Sample records for aerosol raman lidar

  1. Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Ansmann, A.; Mattis, I.; Tesche, M.; Wandinger, U.; Althausen, D.; Pisani, G.

    2007-08-01

    We summarize our Raman lidar observations which were carried out in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the past 10 years, with focus on particle extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) and Ångström exponents. For the first time, we present statistics on lidar ratios for almost all climatically relevant aerosol types solely based on Raman lidar measurements. Sources of continental particles were in North America and Europe, the Sahara, and south and Southeast and east Asia. The North Atlantic Ocean, and the tropical and South Indian Ocean were the sources of marine particles. The statistics are complemented with lidar ratios describing aged forest fire smoke and pollution from polar regions (Arctic haze) after long-range transport. In addition, we present particle Ångström exponents for the wavelength range from 355 to 532 nm and from 532 to 1064 nm. We compare our data set of lidar ratios to the recently published AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) lidar ratio climatology. That climatology is based on aerosol scattering modeling in which AERONET Sun photometer observations serve as input. Raman lidar measurements of extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dust and urban aerosols differ significantly from the numbers obtained with AERONET Sun photometers. There are also differences for some of the Ångström exponents. Further comparison studies are needed to reveal the reason for the observed differences.

  2. LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Balin, Yu S; Bairashin, G S; Kokhanenko, G P; Penner, I E; Samoilova, S V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The scanning LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar, which is aimed at probing atmosphere at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm, is described. The backscattered light is received simultaneously in two regimes: analogue and photon-counting. Along with the signals of elastic light scattering at the initial wavelengths, a 607-nm Raman signal from molecular nitrogen is also recorded. It is shown that the height range of atmosphere probing can be expanded from the near-Earth layer to stratosphere using two (near- and far-field) receiving telescopes, and analogue and photon-counting lidar signals can be combined into one signal. Examples of natural measurements of aerosol stratification in atmosphere along vertical and horizontal paths during the expeditions to the Gobi Desert (Mongolia) and Lake Baikal areas are presented.

  3. Aerosol Lidar Intercomparison in the Framework of the EARLINET Project. 3. Raman Lidar Algorithm for Aerosol Extinction, Backscatter, and Lidar Ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gelsomina Pappalardo; Aldo Amodeo; Marco Pandolfi; Ulla Wandinger; Albert Ansmann; Jens Bösenberg; Volker Matthias; Vassilis Amiridis; Ferdinando de Tomasi; Max Frioud; Marco Iarlori; Leonce Komguem; Alexandros Papayannis; Francesc Rocadenbosch; Xuan Wang

    2004-01-01

    An intercomparison of the algorithms used to retrieve aerosol extinction and backscatter starting from Raman lidar signals has been performed by 11 groups of lidar scientists involved in the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). This intercomparison is part of an extended quality assurance program performed on aerosol lidars in the EARLINET. Lidar instruments and aerosol backscatter algorithms were tested

  4. Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, Albert; Riebesell, Maren; Weitkamp, Claus

    1990-07-01

    A method is presented that permits the determination of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles from measured Raman lidar signals. No critical input parameters are needed, which could cause large uncertainties of the solution, as is the case in the Klett method for the inversion of elastic lidar returns.

  5. Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: Statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Matthias; D. Balis; J. Bösenberg; R. Eixmann; M. Iarlori; L. Komguem; I. Mattis; A. Papayannis; G. Pappalardo; M. R. Perrone; X. Wang

    2004-01-01

    Since 2000, regular lidar observations of the vertical aerosol distribution over Europe have been performed within the framework of EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network. A statistical analysis concerning the vertical distribution of the volume light extinction coefficients of particles derived from Raman lidar measurements at 10 EARLINET stations is presented here. The profiles were measured on a fixed

  6. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols with multiwavelength Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Mattis, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Ansmann, A.; Wandinger, U.; Althausen, D.

    2007-10-01

    Multiwavelength Raman lidar observations have matured into a powerful tool for the vertical resolved characterization of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Raman lidars that operate with laser pulses at three wavelengths are the minimum requirement for a comprehensive particle characterization. Parameters that are derived with such systems are particle backscatter and extinction coefficients, and particle extinction-to-backscatter (lidar) ratios. Effective radius and complex refractive index can be derived with inversion algorithms. In the past ten years we carried out regular observations over Leipzig, Germany, with multiwavelength Raman lidar. We could establish a time series of important aerosol properties. For instance, we find that pollution layers are present in the free troposphere in more than 30% of our observations in each year. These layers result from long-range transport of, e.g., forest-fire smoke from North America and Siberia, anthropogenic pollution from North America, Arctic haze from North polar areas, and mineral dust from the Sahara. Observations were also carried out with our mobile six-wavelength Raman lidar during several international field campaigns since 1997. Those data allow us to establish a first comprehensive overview on the vertical distribution of optical and microphysical particle properties in different areas of the world.

  7. Raman Lidar Measurements of the Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Over the Southern Great Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner; Lorraine Heilman Brasseur; Wayne F. Feltz; Oleg Dubovik; Tim P. Tooman

    2001-01-01

    We derive profiles of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, Sa, at 355 nm using aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles measured during 1998 and 1999 by the operational Raman lidar at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Southern Great Plains site in north central Oklahoma. Data from this Raman\\/Rayleigh-Mie lidar, which measures Raman scattering from nitrogen as well as the

  8. Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ferrare; M. Poellot

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol

  9. Measurement of tropospheric aerosol in São Paulo area using a new upgraded Raman LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Patrícia F.; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Bourayou, Riad

    2012-11-01

    Elastic backscatter LIDAR systems have been used to determine aerosol profile concentration in several areas such as weather, pollution and air quality monitoring. In order to determine the aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles, the Klett inversion method is largely used, but this method suffers from lack of information since there are two unknown variables to be determined using only one measured LIDAR signal, and assumption of the LIDAR ratio (the relation between the extinction and backscattering coefficients) is needed. When a Raman LIDAR system is used, the inelastic backscattering signal is affected by aerosol extinction but not by aerosol backscatter, which allows this LIDAR to uniquely determine extinction and backscattering coefficients without any assumptions or any collocated instruments. The MSP-LIDAR system, set-up in a highly dense suburban area in the city of São Paulo, has been upgraded to a Raman LIDAR, and in its actual 6-channel configuration allows it to monitor elastic backscatter at 355 and 532 nm together with nitrogen and water vapor Raman backscatters at 387nm and 608 nm and 408nm and 660 nm, respectively. Thus, the measurements of aerosol backscattering, extinction coefficients and water vapor mixing ratio in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) are becoming available. The system will provide the important meteorological parameters such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and will be used for the study of aerosol variations in lower troposphere over the city of São Paulo, air quality monitoring and for estimation of humidity impact on the aerosol optical properties, without any a priori assumption. This study will present the first results obtained with this upgraded LIDAR system, demonstrating the high quality of obtained aerosol and water vapor data. For that purpose, we compared the data obtained with the new MSP-Raman LIDAR with a mobile Raman LIDAR collocated at the Center for Lasers and Applications, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute in São Paulo and radiosonde data from Campo de Marte Airport, in São Paulo.

  10. Four-year aerosol observations with a Raman lidar at Thessaloniki, Greece, in the framework of European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Amiridis; D. S. Balis; S. Kazadzis; A. Bais; E. Giannakaki; A. Papayannis; C. Zerefos

    2005-01-01

    Regular aerosol extinction and backscatter measurements using a UV Raman lidar have been performed from January 2001 to December 2004 at Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5°N, 22.9°E), in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). Profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (so-called ``lidar ratio'') were acquired under nighttime conditions and have been used for

  11. Four-year aerosol observations with a Raman lidar at Thessaloniki, Greece, in the framework of European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Amiridis; D. S. Balis; S. Kazadzis; A. Bais; E. Giannakaki; A. Papayannis; C. Zerefos

    2005-01-01

    Regular aerosol extinction and backscatter measurements using a UV Raman lidar have been performed from January 2001 to December 2004 at Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5°N, 22.9°E), in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). Profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (so-called “lidar ratio”) were acquired under nighttime conditions and have been used for

  12. Raman lidar measurements of Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November?December 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ferrare; S. H. Melfi; D. N. Whiteman; K. D. Evans

    1992-01-01

    aerosols. In this paper we discuss measurements of the Pinatubo aerosols made by a new Raman lidar system developed at NASA\\/GSFC. We report measurements of scattering ratio, backscattering, extinction, extinction\\/backscattering ratio, and optical thiclmess of these aerosols made by this system while deployed in southeastern Kansas during November and

  13. Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: Statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Balis, D.; Bösenberg, J.; Eixmann, R.; Iarlori, M.; Komguem, L.; Mattis, I.; Papayannis, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Perrone, M. R.; Wang, X.

    2004-09-01

    Since 2000, regular lidar observations of the vertical aerosol distribution over Europe have been performed within the framework of EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network. A statistical analysis concerning the vertical distribution of the volume light extinction coefficients of particles derived from Raman lidar measurements at 10 EARLINET stations is presented here. The profiles were measured on a fixed schedule with up to two measurements per week; they typically covered the height range from 500 m to 6000 m above ground level (agl). The analysis is made for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as well as for several fixed layers above ground. The results show typical values of the aerosol extinction coefficient and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in different parts of Europe, with highest values in southeastern Europe and lowest values in the northwestern part. Annual cycles and cumulative frequency distributions are also presented. We found that higher aerosol optical depths in southern Europe compared to the northern part are mainly attributed to larger amounts of aerosol in higher altitudes. At 9 of the 10 sites the frequency distribution of the aerosol optical depth in the planetary boundary layer follows a lognormal distribution at the 95% significance level.

  14. Estimation of quartz concentration in the tropospheric mineral aerosols using combined Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars.

    PubMed

    Tatarov, Boyan; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2005-12-15

    A remote sensing method is presented that enables the determination of quartz concentration in mineral aerosols from simultaneously measured, high-spectral-resolution lidar and quartz Raman lidar signals. PMID:16389847

  15. Retrieving the atmospheric aerosol properties over Beijing region by combining rotational Raman - Mie lidar and CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinchao; Li, Dan; Chen, Binglong; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan

    2013-05-01

    Typically, we use Klett-Fernald method for retrieving aerosol optical properties. However, the results from these methods critically depend on the lidar ratio, thus affecting the accuracy of the inversion results. In this paper, we adopted a new method to retrieve the vertical distribution profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient, aerosol extinction coefficient and lidar ratio over Beijing region by combining rotational Raman - Mie lidar and CALIPSO(Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations). The results were compared with the results determined by the conventional method, which shows a good agreement. Compared with the conventional method, the results from this new method are more reliable and less noisy, which provide richer information for researching the atmospheric aerosol properties over Beijing region.

  16. Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A.

    2000-01-09

    The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  17. RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    FERRARE,R.A.

    2000-01-09

    We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  18. New Examination of the Raman Lidar Technique for Water Vapor and Aerosols. Paper 1; Evaluating the Temperature Dependent Lidar Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.

    2003-01-01

    The intent of this paper and its companion is to compile together the essential information required for the analysis of Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol data acquired using a single laser wavelength. In this first paper several details concerning the evaluation of the lidar equation when measuring Raman scattering are considered. These details include the influence of the temperature dependence of both pure rotational and vibrational-rotational Raman scattering on the lidar profile. These are evaluated for the first time using a new form of the lidar equation. The results indicate that, for the range of temperatures encountered in the troposphere, the magnitude of the temperature dependent effect can reach 10% or more for narrowband Raman water vapor measurements. Also the calculation of atmospheric transmission is examined carefully including the effects of depolarization. Different formulations of Rayleigh cross section determination commonly used in the lidar field are compared revealing differences up to 5% among the formulations. The influence of multiple scattering on the measurement of aerosol extinction using the Raman lidar technique is considered as are several photon pulse-pileup correction techniques.

  19. Automated Retrievals of Water Vapor and Aerosol Profiles from an Operational Raman Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.; Ferrare, R. A.; Heilman Brasseur, L. A.; Feltz, W. F.; Tooman, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Automated routines have been developed to derive water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient, and linear depolarization profiles, as well as total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical thickness, from the operational Raman lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's site in north-central Oklahoma. These routines have been devised to maintain the calibration of these data products, which have proven sensitive to the automatic alignment adjustments that are made periodically by the instrument. Since this Raman lidar does not scan, aerosol extinction cannot be directly computed below approximately 800 m due to the incomplete overlap of the outgoing laser beam with the detector's field of view. Therefore, the extinction-to-backscatter ratio at 1 km is used with the aerosol backscatter coefficient profile to compute aerosol extinction from 60 m to the level of complete overlap. Comparisons of aerosol optical depth derived using these algorithms with a collocated CIMEL sun photometer for clear-sky days over an approximate 2-yr period show a slope of 0.90 with a correlation coefficient of 0.884. Furthermore, comparing the aerosol extinction profile retrieved from this system with that from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center's scanning Raman lidar agrees within 10% for the single available case.

  20. Simulation of improved daytime capabilities to retrieve aerosol extinction coefficient using Rotational Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, Fabio; Amodeo, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    So far, most of the multi-wavelength Raman lidar observations of aerosols are performed at night, because Raman signals are weak compared to daylight background. Different techniques have been developed to improve Raman lidar daytime capabilities in the past years. Indeed, the retrieval of aerosol extinction during daytime is feasible through the detection of backscattered radiation due to the pure Rotational Raman Spectrum (PRRS) of molecular nitrogen or oxygen, much brighter than the vibration-rotation spectrum. The existing techniques for the measure of PRRS are based on small-bandwidth emitter and receiver systems and on a small receiver field of view to suppress the daylight background. They have been successfully tested and implemented in a few systems which are already in operational use within EARLINET (European Aerosol research Lidar NETwork). In this work, several different configurations used as receiver for a lidar system detecting the PRRS in daytime conditions are compared by means of numerical simulations. The configurations are mainly differentiated by the design of the spectral selection unit implemented in the receiver of each lidar system, based on a narrow-bandwidth filters, broad-band filters, grating spectrometers, and hybrid solutions. The research of configurations able to be more easily implemented on a large number of lidar systems within ACTRIS are explored. To show the performances of the investigated lidar configurations, a blind test has been carried out to get the simulated performances in the retrieval of the aerosol extinction profile during night-time and daytime starting from a known scenario. The atmospheric scenario used as the reference profile is represented by one of the night-time measurements with MUSA (MUlti-wavelength system for Aerosol) lidar at CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory - CIAO (15.72E, 40.60N , 760 m a.s.l., Potenza, Italy). Though all the configuration considered in the blind test proved to be solid to suppression of solar background, the simulations shows that PRRS can be efficiently used to provide accurate aerosol extinction profiles only if the lidar receiver shows a suppression of the elastically backscattered radiation in the order of 10-5. This requirement is well satisfied only using receivers equipped with a double-grating spectrometer filtering the backscattered radiation in a sequential way, or using broad interference filters selected in order to be temperature independent and stable in the detection of the PRRS at different environmental temperatures and incident angles of the backscattered radiation.

  1. New Examination of the Traditional Raman Lidar Technique II: Temperature Dependence Aerosol Scattering Ratio and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a companion paper, the temperature dependence of Raman scattering and its influence on the Raman water vapor signal and the lidar equations was examined. New forms of the lidar equation were developed to account for this temperature sensitivity. Here we use those results to derive the temperature dependent forms of the equations for the aerosol scattering ratio, aerosol backscatter coefficient, extinction to backscatter ratio and water vapor mixing ratio. Pertinent analysis examples are presented to illustrate each calculation.

  2. Estimation of black carbon content for biomass burning aerosols from multi-channel Raman lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talianu, Camelia; Marmureanu, Luminita; Nicolae, Doina

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning due to natural processes (forest fires) or anthropical activities (agriculture, thermal power stations, domestic heating) is an important source of aerosols with a high content of carbon components (black carbon and organic carbon). Multi-channel Raman lidars provide information on the spectral dependence of the backscatter and extinction coefficients, embedding information on the black carbon content. Aerosols with a high content of black carbon have large extinction coefficients and small backscatter coefficients (strong absorption), while aerosols with high content of organic carbon have large backscatter coefficients (weak absorption). This paper presents a method based on radiative calculations to estimate the black carbon content of biomass burning aerosols from 3b+2a+1d lidar signals. Data is collected at Magurele, Romania, at the cross-road of air masses coming from Ukraine, Russia and Greece, where burning events are frequent during both cold and hot seasons. Aerosols are transported in the free troposphere, generally in the 2-4 km altitude range, and reaches the lidar location after 2-3 days. Optical data are collected between 2011-2012 by a multi-channel Raman lidar and follows the quality assurance program of EARLINET. Radiative calculations are made with libRadTran, an open source radiative model developed by ESA. Validation of the retrievals is made by comparison to a co-located C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Keywords: Lidar, aerosols, biomass burning, radiative model, black carbon Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programme for Research- Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project no. 39/2012 - SIAFIM, and by Romanian Partnerships in priority areas PNII implemented with MEN-UEFISCDI support, project no. 309/2014 - MOBBE

  3. One year of Raman lidar observations of free tropospheric aerosol layers over South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, Eleni; Komppula, Mika; Pfüller, Anne; Korhonen, Kimmo; Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Lauri; Vakkari, Ville; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Beukes, Paul; Van Zyl, Pieter; Josipovic, Micky; Tiitta, Petri; Chiloane, Kgaugelo; Piketh, Stuart; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari

    2015-04-01

    Long-term studies of atmospheric aerosols over South Africa are limited. Moreover, in previous studies the optical properties of aerosols have been studied by means of sun photometers, in situ data and satellite observations. Thus there is a clear need for vertically resolved observations with advanced multiwavelength lidars. In this study we present one year Raman lidar data that have been performed over Highveld in South Africa. The data have been analysed in regard to free tropospheric aerosol layers and their contribution to the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). A multi-wavelength Raman lidar PollyXT was operated remotely at Elandsfontein in South Africa about 150 km east of Johannesburg from December 2009 to January 2011. The range-resolved backscatter signal of elastic lidar contains information that can be used to derive the height of aerosol layers. The gradient method was applied to determine the bottom and top layer heights of the aerosols in the free troposphere (FT). Planetary boundary layer top heights were retrieved from the lidar backscatter signal at 1064 nm using the Wavelet Covariance Transform method. The AOD in the boundary layer and the FT at 355 nm is estimated. The same seasonal pattern is observed for the AOD at 355 nm in the boundary layer and the FT, i.e. larger AOD values measured during late July, August, September and October in the boundary layer and the FT. The percentage contribution of free tropospheric AOD to the total AOD had large variations for the period investigated, with a mean value of 46%. The largest monthly contribution of 92% is observed in October. The period with increases in columnar, free tropospheric and boundary layer optical depths coincides with an increase in biomass burning activity in South Africa. Also the observed higher wind speeds could lead to an increase of biomass emissions from region further away from Elandsfontein.

  4. Volcanic aerosol layers observed with multiwavelength Raman lidar over central Europe in 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, Ina; Siefert, Patric; Müller, Detlef; Tesche, Matthias; Hiebsch, Anja; Kanitz, Thomas; Schmidt, JöRg; Finger, Fanny; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of regular European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) observations, aerosol layers have been monitored with a multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Leipzig (51.4°N, 12.4°E), Germany, since the summer of 2008. The origins of these layers are eruptions of different volcanoes on the Aleutian Islands, Kamchatka, Alaska, and on the Kuril Islands. FLEXPART transport simulations show that the volcanic aerosol is advected from Alaska to central Europe within about 7 days. The aerosol layers typically occurred in the upper troposphere above 5 km height and in the lower stratosphere below 25 km height. The optical depths of the volcanic aerosol layers are mostly between 0.004 and 0.025 at 532 nm. The wavelength dependence of the backscatter coefficients and extinction coefficients indicate Ångström exponents from 1.0-2.0. Lidar ratios in the stratosphere are found in the range from 30-60 sr (355 nm) and 30-45 sr (532 nm). The estimation of the effective radius, surface-area, and mass concentrations of a volcanic aerosol layer, observed well within the stratosphere at end of August 2009, reveals values of 0.1-0.2 ?m, 5-10 ?m2 cm-3, and 0.3-0.5 ?g m-3, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of Daytime Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor made by an Operational Raman Lidar over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Turner, David; Clayton, Marian; Schmid, Beat; Covert, David; Elleman, Robert; Orgren, John; Andrews, Elisabeth; Goldsmith, John E. M.; Jonsson, Hafidi

    2006-01-01

    Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles acquired during the daytime over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern Oklahoma (36.606 N, 97.50 W, 315 m) are evaluated using profiles measured by in situ and remote sensing instruments deployed during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (IOP). The automated algorithms used to derive these profiles from the Raman lidar data were first modified to reduce the adverse effects associated with a general loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar since early 2002. The Raman lidar water vapor measurements, which are calibrated to match precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from coincident microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements were, on average, 5-10% (0.3-0.6 g/m(exp 3) higher than the other measurements. Some of this difference is due to out-of-date line parameters that were subsequently updated in the MWR PWV retrievals. The Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements were, on average, about 0.03 km(exp -1) higher than aerosol measurements derived from airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical thickness and in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption. This bias, which was about 50% of the mean aerosol extinction measured during this IOP, decreased to about 10% when aerosol extinction comparisons were restricted to aerosol extinction values larger than 0.15 km(exp -1). The lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio and airborne Sun photometer measurements of the aerosol optical thickness were used along with in situ measurements of the aerosol size distribution to retrieve estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo (omega(sub o)) and the effective complex refractive index. Retrieved values of omega(sub o) ranged from (0.91-0.98) and were in generally good agreement with omega(sub o) derived from airborne in situ measurements of scattering and absorption. Elevated aerosol layers located between about 2.6 and 3.6 km were observed by the Raman lidar on May 25 and May 27. The airborne measurements and lidar retrievals indicated that these layers, which were likely smoke produced by Siberian forest fires, were primarily composed of relatively large particles (r(sub eff) approximately 0.23 micrometers), and that the layers were relatively nonabsorbing (omega(sub o) approximately 0.96-0.98). Preliminary results show that major modifications that were made to the Raman lidar system during 2004 have dramatically improved the sensitivity in the aerosol and water vapor channels and reduced random errors in the aerosol scattering ratio and water vapor retrievals by an order of magnitude.

  6. Vertical Profiling of Atmospheric Backscatter with a Raman-Aerosol Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleva, Atanaska D.; Peshev, Zahary Y.; Slesar, Alexander S.; Denisov, Sergey; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols have a strong impact on the planet's thermal balance, air quality, and a variety of atmospheric processes and phenomena. In this work we present some results from a long term lidar observation of tropospheric aerosols over the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, within the framework of the European project "EARLINET-ASSOS." Vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient and range corrected lidar signals are processed and analyzed. The temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosol fields are illustrated by 2D-colormaps in height-time coordinates. We present here several cases of aerosol loading: transport of Saharan dust (at altitudes from 3 km to 5 km), highly situated layers (from 9 km to 15 km), and anthropogenic smog (up to 2 km). All measurements were performed by using the two aerosol spectral channels of a combined Raman-aerosol lidar developed in the Laser Radar Lab, Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It is based on a Q-switched powerful frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (output pulse power: up to 1 J at 1064 nm; up to 100 mJ at 532 nm; pulse duration 15 ns FWHM; repetition rate 2 Hz). A Cassegrain telescope (35 cm diameter, 200 cm focal length) collects the backscattered radiation. The lidar receiving system is based on novel smart high sensitive photo-receiving modules. The acquisition system provides signal registration with spatial resolution of 15 m (100 MHz 14-bit ADC). It allows for detection, storage, and processing of large volume lidar data. Our observations are in good agreement with the forecasts of Barcelona Supercomputing Center, concerning Saharan dust transport.

