphasis on three aspects: i) performance of the lidar against collocated radiosondes and Raman lidar, ii) investigation of the atmospheric state variables when poor agreement between lidar and radiosondes values occurred and iii) a comparison with satellite-based measurements. The measurements were acquired during the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Sondes/Satellites 2006 field campaign. Ensemble averaging of water vapor mixing ratio data from ten night-time comparisons with Vaisala RS92 radiosondes shows on average an agreement within 10 % up to approx. 8 km. A similar analysis of lidar-to-lidar data of over 700 profiles revealed an agreement to within 20 % over the first 7 km (10 % below 4 km). A grid analysis, defined in the temperature - relative humidity space, was developed to characterize the lidar - radiosonde agreement and quantitatively localizes regions of strong and weak correlations as a function of altitude, temperature or relative humidity. Three main regions of weak correlation emerge: i) regions of low relative humidity and low temperature, ii) moderate relative humidity at low temperatures and iii) low relative humidity at moderate temperatures. Comparison of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder and Tropospheric Emission Sounder satellites retrievals of moisture with that of Howard University Raman Lidar showed a general agreement in the trend but the formers miss a lot of the details in atmospheric structure due to their low resolution. A relative difference of about 20 % is usually found between lidar and satellites measurements.

  16. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time data capability of the ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as air quality and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data.

  17. Lidar measurements of the post-fuego stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hake, R. D., Jr.; Viezee, W.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol were made between February and November 1975. All observations revealed the greatly increased particulate backscattering that followed the eruption of the volcano Fuego in October 1974. Vertical structure consisted initially of multiple layers, which later merged to form a single, broader peak. Essentially all of the increased scattering was confined to altitudes below 20 km. Hence, aerosol layer centroids in 1975 were typically several km below their altitude prior to the eruption. Radiative and thermal consequences of the measured post-Fuego layer were computed using several recently published models. The models predict a temperature increase of several K at the altitude of the layer, caused by the infrared absorption bands of the sulfuric acid particles. The surface temperature decrease predicted by the models is considerably smaller than 1 K, partly because of the small optical thickness of the volcanic layer, and partly because of its short residence time relative to the earth-ocean thermal response time.

  18. Forest Fire Smoke Layers Observed in the Free Troposphere over Portugal with a Multiwavelength Raman Lidar: Optical and Microphysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno Pereira, Sérgio; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Silva, Ana Maria; Wagner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Vertically resolved optical and microphysical properties of biomass burning aerosols, measured in 2011 with a multiwavelength Raman lidar, are presented. The transportation time, within 1-2 days (or less), pointed towards the presence of relatively fresh smoke particles over the site. Some strong layers aloft were observed with particle backscatter and extinction coefficients (at 355?nm) greater than 5?Mm?1?sr?1 and close to 300?Mm?1, respectively. The particle intensive optical properties showed features different from the ones reported for aged smoke, but rather consistent with fresh smoke. The Ångström exponents were generally high, mainly above 1.4, indicating a dominating accumulation mode. Weak depolarization values, as shown by the small depolarization ratio of 5% or lower, were measured. Furthermore, the lidar ratio presented no clear wavelength dependency. The inversion of the lidar signals provided a set of microphysical properties including particle effective radius below 0.2??m, which is less than values previously observed for aged smoke particles. Real and imaginary parts of refractive index of about 1.5-1.6 and 0.02i, respectively, were derived. The single scattering albedo was in the range between 0.85 and 0.93; these last two quantities indicate the nonnegligible absorbing characteristics of the observed particles. PMID:25114964

  19. AGLITE: a multiwavelength lidar for aerosol size distributions, flux, and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Bingham, Gail E.; Swasey, Jason A.; Hancock, Jed J.; Crowther, Blake G.; Cornelsen, Scott S.; Marchant, Christian; Cutts, James N.; Huish, David C.; Earl, Curtis L.; Andersen, Jan M.; Cox, McLain L.

    2006-05-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a new multiwavelength lidar developed for the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture and its program on particle emissions from animal production facilities. The lidar incorporates a laser emitting simultaneous, pulsed Nd laser radiation at 355, 532 and 1064 nm at a PRF of 10 kHz. Lidar backscatter and extinction data are modeled to extract the aerosol information. All-reflective optics combined with dichroic and interferometric filters permit all the wavelength channels to be measured simultaneously, day or night, using photon counting by PMTs, an APD, and high speed scaling. The lidar is housed in a transportable trailer for all-weather operation at any accessible site. The laser beams are directed in both azimuth and elevation to targets of interest. We describe application of the lidar in a multidisciplinary atmospheric study at a swine production farm in Iowa. Aerosol plumes emitted from the hog barns were prominent phenomena, and their variations with temperature, turbulence, stability and feed cycle were studied, using arrays of particle samplers and turbulence detectors. Other lidar measurements focused on air motion as seen by long duration scans of the farm region. Successful operation of this lidar confirms the value of multiwavelength, eye-safe lidars for agricultural aerosol measurements.

  20. An Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Database Derived from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network: Applications for Space-based Lidar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Spinhime, James D.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Holben, Brent; Tsay, Si-Chee; Bucholtz, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Backscatter lidar signals are a function of both backscatter and extinction. Hence, these lidar observations alone cannot separate the two quantities. The aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, S, is the key parameter required to accurately retrieve extinction and optical depth from backscatter lidar observations of aerosol layers. S is commonly defined as 4*pi divided by the product of the single scatter albedo and the phase function at 180-degree scattering angle. Values of S for different aerosol types are not well known, and are even more difficult to determine when aerosols become mixed. Here we present a new lidar-sunphotometer S database derived from Observations of the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET). MPLNET is a growing worldwide network of eye-safe backscatter lidars co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Values of S for different aerosol species and geographic regions will be presented. A framework for constructing an S look-up table will be shown. Look-up tables of S are needed to calculate aerosol extinction and optical depth from space-based lidar observations in the absence of co-located AOD data. Applications for using the new S look-up table to reprocess aerosol products from NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) will be discussed.

  1. Influence of daylight and noise current on cloud and aerosol observations by spaceborne elastic scattering lidar.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T Y; Imai, T; Uchino, O; Nagai, T

    1999-08-20

    The influence of daylight and noise current on cloud and aerosol observations by realistic spaceborne lidar was examined by computer simulations. The reflected solar radiations, which contaminate the daytime return signals of lidar operations, were strictly and explicitly estimated by accurate radiative transfer calculations. It was found that the model multilayer cirrus clouds and the boundary layer aerosols could be observed during the daytime and the nighttime with only a few laser shots. However, high background noise and noise current make it difficult to observe volcanic aerosols in middle and upper atmospheric layers. Optimal combinations of the laser power and receiver field of view are proposed to compensate for the negative influence that is due to these noises. For the computer simulations, we used a realistic set of lidar parameters similar to the Experimental Lidar in-Space Equipment of the National Space Development Agency of Japan. PMID:18324021

  2. Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992\\/93

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Beyerle; Roland Neuber; Otto Schrems; Folkard Wittrock; Bjørn Knudsen

    1994-01-01

    Within the period of December 1992 to March 1993 lidar investigations of stratospheric aerosols were performed at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (79°N, 12°E). Backscatter signals at wavelengths of 353, 532, and 1064 nm and depolarization signals at 532 nm in altitudes ranging from the tropopause up to 30 km were analyzed. Throughout the whole measurement period we observed an aerosol layer of

  3. The CALIPSO mission: Spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Winker; Jacques Pelon; M Patrick McCormick

    Current uncertainties in the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. The CALIPSO satellite will use an active lidar together with passive instruments to provide vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds and their properties which w ill help address these uncertainties. CALIPSO will

  4. Lidar observations of atmospheric aerosols following the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hirono; M. Fujiwara; T. Shibata; N. Kugumiya

    1984-01-01

    A significant increase and subsequent variations of stratospheric aerosols caused by the eruption of Mt. St. Helens on May 18, 1980 have been observed using YAG lidar at a wavelength of 1.06 microns for a period of one year at Fukuoka, Japan. The time variation of aerosols is compared with numerical results of two-dimensional model calculations, which show longer decay

  5. Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Vaughan, M. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of aerosol type is important for source attribution and for determining the magnitude and assessing the consequences of aerosol radiative forcing. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead occurs as a mixture of types, and this mixing affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. This paper extends the work of earlier researchers by using the aerosol intensive parameters measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) to develop a comprehensive and unified set of rules for characterizing the external mixing of several key aerosol intensive parameters: extinction-to-backscatter ratio (i.e. lidar ratio), backscatter color ratio, and depolarization ratio. We present the mixing rules in a particularly simple form that leads easily to mixing rules for the covariance matrices that describe aerosol distributions, rather than just scalar values of measured parameters. These rules can be applied to infer mixing ratios from the lidar-observed aerosol parameters, even for cases without significant depolarization. We demonstrate our technique with measurement curtains from three HSRL-1 flights which exhibit mixing between two aerosol types, urban pollution plus dust, marine plus dust, and smoke plus marine. For these cases, we infer a time-height cross-section of mixing ratio along the flight track, and partition aerosol extinction into portions attributed to the two pure types.

  6. Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Vaughan, M. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of aerosol type is important for determining the magnitude and assessing the consequences of aerosol radiative forcing, and can provide useful information for source attribution studies. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead occurs as a mixture of types, and this mixing affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. This paper extends the work of earlier researchers by using the aerosol intensive parameters measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) to develop a comprehensive and unified set of rules for characterizing the external mixing of several key aerosol intensive parameters: extinction-to-backscatter ratio (i.e., lidar ratio), backscatter color ratio, and depolarization ratio. We present the mixing rules in a particularly simple form that leads easily to mixing rules for the covariance matrices that describe aerosol distributions, rather than just single values of measured parameters. These rules can be applied to infer mixing ratios from the lidar-observed aerosol parameters, even for cases without significant depolarization. We demonstrate our technique with measurement curtains from three HSRL-1 flights which exhibit mixing between two aerosol types, urban pollution plus dust, marine plus dust, and smoke plus marine. For these cases, we infer a time-height cross-section of extinction mixing ratio along the flight track, and partition aerosol extinction into portions attributed to the two pure types.

  7. Selection Algorithm for the CALIPSO Lidar Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Vaughan, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S(sub a)) is an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction and subsequently the optical depth from lidar backscatter measurements. We outline the algorithm used to determine Sa for the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) lidar. S(sub a) for the CALIPSO lidar will either be selected from a look-up table or calculated using the lidar measurements depending on the characteristics of aerosol layer. Whenever suitable lofted layers are encountered, S(sub a) is computed directly from the integrated backscatter and transmittance. In all other cases, the CALIPSO observables: the depolarization ratio, delta, the layer integrated attenuated backscatter, beta, and the mean layer total attenuated color ratio, gamma, together with the surface type, are used to aid in aerosol typing. Once the type is identified, a look-up-table developed primarily from worldwide observations, is used to determine the S(sub a) value. The CALIPSO aerosol models include desert dust, biomass burning, background, polluted continental, polluted dust, and marine aerosols.

  8. Comparison of Aerosol Classification from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Omar, A. H.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired large datasets of aerosol extinction (532nm), backscatter (532 and 1064nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064nm) profiles during 349 science flights in 19 field missions across North America since 2006. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio"), aerosol depolarization ratios, and backscatter color ratio measurements from HSRL-1 are scale-invariant parameters that depend on aerosol type but not concentration. These four aerosol intensive parameters are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate composition types. The classification methodology uses models formed from "training cases" with known aerosol type. The remaining measurements are then compared with these models using the Mahalanobis distance. Aerosol products from the CALIPSO satellite include aerosol type information as well, which is used as input to the CALIPSO aerosol retrieval. CALIPSO aerosol types are inferred using a mix of aerosol loading-dependent parameters, estimated aerosol depolarization, and location, altitude, and surface type information. The HSRL instrument flies beneath the CALIPSO satellite orbit track, presenting the opportunity for comparisons between the HSRL aerosol typing and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask Aerosol Subtype product, giving insight into the performance of the CALIPSO aerosol type algorithm. We find that the aerosol classification from the two instruments frequently agree for marine aerosols and pure dust, and somewhat less frequently for pollution and smoke. In addition, the comparison suggests that the CALIPSO polluted dust type is overly inclusive, encompassing cases of dust combined with marine aerosol as well as cases without much evidence of dust. Qualitative classification of aerosol type combined with quantitative profile measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction has many useful applications. The HSRL products are used to apportion AOT by type and vertical location in the column, and to characterize the frequency of cases where multiple types are present in the column. Resolving scenes with multiple types in the column is not possible with passive imaging radiometer and polarimeter measurements. The HSRL aerosol type also has higher resolution than the CALIPSO layer-wise product and provides insight into the performance of CALIPSO layer separation. Information about the vertical distribution of aerosol types is useful for estimating radiative forcing, understanding aerosol lifetime and transport, and assessing the predictions of transport models. CALIPSO has been a pathfinder, providing the first long-term global data set of aerosol vertical distribution. Based on our results, a future satellite lidar similar to CALIPSO, but with the addition of polarization sensitivity at 1064 nm and the HSRL technique at 532 nm, could provide a significant advance in characterizing the vertical distribution of aerosol.

  9. Aerosol Profile Measurements from the NASA Langley Research Center Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obland, Michael D.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John W.; Roers, Raymond R.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Since achieving first light in December of 2005, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been involved in seven field campaigns, accumulating over 450 hours of science data across more than 120 flights. Data from the instrument have been used in a variety of studies including validation and comparison with the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite mission, aerosol property retrievals combining passive and active instrument measurements, aerosol type identification, aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud top and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height determinations. Measurements and lessons learned from the HSRL are leading towards next-generation HSRL instrument designs that will enable even further studies of aerosol intensive and extensive parameters and the effects of aerosols on the climate system. This paper will highlight several of the areas in which the NASA Airborne HSRL is making contributions to climate science.

  10. Lidar-inversion technique for monitoring and mapping localized aerosol plumes and thin clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, V.A.; McElroy, J.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Characterization Research Div.; Eichinger, W.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A new lidar-inversion technique is presented for the determination of the extinction-coefficient profile within a spatially restricted zone of atmospheric aerosol inhomogeneity such as a plume, thin cloud, etc. The return lidar signal is measured through the aerosol plume under investigation and also in a direction close to but outside the plume. By using the ratio of these signals, the constituent produced by the aerosol plume is separated from the aerosol background constituent. An iterative lidar-inversion technique is applied to the ratio of these signals rather than to the original signal. This technique is shown to be relatively insensitive to the assumed value of parameters used for the extinction-profile retrieval, and yields an acceptable measurement result even when the accuracy of the assumed parameters is poor.

  11. Raman Lidar Measurements during the International HZO Project. 1; Instrumentation and Analysis Techniques, Popular Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Comer, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Cadirola, M.; Rush, K.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere helps to determine the likelihood that severe storms may develop. The concentration of water vapor, though, is highly variable in space and time. And yet small changes in water vapor concentration over a short period of time or over a short spatial distance can determine whether a storm may or may not develop. Therefore, in order to improve the ability to forecast severe weather such as thunderstorms it is important to measure water vapor in the atmosphere with high spatial and temporal resolution. One of the most attractive research tools for measuring water vapor in the atmosphere with high spatial and temporal resolution is a Raman lidar. A Raman lidar consists of a laser transmitter, a telescope receiver and optics and electronics for processing opticand electronic signals. A laser pulse is emitted into the atmosphere and it interacts with molecules in the atmosphere causing them to become excited and to emit, through the Raman process, photons of different wavelength than emitted by the laser. The molecule that emitted these emitted. This is the way that a Raman lidar identifies water vapor molecules in the atmosphere. can be identified based on the wavelength of the photons One of the great challenges in Raman lidar measurements has been to make useful daytime measurements of the water vapor profile under bright daytime conditions. In this first of two papers, we describe the instrumentation and analysis of the first documented Raman lidar that is able to measure water vapor in the daytime with sufficient quality to permit the study of developing storm systems.

  12. Assessing the Temperature Dependence of Narrow-Band Raman Water Vapor Lidar Measurements: A Practical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Walker, Monique; Cardirola, Martin; Sakai, Tetsu; Veselovskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band detection of the Raman water vapor spectrum using the lidar technique introduces a concern over the temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum. Various groups have addressed this issue either by trying to minimize the temperature dependence to the point where it can be ignored or by correcting for whatever degree of temperature dependence exists. The traditional technique for performing either of these entails accurately measuring both the laser output wavelength and the water vapor spectral passband with combined uncertainty of approximately 0.01 nm. However, uncertainty in interference filter center wavelengths and laser output wavelengths can be this large or larger. These combined uncertainties translate into uncertainties in the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement of 3% or more. We present here an alternate approach for accurately determining the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement. This alternate approach entails acquiring sequential atmospheric profiles using the lidar while scanning the channel passband across portions of the Raman water vapor Q-branch. This scanning is accomplished either by tilt-tuning an interference filter or by scanning the output of a spectrometer. Through this process a peak in the transmitted intensity can be discerned in a manner that defines the spectral location of the channel passband with respect to the laser output wavelength to much higher accuracy than that achieved with standard laboratory techniques. Given the peak of the water vapor signal intensity curve, determined using the techniques described here, and an approximate knowledge of atmospheric temperature, the temperature dependence of a given Raman lidar profile can be determined with accuracy of 0.5% or better. A Mathematica notebook that demonstrates the calculations used here is available from the lead author.

  13. UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Lin, R.-F.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Masiello, G.

    2009-07-01

    Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment. The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements only at one wavelength), which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds. A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer. The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows to determine the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud anvil. Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicates that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is strongly influenced by the sublimation of precipitating ice crystals. Results illustrated in this study demonstrate that Raman lidars, like the one used in this study, can resolve the spatial and temporal scales required for the study of cirrus cloud microphysical processes and appears sensitive enough to reveal and quantify upper tropospheric humidification associated with cirrus cloud sublimation.

  14. UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Lin, R.-F.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Masiello, G.

    2009-11-01

    Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of the Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment. The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements, only at one wavelength), which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds. A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer. The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows the determination of the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud. Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicate that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is strongly influenced by the sublimation of precipitating ice crystals. Results illustrated in this study demonstrate that Raman lidars, like the one used in this study, can resolve the spatial and temporal scales required for the study of cirrus cloud microphysical processes and appear sensitive enough to reveal and quantify upper tropospheric humidification associated with cirrus cloud sublimation.

  15. Lidar Measurements of Background Stratospheric Aerosol and Minor Volcanic Eruption Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.; O'Neill, M.; Dutton, E.

    2008-12-01

    Weekly lidar measurements of aerosol backscatter have been made at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii and Boulder, Colorado. The measurements concentrate on the stratosphere and cover many years of background conditions. The period since 1996 is especially interesting since only minor injections of aerosol due to volcanic eruptions and forest fires have perturbed the background levels. These events are easily identified by a sharp peak above the background aerosol levels at altitudes just above the 16 to 17 km maximum level of the tropopause. The upper altitudes of the layer are unperturbed. Recent examples are the 2006 eruption of the African volcano Nyamuragira, the 2008 Alaskan eruptions. The background aerosols sources are not well quantified, but appear to have increased by 10% per year since 2000 as measured at the two locations. The (lidar) backscatter to total scatter ratio is sensitive to changes in the particle size distribution, but the increase cannot be explained without an increase in total aerosol mass.

  16. Remote sensing of seawater and drifting ice in Svalbard fjords by compact Raman LIDAR

    E-print Network

    Bunkin, Alexey F; Lednev, Vasily N; Lushnikov, Dmitry L; Marchenko, Aleksey V; Morozov, Eugene G; Pershin, Sergey M; Yulmetov, Renat N

    2013-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system for remote sensing of sea and drifting ice was developed at the Wave Research Center at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS. The developed system is based on a diode pumped solid state YVO4:Nd laser combined with compact spectrograph equipped with gated detector. The system exhibits high sensitivity and can be used for mapping or depth profiling of different parameters within many oceanographic problems. Light weight (~20 kg) and low power consumption (300 W) make possible to install the device on any vehicle including unmanned aircraft or submarine system. The Raman LIDAR presented was used for Svalbard fjords study and analysis of different influence of the open sea and glaciers on the water properties. Temperature, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter distributions in the seawater were studied in the Ice Fjord, Van Mijen Fjord and Rinders Fjord. Drifting ice and seawater in the Rinders Fjord were characterized by the Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence. It...

  17. Development of a scanning micro-pulse lidar for aerosol and cloud detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhangjun; Meng, Xiangqian; Qu, Junle; Du, Libin; Li, Xianxin; Lv, Bin; Kabanov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    A scanning micro-pulse lidar (MPL) was developed by Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation, Shandong Academy of Sciences, which can be used for routine observations of optical properties, temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud in the lower troposphere. In addition to the optical system design, the design of 3 dimensional (3-D) scanning system controlled by servo motors is analyzed, including servo motor selection and mechanical design. Through the measurements in Qingdao, it is proved that 3-D scanning system can control the lidar azimuth/elevation scanning with high precision. The lidar has good performance and can provide time-height indication (THI), range-height indication (RHI) and plane-position indication (PPI) of lidar signals which can well reflect the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol.

  18. Lidar signal simulation for the evaluation of aerosols in chemistry transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromatas, S.; Turquety, S.; Menut, L.; Chepfer, H.; Péré, J. C.; Cesana, G.; Bessagnet, B.

    2012-12-01

    We present an adaptable tool, the OPTSIM (OPTical properties SIMulation) software, for the simulation of optical properties and lidar attenuated backscattered profiles (?') from aerosol concentrations calculated by chemistry transport models (CTM). It was developed to model both Level 1 observations and Level 2 aerosol lidar retrievals in order to compare model results to measurements: the level 2 enables to estimate the main properties of aerosols plume structures, but may be limited due to specific assumptions. The level 1, originally developed for this tool, gives access to more information about aerosols properties (?') requiring, at the same time, less hypothesis on aerosols types. In addition to an evaluation of the aerosol loading and optical properties, active remote sensing allows the analysis of aerosols' vertical structures. An academic case study for two different species (black carbon and dust) is presented and shows the consistency of the simulator. Illustrations are then given through the analysis of dust events in the Mediterranean region during the summer 2007. These are based on simulations by the CHIMERE regional CTM and observations from the CALIOP space-based lidar, and highlight the potential of this approach to evaluate the concentration, size and vertical structure of the aerosol plumes.

  19. Preliminary investigation of the retrieval algorithm of atmospheric aerosol distribution with a space-borne lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhuan Qiu; Daren Lu

    1988-01-01

    Problems arising in the space-borne lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric aerosol distribution are discussed. The basic uncertainty in the retrieval algorithm results from the presence of two unknowns (the extinction coefficient and the backscattering coefficient) which can be determined with only one measurement (i.e., echo power). This uncertainty exists in both ground-based and space-borne lidar remote sensing. The formulized

  20. Lidar profiling at two different wavelengths of aerosols and drizzle optical and microphysical characteristics in the frame MPLNET UV-Lidar integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Welton, E. J.; Lewis, J. R.; Berkoff, T.; Campbell, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show some preliminary results of the study of aerosol layers detection and drizzle episodes over NASA GSFC in spring 2012, when, for the first time, a UV elastic Lidar was integrated into the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), a federated network of Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems designed to continuously measure aerosol and cloud vertical structure, day and night, over long time periods required to contribute to climate change studies and provide ground validation for models and satellite sensors in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The two different wavelength lidar measurements (UV-VIS), together with Mie scattering simulations, permit to asses effective average size diameter of drizzle precipitation and biomass burning aerosol layers transiting over Goddard. Range corrected backscattering power during a drizzle episode. At 3 km where the cloud is melting a lidar dark band is clearly visible.

  1. Comparison of Summer and Winter California Central Valley Aerosol Distributions from Lidar and MODIS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jasper R., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Chu, D. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol distributions from two aircraft lidar campaigns conducted in the California Central Valley are compared in order to identify seasonal variations. Aircraft lidar flights were conducted in June 2003 and February 2008. While the PM2.5 concentration is highest in the winter, the aerosol optical depth measured from MODIS is highest in the summer. A seasonal comparison shows that PM2.5 in the winter can exceed summer PM2.5 by 55%, while summer AOD exceeds winter AOD by 43%. Higher temperatures wildfires in the summer produce elevated aerosol layers that are detected by satellite measurements, but not surface particulate matter monitors. Measurements of the boundary layer height from lidar instruments are necessary to incorporate satellite measurements with air quality measurements.

  2. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data. Input from the ICAP community is desired to help plan our NRT mission goals and interactions with ICAP forecasters.

  3. Aerosol monitoring in the PBL over big cities using a mobile eye safe LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Laurent; Chazette, Patrick

    2005-10-01

    The Laboratory of Science of Climate and Environment (CEA/ CNRS) and LEOSPHERE Company have jointly developed an eye safe, rugged and unattended high resolution scanning lidar ("easy lidar", www.lidar.fr). This system has been used in the frame of the POVA program and has been used in a compact version during the LISAIR (LIdar to Survey the AIR) program in May 2005 in the Paris city, France. The mobile lidar has been used to follow aerosol particles in highways subject to heavy traffic. High spatial and temporal resolution data on the entire planetary boundary layer (1.5 m and 1s respectively) allowed to monitor for aerosol load variability on board a moving car and also to detect for local sources. We observed the doubling of the optical thickness in the morning when traffic is high in the city ring. We also have shown local effect of waste burning plants and train stations. This new type of eye safe lidar will allow to monitor continuously the entire area of a town and suburbs, in order to detect main sources of pollution (transport, traffic jams, industrial plants, natural dust), follow in real time the evolution of the PBL height and provide an estimation of the mass concentration of the aerosol in the PBL.

  4. Mueller matrix for atmospheric aerosols at CO2 laser wavelengths from polarized backscattering lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1998-10-01

    The Mueller matrix ? for atmospheric aerosol backscattering in Utah (a desert environment) is derived from lidar-polarized backscattering measurements at CO2 wavelengths for a horizontal path a few meters above the ground. The Mueller matrix is nearly a diagonal matrix, with m11 = S11, m22 = (S22 - S33)/2, and m33 ? -m22, as is expected for randomly oriented aerosols with axial symmetry. The ratio m22/m11 is approximately 0.75, for which the linear depolarization ratio is approximately 0.15. In computing the Mueller matrix from lidar-polarized backscattering measurements of various combinations of transmit/receive polarizations (xy), two steps are employed: (1) a deconvolution process to produce a lidar signal pxy(r) from the polarized lidar measurements by deconvolving the long CO2 laser pulse and the lidar system impulse-response function (i.e., removing their smearing effect from the measured lidar signal), and (2) a constrained slope method to produce an aerosol backscattering coefficient ?xy, for each polarization configuration xy, from which the Mueller matrix is computed.

  5. Nd:YAG and ruby based lidar systems for remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, W. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The application of solid-state lasers to the study of stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols is analyzed. A 48-inch mobile lidar which operates in the 0.6943, 1.06, 0.3472, and 0.5300 micron ranges is utilized to monitor the stratosphere. The detectors of the system consist of photomultipliers, and the dual-channel, computer-based data-acquisition-system which provides on-line plotting of scattering ratio profiles. The components of the 14-inch aperture, dual-wavelength airborne lidar system that operates with ruby and Nd:YAG transmitters are described. An 8-inch, down-looking airborne lidar with silicon diode or photomultiplier detectors was developed. The capabilities of the system alone and when combined with the 14-inch lidar are discussed. Examples of the data provided by the three lidar systems are presented, revealing the reliability and operational efficiency of the systems.

  6. Lidar mapping of a mixture of aerosol concentrations in a varying atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiman, M.; Egert, S.; Cohen, A.

    1986-01-01

    In several recent applications dealing with lidar measurement of atmospheric pollution, two basic assumptions are made: (1)The investigated aerosol layer is the only particulate material within the scattering volume; and (2)The contribution of the gaseous atmosphere to the lidar backscattering signals can be estimated and deducted from the total backscattering measurements. In the method discussed a generalized method which allows the elimination of the above mentioned assumptions was developed using multiparameter lidar measurements. The different parameters can be several wavelengths, polarization of the scattered light, scattering angles, or any combination of these parameters. The basic requirements are given. The detailed derivations are presented and discussed.

  7. NDSC and JPL stratospheric lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, I. Stuart

    1995-01-01

    The Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change is an international cooperation providing a set of high-quality, remote-sensing instruments at observing stations around the globe. A brief description of the NDSC and its goals is presented. Lidar has been selected as the NDSC instrument for measurements of stratospheric profiles of ozone, temperature, and aerosol. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed and implemented two stratospheric lidar systems for NDSC. These are located at Table Mountain, California, and at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. These systems, which utilize differential absorption lidar, Rayleigh lidar, raman lidar, and backscatter lidar, to measure ozone, temperature, and aerosol profiles in the stratosphere are briefly described. Examples of results obtained for both long-term and individual profiles are presented.

  8. Development of a deployable aerosol/water vapor lidar to characterize the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Phan D.; Dentamaro, Anthony

    2003-09-01

    A trailer-based lidar, named Humidity and Aerosol Lidar (HAL), is being built as a remote sensing tool to characterize atmospheric aerosol and water vapor in the line-of-sight. Water vapor and aerosol in the lower atmosphere are critical components affecting the propagation of high-energy laser beams and microwave. The sensor is developed to collect high temporal and vertical resolution data of atmospheric aerosols and water vapor. This ground-based system also serves as a demonstration and an engineering study of a flight-capable sensor for real-time diagnostic of the atmosphere. The lidar, operating on the principles of differential absorption, could measure water vapor to 10 km altitudes. It also measures aerosols and cloud backscatter at altitudes up to 18 km and ranges up to 90 km. Operating with a hemispherical scanner, the sensor could map the 3-dimensional field of aerosols and water vapor and provide vertical as well as horizontal structures. A unidirectional Alexandrite ring laser, operating in single mode near 727.49 nm, is the laser source. The sensor is designed to operate in day and night time. A description of the system, its wavelength calibration unit, the transmitter-receiver system and projected performance will be discussed. Results of the photo-acoustic calibration cell and wavelength selections will be presented. Preliminary results of water vapor and aerosols will be discussed.

  9. New Aerosol and Cloud Products from the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Belcher, L.; Berkoff, T. A.; Stewart, S. A.; Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Sawyer, V.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) is a federated network of Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems designed to measure aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously, day and night, over long time periods required to contribute to climate change studies and provide ground validation for models and satellite sensors in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). At present, there are thirteen permanent sites worldwide, and five more to be completed soon. Numerous temporary sites have been deployed in support of various field campaigns since the start of MPLNET in 2000. Most MPLNET sites are co-located with sites in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) to provide both column and vertically resolved aerosol and cloud data. Here we present a collection of new MPLNET aerosol and cloud products that are available. Scene classification is now provided continuously, including identification of multiple cloud layer heights (base and top), planetary boundary layer height, and the height of the highest aerosol layer. Our existing aerosol products have been enhanced to include continuous aerosol extinction profiles throughout the day (previously only available at AERONET observation times). PBL heights are generated using a wavelet technique. Cloud layer heights and subsequent optical depths are now provided to the limit of detection capability. New thick cloud optical depths in excess of 10 are also provided using a novel technique based on the lidar background signal. We will present an overview of the new products and methodology as well as data examples from several diverse sites in our network.