  7. CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Tooman, T. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

  8. Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ferrare; S. H. Melfi; D. N. Whiteman; K. D. Evans; M. Poellot; Y. J. Kaufman

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol

  9. Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Ferrare; David Turner; Marian Clayton; Beat Schmid; Jens Redemann; David Covert; Robert Elleman; John Ogren; Elisabeth Andrews; John E. M. Goldsmith; Haflidi Jonsson

    2006-01-01

    Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles acquired during the daytime over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern Oklahoma (36.606 N, 97.50 W, 315 m) are evaluated using profiles measured by in situ and remote sensing instruments deployed during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (IOP). The automated

  10. Volcanic aerosol layers observed with multi-wavelength Raman lidar over Europe since summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Müller, Detlef; Tesche, Matthias; Hiebsch, Anja; Kanitz, Thomas; Schmidt, Jörg; Finger, Fanny

    2010-05-01

    Regular multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of the vertical aerosol distribution have been performed at Leipzig (51.4°N, 12.4°E), Germany, since 1996 in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). Our measurements in the past 12 years do not show any major event of volcanic aerosol pollution in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The situation changed since summer of 2008 due to a series of strong eruptions of volcanoes on the Aleutian Islands, Kamchatka, Alaska, and on the Kuril Islands. We observed aerosol layers in the upper troposphere above 5 km height and lower stratosphere below 25 km height. FLEXPART transport simulations show that volcanic aerosol is advected from Alaska to central Europe within about 7 days. The optical depths of the volcanic aerosol layers are mostly between 0.004 and 0.025 at 532 nm. The wavelength dependence of the backscatter and extinction coefficients indicate Ångström exponents from 1.0-2.0. Lidar ratios are found in the range from 30-80 sr (355 nm) and 30-50 sr (532 nm). The estimation of the effective radius, surface-area, and mass concentrations of a volcanic aerosol layer, observed well within the stratosphere end of August 2009, reveals values of 0.1-0.2 ?m, 5-10 ?m2 cm-3, and 0.3-0.5 ?g m-3, respectively. The surface-area and mass concentrations are thus about a factor of 10-20 lower than the respective values observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the years 1992 and 1993.

  11. Optical properties of different aerosol types: seven years of combined Raman-elastic backscatter lidar measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, E.; Balis, D. S.; Amiridis, V.; Zerefos, C.

    2010-05-01

    We present our combined Raman/elastic backscatter lidar observations which were carried out at the EARLINET station of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the period 2001-2007. The largest optical depths are observed for Saharan dust and smoke aerosol particles. For local and continental polluted aerosols the measurements indicate high aerosol loads. However, measurements associated with the local path indicate enhanced aerosol load within the Planetary Boundary Layer. The lowest value of aerosol optical depth is observed for continental aerosols, from West directions with less free tropospheric contribution. The largest lidar ratios, of the order of 70 sr, are found for biomass burning aerosols. A significant and distinct correlation between lidar ratio and backscatter related Ångström exponent values were estimated for different aerosol categories. Scatter plot between lidar ratio values and Ångström exponent values for local and continental polluted aerosols does not show a significant correlation, with a large variation in both parameters possibly due to variable absorption characteristics of these aerosols. Finally for continental aerosols with west and northwest directions that follow downward movement when arriving at our site constantly low lidar ratios almost independent of size are found.

  12. Raman lidar profiling of aerosols over the central U.S.; diurnal variability and comparisons with the GOCART model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. a. Ferrare; M. Chin; M. Clayton; D. Turner

    ABSTRACT We use profiles of aerosol extinction, water vapor mixing ratio, and relative humidity measured by the ARM SGP Raman lidar in northern Oklahoma,to show how,the vertical distributions of aerosol extinction and water vapor vary throughout the diurnal cycle. While significant (20-30%) variations in aerosol extinction occurred near the surface as well as aloft, smaller (~10%) variations were observed in

  13. Raman lidar and sun photometer measurements of aerosols and water vapor during the ARM RCS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Evans, K. D.; Holben, B. N.

    1995-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program. These activities are part of an overall plan to assess general circulation model (GCM) parameterization research. Since radiation processes are one of the key areas included in this parameterization research, measurements of water vapor and aerosols are required because of the important roles these atmospheric constituents play in radiative transfer. Two instruments were deployed during this IOP to measure water vapor and aerosols and study their relationship. The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) acquired water vapor and aerosol profile data during 15 nights of operations. The lidar acquired vertical profiles as well as nearly horizontal profiles directed near an instrumented 60 meter tower. Aerosol optical thickness, phase function, size distribution, and integrated water vapor were derived from measurements with a multiband automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer deployed at this site.

  14. Dual-FOV Raman and Doppler lidar studies of aerosol-cloud interactions: Simultaneous profiling of aerosols, warm-cloud properties, and vertical wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Baars, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla; Müller, Detlef; Malinka, Aleksey V.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time, colocated dual-field of view (dual-FOV) Raman lidar and Doppler lidar observations (case studies) of aerosol and cloud optical and microphysical properties below and within thin layered liquid water clouds are presented together with an updraft and downdraft characterization at cloud base. The goal of this work is to investigate the relationship between aerosol load close to cloud base and cloud characteristics of warm (purely liquid) clouds and the study of the influence of vertical motions and turbulent mixing on this relationship. We further use this opportunity to illustrate the applicability of the novel dual-FOV Raman lidar in this field of research. The dual-FOV lidar combines the well-established multiwavelength Raman lidar technique for aerosol retrievals and the multiple-scattering Raman lidar technique for profiling of the single-scattering extinction coefficient, effective radius, number concentration of the cloud droplets, and liquid water content. Key findings of our 3 year observations are presented in several case studies of optically thin altocumulus layers occurring in the lower free troposphere between 2.5 and 4 km height over Leipzig, Germany, during clean and polluted situations. For the clouds that we observed, the most direct link between aerosol proxy (particle extinction coefficient) and cloud proxy (cloud droplet number concentration) was found at cloud base during updraft periods. Above cloud base, additional processes resulting from turbulent mixing and entrainment of dry air make it difficult to determine the direct impact of aerosols on cloud processes.

  15. Multiyear aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, Ina; Ansmann, Albert; Müller, Detlef; Wandinger, Ulla; Althausen, Dietrich

    2004-07-01

    For the first time, a Raman lidar operating simultaneously in the ultraviolet (UV) and in the visible wavelength range was employed to measure vertical profiles of volume extinction coefficients of particles at 355 and 532 nm, the respective Ångström exponent, and the 355-nm and 532-nm extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) on a routine basis for several years. The long-term observations were performed at Leipzig (52°N, 12°E), Germany, in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) project from May 2000 to March 2003. The lidar data were acquired under nighttime conditions. The main findings describe the mean optical properties of central European haze (anthropogenic particles) and can be summarized as follows. The 3-year mean, planetary boundary layer (PBL) extinction coefficients were 191 Mm-1 at 355 nm and 94 Mm-1 at 532 nm. The respective mean Ångström exponent (for the 355-532-nm wavelength range) was 1.4 in the upper PBL (above 1000 m). The PBL stretched, on average, to heights of 1300 m (winter) and 2350 m (summer). PBL mean particle optical depths were 0.38 (355 nm, ±0.23 standard deviation) and 0.18 (532 nm, ±0.11 standard deviation). Free tropospheric particles contributed 2% (clean free troposphere) to 88% (major Saharan dust events) to the tropospheric optical depth. The average was 17% (355 nm) and 22% (532 nm) in 2000-2003. Ångström exponents in the free troposphere of about one reflect the dominant influence of Saharan dust and aged smoke on the optical properties in this height range. Three-year mean lidar ratios of 58 sr (355 nm) and 53 sr (532 nm) were found in the upper part of the PBL. Free tropospheric lidar ratios were on average 52 sr (355 nm) and 53 sr (532 nm). From combined observations with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer and the EARLINET lidar, extinction-to-backscatter ratios at 1064 nm were estimated to be, on average, 45 sr. A comparison with optical measurements made at the Leipzig University from 1990 to 1994 indicates that the PBL extinction coefficient at 532 nm decreased by a factor of about 2 (summer half year) to almost 5 (winter season) since the unification of Germany (1990), mainly caused by the industrial breakdown in eastern Germany in the early 1990s.

  16. Validation of Temperature Measurements from the Airborne Raman Ozone Temperature and Aerosol Lidar During SOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walter; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Bui, T. Paul; Neuber, Roland; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) participated in the recent Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) by providing profiles of aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone and temperature with high vertical and horizontal resolution. Temperatures were derived from just above the aircraft to approximately 60 kilometers geometric altitude with a reported vertical resolution of between 0.5 and 1.5 km. The horizontal footprint varied from 4 to 70 km. This paper explores the measurement uncertainties associated with the temperature retrievals and makes comparisons with independent, coincident, measurements of temperature. Measurement uncertainties range from 0.1 K to approximately 4 K depending on altitude and integration time. Comparisons between AROTEL and balloon sonde temperatures retrieved under clear sky conditions using both Rayleigh and Raman scattered data showed AROTEL approximately 1 K colder than sonde values. Comparisons between AROTEL and the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on NASA's ER-2 show AROTEL being from 2-3 K colder for altitudes ranging from 14 to 18 km. Temperature comparisons between AROTEL and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's model showed differences of approximately 1 K below approximately 25 km and a very strong cold bias of approximately 12 K at altitudes between 30 and 35 km.

  17. Raman Lidar (RL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2009-03-01

    The Raman lidar at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SGPRL) is an active, ground-based laser remote sensing instrument that measures height and time resolved profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and several cloud- and aerosol-related quantities. The system is a non-commercial custom-built instrument developed by Sandia National Laboratories specifically for the ARM Program. It is fully computer automated, and will run unattended for many days following a brief (~5-minute) startup period. The self-contained system (requiring only external electrical power) is housed in a climate-controlled 8’x8’x20’ standard shipping container.

  18. Investigation of cloud properties using a Raman lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Neil Whiteman

    2000-01-01

    Raman lidar is well known to be a useful tool for charting the evolution of water vapor and aerosols in the atmosphere. The goal of this dissertation is to use the Raman lidar technique to study cloud properties that are important in understanding atmospheric radiation and dynamics. The lidar system used here is the NASA\\/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar. A detailed

  19. High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, Albert; Engelmann, Ronny; Althausen, Dietrich; Wandinger, Ulla; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanghang; He, Qianshan

    2005-07-01

    Height-resolved data of the particle optical properties, the vertical extend of the haze layer, aerosol stratification, and the diurnal cycle of vertical mixing over the Pearl River Delta in southern China are presented. The observations were performed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer at Xinken (22.6°N, 113.6°E) near the south coast of China throughout October 2004. The lidar run almost full time on 21 days. Sun photometer data were taken on 23 days, from about 0800 to 1700 local time. The particle optical depth (at about 533-nm wavelength) ranged from 0.3-1.7 and was, on average, 0.92. Ångström exponents varied from 0.65-1.35 (for wavelengths 380 to 502 nm) and from 0.75-1.6 (for 502 to 1044 nm), mean values were 0.97 and 1.22. The haze-layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio ranged from 35-59 sr, and was, on average, 46.7 sr. The top of the haze layer reached to heights of 1.5-3 km in most cases.

  20. Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard A.

    2002-08-19

    Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

  1. Aerosol characteristics in Phimai, Thailand determined by continuous observation with a polarization sensitive Mie–Raman lidar and a sky radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Matsui, Ichiro; Jin, Yoshitaka; Khatri, Pradeep; Irie, Hitoshi; Takamura, Tamio; Aoki, Kazuma; Thana, Boossarasiri

    2015-06-01

    Distributions and optical characteristics of aerosols were continuously observed with a polarization-sensitive (532 nm), Mie-scattering (532 and 1064 nm) and Raman-scattering (607 nm) lidar and a sky radiometer in Phimai, Thailand. Polarization lidar measurements indicated that high concentration plumes of spherical aerosols considered as biomass burning smoke were often observed in the dry season. Plumes of non-spherical aerosols considered as long-range transported soil dust from Africa, the Middle East, or Northeast Asia were occasionally observed. Furthermore, low-concentration non-spherical aerosols were almost always observed in the atmospheric mixing layer. Extinction coefficient profiles of spherical aerosols and non-spherical dust exhibited different diurnal variations, and spherical aerosols including smoke were distributed in higher altitudes in the mixing layer and residual layer. The difference can be explained by hygroscopic growth of smoke particles and buoyancy of the smoke. Analysis of seasonal variations of optical properties derived from the Raman lidar and the sky radiometer confirmed that the lidar ratio, aerosol optical depth, and Angstrom exponent were higher in the dry season (October–May) and lower in the wet season (June–September). The single scattering albedo was lower in the dry season. These seasonal variations are explained by frequent biomass burning in the dry season consistent with previous studies in Southeast Asian region. At the same time, the present work confirmed that soil dust was a major aerosol component in Phimai, Thailand.

  2. Independent measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 in tropospheric aerosol with a multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yiming; Li, Lianghai; Yu, Yong; Wang, Lidong

    2014-11-01

    A new advanced scanning multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system has been designed and implemented. It is three transmitted wavelengths and eight receiver channels. Nd:YAG laser emits simultaneously at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. The elastically backscattered signals, again with polarization discrimination at 355 and 532 nm, the nitrogen Raman signals at 387 and 607 nm, and the water-vapor Raman signal at 407 nm are detected. Vertical profiles of the three backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, of the two extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm, are determined both by Klett-Fernald and Raman method. The microphysical particle parameters are retrieved from backscatter coefficients at three wavelengths and extinction coefficients at two wavelengths by regularization. We selected experimental data of typical weather from the measurement areas both Bejing and Dunhuang in different weather, e.g. cloudy, clear, haze. The experiment results were derive by inversion, and they mainly include temporal evolution of the two extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm, the three backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, effective radius, PM2.5, and PM10. Our aim is to study the aerosol properties directly at source in order to analyze the transportation path for pollution and dust aerosol by the temporal evolution of PM2.5 and PM10.

  3. Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles: A comparison between two techniques - Klett inversion and pure rotational Raman scattering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitev, V. M.; Grigorov, I. V.; Simeonov, V. B.

    1992-10-01

    Two lidar methods of determining an atmospheric extinction coefficient profile are compared. The methods are the Klett inversion method for elastic lidar return and the log-derivative method for rotational Raman backscattered signal processing. The comparison includes numerical modeling and processing of lidar measurements when both the elastic and the rotational Raman backscattered signals are measured simultaneously. The suggested idea is that such a comparison can be used as a criterion for the reliability of the results of lidar measurements, similar to the comparison between the results of lidar and contact measurements.

  4. In-situ, sunphotometer and Raman lidar observations of aerosol transport events in the western Mediterranean during the June 2013 ChArMEx campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totems, Julien; Sicard, Michael; Bertolin, Santi; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Chazette, Patrick; Comeron, Adolfo; Dulac, Francois; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Lange, Diego; Marnas, Fabien; Munoz, Constantino; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2014-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aerosol observations performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean at two stations set up in Barcelona and Menorca (Spain) in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project. The Barcelona station was equipped with the following fixed instruments belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC): an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun-photometer, an MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) lidar and the UPC multi-wavelength lidar. The MPL lidar works at 532 nm and has a depolarization channel, while the UPC lidar works at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and also includes two N2- (at 387 and 607 nm) and one H2O-Raman (at 407 nm) channels. The MPL system works continuously 24 hour/day. The UPC system was operated on alert in coordination with the research aircrafts plans involved in the campaign. In Cap d'en Font, Menorca, the mobile laboratory of the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement hosted an automated (AERONET) and a manual (Microtops) 5-lambda sunphotometer, a 3-lambda nephelometer, a 7-lambda aethalometer, as well as the LSCE Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI). This mini Raman lidar, first developed and validated for the HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) campaign in 2012, works at 355 nm for eye safety and is designed with a short overlap distance (<300m) to probe the lower troposphere. It includes depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels. H2O observations have been calibrated on-site by different methods and show good agreement with balloon measurements. Observations at Cap d'en Font were quasi-continuous from June 10th to July 3rd, 2013. The lidar data at both stations helped direct the research aircrafts and balloon launches to interesting plumes of particles in real time for in-situ measurements. Among some light pollution background from the European continent, a typical Saharan dust event and an unusual American dust/biomass burning event are highlighted in our measurements. The lidar ratio, depolarization ratio and water content, as well as the usual aerosol vertical distribution and extinction properties provided by the Raman lidars, and the size distributions provided by AERONET, prove very helpful in characterizing particle types and sources, especially for the multi-layer situations observed. Further on, the study of parameters extracted during this campaign will allow us an assessment of the local direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  5. Ice formation in Saharan dust over central Europe observed with temperature/humidity/aerosol Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, Albert; Mattis, Ina; Müller, Detlef; Wandinger, Ulla; Radlach, Marcus; Althausen, Dietrich; Damoah, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Three gravity-wave-induced clouds and a glaciating altocumulus layer were continuously monitored with lidar at Leipzig, Germany, on 21 November 2003. The midtropospheric clouds formed in Saharan dust at heights from 3.5 km (-9°C) to 6.5 km (-27°C). Distinct ice formation in the altocumulus was triggered by the gravity wave. For the first time, an aerosol/cloud study presents height profiles of temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, dust, and cloud optical properties (volume extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio) within the same air column, solely derived from lidar data. The three gravity-wave-induced clouds did not show any sign of ice formation. The aged dust particles below 4.5-km height were probably partly coated and mixed with hygroscopic material and thus deactivated concerning ice nucleation. Ice crystals were generated in isolated air parcels at the cloud edges of a young, optically thin altocumulus layer between 5- and 6.5-km height. An aged altocumulus deck composed of a geometrically thin liquid water layer at cloud top and an extended ice crystal layer (ice virga) was observed 2 hours later in the same height range. Strong ice formation occurred in the altocumulus during the downdraft induced by the gravity wave. Contact freezing was probably the main reason for the observed ice formation on dust particles. Ice depolarization ratios were relatively low with values from 10 to 15% in the altocumulus and indicate plate-like crystals.

  6. Unexpectedly High Aerosol Load in the Free Troposphere Observed With Raman Lidar in Central Europe in Spring/Summer 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Ansmann, A.; Wandinger, U.; Mattis, I.; Althausen, D.

    2003-12-01

    We present spectrally resolved backscatter and extinction coefficients, particle optical depths, {Å}ngström exponents, extinction--to--backscatter ratios, and depolarization ratios of strongly enhanced particle loading in the free troposphere. The observations were made with Raman lidar at 355 and 532~nm wavelength at Leipzig (51.3o~N, 12.4o~E), Germany. Particle extinction coefficients were 5--30~Mm-1 in the free troposphere from May to July, 2003. These numbers result in particle optical depths of 0.03--0.12 at the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. In May and early June distinct aerosol layers could be observed above the boundary layer, which typically was between 3 and 7-km height. By the end of June and in July the aerosol distribution became vertically more homogeneous and reached up to the tropopause. On the basis of satellite imagery and backward trajectory analysis it is most likely that severe forest fires in Siberia in early spring 2003 caused this enhanced free tropospheric background. Additional significant sources of the observed aerosols may have been strong forest fires in western Canada in the summer 2003.

  7. A Raman Lidar as Operational Tool for Long-Term Water Vapor, Temperature and Aerosol Profiling in the Swiss Meteorological Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Dr; Dinoev, Dr; Serikov, Dr; Calpini, Dr; Bobrovnikov, Dr; Arshinov, Dr; Ristori, Dr; van den Bergh, Dr; Parlange, Dr

    2010-09-01

    To satisfy the rising demands on the quality and frequency of atmospheric water vapor, temperature and aerosol measurements used for numerical weather prediction models, climate change observations and special events (volcanoes, dust and smoke transport) monitoring, MeteoSwiss decided to implement a lidar at his main aerological station in Payerne. The instrument is narrow field of view, narrowband UV Raman lidar designed for continuous day and night operational profiling of tropospheric water vapor, aerosol and temperature The lidar was developed and built by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology- Lausanne (EPFL) within a joint project with MeteoSwiss. To satisfy the requirements for operational exploitation in a meteorological network the lidar had to satisfy a number of criteria, the most important of which are: accuracy and precision, traceability of the measurement, long-term data consistency, long-term system stability, automated operation, requiring minimal maintenance by a technician, and eye safety. All this requirements were taken into account during the design phase of the lidar. After a ten months test phase of the lidar at Payerne it has been in regular operation since August 2008. Selected data illustrating interesting atmospheric phenomena captured by the lidar as well as long-term intercomparison with collocated microwave radiometer, GPS, radiosonding and an airborne DIAL will be presented and discussed. The talk will address also the technical availability, alignment and calibration stabilities of the instrument.

  8. Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols at the US Southern Great Plains Climate Study Site

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Blair, F.H.; Bisson, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program, Southern Great Plains CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site in northern Oklahoma. Research conducted at several laboratories has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We have developed and installed a ruggedized Raman lidar system that resides permanently at the CART site, and that is computer automated to eliminate the requirements for operator interaction. In addition to the design goal of profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar provides quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

  9. Advanced Raman water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith A.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Staley, O. Glenn; Disilvestre, Raymond W.; Gorin, Inna; Kirks, Kenneth R.; Mamakos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Water vapor and aerosols are important atmospheric constituents. Knowledge of the structure of water vapor is important in understanding convective development, atmospheric stability, the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface, and energy feedback mechanisms and how they relate to global warming calculations. The Raman Lidar group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed an advanced Raman Lidar for use in measuring water vapor and aerosols in the earth's atmosphere. Drawing on the experience gained through the development and use of our previous Nd:YAG based system, we have developed a completely new lidar system which uses a XeF excimer laser and a large scanning mirror. The additional power of the excimer and the considerably improved optical throughput of the system have resulted in approximately a factor of 25 improvement in system performance for nighttime measurements. Every component of the current system has new design concepts incorporated. The lidar system consists of two mobile trailers; the first (13m x 2.4m) houses the lidar instrument, the other (9.75m x 2.4m) is for system control, realtime data display, and analysis. The laser transmitter is a Lambda Physik LPX 240 iCC operating at 400 Hz with a XeF gas mixture (351 nm). The telescope is a .75m horizontally mounted Dall-Kirkham system which is bore sited with a .8m x 1.1m elliptical flat which has a full 180 degree scan capability - horizon to horizon within a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the trailer. The telescope and scan mirror assembly are mounted on a 3.65m x .9m optical table which deploys out the rear of the trailer through the use of a motor driven slide rail system. The Raman returns from water vapor (403 nm), nitrogen (383 nm) and oxygen (372 nm) are measured in addition to the direct Rayleigh/Mie backscatter (351). The signal from each of these is split at about a 5/95 ratio between two photomultiplier detectors. The 5 percent detector is used for measurements below about 4.0 km, while the 95 percent detector provides the information above this level.

  10. Aerosol optical properties observed by combined Raman-elastic backscatter lidar in winter 2009 in Pearl River Delta, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenyi; Liu, Wenqing; Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Baars, Holger; Cheng, Tianhai; Shu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Tianshu

    2014-03-01

    We present combined Raman and elastic backscatter lidar observations in Zhongshan, PRD (Pearl River Delta), China, during two periods in 2009: one haze period and one moderate pollution period. During the haze period, high Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) (0.86 and 1.20 at 355 nm) and medium Ångström exponents (1.23 and 1.35 at 355 nm/532 nm) were observed. In the moderate pollution period, the corresponding parameters were comparatively lower with values of 0.83 and 0.74 at 355 nm for AOD and 1.108 and 0.98 at 355 nm/532 nm for Ångström exponent. The mean lidar ratios in the two periods were 64 ± 10 sr and 56 ± 9 sr, respectively, at 355 nm. The Ångström exponent was calculated for the extinction from the wavelength pair 355 nm/532 nm, with high values of around 1.35 for the haze event. The particle size distribution and single-scattering albedo derived from Sun photometer measurements indicate the presence of rather small particles. The 3 day back trajectories from a Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model in the haze period indicate that the air masses in the lower layer were advected from the southeast coast of China, where incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuels and straw burning are frequently found in Shanghai during the heating period in winter. In the moderate pollution period, the air mass passed through western China, indicating a combination of some pollution from South Asia in case of strong convection, local aerosol aging, and smoke from adjacent fire burning spots in the PRD region.

  11. Examination of the Traditional Raman Lidar Technique. I. Evaluating the Temperature-Dependent Lidar Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Whiteman

    2003-01-01

    The essential information required for the analysis of Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol data acquired by use of a single laser wavelength is compiled here and in a companion paper Appl. Opt. 42, 2593 2003. Various details concerning the evaluation of the lidar equations when Raman scattering is measured are covered. These details include the influence of the temperature

  12. Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Whiteman

    2003-01-01

    The essential information required for the analysis of Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol data acquired by use of a single laser wavelength is compiled here and in a companion paper [Appl. Opt. 42, 2593 (2003)]. Various details concerning the evaluation of the lidar equations when Raman scattering is measured are covered. These details include the influence of the temperature

  13. Arrange and average algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol parameters from multiwavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar/Raman lidar data.

    PubMed

    Chemyakin, Eduard; Müller, Detlef; Burton, Sharon; Kolgotin, Alexei; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of a feasibility study in which a simple, automated, and unsupervised algorithm, which we call the arrange and average algorithm, is used to infer microphysical parameters (complex refractive index, effective radius, total number, surface area, and volume concentrations) of atmospheric aerosol particles. The algorithm uses backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm as input information. Testing of the algorithm is based on synthetic optical data that are computed from prescribed monomodal particle size distributions and complex refractive indices that describe spherical, primarily fine mode pollution particles. We tested the performance of the algorithm for the "3 backscatter (?)+2 extinction (?)" configuration of a multiwavelength aerosol high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) or Raman lidar. We investigated the degree to which the microphysical results retrieved by this algorithm depends on the number of input backscatter and extinction coefficients. For example, we tested "3?+1?," "2?+1?," and "3?" lidar configurations. This arrange and average algorithm can be used in two ways. First, it can be applied for quick data processing of experimental data acquired with lidar. Fast automated retrievals of microphysical particle properties are needed in view of the enormous amount of data that can be acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center's airborne "3?+2?" High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). It would prove useful for the growing number of ground-based multiwavelength lidar networks, and it would provide an option for analyzing the vast amount of optical data acquired with a future spaceborne multiwavelength lidar. The second potential application is to improve the microphysical particle characterization with our existing inversion algorithm that uses Tikhonov's inversion with regularization. This advanced algorithm has recently undergone development to allow automated and unsupervised processing; the arrange and average algorithm can be used as a preclassifier to further improve its speed and precision. First tests of the performance of arrange and average algorithm are encouraging. We used a set of 48 different monomodal particle size distributions, 4 real parts and 15 imaginary parts of the complex refractive index. All in all we tested 2880 different optical data sets for 0%, 10%, and 20% Gaussian measurement noise (one-standard deviation). In the case of the "3?+2?" configuration with 10% measurement noise, we retrieve the particle effective radius to within 27% for 1964 (68.2%) of the test optical data sets. The number concentration is obtained to 76%, the surface area concentration to 16%, and the volume concentration to 30% precision. The "3?" configuration performs significantly poorer. The performance of the "3?+1?" and "2?+1?" configurations is intermediate between the "3?+2?" and the "3?." PMID:25402885

  14. Atmospheric Science Research Using Raman Lidar at NASA/GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A broad overview of the research that is taking place in the Code 924 Raman Lidar group will be presented. The measurement capabilities of two instruments, the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) and the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL), will be discussed. Case studies to be presented include: 1) high resolution measurements of water vapor during a boundary layer bore wave event; 2) a study of the influence of thin cirrus clouds on satellite retrievals of water vapor; 3) the retrieval of warm cloud properties such as droplet radius and number density; and 4) remote aerosol characterization using multiwavelength lidar and others.

  15. Lidar measurements during Aerosols99

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Voss; Ellsworth J. Welton; Patricia K. Quinn; James Johnson; Anne M. Thompson; Howard R. Gordon

    2001-01-01

    The Aerosols99 cruise (January 14 to February 8, 1999) went between Norfolk, Virginia, and Cape Town, South Africa. A Micropulse lidar system was used almost continually during this cruise to profile the aerosol vertical structure. Inversions of this data illustrated a varying vertical structure depending on the dominant air mass. In clean maritime aerosols in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

  16. Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: Multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Young M.; Müller, Detlef; Mattis, Ina; Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Young J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical and microphysical particle properties, including the particle single-scattering albedo, were derived from multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar observations at Gwangju (35.10°N, 126.53°E), and Anmyeon Island (36.54°N, 126.33°E), South Korea. The results present aerosol properties in various heights of the atmospheric aerosol layers on 12 different measurement days. The measurement cases differ in terms of aerosol loading as well as aerosol types (long-range transported urban/industrial haze from China, regional/local haze that mainly originated from the Korean peninsula, and smoke from forest fires in east Siberia). The origin of the particle plumes was determined from chemical transport modeling with the FLEXPART model. We find comparably clear differences between the optical and microphysical properties of the aerosol types. Local haze aerosols show effective radii of 0.32 ± 0.02 ?m at relative humidity of 60-80%. The effective radii of urban/industrial haze and smoke aerosols are approximately 0.26 ?m and 0.27 ?m at relative humidity of 35-60%. Light absorption, expressed in terms of single-scattering albedo, is 0.87 ± 0.02 (at 532 nm) for urban/industrial haze from China. This value is considerably lower than the single-scattering albedo of smoke aerosols from Siberia and northern China (0.92 at 532 nm) and of regional/local haze aerosols (0.97 ± 0.01 at 532 nm). We find a hygroscopic growth factor (from relative humidity of 30% to relative humidity of 85%) of 1.49 ± 0.36, if we consider all measurements.

  17. Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Amiridis, V.; Remoundaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kokkalis, P.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Nenes, A.; Fountoukis, C.

    2012-05-01

    A strong Saharan dust event that occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E) between 27 March and 3 April 2009 was followed by a synergy of three instruments: a 6-wavelength Raman lidar, a CIMEL sun-sky radiometer and the MODIS sensor. The BSC-DREAM model was used to forecast the dust event and to simulate the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the lidar only during the cloud-free day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients) properties of aerosols in the troposphere. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) values derived from the CIMEL ranged from 0.33-0.91 (355 nm) to 0.18-0.60 (532 nm), while the lidar ratio (LR) values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 75-100 sr (355 nm) and 45-75 sr (532 nm). Inside a selected dust layer region, between 1.8 and 3.5 km height, mean LR values were 83 ± 7 and 54 ± 7 sr, at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, while the Ångström-backscatter-related (ABR355/532) and Ångström-extinction-related (AER355/532) were found larger than 1 (1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.11 ± 0.02, respectively), indicating mixing of dust with other particles. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index) inside the selected atmospheric layers. Thus, the mean value of the retrieved refractive index was found to be 1.49( ± 0.10) + 0.007( ± 0.007)i, and that of the effective radiuses was 0.30 ± 0.18 ?m. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to provide a possible aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved refractive index values. Thus, the inferred chemical properties showed 12-40% of dust content, sulfate composition of 16-60%, and organic carbon content of 15-64%, indicating a possible mixing of dust with haze and smoke. PM10 concentrations levels, PM10 composition results and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray) analysis results on sizes and mineralogy of particles from samples during the Saharan dust transport event were used to evaluate the retrieval.

  18. LIDAR Measurements During Aerosols99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Kenneth J.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Johnson, James; Thompson, Anne; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerosols99 cruise took place during the period from January 14, to February 8 1999 on the R/V Ron Brown. The cruise track was almost a straight line from Norfolk, Va. to Cape Town, South Africa and afforded the opportunity to sample several different aerosol regimes over the North and South Atlantic. A Micro Pulse LIDAR system was used continually during this cruise to profile the aerosol vertical structure. Inversions of this data illustrated a varying vertical structure depending on the dominant air mass. In clean maritime aerosols in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres the aerosols were capped at 1 km. When a Dust event from Africa was encountered the aerosol extinction increased its maximum height to above 2 km. During a period in which the air mass was dominated by biomass burning from Southern Africa, the aerosol layer extended to 4 km. Comparisons of the aerosol optical depth derived from LIDAR inversion and surface sunphotometers showed an agreement within +/- 0.05 RMS Similar comparisons between the extinction measured with a nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (at 19 m altitude) and the lowest LIDAR measurement (75 m) showed good agreement (+/- 0.014/km . The LIDAR underestimated surface extinction during periods when an elevated aerosol layer was present over a relatively clean surface layer, but otherwise gave accurate results.

  19. Lidar observations of aerosols near clouds during CHAPS/CLASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R.; Clayton, M.; Turner, D.; Newsom, R.; Sivaraman, C.; Hostetler, C.; Hair, J.; Obland, M.; Rogers, R.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Su, W.; Jonsson, H.; Ogren, J.; Andrews, B.; Berg, L.

    2008-12-01

    Data collected by two lidar systems during the CHAPS/CLASIC missions are used to examine the behavior of aerosols in "transition zones" of a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers away from clouds. The lidar measurements are unaffected by cloud adjacency effects, are less susceptible to cloud contamination than passive satellite measurements, and possess high vertical and temporal resolution to capture variations in aerosol optical properties near clouds. The ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Raman lidar provides a detailed view of the variability of aerosols and water vapor near clouds at or near the top of the Planetary Boundary Layer. Aerosol and water vapor properties in the vicinity of clouds at the top of the daytime boundary layer are examined using 10 second profiles of aerosol backscattering, water vapor mixing ratio, and relative humidity, and 1 minute profiles of aerosol extinction in conjunction with continuous Total Sky Imager images of cloud cover. Data from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) collected during CHAPS/CLASIC are also used to examine the variability of aerosol optical properties near clouds. The LaRC airborne HSRL measures aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 532 and 1064 nm and aerosol extinction at 532 nm. Preliminary results using these Raman lidar and HSRL data show that aerosol backscatter and extinction 1-2 km from clouds were approximately 25-40% smaller than immediately adjacent to clouds. The variations in aerosol optical thickness are smaller, typically around 10-15%, since the changes in aerosol backscatter and extinction were generally confined to the top of the boundary layer. Variations in the Raman lidar aerosol backscatter and extinction measurements were typically confined to the altitude range between 200-400 m below cloud base and 200 m above cloud base. Raman lidar observations show relative humidity decreased by 5-15% within this same region suggesting that variations in backscatter and extinction near clouds were caused in part by hygroscopic aerosol growth. The HSRL aerosol depolarization measurements also suggest that aerosol nonsphericity changed in response to variations in relative humidity. This presentation will discuss the use of these lidar measurements as well as airborne in situ measurements to study the behavior of aerosols near clouds.

  20. Measurement of urban aerosol optical properties by ground counter-look elastic lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changbo; Boselli, Antonella; He, Yuntao; Sannino, Alessia; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Many lidar systems have been developed and implemented for measurements of aerosol optical properties and for air pollution studies in urban areas. However, most of these lidar systems are elastic lidar. In order to retrieve aerosol optical properties from elastic backscatter lidar returns, it is necessary to assume some hypotheses that directly regard the nature of the particles, such as lidar ratio. In this paper, a new elastic lidar, named counter-look elastic lidar, will be presented. This counter-look elastic lidar utilizes two identical elastic lidars to measure aerosol optical properties without any hypotheses. The two elastic lidars are located at different places and face to each other. Each lidar receives the return signal scattered by the same aerosol and molecules in laser irradiation path between two places. Then a simple retrieval method can be used to calculate the aerosol optical properties between the two places. Compared to Elastic-Raman lidar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar, the proposed counter-look elastic lidar can use low power eye-safe laser and all available wavelengths. The counter-look elastic lidar is low cost and can be used in both day time and night time. With this lidar, urban aerosol optical properties and their spatial distribution can be directly measured, including backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient and lidar ratio. To demonstrate the proposed measurement, a couple of counter-look elastic lidars have been developed and tested by using 532nm wavelength laser and elastic receiving channels. In this experiment, two elastic lidars were put in two different places to across an urban area. Lidar return signal has been acquired in both day and night time and urban aerosol optical properties have been calculated directly basing on those signals. According to aerosol optical properties, the characterization of aerosols was obtained and the aerosol of anthropic and natural origin can be distinguished.

  1. Lidar Observations of Alaskan Smoke Aerosols During ICARTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duck, T. J.; Firanski, B.; Dickinson, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Measurements of tropospheric aerosols were obtained with a Raman lidar system at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia, during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) campaign. Measurements on 11-13 July 2004 revealed aerosols throughout much of the lower troposphere and up to 8 km in altitude. MODIS satellite data were used to track the aerosols back to forest fires in Alaska, where another lidar was operating at Barrow. The high degree of structure that arose in transit between the two locations has provided some interesting new data on long-range transport and mixing.

  2. Ten years of multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of free-tropospheric aerosol layers over central Europe: Geometrical properties and annual cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, I.; Müller, D.; Ansmann, A.; Wandinger, U.; PreißLer, J.; Seifert, P.; Tesche, M.

    2008-10-01

    We present geometrical properties and seasonal variations of appearance of aerosol particle pollution in the free troposphere over the central European lidar site at Leipzig, Germany. The data set has been acquired with Raman lidar in the past 10 years in the framework of the German Lidar Network (1997-2000) and since 2000 in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). In summary we analyzed 1028 measurements. Geometrical depth of the pollution layers was ?1 km in 33% of all cases. Geometrical depths >5 km were found in 10% of all cases. Traces of particle pollution were detected up to the height of the tropopause. Forest-fire burning in North America causes intrusion of particles into the stratosphere. Seven hundred seventeen of all observations were carried out on the basis of a regular measurement schedule which allows us to establish a statistic on the frequency of particle transport in the free troposphere. In 43% of the regular measurements we observed pollution above the continental boundary layer. The lofted particle layers largely result from intercontinental long-range transport. We use backward trajectory analysis to identify the main source regions of the lofted pollution layers. In 19% of all regular measurements, free-tropospheric pollution was advected from North America. Forest-fire smoke from Canada and anthropogenic pollution from urban areas of the United States of America and Canada were the sources of the particle layers. We find a strong seasonal dependence of occurrence of these layers with a peak in June-August of each year. In a few cases we observed forest-fire smoke advected from Siberia and east Asia with winds from westerly directions. Pollution advected from areas north of 70°N presents another transport channel. That pollution consists of Arctic haze or mixtures of haze with anthropogenic pollution. The main occurrence of such particle layers is around springtime of each year. Import of mineral dust from the Sahara represents another transport path. Most of such cases are observed during late springtime and summertime. Free-tropospheric pollution advected from east and southeast Europe and Russia presents one transport channel from within the Euro-Asian continent.

  3. Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Mueller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Hu Min; Zhang Yuanghang

    2007-09-01

    Aerosol Raman lidar observations of profiles of the particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and the respective extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) were performed under highly polluted conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China in October 2004 and at Beijing during a clear period with moderately polluted to background aerosol conditions in January 2005. The anthropogenic haze in the PRD is characterized by volume light-extinction coefficients of particles ranging from approximately 200 to800 Mm-1 and lidar ratios mostly between 40 and 55 sr (average of47{+-}6 sr). Almost clean air masses were observed throughout the measurements of the Beijing campaign. These air masses originated from arid desert-steppe-like regions (greater Gobi area).Extinction values usually varied between 100 and300 Mm-1, and the lidar ratios were considerably lower (compared with PRD values) with values mostly from 30 to 45 sr (average of38{+-}7 sr). Gobi dust partly influenced the observations. Unexpectedly low lidar ratios of approximately 25 sr were found for a case of background aerosol with a low optical depth of 0.05. The low lidar ratios are consistent with Mie-scattering calculations applied to ground-based observations of particle size distributions.

  4. CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ferrare; D. D. Turner; S. H. Melfi; K. D. Evans; D. N. Whiteman; G. Schwemmer; J. E. M. Goldsmith; T. P. Tooman

    1998-01-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and\\/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent

  5. Advanced Aerosol Lidar Ratio Determination Algorithms Using Aerosol Covariance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Omar, A. H.; Burton, S. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rogers, R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Reagan, J. A.; McPherson, C.

    2011-12-01

    We present an algorithm to determine the extinction to backscatter (lidar) ratio (Sa), an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction and subsequently the optical depth from lidar backscatter measurements. This scheme applies to Sa determination at 532 nm and 1064 nm for a space-based two-wavelength lidar such as CALIOP on the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. The algorithm applies the Mahalanobis distance to CALIOP measurements of backscatter and depolarization and initial estimates of Sa at both wavelengths to identify the most likely aerosol model from a family of a priori probability distributions of lidar ratio, backscatter and depolarization determined from previously generated classification of High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) aerosol measurements. The HSRL record includes aerosol type specific distributions of Sa at 532 nm. We use auxiliary measurements of pairs of 532 nm and 1064 nm Sa for Urban, Smoke, Marine, and Dust aerosols from AERONET and field measurements, the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) and Shoreline Environmental Aerosol Study (SEAS), to develop piecewise covariance matrices using the HSRL distributions of these four aerosol types. Covariance matrices including lidar ratio at both wavelengths can also be obtained through the Enhanced Constrained Ratio Aerosol Method (E-CRAM) applied to HSRL data. We explore the application of the aerosol model matching method to CALIOP data and compare the results with HSRL 532 nm Sa distributions for coincident flights.

  6. The mobile Water vapor Aerosol Raman LIdar and its implication in the framework of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs: application to a dust transport process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.

    2014-06-01

    The increasing importance of the coupling of water and aerosol cycles in environmental applications requires observation tools that allow simultaneous measurements of these two fundamental processes for climatological and meteorological studies. For this purpose, a new mobile Raman lidar, WALI (Water vapor and Aerosol LIdar), has been developed and implemented within the framework of the international HyMeX and ChArMEx programs. This paper presents the key properties of this new device and its first applications to scientific studies. The lidar uses an eye-safe emission in the ultraviolet range at 354.7 nm and a set of compact refractive receiving telescopes. Cross-comparisons between rawinsoundings performed from balloon or aircraft and lidar measurements have shown a good agreement in the derived water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR). The discrepancies are generally less than 0.5 g kg-1 and therefore within the error bars of the respective instruments. A detailed study of the uncertainty of the WVMR retrieval was conducted and shows values between 7 and 11%, which is largely constrained by the quality of the lidar calibration. It also proves that the lidar is able to measure the WVMR during daytime over a range of about 1 km. In addition the WALI system provides measurements of aerosol optical properties such as the lidar ratio (LR) or the particulate depolarization ratio (PDR). An important example of scientific application addressing the main objectives of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs is then presented, following an event of desert dust aerosols over the Balearic Islands in October 2012. This dust intrusion may have had a significant impact on the intense precipitations that occurred over southwestern France and the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. During this event, the LR and PDR values obtained are in the ranges of ~45-63 ± 6 and 0.10-0.19 ± 0.01 sr, respectively, which is representative of dust aerosols. The dust layers are also shown to be associated with significant WVMR, i.e., between 4 and 6.7 g kg-1.

  7. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  8. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  9. AMALi - the Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar for Arctic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Neuber, R.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Wehrle, G.

    2010-03-01

    The Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) is an instrument developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research for reliable operation under the challenging weather conditions at the Earth's polar regions. Since 2003 the AMALi has been successfully deployed for measurements in ground-based installation and zenith- or nadir-pointing airborne configurations during several scientific campaigns in the Arctic. The lidar provides backscatter profiles at two wavelengths (355/532 nm or 1064/532 nm) together with the linear depolarization at 532 nm, from which aerosol and cloud properties can be derived. This paper presents the characteristics and capabilities of the AMALi system and gives examples of its usage for airborne and ground-based operations in the Arctic. As this backscatter lidar normally does not operate in aerosol-free layers special evaluation schemes are discussed, the nadir-pointing iterative inversion for the case of an unknown boundary condition and the two-stream approach for the extinction profile calculation if a second lidar system probes the same air mass. Also an intercomparison of the AMALi system with an established ground-based Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) is given.

  10. Raman lidar and sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Balis; V. Amiridis; C. Zerefos; E. Gerasopoulos; M. Andreae; P. Zanis; A. Kazantzidis; S. Kazadzis; A. Papayannis

    2003-01-01

    The influence of biomass burning smoke on the aerosol loading in the free troposphere over Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5°N, 22.9°E) is discussed in this paper. A selected case during summer 2001 is presented, when very high aerosol optical depth values were observed, benefiting from the synergy of various remote sensing instruments. The data that were collected allow the characterization of the

  11. A numerical model to improve the derivation of aerosols optical parameters from elastic backscatter lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, Doina; Talianu, Camelia; Nemuc, Anca; Carstea, Emil; Ciuciu, Jeni; Cristescu, Constantin

    2006-09-01

    LIDAR systems have demonstrated their ability to map aerosol variations throughout the atmospheric column and therefore they have has become a central technology in current strategies for tropospheric aerosol research. Its use is complicated, however, by the fact that the lidar signal contains a convolution of two basic optical properties of the aerosol particles: the backscatter coefficient and the extinction coefficient. A quantitative retrieval of either property requires knowledge of their relationship along the laser path which is referred as lidar ratio. If the lidar ratio can not be measured by high spectral resolution lidar, or Raman lidar, then either an assumed value of LR a must be used in the lidar retrieval, leading to very large uncertainties in light extinction , or models can be used for determination of LR a profile. Our research refers to the development of an iterative hybrid regularization technique for elastic backscatter lidar data processing and retrieval of the aerosols optical parameters using the atmospheric model, Mie model and Fernald-Klett, but also Ackermann algorithm for lidar ratio calculation based on relative humidity profile. This study focuses on a numerical investigation about the lidar ratio of tropospheric aerosols characterizing Romanian atmosphere. The model can be also used for other type of atmosphere in order to improve the derivation of aerosols optical parameters from elastic backscatter lidar data when no other information than meteorological data are available.

  12. Multistatic lidar measurements of non-spherical aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallen, Hans D.; Long, Brandon J. N.; Hook, D. A.; Pangle, Garrett E.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2013-05-01

    Lidar is a powerful tool for measuring the vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere using Rayleigh and Raman lidar techniques. Bistatic lidar can be used to obtain the angular structure of the scattered light. When the aerosols are uniformly distributed, this information can be analyzed to provide particle size distribution information. However, dusts tend to be irregularly shaped particles with varied composition. We investigate the impact of the irregular shape using optical scattering at several wavelengths, scanning electron microscopy, and T-matrix calculations. In particular, we study the rapid loss of Mie scattering resonances as the particle shape departs from spherical. Different size distributions produced by different size-cuts of Arizona Road Dust (ARD) are studied.

  13. Multi-wavelength Raman lidar, sunphotometric and aircraft measurements in combination with inversion models for the estimation of the aerosol optical and physico-chemical properties over Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamouri, R. E.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Müller, D.; Kokkalis, P.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Karageorgos, E. T.; Tsaknakis, G.; Nenes, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Remoundaki, E.

    2012-01-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to retrieve, simultaneously, the optical, microphysical and chemical properties of tropospheric aerosols with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system in the troposphere over an urban site (Athens, Greece: 37.9° N, 23.6° E, 200 m a.s.l.) using data obtained during the European Space Agency (ESA) THERMOPOLIS project which took place between 15-31 July 2009 over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). We selected to apply our procedure for a case study of intense aerosol layers occurred on 20-21 July 2009. The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) EOLE 6-wavelength Raman lidar system has been used to provide the vertical profiles of the optical properties of aerosols (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio) and the water vapor mixing ratio. An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius - reff), single-scattering albedo (?) and mean complex refractive index (m) at selected heights in the 2-3 km height region. We found that reff was 0.3-0.4 ?m, ? at 532 nm ranged from 0.63 to 0.88 and m ranged from 1.45 + 0.015i to 1.56 + 0.05i, in good accordance with in situ aircraft measurements. The final data set of the aerosol microphysical properties along with the water vapor and temperature profiles were incorporated into the ISORROPIA model to infer an in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved m and ? values. The retrieved aerosol chemical composition in the 2-3 km height region gave a variable range of sulfate (0-60%) and organic carbon (OC) content (0-50%), although the OC content increased (up to 50%) and the sulfate content dropped (up to 30%) around 3 km height; in connection with the retrieved low ? value (0.63), indicates the presence of absorbing biomass burning smoke mixed with urban haze. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties were compared with column-integrated sunphotometer data.