  10. Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Ansmann; Ulla Wandinger; Maren Riebesell; Claus Weitkamp; Walfried Michaelis

    1992-01-01

    Height profiles of the extinction and the backscatter coefficients in cirrus clouds are determined independently from elastic- and inelastic- (Raman) backscatter signals. An extended error analysis is given. Examples covering the measured range of extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) in ice clouds are presented. Lidar ratios between 5 and 15 sr are usually found. A strong variation between 2 and 20

  11. Liquid Water Cloud Measurements Using the Raman Lidar Technique: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetsu, Sakai; Whiteman, David N.; Russo, Felicita; Turner, David D.; Veselovskii, Igor; Melfi, S. Harvey; Nagai, Tomohiro; Mano, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes recent work in the Raman lidar liquid water cloud measurement technique. The range-resolved spectral measurements at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center indicate that the Raman backscattering spectra measured in and below low clouds agree well with theoretical spectra for vapor and liquid water. The calibration coefficients of the liquid water measurement for the Raman lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site of the U.S. Department of Energy were determined by comparison with the liquid water path (LWP) obtained with Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the liquid water content (LWC) obtained with the millimeter wavelength cloud radar and water vapor radiometer (MMCR-WVR) together. These comparisons were used to estimate the Raman liquid water cross-sectional value. The results indicate a bias consistent with an effective liquid water Raman cross-sectional value that is 28%-46% lower than published, which may be explained by the fact that the difference in the detectors' sensitivity has not been accounted for. The LWP of a thin altostratus cloud showed good qualitative agreement between lidar retrievals and AERI. However, the overall ensemble of comparisons of LWP showed considerable scatter, possibly because of the different fields of view of the instruments, the 350-m distance between the instruments, and the horizontal inhomogeneity of the clouds. The LWC profiles for a thick stratus cloud showed agreement between lidar retrievals andMMCR-WVR between the cloud base and 150m above that where the optical depth was less than 3. Areas requiring further research in this technique are discussed.

  12. Study and mitigation of calibration error sources in a water vapour Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Leslie; Bock, Olivier; Bosser, Pierre; Thom, Christian; Pelon, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of water vapour throughout the atmosphere is important for many scientific applications (weather forecasting, climate research, calibration of GNSS altimetry measurements). Measuring water vapour remains a technical challenge because of its high variability in space and time. The major issues are achieving long-term stability (e.g., for climate trends monitoring) and high accuracy (e.g. for calibration/validation applications). LAREG and LOEMI at Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) have developed a mobile scanning water vapour Raman lidar in collaboration with LATMOS at CNRS. This system aims at providing high accuracy water vapour measurements throughout the troposphere for calibrating GNSS wet delay signals and thus improving vertical positioning. Current developments aim at improving the calibration method and long term stability of the system to allow the Raman lidar to be used as a reference instrument. The IGN-LATMOS lidar was deployed in the DEMEVAP (Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement) campaign that took place in 2011 at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The goals of DEMEVAP were to inter-compare different water vapour sounding techniques (lidars, operational and research radiosondes, GPS,…) and to study various calibration methods for the Raman lidar. A significant decrease of the signals and of the calibration constants of the IGN-LATMOS Raman lidar has been noticed all along the campaign. This led us to study the likely sources of uncertainty and drifts in each part of the instrument: emission, reception and detection. We inventoried several error sources as well as instability sources. The impact of the temperature dependence of the Raman lines on the filter transmission or the fluorescence in the fibre, are examples of the error sources. We investigated each error source and each instability source (uncontrolled laser beam jitter, temporal fluctuations of the photomultiplier gain and spatial inhomogeneity in the sensitivity of the photomultiplier photocathode,…) separately using theoretical analysis, numerical and optical simulations, and laboratory experiments. The instability induced by the use of an optics fibre for coupling the signal collected by the telescope to the detectors is especially investigated. We quantified the impact of all these error sources on the water vapour and nitrogen Raman channels measurements and on the change in the differential calibration constant and we tried to implement an experimental solution to minimize the variations.

  13. Analysis of telescope coupling efficiency for all-fiber spectroscopic Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shichun; Hua, Dengxin; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Li; Liu, Jun; Wang, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Telescope coupling efficiency is one of the important parameters for a lidar system because of the use of single-mode fiber Bragg grating, which seriously affects the signal-to-noise ratio of lidar. A newly developed telescope coupler of lidar based on single-mode fiber array is designed to enhance the coupling efficiency and signal power. By analyzing the coupling mathematic expression between the free space plane-wave and single-mode fiber, the relationship between the numerical aperture and the alignment tolerance, especially the relation between lateral offset and tilt angle error, is established, and then the system parameters are optimized to improve the coupling efficiency. For further improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of a lidar system, seven single-mode fibers array structured as a telescope coupler is considered to receive the lidar returning signal, and its configuration feature is analyzed using the Gaussian beam propagating matrix. Simulation results show that this coupler may provide optimum coupling efficiency and signal power for all-fiber Raman lidar, and then the coupling efficiency of backscattering signal stimulated by near-field beam is given for the case of considering telescope focal length and central obscuration.

  14. MIPAS Water Vapour Mixing Ratio and Temperature Validation by Raman-Mie-Rayleigh Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colavitto, T.; Congeduti, F.; Medaglia, C. M.; Fierli, F.; D'Aulerio, P.

    2004-08-01

    Water vapor mixing ratio and temperature profiles carried out by a Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar have been used for the validation of the MIPAS instrument on board of ENVISAT. The measurements have been performed at the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the Italian National Research Council (ISAC-CNR) in Rome-Tor Vergata. Measurement sessions were carried out during the years 2002 and 2003, and some at the beginning of 2004. The lidar records in coincidence with ENVISAT overpasses were 20, but only 4 comparisons with MIPAS 4.61 version have been possible up to now, because the reprocessing of the MIPAS data for 2003 is still in progress. The lidar profiles are complemented by radiosonde observations. In the altitude range where the lidar profile overlaps MIPAS, no marked differences were found in the water vapor mixing ratio. From the tropopause up, MIPAS data appear being generally lower than lidar and radiosonde values. The comparison of the temperature shows some differences mostly close to the stratopause, where the MIPAS data appear systematically lower than the lidar ones.

  15. Monitoring of vertical aerosol profiles using micro pulse lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Jain; B. C. Arya; Arun Kumar; Y. Nazeer Ahammed

    2006-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosol play an important role in regional meteorology and energy balance of radiation. Specially in huge urban areas like New Delhi, India a large amount of aerosols from anthropogenic origins is continuously produced and released in the atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of aerosols on atmospheric energy balance is a key global change problem. Aerosol vertical distribution monitoring can

  16. Aerosol and Cloud Interaction Observed From High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Wenying; Schuster, Gregory L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies utilizing satellite retrievals have shown a strong correlation between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud cover. However, these retrievals from passive sensors are subject to many limitations, including cloud adjacency (or 3D) effects, possible cloud contamination, uncertainty in the AOD retrieval. Some of these limitations do not exist in High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) observations; for instance, HSRL observations are not a ected by cloud adjacency effects, are less prone to cloud contamination, and offer accurate aerosol property measurements (backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient, lidar ratio, backscatter Angstrom exponent,and aerosol optical depth) at a neospatial resolution (less than 100 m) in the vicinity of clouds. Hence, the HSRL provides an important dataset for studying aerosol and cloud interaction. In this study, we statistically analyze aircraft-based HSRL profiles according to their distance from the nearest cloud, assuring that all profile comparisons are subject to the same large-scale meteorological conditions. Our results indicate that AODs from HSRL are about 17% higher in the proximity of clouds (approximately 100 m) than far away from clouds (4.5 km), which is much smaller than the reported cloud 3D effect on AOD retrievals. The backscatter and extinction coefficients also systematically increase in the vicinity of clouds, which can be explained by aerosol swelling in the high relative humidity (RH) environment and/or aerosol growth through in cloud processing (albeit not conclusively). On the other hand, we do not observe a systematic trend in lidar ratio; we hypothesize that this is caused by the opposite effects of aerosol swelling and aerosol in-cloud processing on the lidar ratio. Finally, the observed backscatter Angstrom exponent (BAE) does not show a consistent trend because of the complicated relationship between BAE and RH. We demonstrate that BAE should not be used as a surrogate for Angstrom exponent, especially at high RH.

  17. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-05-10

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given.

  18. IIP Update: A Packaged Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver. Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  19. Development and applications of tunable, narrow band lasers and stimulated Raman scattering devices for atmospheric lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    The main thrust of the program was the study of stimulated Raman processes for application to atmospheric lidar measurements. This has involved the development of tunable lasers, the detailed study of stimulated Raman scattering, and the use of the Raman-shifted light for new measurements of molecular line strengths and line widths. The principal spectral region explored in this work was the visible and near-IR wavelengths between 500 nm and 1.5 microns. Recent alexandrite ring laser experiments are reported. The experiments involved diode injection-locking, Raman shifting, and frequency-doubling. The experiments succeeded in producing tunable light at 577 and 937 nm with line widths in the range 80-160 MHz.

  20. Tracking of urban aerosols using combined LIDAR-based remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, T.-Y.; Stani?, S.; Gao, F.; Bergant, K.; Veberi?, D.; Song, X.-Q.; Dolžan, A.

    2012-05-01

    A measuring campaign was performed over the neighboring towns of Nova Gorica in Slovenia and Gorizia in Italy on 24 and 25 May 2010, to investigate the concentration and distribution of urban aerosols. Tracking of two-dimensional spatial and temporal aerosol distributions was performed using scanning elastic LIDAR, operating at 1064 nm. In addition, PM10 concentrations of particles, NOx concentrations and meteorological data were continuously monitored within the LIDAR scanning region. Based on the data we collected, we investigated the flow dynamics and the aerosol concentrations within the lower troposphere and found an evidence for daily aerosol cycles. We observed a number of cases with spatially localized increased LIDAR returns, which are associated with the presence of point sources of particulate matter. Daily aerosol concentration cycles were also clearly visible with a peak in aerosol concentration during the morning rush hours and daily plateau at around 17:00 Central European Time. We also found that horizontal atmospheric extinction at the height of 200 m, averaged in limited region with a radius of 300 m directly above the ground-based measuring site, was linearly correlated to the PM10 concentration with a correlation coefficient of 0.84. When considering the average of the horizontal atmospheric extinction over the entire scanning region, a strong dependence on traffic conditions (concentration of NOx) in the vicinity of the ground-based measuring site was observed.

  1. Detection the Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide using the Raman Lidar in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is a key parameter characterizing the state of the atmosphere at any given time and location. An adequate comprehension of meteorological processes and climate phenomena requires accurate measurements of atmospheric CO2 with global coverage and high temporal and spatial resolution. Based on laser atmosphere backscattering spectrum, we designed a Raman lidar system for measurement of atmospheric CO2 , in which 354.7nm third harmonic of Nd:YAG laser is transmitted with 350mJ pulse energy and repetition rate of 20Hz. The receiver employs a photo multiplier tube with quantum efficiency of 25% and 200MHz photon counter, which detects Raman backscattering 371.66nm. The data shows that the signal to noise ratio below 5km is greater than 10. Moreover, combinatorial filter is used to reject interference presented by 354.7nm intense Mie-Rayleigh backscattering and 375.4nm Raman backscattering by the oxygen. As an invariable parameter, the Raman return signal at 386.7nm from atmospheric N2 is used for reference signal. Meanwhile, the wavelet analysis method is used to retrieve the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Most important, we carried out the detection in Beijing for one year. The profile of troposphere atmospheric CO2 is presented. Moreover, we summarized the character of spatial and temporal distribution for the atmospheric CO2 below the 5km. Keywords: atmospheric carbon dioxide, Raman lidar, scattering spectrum, concentration

  2. Observations of water vapor by ground-based micro-wave radiometers and Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1994-09-01

    In November to December 1991, a substantial number of remote sensors and in situ instruments were operated together in Coffeyville, Kansas, during the climate experiment FIRE II. Included in the suite of instruments were (1) the NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) three-channel microwave radiometer, (2) the NASA GSFC Raman lidar, (3) ETL radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and (4) frequent, research-quality radiosondes. The Raman lidar operated only at night and the focus of this portion of the experiment concentrated on clear conditions. The lidar data, together with frequent radiosondes and measurements of temperature profiles (every 15 min) by RASS allowed profiles of temperature and absolute humidity to be estimated every minute. We compared 2-min measurements of brightness temperature (Tb) with calculations of Tb that were based on the Liebe and Lay ton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) microwave propagation models, as well as the Waters (1976) model. The comparisons showed the best agreement at 20.6 GHz with the Waters model, with the Liebe et al. (1993) model being best at 31.65 GHz. The results at 90 GHz gave about equal success with the Liebe and Layton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) models. Comparisons of precipitable water vapor derived independently from the two instruments also showed excellent agreement, even for averages as short as 2 min. The rms difference between Raman and radiometric determinations of precipitable water vapor was 0.03 cm which is roughly 2%. The experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of simultaneous operation of radiometers and Raman lidars for fundamental physical studies of water vapor.

  3. Can Water Vapour Raman Lidar Resolve Profiles of Turbulent Variables in the Convective Boundary Layer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Wulfmeyer; Sandip Pal; David D. Turner; Erin Wagner

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution water vapour measurements made by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Raman lidar operated at the\\u000a Southern Great Plains Climate Research Facility site near Lamont, Oklahoma, U.S.A. are presented. Using a 2-h measurement\\u000a period for the convective boundary layer (CBL) on 13 September 2005, with temporal and spatial resolutions of 10 s and 75 m,\\u000a respectively, spectral and autocovariance analyses of water

  4. Comparison of Modeled Backscatter using Measured Aerosol Microphysics with Focused CW Lidar Data over Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Vandana; Clarke, Antony D.; Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1997-01-01

    During NASA's GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) II flight mission over the Pacific Ocean in May-June 1990, extensive aerosol backscatter data sets from two continuous wave, focused CO2 Doppler lidars and an aerosol microphysics data set from a laser optical particle counter (LOPC) were obtained. Changes in aerosol loading in various air masses with associated changes in chemical composition, from sulfuric acid and sulfates to dustlike crustal material, significantly affected aerosol backscatter, causing variation of about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Some of the significant backscatter features encountered in different air masses were the low backscatter in subtropical air with even lower values in the tropics near the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), highly variable backscatter in the ITCZ, mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode, and high backscatter in an Asian dust plume off the Japanese coast. Differences in aerosol composition and backscatter for northern and southern hemisphere also were observed. Using the LOPC measurements of physical and chemical aerosol properties, we determined the complex refractive index from three different aerosol mixture models to calculate backscatter. These values provided a well-defined envelope of modeled backscatter for various atmospheric conditions, giving good agreement with the lidar data over a horizontal sampling of approximately 18000 km in the mid-troposphere.

  5. A Raman lidar to measure water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, Martin; Higgins, Chad W.; Simeonov, Valentin; Ristori, Pablo; Pardyjak, Eric; Serikov, Ilya; Calhoun, Ronald; Bergh, Hubert van den; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-01-01

    A new multi-telescope scanning Raman lidar designed to measure the water vapor mixing ratio in the atmospheric boundary layer for a complete diurnal cycle with high resolution spatial (1.25 m) and temporal (1 s) resolutions is presented. The high resolution allows detailed measurements of the lower atmosphere and offers new opportunities for evaporation and boundary layer research, atmospheric profiling and visualization. This lidar utilizes a multi-telescope design that provides for an operational range with a nearly constant signal-to-noise ratio, which allows for statistical investigations of atmospheric turbulence. This new generation ground-based water vapor Raman lidar is described, and first observations from the Turbulent Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (TABLE) are presented. Direct comparison with in-situ point measurements obtained during the field campaign demonstrate the ability of the lidar to reliably measure the water vapor mixing ratio. Horizontal measurements taken with time are used to determine the geometric characteristics of coherent structures. Vertical scans are used to visualize nocturnal jet features, layered structures within a stably stratified atmosphere and the internal boundary layer structure over a lake.

  6. Water vapour profiles from Raman lidar automatically calibrated by microwave radiometer data during HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foth, A.; Baars, H.; Di Girolamo, P.; Pospichal, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method to derive water vapour profiles from Raman lidar measurements calibrated by the integrated water vapour (IWV) from a collocated microwave radiometer during the intense observation campaign HOPE in the frame of the HD(CP)2 initiative. The simultaneous observation of a microwave radiometer and a Raman lidar allowed an operational and continuous measurement of water vapour profiles also during cloudy conditions. The calibration method provides results in a good agreement with conventional methods based on radiosondes. The calibration factor derived from the proposed IWV method is very stable with a relative uncertainty of 6%. This stability allows to calibrate the lidar even in the presence of clouds using the calibration factor determined during the closest in time clear sky interval. Based on the application of this approach, it is possible to retrieve water vapour profiles during all non-precipitating conditions. A statistical analysis shows a good agreement between the lidar measurements and collocated radiosondes. The relative biases amount to less than 6.7% below 2 km.

  7. Lidar-measured atmospheric N? vibrational-rotational Raman spectra and consequent temperature retrieval.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuchao; Yi, Fan

    2014-11-17

    We have built a spectrally resolved Raman lidar to measure atmospheric N? Stokes vibrational-rotational Raman spectra. The lidar applies a double-grating polychromator with a reciprocal linear dispersion of ~0.12 nm mm(-1) for the wavelength separation and a 32-channel linear-array photomultiplier tube for sampling the spectral signals. The lidar can together measure the individual S- and O-branch line signals from J = 0 (2) through 14 (16). A comparison shows an excellent agreement between the lidar-measured and theoretically-calculated spectra. Based on the signal ratio of two individual lines (e.g., S-branch J = 6 and 12), the atmospheric temperature profiles are derived without requiring a calibration from another reference temperature. In terms of the envelope shape of an even-J section of the measured S-branch lines, we have also developed a new temperature retrieval approach without needing a calibration from reference temperature data. Both the approaches can give rise to reasonable temperature profiles comparable to that from local radiosonde. PMID:25402026

  8. Retrievals of Profiles of Fine And Coarse Aerosols Using Lidar And Radiometric Space Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram; Tanre, Didier; Leon, Jean-Francois; Pelon, Jacques; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In couple of years we expect the launch of the CALIPSO lidar spaceborne mission designed to observe aerosols and clouds. CALIPSO will collect profiles of the lidar attenuated backscattering coefficients in two spectral wavelengths (0.53 and 1.06 microns). Observations are provided along the track of the satellite around the globe from pole to pole. The attenuated backscattering coefficients are sensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosol particles, their shape and size. However the information is insufficient to be mapped into unique aerosol physical properties and vertical distribution. Infinite number of physical solutions can reconstruct the same two wavelength backscattered profile measured from space. CALIPSO will fly in formation with the Aqua satellite and the MODIS spectro-radiometer on board. Spectral radiances measured by MODIS in six channels between 0.55 and 2.13 microns simultaneously with the CALIPSO observations can constrain the solutions and resolve this ambiguity, albeit under some assumptions. In this paper we describe the inversion method and apply it to aircraft lidar and MODIS data collected over a dust storm off the coast of West Africa during the SHADE experiment. It is shown that the product of the single scattering albedo, omega, and the phase function, P, for backscattering can be retrieved from the synergism between measurements avoiding a priori hypotheses required for inverting lidar measurements alone. The resultant value of (omega)P(180 deg.) = 0.016/sr are significantly different from what is expected using Mie theory, but are in good agreement with recent results obtained from lidar observations of dust episodes. The inversion is robust in the presence of noise of 10% and 20% in the lidar signal in the 0.53 and 1.06 pm channels respectively. Calibration errors of the lidar of 5 to 10% can cause an error in optical thickness of 20 to 40% respectively in the tested cases. The lidar calibration errors cause degradation in the ability to fit the MODIS data. Therefore the MODIS measurements can be used to identify the calibration problem and correct for it. The CALIPSO-MODIS measurements of the profiles of fine and coarse aerosols, together with CALIPSO measurements of clouds vertical distribution, is expected to be critically important in understanding aerosol transport across continents and political boundaries, and to study aerosol-cloud interaction and its effect on precipitation and global forcing of climate.

  9. The 48-inch lidar aerosol measurements taken at the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David C.; Osborn, M. T.; Winker, D. M.; Decoursey, R. J.; Youngbluth, Otto, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents lidar data taken between July 1991 and December 1992 using a ground-based 48-inch lidar instrument at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Seventy lidar profiles (approximately one per week) were obtained during this period, which began less than 1 month after the eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines. Plots of backscattering ratio as a function of altitude are presented for each data set along with tables containing numerical values of the backscattering ratio and backscattering coefficient versus altitude. The enhanced aerosol backscattering seen in the profiles highlights the influence of the Mount Pinatubo eruption on the stratospheric aerosol loading over Hampton. The long-term record of the profiles gives a picture of the evolution of the aerosol cloud, which reached maximum loading approximately 8 months after the eruption and then started to decrease gradually. NASA RP-1209 discusses 48-inch lidar aerosol measurements taken at the Langley Research Center from May 1974 to December 1987.

  10. Assimilation of lidar signals: application to aerosol forecasting in the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Sartelet, K. N.; Bocquet, M.; Chazette, P.; Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Léon, J. F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Augustin, P.; Bach, J.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bush, X.; Comerón, A.; Delbarre, H.; García-Vízcaino, D.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz, C.; Nicolae, D.; Papayannis, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Preissler, J.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Wagner, F.; Dulac, F.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new application of assimilating lidar signals to aerosol forecasting. It aims at investigating the impact of a ground-based lidar network on analysis and short-term forecasts of aerosols through a case study in the Mediterranean. To do so, we employ a data assimilation (DA) algorithm based on the optimal interpolation method developed in the chemistry transport model (CTM) {Polair3D of the air quality modelling platform POLYPHEMUS. We assimilate hourly-averaged normalised range corrected lidar signals (PR2) retrieved from a 72 h period of intensive and continuous measurements performed in July 2012 by ground-based lidar systems of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) integrated into the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS) and an additional system in Corsica deployed in the framework of the pre-ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment)/TRAQA (TRAnsport à longue distance et Qualité de l'Air) campaign. This lidar campaign was dedicated to demonstrating the potential operationality of a research network like EARLINET and the potential usefulness of assimilation of lidar signals to aerosol forecasts. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and those with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 2.5 ?m but lower than 10 ?m (PM2.5-10) are analysed separately using the lidar observations at each DA step. First, we study the spatial and temporal influences of the assimilation of lidar signals on aerosol forecasting. We conduct sensitivity studies on algorithmic parameters, e.g. the horizontal correlation length (Lh) used in the background error covariance matrix (50 km, 100 km or 200 km), the altitudes at which DA is performed (0.75-3.5 km, 1.0-3.5 km or 1.5-3.5 km a.g.l.) and the assimilation period length (12 h or 24 h). We find that DA with Lh = 100 km and assimilation from 1.0 to 3.5 km a.g.l. during a 12 h assimilation period length leads to the best scores for PM10 and PM2.5 during the forecast period with reference to available measurements from surface networks. Secondly, the aerosol simulation results without and with lidar DA using the optimal parameters (Lh = 100 km, the assimilation altitude range from 1.0 to 3.5 {km a.g.l.} and 12 h DA period) are evaluated using the Level 2.0 (cloud-screened and quality-assured) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from AERONET, and mass concentration measurements (PM10 or PM2.5) from the French air quality network (BDQA) and the EMEP-Spain/Portugal network. The results show that the simulation with DA leads to better scores than the one without DA for PM2.5, PM10 and AOD. Additionally, the comparison of model results to evaluation data indicates that the temporal impact of assimilating lidar signals is longer than 36 h after the assimilation period.

  11. Remote sensing of seawater and drifting ice in Svalbard fjords by compact Raman lidar.

    PubMed

    Bunkin, Alexey F; Klinkov, Vladimir K; Lednev, Vasily N; Lushnikov, Dmitry L; Marchenko, Aleksey V; Morozov, Eugene G; Pershin, Sergey M; Yulmetov, Renat N

    2012-08-01

    A compact Raman lidar system for remote sensing of sea and drifting ice was developed at the Wave Research Center at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The developed system is based on a diode-pumped solid-state YVO(4):Nd laser combined with a compact spectrograph equipped with a gated detector. The system exhibits high sensitivity and can be used for mapping or depth profiling of different parameters within many oceanographic problems. Light weight (?20 kg) and low power consumption (300 W) make it possible to install the device on any vehicle, including unmanned aircraft or submarine systems. The Raman lidar presented was used for study and analysis of the different influence of the open sea and glaciers on water properties in Svalbard fjords. Temperature, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter distributions in the seawater were studied in the Ice Fjord, Van Mijen Fjord, and Rinders Fjord. Drifting ice and seawater in the Rinders Fjord were characterized by the Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence. It was found that the Paula Glacier strongly influences the water temperature and chlorophyll distributions in the Van Mijen Fjord and Rinders Fjord. Possible applications of compact lidar systems for express monitoring of seawater in places with high concentrations of floating ice or near cold streams in the Arctic Ocean are discussed. PMID:22859038

  12. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors is that they inherently have narrow dynamic ranges. However, by using photon-counting detectors along with a high-repetition rate laser, it is possible to obtain wide dynamic range through accumulation of counts over many pulses.

  13. Aerosols and cirrus clouds over Hanoi, Vietnam: comparison between satellite products and results derived from ground-based lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dothe, H.; Dinh, Trung van; Bui, Hai van; Gruninger, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present examples of aerosol and Cirrus cloud altitude profiles over Hanoi, Vietnam, measured with the ground LIDAR setup of the Institute of Physics. Comparisons are made to LIDAR data collected by the Calipso satellite of the NASA A-Train during its orbits over the Hanoi area. The height distributions for both surface aerosols and Cirrus clouds derived from ground and satellite observations are generally consistent, with distributions between 2km-3km, and 8km-15km respectively for aerosols and Cirrus clouds. Cirrus cloud locations inferred from an analysis of limb spectral radiances obtained by the SCIAMACHY satellite are also consistent with the LIDAR data.

  14. Dust aerosol optical properties using ground-based and airborne lidar in the framework of FENNEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnas, Fabien; Chazette, Patrick; Flamant, Cyrille; Royer, Philippe; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Genau, Pascal; Doira, Pascal; Bruneau, Didier; Pelon, Jacques; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The FENNEC program aims to improve our knowledge of both the role of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) on the West African monsoon and the interactions between the African continent and the Mediterranean basin through the Saharan dust transport. The Saharan desert is the major source of mineral dust in the world and may significantly impact the air quality over the Western Europe by increasing the particular matter content. Two lidar systems were operated by the French component of the FENNEC project: an airborne lidar which was flown aboard the French Falcon 20 research aircraft and a ground-based lidar which was located in the southeastern part of Spain, close to Marbella. The presence of dust in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer has been easily highlighted using the lidars and confirmed by ground-based sunphotometer and observations from both MODIS and SEVIRI spaceborne instruments. The simultaneous use of the sunphotometer-derived Angstrom exponent and the lidar-derived backscatter to extinction ratio is appeared to be a good approach to separate the optical contribution of dust from local aerosols for the coastal site. Over Spain, the dust layer was mainly located above the planetary boundary layer with several kilometers thick. Over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Mauritania the airborne lidar shows a high planetary boundary layer (~5 km above the mean sea level) associated to strong aerosol optical thickness (> 0.8 at 532 nm). The airborne lidar data have been inverted using both MODIS and SEVIRI-derived aerosol optical thickness. The differences between dust optical properties close to and remote from the sources will be discussed.

  15. Development of a 9.3 micrometer CW LIDAR for the study of atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteside, B. N.; Schotland, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the basic requirements to obtain coherent or heterodyne mixing of the optical radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosols with that from a fixed frequency source. The continuous wave (CW) mode of operation for a coherent lidar is reviewed along with the associated lidar transfer equation. A complete optical design of the three major subsystems of a CW, coherent lidar is given. Lens design software is implemented to model and optimize receiver performance. Techniques for the opto-mechanical assembly and some of the critical tolerances of the coherent lidar are provided along with preliminary tests of the subsystems. Included in these tests is a comparison of the experimental and the theoretical average power signal-to-noise ratio. The analog to digital software used to evaluate the power spectrum of the backscattered signal is presented in the Appendix of this report.

  16. Evaluation of LIDAR/Polarimeter Aerosol Measurements by In Situ Instrumentation during DEVOTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Dolgos, G.; Ottaviani, M.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Yang, M. M.; Hair, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Combined measurements from LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and polarimeter instruments provide the opportunity for enhanced satellite observations of aerosol properties including retrievals of aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, effective radius, and refractive index. However, these retrievals (specifically for refractive index) have not been fully vetted and require additional intercomparisons with in situ measurements to improve accuracy. Proper validation of these combined LIDAR/polarimeter retrievals requires evaluation in varying atmospheric conditions and of varying aerosol composition. As part of this effort, two NASA Langley King Air aircraft have been outfitted to provide coordinated measurements of aerosol properties. One will be used as a remote sensing platform with the NASA Langley high-spectral resolution LIDAR (HSRL) and NASA GISS research scanning polarimeter (RSP). The second aircraft has been modified for use as an in situ platform and will house a suite of aerosol microphysical instrumentation, a pair of diode laser hygrometers (DLHs) for water vapor and cloud extinction measurements, and a polarized imaging nephelometer (PI-Neph). The remote sensing package has flown in a variety of campaigns, however only rarely has been able to coordinate with in situ measurements. The use of two collocated aircraft will allow for future coordinated flights to provide a more complete dataset for evaluation of aerosol retrievals and allow for fast-response capability. Results from the first coordinated King Air flights as part of DEVOTE (Development and Evaulation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters) will be presented. Flights are planned out of Hampton, VA during September and October 2011 including underflights of the CALIPSO satellite and overflights of ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites. These will provide a comparison of aerosol properties between in situ and remote instruments (ground, aircraft, and satellite-based). In situ measurements include aerosol number density, size, scattering, absorption and hygroscopicity (aerosol scattering as a function of relative humidity). The PI-Neph will provide the first airborne in situ measurements of aerosol polarized phase function for comparison to the RSP retrievals. As this is the first airborne use of the PI-Neph, aerosol scattering measurements from the PI-Neph will be compared to an integrating nephelometer to provide a primary indication of instrument functionality. Specific flights will be performed to study a range of aerosol classifications including fresh anthropogenic pollution (flights over populated regions), aged pollution (tracking pollution as it moves off shore), sea salt (low altitude ocean flights by the in situ aircraft) and biogenic (flights over forest canopies). In addition, the DLH and a wing-mounted cloud aerosol precipitation spectrometer will provide insight into aerosol retrievals above and near clouds.

  17. Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, G.; Neuber, R.; Schrems, O. (Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)); Wittrock, F. (Univ. of Bremen (Germany)); Knudsen, B. (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1994-01-01

    Using a multiwavelength lidar the authors measured aerosols from the tropopause to altitudes of 30 km in the period December 1992 to March 1993. They analyzed backscatter and depolarization measurements to infer information on aerosol size and phase. During most of this period they saw evidence of a liquid drop aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere which was of a volcanic origin. In January they observed polar stratospheric clouds on numerous occasions, and particle size was found to depend strongly on the cooling rate.

  18. Polarization lidar returns from aerosols and thin clouds: a framework for the analysis.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, G P

    1998-08-20

    Relationships for the interpretation of polarization lidar observations of aerosols and thin clouds are presented. They allow for the separation of contributions to backscatter from solid and liquid phases by the use of either the classical backscatter and depolarization ratio parameters or the particulate cross-polarized backscatter cross sections. It is shown that different aerosol phases can be better separated by use of the latter coordinates. Emphasis is placed on the study of composition and phase properties of polar stratospheric aerosols. PMID:18286035

  19. Quality Assured Aerosol Products from the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, E. J.; Belcher, L. R.; Campbell, J.; Berkoff, T.; Stewart, S. A.; Lewis, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) is a federated network of Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems designed to measure aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously, day and night, over long time periods required to contribute to climate change studies and provide ground validation for models and satellite sensors in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). At present, there are seventeen permanent sites worldwide, and several more to be completed soon. Numerous temporary sites have been deployed in support of various field campaigns since the start of MPLNET in 2000. Most MPLNET sites are co-located with sites in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) to provide both column and vertically resolved aerosol and cloud data. Version-two MPLNET data products were released in 2008, and include: Level 1 lidar signals and diagnostics; Level 1.5b cloud, aerosol, and PBL heights; and Level 1.5a aerosol properties (e.g. profiles of extinction). The data are available continuously, day and night, on a standard grid (1 minute temporal, 75 m vertical). The operational version-two MPLNET data products have all been near real time data (Level 1 and 1.5), with no quality assurance screening applied. Here we present a first look at our Version-two, Level 2, quality assured-aerosol products (Level 2a). We will provide an overview of the Level 2 methodology and present examples that demonstrate how the quality assurance screens improve the Level 1.5a aerosol data. The first quality assured, multi-year aerosol profiles from several sites will be presented, including examination of seasonal and diurnal trends.

  20. Comparison of ambient aerosol extinction coefficients obtained from in-situ, MAX-DOAS and LIDAR measurements at Cabauw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, P.; Weingartner, E.; Henzing, J.; Moerman, M.; de Leeuw, G.; Mikkilä, J.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Clémer, K.; van Roozendael, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Frieß, U.; Irie, H.; Wagner, T.; Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Apituley, A.; Wilson, K.; Baltensperger, U.

    2011-03-01

    In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RH<30-40%). Since ambient aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced RH, their microphysical and optical properties - especially the aerosol light scattering - are also strongly dependent on RH. The knowledge of this RH effect is of crucial importance for climate forcing calculations or for the comparison of remote sensing with in-situ measurements. Here, we will present results from a four-month campaign which took place in summer 2009 in Cabauw, The Netherlands. The aerosol scattering coefficient ?sp(?) was measured dry and at various, predefined RH conditions between 20 and 95% with a humidified nephelometer. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH,?) is the key parameter to describe the effect of RH on ?sp(?) and is defined as ?sp(RH,?) measured at a certain RH divided by the dry ?sp(dry,?). The measurement of f(RH,?) together with the dry absorption measurement (assumed not to change with RH) allows the determination of the actual extinction coefficient ?ep(RH,?) at ambient RH. In addition, a wide range of other aerosol properties were measured in parallel. The measurements were used to characterize the effects of RH on the aerosol optical properties. A closure study showed the consistency of the aerosol in-situ measurements. Due to the large variability of air mass origin (and thus aerosol composition) a simple parameterization of f(RH,?) could not be established. If f(RH,?) needs to be predicted, the chemical composition and size distribution need to be known. Measurements of four MAX-DOAS (multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy) instruments were used to retrieve vertical profiles of ?ep(?). The values of the lowest layer were compared to the in-situ values after conversion of the latter ones to ambient RH. The comparison showed a good correlation of R2 = 0.62-0.78, but the extinction coefficients from MAX-DOAS were a factor of 1.5-3.4 larger than the in-situ values. Best agreement is achieved for a few cases characterized by low aerosol optical depths and low planetary boundary layer heights. Differences were shown to be dependent on the applied MAX-DOAS retrieval algorithm. The comparison of the in-situ extinction data to a Raman LIDAR (light detection and ranging) showed a good correlation and higher values measured by the LIDAR (R2 = 0.82-0.85, slope of 1.69-1.76) if the Raman retrieved profile was used to extrapolate the directly measured extinction coefficient to the ground. The comparison improved if only nighttime measurements were used in the comparison (R2 = 0.96, slope of 1.12).

  1. Comments on: Accuracy of Raman Lidar Water Vapor Calibration and its Applicability to Long-Term Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In a recent publication, LeBlanc and McDermid proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios.

  2. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  3. Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol distributions during the 1992 airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Grant, William B.; Ismail, Syed; Carter, Arlen F.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Langley airborne differential absorption lidar system was operated from the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and ozone (O3) across the Arctic vortex from January to March 1992. Aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption were found outside and inside the Arctic vortex with distinctly different scattering characteristics and spatial distributions in the two regions. The aerosol and O3 distributions clearly identified the edge of the vortex and provided additional information on vortex dynamics and transport processes. Few polar stratospheric clouds were observed during the AASE-2; however, those that were found had enhanced scattering and depolarization over the background Pinatubo aerosols. The distribution of aerosols inside the vortex exhibited relatively minor changes during the AASE-2. Ozone depletion inside the vortex as limited to less than or equal to 20 percent in the altitude region from 15-20 km.

  4. Advances In Global Aerosol Modeling Applications Through Assimilation of Satellite-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James; Hyer, Edward; Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey; Westphal, Douglas; Xian, Peng; Vaughan, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Modeling the instantaneous three-dimensional aerosol field and its downwind transport represents an endeavor with many practical benefits foreseeable to air quality, aviation, military and science agencies. The recent proliferation of multi-spectral active and passive satellite-based instruments measuring aerosol physical properties has served as an opportunity to develop and refine the techniques necessary to make such numerical modeling applications possible. Spurred by high-resolution global mapping of aerosol source regions, and combined with novel multivariate data assimilation techniques designed to consider these new data streams, operational forecasts of visibility and aerosol optical depths are now available in near real-time1. Active satellite-based aerosol profiling, accomplished using lidar instruments, represents a critical element for accurate analysis and transport modeling. Aerosol source functions, alone, can be limited in representing the macrophysical structure of injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth from passive satellite observations significantly improves the analysis of the initial state. However, this procedure can not fully compensate for any potential vertical redistribution of mass required at the innovation step. The expense of an inaccurate vertical analysis of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive forecast runs will likely diverge with height. In this paper, the application of a newly-designed system for 3D-VAR (x,y,z) assimilation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles derived from elastic-scattering lidar measurements is described [Campbell et al., 2009]. Performance is evaluated for use with the U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) by assimilating NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 0.532 ?m measurements [Winker et al., 2009]. Inversion retrievals of aerosol extinction are performed for one-degree latitudinal averages of CALIOP backscatter signal (thus matching the horizontal resolution of NAAPS) by constraining total column transmission using the model estimate of AOD at the corresponding wavelength. As such, this system serves as a post-processing module predicated on newly-operational NAAPS aerosol analysis fields that feature 2D-VAR assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Infrared Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD observations [Zhang and Reid, 2006; Zhang et al., 2008]. We describe the influence of 3D-VAR assimilation on NAAPS analyses and forecasts by considering the physical evolution of Saharan dust plumes during their advection across the tropical Atlantic basin. Steps taken towards characterizing spatial covariance parameters that broaden the horizontal influence of information obtained along the limited lidar orbital swath are discussed. This latter context is critical when comparing the efficacy and impact of 3D-VAR assimilation with that of 2D-VAR procedures, which benefit from passive observations with a relatively wide field-of-view and, therefore, greater/more routine global coverage. With multiple satellite-lidar projects either pending launch or in design stages, including the dual ESA missions (AEOLUS and EarthCARE), we describe the potential impact of future 3D-VAR assimilation activities; both for NAAPS forecast capabilities, and the anticipated growth in aerosol transport modeling efforts at federal and cooperative global agencies worldwide. 1 http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/aerosol/ References Campbell, J. R., J. S. Reid, D. L. Westphal, J. Zhang, E. J. Hyer, and E. J. Welton, CALIOP aerosol subset processing for global aerosol transport model data assimilation, in press, J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens., December 2009. Winker, D. M., M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms, J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol., 26, DOI:10.1175/2009JTECHA1281.1, 2009. Zhang,

  5. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distributions with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric and surface processes and feature. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of about a 1 Joule/pulse (eyesafe) lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and operations control system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (on an order of 1 micron in diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and concentration. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be about 1 m/s. A variety of applications has been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; an upper tropospheric jet stream; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a hurricane were made with the airborne Doppler lidar. Potential future applications, and plans for improvements, will also be identified.

  6. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a hurricane were made with the airborne Doppler lidar. Potential applications and plans for improvement will also be described.

  7. A three-beam aerosol backscatter correlation lidar for three-component wind profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan Mylapore, Anand; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Prasad, Coorg R.; Lee, Sangwoo; Achey, Alexander; Hwang, In Heon; Mehta, Nikhil; Yakshin, Mikhail; Novoselov, Konstantin; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a three-beam elastic lidar that utilizes aerosol backscatter correlation to measure three-component wind profiles for detecting and tracking aircraft wake vortices; turbulence intensity and wind shear profiles. High-resolution time-resolved wind information can currently be obtained with ultrasonic or hot-wire anemometers suitable for local point measurements, or with Doppler wind lidars that only measure line-of-sight wind speeds and have to be scanned over large measurement cone angles for obtaining three-component winds. By tracking the motion of aerosol structures along and between three near-parallel laser beams, our lidar obtains three-component wind speed profiles along the field of view (FOV) of the lidar beams. Our prototype lidar wind profiler (LWP) has three 8-inch transceiver modules placed in a near-parallel configuration on a two-axis pan-tilt scanner to measure winds up to 2km away. Passively q-switched near-infrared (1030nm) Yb:YAG lasers generate 12 - 18ns wide pulses at high repetition rate (about 10KHz) that are expanded and attenuated to eye-safe levels. Sensitive low noise detection is achieved even in daytime using a narrow FOV receiver, together with narrowband interference filters and single photoncounting Geiger-mode Si detectors. A multi-channel scaler retrieves the lidar return with 7.8ns bins (˜1.2m spatial resolution) and stores accumulated counts once every 50ms (20 profiles/sec). We adapted optical flow algorithms to obtain the movement of aerosol structures between the beams. The performance of our prototype LWP was validated using sonic anemometer measurements.

  8. Solution of multifrequency lidar inverse problem for a pre-set marine aerosol size-distribution formula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Piskozub

    1994-01-01

    A solution of the inverse problem concerning finding aerosol size distribution for a multifrequency lidar system working on a small number of wavelengths is proposed. The solution involves a best- fit method of finding parameters in a pre-set formula of particle size distribution. A comparison of results calculated with the algorithm from experimental lidar profiles with PMS data collected in

  9. Developing a portable, autonomous aerosol backscatter lidar for network or remote operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2013-03-01

    Lidar has the ability to detect the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere and can therefore identify the existence and extent of aerosols with high spatial and temporal resolution, making it well suited for understanding atmospheric dynamics and transport processes. Environment Canada has developed a portable, autonomous lidar system that can be monitored remotely and operated continuously except during precipitation events. The lidar, housed in a small trailer, simultaneously emits two wavelengths of laser light (1064 nm and 532 nm) at energies of approximately 150 mJ/pulse/wavelength and detects the backscatter signal at 1064 nm and both polarizations at 532 nm. For laser energies of this magnitude, the challenge resides in designing a system that meets the airspace safety requirements for autonomous operations. Through the combination of radar technology, beam divergence, laser cavity interlocks and using computer log files, this risk was mitigated. A Continuum Inlite small footprint laser is the backbone of the system because of three design criteria: requiring infrequent flash lamp changes compared to previous Nd : YAG Q-switch lasers, complete software control capability and a built-in laser energy monitoring system. A computer-controlled interface was designed to monitor the health of the system, adjust operational parameters and maintain a climate-controlled environment. Through an Internet connection, it also transmitted the vital performance indicators and data stream to allow the lidar profile data for multiple instruments from near ground to 15 km, every 10 s, to be viewed, in near real-time via a website. The details of the system design and calibration will be discussed and the success of the instrument as tested within the framework of a national lidar network dubbed CORALNet (Canadian Operational Research Aerosol Lidar Network). In addition, the transport of a forest fire plume across the country will be shown as evidenced by the lidar network, HYSPLIT back trajectories, MODIS imagery and CALIPSO overpasses.

  10. Developing a portable, autonomous aerosol backscatter lidar for network or remote operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2012-11-01

    Lidar has the ability to detect the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere and can therefore identify the existence and extent of aerosols with high spatial and temporal resolution, making it well-suited for understanding atmospheric dynamics and transport processes. Environment Canada has developed a portable, autonomous lidar system that can be monitored remotely and operate continuously except during precipitation events. The lidar, housed in a small trailer, simultaneously emits two wavelengths of laser light (1064 nm and 532 nm) at energies of approximately 150 mJ/pulse/wavelength and detects the backscatter signal at 1064 nm and both polarizations at 532 nm. For laser energies of this magnitude, the challenge resides in designing a system that meets the airspace safety requirements for autonomous operations. Through the combination of radar technology, beam divergence, laser cavity interlocks and using computer log files, this risk was mitigated. A Continuum Inlite small footprint laser is the backbone of the system because of three design criteria: requiring infrequent flash lamp changes compared to previous Nd:YAG Q-switch lasers, complete software control capability and a built-in laser energy monitoring system. A computer-controlled interface was designed to monitor the health of the system, adjust operational parameters and maintain a climate-controlled environment. Through an internet connection, it also transmitted the vital performance indicators and data stream to allow the lidar profile data for multiple instruments from near ground to 15 km, every 10 s, to be viewed, in near real-time via a website. The details of the system design and calibration will be discussed and the success of the instrument as tested within the framework of a national lidar network dubbed CORALNet (Canadian Operational Research Aerosol Lidar Network). In addition, the transport of a forest fire plume across the country will be shown as evidenced by the lidar network, HYSPLIT back trajectories, MODIS imagery and CALIPSO overpasses.

  11. Anomalies in Sea Spray Aerosol Optical Properties Detected by NASA High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, K. W.; Meskhidze, N.; Hu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Data from a NASA flight mission over the Azores Archipelago off the western coast of Africa are analyzed to identify anomalies in sea spray aerosol optical properties associated with ocean biological production. The weeklong flight campaign began October 11, 2012 and focused on the sampling of clean marine air with little contamination from other sources like African dust or continental pollution. The NASA High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has a laser that emits a pulse at two wavelengths (0.532 and 1.064 ?m) and a receiver that measures the backscattered radiation as a function of altitude. From this instrument, three important optical properties relevant to our study are derived: the aerosol lidar ratio, color ratio, and depolarization ratio, analysis of which can give insight into aerosol type, size, and shape respectively. To analyze the optical properties of aerosols within the marine boundary layer, one needs to accurately predict the boundary layer height and the presence of clouds in the optical path of the HSRL. Therefore, this study first introduces a new cloud-screening algorithm and then applies a boundary layer detection algorithm to filter the aerosol sample. Our analysis for the cloud free regions revealed statistically significant anomalies in particle depolarization ratio (?>10%) that were well correlated with surface chlorophyll-a concentrations (R?0.5) detected by NASA's MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Other parameters such as the lidar ratio and color ratio that are influenced by the aerosol size distribution and physiochemical properties will also be discussed. This study suggests that HSRL is suitable for exploring the effects of ocean biological production on clean marine aerosol optical properties.

  12. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties using Polarization and Lidar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols cause a substantial forcing of the terrestrial climate, but the magnitude of this forcing remains largely unknown. This explains the significant interest of the climate community to the prospect of measuring key aerosol properties from space using advanced remote sensing techniques. It has been known for a long time that polarization of the scattered light is much more sensitive to the aerosol microphysics than the scattered intensity. It is, therefore, not surprising that the most recent addition to the New Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) payload is the so-called Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS). The main objective of this instrument is to measure the aerosol and cloud properties with accuracy and coverage sufficient for a reliable estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings of climate. Accordingly, the first part of this lecture course will focus on describing the basic concept of the APS, the physical principles of polarization data analyses, and the results already obtained with an aircraft version of the APS. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) represent another poorly understood aerosol component of the terrestrial atmosphere which affects the climate by supporting chemical reactions destroying the ozone layer. The high altitude of the PSCs and their predominant occurrence in high latitude and polar regions make it very difficult to study PSCs using conventional in situ techniques. Most of the information that we have about this type of clouds has been gathered using ground-based polarization lidars. The second part of the course will focus on explaining the physical principles of the polarization lidar technique and describing retrievals of PSC particle microphysical characteristics by converting I multispectral lidar measurements of the backscattered intensity and depolarization.

  13. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D. OC; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cardirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL (Scanning Raman Lidar) and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20% . The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

  14. A Compact Mobile Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A compact mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric ozone air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars across the country. The lidar system consists of a UV and green laser transmitter, a telescope and an optical signal receiver with associated Licel photon counting and analog channels. The laser transmitter consist of a Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser with all the associated power and lidar control support units on a single system rack. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer and was deployed to Denver, CO July 15-August 15, 2014 supporting the DISCOVER-AQ campaign. Ozone curtain plots and the resulting science are presented.

  15. A compact mobile ozone lidar for atmospheric ozone and aerosol profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-10-01

    A compact mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric ozone air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars across the country. The lidar system consists of a UV and green laser transmitter, a telescope and an optical signal receiver with associated Licel photon counting and analog channels. The laser transmitter consists of a Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser with all the associated power and lidar control support units on a single system rack. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer and was deployed to Denver, CO July 15-August 15, 2014 supporting the DISCOVER-AQ campaign. Ozone curtain plots and the resulting science are presented.

  16. Lidar Observations of Tropical High-altitude Cirrus Clouds: Results form Dual Wavelength Raman Lidar Measurements During the ALBATROSS Campaign 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuber, R.; Wegener, Alfred; Schrems, O.; McDermid, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    Results from dual wavelength Raman Lidar Observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds are reported. Based on 107 hours of night-time measurements cirrus cloud were present in more than 50% of the observations at latitudes between 23.5 degress S and 23.5 degrees N and altitudes between 11 and 16km.

  17. Lidar observation of the 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic aerosols at Lauder, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamae, K.; Uchino, O.; Morino, I.; Liley, B.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Yokota, T.

    2014-11-01

    On 4 June 2011, the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (40.6° S, 72.1° W) in Chile erupted violently and injected volcanic aerosols into the atmosphere. For the safety of civil aviation, continuous lidar observations were made at Lauder, New Zealand (45.0° S, 169.7° E), from 11 June through 6 July 2011. The purpose of our study is to quantify the influence of the volcanic ejections from large eruptions, and we use the data from the ground-based lidar observation. We analyzed lidar data at a wavelength of 532 nm and derived the backscattering ratio and depolarization ratio profiles. During June and July, within the altitude range of 10-15 km, the volcanic aerosols had high depolarization ratios (20-35%), an indication of non-spherical volcanic ash particles. The time series of the backscattering ratio during continuous observations had three peaks occurring at about 12-day intervals: 26.7 at 11.2 km on 11 June, 18.1 at 12.0 km on 23 June, and 5.3 at 11.1 km on 6 July. The optical depth of the volcanic aerosols was 0.45 on 11 June, when the continuous lidar observation started, 0.31 on 23 June, and 0.12 on 6 July. The depolarization ratio values remained high up to a month after the eruption, and the small wavelength exponent calculated from the backscattering coefficients at 532 nm and 1064 nm suggests that a major constituent of the volcanic aerosols was large, non-spherical particles. The presence of volcanic ash in the stratosphere might affect the error in Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) XCO2 retrieval using the 1.6 ?m band. We briefly discuss the influence of the increased aerosols on GOSAT products.

  18. Comparison of tropospheric delays from Raman lidar, radiosondes, GPS and DORIS during the MANITOUL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, P.; Bock, O.; Thom, C.; Pelon, J.; Willis, P.; Martin, O.; Nahmani, S.; Garrouste, O.

    2010-12-01

    Water vapor measurements from a Raman lidar developed conjointly by IGN and LATMOS/CNRS are used for documenting water vapor heterogeneities in the lower troposphere and correcting geodetic radio-signal propagation delays in clear sky conditions. This instrument has both capabilities for realizing zenith pointing and slant pointing measurements. During fall 2009, the system was deployed in Toulouse (France) in collaboration with Météo-France, IPGP, CNRS and CNES for an experiment devoted to investigate the impact of water vapor heterogeneities on the propagation of DORIS and GPS signals and subsequent position estimates. During this experiment the lidar was operated for the first time in a slant pointing mode realizing sky maps of slant wet delays which will be used for correcting GPS observations. A second pointing mode was used to track DORIS satellites (Envisat, SPOT4 and SPOT5) for assessing slant wet delays retrieved from DORIS geodetic solutions. The first results from this campaign show a good agreement between both geodetic techniques for zenith wet delay retrieval. The agreement between geodetic techniques, lidar, and radiosoundings are rather good as well, despite a bias remains. Lidar slant pointing measurements are intended to be compared to GPS and DORIS slant retrievals and then used for correcting the GPS data. They are expected to improve the positioning accuracy, especially the vertical component.

  19. Impact of clouds on aerosol scattering as observed by lidar

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    a + KT i S-1 Ki]-1 (2) {KT i S-1 [y - F (xi)] - S-1 a (xi - xa)}, where S |a are the measurement and extinction profiles, a and a, with the magnitude of Rayleigh scattering estimated from radiosonde to aerosols, which can be written in terms of aerosol extinction as, Ta(, zi) = exp - a(, zi) + a(, z0) 2

  20. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

  1. Characterization of convection-related parameters by Raman lidar: Selected case studies from the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario

    2013-05-01

    An approach to determine the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective inhibition (CIN) based on the use of data from a Raman lidar system is illustrated in this work. The use of Raman lidar data allows to provide high temporal resolution measurements (5 min) of CAPE and CIN and follow their evolution over extended time periods covering the full cycle of convective activity. Lidar-based measurements of CAPE and CIN are obtained from Raman lidar measurements of the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profiles and the surface measurements of temperature, pressure and dew point temperature provided by a surface weather station. The approach is applied to the data collected by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the frame of COPS. Attention was focused on 15 July and 25-26 July 2007. Lidar-based measurements are in good agreement with simultaneous measurements from radiosondes and with estimates from different mesoscale models.

  2. Lidar measurements of Raman scattering at ultraviolet wavelength from mineral dust over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tatarov, Boyan; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho; Shin, Sung Kyun; Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min; Kim, Y J; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2011-01-17

    We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength. PMID:21263697

  3. Daytime Raman lidar measurements of water vapor during the ARM 1997 water vapor intensive observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Because of the importance of water vapor, the ARM program initiated a series of three intensive operating periods (IOPs) at its CART (Cloud And Radiation Testbed) site. The goal of these IOPs is to improve and validate the state-of-the-art capabilities in measuring water vapor. To date, two of the planned three IOPs have occurred: the first was in September of 1996, with an emphasis on the lowest kilometer, while the second was conducted from September--October 1997 with a focus on both the upper troposphere and lowest kilometer. These IOPs provided an excellent opportunity to compare measurements from other systems with those made by the CART Raman lidar. This paper addresses primarily the daytime water vapor measurements made by the lidar system during the second of these IOPs.

  4. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mamouri, R. E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Mona, L.

    2013-09-01

    Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties as well as the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece, using multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements performed during the period 21-24 April 2010. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements along with inversion schemes were initialized together with lidar observations to deliver the aforementioned products. The well-known FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) model used for volcanic dispersion simulations is initiated as well in order to estimate the horizontal and vertical distribution of volcanic particles. Compared with the lidar measurements within the planetary boundary layer over Athens, FLEXPART proved to be a useful tool for determining the state of mixing of ash with other, locally emitted aerosol types. The major findings presented in our work concern the identification of volcanic particles layers in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the volcanic source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) from the surface and up to 10 km according to the lidar measurements. Mean hourly averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth was found to vary from 0.01 to 0.18 at 355 nm and from 0.02 up to 0.17 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (S) ranged between 60 and 80 sr at 355 nm and 44 and 88 sr at 532 nm. The mean effective radius of the volcanic particles estimated by applying inversion scheme to the lidar data found to vary within the range 0.13-0.38 ?m and the refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. This high variability is most probably attributed to the mixing of aged volcanic particles with other aerosol types of local origin. Finally, the LIRIC (LIdar/Radiometer Inversion Code) lidar/sunphotometric combined inversion algorithm has been applied in order to retrieve particle concentrations. These have been compared with FLEXPART simulations of the vertical distribution of ash showing good agreement concerning not only the geometrical properties of the volcanic particles layers but also the particles mass concentration.

  5. Using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data to Evaluate Combined Active Plus Passive Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Kittaka, C.; Vaughn, M. A.; Remer, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We derive aerosol extinction profiles from airborne and space-based lidar backscatter signals by constraining the retrieval with column aerosol optical thickness (AOT), with no need to rely on assumptions about aerosol type or lidar ratio. The backscatter data were acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. The HSRL also simultaneously measures aerosol extinction coefficients independently using the high spectral resolution lidar technique, thereby providing an ideal data set for evaluating the retrieval. We retrieve aerosol extinction profiles from both HSRL and CALIOP attenuated backscatter data constrained with HSRL, Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer column AOT. The resulting profiles are compared with the aerosol extinction measured by HSRL. Retrievals are limited to cases where the column aerosol thickness is greater than 0.2 over land and 0.15 over water. In the case of large AOT, the results using the Aqua MODIS constraint over water are poorer than Aqua MODIS over land or Terra MODIS. The poorer results relate to an apparent bias in Aqua MODIS AOT over water observed in August 2007. This apparent bias is still under investigation. Finally, aerosol extinction coefficients are derived from CALIPSO backscatter data using AOT from Aqua MODIS for 28 profiles over land and 9 over water. They agree with coincident measurements by the airborne HSRL to within +/-0.016/km +/- 20% for at least two-thirds of land points and within +/-0.028/km +/- 20% for at least two-thirds of ocean points.

  6. Midlatitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multichannel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-12-01

    A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar in Rome Tor Vergata (RTV). A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a data set consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio) and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosonde data of Pratica di Mare, WMO, World Meteorological Organization, site no. 16245) of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid- and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach at the lidar site of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), allows characterization of cirrus clouds over the RTV site and attests to the robustness of such classification. To acquire some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff, in terms of frequency distribution functions and dependencies on the mid-height cirrus temperature, have been performed. A preliminary study relating some meteorological parameters (e.g., relative humidity, wind components) to cirrus clusters has also been conducted. The RTV cirrus results, recomputed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992), show good agreement with other midlatitude lidar cirrus observations for the relative occurrence of subvisible (SVC), thin and opaque cirrus classes (10%, 49% and 41%, respectively). The overall mean value of cirrus optical depth is 0.37 ± 0.18, while most retrieved LReff values range between 10-60 sr, and the estimated mean value is 31 ± 15 sr, similar to LR values of lower latitude cirrus measurements. The obtained results are consistent with previous studies conducted with different systems and confirm that cirrus classification based on a statistical approach seems to be a good tool both to validate the height-resolved cirrus fields calculated by models and to investigate the key processes governing cirrus formation and evolution. However, the lidar ratio and optical depth analyses are affected by some uncertainties (e.g., lidar error noise, multiple scattering effects, supercooled water clouds) that reduce the confidence of the results. Future studies are needed to improve the characterization of the cirrus optical properties and, thus, the determination of their radiative impact.

  7. Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements During the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Evans, K. D.; Berkoff, T. B.; Demoz, B. D.; DiGirolamo, P.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the Water Vapor IOP 2000 (WVIOP2000) and ARM FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) at the DOE SGP CART site in northern Oklahoma. These experiments occurred during the period of September and December, 2000. The goals of both the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX were to better characterize the water vapor measurement capability of numerous sensors in the lower atmosphere and upper troposphere, respectively. The SRL received several hardware upgrades in anticipation of these experiments that permitted improved measurements of water vapor during the daytime and in the upper troposphere (UT). The daytime SRL water vapor error statistics were demonstrated a factor of 2-3 improvement compared to the permanently stationed CART Raman lidar (CARL). The performance of the SRL in the UT showed improvements as well. The technological upgrades that permitted these improved SRL measurements could also be implemented in the CARL system. Data examples demonstrating the new daytime and upper tropospheric measurement capability of the SRL will be shown at the meeting. In addition, preliminary analysis will be presented on several topics: 1) inter comparison of the water vapor measurements for several water vapor sensors including SRL, CARL, the NASA/Langley Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) flown onboard the NASA DC-8, in-situ sensors flown on the DC-8, and the Max Planck Institute Differential Absorption Lidar 2) comparison of cirrus cloud measurements using SRL and CARL and 3) case studies of meteorological events that occurred during the IOPs such as a cold frontal passage on the night of September 23.

  8. Ultraviolet DIAL measurements of O3 profiles in regions of spatially inhomogeneous aerosols. [differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Shipley, S. T.; Ismail, S.

    1985-01-01

    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique generally assumes that atmospheric optical scattering is the same at the two laser wavelengths used in the DIAL measurement of a gas concentration profile. Erros can arise in this approach when the wavelengths are significantly separated, and there is a range dependence in the aerosol scattering distribution. This paper discusses the errors introduced by large DIAL wavelength separations and spatial inhomogeneity of aerosols in the atmosphere. A Bernoulli solution for determining the relative distribution of aerosol backscattering in the UV region is presented, and scattering ratio boundary values for these solutions are discussed. The results of this approach are used to derive a backscatter correction to the standard DIAL analysis method. It is shown that for the worst cases of severe range dependence in aerosol backscattering, the residual errors in the corrected DIAL O3 measurements were less than 10 ppbv for DIAL wavelengths at 286 and 300 nm.

  9. Water vapor measurements by Raman lidar during the ARM 1997 water vapor intensive observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G.K. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Melfi, S.H. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, as it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter of radiation, and it also plays an important role in energy transport and cloud formation. Accurate, high resolution measurements of this variable are critical in order to improve the understanding of these processes and thus their ability to model them. Because of the importance of water vapor, the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program initiated a series of three intensive operating periods (IOPs) at its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. The goal of these IOPs is to improve and validate the state-of-the-art capabilities in measuring water vapor. To date, two of the planned three IOPs have occurred: the first was in September of 1996, with an emphasis on the lowest kilometer, while the second was conducted from September--October 1997 with a focus on both the upper troposphere and lowest kilometer. The ARM CART site is the home of several different water vapor measurement systems. These systems include a Raman lidar, a microwave radiometer, a radiosonde launch site, and an instrumented tower. During these IOPs, additional instrumentation was brought to the site to augment the normal measurements in the attempt to characterize the CART instruments and to address the need to improve water vapor measurement capabilities. Some of the instruments brought to the CART site include a scanning Raman lidar system from NASA/GSFC, additional microwave radiometers from NOAA/ETL, a chilled mirror that was flown on a tethersonde and kite system, and dewpoint hygrometer instruments flow on the North Dakota Citation. This paper will focus on the Raman lidar intercomparisons from the second IOP.

  10. First lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols from a high-altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed

    1995-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in many atmospheric processes related to radiation, climate change, atmospheric dynamics, meteorology, the global hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry, and yet our knowledge of the global distribution of water vapor is very limited. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique has the potential of providing needed high resolution water vapor measurements from aircraft and from space, and the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is a key step in the development of this capability. The LASE instrument is the first fully engineered, autonomous DIAL system, and it is designed to operate from a high-altitude aircraft (ER-2) and to make water vapor and aerosol profile measurements across the troposphere. The LASE system was flown from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in a series of engineering flights during September 1994. This paper discusses the characteristics of the LASE system and presents the first LASE measurements of water vapor and aerosol profiles.