  14. Density measurements with combined Raman-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Phan; Klemetti, Wayne; Sipler, Dwight; Moskowitz, W. P.; Davidson, G.

    1989-01-01

    Rayleigh lidar reliably measures relative densities in the region above 30 km. In this region, atmospheric extinction can be neglected and backscattering is primarily due to Rayleigh scattering. However, when density measurements are needed for the lower stratosphere two complications arise: the contribution of aerosol (Mie and Rayleigh) scattering to the Rayleigh signal and the effect of aerosol attenuation. Vibrational Raman scattering, being an elastic process for molecules only, can be used to resolve the first ambiguity. The second difficulty requires an inversion technique to help determine the attenuation profile from the lidar signal and provide a transmission correction of this signal. For the lower stratosphere, the technique adopted is a three-step treatment of data. In step 1, Klett inversion is applied on the elastic scattering signal (Mie and Rayleigh) to obtain a transmission altitude profile. In step 2, the molecular signal from the Raman lidar is corrected for atmospheric attenuation. In step 3, Raman data for below 5 km is spliced to Rayleigh data for above 25 km to give the entire profile of neutral density.

  15. Multi-wavelength Raman lidar, sun photometric and aircraft measurements in combination with inversion models for the estimation of the aerosol optical and physico-chemical properties over Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamouri, R. E.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Müller, D.; Kokkalis, P.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Karageorgos, E. T.; Tsaknakis, G.; Nenes, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Remoundaki, E.

    2012-07-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to retrieve, simultaneously, the optical, microphysical and chemical properties of tropospheric aerosols with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system in the troposphere over an urban site (Athens, Greece: 37.9° N, 23.6° E, 200 m a.s.l.) using data obtained during the European Space Agency (ESA) THERMOPOLIS project, which took place between 15-31 July 2009 over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). We selected to apply our procedure for a case study of intense aerosol layers that occurred on 20-21 July 2009. The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) EOLE 6-wavelength Raman lidar system has been used to provide the vertical profiles of the optical properties of aerosols (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio) and the water vapor mixing ratio. An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius (reff), single-scattering albedo ?) and mean complex refractive index (m)) at selected heights in the 2-3 km height region. We found that reff was 0.14-0.4 (±0.14) ?m, ? was 0.63-0.88 (±0.08) (at 532 nm) and m ranged from 1.44 (±0.10) + 0.01 (±0.01)i to 1.55 (±0.12) + 0.06 (±0.02)i, in good agreement (only for the reff values) with in situ aircraft measurements. The water vapor and temperature profiles were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to propose a possible in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved m and ? values. The retrieved aerosol chemical composition in the 2-3 km height region gave a variable range of sulfate (0-60%) and organic carbon (OC) content (0-50%), although the OC content increased (up to 50%) and the sulfate content dropped (up to 30%) around 3 km height; the retrieved low ? value (0.63), indicates the presence of absorbing biomass burning smoke mixed with urban haze. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties were compared with column-integrated sun photometer CIMEL data.

  16. Infrared lidar observations of stratospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Forrister, H N; Roberts, D W; Mercer, A J; Gimmestad, G G

    2014-06-01

    We observed the stratospheric aerosol layer at 34° north latitude with a photon-counting 1574 nm lidar on three occasions in 2011. During all of the observations, we also operated a nearby 523.5 nm micropulse lidar and acquired National Weather Service upper air data. We analyzed the lidar data to find scattering ratio profiles and the integrated aerosol backscatter at both wavelengths and then calculated the color ratio and wavelength exponent for lidar backscattering from the stratospheric aerosols. The visible-light integrated backscatter values of the layer were in the range 2.8-3.5×10?? sr?¹ and the infrared integrated backscatter values ranged from 2.4 to 3.7×10????sr?¹. The wavelength exponent was determined to be 1.9±0.2. PMID:24922442

  17. Mineral quartz concentration measurements of mixed mineral dust/urban haze pollution plumes over Korea with multiwavelength aerosol Raman-quartz lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Mattis, I.; Tatarov, B.; Noh, Y. M.; Shin, D. H.; Shin, S. K.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Sugimoto, N.

    2010-10-01

    We present a case study of a concentration measurement of mineral quartz immersed in East Asian urban pollution. We use a novel lidar measurement technique that uses signals from Raman scattering from quartz at ultraviolet (360 nm) wavelength. The particle-extinction-related Ångström exponent (wavelength pair 355/532 nm) varies around 0.7 ± 0.2 , the lidar ratio is 50-55 sr at 532 nm. The numbers indicate that the pollution plume likely consisted of a mixture of mineral dust with urban haze. Dust concentrations vary between 8-11 ?g/cm3. We determined Raman quartz concentrations from measurements simultaneously carried out at 546 nm, which allows us to measure for the first time the Raman-quartz-related Ångström exponent of mineral dust. Values are 3-4, whereas we expect a theoretical value of 4. It is unclear if the lower values follow from retrieval uncertainties or if they are linked to the internal structure of the quartz grains.

  18. Observations of marine aerosol by a shipborne multiwavelength lidar over the Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangjun; Du, Libin; Li, Xianxin; Meng, Xiangqian; Chen, Chao; Qu, Junle; Wang, Xiufen; Liu, Xingtao; Kabanov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol particles are important both because they affect atmospheric processes and, after deposition to the sea surface, because they affect processes in sea water. Aerosols have a strong impact on climate both due to scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation (direct effect) and through their effects on cloud properties and associated cloud albedo (first indirect effect) and precipitation (second indirect effect). A shipborne multiwavelength Mie/Raman/Polarization aerosol lidar developed for marine aerosol is presented. The shipborne aerosol lidar (SAL) is able to measure aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient as well as depolarization in the altitude range 0 to 20 km. The instrument is installed in a 2 m*2 m*2 m container. Preliminary results of investigation of marine aerosol properties on the basis of multiwavelength lidar onboard the Xiangyanghong Number 8 Research ship on the Yellow Sea and Jiaozhou Bay of China are presented.

  19. North-south cross sections of the vertical aerosol distribution over the Atlantic Ocean from multiwavelength Raman/polarization lidar during Polarstern cruises

    PubMed Central

    Kanitz, T; Ansmann, A; Engelmann, R; Althausen, D

    2013-01-01

    Shipborne aerosol lidar observations were performed aboard the research vessel Polarstern in 2009 and 2010 during three north-south cruises from about 50°N to 50°S. The aerosol data set provides an excellent opportunity to characterize and contrast the vertical aerosol distribution over the Atlantic Ocean in the polluted northern and relatively clean southern hemisphere. Three case studies, an observed pure Saharan dust plume, a Patagonian dust plume east of South America, and a case of a mixed dust/smoke plume west of Central Africa are exemplarily shown and discussed by means of their optical properties. The meridional transatlantic cruises were used to determine the latitudinal cross section of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Profiles of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients are presented as mean profiles for latitudinal belts to contrast northern- and southern-hemispheric aerosol loads and optical effects. Results of lidar observations at Punta Arenas (53°S), Chile, and Stellenbosch (34°S), South Africa, are shown and confirm the lower frequency of occurrence of free-tropospheric aerosol in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. The maximum latitudinal mean AOT of 0.27 was found in the northern tropics (0– 15°N) in the Saharan outflow region. Marine AOT is typically 0.05 ± 0.03. Particle optical properties are presented separately for the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere. Concerning the contrast between the anthropogenically influenced midlatitudinal aerosol conditions in the 30– 60°N belt and the respective belt in the southern hemisphere over the remote Atlantic, it is found that the AOT and extinction coefficients for the vertical column from 0–5km (total aerosol column) and 1–5km height (lofted aerosol above the marine boundary layer) are a factor of 1.6 and 2 higher at northern midlatitudes than at respective southern midlatitudes, and a factor of 2.5 higher than at the clean marine southern-hemispheric site of Punta Arenas. The strong contrast is confined to the lowermost 3km of the atmosphere. PMID:25821662

  20. The vertical distribution of aerosol over Europe—synthesis of one year of EARLINET aerosol lidar measurements and aerosol transport modeling with LMDzT-INCA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Guiberta; Volker Matthiasb; Michael Schulza; Jens Bosenbergc; Ronald Eixmannd; Ina Mattise; Gelsomina Pappalardof; Maria Rita Perroneg; Nicola Spinellih; Geraint Vaughani

    Aerosol extinction vertical profiles measured with Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET in 2000 are compared to profiles modeled bya general circulation model, LMDzT-INCA, at seven stations in Europe. Comparisons based on individual profiles show moderate correlation between model and data. Averaging aerosol extinction values on larger temporal or spatial scales improves the comparison. Furthermore, we show that the

  1. Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Böckmann; Ulla Wandinger; Albert Ansmann; Jens Bösenberg; Vassilis Amiridis; Antonella Boselli; Arnaud Delaval; Ferdinando de Tomasi; Max Frioud; Ivan Videnov Grigorov; Matej Horvat; Marco Iarlori; Leonce Komguem; Stephan Kreipl; Volker Matthias; Alexandros Papayannis; Gelsomina Pappalardo; Francesc Rocadenbosch; Jose António Rodrigues; Johannes Schneider; Valery Shcherbakov; Matthias Wiegner

    2004-01-01

    An intercomparison of aerosol backscatter lidar algorithms was performed in 2001 within the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology (EARLINET). The objective of this research was to test the correctness of the algorithms and the influence of the lidar ratio used by the various lidar teams involved in the EARLINET for calculation of

  2. Cloud temperature measurement using rotational Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jia; Patrick McCormick, M.; Wu, Yonghua; Lee, Robert B.; Lei, Liqiao; Liu, Zhaoyan; Leavor, Kevin R.

    2013-08-01

    Insufficient suppression of the elastic-scattering signal in the rotational Raman (RR) detection channels can result in a retrieval error particularly when the temperature of a thick cloud is measured using an RR lidar. To solve this problem, a technique is presented to obtain relative transmission factors for the two RR channels' thereby correcting for the influence of residual elastic-signal on the temperature retrieval. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated by applying the algorithm to the Hampton University (HU) lidar measurements. Intercomparisons of these temperature retrievals from both water-phase and cirrus clouds show good agreement with radiosonde measurements.

  3. Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Tesche; Albert Ansmann; Detlef Müller; Dietrich Althausen; Ina Mattis; Birgit Heese; Volker Freudenthaler; Matthias Wiegner; Michael Esselborn; Gianluca Pisani; Peter Knippertz

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three ground-based Raman lidars and an airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) were operated during SAMUM 2006 in southern Morocco to measure height profiles of the volume extinction coefficient, the extinction-to-backscatter ratio and the depolarization ratio of dust particles in the Saharan dust layer at several wavelengths. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer observations and radiosoundings of meteorological parameters complemented the

  4. Aerosol and cloud typing with an automated 24/7 aerosol lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Holger; Seifert, Patric; Wandinger, Ulla

    2015-04-01

    Modern sophisticated multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidars have the ability to measure autonomous and unattended in 24/7 mode. These aerosol lidars can deliver backscatter, extinction, and depolarization profiles of the atmosphere which can be used for a target categorization, i.e. the determination of different aerosol and cloud types. However, to derive the optical particle properties a calibration of the lidar signals in the free atmosphere, where only Rayleigh scattering occurs, is needed. This calibration is usually done manually case by case and thus prohibits automatic data analysis and particle typing. To overcome this limitation, the mobile EARLINET lidar PollyXT of TROPOS was deployed continuously without changes in the instrumental setup during two field campaigns in the framework of the German HD(CP)2 project to obtain temporally stable lidar signals. The temporal stability together with the high performance and good characterization of the lidar lead to the possibility of an absolute lidar calibration. The corresponding calibration constant was derived in two ways: first by using manually Raman and Klett retrievals for selected periods and second by using the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements. The derived calibration constants show a high temporal stability and a good agreement between both methods and thus allowed the continuous calibration of the lidar and the retrieval of the attenuated backscatter coefficient at three wavelengths. In addition, the calibrated volume depolarization ratio, obtained following EARLINET recommendations, is continuously available. After correction for the molecular contribution, these four quantities were used for an aerosol and cloud typing in terms of particle size and shape. The final categorization leads to 11 categories, e.g. clean atmosphere, small spherical particles, large non-spherical particles, water droplets, ice crystals and corresponding mixtures. In this contribution, the application of this methodology for several case studies and the statistical analysis from the two field campaigns will be shown. For future applications it is planned to implement this approach in the CLOUDNET retrieval at sites for which an appropriate lidar is available to make use of the full instrument synergy which is required for advanced aerosol-cloud-interaction studies.

  5. Demonstration of Aerosol Property Profiling by Multi-wavelength Lidar Under Varying Relative Humidity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D.N.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Korenskii, M.; Andrews, E.

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of using a multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar based on a tripled Nd:YAG laser for profiling aerosol physical parameters in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) under varying conditions of relative humidity (RH) is studied. The lidar quantifies three aerosol backscattering and two extinction coefficients and from these optical data the particle parameters such as concentration, size and complex refractive index are retrieved through inversion with regularization. The column-integrated, lidar-derived parameters are compared with results from the AERONET sun photometer. The lidar and sun photometer agree well in the characterization of the fine mode parameters, however the lidar shows less sensitivity to coarse mode. The lidar results reveal a strong dependence of particle properties on RH. The height regions with enhanced RH are characterized by an increase of backscattering and extinction coefficient and a decrease in the Angstrom exponent coinciding with an increase in the particle size. We present data selection techniques useful for selecting cases that can support the calculation of hygroscopic growth parameters using lidar. Hygroscopic growth factors calculated using these techniques agree with expectations despite the lack of co-located radiosonde data. Despite this limitation, the results demonstrate the potential of multi-wavelength Raman lidar technique for study of aerosol humidification process.

  6. New Examination of the Traditional Raman Lidar Technique. 1; Temperature Dependence and the Calculation of Atmospheric Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The intent of this paper and its companion paper is to pull together the essential information required for the traditional Raman lidar data analysis to be performed. As a part of this, complications such as the temperature dependence of the water vapor signal is evaluated through numerical simulation. A new form of the lidar equation is presented that accounts for the temperature dependence of Raman scattering. Also the calculation of atmospheric transmission is examined carefully. Several photon correction techniques are considered as is the influence of multiple scattering on the measurement of aerosol extinction using the Raman lidar technique.

  7. Fluorescence from atmospheric aerosols observed with a multi-channel lidar spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Huang, Zhongwei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Matsui, Ichiro; Tatarov, Boyan

    2012-09-10

    A lidar for measuring fluorescence from atmospheric aerosols was constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a 1-m diameter telescope, and a 32-channel time-resolved photon-counting spectrometer system. Fluorescence spectrum and vertical distribution of fluorescent aerosols in the lower atmosphere were observed during the nighttime with excitation at 355 nm. Relatively strong broad fluorescence was observed from Asian dust and air-pollution aerosols transported from urban and industrial areas. Rough estimates of the fluorescence efficiency were given for these aerosols. The intensity of the total fluorescence over the spectral range from 420 to 510 nm was comparable to that of nitrogen vibrational Raman scattering. That indicates the possibility of making a compact Raman-Mie-fluorescence lidar for aerosol monitoring. PMID:23037203

  8. Tropical and Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Extinction and Backscatter From Multiyear Raman Lidar Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Lidars have the capability to provide unparalleled range-resolved observations of particulate extinction. However, lidars fundamentally measure backscattered energy, not extinction, and for widely prevalent single-channel elastic backscatter lidars extinction must be obtained by assuming a backscatter-extinction relationship. Our knowledge of this relationship, known as the lidar ratio, mainly consists values determined via the transmission-loss method: which can only provide layer-averaged values and is only applicable to a subset of all cloud layers. Directly-retrieved, vertically resolved extinction coefficients and lidar ratios are obtainable through the use of more advance high spectral resolution lidars (HSRL) or Raman lidars (RL). However, the complexity of operating a HSRL or RL has limited their use for cloud observations to very limited time periods: typical only a few months or less. In this work, we present a newly developed retrieval for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Raman lidars for Feature detection and EXtinction retrieval (FEX). FEX improves upon existing ARM products by using multiple, complimentary quantities to identify both clouds and aerosols and retrieve their extinction and backscatter profiles. Multiple years of data are examined at both the Lamont, Oklahoma and Darwin, Australia ARM sites; providing the most comprehensive climatology to date of cirrus extinction and lidar ratios. Variations in these optical properties with classification of the synoptic state and their relationship with microphysical parameters (temperature, relative humidity and depolarization) are examined.

  9. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-08-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET, was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive, and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET has continued to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue, which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last 13 years. Since 2000, EARLINET has developed greatly in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution: from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000 to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has developed greatly also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multiwavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing, and the dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase in the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions, and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are aimed at continuous measurements and near-real-time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, such as in the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) www.actris.net, and with the modeling and satellite community, linking the research community with the operational world, with the aim of establishing of the atmospheric part of the European component of the integrated global observing system.

  10. Density measurements with combined Raman-Rayleigh LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Phan; Klemetti, Wayne; Sipler, Dwight; Moskowitz, W. P.; Davidson, G.

    1989-01-01

    A combined Raman-Rayleigh Lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) has recently been implemented at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory's ground-based lidar station to measure neutral density from the lower stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. Rayleigh Lidar reliability measures relative densities in the region above 30 km. In this region, atmospheric extinction can be neglected and backscattering is primarily due to Rayleigh scattering. However, when density measurements are needed for the lower stratosphere two complications arise: the contribution of aerosol (Mie and Rayleigh) signal and the effect of aerosol attenuation. Vibrational Raman scattering, being an elastic process for molecules only, can be used to resolve the first ambiguity. The second difficulty requires an inversion technique to help determine the attenuation profile from the Lidar signal and provide a transmission correction of this signal. For the lower stratosphere, the technique adopted in this laboratory is a three-step treatment of data. In step 1 Klett inversion is applied on the elastic scattering signal (Mie and Rayleigh) to obtain a transmission altitude profile. In step 2 the molecular signal from the Raman Lidar is corrected for atmospheric attenuation. In step 3 Raman data for below 25 km is spliced to Rayleigh data for above 25 km to give the entire profile of neutral density.

  11. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-03-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET is continuing to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last thirteen years. Since 2000, EARLINET has strongly developed in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution, from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000, to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has strongly developed also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing and dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase of the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are in the direction of continuous measurements and near real time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, as in the ACTRIS research infrastructure, and with the modelling and satellite community, bridging the research community with the operational world towards the establishment of the atmospheric part of the European component of the integrated global observing system.

  12. Performance Modeling of an Airborne Raman Water Vapor Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Schwemmer, G.; Berkoff, T.; Plotkin, H.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2000-01-01

    A sophisticated Raman lidar numerical model had been developed. The model has been used to simulate the performance of two ground-based Raman water vapor lidar systems. After tuning the model using these ground-based measurements, the model is used to simulate the water vapor measurement capability of an airborne Raman lidar under both day-and night-time conditions for a wide range of water vapor conditions. The results indicate that, under many circumstances, the daytime measurements possess comparable resolution to an existing airborne differential absorption water vapor lidar while the nighttime measurement have higher resolution. In addition, a Raman lidar is capable of measurements not possible using a differential absorption system.

  13. A permanent Raman lidar station in the Amazon: description, characterization, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barja, B.; Pauliquevis, T.; Gouveia, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Santos, R. M. N.; Oliveira, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    A permanent UV Raman lidar station, designed to perform continuous measurements of aerosols and water vapor and aiming to study and monitor the atmosphere from weather to climatic time scales, became operational in the central Amazon in July 2011. The automated data acquisition and internet monitoring enabled extended hours of daily measurements when compared to a manually operated instrument. This paper gives a technical description of the system, presents its experimental characterization and the algorithms used for obtaining the aerosol optical properties and identifying the cloud layers. Data from one week of measurements during the dry season of 2011 were analyzed as a mean to assess the overall system capability and performance. Both Klett and Raman inversions were successfully applied. A comparison of the aerosol optical depth from the lidar and from a co-located Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer showed a correlation coefficient of 0.86. By combining nighttime measurements of the aerosol lidar ratio (50-65 sr), back-trajectory calculations and fire spots observed from satellites, we showed that observed particles originated from biomass burning. Cirrus clouds were observed in 60% of our measurements. Most of the time they were distributed into three layers between 11.5 and 13.4 km a.g.l. The systematic and long-term measurements being made by this new scientific facility have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the climatic implications of the anthropogenic changes in aerosol concentrations over the pristine Amazonia.

  14. Lidar observations of Nabro volcano aerosol layers in the stratosphere over Gwangju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, D.; Müller, D.; Lee, K.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y. J.; Song, C. K.; Noh, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first Raman lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol layers in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Korea. The data were taken with the multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar at Gwangju (35.10° N, 126.53° E), Korea. The volcanic ash particles and gases were released around 12 June 2011 during the eruption of the Nabro volcano (13.37° N, 41.7° E) in Eritrea, east Africa. Forward trajectory computations show that the volcanic aerosols were advected from North Africa to East Asia. The first observation of the stratospheric aerosol layers over Korea was on 19 June 2011. The stratospheric aerosol layers appeared between 15 and 17 km height a.s.l. The aerosol layers' maximum value of the backscatter coefficient and the linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm were 1.5 ± 0.3 Mm-1 sr-1 and 2.2%, respectively. We found these values at 16.4 km height a.s.l. 44 days after this first observation, we observed the stratospheric aerosol layer again. We continuously probed the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for this aerosol layer during the following 5 months, until December 2011. The aerosol layers typically occurred between 10 and 20 km height a.s.l. The stratospheric aerosol optical depth and the maximum backscatter coefficient at 532 nm decreased during these 5 months.

  15. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and sun photometers during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment. Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scanning Raman lidar system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W); are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and root-mean-square differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a) = 60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements. The lidar measurements of AOT are found to be generally within 25% of the AOT measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-6). However, during certain periods the lidar and Sun photometer measurements of AOT differed significantly, possibly because of variations in the aerosol physical characteristics (e.g., size, composition) which affect S(sub a). Estimates of PWV, derived from water vapor mixing ratio profiles measured by LASE, are within 5-10% of PWV derived from the airborne Sun photometer. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by both lidars show that aerosols were generally concentrated in the lowest 2-3 km.

  16. Two-component vector wind fields by scanning aerosol lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, S. D.; Derian, P.; Hamada, M.; Mauzey, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of two or more wind components that resolve turbulent perturbations over large areas remain a challenge in the atmospheric boundary layer community. One successful approach to multi-component flow measurement in the engineering community is particle image velocimetry (PIV). This presentation will report on recent progress in the development and validation of two motion estimation algorithms that can be applied to aerosol backscatter imagery to provide two-component horizontal wind fields. The algorithms being developed and tested are a traditional cross-correlation method (i.e., Schols & Eloranta, JGR, 1992) and a new wavelet-based optical flow method (Dérian et al., NMTMA, 2013). These algorithms have been applied to imagery from the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) collected in Dixon, California, in 2007 (as part of CHATS) and in Chico, California in 2013. The resulting 2-component winds were compared against the same from sonic anemometers and a Doppler lidar. Our results include new insights on the performance of the cross-correaltion algorithm and new experiences with wavelet-based optical flow. Animations of turbulent flow in the atmospheric surface layer over approximately 10-square km areas with 15 s frame update rates will be presented. (Vectors may be spaced as closely as every 10 m, but the spatial resolution is larger and dynamic and related to the availability of small scale aerosol features in the imagery.) In addition to flow visualizations, time-series and space-series comparisons of the wind components with those from sonic anemometer and Doppler lidar data will be presented.

  17. Lidar observations of the Pinatubo aerosol layer at Thule, Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Di Girolamo, P.; Cacciani, M.; Sarra, A. di; Fiocco, G.; Fua, D. (Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy))

    1994-06-22

    This paper summarizes lidar measurements from Thule Greenland made during EASOE. The lidar was able to track aerosols, primarily of volcanic origin, through the winter. Above 18 km the aerosol content was strongly dependent upon the location of the vortex, and did not show a substantial increase until the vortex broke up.

  18. Aerosol speckle effects on atmospheric pulsed lidar backscattered signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Lidar systems using atmospheric aerosols as targets exhibit return signal amplitude and power fluctuations which indicate speckle effects. The effects of refractive turbulence along the path on the aerosol speckle field propagation and on the decorrelation time are studied for coherent pulsed lidar systems.

  19. Characterization of fresh and aged biomass burning events using multiwavelength Raman lidar and mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, D.; Nemuc, A.; Müller, D.; Talianu, C.; Vasilescu, J.; Belegante, L.; Kolgotin, A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on optical and microphysical properties of long-range transported biomass burning (BB) aerosols and their variation with atmospheric evolution (ageing), as observed by a multiwavelength Raman lidar, part of EARLINET (European Aerosol LIdar NETwork). Chemical analysis of the atmospheric aerosol was done using a colocated aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). One relevant optical parameter for the ageing process is the Ångström exponent. In our study, we find that it decreases from 2 for fresh to 1.4-0.5 for aged smoke particles. The ratio of lidar (extinction-to-backscatter) ratios (LR532/LR355) changes rapidly from values <1 for fresh to >1 for aged particles. The imaginary part of the refractive index is the most sensitive microphysical parameter. It decreases sharply from 0.05 to less than 0.01 for fresh and aged smoke particles, respectively. Single-scattering albedo (SSA) varies from 0.74 to 0.98 depending on aerosol age and source. The AMS was used to measure the marker ions of wood-burning particles during 2 days of measurements when the meteorological conditions favored the downward mixing of aerosols from lofted layers. Particle size distribution and particle effective radius from both AMS and lidar are similar, i.e., particle effective radii were approximately 0.27 µm for fresh BB aerosol particles. Microphysical aerosol properties from inversion of the lidar data agree with similar studies carried out in different regions on the globe. Our study shows that the Ångström exponent LR532/LR355 and the imaginary part of the refractive index can be used to clearly distinguish between fresh and aged smoke particles.

  20. CAELI WATER VAPOUR RAMAN LIDAR CALIBRATION AT THE CABAUW EXPERIMENTAL

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    -d is measured with a Vaisala HMP243 heated relative humidity sensor with a metal filter in a separate of the calibration. Raman lidar humidity data obtained by sonde calibration were compared to in-situ humidity between 2 and 6 km altitude. · The humidity from the sonde-calibrated lidar profile around 200 m were

  1. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN EVAPOTRANSPIRATION USING RAMAN LIDAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Los Alamos Raman lidar has been used to make high resolution (25m) estimates of the evapotranspiration rate over adjacent corn and soybean canopies. The lidar makes three-dimensional measurements of the water vapor content of the atmosphere directly above the canopy that are inverted using Monin...

  2. Eye-safe aerosol lidar at 1.5 microns: progress towards a scanning lidar network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. Spuler; Shane D. Mayor

    A multi-dimensional scanning lidar has been developed for tracking and monitoring aerosol plumes in urban settings. The reliability of the system has been demonstrated and plans for additional units are in place to create a unique scanning lidar network. The paper discusses the current capabilities of the instrument and research underway to extract more information, such as quantitative aerosol properties,

  3. A water vapor Raman lidar as part of the Swiss meteorology service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinoev, T.; Arshinov, Y.; Bobrovnikov, S.; Ristori, P.; Calpini, B.; van den Bergh, H.; Parlange, M. B.; Simeonov, V.

    2009-09-01

    Vertical water vapor profiles with high time resolution are necessary for improved numerical weather prediction (NWP). Meteorological services rely, in part, on NWP models for short to mid-term weather forecasting. Typically vertical water vapor profiles are acquired from twice a day radiosonde observations which have time resolution insufficient to resolve rapidly changing meteorological phenomena. New operational instruments with near real-time sampling of the water vapor field are needed. Raman LIDARs can provide vertical humidity profiles within the troposphere with time and range resolution suitable for NWP model assimilation and validation. That is why in 2004 the Swiss meteo-service (MeteoSwiss), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), initiated a project to build an automated Raman lidar for day and night vertical profiling of tropospheric water vapor and aerosol properties. Currently RALMO (Raman Lidar for meteorological observations) is operational at MeteoSwiss aerological station at Payerne. It is fully automated, self-contained, eye-safe instrument for day and night-time vertical profiling of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, and extinction within the troposphere. The lidar profiles of water vapor mixing ratio have vertical resolution from 15 m (boundary layer) to 100-450 m (free troposphere) and time resolution of 2 min (boundary layer) to 30 min (free troposphere). The range resolved aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients are measured with similar resolution. The lidar operational range is from ~50 m to 5 km during daytime (detection limit of 0.2 g/kg), and from ~50 m to 10 km night-time. LabView based software allows continuous fully automated operation. Automated data treatment software reads the accumulated lidar data, derives vertical profiles of water vapor mixing ratio (grams per kilogram of dry air) estimates statistical error, and stores the result for upload to MeteoSwiss. The operational time resolution is 30 min whereas the vertical resolution is 30 m; it is decreased if needed by steps of 30 m to keep the relative mixing ratio error below 10 %. Aerosol backscatter and extinction retrieval algorithms are available as well. In order to study the range independence and long term stability of the lidar calibration constant we carried out several intercomparisons of operationally retrieved lidar profiles with collocated radiosondes. We used Vaisala RS 92 and Snow-White chilled mirror hygrometer radiosondes attached to single balloon. In all cases there is excellent agreement of the lidar derived mixing ratio profiles with the radiosondes.

  4. Advances in Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor, Cirrus Clouds and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Potter, John R.; Tola, Rebecca; Rush, Kurt; Veselovskii, Igor; Cadirola, Martin; Comer, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Narrow-band interference filters with improved transmission in the ultraviolet have been developed under NASA-funded research and used in the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) in ground- based, upward-looking tests. RASL is an airborne Raman Lidar system designed to measure water vapor mixing ratio, and aerosol backscatter/extinction/depolarization. It also possesses the capability to make experimental measurements of cloud liquid water and carbon dioxide. It is being prepared for first flight tests during the summer of 2006. With the newly developed filters installed in RASL, measurements were made of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus cloud optical properties and carbon dioxide that improve upon any previously demonstrated using Raman lidar. Daytime boundary layer profiling of water vapor mixing ratio is performed with less than 5% random error using temporal and spatial resolution of 2-minutes and 60 - 210, respectively. Daytime cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction- to-backscatter ratio measurements are made using 1-minute average. Sufficient signal strength is demonstrated to permit the simultaneous profiling of carbon dioxide and water vapor mixing ratio into the free troposphere during the nighttime. Downward-looking from an airborne RASL should possess the same measurement statistics with approximately a factor of 5 - 10 decrease in averaging time. A description of the technology improvements are provided followed by examples of the improved Raman lidar measurements.

  5. Aerosol measurements with a combined elastic/non-elastic backscatter lidar in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenyi; Liu, Wenqing; Zhang, Yujun; Zhao, Nanjing; He, Junfeng; Ruan, Jun

    2009-07-01

    In order to reach a green Olympics in 2008, an unprecedented environmental experiment jointly launched by the Beijing municipal government and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was carried out. AIOFM (Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics Experiment) took part in the campaign with an elastic/non-elastic lidar to measure the aerosol distribution and the boundary layer in summer in Beijing. With the combining solution of the Raman lidar and the elastic lidar equation, the important optical parameters of the aerosols (extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficients thus the lidar ratio) were attained. The lidar ratio on July 22 varied from 10sr to 30sr. Since the vertical distribution of the lidar ratio demonstrate different microphysical characteristics in the lower and upper parts of the cloud, so probably the cirrus with the mean lidar ratio of 25sr at the height of 6km can be assumed. On the other hand, a well-mixed boundary layer was observed. Taking into account the effects of the multiple scattering (5%-10%),we obtain a single-scattering optical depth of 0.15.The boundary layer also offered the explanation of the steady ozone concentration measured by the DOAS system at the same position of the observing site.

  6. Aerosol Lidar and MODIS Satellite Comparisons for Future Aerosol Loading Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell; Szykman, James; Severance, Kurt; Chu, D. Allen; Rosen, Rebecca; Al-Saadi, Jassim

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the concentration and distribution of atmospheric aerosols using both airborne lidar and satellite instruments is a field of active research. An aircraft based aerosol lidar has been used to study the distribution of atmospheric aerosols in the California Central Valley and eastern US coast. Concurrently, satellite aerosol retrievals, from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, were take over the Central Valley. The MODIS Level 2 aerosol data product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical depth (AOD) and size distribution) globally over ocean and land at a spatial resolution of 10 km. The Central Valley topography was overlaid with MODIS AOD (5x5 sq km resolution) and the aerosol scattering vertical profiles from a lidar flight. Backward air parcel trajectories for the lidar data show that air from the Pacific and northern part of the Central Valley converge confining the aerosols to the lower valley region and below the mixed layer. Below an altitude of 1 km, the lidar aerosol and MODIS AOD exhibit good agreement. Both data sets indicate a high presence of aerosols near Bakersfield and the Tehachapi Mountains. These and other results to be presented indicate that the majority of the aerosols are below the mixed layer such that the MODIS AOD should correspond well with surface measurements. Lidar measurements will help interpret satellite AOD retrievals so that one day they can be used on a routine basis for prediction of boundary layer aerosol pollution events.

  7. Automated detection of particulate layers and retrieval of their extinction from the ARM Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.; Turner, D. D.; Newsom, R. K.; Comstock, J. M.; Sivaraman, C.

    2013-12-01

    The DOE ARM program operates two Raman lidars (RLs), one near Lamont, Oklahoma and one in Darwin, Australia. These systems are far more advance than the ARM program's primary lidar the MPL (micropulse lidar) with the ability to directly measure extinction and a shorter wavelength laser--- which reduces the impact of solar background noise in the elastic channel. In this work, we make improvements to existing RL data products to take advantage of the full capabilities of the Raman lidar. We identify the presence of particulate (cloud and aerosol) layers using a context-sensitive threshold method applied to three quantities: (1) a scattering ratio calculated using a modeled clear-sky signal, (2) a scattering ratio calculated using the nitrogen channel, and (3) the depolarization ratio. Extinction in these layers are directly retrieved using the RL's nitrogen channel. However the nitrogen signal-to-noise ratio is much lower than the elastic channel. Therefore a careful examination of signal noise is made to determine when it is appropriate to use the nitrogen channel. In cases when the full profile of extinction cannot be directly measured, we use the elastic channel only to retrieve extinction by either using the transmission method or by assuming lidar ratio. From these three methods of extinction retrieval a best estimate of extinction is made along with uncertainty estimates derived from the analysis of signal noise.

  8. A New Raman DIAL Technique for Measuring Stratospheric Ozone in the Presence of Volcanic Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Mcgee, Thomas J.; Gross, Michael; Heaps, William S.; Ferrare, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new lidar scheme to measure stratospheric ozone in the presence of heavy volcanic aerosol loading. The eruptions of the Philippine volcano Pinatubo during June 1991 ejected large amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere to altitudes of at least 30 km. The resulting aerosols have severely affected the measurements of stratospheric ozone when using traditional Rayleigh differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique, in which the scattering mechanism is almost entirely Rayleigh and which assumes a small amount or no aerosols. In order to extract an ozone profile in the regions below about 30 km where the Rayleigh lidar returns are contaminated by aerosol scattering from Mt. Pinatubo cloud, we have used a Raman lidar technique, where the scattering mechanism depends solely on molecular nitrogen. In this scheme there is no aerosol scattering component to the backscattered lidar return. Using this technique in conjunction with the Rayleigh DIAL measurement, the GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar has measured ozone profiles between 15 and 50 km during the recently held UARS correlative measurement campaign (February-March 1992) at JPL's Table Mountain Facility in California.

  9. [Dual-wavelength Mie lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols].

    PubMed

    Chi, Ru-Li; Wu, De-Cheng; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Jun

    2009-06-01

    A new dual-wavelength Mie lidar (DWL) is introduced. The DWL can be used to monitor the optical properties of tropospheric aerosol at 532 and 1 064 nm wavelength and their spatial and temporal variations, and to research aerosol size distribution with altitude. This lidar adopted four channels to receive the far and near range backscattering signal at 532 and 1 064 nm wavelength respectively. In order to enhance the capability of daytime measurement, the system employed a narrow band interference filter to separate the main backscattering signal of lidar return, including Mie backscattering signal and Rayleigh backscattering signal from the total backscattering signal including non-elastic scattering signal and solar spectrum, by cooperating with an iris to depress the majority of sky background noise. Overall structure and specifications of the lidar, as well as data processing method, were described. The lidar system has been operated in Hefei (117. 16 degrees E, 31.90 degrees N). The profile of extinction coefficient of tropospheric aerosol and its temporal-spatial distribution were obtained. Angstrom exponent and optical depth of aerosol were also discussed. The observational results have shown that this lidar works well both during the day and at night and has the ability to measure the tropospheric aerosols and to manifest the temporal and spatial distributions of the aerosols with high precision. PMID:19810510

  10. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

    PubMed

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

    2014-12-20

    In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis. PMID:25608203

  11. Effective Lidar Ratios of Dense Dust Aerosol Layers over North Africa Observed by the CALIPSO Lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Liu; D. M. Winker; A. H. Omar; M. Vaughan; C. R. Trepte; Y. Hu; C. A. Hostetler; W. Sun; B. Lin

    2009-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, a joint US and French mission, was launched three years ago to provide new insight into the role that clouds and aerosols play in regulating Earth's weather, climate, and air quality. A key instrument on board the CALIPSO payload is a two-wavelength, polarization-sensitive backscatter lidar. With its capabilities of depolarization

  12. Optical design and development of the Near Range Lidar system for aerosol investigation at Belsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posyniak, Michal; Piatruczuk, Aleksander; Szkop, Artur

    2015-04-01

    The development of the lidar system in the Central Geophysics Observatory at Belsk (Poland) is presented. Belsk is an aerosol background site located in a rural area about 50 km south from Warsaw. A new near range (NR) lidar was added to the existing far range (FR) lidar system to enable the acquisition of lidar signals at the distance of a few hundred meters from the device. In the existing design of the FR lidar a 600 mm diameter mirror was used which resultedin anoverlap over 1500 mmaking this device suitable for observations of aerosols in free troposphere and lower stratosphere but not in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL).To enable measurements in the PBL the near range detection systemwas designed as a complement of the existing FR lidar. A secondtelescope with a set of detectors was used with the same laser as in the FR system as a light source. The Nd:YAGpulselasergenerates three wavelengths (1064, 532 and 355 nm).Energies of light pulses are about 320 mJ while their repetition rate is 15 Hz. In the optical receiver of the NR lidar a telescope with a 150 mm diameter parabolic mirror with optical fiber (1 mm core diameter) as a field stop was used. Our analysis shows that full overlap of the laser beam and the NR telescope field of view is expected at about 150 m. A polichromator based on dichroic beam splitters and a set of narrow band pass filters were used to separate wavelengths. The design of the NR lidar easily allows to add Raman channels to the system. The acquisition of the analog lidar echoes was done by photomultipliers (at 355 and 532 nm) and the avalanche photodiode (at 1064 nm). 14 bit analog to digital converters coupled with PC computer by USB 2.0 were also used.

  13. Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaoyan Liu; Nobuo Sugimoto; Toshiyuki Murayama

    2002-01-01

    Extinction-to-backscatter ratio or lidar ratio is a key parameter in the issue of backscatter-lidar inversions. The lidar ratio of Asian dust was observed with a high-spectral-resolution lidar and a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar during the springs of 1998 and 1999. The measured values range from 42 to 55 sr in most cases, with a mean of 51 sr. These values

  14. The application of lidar to stratospheric aerosol studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The global climatology and understanding of stratospheric aerosols evolving primarily from lidar and satellite measurements is presented. The importance of validation of these remotely sensed data with in situ measurements is also discussed. The advantage of lidar for providing high vertical and horizontal resolution and its independence from a remote source for measurement will become evident with examples of long term lidar data sets at fixed sites and the use of lidar on airborne platforms. Volcanic impacts of the last 20 years are described with emphasis on the last 8 years where satellite data are available. With satellite and high resolution lidar measurements, an understanding of the global circulation of volcanic material is attempted along with the temporal change of aerosol physical parameters and the stratospheric cleansing or decay times associated with these eruptions.

  15. Estimation and discrimination of aerosols using multiple wavelength LWIR lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell E. Warren; Richard G. Vanderbeek; Jeffrey L. Ahl

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent work by the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) in algorithm development for parameter estimation and classification of localized atmospheric aerosols using data from rapidly tuned multiple-wavelength range-resolved LWIR lidar. The motivation for this work is the need to detect, locate, and discriminate biological threat aerosols in the atmosphere from interferent materials such as

  16. Estimation of aerosol concentration from elastic scattering LIDAR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Lemire; M. S. Marshall

    2003-01-01

    West Desert Test Center (WDTC) at Dugway Proving Ground uses measurement, modeling and simulation capabilities to characterize and referee customer standoff biological and, to a lesser extent, chemical detection systems. The WDTC LIDAR model of aerosol clouds uses a Mie scattering model and associated joint aerosol cloud distribution function N(a,r), where a is the particle radius and r is the

  17. First results from the aerosol lidar and backscatter sonde intercomparison campaign STRAIT'1997 at table mountain facility during February-March 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, G.; Gross, M. R.; Haner, D. A.; Kjome, N. T.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Schaefer, H. - J.; Schrems, O.

    1998-01-01

    First results of an intercomparison measurement campaign between three aerosol lidar instruments and in-situ backscatter sondes performed at Table Mountain Facility (34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg E, 2280 m asl) in February-March 1997 are presented. During the campaign a total of 414 hours of lidar data were acquired by the Aerosol-Temperature-Lidar (ATL, Goddard Space Flight Center) the Mobile-aerosol-Raman-Lidar (MARL, Alfred Wegener Institute), and the TMF-Aerosol-Lidar (TAL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and four backscatter sondes were launched. From the data set altitude profiles of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization of stratospheric background aerosols at altitudes between 15 and 25 km and optically thin high-altitude cirrus clouds at altitudes below 13 km are derived. On the basis of a sulfuric acid aerosol model color ratio profiles obtained from two wavelength lidar data are compared to the corresponding profiles derived from the sonde observations. We find an excellent agreement between the in-situ and ATL lidar data with respect to backscatter and color ratio. Cirrus clouds were present on 16 of 26 nights during the campaign. Lidar observations with 17 minute temporal and 120-300 m spatial resolution indicate high spatial and temporal variability of the cirrus layers. Qualitative agreement is found between concurrent lidar measurements of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization.

  18. Tropospheric temperature measurements using a rotational raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert Benjamin, III

    Using the Hampton University (HU) Mie and Raman lidar, tropospheric temperature profiles were inferred from lidar measurements of anti-Stokes rotational Raman (RR) backscattered laser light from atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen molecules. The molecules were excited by 354.7 nanometer (nm) laser light emitted by the HU lidar. Averaged over 60-minute intervals, RR backscattered signals were detected in narrow 353.35 nm and 354.20 nm spectral bands with full-widths-at-half-maxima (FWHM) of 0.3 nm. During the special April 19-30, 2012, Ground-Based Remote Atmospheric Sounding Program (GRASP) campaign, the lidar temperature calibration coefficients were empirically derived using linear least squares and second order polynomial analyses of the lidar backscattered RR signals and of reference temperature profiles, obtained from radiosondes. The GRASP radiosondes were launched within 400 meters of the HU lidar site. Lidar derived temperature profiles were obtained at altitudes from the surface to over 18 kilometers (km) at night, and up to 5 km during the day. Using coefficients generated from least squares analyses, nighttime profiles were found to agree with profiles from reference radiosonde measurements within 3 K, at altitudes between 4 km and 9 km. Coefficients generated from the second order analyses yielded profiles which agreed with the reference profiles within 1 K uncertainty level in the 4 km to 10 km altitude region. Using profiles from GRASP radiosondes, the spatial and temporal homogeneities of the atmosphere, over HU, were estimated at the 1.5 K level within a 10 km radius of HU, and for observational periods approaching 3 hours. Theoretical calibration coefficients were derived from the optical and physical properties of the HU RR lidar and from the spectroscopic properties of atmospheric molecular nitrogen and oxygen. The theoretical coefficients along with lidar measurements of sky background radiances were used to evaluate the temporal stability of the empirically derived temperature profiles from the RR lidar measurements. The evaluations revealed systematic drifts in the coefficients. Frequent reference radiosonde temperature profiles should be used to correct for the drifts in the coefficients. For the first time, the cause of the coefficient drifts has been identified as the differences in the aging of the spectral responses of the HU lidar detector pairs. For the first time, the use of lidar sky background measurements was demonstrated as a useful technique to correct for the coefficient drift. This research should advance the derivations of lidar temperature calibration coefficients which can be used for long observational periods of temperature fields without the need for frequent lidar calibrations using radiosondes.

  19. Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; McFarlane, SA

    2012-10-31

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) value-added product (VAP) and the procedures used to derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the raw RL measurements. Sections 2 and 4 describe the input and output variables, respectively. Section 3 discusses the theory behind the measurement and the details of the algorithm, including calibration and overlap correction.

  20. Potential of lidar backscatter data to estimate solar aerosol radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Müller, Detlef; Mattis, Ina; Ansmann, Albert

    2006-02-01

    The potential to estimate solar aerosol radiative forcing (SARF) in cloudless conditions from backscatter data measured by widespread standard lidar has been investigated. For this purpose 132 days of sophisticated ground-based Raman lidar observations (profiles of particle extinction and backscatter coefficients at 532 nm wavelength) collected during two campaigns [the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) and the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)] were analyzed. Particle extinction profiles were used as input for radiative transfer simulations with which to calculate the SARF, which then was plotted as a function of the column (i.e., height-integrated) particle backscatter coefficient (betac). A close correlation between the SARF and betac was found. SARF-betac parameterizations in the form of polynomial fits were derived that exhibit an estimated uncertainty of +/-(10-30)%. These parameterizations can be utilized to analyze data of upcoming lidar satellite missions and for other purposes. The EARLINET-based parameterizations can be applied to lidar measurements at mostly continental, highly industrialized sites with limited maritime influence (Europe, North America), whereas the INDOEX parameterizations rather can be employed in polluted maritime locations, e.g., coastal regions of south and east Asia.

  1. The vertical distribution of aerosol over Europe—synthesis of one year of EARLINET aerosol lidar measurements and aerosol transport modeling with LMDzT-INCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, Sarah; Matthias, Volker; Schulz, Michael; Bösenberg, Jens; Eixmann, Ronald; Mattis, Ina; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Rita Perrone, Maria; Spinelli, Nicola; Vaughan, Geraint

    Aerosol extinction vertical profiles measured with Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET in 2000 are compared to profiles modeled by a general circulation model, LMDzT-INCA, at seven stations in Europe. Comparisons based on individual profiles show moderate correlation between model and data. Averaging aerosol extinction values on larger temporal or spatial scales improves the comparison. Furthermore, we show that the model succeeds to reproduce the mean annual aerosol distribution over Europe. Comparisons of the aerosol vertical distribution in two distinct regions of Europe are presented. For the northern stations, the observed yearly average aerosol extinction coefficient vertical profile and the modeled one show an average bias of 22%. For the southern stations the mean bias is slightly higher (29%). Both model and lidar show different extinction profiles in different parts of Europe, with higher values in upper heights in the South. According to modeled profiles of each aerosol component, this is caused by the presence of dust at altitudes between 2 and 6 km. In addition vertical mixing in the South seems to be more effective for the other aerosol components.