  11. Derivation of Mount Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol mean size distribution by means of a multiwavelength lidar.

    PubMed

    Guasta, M D; Morandi, M; Stefanutti, L; Stein, B; Wolf, J P

    1994-08-20

    A multiwavelength lidar operated in Sodankyla, Finland, during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (December 1991-March 1992). It produced vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols at four wavelengths. The determination of aerosol mean size distribution has been performed by use of extinction/backscattering ratios as obtained from lidar data processing at 355, 352, and 750 nm. Lognormal distributions of sulfuric particles with mode radius of r(m) = 0.12-0.25 µm and corresponding widths of s = 2-1.6 have been retrieved as best fits of experimental data, in good agreement with in situ measurements. A successful attempt to derive bimodal log-normal distributions is also described, together with the experimental and theoretical problems involved. PMID:20935970

  12. Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols over Menlo Park, California, October 1972 - March 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Viezee, W.; Hake, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    During an 18-month period, 30 nighttime observations of stratospheric aerosols were made using a ground based ruby lidar located near the Pacific coast of central California (37.5 deg. N, 122.2 deg. W). Vertical profiles of the lidar scattering ratio and the particulate backscattering coefficient were obtained by reference to a layer of assumed negligible particulate content. An aerosol layer centered near 21 km was clearly evident in all observations, but its magnitude and vertical distribution varied considerably throughout the observation period. A reduction of particulate backscattering in the 23- to 30-km layer during late January 1973 appears to have been associated with the sudden stratospheric warming which occurred at that time.

  13. Aerosol source areas identification based on lidar sounding data and back trajectories statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovsky, A.; Kabashnikov, V.; Kuzmin, V.; Pietruczuk, A.; Sobolewski, P.

    2007-06-01

    Data of aerosol measurements from October 2004 to December 2006 and a collection of back trajectories arriving at a monitoring site at the measurement instants were used to reveal main aerosol source areas with the help of the residence time analysis. Overall aerosol content in the vertical atmosphere column was measured in Minsk (Belarus; Belsk, Poland) with the help of multiwavelength aerosol lidar and sun-scanning spectral radiometer. 3D five day back trajectories were calculated using wind field data provided by Republican GidroMeteoCenter of Republic Belarus. These data were supplemented with the vertical velocity data and the wind field in the planetary boundary layer. It was found that the most powerful aerosol source areas are beyond of Belarus and Poland territories. They are on the south-east, south and south-west directions to monitoring stations. Revealed sources are close to the expert EMEP aerosol emission data. On the average the south territories affect the most atmosphere conditions at the monitoring sites. About 60% of aerosols in Minsk and about 50% of aerosols in Belsk have a transboundary origin.

  14. Evaluations of Thin Cirrus Contamination and Screening in Ground Aerosol Observations Using Collocated Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly sub visual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to be screened in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to thin cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the CALIPSO vertical feature mask (VFM) and the MODIS-derived thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating thin cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) Quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted. Although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons, (2) Challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed, and (3) Estimation of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  15. Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements using a tunable coherent CO2 lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Kavaya, M. J.; Flamant, P. H.; Haner, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscatter coefficients, using a coherent CO2 lidar at 9.25- and 10.6-micron wavelengths, are described. Vertical profiles of the volume backscatter coefficient beta have been measured to a 10-km altitude over the Pasadena, CA, region. These measurements indicate a wide range of variability in beta both in and above the local boundary layer. Certain profiles also indicate a significant enhancement in beta at the 9.25-micron wavelength compared with beta at the 10.6-micron wavelength, which possibly indicates a major contribution to the volume backscatter from ammonium sulfate aerosol particles.

  16. A Compact Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Observations of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John W.; Cook, Anthony L.

    2002-01-01

    We are in the process of developing a nadir-viewing, aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) at NASA Langley Research Center. The system is designed to measure backscatter and extinction of aerosols and tenuous clouds. The primary uses of the instrument will be to validate spaceborne aerosol and cloud observations, carry out regional process studies, and assess the predictions of chemical transport models. In this paper, we provide an overview of the instrument design and present the results of simulations showing the instrument's capability to accurately measure extinction and extinction-to-backscatter ratio.

  17. Retrieval of aerosol size distribution based on GCV regularization with optical data of lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hua, Dengxin; Di, Huige; Wang, Yufeng; Zhao, Huan; Mao, Jiandong

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation balance both directly and indirectly. The aerosol size distribution (ASD) is one of the most important microphysical properties. In this paper, the generalized cross-validation (GCV) regularization method is used for the retrieval of ASD from three-wavelength lidar optical data. The numerical simulations are carried out using synthetic backscatter and extinction coefficients. Simulations results demonstrate that the ASD depends on particle refractive index. Choosing the suitable refractive index is crucial to retrieve aerosol size distribution accurately. Moreover, the numerical results show that, for the same refractive index, it is more suitable to retrieve broad ASD, which has larger mode width ?. The GCV regularization method has been tested for a set of experimental data from three-wavelength lidar, which provides backscatter coefficient at 355, 532 and 1064 nm and extinction coefficient at 355 and 532 nm. Experimental result shows that the retrieved size distribution belongs to the urban industrial type and fine mode. The result shows good agreement with the actural atmospheric aerosol size distribution of local area. Both the simulation and the expriment demonstrate that the GCV regularization method is feasible to retrieve the aerosol size distribution.

  18. Aerosol optical and microphysical properties as derived from collocated measurements using polarization lidar and direct sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Mano, Yuzo; Zaizen, Yuji; Inomata, Yayoi

    2012-12-01

    Collocated and simultaneous measurements of aerosols near the ground were conducted using a lidar and aerosol sampler at Tsukuba, Japan, to clarify the relationship between lidar-derived optical properties and in-situ microphysical properties. The total linear particle depolarization ratio (?p) ranged from 14% to 18% when nonspherical mineral dust particles were predominant in the supermicrometer range on May 7-8, 2008, whereas it ranged from 6% to 7% when spherical sea-salt particles were predominant in that range on September 3-4, 2008. Sulfates and nitrates were predominant in the submicrometer range for these two periods. Water-dialysis analysis on May 6-7 indicated that 29% of the coarse particles were water insoluble, whereas 70% were water soluble or nearly soluble on September 3-4. The ratio of dry mass concentration to the backscattering coefficient (M/?p) was 34-39 g m-2 sr on May 7-8 and 6.2-6.3 g m-2 sr on September 3-4. Our results provide evidence that lidar-derived ?p and ?p capture the aerosol mass concentration and relative abundance of the spherical and nonspherical particles although the microphysical properties vary significantly for individual particles.

  19. Comparison of Summer and Winter California Central Valley Aerosol Distributions from Lidar and MODIS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jasper; DeYoung, Russell; Ferrare, Richard; Chu, D. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol distributions from two aircraft lidar campaigns conducted in the California Central Valley are compared in order to identify seasonal variations. Aircraft lidar flights were conducted in June 2003 and February 2007. While the ground PM(sub 2.5) concentration is highest in the winter, the aerosol optical depth measured from MODIS is highest in the summer. A seasonal comparison shows that PM(sub 2.5) in the winter can exceed summer PM(sub 2.5) by 55%, while summer AOD exceeds winter AOD by 43%. Higher temperatures and wildfires in the summer produce elevated aerosol layers that are detected by satellite measurements, but not surface particulate matter monitors. Temperature inversions, especially during the winter, contribute to higher PM(sub 2.5) measurements at the surface. Measurements of the boundary layer height from lidar instruments provide valuable information need to understand the relationship between satellite measurements of optical depth and in-situ measurements of PM(sub 2.5).

  20. Calibration of the Purple Crow Lidar vibrational Raman water-vapour mixing ratio and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argall, P. S.; Sica, R. J.; Bryant, C. R.; Algara-Siller, M.; Schijns, H.

    2007-02-01

    Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) measurements of the vibrational Raman-shifted backscatter from water vapour and nitrogen molecules allows height profiles of the water-vapour mixing ratio to be measured from 500 m up into the lower stratosphere. In addition, the Raman nitrogen measurements allow the determination of temperature profiles from about 10 to 40 km altitude. However, external calibration of these measurements is necessary to compensate for instrumental effects, uncertainties in our knowledge of the relevant molecular cross sections, and atmospheric transmission. A comparison of the PCL-derived water-vapour concentration and temperature profiles with routine radiosonde measurements from Detroit and Buffalo on 37 and 141 nights, respectively, was undertaken to provide this calibration. The calibration is then applied to the measurements and monthly mean-temperature and water-vapour profiles are determined.

  1. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  2. Using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data to Evaluate Combined Active Plus Passive Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kittaka, C.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R. R.; Cook, A. L.; Haper, D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol extinction profiles are derived from backscatter data by constraining the retrieval with column aerosol optical thickness (AOT), for example from coincident MODIS observations and without reliance on a priori assumptions about aerosol type or optical properties. The backscatter data were acquired with the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The HSRL also simultaneously measures extinction independently, thereby providing an ideal data set for evaluating the constrained retrieval of extinction from backscatter. We will show constrained extinction retrievals using various sources of column AOT, and examine comparisons with the HSRL extinction measurements and with a similar retrieval using data from the CALIOP lidar on the CALIPSO satellite.

  3. Reconciling aerosol light extinction measurements from spaceborne lidar observations and in situ measurements in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesche, M.; Zieger, P.; Rastak, N.; Charlson, R. J.; Glantz, P.; Tunved, P.; Hansson, H.-C.

    2014-08-01

    In this study we investigate to what degree it is possible to reconcile continuously recorded particle light extinction coefficients derived from dry in situ measurements at Zeppelin station (78.92° N, 11.85° E; 475 m above sea level), Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, that are recalculated to ambient relative humidity, as well as simultaneous ambient observations with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. To our knowledge, this represents the first study that compares spaceborne lidar measurements to optical aerosol properties from short-term in situ observations (averaged over 5 h) on a case-by-case basis. Finding suitable comparison cases requires an elaborate screening and matching of the CALIOP data with respect to the location of Zeppelin station as well as the selection of temporal and spatial averaging intervals for both the ground-based and spaceborne observations. Reliable reconciliation of these data cannot be achieved with the closest-approach method, which is often used in matching CALIOP observations to those taken at ground sites. This is due to the transport pathways of the air parcels that were sampled. The use of trajectories allowed us to establish a connection between spaceborne and ground-based observations for 57 individual overpasses out of a total of 2018 that occurred in our region of interest around Svalbard (0 to 25° E, 75 to 82° N) in the considered year of 2008. Matches could only be established during winter and spring, since the low aerosol load during summer in connection with the strong solar background and the high occurrence rate of clouds strongly influences the performance and reliability of CALIOP observations. Extinction coefficients in the range of 2 to 130 Mm-1 at 532 nm were found for successful matches with a difference of a factor of 1.47 (median value for a range from 0.26 to 11.2) between the findings of in situ and spaceborne observations (the latter being generally larger than the former). The remaining difference is likely to be due to the natural variability in aerosol concentration and ambient relative humidity, an insufficient representation of aerosol particle growth, or a misclassification of aerosol type (i.e., choice of lidar ratio) in the CALIPSO retrieval.

  4. Benefit of depolarization ratio at ? = 1064 nm for the retrieval of the aerosol microphysics from lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, J.; Freudenthaler, V.

    2014-05-01

    A better quantification of aerosol microphysical and optical properties is required to improve the modelling of aerosol effects on weather and climate. This task is methodologically demanding due to the huge diversity of aerosol composition and of their shape and size distribution, and due to the complexity of the relation between the microphysical and optical properties. Lidar remote sensing is a valuable tool to gain spatially and temporally resolved information on aerosol properties. Advanced lidar systems provide sufficient information on the aerosol optical properties for the retrieval of important aerosol microphysical properties. Recently, the mass concentration of transported volcanic ash, which is relevant for the flight safety of airplanes, was retrieved from measurements of such lidar systems in Southern Germany. The relative uncertainty of the retrieved mass concentration was on the order of ±50%. The present study investigates improvements of the retrieval accuracy when the capability of measuring the linear depolarization ratio at 1064 nm is added to the lidar setup. The lidar setups under investigation are based on the setup of MULIS and POLIS of the LMU in Munich which measure the linear depolarization ratio at 355 nm and 532 nm with high accuracy. By comparing results of retrievals applied to simulated lidar measurements with and without the depolarization at 1064 nm it is found that the availability of 1064 nm depolarization measurements reduces the uncertainty of the retrieved mass concentration and effective particle size by a factor of about 2-3. This significant improvement in accuracy is the result of the increased sensitivity of the lidar setup to larger particles. However, the retrieval of the single scattering albedo, which is relevant for the radiative transfer in aerosol layers, does hardly benefit from the availability of 1064 nm depolarization measurements.

  5. Combined Retrievals of Boreal Forest Fire Aerosol Properties with a Polarimeter and Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Ottaviani, M.; Ferrare, R.; Haire, J.; Hostetler, C.; Obland, M.; Rogers, R.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A.; Freitag, S.; Howell, S.; Kapustin, V.; McNaughton, C.

    2011-01-01

    Absorbing aerosols play an important, but uncertain, role in the global climate. Much of this uncertainty is due to a lack of adequate aerosol measurements. While great strides have been made in observational capability in the previous years and decades, it has become increasingly apparent that this development must continue. Scanning polarimeters have been designed to help resolve this issue by making accurate, multi-spectral, multi-angle polarized observations. This work involves the use of the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The RSP was designed as the airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), which was due to be launched as part of the (ultimately failed) NASA Glory mission. Field observations with the RSP, however, have established that simultaneous retrievals of aerosol absorption and vertical distribution over bright land surfaces are quite uncertain. We test a merger of RSP and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) data with observations of boreal forest fire smoke, collected during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS). During ARCTAS, the RSP and HSRL instruments were mounted on the same aircraft, and validation data were provided by instruments on an aircraft flying a coordinated flight pattern. We found that the lidar data did indeed improve aerosol retrievals using an optimal estimation method, although not primarily because of the constraints imposed on the aerosol vertical distribution. The more useful piece of information from the HSRL was the total column aerosol optical depth, which was used to select the initial value (optimization starting point) of the aerosol number concentration. When ground based sun photometer network climatologies of number concentration were used as an initial value, we found that roughly half of the retrievals had unrealistic sizes and imaginary indices, even though the retrieved spectral optical depths agreed within uncertainties to independent observations. The convergence to an unrealistic local minimum by the optimal estimator is related to the relatively low sensitivity to particles smaller than 0.1 ( m) at large optical thicknesses. Thus, optimization algorithms used for operational aerosol retrievals of the fine mode size distribution, when the total optical depth is large, will require initial values generated from table look-ups that exclude unrealistic size/complex index mixtures. External constraints from lidar on initial values used in the optimal estimation methods will also be valuable in reducing the likelihood of obtaining spurious retrievals.

  6. NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds during WVIOP2000 and AFWEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; DiGirolamo, P.; Demoz, B. B.; Turner, D.; Comstock, J.; Ismail, S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was deployed to the Southern Great Plains CART site from September - December, 2000 and participated in two field campaigns devoted to comparisons of various water vapor measurement technologies and calibrations. These campaigns were the Water Vapor Intensive Operations Period 2000 (WVIOP2000) and the ARM FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX). WVIOP2000 was devoted to validating water vapor measurements in the lower atmosphere while AFWEX had similar goals but for measurements in the upper troposphere. The SRL was significantly upgraded both optically and electronically prior to these field campaigns. These upgrades enabled the SRL to demonstrate the highest resolution lidar measurements of water vapor ever acquired during the nighttime and the highest S/N Raman lidar measurements of water vapor in the daytime; more than a factor of 2 increase in S/N versus the DOE CARL Raman Lidar. Examples of these new measurement capabilities along with comparisons of SRL and CARL, LASE, MPI-DIAL, in-situ sensors, radiosonde, and others will be presented. The profile comparisons of the SRL and CARL have revealed what appears to be an overlap correction or countrate correction problem in CARL. This may be involved in an overall dry bias in the precipitable water calibration of CARL with respect to the MWR of approx. 4%. Preliminary analysis indicates that the application of a temperature dependent correction to the narrowband Raman lidar measurements of water vapor improves the lidar/Vaisala radiosonde comparisons of upper tropospheric water vapor. Other results including the comparison of the first-ever simultaneous measurements from four water vapor lidar systems, a bore-wave event captured at high resolution by the SRL and cirrus cloud optical depth studies using the SRL and CARL will be presented at the meeting.

  7. Compact Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcia, Joel; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    A small compact ozone differential absorption lidar capable of being deployed on a small aircraft or unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) has been tested. The Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser is pumped by a quadrupled Nd:YLF laser. Test results on the laser transmitter demonstrated 1.4 W in the IR and 240 mW in the green at 1000 Hz. The receiver consists of three photon-counting channels, which are a far field PMT, a near field UV PMT, and a green PMT. Each channel was tested for their saturation characteristics.

  8. Study of the statistics of water vapor mixing ratio determined from Raman lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Bosser, Pierre; Bock, Olivier; Thom, Christian; Pelon, Jacques

    2007-11-20

    The statistical properties of atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) determined as the ratio of Raman lidar signals backscattered from water vapor and nitrogen molecules are studied. It is shown that WVMR estimates can be biased by a small percentage at low signal photon-counting rates due to fluctuations in the nitrogen signal in the denominator of the ratio, the magnitude of the bias being linked to the signal-to-noise ratio of the nitrogen signal. This is particularly important when unbiased estimates are required as in the case of climate studies and global positioning system (GPS) signal calibration. Different bias corrections and a modified ratio formulation are proposed in order to correct or eliminate this bias. The method is successfully applied in processing signals obtained with an experimental Raman lidar system devoted to calibrate GPS signals for slant path delays. It is shown to reduce biases into negligible values in both WVMR and wet path delay estimates in the range interval of 0-7 km. PMID:18026556

  9. Towards quantifying mesoscale flows in the troposphere using Raman lidar and sondes

    SciTech Connect

    Demoz, B.; Evans, K. [Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starr, D. [NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in the energetics of the boundary layer processes which in turn play a key role in regulating regional and global climate. It plays a primary role in Earth`s hydrological cycle, in radiation balance as a direct absorber of infrared radiation, and in atmospheric circulation as a latent heat energy source as well as in determining cloud development and atmospheric stability. Water vapor concentration, expressed as a mass mixing ratio, is conserved in all meteorological processes except condensation and evaporation. This property makes it an ideal choice for studying many of the atmosphere`s dynamic features. Raman scattering measurements from lidar also allow retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio profiles at high temporal and vertical resolution. Raman lidars sense water vapor to altitudes not achievable with towers and surface systems, sample the atmosphere at much higher temporal resolution than radiosondes or satellites, and do not require strong vertical gradients or turbulent fluctuations in temperature that is required by acoustic sounders and radars. Analysis of highly resolved water vapor profiles are used here to characterize two important mesoscale flows: thunderstorm outflows and a cold front passage.

  10. Improved simulation of aerosol, cloud, and density measurements by shuttle lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Morley, B. M.; Livingston, J. M.; Grams, G. W.; Patterson, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Data retrievals are simulated for a Nd:YAG lidar suitable for early flight on the space shuttle. Maximum assumed vertical and horizontal resolutions are 0.1 and 100 km, respectively, in the boundary layer, increasing to 2 and 2000 km in the mesosphere. Aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated using 1.06 and 0.53 microns wavelengths independently. Error sources include signal measurement, conventional density information, atmospheric transmission, and lidar calibration. By day, tenuous clouds and Saharan and boundary layer aerosols are retrieved at both wavelengths. By night, these constituents are retrieved, plus upper tropospheric, stratospheric, and mesospheric aerosols and noctilucent clouds. Density, temperature, and improved aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated by combining signals at 0.35, 1.06, and 0.53 microns. Particlate contamination limits the technique to the cloud free upper troposphere and above. Error bars automatically show effect of this contamination, as well as errors in absolute density nonmalization, reference temperature or pressure, and the sources listed above. For nonvolcanic conditions, relative density profiles have rms errors of 0.54 to 2% in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Temperature profiles have rms errors of 1.2 to 2.5 K and can define the tropopause to 0.5 km and higher wave structures to 1 or 2 km.

  11. Modeling LIDAR Detection of Biological Aerosols to Determine Optimum Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Aker, Pam M.

    2007-09-19

    This report summarizes work performed for a larger multi-laboratory project named the Background Interferent Measurement and Standards project. While originally tasked to develop algorithms to optimize biological warfare agent detection using UV fluorescence LIDAR, the current uncertainties in the reported fluorescence profiles and cross sections the development of any meaningful models. It was decided that a better approach would be to model the wavelength-dependent elastic backscattering from a number of ambient background aerosol types, and compare this with that generated from representative sporulated and vegetative bacterial systems. Calculations in this report show that a 266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm elastic backscatter LIDAR experiment will allow an operator to immediately recognize when sulfate, VOC-based or road dust (silicate) aerosols are approaching, independent of humidity changes. It will be more difficult to distinguish soot aerosols from biological aerosols, or vegetative bacteria from sporulated bacteria. In these latter cases, the elastic scattering data will most likely have to be combined with UV fluorescence data to enable a more robust categorization.

  12. Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Mark A.; Powell, Kathleen A.; Kuehn, Ralph E.; Young, Stuart A.; Winker, David M.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hunt, William H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; McGill, Matthew J.; Getzewich, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the vertical and horizontal extent of clouds and aerosols in the earth s atmosphere is critical in assessing the planet s radiation budget and for advancing human understanding of climate change issues. To retrieve this fundamental information from the elastic backscatter lidar data acquired during the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, a selective, iterated boundary location (SIBYL) algorithm has been developed and deployed. SIBYL accomplishes its goals by integrating an adaptive context-sensitive profile scanner into an iterated multiresolution spatial averaging scheme. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the architecture and performance of the SIBYL algorithm. It begins with a brief review of the theory of target detection in noise-contaminated signals, and an enumeration of the practical constraints levied on the retrieval scheme by the design of the lidar hardware, the geometry of a space-based remote sensing platform, and the spatial variability of the measurement targets. Detailed descriptions are then provided for both the adaptive threshold algorithm used to detect features of interest within individual lidar profiles and the fully automated multiresolution averaging engine within which this profile scanner functions. The resulting fusion of profile scanner and averaging engine is specifically designed to optimize the trade-offs between the widely varying signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements and the disparate spatial resolutions of the detection targets. Throughout the paper, specific algorithm performance details are illustrated using examples drawn from the existing CALIPSO dataset. Overall performance is established by comparisons to existing layer height distributions obtained by other airborne and space-based lidars.

  13. Instrumental correction of the uneven PMT aging effect on the calibration constant of a water vapor Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Fastig, Shlomo; Haefele, Alexander; Calpini, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    The water vapor profile derived from Raman lidar measurements is obtained by taking the ratio of water vapor and nitrogen Raman-shifted signals. The proportionality factor that converts the signal ratio to water vapor/air mixing ratio is referred to as lidar calibration constant. The calibration constant depends on the water vapor and nitrogen Raman cross sections and on the efficiencies of the respective Raman channels including the photomultiplier tube (PMT) efficiency. Unequal, gradual changes in the PMTs efficiencies due to fatigue effects may lead to gradual alteration of the calibration constant. Such an effect has been observed during the seven- year continuous operation of the RAman Lidar for Moisture Observations (RALMO)1 . A more detailed research2 , has shown that the calibration constant change is more pronounced during summer time probably due to the higher light exposure. Periodical recalibration of the lidar with radiosonde measurements is used to correct the calibration constant. This approach, however, induces additional systematic errors due to the nature of the calibration procedure and the dispersion of the radiosonde parameters. We present a new, instrumental method for automated correction of the calibration constant. By this method, a correction factor is deduced from the ratio of the signals of the two photomultipliers which are illuminated simultaneously by a single, stabilized UV-LED light source. The LED light is delivered to the photomultipliers by a set of additional mirrors and a beam splitter installed inside the grating polychromator used to separate the Raman signals. The correction measurements are taken before midnight. To minimize the data loss, the lidar's laser is operated during the measurements and a shatter at the polychromator entrance is used to block any atmospheric signals. The use of stabilized light source also allows evaluating the individual photomultipliers aging rates, essential for the instrument maintenance.

  14. Measurements of Aerosol Vertical Profiles and Optical Properties during INDOEX 1999 Using Micro-Pulse Lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.; Gordon, Howard R.; Johnson, James E.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-pulse lidar systems (MPL) were used to measure aerosol properties during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) 1999 field phase. Measurements were made from two platforms: the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, and the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Maldives. Sunphotometers were used to provide aerosol optical depths (AOD) needed to calibrate the MPL. This study focuses on the height distribution and optical properties (at 523 nm) of aerosols observed during the campaign. The height of the highest aerosols (top height) was calculated and found to be below 4 km for most of the cruise. The marine boundary layer (MBL) top was calculated and found to be less than 1 km. MPL results were combined with air mass trajectories, radiosonde profiles of temperature and humidity, and aerosol concentration and optical measurements. Humidity varied from approximately 80% near the surface to 50% near the top height during the entire cruise. The average value and standard deviation of aerosol optical parameters were determined for characteristic air mass regimes. Marine aerosols in the absence of any continental influence were found to have an AOD of 0.05 +/- 0.03, an extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S-ratio) of 33 +/- 6 sr, and peak extinction values around 0.05/km (near the MBL top). The marine results are shown to be in agreement with previously measured and expected values. Polluted marine areas over the Indian Ocean, influenced by continental aerosols, had AOD values in excess of 0.2, S-ratios well above 40 sr, and peak extinction values approximately 0.20/km (near the MBL top). The polluted marine results are shown to be similar to previously published values for continental aerosols. Comparisons between MPL derived extinction near the ship (75 m) and extinction calculated at ship-level using scattering measured by a nephelometer and absorption using a PSAP were conducted. The comparisons indicated that the MPL algorithm (using a constant S-ratio throughout the lower troposphere) calculates extinction near the surface in agreement with the ship-level measurements only when the MBL aerosols are well mixed with aerosols above. Finally, a review of the MPL extinction profiles showed that the model of aerosol vertical extinction developed during an earlier INDOEX field campaign (at the Maldives) did not correctly describe the true vertical distribution over the greater Indian Ocean region. Using the average extinction profile and AOD obtained during marine conditions, a new model of aerosol vertical extinction was determined for marine atmospheres over the Indian Ocean. A new model of aerosol vertical extinction for polluted marine atmospheres was also developed using the average extinction profile and AOD obtained during marine conditions influenced by continental aerosols.

  15. Benefit of depolarization ratio at ? = 1064 nm for the retrieval of the aerosol microphysics from lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, J.; Freudenthaler, V.

    2014-11-01

    A better quantification of aerosol properties is required for improving the modelling of aerosol effects on weather and climate. This task is methodologically demanding due to the diversity of the microphysical properties of aerosols and the complex relation between their microphysical and optical properties. Advanced lidar systems provide spatially and temporally resolved information on the aerosol optical properties that is sufficient for the retrieval of important aerosol microphysical properties. Recently, the mass concentration of transported volcanic ash, which is relevant for the flight safety of aeroplanes, was retrieved from measurements of such lidar systems in southern Germany. The relative uncertainty of the retrieved mass concentration was on the order of ±50%. The present study investigates improvements of the retrieval accuracy when the capability of measuring the linear depolarization ratio at 1064 nm is added to the lidar setup. The lidar setups under investigation are based on those of MULIS and POLIS of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich (Germany) which measure the linear depolarization ratio at 355 and 532 nm with high accuracy. The improvements are determined by comparing uncertainties from retrievals applied to simulated measurements of this lidar setup with uncertainties obtained when the depolarization at 1064 nm is added to this setup. The simulated measurements are based on real lidar measurements of transported Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash. It is found that additional 1064 nm depolarization measurements significantly reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved mass concentration and effective particle size. This significant improvement in accuracy is the result of the increased sensitivity of the lidar setup to larger particles. The size dependence of the depolarization does not vary strongly with refractive index, thus we expect similar benefits for the retrieval in case of measurements of other volcanic ash compositions and also for transported desert dust. For the retrieval of the single scattering albedo, which is relevant to the radiative transfer in aerosol layers, no significant improvements were found.

  16. Cloud and Aerosol Measurements from the GLAS Polar Orbiting Lidar: First Year Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. GLAS is approaching six months of on orbit data operation. These data from thousands of orbits illustrate the ability of space lidar to accurately and dramatically measure the height distribution of global cloud and aerosol to an unprecedented degree. There were many intended science applications of the GLAS data and significant results have already been realized. One application is the accurate height distribution and coverage of global cloud cover with one goal of defining the limitation and inaccuracies of passive retrievals. Comparison to MODIS cloud retrievals shows notable discrepancies. Initial comparisons to NOAA 14&15 satellite cloud retrievals show basic similarity in overall cloud coverage, but important differences in height distribution. Because of the especially poor performance of passive cloud retrievals in polar regions, and partly because of high orbit track densities, the GLAS measurements are by far the most accurate measurement of Arctic and Antarctica cloud cover from space to date. Global aerosol height profiling is a fundamentally new measurement from space with multiple applications. A most important aerosol application is providing input to global aerosol generation and transport models. Another is improved measurement of aerosol optical depth. Oceanic surface energy flux derivation from PBL and LCL height measurements is another application of GLAS data that is being pursued. A special area of work for GLAS data is the correction and application of multiple scattering effects. Stretching of surface return pulses in excess of 40 m from cloud propagation effects and other interesting multiple scattering phenomena have been observed. As an EOS project instrument, GLAS data products are openly available to the science community. First year results from GLAS are summarized.

  17. Performance of the Lidar Design and Data Algorithms for the GLAS Global Cloud and Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.

    2007-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in early 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument design includes high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of atmospheric clouds and aerosol. The backscatter lidar operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. For the atmospheric cloud and aerosol measurements, the 532 nm channel was designed for ultra high efficiency with solid state photon counting detectors and etalon filtering. Data processing algorithms were developed to calibrate and normalize the signals and produce global scale data products of the height distribution of cloud and aerosol layers and their optical depths and particulate scattering cross sections up to the limit of optical attenuation. The paper will concentrate on the effectiveness and limitations of the lidar channel design and data product algorithms. Both atmospheric receiver channels meet and exceed their design goals. Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode modules are used for the 532 nm signal. The operational experience is that some signal artifacts and non-linearity require correction in data processing. As with all photon counting detectors, a pulse-pile-up calibration is an important aspect of the measurement. Additional signal corrections were found to be necessary relating to correction of a saturation signal-run-on effect and also for daytime data, a small range dependent variation in the responsivity. It was possible to correct for these signal errors in data processing and achieve the requirement to accurately profile aerosol and cloud cross section down to 10-7 llm-sr. The analysis procedure employs a precise calibration against molecular scattering in the mid-stratosphere. The 1064 nm channel detection employs a high-speed analog APD for surface and atmospheric measurements where the detection sensitivity is limited by detector noise and is over an order of magnitude less than at 532 nm. A unique feature of the GLAS is a full acquisition of the surface return pulse, which has important application to the atmospheric transmission retrieval.

  18. Increase in background stratospheric aerosol observed with lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory and Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, David; Barnes, John; O'Neill, Michael; Trudeau, Michael; Neely, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    The stratospheric aerosol layer has been monitored with lidars at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii and Boulder in Colorado since 1975 and 2000, respectively. Following the Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June 1991, the global stratosphere has not been perturbed by a major volcanic eruption providing an unprecedented opportunity to study the background aerosol. Since about 2000, an increase of 4-7% per year in the aerosol backscatter in the altitude range 20-30 km has been detected at both Mauna Loa and Boulder. This increase is superimposed on a seasonal cycle with a winter maximum that is modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical winds. Of the three major causes for a stratospheric aerosol increase: volcanic emissions to the stratosphere, increased tropical upwelling, and an increase in anthropogenic sulfur gas emissions in the troposphere, it appears that a large increase in coal burning since 2002, mainly in China, is the likely source of sulfur dioxide that ultimately ends up as the sulfate aerosol responsible for the increased backscatter from the stratospheric aerosol layer. The results are consistent with 0.6-0.8% of tropospheric sulfur entering the stratosphere.

  19. Multidimensional Lidar, Sunphotometer and Aircraft Observations of Urban Aerosols during the DISCOVER-AQ Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Berkoff, T.; Delgado, R.; Orozco, D.; McCann, K. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Anderson, B. E.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Mission is a five-year multisite experiment to better understand the relationship between satellite measured variables (columnar) with surface concentrations, required for air quality assessment and regulation. The first DISCOVER-AQ experiment was held in the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor during July 2011 and involved eleven lidars and two aircraft to provide the vertical profiles needed to close the vertical column with surface measures. In addition, over 40 sunphotometers were employed on a grid to add to the horizontal dimension during the DRAGON experiment, running concurrently. This paper is a preliminary look at a range of results from the experiment from very clear days, where the closure is relatively simple, to highly complex and varied aerosol regimes. Clearly important in the closure is the humidification of the aerosol that showed spatial variations in all three dimensions and may, in fact, dominate the relationship between aerosol optical depth and particle mass on a single day basis. Aerosol speciation analysis and in-situ microphysics from the aircraft is still being assessed and may explain scattering differences seen in depolarization of the aerosol and in aerosol layers confined to the PBL and aloft.

  20. Desert dust aerosol columnar properties over ocean and continental Africa from Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) and Meteosat synergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Berthier; P. Chazette; P. Couvert; J. Pelon; F. Dulac; F. Thieuleux; C. Moulin; T. Pain

    2006-01-01

    The new generation of spaceborne backscatter lidar systems, prefigured by the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission in September 1994, will give new insight on the vertical distribution of both aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere. This is especially of importance for aerosols over land, where retrievals from passive sensors are known to be more difficult because of the surface

  1. Global View of Aerosol Vertical Distributions from CALIPSO Lidar Measurements and GOCART Simulations: Regional and Seasonal Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Winker, David M.; Omar, Ali H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Kittaka, Chieko; Diehl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines seasonal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosols through a statistical analysis of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar observations from June 2006 to November 2007. A data-screening scheme is developed to attain good quality data in cloud-free conditions, and the polarization measurement is used to separate dust from non-dust aerosol. The CALIPSO aerosol observations are compared with aerosol simulations from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation Transport (GOCART) model and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The CALIPSO observations of geographical patterns and seasonal variations of AOD are generally consistent with GOCART simulations and MODIS retrievals especially near source regions, while the magnitude of AOD shows large discrepancies in most regions. Both the CALIPSO observation and GOCART model show that the aerosol extinction scale heights in major dust and smoke source regions are generally higher than that in industrial pollution source regions. The CALIPSO aerosol lidar ratio also generally agrees with GOCART model within 30% on regional scales. Major differences between satellite observations and GOCART model are identified, including (1) an underestimate of aerosol extinction by GOCART over the Indian sub-continent, (2) much larger aerosol extinction calculated by GOCART than observed by CALIPSO in dust source regions, (3) much weaker in magnitude and more concentrated aerosol in the lower atmosphere in CALIPSO observation than GOCART model over transported areas in midlatitudes, and (4) consistently lower aerosol scale height by CALIPSO observation than GOCART model. Possible factors contributing to these differences are discussed.

  2. Solution of multifrequency lidar inverse problem for a pre-set marine aerosol size-distribution formula

    SciTech Connect

    Piskozub, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot (Poland). Inst. of Oceanology

    1994-12-31

    The multifrequency lidar inverse problem discussed consists of calculating the size distribution of sol particles from backscattered lidar data. Sea-water (marine) aerosol is particularly well suited for this kind of study as its scattering characteristics can be accurately represented by Mie theory as its particles are almost spherical and their complex index of refraction is well known. Here, a solution of the inverse problem concerning finding aerosol size distribution for a multifrequency lidar system working on a small number of wavelengths is proposed. The solution involves a best-fit method of finding parameters in a pre-set formula of particle size distribution. A comparison of results calculated with the algorithm from experimental lidar profiles with PMS data collected in Baltic Sea coastal zone is given.

  3. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  4. Wavelength Dependence of Backscatter by use of Aerosol Microphysics and Lidar Data Sets: Application to 2.1- mum Wavelength for Space-Based and Airborne Lidars.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, V; Rothermel, J; Clarke, A D; Spinhirne, J D; Menzies, R T; Cutten, D R; Jarzembski, M A; Bowdle, D A; McCaul, E W

    2001-09-20

    An aerosol microphysics dataset was used to model backscatter in the 0.35-11-mum wavelength range, with the results validated by comparison with measured cw and pulsed lidar backscatter obtained during two NASA-sponsored airborne field experiments. Different atmospheric features were encountered, with aerosol backscatter ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. Modeled conversion functions were used to convert existing lidar backscatter datasets to 2.1 mum. Resulting statistical distribution shows the midtropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode of beta(2.1) to be between ~3.0 x 10(-10) and ~1.3 x 10(-9) m(-1) sr(-1), ~10-20 times higher than that for beta(9.1); and a beta(2.1) boundary layer mode of ~1.0 x 10(-7) to ~1.3 x 10(-6) m(-1) sr(-1), ~3-5 times higher than beta(9.1). PMID:18360517

  5. Simultaneous observations of lower tropospheric continental aerosols with a ground-based, an airborne, and the spaceborne CALIOP lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Raut, J.-C.; Dulac, F.; Berthier, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Royer, P.; Sanak, J.; Loaëc, S.; Grigaut-Desbrosses, H.

    2010-08-01

    We present an original experiment with multiple lidar systems operated simultaneously to study the capability of the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), to infer aerosol optical properties in the lower troposphere over a midlatitude continental site where the aerosol load is low to moderate. The experiment took place from 20 June to 10 July 2007 in southern France. The results are based on three case studies with measurements coincident to CALIOP observations: the first case study illustrates a large-scale pollution event with an aerosol optical thickness at 532 nm (?a532) of ˜0.25, and the two other case studies are devoted to background conditions due to aerosol scavenging by storms with ?a532 <0.1. Our experimental approach involved ground-based and airborne lidar systems as well as Sun photometer measurements when the conditions of observation were favorable. Passive spaceborne instruments, namely the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVERI) and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are used to characterize the large-scale aerosol conditions. We show that complex topographical structures increase the complexity of the aerosol analysis in the planetary boundary layer by CALIOP when ?a532 is lower than 0.1 because the number of available representative profiles is low to build a mean CALIOP profile with a good signal-to-noise ratio. In a comparison, the aerosol optical properties inferred from CALIOP and those deduced from the other active and passive remote sensing observations in the pollution plume are found to be in reasonable agreement. Level-2 aerosol products of CALIOP are consistent with our retrievals.

  6. LABVIEW graphical user interface for precision multichannel alignment of Raman lidar at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility.

    PubMed

    Aspey, R A; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Howe, J W; Walsh, T D

    2008-09-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory operates lidar systems at Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California (34.4 degrees N, 117.7 degrees W) and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (19.5 degrees N, 155.6 degrees W) under the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. To complement these systems a new Raman lidar has been developed at TMF with particular attention given to optimizing water vapor profile measurements up to the tropopause and lower stratosphere. The lidar has been designed for accuracies of 5% up to 12 km in the free troposphere and a detection capability of <5 ppmv. One important feature of the lidar is a precision alignment system using range resolved data from eight Licel transient recorders, allowing fully configurable alignment via a LABVIEW/C++ graphical user interface (GUI). This allows the lidar to be aligned on any channel while simultaneously displaying signals from other channels at configurable altitude/bin combinations. The general lidar instrumental setup and the details of the alignment control system, data acquisition, and GUI alignment software are described. Preliminary validation results using radiosonde and lidar intercomparisons are briefly presented. PMID:19044439

  7. Offshore wind measurements using Doppler aerosol wind lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2014-06-01

    The latest flight demonstration of Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is presented. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the improvement of DAWN system since the previous flight campaign in 2012 and the capabilities of DAWN and the latest airborne wind profiling algorithm APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) developed at LaRC. The comparisons of APOLO and another algorithm are discussed utilizing two and five line-of-sights (LOSs), respectively. Wind parameters from DAWN were compared with ground-based radar measurements for validation purposes. The campaign period was June - July in 2013 and the flight altitude was 8 km in inland toward Charlotte, NC, and offshores in Virginia Beach, VA and Ocean City, MD. The DAWN system was integrated into a UC12B with two operators onboard during the campaign.

  8. Troposphere-Stratosphere transport in the tropics from CALIPSO lidar aerosols measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, J.-P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.

    2009-04-01

    Troposphere Stratosphere transport in the tropics from CALIPSO lidar aerosols measurements J.P. Vernier, J.P. Pommereau, A. Garnier and J. Pelon CNRS-LATMOS Verrières le Buisson, 91371 France The evolution of the aerosols in the tropical tropopause region is investigated from the CALIOP lidar measurements onboard the CALIPSO satellite. After applying a correction for calibration and appropriate cloud mask, a consistent picture of the aerosols since the beginning of the mission in June 2006 until present is provided. Most remarkable features are the presence of several volcanic plumes at various levels further lifted by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and the injection of clean washed-out tropospheric air up to 19-20 km particularly intense during the maximum land convective season in February-March resulting in the cleansing of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Most important implications relevant to Troposphere to Stratosphere transport is the suggestion of the existence of a maximum static stability layer at about 19.5 km (450 K, 60 hPa) suggesting a decoupling of the circulation between Holton's "lowermost stratosphere" and "overworld", and the importance at global scale of fast convective overshooting of tropospheric air across the tropopause up to the altitude of the above static layer.

  9. Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  10. Aerosol properties from OMI using the multi-wavelength algorithm in combination with CALIPSO lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veihelmann, B.; Veefkind, P.; Braak, R.; Levelt, P.; de Haan, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an imaging UV-VIS solar backscatter spectrometer. It is a Dutch- Finnish instrument onboard the NASA satellite EOS-Aura which has been launched in July 2004. The OMI mission has yielded more than 3 years of science data including global data sets of various atmospheric parameters with high spatial resolution on a daily basis. The multi-wavelength algorithm is used to retrieve aerosol parameters from OMI spectra in 14 wavelength bands between 342.5 nm and 483.5 nm. The space borne lidar CALIOP on the CALIPSO platform provides the height of aerosol layers. In this contribution we present mineral dust aerosol parameters retrieved using the multi- wavelength retrieval algorithm in combination with CALIPSO height data. The multi-wavelength algorithm is capable to distinguish between absorbing aerosol types, such as desert dust and biomass burning, and weakly absorbing aerosols like sea-salt and sulfates. We show the impact of using additional height information on the retrieved absorption properties.

  11. Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Spacecraft: Independent Technical Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbrech, Richard J.; McManamen, John P.; Wilson, Timmy R.; Robinson, Frank; Schoren, William R.

    2005-01-01

    CALIPSO is a joint science mission between the CNES, LaRC and GSFC. It was selected as an Earth System Science Pathfinder satellite mission in December 1998 to address the role of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's radiation budget. The spacecraft includes a NASA light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) instrument, a NASA wide-field camera and a CNES imaging infrared radiometer. The scope of this effort was a review of the Proteus propulsion bus design and an assessment of the potential for personnel exposure to hydrazine propellant.

  12. Temperature Variability in the Stratosphere Obtained from 7 years of Vibrational-Raman- lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserhienrhien, B.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2009-05-01

    The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) is a large power-aperture product monostatic laser radar located at the Delaware Observatory (42° 52' N, 81° 23' W, 225 m elevation above sea level) near the campus of The University of Western Ontario. It is capable of measuring temperature and wave parameters from 10 to 110 km altitude, as well as water vapor in the troposphere and stratosphere. We use upper tropospheric and stratospheric vibrational Raman N2 backscatter-derived temperatures to form a climatology for the years 1999 to 2007 from 10 to 30 km altitude. The lidar temperatures are validated using coincident radiosondes measurements from Detroit and Buffalo. The measured temperatures show good agreement with the radiosonde soundings. An agreement of ±1 K is found during summer months and ±2.5 K during the winter months, validating the calibration of the lidar to within the geophysical variability of the measurements. Comparison between the PCL measurements and atmospheric models shows the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than CIRA-86 below 25 km and 2.5 K warmer above during the summer months. Below 16 km the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than the MSIS-90 model, while above this region, the PCL agrees to about ±3.5 K or less. The temperature differences between the PCL measurements and the models are consistent with the differences between the atmospheric models and the Detroit and Buffalo radiosonde measurements. The temperature differences compared to the models are consistent with previous comparisons between other radiosondes and satellite data sets, confirming that these differences with the models are real. We will highlight nights which show significant variations from the long-term averages, and when possible, the evolution of the variations.

  13. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, O C.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cadirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20%. The UV/lR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

  14. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During The Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D OC.; Eloranta, E. W.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from less than 0.01 to 1.5. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied. A correction technique is presented which minimizes the influences of multiple scattering and derives information about cirrus cloud optical and physical properties. The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.005 or greater. Using the ISCCP detection threshold for cirrus clouds on the GOES data presented here, a high bias of up to 40% in the GOES precipitable water retrieval was found.

  15. Orbiting lidar simulations. 2: Density, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements by a wavelength-combining technique.

    PubMed

    Russell, P B; Morley, B M

    1982-05-01

    A technique is described for combining several wavelength backscatter measurements to yield profiles of molecular density and temperature plus aerosol and cloud backscatter with associated error-bar profiles. Error sources include signal, transmission, calibration, conventional density, lidar density normalization, temperature or pressure estimation at a reference height, and backscatter wavelength-dependence estimation. Strong particulate contamination limits the technique to the cloud-free upper troposphere and above. Error bars automatically returned as part of the measurement show when such contamination occurs. Relative density (temperature) profiles have rms errors of 0.5-2% (1.2-2.5 K) in the nonvolcanic stratosphere and upper troposphere. The density profiles significantly improve aerosol retrievals. The fine vertical resolution of the temperature profiles would permit defining the tropopause to approximately 0.5 km and higher wave structures to 1 or 2 km. PMID:20389896

  16. Comments on ''Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements''

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-05-20

    In a recent publication, Leblanc and McDermid [Appl. Opt., 47, 5592 (2008)]APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.005592 proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios. Scanning of the full telescope aperture with the calibration lamp can circumvent most of these limitations. Based on the work done to date, it seems likely that the use of multiple calibration lamps in different fixed positions in front of the telescope may provide sufficient redundancy for long-term calibration needs. Further full-aperture scanning experiments, performed over an extended period of time, are needed to determine a ''best practice'' for the use of multiple calibration lamps in the hybrid technique.

  17. CALIPSO space-based aerosol lidar: flight software design and planned operations paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, Robert J.; Hunt, William H.; Natarajan, Sudha; Verhappen, Ron; Wusk, Mary Beth; Lucker, Patricia L.

    2005-01-01

    The CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol LIDAR Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite is due to launch from Vandenberg AFB aboard a Delta rocket in April of 2005. CALIPSO is an international mission consisting of NASA, Ball Aerospace and the French space agency CNES. Onboard CALIPSO are three instruments, a two wavelength/two polarization lidar, an Infrared radiometer and a wide field camera. This paper will focus on the software design, development and functionality of the lidar systems including the transmitter and receiver as well as the planned operations paradigm. The operations paradigm simply stated is this: command the payload once a week with all commands being time-tagged, and receive and process health and status from the payload four (4) times per day. Science data totaling over 5 gigabytes a day is down-linked once every 24 hours. A modular approach was used in the design of the flight software where the executable code is separated into 8 loadable modules and the configuration of the individual instruments is accomplished via several loadable tables. This design scheme allows for manageable updates to the executable image and allows the science team to change and experiment with instrument configuration on an as needed basis without over stressing the command uplink system. Redundant copies of all nominal executable image files are kept onboard as is a maintenance image. The Onboard Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) system insures the safety of the payload and all instruments.

  18. Optical properties of aerosols obtained from airborne lidar and several in-situ instruments during RACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, Kevin B.; Li, Shao-Meng

    1997-05-01

    Two aircraft, the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) Convair 580 (CV580) and NRCC DHC-6 Twin Otter, along with the Yarmouth and Digby Ferries, a ground site near Yarmouth and coordination with satellite overpasses (AVHRR and LANDSAT) provided an exceptionally well rounded compliment of observing platforms to meet the project objectives for the radiation, aerosols and cloud experiment (RACE) (refer to http://www.on.doe.ca/armp/RACE/RACE.html for a complete list of instrumentation and investigators involved). The general flight plans involved upwind measurements of a selected target by the CV580 lidar, followed by coincident flights allowing the Twin Otter to perform in-situ measurements while the Convair used a variety of remote sensors from above. The CV580 then descended to perform in-situ measurements including size segregated samples through the use of a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). This paper focuses on the airborne lidar results during RACE and in particular introduces two case studies comparing the lidar with a MOUDI impactor and ASASP particle probe using Mie theory.

  19. Global Lidar Measurements of Clouds and Aerosols from Space Using the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Dennis L.; Palm, S. P.; Welton, E. J.; Hart, W. D.; Spinhirne, J. D.; McGill, M.; Mahesh, A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is scheduled for launch on the ICESat satellite as part of the NASA EOS mission in 2002. GLAS will be used to perform high resolution surface altimetry and will also provide a continuously operating atmospheric lidar to profile clouds, aerosols, and the planetary boundary layer with horizontal and vertical resolution of 175 and 76.8 m, respectively. GLAS is the first active satellite atmospheric profiler to provide global coverage. Data products include direct measurements of the heights of aerosol and cloud layers, and the optical depth of transmissive layers. In this poster we provide an overview of the GLAS atmospheric data products, present a simulated GLAS data set, and show results from the simulated data set using the GLAS data processing algorithm. Optical results from the ER-2 Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), which uses many of the same processing algorithms as GLAS, show algorithm performance with real atmospheric conditions during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000).

  20. Infrared lidar overlap function: an experimental determination.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Costa, Maria João; Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Lyamani, Hassan; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2010-09-13

    The most recent works demonstrate that the lidar overlap function, which describes the overlap between the laser beam and the receiver field of view, can be determined experimentally for the 355 and 532 nm channels using Raman signals. Nevertheless, the Raman channels cannot be used to determine the lidar overlap for the infrared channel (1064 nm) because of their low intensity. In addition, many Raman lidar systems only provide inelastic signals with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio at nighttime. In view of this fact, this work presents a modification of that method, based on the comparison of attenuated backscatter profiles derived from lidar and ceilometer, to retrieve the overlap function for the lidar infrared channel. Similarly to the Raman overlap method, the approach presented here allows to derive the overlap correction without an explicit knowledge of all system parameters. The application of the proposed methodology will improve the potential of Raman lidars to investigate the aerosol microphysical properties in the planetary boundary layer, extending the information of 1064 nm backscatter profiles to the ground and allowing the retrieval of microphysical properties practically close to the surface. PMID:20940927

  1. Comparison of Raman lidar water vapor calibration using GPS, radiosoundigs and ground observations. Application for GPS positioning purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, P.; Bock, O.; Thom, C.; Pelon, J.

    2011-12-01

    Water vapor measurements from a mobile Raman lidar developed conjointly by IGN and LATMOS/CNRS are used for documenting water vapor heterogeneities in the lower troposphere and correcting geodetic (as GPS) radio-signal propagation delays in clear sky conditions. This instrument has both capabilities for realizing zenith pointing and slant pointing measurements. This instrument has been involved in different experiments in these past few years (VAPIC-2004, COPS-2007, MANITOUL-2009) providing an interesting set of data acquired under various atmospheric conditions in different geographic areas. These data are now used to evaluate different strategies for lidar humidity measurement calibration, considering collocated GPS observations, radiosoundings profiles and humidity measurements. A new method of calibration using GPS observations analysis has therefore been developed. The joint processing of GPS and lidar data is also shown to improve the GPS positioning.

  2. LIDAR Observations of the Vertical Ozone and Aerosol Distribution over Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Simeonov; P. Ristori; M. Taslakov; T. Dinoev; H. van den Bergh; S. Frey; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

    2004-01-01

    An international field measurement campaign was held in April - May 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an effort to understand the complex urban air pollution problems in large cities. Gas phase and aerosol constituents were studied intensively during the campaign. LIDAR played an important role for measuring boundary layer dynamics and photochemical processes by

  3. Airborne Lidar and in-situ Aerosol Observations of an Elevated Layer, Leeward of the European Alps and Apennines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nyeki; K. Eleftheriadis; U. Baltensperger; I. Colbeck; M. Fiebig; A. Fix; C. Kiemle; M. Lazaridis; A. Petzold

    2002-01-01

    An elevated layer was observed during airborne lidar and in-situ aerosol measurements, leeward of the European Alps and Apennine mountains. The layer was encountered during the Mesoscale Alpine Program (MAP) in autumn 1999, and extended >200 km at an altitude ?4100 m asl over the northern Adriatic sea. Detailed meteorological analysis suggested that mountain venting followed by advection was responsible

  4. Airborne Lidar and in-situ Aerosol Observations of an Elevated Layer, Leeward of the European Alps and Apennines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nyeki; K. Eleftheriadis; U. Baltensperger; I. Colbeck; M. Fiebig; A. Fix; C. Kiemle; M. Lazaridis; A. Petzold

    2002-01-01

    An elevated layer was observed during airborne lidar and in-situ aerosol measurements, leeward of the European Alps and Apennine mountains. The layer was encountered during the Mesoscale Alpine Program (MAP) in autumn 1999, and extended >200 km at an altitude ~4100 m asl over the northern Adriatic sea. Detailed meteorological analysis suggested that mountain venting followed by advection was responsible

  5. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  6. High Spectral Resolution Lidar and MPLNET Micro Pulse Lidar aerosol optical property retrieval intercomparison during the 2012 7-SEAS field campaign at Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Eloranta, Edwin; Holben, Brent N.; Chew, Boom Ning; Salinas, Santo V.

    2014-10-01

    From August 2012 to February 2013 a High Resolution Spectral Lidar (HSRL; 532 nm) was deployed at that National University of Singapore near a NASA Micro Pulse Lidar NETwork (MPLNET; 527 nm) site. A primary objective of the MPLNET lidar project is the production and dissemination of reliable Level 1 measurements and Level 2 retrieval products. This paper characterizes and quantifies error in Level 2 aerosol optical property retrievals conducted through inversion techniques that derive backscattering and extinction coefficients from MPLNET elastic single-wavelength datasets. MPLNET Level 2 retrievals for aerosol optical depth and extinction/backscatter coefficient profiles are compared with corresponding HSRL datasets, for which the instrument collects direct measurements of each using a unique optical configuration that segregates aerosol and cloud backscattered signal from molecular signal. The intercomparison is performed, and error matrices reported, for lower (0-5km) and the upper (>5km) troposphere, respectively, to distinguish uncertainties observed within and above the MPLNET instrument optical overlap regime.

  7. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

    2009-05-05

    This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system. Analysis of the aerosol and water vapor data collected by the Raman lidar during the 2003 Aerosol IOP indicated that the sensitivity of the lidar was significantly lower than when the lidar was initially deployed. A detailed analysis after the IOP of the long-term dataset demonstrated that the lidar began degrading in early 2002, and that it lost approximately a factor of 4 in sensitivity between 2002 and 2004. We participated in the development of the remediation plan for the system to restore its initial performance. We conducted this refurbishment and upgrade from May- September 2004. This remediation lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of 10 and 30 for the Raman lidar's water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol backscatter coefficient data, respectively as compared to the signal strengths when the system was first deployed. The DOE ARM Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE), which was conducted during September 2005, evaluated the impact of these modifications and upgrades on the SGP Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and optical thickness. The CARL modifications significantly improved the accuracy and temporal resolution of the aerosol measurements. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Raman lidar were also used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter-Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) (http://nansen.ipsl.jussieu.fr/AEROCOM/aerocomhome.html) project. There was a wide range in how the models represent the aerosol extinction profiles over the ARM SGP site, even though the average annual AOT represented by the various models and measured by CARL and the Sun photometer were in general agreement, at least within the standard deviations of the averages. There were considerable differences in the average vertical distributions among the models, even among models that had similar average aerosol optical thickness. Deviations between mean aerosol extinction profiles were generally small (~20-30%) for altitudes above 2 km, and grew consider

  8. Piece-wise variance method for signal-to-noise ratio estimation in elastic\\/Raman lidar signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesc Rocadenbosch; Michaël Sicard; Constantino Muñoz; Sergio Tomás

    2007-01-01

    A straightforward signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimator for elastic\\/Raman lidar channels and related noise-induced errorbars is presented. The estimator is based on piece-wise estimation of the mean signal power and noise variance component under analog detection. The piece-wise estimator results are compared with those obtained from a previously published SNR parametric estimator under high and low SNR scenarios.

  9. Water Vapor and Cloud Detection Validation for Aqua Using Raman Lidars and AERI and the AWEX-G Validation Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Whiteman; Belay Demoz; Frank Schmidlin; Zhien Wang; Igor Veselovskii; Wallace McMillan; Ray Hoff; Felicita Russo; Scott Hannon; Larry Miloshevich; Barry Lesht; Gary Jedlovec; Madison WI; Martin Cadirola

    The early work in this investigation focused on the use of Raman lidar, ra- diosonde and AERI measurements for AIRS validation measurements as was reported in last year's annual report. That report revealed at times large unex- plained differences in various validation datasets being used forAIRS valida- tion. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was proposed, funded

  10. Study on optical and microphysical properties of mixed aerosols from lidar during the EMEP 2012 summer campaign at 45oN 26oE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talianu, Camelia; Nicolae, Doina; Belegante, Livio; Marmureanu, Luminita

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols optical and chemical properties in the upper layers of the atmosphere and near ground are variable, as function of the different mixtures of aerosol components resulting from their origin and transport over polluted areas. Due to a complex dynamics of air masses, the Romanian atmosphere has strong influences from dust and biomass-burning transported from South, West or East Europe. The dominant transport, and consequently the dominant aerosol type, depends on the season. As a result of the transport distance from the source and depending on the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles, tropospheric aerosols detected at Magurele, Romania, show different optical and microphysical properties than at the originating source. The differences are caused by the mixing with local particles, and also by the ageing processes and hygroscopic growth during the transport. This paper presents a statistical analysis of tropospheric aerosol optical properties during the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) summer campaign (08 June - 17 July 2012), as retrieved from multiwavelength Raman and depolarization lidar data. Three elastic (1064, 532 and 355 nm), two Raman (607 and 387 nm) and one depolarization channel (532 nm parallel / 532 nm cross) are used to independently retrieve the backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient and linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosols between 0.8 and 10 km altitude. Intensive optical parameters (Angstrom exponent, color ratios and color indexes) and microphysical parameters (effective radius, complex refractive index) from multiwavelength optical data inversion of the layer mean values are obtained. During the campaign, aerosol profiles were measured daily around sunset, following EARLINET standards. An intensive 3-days continuous measurements exercise was also performed. Layers were generally present above 2 km and bellow 6 km altitude, but descent of air masses from the free troposphere to the ground was also possible in favorable meteorological conditions. Long-range transport of mineral dust originating from Sahara region was dominating the 3 - 5 km layers for the entire period. The presence of non-spherical particles was assessed based on high particle depolarization values measured by the lidar and confirmed by the HYSPLIT backtrajectories. Only 7 out of the 22 layers carrying mineral dust particles were found to have optical properties of pure Saharan dust. The mixing of Saharan dust with continental polluted aerosols results in a modification of both intensive (AE, SSA) and extensive (AOD) optical properties. Three cases of biomass burning were also observed and analyzed: 8, 14 and 24 June, 2012. Microphysical inversion was performed for the lofted layers, and results were compared to the measurements at ground, using a C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The spectrometer provides real-time size resolved composition analysis of particulate matter, with 0.002 ?g/m3 detection limit and mass range up to 800 m/z. Mixing with local aerosols but also changes in the chemical properties due to ageing processes and hygroscopic growth were found to strongly influence the optical and microphysical properties of long-range transported biomass burning particles.

  11. Measurements of the Vertical Structure of Aerosols and Clouds Over the Ocean Using Micro-Pulse LIDAR Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Bates, David; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds over the ocean is needed for accurate retrievals of ocean color from satellites observations. The presence of absorbing aerosol layers, especially at altitudes above the boundary layer, has been shown to influence the calculation of ocean color. Also, satellite data must be correctly screened for the presence of clouds, particularly cirrus, in order to measure ocean color. One instrument capable of providing this information is a lidar, which uses pulses of laser light to profile the vertical distribution of aerosol and cloud layers in the atmosphere. However, lidar systems prior to the 1990s were large, expensive, and not eye-safe which made them unsuitable for cruise deployments. During the 1990s the first small, autonomous, and eye-safe lidar system became available: the micro-pulse lidar, or MPL. The MPL is a compact and eye-safe lidar system capable of determining the range of aerosols and clouds by firing a short pulse of laser light (523 nm) and measuring the time-of-flight from pulse transmission to reception of a returned signal. The returned signal is a function of time, converted into range using the speed of light, and is proportional to the amount of light backscattered by atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering), aerosols, and clouds. The MPL achieves ANSI eye-safe standards by sending laser pulses at low energy (micro-J) and expanding the beam to 20.32 cm in diameter. A fast pulse-repetition-frequency (2500 Hz) is used to achieve a good signal-to-noise, despite the low output energy. The MPL has a small field-of-view (< 100 micro-rad) and signals received with the instrument do not contain multiple scattering effects. The MPL has been used successfully at a number of long-term sites and also in several field experiments around the world.

  12. Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, R. T. H.

    1969-01-01

    Lidar is an optical radar technique employing laser energy. Variations in signal intensity as a function of range provide information on atmospheric constituents, even when these are too tenuous to be normally visible. The theoretical and technical basis of the technique is described and typical values of the atmospheric optical parameters given. The significance of these parameters to atmospheric and meteorological problems is discussed. While the basic technique can provide valuable information about clouds and other material in the atmosphere, it is not possible to determine particle size and number concentrations precisely. There are also inherent difficulties in evaluating lidar observations. Nevertheless, lidar can provide much useful information as is shown by illustrations. These include lidar observations of: cirrus cloud, showing mountain wave motions; stratification in clear air due to the thermal profile near the ground; determinations of low cloud and visibility along an air-field approach path; and finally the motion and internal structure of clouds of tracer materials (insecticide spray and explosion-caused dust) which demonstrate the use of lidar for studying transport and diffusion processes.