  2. Raman Lidar Profiles Best Estimate Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Newson, R

    2012-01-18

    The ARM Raman lidars are semi-autonomous ground-based systems that transmit at a wavelength of 355 nm with 300 mJ, {approx}5 ns pulses, and a pulse repetition frequency of 30Hz. Signals from the various detection channels are processed to produce time- and height-resolved estimates of several geophysical quantities, such as water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol scattering ratio, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization ratio. Data processing is currently handled by a suite of six value-added product (VAP) processes. Collectively, these processes are known as the Raman Lidar Profiles VAP (RLPROF). The top-level best-estimate (BE) VAP process was introduced in order to bring together the most relevant information from the intermediate-level VAPs. As such, the BE process represents the final stage in data processing for the Raman lidar. Its principal function is to extract the primary variables from each of the intermediate-level VAPs, perform additional quality control, and combine all of this information into a single output file for the end-user. The focus of this document is to describe the processing performed by the BE VAP process.

  3. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  4. The Novel Arrange & Average Algorithm for the Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from Multiwavelength Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemyakin, E.; Mueller, D.; Burton, S. P.; Kolgotin, A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles affect the radiative energy balance in the atmosphere and thus influence regional and global climate through the direct and indirect radiative effect. Aerosols may result in net cooling or warming of the air, changes of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cloud lifetime, and occurrence and intensity of precipitation. The presence and distribution of aerosols in space and time is highly inhomogeneous and variable. In addition, aerosol radiative forcing depends on the vertical distribution of aerosols. Regular observations of aerosol optical and physical properties over large temporal and spatial scales are needed for radiative impact studies to address the gaps in knowledge of the role of aerosols in climate change. In this context, light detection and ranging (lidar) instruments will play a crucial role as only these instruments provide information of aerosol properties with high vertical resolution. Here we present a novel, automated and unsupervised algorithm called the Arrange & Average algorithm that employs a look-up table for the purpose of retrieving the real and imaginary part of the complex refractive index (CRI), effective radius, and total number, surface-area, and volume concentrations of particle size distributions for a wide range of parameter space. The distinctive feature of our approach is that the CRI is treated like other retrieval parameters which significantly simplifies the whole numerical scheme. The algorithm is used for processing optical data acquired with different measurement configurations of multiwavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar or Raman lidar. The Arrange & Average algorithm is simple in its practical realization and flexible in the sense that it can be easily applied to various configurations of lidar instruments. We have conducted detailed numerical simulations and performance tests of the algorithm for 4 important lidar instrument configurations: "3 backscatter (?) + 2 extinction (?)" ("3? + 2?"), "3? + 1?", "2? + 1?", and "3?". All the simulations were done under the assumption of particle size- and wavelength independent CRIs. The performance of the algorithm with regard to the retrieval precision of the investigated aerosol properties slowly degrades if we remove the input optical data.

  5. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  6. [Obtaining aerosol backscattering coefficient using pure rotational Raman-Mie scattering spectrum].

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Chen, Si-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan

    2012-11-01

    Both the traditional Klett and Fernald methods used to obtain atmospheric aerosol backscattering coefficient require the hypothesis of relationship between the extinction coefficient and backscattering coefficient, and this will bring error. According to the theory that the pure rotational Raman backscattering coefficient is only related to atmospheric temperature and pressure, a new method is presented for inverting aerosol backscattering coefficient, which needed the intensity of elastic scattering and rotational Raman combined with atmospheric temperature and pressure obtained with the sounding balloons in this article. This method can not only eliminate the errors of the traditional Klett and Fernald methods caused by the hypothesis, but also avoid the error caused by the correction of the overlap. Finally, the aerosol backscattering coefficient was acquired by using this method and the data obtained via the Raman-Mie scattering Lidar of our lab. And the result was compared with that of Klett and Fernald. PMID:23387171

  7. Lidar data assimilation for improved analyses of volcanic aerosol events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Observations of hazardous events with release of aerosols are hardly analyzable by today's data assimilation algorithms, without producing an attenuating bias. Skillful forecasts of unexpected aerosol events are essential for human health and to prevent an exposure of infirm persons and aircraft with possibly catastrophic outcome. Typical cases include mineral dust outbreaks, mostly from large desert regions, wild fires, and sea salt uplifts, while the focus aims for volcanic eruptions. In general, numerical chemistry and aerosol transport models cannot simulate such events without manual adjustments. The concept of data assimilation is able to correct the analysis, as long it is operationally implemented in the model system. Though, the tangent-linear approximation, which describes a substantial precondition for today's cutting edge data assimilation algorithms, is not valid during unexpected aerosol events. As part of the European COPERNICUS (earth observation) project MACC II and the national ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) initiative, we developed a module that enables the assimilation of aerosol lidar observations, even during unforeseeable incidences of extreme emissions of particulate matter. Thereby, the influence of the background information has to be reduced adequately. Advanced lidar instruments comprise on the one hand the aspect of radiative transfer within the atmosphere and on the other hand they can deliver a detailed quantification of the detected aerosols. For the assimilation of maximal exploited lidar data, an appropriate lidar observation operator is constructed, compatible with the EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) system. The observation operator is able to map the modeled chemical and physical state on lidar attenuated backscatter, transmission, aerosol optical depth, as well as on the extinction and backscatter coefficients. Further, it has the ability to process the observed discrepancies with lidar data in a variational data assimilation algorithm. The implemented method is tested by the assimilation of CALIPSO attenuated backscatter data that were taken during the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010. It turned out that the implemented module is fully capable to integrate unexpected aerosol events in an automatic way into reasonable analyses. The estimations of the aerosol mass concentrations showed promising properties for the application of observations that are taken by lidar systems with both, higher and lower sophistication than CALIOP.

  8. Aerosol Models for the CALIPSO Lidar Inversion Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Won, Jae-Gwang

    2003-01-01

    We use measurements and models to develop aerosol models for use in the inversion algorithms for the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Imager Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO). Radiance measurements and inversions of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET1, 2) are used to group global atmospheric aerosols using optical and microphysical parameters. This study uses more than 105 records of radiance measurements, aerosol size distributions, and complex refractive indices to generate the optical properties of the aerosol at more 200 sites worldwide. These properties together with the radiance measurements are then classified using classical clustering methods to group the sites according to the type of aerosol with the greatest frequency of occurrence at each site. Six significant clusters are identified: desert dust, biomass burning, urban industrial pollution, rural background, marine, and dirty pollution. Three of these are used in the CALIPSO aerosol models to characterize desert dust, biomass burning, and polluted continental aerosols. The CALIPSO aerosol model also uses the coarse mode of desert dust and the fine mode of biomass burning to build a polluted dust model. For marine aerosol, the CALIPSO aerosol model uses measurements from the SEAS experiment 3. In addition to categorizing the aerosol types, the cluster analysis provides all the column optical and microphysical properties for each cluster.

  9. Multifrequency Lidar Probing of the Microstructure of Multicomponent Urban Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.; Khomich, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    We consider the inverse problem of recovering the microstructure of multicomponent urban aerosols from lidar signals measured at ? = 0.355, 0.532, 1.064, and 1.5 ?m. To solve this problem, we use a regression method based on previously constructed regression relations between the optical and microstructural parameters of the aerosol, and a numerical method including parametrization of the particle size distribution and regularization with selection of the regularization parameter using the residual. With closed numerical modeling, we show that it is possible to recover the mass concentrations of particles of sizes ?1 ?m, ?2.5 ?m, and ?10 ?m (respirable particles). The regression method for solving the inverse problem is significantly more robust than its iterative analog relative to variations in the complex refractive indices of the aerosol components and uncertainties in the optical measurements. We have obtained equations for multiple regressions between the mass concentrations of respirable aerosol fractions and the spectral extinction coefficients of the aerosol, allowing us to interpret the data from multifrequency lidar probing with minimal use of a priori information. We have carried out a numerical experiment on lidar probing of the microstructure of aerosol in the background atmosphere and in a smoke plume using the regressions obtained, demonstrating the possibility of complete automation of the measurement process.

  10. Aerosol Observations by Lidar in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, Paolo; Ambrico, Paolo Francesco; Amodeo, Aldo; Boselli, Antonella; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Spinelli, Nicola

    1999-07-01

    Aerosol observations by lidar in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) were performed in Potenza, Southern Italy, from 20 January to 20 February 1997. Measurements during nine winter nights were considered, covering a variety of boundary-layer conditions. The vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient at 355 and 723.37 nm were determined through a Klett-modified iterative procedure, assuming the extinction-to-backscattering ratio within the NBL has a constant value. Aerosol average size characteristics were retrieved from almost simultaneous profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient at 355 and 723.37 nm, the measurements being consistent with an accumulation mode radius not exceeding 0.4 m. Similar results in terms of aerosol sizes were obtained from measurements of the extinction-to-backscattering ratio profile at 355 nm performed on six nights during the measurement campaign. Backscattering profiles at 723.37 nm were also converted into profiles of aerosol liquid water content.

  11. Global estimation of above-cloud aerosols using spaceborne LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, D.; Wood, R.; Anderson, T. L.; Satheesh, S. K.; Leahy, L.

    2008-12-01

    Estimates of global mean direct climate forcing by absorbing aerosols located above boundary layer clouds are large, uncertain, and almost entirely unconstrained by observations. Spaceborne lidar offers a new opportunity of estimating the aerosols at global scale. Here we use two recently available techniques quantifying the above-cloud aerosols using liquid water clouds as lidar targets from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) [Chand et al., 2008]. Both methods can quantify aerosols above clouds and are based on their self-calibrating techniques. We used one year of global data between 70N-70S to show that day time calibration constants are different than night time calibrations constants. A clear latitudinal dependence is observed in the calibrations constants in CALIPSO observations. Using these 'self-calibration' constants, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom exponent (AE) of 'above- cloud' aerosols are quantified. Biomass burning is a major source of fine mode aerosols in different regions of world. For example, it is observed that June is the onset of the biomass burning fires in Southern Africa, peaking in August and September and then slowly decreasing until November, with a corresponding signature in aerosol optical depth. Layers with aerosol optical depth greater than 0.3 are commonly observed up to several thousand kilometers away from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean. The 'above-cloud' AOD as high as 1.5 is observed in the peak months. Despite of large variations is AOD, mean AE of these aerosols is about 1.6, without any systematic variability away from the source region. The results estimating the aerosols above clouds, including other regions at global scale, will be presented in the AGU meeting. Chand, D., T. L. Anderson, R. Wood, R. J. Charlson, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, and M. Vaughan (2008), Quantifying above-cloud aerosol using spaceborne lidar for improved understanding of cloudy-sky direct climate forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D13206, doi:10.1029/2007JD009433.

  12. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during ARCTAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ferrare; C. A. Hostetler; J. W. Hair; A. Cook; D. Harper; S. P. Burton; M. D. Obland; R. Rogers; A. J. Swanson; A. D. Clarke; C. S. McNaughton; Y. Shinozuka; J. Redemann; J. M. Livingston; P. B. Russell; C. A. Brock; D. A. Lack; K. D. Froyd; J. A. Ogren; B. Andrews; A. Laskin; R. Moffet; M. K. Gilles; A. Nenes; T. L. Lathem; P. Liu

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 aircraft measured aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. HSRL data were acquired during 15 science flights

  13. Retrievals of Profiles of Fine and Coarse Aerosols Using Lidar and Radiometric Space Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoram J. Kaufman; Didier Tanré; Jean-François Léon; Jacques Pelon

    2003-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) spaceborne lidar, expected to be launched in 2004, will collect profiles of the lidar attenuated backscattering coefficients of aerosol and clouds at 0.53 and 1.06 m. The measurements are sensitive to the vertical distri- bution of aerosols. However, the information is insufficient to be mapped into unique aerosol physical properties and

  14. Retrievals of profiles of fine and coarse aerosols using lidar and radiometric space measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoram J. Kaufman; Didier Tanré; Jean-François Léon; Jacques Pelon

    2003-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) spaceborne lidar, expected to be launched in 2004, will collect profiles of the lidar attenuated backscattering coefficients of aerosol and clouds at 0.53 and 1.06 ?m. The measurements are sensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols. However, the information is insufficient to be mapped into unique aerosol physical properties and vertical

  15. A New Raman Water Vapor Lidar Calibration Technique and Measurements in the Vicinity of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Keith D.; Demoz, Belay B.; Cadirola, Martin P.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, David N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Starr, David OC.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Feltz, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    The NAcA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar has made measurements of water vapor and aerosols for almost ten years. Calibration of the water vapor data has typically been performed by comparison with another water vapor sensor such as radiosondes. We present a new method for water vapor calibration that only requires low clouds, and surface pressure and temperature measurements. A sensitivity study was performed and the cloud base algorithm agrees with the radiosonde calibration to within 10- 15%. Knowledge of the true atmospheric lapse rate is required to obtain more accurate cloud base temperatures. Analysis of water vapor and aerosol measurements made in the vicinity of Hurricane Bonnie are discussed.

  16. Lidar measurements of the Kasatochi aerosol plume in August and September 2008 in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Maturilli, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Herber, A.; Neuber, R.

    2010-01-01

    The eruptions of the Kasatochi volcano on 7 and 8 August 2008 led to an enhanced stratospheric aerosol load which was studied with the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) and the Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) at the French-German Arctic Research Base AWIPEV in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen at 78.55°N, 11.56°E. During all KARL measurements from 15 August to 24 September 2008 (approximately 30 h of data), we detected distinct layers of enhanced aerosol backscatter in the lower stratosphere and the tropopause region, whose origination at the Kasatochi site can be shown by trajectory calculations. We found a 125% increase in aerosol optical depth compared to the mean values from 2004 to 2007 at 3 weeks after the eruption, validated by sunphotometer measurements. Differences in volume depolarization and color ratio signatures of the layers indicate a sinking movement of the bigger particles to the layer bottom. Furthermore, within higher stratospheric aerosol layers monitored after 25 August 2008, we observed the volume depolarization maximum to be up to 0.8 km below the backscatter maximum. Backscatter and depolarization measurements from 1 September 2008, on which data were collected over 13 h during daylight and darkness, are analyzed in detail. Calculations of the lidar ratio in the lowest aerosol layer as well as the estimation of microphysical parameters of the aerosol particles were performed.

  17. Effective Lidar Ratios of Dense Dust Aerosol Layers over North Africa Observed by the CALIPSO Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Winker, D. M.; Omar, A. H.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Hu, Y.; Hostetler, C. A.; Sun, W.; Lin, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, a joint US and French mission, was launched three years ago to provide new insight into the role that clouds and aerosols play in regulating Earth's weather, climate, and air quality. A key instrument on board the CALIPSO payload is a two-wavelength, polarization-sensitive backscatter lidar. With its capabilities of depolarization ratio measurement and high resolution profiling, the CALIPSO lidar provides a unique opportunity to study the dust aerosol globally. Currently, a cloud and aerosol discrimination (CAD) algorithm that incorporates five-dimensional probability distribution function (5D-PDF) is being developed for implementation in future data releases. This new 5D-PDF approach allows nearly unambiguous identification of dense dust layers over/near their source regions and therefore enables the study of these layers using a large amount of the CALIPSO data. Lidar ratio (i.e., extinction-to-backscatter ratio) is an intrinsic optical property of aerosols and a key parameter necessary in the lidar signal inversion to retrieve profiles of aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients, which are two primary products of the CALIPSO level 2 data. This parameter is usually selected in the CALIPSO lidar level 2 data processing based on the aerosol type identified. (Six types of aerosols have been modeled: dust, polluted dust, marine, continental, polluted continental, and smoke.) As more data is being collected by the CALIPSO lidar, validation studies with the CALIPSO measurements are being performed and are now becoming available. For opaque dust layers, the effective lidar ratio (the product of lidar ratio and multiple scattering factor) can be determined easily from integrated attenuated backscatter over the layer top and apparent base. We have performed an extensive analysis based on the first two and a half years (June 2006 - December 2008) of the CALIPSO lidar nighttime measurement data with the 5D-PDF CAD algorithm applied. The effective lidar ratios computed for the opaque dust layers over the North Africa (12N-30N), one of the largest source regions in the world, have a relatively broad distribution, with a mean/median value of 38.5/36.4 sr at 532 nm and 50.3/47.7 sr at 1064 nm. The experimentally determined values are in good agreement with the modeling results for Saharan dust aerosols. Monte-Carlo simulations have also been performed to examine the impact of multiple scattering. The results show that multiple scattering generally has a small impact on the effective lidar (multiple scattering factor at the layer base > 0.9). However, when the dust extinction is > ~ 2/km, the multiple scattering impact can increase significantly. A closer examination of the depolarization ratio profiles in the dense dust layers shows a general agreement with the multiple scattering simulations.

  18. Systems engineering tradeoffs for a bio-aerosol lidar referee system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery W. Warren; Michael E. Thomas; Eric W. Rogala; Arthur R. Maret; Camille A. Schumacher; Antonio Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Analytical results and tradeoffs are reported for an aerosol lidar system that is intended to serve as a referee during testing of standoff bio-aerosol detection systems. The lidar system is still under development by Dugway Proving Grounds -- results from the operational system are not included in this paper. The recommended configuration of the lidar system is to use a

  19. Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Müller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Mattis, Ina; Heese, Birgit; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Pisani, Gianluca; Knippertz, Peter

    2009-02-01

    ABSTRACT Three ground-based Raman lidars and an airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) were operated during SAMUM 2006 in southern Morocco to measure height profiles of the volume extinction coefficient, the extinction-to-backscatter ratio and the depolarization ratio of dust particles in the Saharan dust layer at several wavelengths. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer observations and radiosoundings of meteorological parameters complemented the ground-based activities at the SAMUM station of Ouarzazate. Four case studies are presented. Two case studies deal with the comparison of observations of the three ground-based lidars during a heavy dust outbreak and of the ground-based lidars with the airborne lidar. Two further cases show profile observations during satellite overpasses on 19 May and 4 June 2006. The height resolved statistical analysis reveals that the dust layer top typically reaches 4-6km height above sea level (a.s.l.), sometimes even 7km a.s.l.. Usually, a vertically inhomogeneous dust plume with internal dust layers was observed in the morning before the evolution of the boundary layer started. The Saharan dust layer was well mixed in the early evening. The 500nm dust optical depth ranged from 0.2-0.8 at the field site south of the High Atlas mountains, Ångström exponents derived from photometer and lidar data were between 0-0.4. The volume extinction coefficients (355, 532nm) varied from 30-300Mm-1 with a mean value of 100Mm-1 in the lowest 4km a.s.l.. On average, extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 53-55sr (+/-7-13sr) were obtained at 355, 532 and 1064nm.

  20. Atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing using Scheimpflug lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a new lidar technique for atmospheric remote sensing based on Scheimpflug principle, which describes the relationship between nonparallel image- and object-planes[1]. When a laser beam is transmitted into the atmosphere, the implication is that the backscattering echo of the entire illuminated probe volume can be in focus simultaneously without diminishing the aperture. The range-resolved backscattering echo can be retrieved by using a tilted line scan or two-dimensional CCD/CMOS camera. Rather than employing nanosecond-pulsed lasers, cascade detectors, and MHz signal sampling, all of high cost and complexity, we have developed a robust and inexpensive atmospheric lidar system based on compact laser diodes and array detectors. We present initial applications of the Scheimpflug lidar for atmospheric aerosol monitoring in bright sunlight, with a 3 W, 808 nm CW laser diode. Kilohertz sampling rates are also achieved with applications for wind speed and entomology [2]. Further, a proof-of-principle demonstration of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) based on the Scheimpflug lidar technique is presented [3]. By utilizing a 30 mW narrow band CW laser diode emitting at around 760 nm, the detailed shape of an oxygen absorption line can be resolved remotely with an integration time of 6 s and measurement cycle of 1 minute during night time. The promising results demonstrated in this work show potential for the Scheimpflug lidar technique for remote atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing, and renews hope for robust and realistic instrumentation for atmospheric lidar sensing. [1] F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 13, pp. 231-243, Jan 2004. [2] M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, "Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - application to interacting flying insects " Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 147, pp. 141-151, 2014. [3] L. Mei and M. Brydegaard, "Contineous-wave differential absorption lidar," Submitted to Laser and Photonics Reviews, 2014.

  1. Atmospheric aerosol profiling with a bistatic imaging lidar system.

    PubMed

    Barnes, John E; Sharma, N C Parikh; Kaplan, Trevor B

    2007-05-20

    Atmospheric aerosols have been profiled using a simple, imaging, bistatic lidar system. A vertical laser beam is imaged onto a charge-coupled-device camera from the ground to the zenith with a wide-angle lens (CLidar). The altitudes are derived geometrically from the position of the camera and laser with submeter resolution near the ground. The system requires no overlap correction needed in monostatic lidar systems and needs a much smaller dynamic range. Nighttime measurements of both molecular and aerosol scattering were made at Mauna Loa Observatory. The CLidar aerosol total scatter compares very well with a nephelometer measuring at 10 m above the ground. The results build on earlier work that compared purely molecular scattered light to theory, and detail instrument improvements. PMID:17514239

  2. AMALi - the Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar for Arctic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Neuber, R.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Wehrle, G.

    2009-09-01

    The Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) is an instrument developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research for a trouble-free operation under the challenging weather conditions at the Earth's polar regions. Since 2003 the AMALi has been successfully deployed for measurements in the ground-based installation and the zenith- or nadir-aiming airborne configurations during several scientific campaigns in the Arctic. The lidar provides profiles of the total backscatter at two wavelengths, from which aerosol and cloud properties are derived. It measures also the linear depolarization of the backscattered return, allowing for the discrimination of thermodynamic cloud phase and the identification of the presence of non-spherical aerosol particles. This paper presents the capability characteristics and performance of the past and present state of the AMALi system, as well as discusses the ground-based and airborne evaluation schemes applied to invert the data.

  3. Aerosol analysis techniques and results from micro pulse lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Dennis L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Campbell, James R.; Reagan, John A.; Powell, Donna

    1998-01-01

    The effect of clouds and aerosol on the atmospheric energy balance is a key global change problem. Full knowledge of aerosol distributions is difficult to obtain by passive sensing alone. Aerosol and cloud retrievals in several important areas can be significantly improved with active remote sensing by lidar. Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is an aerosol and cloud profilometer that provides a detailed picture of the vertical structure of boundary layer and elevated dust or smoke plume aerosols. MPL is a compact, fully eyesafe, ground-based, zenith pointing instrument capable of full-time, long-term unattended operation at 523 nm. In October of 1993, MPL began taking full-time measurements for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and has since expanded to ARM sites in the Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). Other MPL's are moving out to some of the 60 world-wide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites which are already equipped with automatic sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers providing total column optical depth measurements. Twelve additional MPL's have been purchased by NASA to add to the aerosol and cloud database of the EOS ground validation network. The original MPL vertical resolution was 300 meters but the newer versions have a vertical resolution of 30 meters. These expanding data sets offer a significant new resource for atmospheric radiation analysis. Under the direction of Jim Spinhirne, the MPL analysis team at NASA/GSFC has developed instrument correction and backscatter analysis techniques for ARM to detect cloud boundaries and analyze vertical aerosol structures. A summary of MPL applications is found in Hlavka (1997). With the aid of independent total column optical depth instruments such as the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at the ARM sites or sun photometers at the AERONET sites, the MPL data can be calibrated, and time-resolved vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth as well as aerosol extinction can be calculated. The techniques used to calibrate the lidar, calculate the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, and produce profiles of aerosol extinction and aerosol optical depths, will be described. Results using these techniques will be presented for case studies at the ARM site in the Tropical West Pacific and later in the Southern Great Plains.