  13. Looking through the haze: evaluating the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol optical depth using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Young, S. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Harper, D. B.; Cook, A. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2014-06-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument onboard the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) spacecraft has provided over 8 years of nearly continuous vertical profiling of Earth's atmosphere. In this paper we investigate the CALIOP 532 nm aerosol layer optical depth (AOD) product, the AOD of individual layers, and the column AOD product, the sum AOD of the complete column, using an extensive database of coincident measurements. The CALIOP AOD measurements and AOD uncertainty estimates are compared with collocated AOD measurements collected with the NASA High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) in the North American and Caribbean regions. In addition, the CALIOP aerosol lidar ratios are investigated using the HSRL measurements. In general, compared with the HSRL values, the CALIOP layer AOD are biased high by less than 50% for AOD < 0.3 with higher errors for higher AOD. Less than 60% of the HSRL AOD measurements are encompassed within the CALIOP layer one-standard-deviation uncertainty range (around the CALIOP layer AOD), so an error estimate is created to encompass 68% of the HSRL data. Using this new metric, the CALIOP layer AOD error is estimated using the HSRL layer AOD as ± 0.035 ± 0.05 · (HSRL layer AOD) at night and ±0.05 ± 0.05 · (HSRL layer AOD) during the daytime. Furthermore, the CALIOP layer AOD error is found to correlate with aerosol loading as well as aerosol subtype, with the AODs in marine and dust layers agreeing most closely with the HSRL values. The lidar ratios used by CALIOP for polluted dust, polluted continental, and biomass burning layers are larger than the values measured by the HSRL in the CALIOP layers, and, therefore, the AODs for these types retrieved by CALIOP were generally too large. We estimated the CALIOP column AOD error can be expressed as ± 0.05 ± 0.07 · (HSRL column AOD) at night and ± 0.08 ± 0.1 · (HSRL column AOD) during the daytime. Multiple sources of error contribute to both positive and negative errors in the CALIOP column AOD, including multiple layers in the column of different aerosol types, lidar ratio errors, cloud misclassification, and undetected aerosol layers. The undetected layers were further investigated and we found that the layer detection algorithm works well at night, although undetected aerosols in the free troposphere introduce a mean underestimate of 0.02 in the column AOD in the dataset examined. The decreased SNR during the daytime led to poorer performance of the layer detection. This caused the daytime CALIOP column AOD to be less accurate than during the nighttime because CALIOP frequently does not detect optically thin aerosol layers with AOD < 0.1. Given that the median vertical extent of aerosol detected within any column was 1.6 km during the nighttime and 1.5 km during the daytime we can estimate the minimum extinction detection threshold to be 0.012 km-1 at night and 0.067 km-1 during the daytime in a layer median sense. This extensive validation of level 2 CALIOP aerosol layer optical depth products extends previous validation studies to nighttime lighting conditions and provides independent measurements of the lidar ratio, thus allowing the assessment of the effect on the CALIOP AOD of using inappropriate lidar ratio values in the extinction retrieval.

  14. Looking through the haze: evaluating the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol optical depth using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Young, S. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Harper, D. B.; Cook, A. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) spacecraft has provided over 8 yr of nearly continuous vertical profiling of Earth's atmosphere. In this paper we investigate the V3.01 and V3.02 CALIOP 532 nm aerosol layer optical depth (AOD) product (i.e the AOD of individual layers) and the column AOD product (i.e., the sum AOD of the complete column) using an extensive database of coincident measurements. The CALIOP AOD measurements and AOD uncertainty estimates are compared with collocated AOD measurements collected with the NASA High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) in the North American and Caribbean regions. In addition, the CALIOP aerosol lidar ratios are investigated using the HSRL measurements. In general, compared with the HSRL values, the CALIOP layer AOD are biased high by less than 50% for AOD < 0.3 with higher errors for higher AOD. Less than 60% of the HSRL AOD measurements are encompassed within the CALIOP layer 1 SD uncertainty range (around the CALIOP layer AOD), so an error estimate is created to encompass 68% of the HSRL data. Using this new metric, the CALIOP layer AOD error is estimated using the HSRL layer AOD as ±0.035 ± 0.05 · (HSRL layer AOD) at night and ±0.05 ± 0.05 · (HSRL layer AOD) during the daytime. Furthermore, the CALIOP layer AOD error is found to correlate with aerosol loading as well as aerosol subtype, with the AODs in marine and dust layers agreeing most closely with the HSRL values. The lidar ratios used by CALIOP for polluted dust, polluted continental, and biomass burning layers are larger than the values measured by the HSRL in the CALIOP layers, and therefore the AODs for these types retrieved by CALIOP were generally too large. We estimated the CALIOP column AOD error can be expressed as ±0.05 ± 0.07 · (HSRL column AOD) at night and ±0.08 ± 0.1 · (HSRL column AOD) during the daytime. Multiple sources of error contribute to both positive and negative errors in the CALIOP column AOD, including multiple layers in the column of different aerosol types, lidar ratio errors, cloud misclassification, and undetected aerosol layers. The undetected layers were further investigated and we found that the layer detection algorithm works well at night, although undetected aerosols in the free troposphere introduce a mean underestimate of 0.02 in the column AOD in the data set examined. The decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) during the daytime led to poorer performance of the layer detection. This caused the daytime CALIOP column AOD to be less accurate than during the nighttime, because CALIOP frequently does not detect optically thin aerosol layers with AOD < 0.1. Given that the median vertical extent of aerosol detected within any column was 1.6 km during the nighttime and 1.5 km during the daytime, we can estimate the minimum extinction detection threshold to be 0.012 km-1 at night and 0.067 km-1 during the daytime in a layer median sense. This extensive validation of level 2 CALIOP AOD products extends previous validation studies to nighttime lighting conditions and provides independent measurements of the lidar ratio; thus, allowing the assessment of the effect on the CALIOP AOD of using inappropriate lidar ratio values in the extinction retrieval.

  15. Elastic and Raman Lidar Temperature Measurements from Poker Flat, Alaska During February 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burka, Michael; Dao, Phan; Davidson, Gilbert; Farley, Robert; Meriwether, John; Wilson, Alex

    1992-01-01

    Ground-based lidar observations are increasingly used to elucidate the dynamical structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. Observations made from Poker Flat, Alaska during Feb. 1992 using the Phillips Laboratory Mobile Lidar Facility are reported.

  16. Ozone entrainment flux using ozone DIAL and Compact Wind Aerosol Lidar (CWAL) in Huntsville AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Newchurch, M.; kuang, S.; Wang, L.; Cantrell, W.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have proved that the impact of high ozone amounts in the residual layer can account for up to 80% of the surface ozone maxima during the following day. This high ozone in the residual layer mixes into to the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) through the entrainment processes as the growth of PBL occurs in the morning. Conversely, anthropogenic pollutants emitted from the surface mix into the Free Troposphere (FT) and are transported to other places. Therefore, entrainment flux is one of the important connections between the local-scale/urban-scale and the regional scale. In this study, we will present a study of ozone entrainment fluxes using continuous observation by co-located ozone DIAL and Compact Wind Aerosol Lidar (CWAL) at the campus of University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). As a part of Tropospheric Ozone Lidar NETwork (TOLNET), UAH ozone DIAL can provide continuous ozone observation at the range of 125 m AGL to 12 km, with 10-min temporal resolution and 150 - 550 m vertical resolution [Kuang et al., 2013]. We also perform an ozone budget study using Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation (DALES), reasonable approximations of dry deposition, in conjunction with ozone entrainment flux observations. We work towards building a comprehensive understanding of the quantitative impacts of ozone entrainment processes on surface ozone amounts in a medium-sized urban area like Huntsville AL. Shi Kuang, Michael J. Newchurch, John Burris, and Xiong Liu, "Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements," Appl. Opt. 52, 3557-3566 (2013)

  17. The evaluation of a shuttle borne lidar experiment to measure the global distribution of aerosols and their effect on the atmospheric heat budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, S. T.; Joseph, J. H.; Trauger, J. T.; Guetter, P. J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Lawler, J. E.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Odell, A. P.; Roesler, F. L.; Weinman, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A shuttle-borne lidar system is described, which will provide basic data about aerosol distributions for developing climatological models. Topics discussed include: (1) present knowledge of the physical characteristics of desert aerosols and the absorption characteristics of atmospheric gas, (2) radiative heating computations, and (3) general circulation models. The characteristics of a shuttle-borne radar are presented along with some laboratory studies which identify schemes that permit the implementation of a high spectral resolution lidar system.

  18. Temperature profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer with rotational Raman lidar during the HD(CP)2 observational prototype experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, E.; Behrendt, A.; Le Mounier, F.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2014-11-01

    The temperature measurements of the Rotational Raman Lidar of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH RRL) during the High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in April and May 2013 are discussed. The lidar consists of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm with 10 W average power at 50 Hz, a two-mirror scanner, a 40 cm receiving telescope and a highly efficient polychromator with cascading interference filters for separating four signals: the elastic backscatter signal, two rotational Raman signals with different temperature dependence, and the vibrational Raman signal of water vapor. The main measurement variable of the UHOH RRL is temperature. For the HOPE campaign, the lidar receiver was optimized for high and low background levels, respectively, with a novel switch for the passband of the second rotational Raman channel. The instrument delivers atmospheric profiles of water vapor mixing ratio as well as particle backscatter coefficient and particle extinction coefficient as further products. As examples for the measurement performance, measurements of the temperature gradient and water vapor mixing ratio revealing the development of the atmospheric boundary layer within 25 h are presented. As expected from simulations, a significant advance during nighttime was achieved with the new low-background setting. A two-mirror scanner allows for measurements in different directions. When pointing the scanner to low elevation, measurements close to the ground become possible which are otherwise impossible due to the non-total overlap of laser beam and receiving telescope field-of-view in the near range. We present an example of a low-level temperature measurement which resolves the temperature gradient at the top of the stable nighttime boundary layer a hundred meters above the ground.

  19. Temperature profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer with rotational Raman lidar during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, E.; Behrendt, A.; Le Mounier, F.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2015-03-01

    The temperature measurements of the rotational Raman lidar of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH RRL) during the High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observation Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in April and May 2013 are discussed. The lidar consists of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm with 10 W average power at 50 Hz, a two-mirror scanner, a 40 cm receiving telescope, and a highly efficient polychromator with cascading interference filters for separating four signals: the elastic backscatter signal, two rotational Raman signals with different temperature dependence, and the vibrational Raman signal of water vapor. The main measurement variable of the UHOH RRL is temperature. For the HOPE campaign, the lidar receiver was optimized for high and low background levels, with a novel switch for the passband of the second rotational Raman channel. The instrument delivers atmospheric profiles of water vapor mixing ratio as well as particle backscatter coefficient and particle extinction coefficient as further products. As examples for the measurement performance, measurements of the temperature gradient and water vapor mixing ratio revealing the development of the atmospheric boundary layer within 25 h are presented. As expected from simulations, a reduction of the measurement uncertainty of 70% during nighttime was achieved with the new low-background setting. A two-mirror scanner allows for measurements in different directions. When pointing the scanner to low elevation, measurements close to the ground become possible which are otherwise impossible due to the non-total overlap of laser beam and receiving telescope field of view in the near range. An example of a low-level temperature measurement is presented which resolves the temperature gradient at the top of the stable nighttime boundary layer 100 m above the ground.

  20. Aglite lidar: Calibration and retrievals of well characterized aerosols from agricultural operations using a three-wavelength elastic lidar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. AGLITE is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL) to measure the spatial...

  1. AGLITE Lidar: Calibration and Retrievals of Well Characterized Aerosols from Agricultural Operations using a Three-wavelength Elastic Lidar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. AGLITE is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system developed at the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL) to measure the spa...

  2. Determining the contribution of volcanic ash and boundary layer aerosol in backscatter lidar returns: A three-component atmosphere approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, Franco; Hogan, Robin J.

    2011-10-01

    A solution of the lidar equation is discussed, that permits combining backscatter and depolarization measurements to quantitatively distinguish two different aerosol types with different depolarization properties. The method has been successfully applied to simultaneous observations of volcanic ash and boundary layer aerosol obtained in Exeter, United Kingdom, on 16 and 18 April 2010, permitting the contribution of the two aerosols to be quantified separately. First a subset of the atmospheric profiles is used where the two aerosol types belong to clearly distinguished layers, for the purpose of characterizing the ash in terms of lidar ratio and depolarization. These quantities are then used in a three-component atmosphere solution scheme of the lidar equation applied to the full data set, in order to compute the optical properties of both aerosol types separately. On 16 April a thin ash layer, 100-400 m deep, is observed (average and maximum estimated ash optical depth: 0.11 and 0.2); it descends from ˜2800 to ˜1400 m altitude over a 6-hour period. On 18 April a double ash layer, ˜400 m deep, is observed just above the morning boundary layer (average and maximum estimated ash optical depth: 0.19 and 0.27). In the afternoon the ash is entrained into the boundary layer, and the latter reaches a depth of ˜1800 m (average and maximum estimated ash optical depth: 0.1 and 0.15). An additional ash layer, with a very small optical depth, was observed on 18 April at an altitude of 3500-4000 m. By converting the lidar optical measurements using estimates of volcanic ash specific extinction, derived from other works, the observations seem to suggest approximate peak ash concentrations of ˜1500 and ˜1000 ?g/m3, respectively, on the two observations dates.

  3. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 laser and electro-optic technology for space-based sodium lidar instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nm. A CW External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nm. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nm. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9W @ 532 nm wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  4. Analysis of Raman Lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Russo, F.; Demoz, B.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Veselovskii, I.; Hannon, S.; Wang, Z.; Vomel, H.; Schmidlin, F.; Lesht, B.

    2005-01-01

    Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was held in October - November, 2003 with the goal of bringing validation technologies to a common site for intercomparison and resolution of the measurement discrepancies. Using the University of Colorado Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) as the water vapor reference, the AWEX-G field campaign resulted in new correction techniques for both Raman lidar, Vaisala RS80-H and RS90/92 measurements that significantly improve the absolute accuracy of those measurement systems particularly in the upper troposphere. Mean comparisons of radiosondes and lidar are performed demonstrating agreement between corrected sensors and the CFH to generally within 5% thereby providing data of sufficient accuracy for Aqua validation purposes. Examples of the use of the correction techniques in radiance and retrieval comparisons are provided and discussed.

  5. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mamouri, R. E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Mona, L.

    2013-02-01

    Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties, as well as of the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system and inversion models, during 21-24 April 2010. Additionally, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements indicated the presence of volcanic particles over our area. Simulations of the volcanic partilcles dispersion, done by the FLEXPART model, confirmed the presence of these particles over Athens. Our lidar data showed volcanic particles layers, in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) between from ground levels up to nearly 10 km. Over Athens the volcanic particles layers were found to be mixed with locally produced aerosols, inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Mean hourly-averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles, ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth (AOD) found to vary from 0.014 to 0.184 at 355 nm and from 0.017 up to 0.174 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (LR) ranged between 59.7-79.6 sr (at 355 nm) and 43.9-88.3 sr (at 532 nm). Additionally, we calculated that the mean effective radius of the volcanic particles was 0.13-0.38 ?m, while their refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. Finally, our data also allowed us to quantitatively compare, for the first time, the volcanic ash concentrations simulated by FLEXPART with those calculated by the inversion code LIRIC, using data sets derived from coincident lidar-AERONET measurements. In general, good agreement was found between simulations and observations, concerning not only the geometrical properties of the volcanic particles layers, but also the particles mass concentration, with a correlation coefficient of the order of 0.75.

  6. The GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION) as a source of near-real time aerosol profile data for model evaluation and assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch’s Science Advisory Group on Aerosols described a global network of lidar networks called GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION). GALION has a purpose of providing expanded coverage of aerosol observations for climate and air quality use. Comprised of networks in Asia (AD-NET), Europe (EARLINET and CIS-LINET), North America (CREST and CORALNET), South America (ALINE) and with contribution from global networks such as MPLNET and NDACC, the collaboration provides a unique capability to define aerosol profiles in the vertical. GALION is designed to supplement existing ground-based and column profiling (AERONET, PHOTONS, SKYNET, GAWPFR) stations. In September 2010, GALION held its second workshop and one component of discussion focussed how the network would integrate into model needs. GALION partners have contributed to the Sand and Dust Storm Warning and Analysis System (SDS-WAS) and to assimilation in models such as DREAM. This paper will present the conclusions of those discussions and how these observations can fit into a global model analysis framework. Questions of availability, latency, and aerosol parameters that might be ingested into models will be discussed. An example of where EARLINET and GALION have contributed in near-real time observations was the suite of measurements during the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland and its impact on European air travel. Lessons learned from this experience will be discussed.

  7. Atmospheric temperature measurements at altitudes of 5-30??km with a double-grating-based pure rotational Raman lidar.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jingyu; Yi, Fan

    2014-08-20

    A pure rotational Raman (PRR) lidar based on a second-harmonic generation Nd:YAG laser is built for measuring the atmospheric temperature at altitudes of 5-30 km. A double-grating polychromator is designed to extract the wanted PRR signals and suppress the elastically backscattered light. Measured examples present the overall lidar performance. For the 1-h integrated lidar temperature profiles, the 1? statistical uncertainty is less than 0.5 K up to ?17??km, while it does not exceed 2 K at altitudes of 17-26.3 km. Based on 38 nights of high-quality lidar temperature data, the temperature variability is studied. It is found that the variability differs between the nights with inversion layer and those without it. On the nights without inversion layer, the local hour-to-hour temperature variability was mostly less than 1 K at altitudes of 5-17 km. At altitudes of 17-23 km, it grew to 1.2-2.4 K. On the nights with inversion layer, in the middle and upper troposphere, the significant variability was found to occur only at the inversion-layer altitudes. At other tropospheric altitudes off the inversion layer, the variability was generally less than 1 K. The statistical results indicate that the temperature variability mostly was stronger in the presence of inversion layer than in its absence. PMID:25321103

  8. Water vapor observations up to the lower stratosphere through the Raman lidar during the Maïdo Lidar Calibration Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Hauchecorne, A.; Porteneuve, J.; Baray, J. L.; Leclair de Bellevue, J.; Vérèmes, H.; Gabarrot, F.; Payen, G.; Decoupes, R.; Cammas, J. P.

    2015-03-01

    A new lidar system devoted to tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor measurements has been installed at the Maïdo altitude station facility of Réunion island, in the southern subtropics. To evaluate the performances and the capabilities of the new system with a particular focus on UTLS (Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere) measurements, the Maïdo Lidar Calibration Campaign (MALICCA) was performed in April 2013. Varying the characteristics of the transmitter and the receiver components, different system configuration scenarios were tested and possible parasite signals (fluorescent contamination, rejection) were investigated. A hybrid calibration methodology has been set up and validated to insure optimal lidar calibration stability with time. In particular, the receiver transmittance is monitored through the calibration lamp method that, at the moment, can detect transmittance variations greater than 10-15%. Calibration coefficients are then calculated through the hourly values of IWV (Integrated Water Vapor) provided by the co-located GPS. The comparison between the constants derived by GPS and Vaisala RS92 radiosondes launched at Maïdo during MALICCA, points out an acceptable agreement in terms of accuracy of the mean calibration value (with a difference of approximately 2-3%), but a significant difference in terms of variability (14% vs. 7-9%, for GPS and RS92 calibration procedures, respectively). We obtained a relatively good agreement between the lidar measurements and 15 co-located and simultaneous RS92 radiosondes. A relative difference below 10% is measured in the low and middle troposphere (2-10 km). The upper troposphere (up to 15 km) is characterized by a larger spread (approximately 20%), because of the increasing distance between the two sensors. To measure water vapor in the UTLS region, nighttime and monthly water vapor profiles are presented and compared. The good agreement between the lidar monthly profile and the mean WVMR profile measured by satellite MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) has been used as a quality control procedure of the lidar product, attesting the absence of significant wet biases and validating the calibration procedure. Due to its performance and location, the MAIDO H2O lidar will become a reference instrument in the southern subtropics, insuring the long-term survey of the vertical distribution of water vapor. Furthermore, this system allows the investigation of several scientific themes, such as stratosphere-troposphere exchange, tropospheric dynamics in the subtropics, and links between cirrus clouds and water vapor.

  9. Water vapor observations up to the lower stratosphere through the Raman lidar during the MAïdo LIdar Calibration Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Hauchecorne, A.; Porteneuve, J.; Baray, J. L.; Leclair de Bellevue, J.; Vérèmes, H.; Gabarrot, F.; Payen, G.; Decoupes, R.; Cammas, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    A new lidar system devoted to tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor measurements has been installed at the Maïdo altitude station facility of La Reunion Island, in the southern subtropics. The main objectives of the MAïdo LIdar Calibration Campaign (MALICCA), performed in April 2013, were to validate the system, to set up a calibration methodology, to compare the acquired water profiles with radiosonde measurements and to evaluate its performances and capabilities with a particular focus on the UTLS measurements. Varying the characteristics of the transmitter and the receiver components, different system configuration scenarios were tested and possible parasite signals (fluorescent contamination, rejection) were investigated. A hybrid calibration methodology has been set up and validated to insure optimal lidar calibration stability with time. In particular, the receiver transmittance is monitored through the calibration lamp method that, at the moment, can detect transmittance variations greater than 10-15%. Calibration coefficients are then calculated through the hourly values of IWV provided by the co-located GPS. The comparison between the constants derived by GPS and Vaisala RS92 radiosondes launched at Maïdo during MALICCA, points out an acceptable agreement in terms of accuracy of the mean calibration value (with a difference of approximately 2-3%), but a significant difference in terms of variability (14 vs. 7-9%, for GPS and RS92 calibration procedures, respectively). We obtained a relatively good agreement between the lidar measurements and 15 co-located and simultaneous RS92 radiosondes. A relative difference below 10% is measured in low and middle troposphere (2-10 km). The upper troposphere (up to 15 km) is characterized by a larger spread (approximately 20%), because of the increasing distance between the two sensors. To measure water vapor in the UTLS region, nighttime and monthly water vapor profiles are presented and compared. The good agreement between the lidar monthly profile and the mean WVMR profile measured by satellite MLS has been used as a quality control procedure of the lidar product, attesting the absence of significant wet biases and validating the calibration procedure. Thanks to its performance and location, the MAIDO H2O lidar is devoted to become a reference instrument in the southern subtropics, allowing to insure the long-term survey of the vertical distribution of water vapor, and to document scientific themes such as stratosphere-troposphere exchange, tropospheric dynamics in the subtropics, links between cirrus clouds and water vapor.

  10. Active Raman sounding of the earth's water vapor field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay B.; Farley, Robert W.; Wessel, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The typically weak cross-sections characteristic of Raman processes has historically limited their use in atmospheric remote sensing to nighttime application. However, with advances in instrumentation and techniques, it is now possible to apply Raman lidar to the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle. Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements of water vapor using Raman lidar are also possible but are limited to nighttime and require long integration times. However, boundary layer studies of water vapor variability can now be performed with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art of Raman lidar for high-resolution measurements of the atmospheric water vapor, aerosol and cloud fields. In particular, we describe the use of Raman lidar for mapping the vertical distribution and variability of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the evolution of dynamic meteorological events. The ability of Raman lidar to detect and characterize water in the region of the tropopause and the importance of high-altitude water vapor for climate-related studies and meteorological satellite performance are discussed.

  11. Ground-based lidar measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols in the lower stratosphere and troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Flamant, P.H. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA; CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Palaiseau, Essonne, France); Pelon, J. (CNRS, Service d'Aeronomie, Verrieres-le-Buisson, Essonne, France); Lefrere, J. (Electricite de France, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Chatou, Yvelines, France)

    1982-01-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and water vapor concentrations were performed during several field experiments in 1980-1981 by means of the differential absorption laser technique. Profiles up to 26 km for ozone and up to 9 km for water vapor are presented. Also, a lidar survey of aerosol layers ranging from 12 to 23 km were performed following the Mt. St. Helens major eruption (May 1980). Experiments were conducted at the CNRS lidar facility of the Haute Provence Observatory which is located in southern France (44/sup 0/N, 5/sup 0/E). For ozone a vertical profile is recorded in three sequences, each requiring 15 min of acquisition time. The relative accuracy is better than 5% at the lower altitude and falls to 20% at 25 km. For water vapor the time sequences are 4 min or 8 min long and the accuracy is better than 10% in the lower troposphere.

  12. Combining data from lidar and in situ instruments to characterize the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Turco, R. P.; Pueschel, R. F.; Browell, E. V.; Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last decade, the quantification of tropospheric aerosol abundance, composition and radiative impacts has become an important research endeavor. For the most part, the interest in tropospheric aerosols is derived from questions related to the global and local (instantaneous) radiative forcing of climate due to these aerosols. One approach is to study local forcing under well-defined conditions, and to extrapolate such results to global scales. To estimate local aerosol forcing, appropriate radiative transfer models can be employed (e.g., the Fu-Liou radiative transfer code, [Fu and Liou, 1993]). In general, such models require information on derived aerosol properties [Toon, 1994]; namely the aerosol optical depth, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor (phase function), all of which appear in the equations of radiative transfer. In this paper, we report on a method that utilizes lidar data and in situ aerosol size distribution measurements to deduce the vertical structure of the aerosol complex index of refraction in the near IR, thus identifying the aerosol type. Together with aerosol size distributions obtained in situ, the aerosol refractive index can be used to calculate the necessary derived aerosol properties. The data analyzed here were collected during NASA's PEM West-B (Pacific Exploratory Mission) experiment, which took place in February/March 1994. The platform for the measurements was the NASA DC-8 aircraft. The primary goal of the PEM West missions [Browell et al., 1996] was the assessment of potential anthropogenic perturbations of the chemistry in the Pacific Basin troposphere. For this purpose the timing of PEM West-B corresponded to the seasonal peak in transport from the Asian continent into the Pacific basin [Merrill et al., in press]. This period normally occurs during Northern Hemisphere spring, when the Japan jet is well developed.

  13. Lidar Ratios for Dust Aerosols Derived From Retrievals of CALIPSO Visible Extinction Profiles Constrained by Optical Depths from MODIS-Aqua and CALIPSO/CloudSat Ocean Surface Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Stuart A.; Josset, Damien B.; Vaughan, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    CALIPSO's (Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) analysis algorithms generally require the use of tabulated values of the lidar ratio in order to retrieve aerosol extinction and optical depth from measured profiles of attenuated backscatter. However, for any given time or location, the lidar ratio for a given aerosol type can differ from the tabulated value. To gain some insight as to the extent of the variability, we here calculate the lidar ratio for dust aerosols using aerosol optical depth constraints from two sources. Daytime measurements are constrained using Level 2, Collection 5, 550-nm aerosol optical depth measurements made over the ocean by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board the Aqua satellite, which flies in formation with CALIPSO. We also retrieve lidar ratios from night-time profiles constrained by aerosol column optical depths obtained by analysis of CALIPSO and CloudSat backscatter signals from the ocean surface.

  14. Comparing Simultaneous Stratospheric Aerosol and Ozone Lidar Measurements with SAGE 2 Data after the Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Wang, P.-H.; Rizi, V.; Masci, F.; DAltorio, A.; Visconti, G.

    1995-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol and ozone profiles obtained simultaneously from the lidar station at the University of L'Aquila (42.35 deg N, 13.33 deg E, 683 m above sea level) during the first 6 months following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo are compared with corresponding nearby Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 2 profiles. The agreement between the two data sets is found to be reasonably good. The temporal change of aerosol profiles obtained by both techniques showed the intrusion and growth of Pinatubo aerosols. In addition, ozone concentration profiles derived from an empirical time-series model based on SAGE 2 ozone data obtained before the Pinatubo eruption are compared with measured profiles. Good agreement is shown in the 1991 profiles, but ozone concentrations measured in January 1992 were reduced relative to time-series model estimates. Possible reasons for the differences between measured and model-based ozone profiles are discussed.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) - Long-term Tropospheric Ozone and Aerosol Profiling for Satellite Continuity and Process Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newchurch, M.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Alvarez, R. J.; Burris, J.; Cantrell, W.; Chen, G.; De Young, R.; Hardesty, R.; Hoff, R. M.; Kaye, J. A.; kuang, S.; Langford, A. O.; LeBlanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Pierce, R.; Senff, C. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Szykman, J.; Tonnesen, G.; Wang, L.

    2012-12-01

    An interagency research initiative for ground-based ozone and aerosol lidar profiling recently funded by NASA has important applications to air-quality studies in addition to the goal of serving the GEO-CAPE and other air-quality missions. Ozone is a key trace-gas species, a greenhouse gas, and an important pollutant in the troposphere. High spatial and temporal variability of ozone affected by various physical and photochemical processes motivates the high spatio-temporal lidar profiling of tropospheric ozone for improving the simulation and forecasting capability of the photochemical/air-quality models, especially in the boundary layer where the resolution and precision of satellite retrievals are fundamentally limited. It is well known that there are large discrepancies between the surface and upper-air ozone due to titration, surface deposition, diurnal processes, free-tropospheric transport, and other processes. Near-ground ozone profiling has been technically challenging for lidars due to some engineering difficulties, such as near-range saturation, field-of-view overlap, and signal processing issues. This initiative provides an opportunity for us to solve those engineering issues and redesign the lidars aimed at long-term, routine ozone/aerosol observations from the near surface to the top of the troposphere at multiple stations (i.e., NASA/GSFC, NASA/LaRC, NASA/JPL, NOAA/ESRL, UAHuntsville) for addressing the needs of NASA, NOAA, EPA and State/local AQ agencies. We will present the details of the science investigations, current status of the instrumentation development, data access/protocol, and the future goals of this lidar network. Ozone lidar/RAQMS comparison of laminar structures.

  16. Calibration method for the lidar-observed stratospheric depolarization ratio in the presence of liquid aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Shibata, T; Iwasaka, Y; Fujiwara, M

    2001-12-20

    A fine calibration of the depolarization ratio is required for a detailed interpretation of lidar-observed polar stratospheric clouds. We propose a procedure for analyzing data by using atmospheric depolarization lidar. The method is based on a plot of deltaT versus (1 - RT(-1)), where deltaT is the total depolarization ratio and RT is the total backscattering ratio. Assuming that there are only spherical particles in some altitude ranges of the lidar data, the characteristics of the plot of deltaT versus (1 - RT(-1)) lead to a simple but effective calibration method for deltaT. Additionally, the depolarization of air molecules deltam can be determined in the process of deltaT calibration. We compared determined values with theoretically calculated values for the depolarization of air to test the proposed method. The deltam value was calculated from the lidar data acquired at Ny-Alesund (79 degrees N, 12 degrees E), Svalbard in winter 1994-1995. When only sulfate aerosols were present on 24 December 1994, deltam was 0.46 +/- 0.35%. When the particles consisted of sulfate aerosols and spherical particles of polar stratospheric clouds on 4 January 1995, deltam was 0.45 +/- 0.07%. Both deltam values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated value, 0.50 +/- 0.03%. PMID:18364966

  17. Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Beyerle; Andreas Herber; Roland Neuber; Hartwig Gernandt

    1995-01-01

    Since summer 1991 multiwavelength lidar and sun photometer observations of the Pinatubo aerosol layer are performed at the Arctic NDSC station (Koldewey-Station) in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. The height integrated backscatter coefficient and the optical density decrease exponentially in time with time constants of 0.89+\\/-0.39 and 0.94+\\/-0.37 years, respectively. Their wavelength dependence indicates a decrease in median particle radii between 1992 and

  18. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, LIDAR and airborne measurements in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hervo; B. Quennehen; N. I. Kristiansen; J. Boulon; A. Stohl; P. Fréville; J. M. Pichon; D. Picard; P. Labazuy; M. Gouhier; A. Colomb; A. Schwarzenboeck; K. Sellegri

    2011-01-01

    During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010), the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in-situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles) were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (France) with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of

  19. The Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site Measured versus Modeled

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.; Turner, D.D.; Clayton, M.; Guibert, S.; Schulz, M.; Chin, M.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Raman lidar are used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter- Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) project. This project seeks to diagnose aerosol modules of global models and subsequently identify and eliminate weak components in aerosol modules used for global modeling; AEROCOM activities also include assembling data sets to be used in the evaluations. The AEROCOM average aerosol extinction profiles typically show good agreement with the Raman lidar profiles for altitudes above about 2 km; below 2 km the average model profiles are significantly (30-50%) lower than the Raman lidar profiles. The vertical variability in the average aerosol extinction profiles simulated by these models is less than the variability in the corresponding Raman lidar pro files. The measurements also show a much larger diurnal variability than the Interaction with Chemistry and Aerosols (INCA) model, particularly near the surface where there is a high correlation between aerosol extinction and relative humidity.

  20. Analysis of telescope coupling efficiency for all-fiber spectroscopic Raman lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shichun Li; Dengxin Hua; Yufeng Wang; Li Wang; Jun Liu; Peng Wang

    2010-01-01

    Telescope coupling efficiency is one of the important parameters for a lidar system because of the use of single-mode fiber Bragg grating, which seriously affects the signal-to-noise ratio of lidar. A newly developed telescope coupler of lidar based on single-mode fiber array is designed to enhance the coupling efficiency and signal power. By analyzing the coupling mathematic expression between the

  1. Characterization of convection-related parameters by Raman lidar: Analysis of selected case studies from the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Stelitano, D.

    2012-04-01

    This paper illustrates an approach to determine the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective inhibition (CIN) based on the use of data from a Raman lidar system. The use of Raman lidar data allows to provide high temporal resolution (5 min) measurements of CAPE and CIN and follow their evolution over extended time period covering the full cycle of convective activity. Lidar-based measurements of CAPE and CIN are obtained from Raman lidar measurements of the temperature profile and the surface measurements of temperature, pressure and dew point temperature provided from a surface weather station. The approach is tested and applied to the data collected by the Raman lidar system BASIL, which was operational in Achern (Black Forest, Lat: 48.64 ° N, Long: 8.06 ° E, Elev.: 140 m) in the period 01 June - 31 August 2007 in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), held in Southern Germany and Eastern France. Reported measurements are found to be in good agreement with simultaneous measurements obtained from the radiosondes launched in Achern and with estimates from different mesoscale models. An estimate of the different random error sources affecting the measurements of CAPE and CIN has also been performed, together with a detail sensitivity study to quantify the different systematic error sources. Preliminary results from this study will be illustrated and discussed at the Conference.

  2. Reconciling aerosol light extinction measurements from spaceborne lidar observations and in-situ measurements in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesche, M.; Rastak, N.; Charlson, R. J.; Glantz, P.; Zieger, P.; Hansson, H.-C.

    2014-03-01

    In this study we investigate to what degree it is possible to reconcile continuously recorded particle light extinction coefficients derived from dry in-situ measurements at Zeppelin station (78.92° N, 11.85° E, 475 m a.s.l.) at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, that are recalculated to ambient relative humidity, and simultaneous ambient observations with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. To our knowledge, this represents the first study that compares spaceborne lidar measurements to optical aerosol properties from short-term in-situ observations (averaged over 5 h) on a case-by-case basis. Finding suitable comparison cases requires an elaborate screening and matching of the CALIOP data with respect to the location of the Zeppelin station as well as in the selection of temporal and spatial averaging intervals for both the ground-based and spaceborne observations. Trustworthy reconciliation of these data cannot be achieved with the closest approach method that is often used in matching CALIOP observations to those taken at ground sites due to the transport pathways of the air parcels that were sampled. The use of trajectories allowed us to establish a connection between spaceborne and ground-based observations for 57 individual overpasses out of a total of 2018 that occurred in our region of interest around Svalbard (0 to 25° E; 75 to 82° N) in the considered year of 2008. Matches could only be established during winter and spring, since the low aerosol load during summer in connection with the strong solar background and the high occurrence rate of clouds strongly influences the performance and reliability of CALIOP observations. Extinction coefficients in the range from 1 to 100 Mm-1 were found for successful matches with an agreement of a factor of 1.85 (median value for a range from 0.38 to 17.9) between the findings of in-situ and spaceborne observations (the latter being generally larger than the former). The remaining difference is likely to be due to the natural variability in aerosol concentration and ambient relative humidity, an insufficient representation of aerosol particle growth in the used hygroscopicity model, or a misclassification of aerosol type (i.e., choice of lidar ratio) in the CALIPSO retrieval.

  3. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar. Part 2; Ground Based

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Cadirola, Martin; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Rush, Kurt; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The same RASL hardware as described in part I was installed in a ground-based mobile trailer and used in a water vapor lidar intercomparison campaign, hosted at Table Mountain, CA, under the auspices of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The converted RASL hardware demonstrated high sensitivity to lower stratospheric water vapor indicating that profiling water vapor at those altitudes with sufficient accuracy to monitor climate change is possible. The measurements from Table Mountain also were used to explain the reason, and correct , for sub-optimal airborne aerosol extinction performance during the flight campaign.

  4. Micropulse lidar-derived aerosol optical depth climatology at ARM sites worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, D. N.; Coulter, R. L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on climatology of the vertical distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD (z)) from micropulse lidar (MPL) observations for climatically different locations worldwide. For this, a large data set obtained by MPL systems operating at 532 nm during the 4 year period 2007-2010 was used to derive vertical profiles of AOD (z) by combining the corresponding AOD data as an input from an independent measurement using nearly colocated multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) systems at five different U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites—three permanent sites (SGP in north-central Oklahoma, at 36.6°N, 97.5°W, 320 m; TWP-Darwin in the tropical western Pacific, at 12.4°S, 130.9°E, 30 m; and NSA at Barrow on the North Slope of Alaska, at 71.3°N, 156.6°W, 8 m) and two mobile facility sites (GRW at Graciosa Island in the Azores, at 39°N, 28°W, 15 m; and FKB in the Black Forest of Germany, at 48.5°N, 8.4°E, 511 m). Therefore, amount of data used in this study is constrained by the availability of the MFRSR data. The MPL raw data were averaged for 30 s in time and 30 m in altitude. The diurnally averaged AOD (z) profiles from 4 years were combined to obtain a multiyear vertical profile of AOD (z) climatology at various ARM sites, including diurnal, day-to-day, and seasonal variabilities. Most aerosols were found to be confined to 0-2 km (approximately the planetary boundary layer region) at all sites; however, all sites exhibited measurable aerosols well above the mixed layer, with different height maxima. The entire data set demonstrates large day-to-day variability at all sites. However, there is no significant diurnal variation in AOD (z) at all sites. Significant interannual variability was observed at the SGP site. Clear seasonal variations in AOD (z) profiles exist for all five sites, but seasonal behavior was distinct. Moreover, the different seasonal variability for the lower level (0 to ~2 km) versus the level above indicates a contribution of different types of air masses from different sources. The lower annual mean AOD (z) values (0.093 ± 0.033 for daytime and 0.093 ± 0.05 for nighttime) observed near the surface at GRW are not unexpected for maritime aerosols (mostly sea salt), and the corresponding higher values at SGP (0.118 ± 0.038 for daytime and 0.11 ± 0.05 for nighttime), FKB (0.124 ± 0.042 for daytime and 0.127 ± 0.047 for nighttime), and TWP (0.13 ± 0.078 for daytime and 0.14 ± 0.073 for nighttime) are usual for continental aerosols. The annual mean AOD (z) values observed near the surface during daytime and nighttime for NSA were 0.1 ± 0.042 and 0.09 ± 0.037, respectively. These results will aid the scientific community in understanding aerosol properties and boundary layer dynamics and in improving the incorporation of aerosol radiative effects into global climate models.

  5. Correction technique for Raman water vapor lidar signal-dependent bias and suitability for water vapor trend monitoring in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L.; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.; Vömel, H.

    2012-11-01

    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE (Atmospheric Laboratory for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education) mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In appendices we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements during the campaign, on a new radiosonde based calibration algorithm that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant, and on other results of the ALVICE deployment. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted the Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated, revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the bias. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Good agreement is found between corrected ALVICE lidar measurments and those of RS92, frost point hygrometer and total column water. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most robust. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper tropospheric water vapor profiles to be consistently measured by Raman lidar within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and elsewhere, despite the prevalence of instrumental and atmospheric effects that can contaminate the very low signal to noise measurements in the UT.

  6. Correction Technique for Raman Water Vapor Lidar Signal-Dependent Bias and Suitability for Water Wapor Trend Monitoring in the Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.; Voemel, H.

    2012-01-01

    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE (Atmospheric Laboratory for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education) mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In appendices we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements during the campaign, on a new radiosonde based calibration algorithm that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant, and on other results of the ALVICE deployment. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted the Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated, revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the bias. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Good agreement is found between corrected ALVICE lidar measurments and those of RS92, frost point hygrometer and total column water. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most robust. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper tropospheric water vapor profiles to be consistently measured by Raman lidar within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and elsewhere, despite the prevalence of instrumental and atmospheric effects that can contaminate the very low signal to noise measurements in the UT.

  7. Data Fusion of Imaging Spectroscopy, Lidar, and In-Situ Laboratory Data for Detecting Aerosols from Biomass Burning Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, I. B.; Arnott, W. P.; Schläpfer, D.; McGill, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols absorb and scatter solar and thermal infrared radiation, thereby altering the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. This is called the aerosol direct effect. Remote sensing of aerosols from satellites is essential to obtain the contribution of anthropogenic emission to the radiative balance. It is necessary to be able to map their presence and abundance using remote measurements. If we can quantify the occurrence of aerosols from biomass burning using remote sensing, we can improve our understanding of the direct radiative effect. This study uses airborne remote sensing data to understand, identify, and quantify smoke aerosols in the atmosphere. In particular, using Imaging Spectroscopy and lidar data to detect the presence and abundance of aerosols. Airborne remote sensing data was collected over the active Simi Valley wildfire on October 27, 2003 in Southern California. The Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) was flown on a commercially operated Twin Otter aircraft at an altitude of 6 km, and collected 224 channels of radiance data from 380 - 2400 nm with 10 nm spectral resolution. Shortly after the AVIRIS data collection, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) was flown on the NASA ER-2 at an altitude of 20 km. CPL is a three wavelength instrument that operates at 1064, 532, and 355 nm, with a 30 m vertical and 200 m horizontal resolution. Controlled laboratory measurements of aerosol optics from burning various woods and grasses provide insight and refinement of our understanding of remote sensing data for biomass burning aerosol. In 2006 and 2007 a two-phase project was conducted at the US Forest Service's Fire Science Laboratory to characterize particulate matter generated by biomass burning. The Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME) is supported by the Joint Fire Science Program and is a cooperative effort between the National Park Service, the Desert Research Institute, and Colorado State University. FLAME was a series of laboratory measurements of smoke emission of several important fuel types. These fuel types included dominant species of the Southern Californian Chaparral vegetation community. During the 2007 phase of FLAME a portable field spectroradiometer collected radiance data from 380 - 2400 nm for comparison with AVIRIS. Other in-situ measurements of aerosol optical and chemical properties collected during FLAME will also be compared to the October 27, 2003 remote sensing measurements of wildfire aerosols. This study will quantify the presence of aerosols from biomass burning using remote sensing.

  8. Theory of CW lidar aerosol backscatter measurements and development of a 2.1 microns solid-state pulsed laser radar for aerosol backscatter profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Henderson, Sammy W.; Frehlich, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The performance and calibration of a focused, continuous wave, coherent detection CO2 lidar operated for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter coefficient, B(m), was examined. This instrument functions by transmitting infrared (10 micron) light into the atmosphere and collecting the light which is scattered in the rearward direction. Two distinct modes of operation were considered. In volume mode, the scattered light energy from many aerosols is detected simultaneously, whereas in the single particle mode (SPM), the scattered light energy from a single aerosol is detected. The analysis considered possible sources of error for each of these two cases, and also considered the conditions where each technique would have superior performance. The analysis showed that, within reasonable assumptions, the value of B(m) could be accurately measured by either the VM or the SPM method. The understanding of the theory developed during the analysis was also applied to a pulsed CO2 lidar. Preliminary results of field testing of a solid state 2 micron lidar using a CW oscillator is included.

  9. Aerosol disturbances of the stratosphere over Tomsk according to data of lidar observations in volcanic activity period 2006-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, Andrey P.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Dolgii, Sergey I.; Nevzorov, Aleksey V.; Trifonov, Dimitar A.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize and analyze the lidar measurements (Tomsk: 56.5°N; 85.0°E) of the optical characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) in the volcanic activity period 2006-2011. The background SAL state with minimal aerosol content, which was observed since 1997 under the conditions of long-term volcanically quiescent period, was interrupted in October 2006 by a series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of the Pacific Ring of Fire: Rabaul (October 2006, New Guinea); Okmok and Kasatochi (July-August 2008, Aleutian Islands); Redoubt (March-April 2009, Alaska); Sarychev Peak (June 2009, Kuril Islands), and Grimsvötn (May 2011, Iceland). A short-term and minor disturbance of the lower stratosphere was also observed in April 2010 after eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull. The developed regional empirical model of the vertical distribution of background SAL optical characteristics was used to identify the periods of elevated stratospheric aerosol content after each of the volcanic eruptions.

  10. Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 2. A case study of lidar ratio closure

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmanoski, Maja; Box, M. A.; Schmid, Beat; Box, G. P.; Wang, Jian; Russel, P. R.; Bates, D.; Jonsson, Haf; Welton, E. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2007-04-03

    For a vertical profile with three distinct layers (marine boundary, pollution and dust layers), observed during the ACE-Asia campaign, we carried out a comparison between the modeled lidar ratio vertical profile and that obtained from co-located airborne NASA AATS-14 sunphotometer and shipborne Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) measurements. The vertically resolved lidar ratio was calculated from two size distribution vertical profiles – one obtained by inversion of sunphotometer-derived extinction spectra, and one measured in-situ – combined with the same refractive index model based on aerosol chemical composition. The aerosol model implies single scattering albedos of 0.78 – 0.81 and 0.93 – 0.96 at 0.523 ?m (the wavelength of the lidar measurements), in the pollution and dust layers, respectively. The lidar ratios calculated from the two size distribution profiles agree closely in the dust layer; they are however, significantly lower than the lidar ratios derived from combined lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Uncertainties in aerosol size distributions and refractive index only partly explain these differences, suggesting that particle nonsphericity in this layer is an additional explanation. In the pollution layer, the two size distribution profiles yield lidar ratios that agree within the estimated uncertainties. The retrieved size distributions result in a lidar ratio which is in closer agreement with that derived from lidar/sunphotometer measurements in this layer, with still large differences at certain altitudes (the largest relative difference was 46%). We explain these differences by non-uniqueness of the result of the size distribution retrieval, by a lack of information on the mixing state of particles, and the vertical variability of the particle refractive index.

  11. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  12. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ? 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions. PMID:20941181

  13. Comparison of Riparian Evapotranspiration Estimated Using Raman LIDAR and Water Balance Based Estimates from a Soil Moisture Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, J. A.; Rajaram, H.; Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J.; Eichinger, W. E.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (RET) is an important component of basin-wide evapotranspiration (ET), especially in subhumid to semi-arid regions, with significant impacts on water management and conservation. A common method of measuring ET is using the eddy correlation technique. However, since most riparian zones are narrow, eddy correlation techniques are not applicable because of limited fetch distance. Techniques based on surface-subsurface water balance are applicable in these situations, but their accuracy is not well constrained. In this study, we estimated RET within a 100 meter long and 40 meter wide riparian zone along Rock Creek in the Whitewater Basin in central Kansas using a water balance approach and Raman LIDAR measurements. A total of six soil moisture profiles (with six soil moisture sensors in each profile) and water-table measurements were used to estimate subsurface water storage (total soil moisture, TSM). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-University of Iowa (UI) Raman LIDAR was used to measure the water vapor concentrations in three dimensions where the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was used to obtain the spatially resolved fluxes. The LIDAR system included a 1.064 micron Nd:YAG laser with a Cassagrain telescope with a laser pulse of 50Hz with 25mJ of energy per pulse. Estimates of RET obtained from TSM changes were compared to LIDAR estimates obtained from three-dimensional water vapor concentrations of the atmosphere directly above and downwind of the riparian vegetation. The LIDAR measurements help to validate the TSM based estimates of RET and constrain their accuracy. RET estimates obtained from TSM changes in individual soil moisture profiles exhibited a large variability (up to a factor 8). This variability results from the highly heterogeneous soils in the vadose zone (2-3 m thick), where soil moisture (rather than groundwater) is the major source of water for riparian vegetation. Variable vegetation density and species also likely contribute to the variability. Reach-integrated RET estimates obtained using TSM changes from all of the six profiles compare very well with the LIDAR estimates. RET estimates obtained from the LIDAR were 3.8 mm/day and 4.6 mm/day for 7/8/2011 and 7/9/2011 respectively, and the estimates derived from the TSM balance were 3.9 mm/day and 4.3 mm/day for the same days. The water-balance based approach is very cost-effective, even with the large number of soil moisture sensors deployed. However, the high degree of variability in the RET estimates from individual profiles suggests caution in the application and interpretation of water balance based techniques in vadose zones with natural vegetation, unless large sensor networks are used. The LIDAR measurements provide reliable reach-integrated estimates of RET.

  14. Increase in background stratospheric aerosol observed with lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory and Boulder, Colorado - article no. L15808

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, D.; Barnes, J.; O'Neill, M.; Trudeau, M.; Neely, R. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The stratospheric aerosol layer has been monitored with lidars at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii and Boulder in Colorado since 1975 and 2000, respectively. Following the Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June 1991, the global stratosphere has not been perturbed by a major volcanic eruption providing an unprecedented opportunity to study the background aerosol. Since about 2000, an increase of 4-7% per year in the aerosol backscatter in the altitude range 20-30 km has been detected at both Mauna Loa and Boulder. This increase is superimposed on a seasonal cycle with a winter maximum that is modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical winds. Of the three major causes for a stratospheric aerosol increase: volcanic emissions to the stratosphere, increased tropical upwelling, and an increase in anthropogenic sulfur gas emissions in the troposphere, it appears that a large increase in coal burning since 2002, mainly in China, is the likely source of sulfur dioxide that ultimately ends up as the sulfate aerosol responsible for the increased backscatter from the stratospheric aerosol layer. The results are consistent with 0.6-0.8% of tropospheric sulfur entering the stratosphere.

  15. Evaluation of MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals by coincident observations using CRDS, lidar, and sky radiometer in Tsukuba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Nakayama, T.; Shimizu, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Nagai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Zaizen, Y.; Kagamitani, S.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coincident aerosol observations of Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), lidar, and sky radiometer were conducted in Tsukuba, Japan on 5-18 October 2010. MAX-DOAS aerosol retrieval (for aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth at 476 nm) was evaluated from the viewpoint of the need for a correction factor for oxygen collision complexes (O4 or O2-O2) absorption. The present study strongly supports this need, as systematic residuals at relatively high elevation angles (20 and 30°) were evident in MAX-DOAS profile retrievals conducted without the correction. However, adopting a single number for the correction factor (fO4 = 1.25) for all of the elevation angles led to systematic overestimation of near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, as reported in the literature. To achieve agreement with all three observations, we limited the set of elevation angles to ? 10° and adopted an elevation-angle-dependent correction factor for practical profile retrievals with scattered light observations by a ground-based MAX-DOAS. With these modifications, we expect to minimize the possible effects of temperature-dependent O4 absorption cross section and uncertainty in DOAS fit on an aerosol profile retrieval, although more efforts are encouraged to quantitatively identify a physical explanation for the need of a correction factor.

  16. New lidar facility at Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, J.; Begbie, R.; Wolf, V.; Reigert, Andrew; Wandinger, U.; Engelmann, R.; Hilber, B.

    2014-10-01

    Since 2005, the high-performance multiparameter Raman lidar RAMSES (Raman lidar for atmospheric moisture sensing) for water vapor, temperature, cloud and aerosol measurements is part of the broad suite of active and passive remote-sensing instruments monitoring the atmosphere at the German Meteorological Services observatory in Lindenberg. Initially housed in a 20-foot container, continued expansion of RAMSES made accommodation of the instrument increasingly difficult, and caused problems in air-conditioning. For these reasons, a new lidar facility was built on site in 2013. It is now home to RAMSES, and it also provides extra laboratory space for (lidar) experiments. The Lindenberg lidar facility is described in detail. One of its features is the precision air-conditioning system which is designed to keep the temperature field of the RAMSES room stable within 1 K at all times. Migration from the container to the new building offered an opportunity to make changes to the RAMSES instrument itself. For instance, stray light suppression was further improved, selection of photomultiplier tubes was optimized, and the near-range receiver was redesigned to enhance its daytime capabilities. Further, in addition to the water spectrometer for calibrated measurements of cloud Raman backscatter-coefficient spectra, a second spectrometer was implemented for studies of the fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosols. At the conference, these technical modifications are discussed, and first measurement examples with the improved lidar are presented.

  17. Tunable 2.1-micron Ho lidar for simultaneous range-resolved measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Sungdo; Chan, Kin P.; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1991-01-01

    An eye-safe tunable differential-absorption lidar system has been developed for the range-resolved measurement of aerosol backscatter and water vapor in the atmosphere. The lidar uses a flash-lamp-pumped, Q-switched, 10-mJ solid-state Ho:YSGG laser that is continuously tunable over a 20/cm wavelength range near 2.084 microns. Both path-averaged and range-resolved measurements were performed with the Ho differential-absorption lidar system. Preliminary measurements have been made of the temporal variation of atmospheric aerosol backscatter and water-vapor profiles at ranges out to 1 km. These results indicate that the Ho lidar has the potential for the eye-safe remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor and backscatter profiles at longer ranges if suitably enhanced in laser power and laser linewidth.

  18. Tunable 2.1-,microm Ho lidar for simultaneous range-resolved measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles.

    PubMed

    Cha, S; Chan, K P; Killinger, D K

    1991-09-20

    An eye-safe, tunable differential-absorption lidar system has been developed for the range-resolved measurement of aerosol backscatter and water vapor in the atmosphere. The lidar uses a flash-lamp-pumped, qswitched, 10-mJ solid-state Ho:YSGG laser that is continuously tunable over a 20cm(-1) wavelength range near 2.084 microm. Both path-averaged and range-resolved measurements were performed with the Ho differential-absorption lidar system. Preliminary measurements have been made of the temporal variation of atmospheric aerosol backscatter and water-vapor profiles at ranges out to 1 km. These results indicate that the Ho lidar has the potential for the eye-safe remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor and backscatter profiles at longer ranges if suitably enhanced in laser power and laser linewidth. PMID:20706485

  19. Raman microscopy of size-segregated aerosol particles, collected at the Sonnblick Observatory in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, Johannes; Kasper-Giebl, Anneliese; Kistler, Magdalena; Matzl, Julia; Schauer, Gerhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Lohninger, Johann; Lendl, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Size classified aerosol samples were collected using low pressure impactors in July 2013 at the high alpine background site Sonnnblick. The Sonnblick Observatory is located in the Austrian Alps, at the summit of Sonnblick 3100 m asl. Sampling was performed in parallel on the platform of the Observatory and after the aerosol inlet. The inlet is constructed as a whole air inlet and is operated at an overall sampling flow of 137 lpm and heated to 30 °C. Size cuts of the eight stage low pressure impactors were from 0.1 to 12.8 µm a.d.. Alumina foils were used as sample substrates for the impactor stages. In addition to the size classified aerosol sampling overall aerosol mass (Sharp Monitor 5030, Thermo Scientific) and number concentrations (TSI, CPC 3022a; TCC-3, Klotz) were determined. A Horiba LabRam 800HR Raman microscope was used for vibrational mapping of an area of about 100 µm x 100 µm of the alumina foils at a resolution of about 0.5 µm. The Raman microscope is equipped with a laser with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm and a grating with 300 gr/mm. Both optical images and the related chemical images were combined and a chemometric investigation of the combined images was done using the software package Imagelab (Epina Software Labs). Based on the well-known environment, a basic assignment of Raman signals of single particles is possible at a sufficient certainty. Main aerosol constituents e.g. like sulfates, black carbon and mineral particles could be identified. First results of the chemical imaging of size-segregated aerosol, collected at the Sonnblick Observatory, will be discussed with respect to standardized long-term measurements at the sampling station. Further, advantages and disadvantages of chemical imaging with subsequent chemometric investigation of the single images will be discussed and compared to the established methods of aerosol analysis. The chemometric analysis of the dataset is focused on mixing and variation of single compounds at different stages of the impactors.

  20. Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987.

    PubMed

    Jäger, H; Hofmann, D

    1991-01-01

    Balloonborne particle counter data from Laramie, WY are used to define a seasonally averaged stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol size distribution in three altitude intervals from 15 to 30 km for the 1980-1987 period. This period includes the volcanic eruptions of Mt. St. Helens, Alaid, Nyamuragira, El Chichon, and Nevado el Ruiz and begins and ends at what are believed to be periods of near background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric conditions. The size distributions are used to calculate lidar backscatter to extinction, mass, and area ratios for an appropriate range of particle indices of refraction. These ratios may then be used to infer particle extinction, mass, and area from midlatitude lidar data for this time period. PMID:20581956

  1. Analysis of aerosol optical statistics within and above the PBL using backscatter LiDAR profiles and multi-spectral sunphotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.; O'Neill, N. T.; Allen, S.; Blanchard, Y.; Saha, A.; Karumudi, M.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Travis, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lidar profiles of 532 nm backscatter and depolarization ratio from the CORAL Net lidar network and aerosol optical depths (AODs) from the AEROCAN / AERONET network were acquired during the summer of 2009 at two sites in southern Canada (Egbert, Ontario and Sherbrooke, Québec). A spatial derivative algorithm was employed to flag the presence of clouds in the lidar profiles and to estimate the PBL height (PBLH). The sensitivity of the PBLH algorithm was tested as a function of differences in processing protocols. Case studies and seasonal statistics for the two sites were generated for the PBLH as well as the AOD above and below the PBLH (both total as well as fine and coarse mode components of the AOD). These statistics were interpreted in the light of an aerosol-type and aerosol-origin classification for all the events of that summer. Some preliminary results and conclusions will be presented in this communication

  2. LIDAR observations of lower stratospheric aerosols over South Africa linked to large scale transport across the southern subtropical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencherif, H.; Portafaix, T.; Baray, J. L.; Morel, B.; Baldy, S.; Leveau, J.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Moorgawa, A.; Michaelis, M. M.; Diab, R.

    2003-04-01

    The study of the variability of stratospheric aerosols and the transfer between the different atmospheric regions improves our understanding of dynamical processes involved in isentropic exchanges that take place episodically in the lower stratosphere through the subtropical barrier. One useful approach consists in combining in situ ground-based and global measurements with numerical analyses. The present paper reports on a case study of a horizontal transfer evidenced first by Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR observations over Durban (/29.9°S, /31.0°E, South Africa). Additional data from MeteoSat and SAGE-2 experiments, and from ECMWF meteorological analysis have been used in this study. Contour advection maps of potential vorticity from the MIMOSA model derived from ECMWF fields, were also used. By the end of April, 1999, LIDAR observations showed that aerosol extinction, in the lower stratosphere, has increased significantly and abnormally in comparison with other LIDAR and SAGE-2 observations recorded for the period from April 20 to June 14, 1999. The dynamical context of this case study seems to exclude the possibility of a local influence of the subtropical jet stream or tropical convection, which could inject air masses enriched with tropospheric aerosols into the stratosphere. On the contrary, a high-resolution model based on PV advection calculations and ECMWF meteorological analyses shows that air masses are isentropically advected from the equatorial zone close to Brazil. They cross the southern barrier of the tropical reservoir due to laminae stretching and reach the southern subcontinent of Africa 5-6 days later.

  3. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Water Vapor, Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosols in the Tropics Near Central America During the TC4 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooi, Susan; Fenn, Marta; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, John; Browell, Edward; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Simpson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Large scale distributions of ozone, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds were measured throughout the troposphere by two NASA Langley lidar systems on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) over Central and South America and adjacent oceans in the summer of 2007. Special emphasis was placed on the sampling of convective outflow and transport, sub-visible cirrus clouds, boundary layer aerosols, Saharan dust, volcanic emissions, and urban and biomass burning plumes. This paper presents preliminary results from this campaign, and demonstrates the value of coordinated measurements by the two lidar systems.

  4. Calculation of aerosol backscatter from airborne continuous wave focused CO2 Doppler lidar measurements. I - Algorithm description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Bowdle, David A.; Vaughan, Michael; Brown, Derek W.; Woodfield, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1981 the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment and the Royal Aircraft Establishment, United Kindom, have made vertical and horizontal sounding measurements of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 10.6 microns, using an airborne continuous-wave-focused CO2 Doppler lidar, the Laser True Airspeed System (LATAS). In this paper, the heterodyne signal from the LATAS detector is spectrally analyzed. Then, in conjunction with aircraft flight parameters, the data are processed in a six-stage computer algorithm: set search window, search for peak signal, test peak signal, measure total signal, calculate signal-to-noise ratio, and calculate backscatter coefficient.

  5. Calculation of aerosol backscatter from airborne continuous wave focused CO sub 2 Doppler lidar measurements. 1. Algorithm description

    SciTech Connect

    Rothermel, J. (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (USA)); Bowdle, D.A. (Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville (USA)); Vaughan, J.M.; Brown, D.W. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Worcestershire (England)); Woodfield, A.A. (Royal Aircraft Establishment, Bedfordshire (England))

    1991-03-20

    Since 1981 the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment and the Royal Aircraft Establishment, United Kingdom, have made vertical and horizontal sounding measurements of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 10.6 {mu}m using an airborne continuous wave focused CO{sub 2} Doppler lidar, the Laser True Airspeed System (LATAS). The heterodyne signal from the LATAS detector is spectrally analyzed. Then, in conjunction with aircraft flight parameters, the data are processed in a six-stage computer algorithm: Set search window, search for peak signal, test peak signal, measure total signal, calculate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and calculate backscatter coefficient.

  6. Sun photometer and lidar measurements of the plume from the Hawaii Kilauea Volcano Pu'u O'o vent: Aerosol flux and SO2 lifetime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, J.N.; Horton, K.A.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Lienert, B.; Sharma, S.K.; Lau, E.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Oppenheimer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol optical depths and lidar measurements were obtained under the plume of Hawaii Kilauea Volcano on August 17, 2001, ???9 km downwind from the erupting Pu'u O'o vent. Measured aerosol optical depths (at 500 nm) were between 0.2-0.4. Aerosol size distributions inverted from the spectral sun photometer measurements suggest the volcanic aerosol is present in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.5 micron diameter), which is consistent with past in situ optical counter measurements. The aerosol dry mass flux rate was calculated to be 53 Mg d-1. The estimated SO2 emission rate during the aerosol measurements was ???1450 Mg d-1. Assuming the sulfur emissions at Pu'u O'o vent are mainly SO2 (not aerosol), this corresponds to a SO2 half-life of 6.0 hours in the atmosphere.

  7. Desert dust aerosol columnar properties over ocean and continental Africa from Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) and Meteosat synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, S.; Chazette, P.; Couvert, P.; Pelon, J.; Dulac, F.; Thieuleux, F.; Moulin, C.; Pain, T.