  4. Investigation of Lamp Mapping Technique for Calibration and Diagnostics of Raman LIDAR Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Monique

    Raman Lidar systems provide water vapor measurements that can be used for weather forecasting and atmospheric modeling. Most of the accuracy of Raman Lidar water vapor data is dependent on a secondary instrument such as the radiosonde. Here we discuss the use of the standard lamp mapping technique as it applies to Raman Lidar data. Using the standard lamp mapping technique causes the Raman Lidar water vapor data to rely on the accuracy of the fundamental Raman cross sections and the accuracy of the detection system. To be more specific we discuss how the lamp mapping technique (LMT) is used to determine a Raman Lidar water vapor mixing ratio calibration constant, correct a look-up table that could potentially be used to determine atmospheric temperatures based on Lidar measurements, determine a Lidar overlap function, determine Lidar glue coefficients and serve as a Raman Lidar diagnostic test. The mapping technique discussed here is a standard lamp being scanned over the aperture of a Raman Lidar telescope. From the mapping technique we are able to determine a system efficiency for the Lidar detection system, which allows us to perform the functions mentioned above. These various studies were conducted on two Raman Lidar systems with different optical detection systems and configurations. The water vapor mixing ratio calibration determined using the LMT and glue coefficients determined using the LMT showed good agreement with the traditional methods. In addition the LMT has shown to be an excellent diagnostic tool for Lidar systems. Furthermore, we were able to determine an overlap function for the Lidar system single optical channels and also the overlap function for water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) using the LMT. Lastly, there was a limitation that did not allow us to obtain temperature calibration constants for Lidar-based temperature measurements using a look-up table corrected by the LMT. However, we were able to determine the detector response of the two channels used for the Lidar temperature measurements. In summary this dissertation validates the use of the LMT for WVMR calibration for various Raman Lidar system. Also, this dissertation introduces the application of the LMT for successfully determining an overlap correction, determining glue coefficients and diagnosing Lidar channel characteristics.

  5. Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations, RALMO - Part 1: Instrument description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinoev, T.; Simeonov, V.; Arshinov, Y.; Bobrovnikov, S.; Ristori, P.; Calpini, B.; Parlange, M.; van den Bergh, H.

    2013-05-01

    A new Raman lidar for unattended, round-the-clock measurement of vertical water vapor profiles for operational use by the MeteoSwiss has been developed during the past years by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne. The lidar uses narrow field-of-view, narrowband configuration, a UV laser, and four 30 cm in diameter mirrors, fiber-coupled to a grating polychromator. The optical design allows water vapor retrieval from the incomplete overlap region without instrument-specific range-dependent corrections. The daytime vertical range covers the mid-troposphere, whereas the nighttime range extends to the tropopause. The near range coverage is extended down to 100 m AGL by the use of an additional fiber in one of the telescopes. This paper describes the system layout and technical realization. Day- and nighttime lidar profiles compared to Vaisala RS92 and Snow White® profiles and a six-day continuous observation are presented as an illustration of the lidar measurement capability.

  6. Mie Lidar for Aerosols and Clouds Monitoring at Otlica Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stani?, S.; Bergant, K.; Filip?i?, A.; Veberi?, D.; Forte, B.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol and cloud densities are the most important atmospheric parameters, which significantly influence the atmospheric conditions. The study of their spatial and temporal properties can provide detailed information about the transport processes of the air masses. In recent years, lidar techniques for remote sensing of the atmospheric parameters have been greatly improved. Like the lidar systems of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina (35.2S, 69.1W, 1400 m a.s.l.), the Mie lidar built at Otlica Observatory (45.93N, 13.91E, 945 m a.s.l.) in Slovenia employs the same hardware, including the transmitter, the receiver, and the DAQ system. Due to its high-power laser, large-diameter telescope, and photon-counting data-acquisition technique, the Mie lidar has the potential ability to measure the tropospheric and stratospheric atmospheric conditions, and is suitable for monitoring the changes of the cirrus clouds and atmospheric boundary layer. We have been performing routine atmospheric monitoring experiments with the Otlica Mie lidar since September 2008. Using the techniques of event-averaging, noise-elimination, and data-gluing, the far end of lidar probing range is extended from 30 km up to 40 km. The extinction profiles are calculated using the Klett method and the time-height-intensity plots were made. They clearly show the evolution of atmospheric conditions, especially the motion of the cirrus clouds above Otlica.

  7. Atmospheric measurements using a scanning, solar-blind Raman Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, W.E.; Cooper, D.I.; Holtkamp, D.B.; Karl, R.R. Jr.; Quick, C.R.; Tiee, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the water cycle by Lidar has many applications. Because micro-scale structures can be identified by their water content, the technique offers new opportunities to visualize and study the phenomena. There are applications to many practical problems in agricultural and water management as well as at waste storage sites. Conventional point sensors are limited and are inappropriate for use in complex terrain or varied vegetation and cannot be extrapolated over even modest ranges. To this end, techniques must be developed to measure the variables associated with evapotranspirative processes over large areas and varied surface conditions. A scanning water-Raman Lidar is an ideal tool for this task in that it can measure the water vapor concentration rapidly with high spatial resolution without influencing the measurements by the presence of the sensor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Simultaneous analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar.

    PubMed

    Newsom, Rob K; Turner, David D; Mielke, Bernd; Clayton, Marian; Ferrare, Richard; Sivaraman, Chitra

    2009-07-10

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Raman lidar was upgraded in 2004 with a new data system that provides simultaneous measurements of both the photomultiplier analog output voltage and photon counts. We describe recent improvements to the algorithm used to merge these two signals into a single signal with improved dynamic range. The effect of modifications to the algorithm are evaluated by comparing profiles of water vapor mixing ratio from the lidar with radiosonde measurements over a six month period. The modifications that were implemented resulted in a reduction of the mean bias in the daytime water vapor mixing ratio from a 3% dry bias to well within 1%. This improvement was obtained by ignoring the temporal variation of the glue coefficients and using only the nighttime average glue coefficients throughout the entire diurnal cycle. PMID:19593341

  9. Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Profiling with a Camera Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. E.; Parikh Sharma, N. C.; Kaplan, T.; Clarke, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol measurements at a coastal site on the Big Island of Hawaii were made to assess the usefulness of a new aerosol profiling technique called CLidar (camera lidar). A scientific-grade digital camera was used with a wide-angle lens (>100 deg) to image a vertically-pointed laser beam which was 122 meters away. The image was then analyzed for aerosol scatter much in the same way a monostatic lidar signal is analyzed except that the altitude information is determined by the geometry. The technique has sub-meter altitude resolution near the ground and can be directly compared with in-situ instruments. Aerosol profiles can be acquired through the boundary-layer with lower altitude resolution. CLidar aerosol measurements were made on two evenings where coastal breaking waves from about 400 meters away were added to the background marine boundary layer. A NASA/AERONET aerosol phase function, as well as a previously directly-measured phase function, were used to convert the single-angle CLidar scatter into extinction. A large gradient in aerosols with altitude was found for the first 35 meters with a lower gradient up to 200 meters. This was probably the region affected by the breaking waves. This is a useful result in characterizing the sampling environment. Nephelometers with intakes at 7 and 25 meters were directly compared with the CLidar results. Agreement was better with the directly-measured phase function on the evening with higher wind, possibly indicating the breaking-wave aerosol was changing during the longer transit time of the other evening. Aerosol optical depths (AOD) were calculated with the CLidar data by integrating though the boundary layer. The first evening was clear and agreed, within error bars, with the NASA/MODIS overpass. The CLidar AOD on the second evening, which was partly cloudy, was significantly lower than the MODIS value possibly because of an over estimate of the MODIS instrument near clouds.

  10. Tracking aerosol plumes: lidar, modeling, and in situ measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, Ron J.; Heap, Robert; Sommer, Jeffrey; Princevac, Marko; Peccia, Jordan; Fernando, H.

    2004-09-01

    The authors report on recent progress of on-going research at Arizona State University for tracking aerosol plumes using remote sensing and modeling approaches. ASU participated in a large field experiment, Joint Urban 2003, focused on urban and suburban flows and dispersion phenomena which took place in Oklahoma City during summer 2003. A variety of instruments were deployed, including two Doppler-lidars. ASU deployed one lidar and the Army Research deployed the other. Close communication and collaboration has produced datasets which will be available for dual Doppler analysis. The lidars were situated in a way to provide insight into dynamical flow structures caused by the urban core. Complementary scanning by the two lidars during the July 4 firework display in Oklahoma City demonstrated that smoke plumes could be tracked through the atmosphere above the urban area. Horizontal advection and dispersion of the smoke plumes were tracked on two horizontal planes by the ASU lidar and in two vertical planes with a similar lidar operated by the Army Research Laboratory. A number of plume dispersion modeling systems are being used at ASU for the modeling of plumes in catastrophic release scenarios. Progress using feature tracking techniques and data fusion approaches is presented for utilizing single and dual radial velocity fields from coherent Doppler lidar to improve dispersion modeling. The possibility of producing sensor/computational tools for civil and military defense applications appears worth further investigation. An experiment attempting to characterize bioaerosol plumes (using both lidar and in situ biological measurements) associated with the application of biosolids on agricultural fields is in progress at the time of writing.

  11. Multiple Stokes wavelength generation in H2, D2, and CH4 for lidar aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Zhiping; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results are reported of multiple Stokes generation of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in H2, D2, and CH4 in a focusing geometry. The energies at four Stokes orders were measured as functions of pump energy and gas pressure. The characteristics of the Stokes radiation generated in these gases are compared for optical production of multiple wavelengths. The competition between Raman components is analyzed in terms of cascade Raman scattering and four-wave mixing. The results indicate the possibility of using these generation processes for atmospheric aerosol measurements by means of multiwavelength lidar systems. Also, this study distinguishes between the gases, as regards the tendency to produce several wavelengths (H2,D2) versus the preference to produce mainly first Stokes radiation (CH4).

  12. Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Hair, Johnathan W; Hostetler, Chris A; Cook, Anthony L; Harper, David B; Ferrare, Richard A; Mack, Terry L; Welch, Wayne; Isquierdo, Luis Ramos; Hovis, Floyd E

    2008-12-20

    A compact, highly robust airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) that provides measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients and aerosol depolarization at two wavelengths has been developed, tested, and deployed on nine field experiments (over 650 flight hours). A unique and advantageous design element of the HSRL system is the ability to radiometrically calibrate the instrument internally, eliminating any reliance on vicarious calibration from atmospheric targets for which aerosol loading must be estimated. This paper discusses the design of the airborne HSRL, the internal calibration and accuracy of the instrument, data products produced, and observations and calibration data from the first two field missions: the Joint Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment--Phase B (INTEX-B)/Megacity Aerosol Experiment--Mexico City (MAX-Mex)/Megacities Impacts on Regional and Global Environment (MILAGRO) field mission (hereafter MILAGRO) and the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study/Texas Air Quality Study II (hereafter GoMACCS/TexAQS II). PMID:19104525

  13. Polar stratospheric clouds over Finland in the 2012/2013 Arctic winter measured by two Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Kivi, Rigel; Schrems, Otto; Immler, Franz; Komppula, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Already in December 2012, the Arctic stratospheric vortex reached temperatures sufficiently low for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation over wide areas of Northern Europe and whole Finland. Within Finland, stratospheric aerosol lidar measurements have been and are performed with two Raman lidar systems, the PollyXT, owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and situated well below the Arctic circle close to Kuopio (63 N, 27 E) and the MARL lidar owned by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), and situated at the FMI Arctic Research Centre in Sodankylä (67 N, 26 E). The PollyXT has been designed as an autonomous tropospheric lidar system, but it has proven to be able to detect aerosol backscatter and depolarization at least as high up as 25 km. Measurements are ongoing as far as low clouds allow for stratospheric analysis with both lidars until the end of PSC season in February. For the winter 2012/2013, PSC occurrence frequency, types and characteristics will be determined. Comparative analysis with Calipso lidar profiles covering Finland will be performed. Preliminary results from December 17-24 show PSCs detected in Kuopio during seven days with the PollyXT lidar. The altitude of the clouds varied in the range of 17-25 km. In Sodankylä the measurements were running on one day during the period and PSCs were observed between altitudes 17-25 km. For the same time period (December 17-24, 2012) CALIPSO has observed stratospheric layers at all overpasses over Finland (9 tracks on five days). The clouds were observed between 18.5 and 26 km, with varying geometric and optical thickness.

  14. AGLITE Lidar: A Portable Elastic Lidar System for Investigating Aerosol and Wind Motions at or Around Agricultural Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AGLITE Lidar is a portable scanning lidar that can be quickly deployed at agricultural and other air quality study sites. The purpose of AGLITE is to map the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in aerosol plumes from agricultural sources. AGLITE uses a high-repetition rate low-pulse-energy 3-wavelen...

  15. Aglite Lidar: A Portable Elastic Lidar System for Investigating Aerosol and Wind Motions at or Around Agricultural Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aglite Lidar is a portable scanning lidar that can be quickly deployed at agricultural and other air quality study sites. The purpose of Aglite is to map the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in aerosol plumes from agricultural and other sources. Aglite uses a high-repetition rate low-pulse energy...

  16. Aerosol Optical Depth Climatology Derived from Micropulse Lidar Data at Various ARM Sites World-wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, D. N.; Coulter, R.

    2011-12-01

    Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems have been running at all US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites including 5 permanent and 2 mobile facilities. The locations of the sites represent a broad range of climate conditions around the world [http://www.arm.gov/sites]. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the extinction of solar radiation due to aerosols; liquid and solid particles suspended in the air from natural or man-made sources. In the absence of clouds, the MPL, operating at 532 nm, produces profiles of atmospheric scattering that result from aerosols (Mie-scattering) and molecules (Rayleigh-scattering). In combination with AOD data from the nearly co-located multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), these data can be used to calculate profiles of AOD. The raw data used in this study are averaged in time for 30 seconds and 30 meters in altitude. MPL backscatter observations at the DOE ARM sites from 2007 through 2010 have been examined and used in this AOD climatology. The AOD values at Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are also compared with the corresponding values obtained from a nearly co-located Raman Lidar (RL) operating at 355 nm. The comparison shows good agreement. A multi-year vertical profile of AOD climatology at different ARM sites, including diurnal and seasonal variability will be presented. These results are expected to be of significant importance to the scientific community to understand the aerosol properties and the boundary layer dynamics better as well as to improve global climate models by better incorporating the aerosol radiative effects.

  17. Stable Calibration of Raman Lidar Water-Vapor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been devised to ensure stable, long-term calibration of Raman lidar measurements that are used to determine the altitude-dependent mixing ratio of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Because the lidar measurements yield a quantity proportional to the mixing ratio, rather than the mixing ratio itself, calibration is necessary to obtain the factor of proportionality. The present method involves the use of calibration data from two sources: (1) absolute calibration data from in situ radiosonde measurements made during occasional campaigns and (2) partial calibration data obtained by use, on a regular schedule, of a lamp that emits in a known spectrum determined in laboratory calibration measurements. In this method, data from the first radiosonde campaign are used to calculate a campaign-averaged absolute lidar calibration factor (t(sub 1)) and the corresponding campaign-averaged ration (L(sub 1)) between lamp irradiances at the water-vapor and nitrogen wavelengths. Depending on the scenario considered, this ratio can be assumed to be either constant over a long time (L=L(sub 1)) or drifting slowly with time. The absolutely calibrated water-vapor mixing ratio (q) obtained from the ith routine off-campaign lidar measurement is given by q(sub 1)=P(sub 1)/t(sub 1)=LP(sub 1)/P(sup prime)(sub 1) where P(sub 1) is water-vapor/nitrogen measurement signal ration, t(sub 1) is the unknown and unneeded overall efficiency ratio of the lidar receiver during the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, and P(sup prime)(sub 1) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the ith routine off-campaign measurement run. If L is assumed constant, then the lidar calibration is routinely obtained without the need for new radiosonde data. In this case, one uses L=L(sub 1) = P(sup prime)(sub 1)/t(sub 1), where P(sub 1)(sup prime) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the first radiosonde campaign. If L is assumed to drift slowly, then it is necessary to postpone calculation of a(sub 1) until after a second radiosonde campaign. In this case, one obtains a new value, L(sub 2), from the second radiosonde campaign, and for the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, one uses an intermediate value of L obtained by simple linear time interpolation between L(sub 1) and L(sub 2).

  18. EARLINET: the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network for the Aerosol Climatology on Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Bösenberg, Jens; Amodeo, Aldo; Ansmann, Albert; Apituley, Arnoud; Arboledas, Lucas Alados; Balis, Dimitris; Böckmann, Christine; Chaikovsky, Anatoly; Comeron, Adolfo; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Freudenthaler, Volker; Grigorov, Ivan; Hansen, Georg; Linnè, Holger; Kinne, Stefan; Mattis, Ina; Mona, Lucia; Mueller, Detlef; Mitev, Valentin; Nicolae, Doina; Papayannis, Alexandros; Perrone, Maria Rita; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Pujadas, Manuel; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Ravetta, Francois; Rizi, Vincenzo; Simeonov, Valentin; Spinelli, Nicola; Trickl, Thomas; Wandinger, Ulla; Wiegner, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Lidar techniques represent the most suitable tool to obtain information on the aerosol vertical distribution and therefore to close this kind of observational gap. Lidar networks are fundamental to study aerosol on large spatial scale and to investigate transport and modification phenomena. These are the motivations why EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, was established in 2000, as a research program funded by the European Commission in the frame of the 5th framework program. After the end of the project, the network activity continued on the base of a voluntary association. At present, EARLINET consists of 25 lidar stations distributed over Europe. On March 2006, the EC Project EARLINET-ASOS (Advanced Sustainable Observation System) started on the base of the EARLINET infrastructure. This infrastructure project will enhance the operation of the network. EARLINET data can contribute significantly to the quantification of aerosol concentrations, radiative properties, long-range transport and budget, and prediction of future trends on European and global scale. It can also contribute to improve model treatment on a wide range of scales and to a better exploitation of present and future satellite data.

  19. An Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Database Derived from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network: Applications for Space-based Lidar Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Welton; J. R. Campbell; J. D. Spinhirne; T. A. Berkoff; B. Holben; S. Tsay; A. Bucholtz; E. Reid

    2004-01-01

    Backscatter lidar signals are a function of both backscatter and extinction. Hence, these lidar observations alone cannot separate the two quantities. The aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, S, is the key parameter required to accurately retrieve extinction and optical depth from backscatter lidar observations of aerosol layers. S is commonly defined as 4*pi divided by the product of the single scatter albedo

  20. Analysis and Calibration of CRF Raman Lidar Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D.

    2007-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Raman lidar (RL), located at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF), is a unique state-of-the-art active remote sensor that is able to measure profiles of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud properties at high temporal and vertical resolution throughout the diurnal cycle. In October 2005, the capability of the RL was extended by the addition of a new detection channel that is sensitive to the Raman scattering of liquid water. This new channel permits the system, in theory, to measure profiles of liquid water content (LWC) by the RL. To our knowledge, the ARM RL is the only operation lidar with this capability. The liquid water Raman backscattering cross-section is a relatively weak and spectrally broad feature, relative to the water vapor Raman backscatter signal. The wide bandpass required to achieve reasonable signal-to-noise in the liquid water channel essentially eliminates the ability to measure LWC profiles during the daytime in the presence of large solar background, and thus all LWC observations are nighttime only. Additionally, the wide bandpass increases the probability that other undesirable signals, such as fluorescence from aerosols, may contaminate the observation. The liquid water Raman cross-section has a small amount of overlap with the water vapor Raman cross-section, and thus there will be a small amount of ‘cross-talk’ between the two signals, with water vapor contributing a small amount of signal to the LWC observation. And finally, there is significant uncertainty in the actual strength of the liquid water Raman cross-section in the literature. The calibrated LWC profiles, together with the coincident cloud backscatter observations also made by the RL, can be used to derive profiles of cloud droplet effective radius. By combining these profiles of effective radius in the lower portion of the cloud with the aerosol extinction measurements made below the cloud by the RL, the first aerosol indirect effect can be investigated using a single instrument, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with aligning the different sampling periods and fields of view of multiple instruments. We have applied a “first principles” calibration to the LWC profiles. This approach requires that the relative differences in optical efficiency between the water vapor and liquid water channels be known; this relative difference is easily computed using the efficiency values of the beam splitters and interference filters in the lidar that were provided by the vendors of these components. The first principles approach then transfers the calibration from the water vapor mixing ratio to the LWC using the difference in the optical efficiency and an interpolated value of the liquid water Raman cross section from the literature, and the better established water vapor Raman cross section. After accounting for all known error sources, the vertical integral of LWC was compared against a similar value retrieved from a co-located ground-based infrared radiometer. The RL and infrared radiometer have significantly different fields of view; thus to compare the two sensors the data were averaged to 5 min intervals where only cloudy samples were included in the average of each. While there is fair scatter in the data (r=0.47), there is also a clear indication of a positive correlation between the infrared and the RL values. The value of the slope of the regression is 0.49, which indicates a tendency of the RL measurements to underestimate the total liquid amount with respect to the infrared retrieval. Research continues to investigate the source of the bias, but the most likely candidate is the large uncertainty in the liquid water Raman cross-section as there have been no direct measurements made of this parameter at the lidar’s laser wavelength of 355 nm. The calibrated LWC profile was then used together with the cloud backscatter coefficient profile from the RL to derive profiles of cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number density. These profiles o

  1. Novel Co:MgF2 lidar for aerosol profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharekar, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Lidars are of great interest because of their unique capabilities in remote sensing applications in sounding of the atmosphere, meteorology, and climatology. In this small business innovative research (SBIR) phase II program, laser sources including Co:MgF2, CTH:YAG, CTH:YSGG, CT:YAG, and Er:Glass were evaluated. Modulator of fused silica and TeO2 materials with Brewster's angle end faces were used with these lasers as acousto-optical (AO) Q-switches. A higher hold-off energy and hence a higher Q-switched energy was obtained by using a high power RF driver. The report provides performance characteristics of these lasers. The tunable (1.75-2.50 microns) Co:MgF2 laser damaged the TeO2 Q-switch cell. However, the CTH:YAG laser operating at 2.09 microns provided output energy of over 300 mJ/p in 50 ns pulse width using the fused silica Q-switch. This Q-switched CTH:YAG laser was used in a breadboard vertical aerosol profiler. A 40 cm diameter telescope, InSb and InGaAs detectors were used in the receiver. The data obtained using this lidar is provided in the report. The data shows that the eye safe lidar using CTH:YAG laser for the vertical aerosol density and range measurements is the viable approach.

  2. MPLNET lidar data assimilation in the ECMWF MACC-II Aerosol system: evaluation of model performances at NCU lidar station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Benedetti, Angela; Jones, Luke; Suttie, Martin; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric profiles of the optical aerosol properties through the retrieved backscattering or extinction coefficients by lidar measurements can improve drastically the MACC-II aerosol model performances on vertical dimension. Currently the MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth data (both from Terra and Aqua) are assimilated into the model. Being a columnintegrated quantity, these data do not modify the model aerosol vertical profile, especially if the aerosols are not interactive with the meteorology. Since 1999, the MPLNET lidar network provides continuously lidar data measurements from worldwide permanent stations (currently 21), deployed from the Arctic to the Antarctic regions and in tropical and equatorial zones. The purpose of this study is to show the first preliminary results of the intercomparison of MPLNET lidar data against the ECWMF MACC-II aerosol model, for a selected MPLNET permanent observational site at National Central University of Taiwan. Assessing the model performances it is the first step for future near-real time lidar data assimilation into MACC-II aerosol model forecast.

  3. Feasibility Study For A Spaceborne Ozone/Aerosol Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard E.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Carswell, Allan I.; Ulitsky, Arkady

    1997-01-01

    Because ozone provides a shield against harmful ultraviolet radiation, determines the temperature profile in the stratosphere, plays important roles in tropospheric chemistry and climate, and is a health risk near the surface, changes in natural ozone layers at different altitudes and their global impact are being intensively researched. Global ozone coverage is currently provided by passive optical and microwave satellite sensors that cannot deliver high spatial resolution measurements and have particular limitations in the troposphere. Vertical profiling DIfferential Absorption Lidars (DIAL) have shown excellent range-resolved capabilities, but these systems have been large, inefficient, and have required continuous technical attention for long term operations. Recently, successful, autonomous DIAL measurements have been performed from a high-altitude aircraft (LASE - Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment), and a space-qualified aerosol lidar system (LITE - Laser In-space Technology Experiment) has performed well on Shuttle. Based on the above successes, NASA and the Canadian Space Agency are jointly studying the feasibility of developing ORACLE (Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiments), an autonomously operated, compact DIAL instrument to be placed in orbit using a Pegasus class launch vehicle.