    2006-11-01

    The new generation of spaceborne backscatter lidar systems, prefigured by the Lidar in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission in September 1994, will give new insight on the vertical distribution of both aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere. This is especially of importance for aerosols over land, where retrievals from passive sensors are known to be more difficult because of the surface contribution. Here we analyze mineral dust aerosol transport events through a new approach coupling the active LITE and passive Meteosat-5 spaceborne observations. The Meteosat-derived aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm is shown to be a good boundary condition for the lidar inversion in order to retrieve both the aerosol backscatter to extinction ratio (BER) and the aerosol extinction vertical profile above the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TAO) and the Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity tests indicate that the aerosol scattering coefficient is retrieved within a 20% relative uncertainty. Air mass trajectories allow us to further retrieve the vertical profile of aerosol optical properties over the continent in the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) region using the BER determined over the ocean. Results confirm a large dispersion of the BER which is not attributed to errors in the method. This shows the need to account for such dispersion in the retrieval of dust aerosol optical thickness and aerosol impact on the earth radiative budget. The coupling between LITE and Meteosat-5 made here is shown to be interesting for an improvement of the direct dust aerosol forcing, and results should be improved by the CALIOP-MODIS synergy.

  8. Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. II Comparison of measurements made by SAM II, dustsondes and airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Fuller, W. H.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Woods, D. C.; Swissler, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results are shown from the first set of measurements conducted to validate extinction data from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II). Dustsonde-measured number density profiles and lidar-measured backscattering profiles for two days are converted to extinction profiles, and are shown to agree within their respective uncertainties at all heights above the tropopause. Near the tropopause, agreement depends on use of model size distributions with larger particles, having radii greater than 0.6 microns. The presence of such large particles is supported by measurements made elsewhere, is suggested by the in situ size distribution measurements reported, and is likely to have an important bearing on the radiative impact of the total stratospheric aerosol. It is concluded that the SAM II extinction data and uncertainty estimates are supported.

  9. Raman Lidar Observations of a MCS in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Bhawar, Rohini; Summa, Donato; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Demoz, Belay B.

    2009-03-01

    The Raman lidar system BASIL was deployed in Achern (Supersite R, Lat: 48.64° N, Long: 8.06° E, Elev.: 140 m) in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study. On 20 July 2007 a frontal zone passed over the COPS region, with a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) imbedded in it. BASIL was operated continuously during this day, providing measurements of temperature, water vapour, particle backscattering coefficient at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, particle extinction coefficient at 355 and 532 nm and particle depolarization at 355 and 532 nm. The thunderstorm approaching determined the lowering of the anvil clouds, which is clearly visible in the lidar data. A cloud deck is present at 2 km, which represents a mid-level outflow from the thunderstorm/MCS. The mid-level outflow spits out hydrometeor-debris (mostly virga) and it is recycled back into it. The MCS modified the environment at 1.6-2.5 km levels directly (outflow) and the lower levels through the virga/precipitation. Wave structures were observed in the particle backscatter data. The wave activity seems to be a reflection of the shear that is produced by the MCS and the inflow environmental wind. Measurements in terms of particle backscatter and water vapour mixing ratio are discussed to illustrate the above phenomena.

  10. Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: Characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Bhawar, Rohini; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Cacciani, Marco; Veselovskii, Igor; Dubovik, Oleg; Kolgotin, Alexey

    2012-04-01

    The Raman lidar system BASIL was operational in Achern (Black Forest) between 25 May and 30 August 2007 in the framework of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). The system performed continuous measurements over a period of approx. 36 h from 06:22 UTC on 1 August to 18:28 UTC on 2 August 2007, capturing the signature of a severe Saharan dust outbreak episode. The data clearly reveal the presence of two almost separate aerosol layers: a lower layer located between 1.5 and 3.5 km above ground level (a.g.l.) and an upper layer extending between 3.0 and 6.0 km a.g.l. The time evolution of the dust cloud is illustrated and discussed in the paper in terms of several optical parameters (particle backscatter ratio at 532 and 1064 nm, the colour ratio and the backscatter Angström parameter). An inversion algorithm was used to retrieve particle size and microphysical parameters, i.e., mean and effective radius, number, surface area, volume concentration, and complex refractive index, as well as the parameters of a bimodal particle size distribution (PSD), from the multi-wavelength lidar data of particle backscattering, extinction and depolarization. The retrieval scheme employs Tikhonov's inversion with regularization and makes use of kernel functions for randomly oriented spheroids. Size and microphysical parameters of dust particles are estimated as a function of altitude at different times during the dust outbreak event. Retrieval results reveal the presence of a fine mode with radii of 0.1-0.2 ?m and a coarse mode with radii of 3-5 ?m both in the lower and upper dust layers, and the dominance in the upper dust layer of a coarse mode with radii of 4-5 ?m. Effective radius varies with altitude in the range 0.1-1.5 ?m, while volume concentration is found to not exceed 92 ?m3 cm-3. The real and imaginary part of the complex refractive index vary in the range 1.4-1.6 and 0.004-0.008, respectively.

  11. Weak signal detection system and noise analysis for aerosol detection lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zong-Jia Qiu; Si-Ying Chen; Yin-Chao Zhang; Yu-Zhao Wang; Guo-Qiang Ni

    2009-01-01

    The information of location and scattering intensity of the target can be detected by lidar system. The physical characteristics of the target can be retrieved from the scattering intensity. Since the corresponding relationship between the echo signal intensity and the detection range requires to be measured accurately, a weak signal detection system of lidar is needed, with strong electromagnetic immunity,

  12. An Iterative Least Square Approach to Elastic-Lidar Retrievals for Well-Characterized Aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian C. Marchant; Todd K. Moon; Jacob H. Gunther

    2010-01-01

    An iterative least square method is presented for estimating the solution to the lidar equation. The method requires knowledge of the backscatter values at a boundary point for all channels and a priori defined relationships between backscatter, extinction, and mass-fraction concentration for all scattering components. The lidar equation is formulated in vector form, and a solution is computed using an

  13. Lidar measurements of boundary layers, aerosol scattering and clouds during project FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, Edwin W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A detailed account of progress achieved under this grant funding is contained in five journal papers. The titles of these papers are: The calculation of area-averaged vertical profiles of the horizontal wind velocity using volume imaging lidar data; Volume imaging lidar observation of the convective structure surrounding the flight path of an instrumented aircraft; Convective boundary layer mean depths, cloud base altitudes, cloud top altitudes, cloud coverages, and cloud shadows obtained from Volume Imaging Lidar data; An accuracy analysis of the wind profiles calculated from Volume Imaging Lidar data; and Calculation of divergence and vertical motion from volume-imaging lidar data. Copies of these papers form the body of this report.

  14. Development of an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for a Raman lidar system

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Robust and compact hybrid environmental lidar RMS Root-mean square deviation Summary of mathematical sr T (, r0, r1) Atmospheric transmission from r0 to r1. If only one coordinate given, instead, from 0 CASE studentship with Hovemere Ltd. 3 #12;1 Introduction 1.1 Basic Concepts Active observations

  15. Evaluation of Extinction Profiles and Aerosol Optical Depth from Lidar and DRAGON in the Baltimore-Washington DISCOVER-AQ Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Sawamura, P.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; Kondragunta, S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Scarino, A. J.; Rogers, R. R.; Obland, M. D.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Berkoff, T.; Delgado, R.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2011 DRAGON experiment and the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Mission in Baltimore-Washington, comparison of lidar profiles of extinction from the ground and from aircraft could be made with a network of sunphotometers. This comparison revealed excellent agreement between the sunphotometers and lidars in terms of retrieved aerosol optical depth. The lidars were able to determine where in the vertical the scattering aerosols resided. With the exception of one day of the experiment, all aerosols were confined to the PBL and that residual layers and smoke aloft were a minor contributor to the aerosol optical depth. Temporal evolution maps of the region have been made in comparison to model results and show that the DRAGON network captures the spatial as well as temporal variability in the region. In addition, the combination of instruments allow comparison between microphysical retrievals of aerosol optical properties, such as index of refraction and single scatter albedo both in the column and in layers, and size distributions of the aerosol.

  16. Purple Crow Lidar Vibrational Raman water vapor mixing ratio and temperature measurements in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) measurements of the vibrational Raman-shifted backscatter from water vapor and nitrogen molecules allows height profiles of water vapor mixing ratio to be measured from 500 m to up into the lower stratosphere from the Delaware Observatory near London, Canada. In addition, the Raman nitrogen measurements allow the determination of temperature profiles from about 10 km to 40 km altitude. External calibration of these measurements is necessary to compensate for instrumental effects, uncertainties in our knowledge of the relevant molecular cross sections, and atmospheric transmission. A comparison of the PCL derived water vapor concentration and temperature profiles with routine radiosonde measurements from Detroit and Buffalo on 37 and 141 nights respectively, was undertaken to provide this calibration, which showed mean temperature differences over all flights for altitudes above 9 km of about 0.5 K, with agreement for water vapor below 7 km to within ±12%. Comparisons of the cold point temperature with the coincident water vapor measurements will be presented to investigate the transport of air from the tropics to midlatitudes.

  17. A 1000 Hz Pulsed Solid-State Raman Laser for Coherent Lidar Measurement of Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Murray, James; Lytle, Carroll; Nguyen, Chi

    1997-01-01

    Included in the overview is a discussion of the 1.5 micron laser specifications, eye safety and cost, scan rates, pulselength, range capability issues, Raman beam cleanup, receiver layout, and the real-time processor and display.

  18. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  19. Comparison of IASI water vapor retrieval with H2O-Raman lidar in the frame of the Mediterranean HyMeX and ChArMEx programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is a spaceborne passive sensor of new generation mainly dedicated to meteorological applications. Operational Level-2 products are available via the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) since several years. In particular, vertical profiles of water vapor measurements are retrieved from infrared radiances at the global scale. Nevertheless, the robustness of such products has to be checked because only few validations have been reported. For this purpose, the field experiments that were held during the HyMeX and ChArMEx international programs are a very good opportunity. A H2O-Raman lidar was deployed on the Balearic Island of Menorca and operated continuously during ~6 and ~3 weeks during fall 2012 (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment -HyMeX-) and summer 2013 (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment -ChArMEx-), respectively. It measured simultaneously the water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol optical properties. This article does not aim to describe the IASI operational H2O inversion algorithm, but to compare the vertical profiles derived from IASI onboard MetOp-A and the ground-based lidar measurements to assess the reliability of the IASI operational product for the water vapor retrieval in both the lower and middle troposphere. The links between water vapor contents and both the aerosol vertical profiles and the air mass origins are also studied. About 30 simultaneous observations, performed during nighttime in cloud free conditions, have been considered. For altitudes ranging from 2 to 7 km, root mean square errors (correlation) of ˜ 0.5 g kg-1 (~0.77) and ~1.1 g kg-1 (~0.72) are derived between the operational IASI product and the available lidar profiles during HyMeX and ChArMEx, respectively. The values of both root mean square error and correlation are meaningful and show that the operational Level-2 product of the IASI-derived vertical water vapor mixing ratio can be considered for meteorological and climatic applications, at least in the frame of field campaigns.

  20. Evaluation of wildland fire smoke plume dynamics and aerosol load using UV scanning lidar and fire-atmosphere modelling during the Mediterranean Letia 2010 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy-Cancellieri, V.; Augustin, P.; Filippi, J. B.; Mari, C.; Fourmentin, M.; Bosseur, F.; Morandini, F.; Delbarre, H.

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation fires emit large amount of gases and aerosols which are detrimental to human health. Smoke exposure near and downwind of fires depends on the fire propagation, the atmospheric circulations and the burnt vegetation. A better knowledge of the interaction between wildfire and atmosphere is a primary requirement to investigate fire smoke and particle transport. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the usefulness of an UV scanning lidar to characterise the fire smoke plume and consequently validate fire-atmosphere model simulations. An instrumented burn was conducted in a Mediterranean area typical of ones frequently subject to wildfire with low dense shrubs. Using lidar measurements positioned near the experimental site, fire smoke plume was thoroughly characterised by its optical properties, edge and dynamics. These parameters were obtained by combining methods based on lidar inversion technique, wavelet edge detection and a backscatter barycentre technique. The smoke plume displacement was determined using a digital video camera coupled with the lidar. The simulation was performed using a mesoscale atmospheric model in a large eddy simulation configuration (Meso-NH) coupled to a fire propagation physical model (ForeFire), taking into account the effect of wind, slope and fuel properties. A passive numerical scalar tracer was injected in the model at fire location to mimic the smoke plume. The simulated fire smoke plume width remained within the edge smoke plume obtained from lidar measurements. The maximum smoke injection derived from lidar backscatter coefficients and the simulated passive tracer was around 200 m. The vertical position of the simulated plume barycentre was systematically below the barycentre derived from the lidar backscatter coefficients due to the oversimplified properties of the passive tracer compared to real aerosol particles. Simulated speed and horizontal location of the plume compared well with the observations derived from the videography and lidar method, suggesting that fire convection and advection were correctly taken into account.

  1. A versatile instrument with an optical parametric oscillator transmitter tunable from 1.5 to 3.1 ?m for aerosol lidar and DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Iain; Jack, Jim W.; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John

    2013-10-01

    Lidar is a valuable tool for atmospheric monitoring, allowing range-resolved profile measurements of a variety of quantities including aerosols, wind, pollutants and greenhouse gases. We report here the development of a versatile fielddeployable instrument for monitoring the lower troposphere. This region includes the effects of surface-atmosphere interactions and is an area where the resolution of satellite data is generally poor. Our instrument has been designed with the goal of making range-resolved measurements of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, as well as probing the structure of the boundary layer. The key component is a tunable laser source based on an optical parametric oscillator covering the wavelength range 1.5-3.1 ?m. This relatively eye-safe spectral region includes absorption lines of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases enabling the application of the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique, whilst also being suitable for aerosol lidar. We also report the use of an avalanche photodiode detector with high sensitivity and low noise. Field tests of the instrument were performed, recording continuous lidar signals over extended periods. The data were digitized at up to 8 signals per second. Scattering from aerosols and molecules was detected to a maximum range of 2 km, whilst scattering from cloud was recorded at up to 6 km. The data are plotted as time-versus-range images to show the dynamic state of the atmosphere evolving over time. These results demonstrate that the lidar achieves key requirements for both aerosol scatter and DIAL: tunability of the transmitter wavelength, sensitivity to molecular and aerosol scattering and robustness for field use.

  2. Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Müller; Ina Mattis; Ulla Wandinger; Albert Ansmann; Dietrich Althausen; Andreas Stohl

    2005-01-01

    Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations were regularly carried out at Leipzig (51.3°N, 12.4°E) from May to August 2003. The measurements showed that particle backscatter and extinction coefficients in the free troposphere were higher compared to values in 2000–2002. Backward dispersion modeling indicates that intense forest fires that occurred in Siberia and Canada in spring\\/summer 2003 were the main cause of these

  3. Boundary Layer Aerosol Composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-micron CW Lidars and Modeled Backscatter from Size Distribution Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, D. R.; Jarzembski, M. A.; Srivastava, V.; Pueschel, R. F.; Howard, S. D.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An inversion technique has been developed to determine volume fractions of an atmospheric aerosol composed primarily of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate and water combined with fixed concentration of elemental and organic carbon. It is based on measured aerosol backscatter obtained with 9.11 - and 10.59-micron wavelength continuous wave CO2 lidars and modeled backscatter from aerosol size distribution data. The technique is demonstrated during a flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, California on 19 September, 1995. Volume fraction of each component and effective complex refractive index of the composite particle were determined assuming an internally mixed composite aerosol model. The volume fractions were also used to re-compute aerosol backscatter, providing good agreement with the lidar-measured data. The robustness of the technique for determining volume fractions was extended with a comparison of calculated 2.1,-micron backscatter from size distribution data with the measured lidar data converted to 2.1,-micron backscatter using an earlier derived algorithm, verifying the algorithm as well as the backscatter calculations.

  4. An Evaluation of Aerosol Spatial Scales in A-Train Observations and Transport Model Simulations: Does ACE Need a Multi-Beam Lidar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colarco, P.; Welton, E. J.; Remer, L.; da Silva, A.; Govindaraju, R.; Stewart, S.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-based, airborne, and space-based observations of tropospheric aerosols suggest horizontal homogeneity on spatial scales of about 50 to 200 km, whereas the observation swath for a polar orbiting radiometer (e.g., MODIS) is about 2000 km. The Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystem (ACE) satellite mission proposed in the recent NRC Decadal Survey couples lidar, radiometer, and polarimeter on a single satellite platform, mimicking some key capabilities of the current A-Train constellation (i.e., CALIPSO, MODIS, PARASOL) on one spacecraft. There is some question as to whether a single-beam lidar like the current CALIPSO instrument provides sufficient information about the distributions of aerosols to represent the entire swath observed by the polarimeter/radiometer package. We address this question by "flying" a hypothetical multi-beam lidar (MBL) along the A-Train track to investigate the spatial correlation of columnar aerosol optical thickness from MODIS retrievals sampled at the MBL beam spacing. A similar analysis is conducted using simulated aerosol observations from the NASA GEOS-5 transport model.

  5. Boundary layer aerosol composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-?m continuous wave lidars and modeled backscatter from size distribution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutten, D. R.; Jarzembski, M. A.; Srivastava, V.; Pueschel, R. F.; Howard, S. D.; McCaul, E. W.

    2003-02-01

    An inversion technique has been developed to determine volume fractions of an atmospheric aerosol composed primarily of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate and water combined with fixed concentration of elemental and organic carbon. It is based on measured aerosol backscatter obtained with 9.11- and 10.59-?m wavelength continuous wave CO2 lidars and modeled backscatter from aerosol size distribution data. The technique is demonstrated during a flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, California, on 19 September 1995. Volume fraction of each component and effective complex refractive index of the composite particle were determined assuming an internally mixed composite aerosol model. The volume fractions were also used to recompute aerosol backscatter, providing good agreement with the lidar-measured data. The robustness of the technique for determining volume fractions was extended with a comparison of calculated 2.1-?m backscatter from size distribution data with the measured lidar data converted to 2.1-?m backscatter using an earlier derived algorithm, verifying the algorithm as well as the backscatter calculations.

  6. Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature between upper troposphere and mesosphere obtained from Rayleigh/Raman lidar installed at Syowa station in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Takanori; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Kawahara, Takuya D.; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Abo, Makoto; Tsuda, Takuo T.

    Atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) propagating upward from lower atmospheric sources play a dominant role in transporting and depositing energy and momentum from upper troposphere (UT) to lower mesosphere (LM). Particularly, in polar region, these effects of AGWs are well-known to strongly decelerate the polar night jet and drive large scale meridional circulation from the summer pole towards the winter pole. In addition, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) described in relation to ozone depletion are effectively induced by orographic AGWs. Therefore, investigation of the activity of AGWs between UT and LM based on continuous observational studies can be regarded as one of important subjects in the middle atmosphere dynamics. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) is leading a six year prioritized project of the Antarctic research observations since 2010. One of the sub-projects is entitled 'the global environmental change revealed through the Antarctic middle and upper atmosphere'. As a part of the sub-project, a Rayleigh/Raman lidar (RR lidar) was installed at Syowa, Antarctica (69S, 39E) in January, 2011. The operation has been conducted since February 2011 and the RR lidar has kept measuring temperature profiles continuously between approximately 10 and 80 km for almost 3 years. The RR lidar system in Syowa can obtain photon count data for 4 channels simultaneously, and each data is recorded separately in binnary format. We used the data from 3 channels, i.e., Raman (10-30km), Rayleigh-Low (20-65km), Rayleigh-High (30-80km), for estimations of temperature profiles from UT to LM. In order to estimate height continuous profiles of atmospheric temperature based on the 3 different channels, we are examining the following analysis methods. (1) The temperature for Rayleigh-High and Rayleigh-Low channels estimated by solving the lidar equation can be assigned to temperature at an initial height for the lidar equation in Rayleigh-Low and Raman channels, respectively. (2) The initial heights for the lidar equation can be determined automatically taking into account time and height dependent shot noises due to background luminosity. (3) The error propagations from the initial height to lower heights are evaluated by assigning artificial temperature offset ranging from -50 to 50 K. The height continuous temperature profiles between UT and LM obtained from improved analysis methods would allows us to investigate important scientific issues such as temporal and height variabilities of potential energy per unit mass of AGWs and the relationship between occurrence of PSCs and background atmospheric temperature.

  7. New ARM measurements of clouds, aerosols, and the atmospheric state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, J. H.; Voyles, J.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has recently enhanced its observational capabilities at its fixed and mobile sites as well as its aerial facility. New capabilities include scanning radars, several types of lidars, an array of aerosol instruments, and in situ cloud probes. All ARM sites have been equipped with dual frequency scanning cloud radars that will provide three-dimensional observations of cloud fields for analysis of cloud field evolution. Sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and Papua New Guinea have also received scanning centimeter wavelength radars for observing precipitation fields. This combination of radars will provide the means to study the interaction of clouds and precipitation. New lidars include a Raman lidar in Darwin, Australia and High Spectral Resolution Lidars in Barrow and with the second ARM Mobile Facility. Each of these lidars will provide profiles of aerosol extinction while the Raman will also measure profiles of water vapor. ARM has also expanded its capabilities in the realm of aerosol observations. ARM is adding Aerosol Observing Systems to its sites in Darwin and the second mobile facility. These aerosol systems principally provided measurements of aerosol optical properties. Additionally, a new Mobile Aerosol Observing System has been developed that includes a variety of instruments to provide information about aerosol chemistry and size distributions. Many of these aerosol instruments are also available for the ARM Aerial Facility. The Aerial Facility also now includes a variety of cloud probes for measuring size distribution and water content. The new array of ARM instruments is intended to build upon the existing ARM capabilities to better study the interactions among aerosol, clouds, and precipitation. Data from these instruments are now available and development of advanced data products is underway.

  8. New ARM Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, and the Atmospheric State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, J.

    2012-04-01

    The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has recently enhanced its observational capabilities at its fixed and mobile sites as well as its aerial facility. New capabilities include scanning radars, several types of lidars, an array of aerosol instruments, and in situ cloud probes. All ARM sites have been equipped with dual frequency scanning cloud radars that will provide three-dimensional observations of cloud fields for analysis of cloud field evolution. Sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and Papua New Guinea have also received scanning centimeter wavelength radars for observing precipitation fields. This combination of radars will provide the means to study the interaction of clouds and precipitation. New lidars include a Raman lidar in Darwin, Australia and High Spectral Resolution Lidars in Barrow and with the second ARM Mobile Facility. Each of these lidars will provide profiles of aerosol extinction while the Raman will also measure profiles of water vapor. ARM has also expanded its capabilities in the realm of aerosol observations. ARM is adding Aerosol Observing Systems to its sites in Darwin and the second mobile facility. These aerosol systems principally provided measurements of aerosol optical properties. In addition, a new Mobile Aerosol Observing System has been developed that includes a variety of instruments to provide information about aerosol chemistry and size distributions. Many of these aerosol instruments are also available for the ARM Aerial Facility. The Aerial Facility also now includes a variety of cloud probes for measuring size distribution and water content. The new array of ARM instruments is intended to build upon the existing ARM capabilities to better study the interactions among aerosol, clouds, and precipitation. Data from these instruments are now available and development of advanced data products is underway.

  9. Lidar signal-to-noise ratio improvements: Considerations and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassebo, Yasser Y.

    The primary objective of this study is to improve lidar signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence extend attainable lidar ranges through reduction of the sky background noise (BGP), which dominates other sources of noise in daytime operations. This is particularly important for Raman lidar techniques where the Raman backscattered signal of interest is relatively weak compared with the elastic backscatter lidars. Two approaches for reduction of sky background noise are considered: (1) Improvements in lidar SNR by optimization of the design of the lidar receiver were examined by a series of simulations. This part of the research concentrated on biaxial lidar systems, where overlap between laser beam and receiver field of view (FOV) is an important aspect of noise considerations. The first optimized design evolved is a wedge shaped aperture. While this design has the virtue of greatly reducing background light, it is difficult to implement practically, requiring both changes in area and position with lidar range. A second more practical approach, which preserves some of the advantages of the wedge design, was also evolved. This uses a smaller area circular aperture optimally located in the image plane for desired ranges. Simulated numerical results for a biaxial lidar have shown that the best receiver parameters selection is one using a small circular aperture (field stop) with a small telescope focal length f, to ensure the minimum FOV that accepts all return signals over the entire lidar range while at the same time minimizing detected BGP and hence maximizing lidar SNR and attainable lidar ranges. The improvement in lidar SNR was up to 18%. (2) A polarization selection technique was implemented to reduce sky background signal for linearly polarized monostatic elastic backscatter lidar measurements. The technique takes advantage of naturally occurring polarization properties in scattered sky light, and then ensures that both the lidar transmitter and receiver track and minimize detected sky background noise while maintaining maximum lidar signal throughput. Measurements, carried at 532 nm, show as much as a factor of 10 improvement in SNR and the attainable lidar range up to 34% over conventional un-polarized schemes. For vertically pointing lidars, the largest improvements are limited to the early morning and late afternoon hours, while for lidars scanning azimuthally and in elevation at angles other than vertical, significant improvements are achievable over more extended time periods. Observed changes in SNR improvements were also related to relative humidity and modification of underlying aerosol microphysics. A second, distinct objective of this research was to utilize multiwavelength lidar techniques to separate plume and cloud particles. Choice of the study location and time for this work was driven mainly by the availability of satellite data collected by NASA INTEX-NA and NOAA NEAQS experiment over New York City on July 21, 2004 in support of MODIS imagery. The lidar results identify smoke plumes over New York City and validate the plume source origin location using NOAA-HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Surface measurements, at the time, from in-situ particle counters are presented and show no enhanced PM2.5 loading. This result is supported by lidar measurements, which confirm that nearly all of the aerosol plumes are located above the normal aerosol boundary layer showing that satellite measurements are often incomplete and are not sufficient for assessing surface air quality.

  10. Airborne Lidar measurements of aerosols, mixed layer heights, and ozone during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS summer field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Shipley, S. T.; Butler, C. F.; Ismail, S.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed summary of the NASA Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV DIAL) data archive obtained during the EPA Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode/Northeast Regional Oxidant Study (PEPE/NEROS) Summer Field Experiment Program (July through August 1980) is presented. The UV dial data set consists of remote measurements of mixed layer heights, aerosol backscatter cross sections, and sequential ozone profiles taken during 14 long-range flights onboard the NASA Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft. These data are presented in graphic and tabular form, and they have been submitted to the PEPE/NEROS data archive on digital magnetic tape. The derivation of mixing heights and ozone profiles from UV Dial signals is discussed, and detailed intercomparisons with measurements obtained by in situ sensors are presented.

  11. LiDAR observations of the vertical distribution of aerosols in free troposphere: Comparison with CALIPSO level-2 data over the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Raman; Singh, Narendra

    2014-12-01

    This study elucidates the seasonality in aerosol vertical profiles acquired using LiDAR measurements and compares it with the CALIPSO level-2 data products over central Himalayas. A detailed analysis on the vertical distribution of aerosols over the central Himalayan region is carried out during different seasons. We present intermittent observations that were made over Manora Peak (29.36° N, 79.45° E, 1951 m, AMSL) Nainital, during March 2012 to May 2013 amounting to a total of 360 h of LiDAR operation, out of which 57 suitable cases were subjected to further analysis. Aerosol loading in the vertical column was found to be highest with 3.40 (Mm sr)-1 at 3.3 km during the spring and summer seasons (MAMJ-2012), and the lowest with 0.48 (Mm sr)-1 at 2.5 km, during winter season (DJF 2012-13). The aerosol layer reaches to the maximum altitude of 5.6 km in the period of MAMJ-2012 and a minimum at 2.8 km in the winter (DJF). The highest value (124 Mm-1) of extinction coefficient is found at 3.3 km, during MAMJ-2012 and minimum (7 Mm-1) at 2.5 km during the winter season. A comparison of ground based LiDAR observations with the CALIPSO satellite derived aerosol backscatter profiles has been carried out for 37 suitable cases. To determine the LiDAR ratio, AOD measurements from MODIS were used as constrain. The mean percent bias for different seasons is found to be +18 ± 42%, +22 ± 28%, +32 ± 36% and +18 ± 51% for MAMJ-2012, SON-2012, DJF-2012-13 and MAM-2013 respectively.

  12. First estimates of mass concentrations from Eyjafjöll over The Netherlands using PCA on multi-wavelength Raman lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Martin; Donovan, David P.; Apituley, Arnold; Wilson, Keith M.

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic ash can be dangerous for aviation, when large amounts of ash are sucked into the engines. On 15 April 2010 the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland sent a huge ash cloud towards western Europe. Subsequently, the air space was closed over most parts of western Europe. After 5 days some air space corridors were opened, but a criterion to base the restrictions on was missing. Here we present first results of mass concentrations over central Netherlands, using an new method for the inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data. The U.S. military consider mass loadings of volcanic ash > 50 mg m^-3 as a potential hazard. Over The Netherlands a limit has been proposed of 1 mg m^-3. Our first estimate of the ash concentrations that occurred over The Netherlands after the Eyjafjöll eruption is a mean total volume concentration of about 36 ?m3 m^-3 with a maximum of 50 ?m3 m^-3. Using an ash particle density of 2 g cm^-3 a mean ash mass concentration of 0.07 mg m^-3 is found with a maximum of 0.1 mg m^-3.

  13. Comparative analysis of measurements of stratospheric aerosol by lidar and aerosol sonde above Ny-Ålesund in the winter of 1995 [Comparative analysis of lidar and OPC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Koichi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Motowo; Shibata, Takashi; Watanabe, Masaharu; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Neuber, Roland; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) layers observed by lidar and a balloon-borne optical particle counter (OPC) on 17 December 1995 are reexamined in a comparative analysis framework. The typical radius of solid particles in the observed PSC is determined through the comparative analysis to have been approximately 2.3 ?m. A backward trajectory analysis for the air mass in which the solid particles were observed shows that the air mass had experienced temperatures 2-3 K below the frost point of nitric acid tri-hydrate (NAT) during the 4 days preceding the observations. The back-trajectory analysis traces the air mass back to northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island on 16 December, one day before the observations. A microphysical box model is used to investigate possible mechanisms of formation for the observed solid particles. The results of this model suggest that the solid particles formed under mesoscale temperature fluctuations associated with mountain lee wave activity induced by the relatively high terrestrial elevations of northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island.

  14. Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskii, I.; Dubovik, O.; Kolgotin, A.; Lapyonok, T.; di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Whiteman, D. N.; Mishchenko, M.; Tanré, D.

    2010-11-01

    Multiwavelength (MW) Raman lidars have demonstrated their potential to profile particle parameters; however, until now, the physical models used in retrieval algorithms for processing MW lidar data have been predominantly based on the Mie theory. This approach is applicable to the modeling of light scattering by spherically symmetric particles only and does not adequately reproduce the scattering by generally nonspherical desert dust particles. Here we present an algorithm based on a model of randomly oriented spheroids for the inversion of multiwavelength lidar data. The aerosols are modeled as a mixture of two aerosol components: one composed only of spherical and the second composed of nonspherical particles. The nonspherical component is an ensemble of randomly oriented spheroids with size-independent shape distribution. This approach has been integrated into an algorithm retrieving aerosol properties from the observations with a Raman lidar based on a tripled Nd:YAG laser. Such a lidar provides three backscattering coefficients, two extinction coefficients, and the particle depolarization ratio at a single or multiple wavelengths. Simulations were performed for a bimodal particle size distribution typical of desert dust particles. The uncertainty of the retrieved particle surface