  4. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  5. Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Sasano; Edward V. Browell

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the potential of a multiple-wavelength lidar for discriminating between several aerosol types on the basis of the wavelength dependence of the aerosol backscatter coefficient. The two-component lidar equation was solved under the assumption of similarity in the derived profiles of backscatter coefficients for each wavelength. It is shown that a three-wavelength lidar system operating at 300,

  6. Estimation and discrimination of aerosols using multiple wavelength LWIR lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ahl, Jeffrey L.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent work by the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) in algorithm development for parameter estimation and classification of localized atmospheric aerosols using data from rapidly tuned multiple-wavelength range-resolved LWIR lidar. The motivation for this work is the need to detect, locate, and discriminate biological threat aerosols in the atmosphere from interferent materials such as dust and smoke at safe standoff ranges using time-series data collected at a discrete set of CO2 laser wavelengths. The goals of the processing are to provide real-time aerosol detection, localization, and discrimination. Earlier work by the authors has produced an efficient Kalman filter-based algorithm for estimating the range-dependent aerosol concentration and wavelength-dependent backscatter signatures. The latter estimates are used as feature vectors for training support vector machines classifiers for performing the discrimination. Several years of field testing under the Joint Biological Standoff Detection System program at Dugway Proving Ground, UT, Eglin Air Force Base, FL, and other locations have produced data and backscatter estimates from a broad range of biological and interferent aerosol materials for the classifier development. The results of this work are summarized in our presentation.

  7. NEW REMOTELY-OPERATED RAMAN-MIE-RAYLEIGH LIDAR IN THE HIGH CANADIAN ARCTIC

    E-print Network

    Duck, Thomas J.

    a low-bandwidth satellite data link. The entire laboratory and lidar; from the roof hatch, to laser. The CANDAC Raman Lidar (CRL) is built around two Nd:YAG lasers, one operating at the second harmonic of 532nm rack and shelving. On a single op- tical table are the lasers, outgoing optics, and polychro- mator

  8. Study of Droplet Activation in Thin Clouds Using Ground-based Raman Lidar and Ancillary Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio; Gumà Claramunt, Pilar; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Studies on global climate change show that the effects of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) on the Earth's radiation balance and climate, also known as indirect aerosol effects, are the most uncertain among all the effects involving the atmospheric constituents and processes (Stocker et al., IPCC, 2013). Droplet activation is the most important and challenging process in the understanding of ACI. It represents the direct microphysical link between aerosols and clouds and it is probably the largest source of uncertainty in estimating indirect aerosol effects. An accurate estimation of aerosol-clouds microphysical and optical properties in proximity and within the cloud boundaries represents a good frame for the study of droplet activation. This can be obtained by using ground-based profiling remote sensing techniques. In this work, a methodology for the experimental investigation of droplet activation, based on ground-based multi-wavelength Raman lidar and Doppler radar technique, is presented. The study is focused on the observation of thin liquid water clouds, which are low or midlevel super-cooled clouds characterized by a liquid water path (LWP) lower than about 100 gm-2(Turner et al., 2007). These clouds are often optically thin, which means that ground-based Raman lidar allows the detection of the cloud top and of the cloud structure above. Broken clouds are primarily inspected to take advantage of their discontinuous structure using ground based remote sensing. Observations are performed simultaneously with multi-wavelength Raman lidars, a cloud Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory: www.ciao.imaa.cnr.it), in Potenza, Southern Italy (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l.). A statistical study of the variability of optical properties and humidity in the transition from cloudy regions to cloud-free regions surrounding the clouds leads to the identification of threshold values for the optical properties, enabling the discrimination between clouds and cloudless regions. Furthermore, a statistical study of the Doppler radar moments allows to retrieve droplet size and vertical velocities close to the cloud base. First evidences of a correlation between updrafts and downdrafts and aerosol effective radius have been found.

  9. NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Clouds during the International H2O Project (IHOP) Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David; Demoz, Belay; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Wang, Zhi-En; Evans, Keith; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SFL) acquired approximately 200 hours of water vapor, aerosol and cloud measurements during the IHOP field campaign. The detailed water vapor structure of events such as a dryline passage and internal bores were revealed. We discuss the error characteristics of the instrument as well as the water vapor and cirrus cloud structure during the 19-20 June bore event.

  10. Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning Raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Turner, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1998-04-01

    Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warning scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

  11. Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David; Turner, David; Evans, Keith; Demoz, Belay; Melfi, Harvey; Schwemmer, Geary; Cadirola, Martin; Ferrare, Richard; Goldsmith, John; Tooman, Tim; Wise, Stacy

    1998-01-01

    Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warming scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

  12. Airborne lidar measurements of El Chichon stratospheric aerosols, January 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick; Osborn, M. T.

    1987-01-01

    A lidar-equipped NASA Electra aircraft was flown in January 1984 between the latitude of 38 and 90 deg N. One of the primary purposes of this mission was to determine the spatial distribution and aerosol characteristics of El Chichon produced stratospheric material. Lidar data from that portion of the flight mission between 38 deg N and 77 deg N is presented. Representative profiles of lidar backscatter ratio, a plot of the integral backscattering function versus latitude, and contours of backscatter mixing ratio versus altitude and latitude are given. In addition, tables containing numerical values of the backscatter ratio and backscattering function versus altitude are applied for each profile. These data clearly show that material produced by the El Chichon eruptions of late March-early April 1982 had spread throughout the latitudes covered by this mission, and that the most massive portion of the material resided north of 55 deg N and was concentrated below 17 km in a layer that peaked at 13 to 15 km. In this latitude region, peak backscatter ratios at a wavelength of 0.6943 microns were approximately 3 and the peak integrated backscattering function was about 15 X 10 to the -4/sr corresponding to a peak optical depth of approximately 0.07. This report presents the results of this mission in a ready-to-use format for atmospheric and climatic studies.

  13. Mie lidar observations of lower tropospheric aerosols and clouds.

    PubMed

    Veerabuthiran, S; Razdan, A K; Jindal, M K; Dubey, D K; Sharma, R C

    2011-12-15

    Mie lidar system is developed at Laser Science and Technology Centre, Delhi (28.38°N, 77.12°E) by using minimal number of commercially available off-the-shelf components. Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser operating at 1064nm with variable pulse energies between 25 and 400 mJ with 10 Hz repetition rate and 7ns pulse duration is used as a transmitter and off-axis CASSEGRAIN telescope with 100mm diameter as a receiver. Silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) module with built-in preamplifier and front-end optics is used as detector. This system has been developed for the studies of lower tropospheric aerosols and clouds. Some experiments have been conducted using this set up and preliminary results are discussed. The characteristics of backscattered signals for various transmitter pulse energies are also studied. Atmospheric aerosol extinction coefficient values are calculated using Klett lidar inversion algorithm. The extinction coefficient, in general, falls with range in the lower troposphere and the values lie typically in the range 7.5×10(-5) m(-1) to 1.12×10(-4) m(-1) in the absence of any cloud whereas this value shoots maximum up to 1.267×10(-3) m(-1) (peak extinction) in the presence of clouds. PMID:21975046

  14. Mie lidar observations of lower tropospheric aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerabuthiran, S.; Razdan, A. K.; Jindal, M. K.; Dubey, D. K.; Sharma, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Mie lidar system is developed at Laser Science and Technology Centre, Delhi (28.38°N, 77.12°E) by using minimal number of commercially available off-the-shelf components. Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser operating at 1064 nm with variable pulse energies between 25 and 400 mJ with 10 Hz repetition rate and 7 ns pulse duration is used as a transmitter and off-axis CASSEGRAIN telescope with 100 mm diameter as a receiver. Silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) module with built-in preamplifier and front-end optics is used as detector. This system has been developed for the studies of lower tropospheric aerosols and clouds. Some experiments have been conducted using this set up and preliminary results are discussed. The characteristics of backscattered signals for various transmitter pulse energies are also studied. Atmospheric aerosol extinction coefficient values are calculated using Klett lidar inversion algorithm. The extinction coefficient, in general, falls with range in the lower troposphere and the values lie typically in the range 7.5 × 10 -5 m -1 to 1.12 × 10 -4 m -1 in the absence of any cloud whereas this value shoots maximum up to 1.267 × 10 -3 m -1 (peak extinction) in the presence of clouds.

  15. Microphysical aerosol parameters of spheroidal particles via regularized inversion of lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Stefanos; Böckmann, Christine

    2015-04-01

    One of the main topics in understanding the aerosol impact on climate requires the investigation of the spatial and temporal variability of microphysical properties of particles, e.g., the complex refractive index, the effective radius, the volume and surface-area concentration, and the single-scattering albedo. Remote sensing is a technique used to monitor aerosols in global coverage and fill in the observational gap. This research topic involves using multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems to extract the microphysical properties of aerosol particles, along with depolarization signals to account for the non-sphericity of the latter. Given, the optical parameters (measured by a lidar), the kernel functions, which summarize the size, shape and composition of particles, we solve for the size distribution of the particles modeled by a Fredholm integral system and further calculate the refractive index. This model works well for spherical particles (e.g. smoke); the kernel functions are derived from relatively simplified formulas (Mie scattering theory) and research has led to successful retrievals for particles which at least resemble a spherical geometry (small depolarization ratio). Obviously, more complicated atmospheric structures (e.g dust) require employment of non-spherical kernels and/or more complicated models which are investigated in this paper. The new model is now a two-dimensional one including the aspect ratio of spheroidal particles. The spheroidal kernel functions are able to be calculated via T-Matrix; a technique used for computing electromagnetic scattering by single, homogeneous, arbitrarily shaped particles. In order to speed up the process and massively perform simulation tests, we created a software interface using different regularization methods and parameter choice rules. The following methods have been used: Truncated singular value decomposition and Pade iteration with the discrepancy principle, and Tikhonov regularization with the L-curve-method as well as the generalized cross validation method. Data can be read directly from netcdf-files of the EARLINET data base. First promising results will be shown.

  16. Raman lidar profiling of atmospheric water vapor: Simultaneous measurements with two collocated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Bisson, Scott E.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith D.; Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Raman lidar is a leading candidate for providing the detailed space- and time-resolved measurements of water vapor needed by a variety of atmospheric studies. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor are described using two collocated Raman lidar systems. These lidar systems, developed at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Sandia National Laboratories, acquired approximately 12 hours of simultaneous water vapor data during three nights in November 1992 while the systems were collocated at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Although these lidar systems differ substantially in their design, measured water vapor profiles agreeed within 0.15 g/kg between altitudes of 1 and 5 km. Comparisons with coincident radiosondes showed all instruments agreed within 0.2 g/kg in this same altitude range. Both lidars also clearly showed the advection of water vapor in the middle troposphere and the pronounced increase in water vapor in the nocturnal boundary layer that occurred during one night.

  17. Aglite lidar: a portable elastic lidar system for investigating aerosol and wind motions at or around agricultural production facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian C. Marchant; Thomas Wilkerson; Gail E. Bingham; Vladimir V. Zavyalov; Jan M. Andersen; Cordell B. Wright; Scott S. Cornelsen; Randal S. Martin; Philip J. Silva; Jerry L. Hatfield

    2009-01-01

    The Aglite Lidar is a portable scanning lidar that can be quickly deployed at agricultural and other air quality study sites. The purpose of Aglite is to map the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in aerosol plumes from agricultural and other sources. Aglite uses a high-repetition rate low-pulse energy 3-wavelength YAG laser with photon-counting detection together with a steerable pointing

  18. Systems engineering tradeoffs for a bio-aerosol lidar referee system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Jeffery W.; Thomas, Michael E.; Rogala, Eric W.; Maret, Arthur R.; Schumacher, Camille A.; Diaz, Antonio

    2004-08-01

    Analytical results and tradeoffs are reported for an aerosol lidar system that is intended to serve as a referee during testing of standoff bio-aerosol detection systems. The lidar system is still under development by Dugway Proving Grounds -- results from the operational system are not included in this paper. The recommended configuration of the lidar system is to use a 1064 nm lidar in elastic mode to measure the concentration of the aerosol, and a 355 nm excitation to measure the fluorescence of the bio-aerosol. Both of these measurements are important in scoring the performance of the systems that will be tested at DPG. Performance tradeoffs and predictions are presented primarily for the elastic mode lidar. The elastic mode lidar is designed to make measurements out to ranges of approximately 15 km. The UV fluorescence mode of operation is intended to support discrimination of bio-aerosols from non-biological aerosols, and is only required to operate at a range of 1 km. The optical design of the proposed telescope supports dual wavelength operation, allows for effective TV camera imaging for test and alignment support, and tailors the optical overlap function for the UV and near IR lidar to optimize the performance of both subsystems.

  19. Determination of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles from LIDAR data using the optical depth solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparna, John; Satheesh, S. K.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2006-12-01

    The LIDAR equation contains four unknown variables in a two-component atmosphere where the effects caused by both molecules and aerosols have to be considered. The inversion of LIDAR returns to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles, thus, calls for some functional relationship to be assumed between these two. The Klett's method, assumes a functional relationship between the extinction and backscatter. In this paper, we apply a different technique, called the optical depth solution, where we made use of the total optical depth or transmittance of the atmosphere along the LIDAR-measurement range. This method provides a stable solution to the LIDAR equation. In this study, we apply this technique to the data obtained using a micro pulse LIDAR (MPL, model 1000, Science and Engineering Services Inc) to retrieve the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction coefficient. The LIDAR is equipped with Nd-YLF laser at an operating wavelength of 523.5 nm and the data were collected over Bangalore. The LIDAR data are analyzed to get to weighted extinction coefficient profiles or the weighted sum of aerosol and molecular extinction coefficient profiles. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol column optical depth (at 500 nm) using a Microtops sun photometer were used in the retrievals. The molecular extinction coefficient is determined assuming standard atmospheric conditions. The aerosol extinction coefficient profiles are determined by subtracting the molecular part from the weighted extinction coefficient profiles. The details of the method and the results obtained are presented.

  20. Assessing spaceborne lidar detection and characterization of aerosols near clouds using coincident airborne lidar and other measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Vaughan, M.; Omar, A. H.; Burton, S. P.; Rogers, R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    The objectives are to 1) evaluate potential shortcomings in the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol height detection concerning specific biomass burning smoke events informed by airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) in different cloud environments and 2) study the lidar-derived atmospheric parameters in the vicinity of clouds for the cases where smoke is within or above clouds. In the case of light absorbing aerosols like biomass burning smoke, studies show that the greater the cloud cover below the aerosols, the more likely the aerosols are to heat the planet. An accurate aerosol height assumption is also crucial to a correct retrieval of aerosol chemical composition from passive space-based measurements (through the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and aerosol absorption coefficient, as exemplified by aerosol retrievals using the passive Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)). Strong smoke events are recognized as very difficult to quantify from space using passive (MODIS, OMI etc...) or active (CALIOP) satellite sensors for different reasons. This study is performed through (i) the selection of smoke events with coincident CALIOP and airborne HSRL aerosol observations, with smoke presence determined according to the HSRL aerosol classification data, (ii) the order of such events by range of HSRL aerosol optical depth, total color ratio and depolarization ratio (the latter two informing on the size and shape of the particles) and the evaluation of CALIOP's detection, classification and retrieval performance for each event, (iii) the study of the HSRL (or CALIOP when available) atmospheric parameters (total color ratio, volume depolarization ratio, mean attenuated backscatter) in the vicinity of clouds for each smoke event.

  1. Macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.; Turner, David D.

    2013-08-01

    Lidar observations of cirrus cloud macrophysical properties over the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Darwin, Australia, site are compared from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the ground-based ARM micropulse lidar (MPL), and the ARM Raman lidar (RL). Comparisons are made using the subset of profiles where the lidar beam is not fully attenuated. Daytime measurements using the RL are shown to be relatively unaffected by the solar background and are therefore suited for checking the validity of diurnal cycles. RL and CALIPSO cloud fraction profiles show good agreement while the MPL detects significantly less cirrus, particularly during the daytime. Both MPL and CALIPSO observations show that cirrus clouds occur less frequently during the day than at night at all altitudes. In contrast, the RL diurnal cycle is significantly different from zero only below about 11 km; where it is of opposite sign (i.e., more clouds during the daytime). For cirrus geometrical thickness, the MPL and CALIPSO observations agree well and both data sets have significantly thinner clouds during the daytime than the RL. From the examination of hourly MPL and RL cirrus cloud thickness and through the application of daytime detection limits to all CALIPSO data, we find that the decreased MPL and CALIPSO cloud thickness during the daytime is very likely a result of increased daytime noise. This study highlights the significant improvement the RL provides (compared to the MPL) in the ARM program's ability to observe tropical cirrus clouds and will help improve our understanding of these clouds. The RL also provides a valuable ground-based lidar data set for the evaluation of CALIPSO observations.

  2. Adaptive algorithms for the fully-automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol extinction profiles from CALIPSO lidar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart A. Young; Mark A. Vaughan; David M. Winker

    2003-01-01

    The difficulties associated with the analysis of lidar data acquired from space are discussed. Novel methods to overcome these problems will be used in the analysis of lidar data from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) (1) mission and are described here. The analysis of lidar data measured from space-based platforms is associated with difficulties not encountered to

  3. The GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION) as a source of near-real time aerosol profile data for model evaluation and assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Hoff; G. Pappalardo

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch's Science Advisory Group on Aerosols described a global network of lidar networks called GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION). GALION has a purpose of providing expanded coverage of aerosol observations for climate and air quality use. Comprised of networks in Asia (AD-NET), Europe (EARLINET and CIS-LINET), North America (CREST and CORALNET), South America

  4. Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and Backscatter Relationships 

    E-print Network

    Cho, Hyoun-Myoung

    2012-02-14

    comparison of mineral dust aerosol retrievals from two instruments, MODIS and CALIPSO lidar. And, we implement and evaluate a new mineral dust detection algorithm based on the analysis of thin dust radiative signature. In comparison, three commonly used...

  5. Saturation correction near the ground for pure rotational Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, He; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Saturation correction for photon counting near the Earth's surface can improve the accuracy of temperature measurement in the troposphere by pure rotational Raman lidar (PRRL). The PRRL system uses a 532-nm band as a light source, and the echo signals of high-J and low-J channels separated by a double grating monochromator are used for temperature profile inversion. The pulse-height distribution and the discriminator level selection in the system, which comprise a photomultiplier and a photon counter, saturate photon counting near the ground and affect the echo signals from the higher layer for calibration. Given its nonlinear effect on the photomultiplier tubes, the correction method is applied to the echo signals of the calibration interval in troposphere temperature measurements. The method not only reduces the error in temperature measurement (the root-mean-square error of temperature reaches 1.5 K), but also accurately indicates the distribution of the inversion layer within the boundary layer. It can be applied to deal with the saturation phenomenon of a photomultiplier tube.

  6. Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using Seoul National University ground-based lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-W. Kim; S. Berthier; P. Chazette; J.-C. Raut; F. Dulac; S.-C. Yoon

    2007-01-01

    We present first observationally based validations of the space-borne lidar CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite using coincidental observations from a ground-based SNU lidar for 3 different types of atmospheric scenes. Both lidar measurements were taken in nearly same airmass in space and time. Total attenuated backscatters at 532 nm from the two instruments show similar aerosol and cloud layer structures (the

  7. Lidar measurements of cirrus clouds, aerosols and dust at Chung-Li (25N,121E)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Nee; C. W. Jian; A. Liang; W. N. Chen

    2003-01-01

    Dust, clouds, and aerosols in the 0-30 km have been measured by using a Mie scattering lidar at the National Central University in Chung-Li (25 N,121 E). The lidar system consists of a 532\\/1064 nm transmitter, two telescopes with diameters of 45 cm and 20 cm, and detector and signal analyses systems. NCU lidar system has been used to measure

  8. Lidar estimation of tropospheric aerosol extinction, surface area and volume: Maritime and desert-dust cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Barnaba; Gian Paolo Gobbi

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model, based on a Monte Carlo approach, is presented to determine functional relationships linking backscatter and other important properties as extinction, surface area, and volume of tropospheric aerosols. If existing, such relationships allow for a direct estimate of such properties by means of a single-wavelength lidar measurement. To be employed in a lidar inversion procedure, the extinction to

  9. Measurement of the Lidar Ratio for Atmospheric Aerosols using a 180-Backscatter Nephelometer

    E-print Network

    Measurement of the Lidar Ratio for Atmospheric Aerosols using a 180°-Backscatter Nephelometer 98195-1640 Anderson, Theodore L. Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Oceans, University, and Environmental Optics Doherty, S.J., T.L. Anderson, and R.J. Charlson, Measurement of the lidar ratio

  10. CALIPSO space-based aerosol lidar: flight software design and planned operations paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. DeCoursey; William H. Hunt; Sudha Natarajan; Ron Verhappen; Mary Beth Wusk; Patricia L. Lucker

    2005-01-01

    The CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol LIDAR Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite is due to launch from Vandenberg AFB aboard a Delta rocket in April of 2005. CALIPSO is an international mission consisting of NASA, Ball Aerospace and the French space agency CNES. Onboard CALIPSO are three instruments, a two wavelength\\/two polarization lidar, an Infrared radiometer and a wide field camera. This

  11. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  12. Polarization lidar at 1.54??m and observations of plumes from aerosol generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane D. Mayor; Scott M. Spuler; Bruce M. Morley; Eric Loew

    2007-01-01

    The ability to detect relative changes in backscatter polariza- tion from a scanning high-pulse-energy lidar system at 1.54-m wave- length is demonstrated. The new capability was tested during the dis- semination of various biological aerosol simulants and other particulate emissions at the U.S. Army's Dugway Proving Ground. Results demon- strate that the lidar is sensitive to different types of aerosols,

  13. Troposphere-Stratosphere transport in the tropics from CALIPSO lidar aerosols measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P. Vernier; J.-P. Pommereau; A. Garnier; J. Pelon

    2009-01-01

    Troposphere Stratosphere transport in the tropics from CALIPSO lidar aerosols measurements J.P. Vernier, J.P. Pommereau, A. Garnier and J. Pelon CNRS-LATMOS Verrières le Buisson, 91371 France The evolution of the aerosols in the tropical tropopause region is investigated from the CALIOP lidar measurements onboard the CALIPSO satellite. After applying a correction for calibration and appropriate cloud mask, a consistent picture

  14. Algorithm to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Properties From High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar and Polarization Mie-Scattering Lidar Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoaki Nishizawa; Nobuo Sugimoto; Ichiro Matsui; Atsushi Shimizu; Boyan Tatarov; Hajime Okamoto

    2008-01-01

    We developed an algorithm to estimate the vertical profiles of extinction coefficients at 532 nm for three aerosol types that are water-soluble, soot, and dust particles, using the extinction and backscattering coefficients at 532 nm for total aerosols derived from high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) measurements and the receiving signal at 1064 nm and total depolarization ratio at 532 nm measured with

  15. Stratospheric aerosol increase after eruption of Pinatubo observed with lidar and aureolemeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, Sachiko; Sasano, Yasuhiro; Nakane, Hideaki; Matsui, Ichiro; Hayasaka, Tadahiro

    1994-01-01

    An increase in the amount of stratospheric aerosol due to the Pinatubo eruption (June 12-15, 1991, 15.14 deg N, 120.35 deg E) was observed from the end of June, 1991 by a lidar in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies), Tsukuba (36.0 deg N, 140.1 deg E). After large fluctuations in summer of 1991, the amount of the aerosols increased in mid-September as a result of enhanced transportation from the subtropical region. In autumn and winter of 1991, dense aerosol layers were continuously observed. Aureolemeter (scanning spectral radiometer) measurements were also carried out with lidar measurements and columnar size distribution of stratospheric aerosols was estimated for some cases. Collaborative measurements with the lidar and aureolemeter provided some information on height distribution of the surface area of aerosols in late 1991.

  16. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a new lidar for aerosol and cloud profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, E. J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Palm, S. P.; Colarco, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time data capability of the ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as air quality and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data.

  17. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time data capability of the ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as air quality and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data.

  18. Lidar measurements of the post-fuego stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hake, R. D., Jr.; Viezee, W.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol were made between February and November 1975. All observations revealed the greatly increased particulate backscattering that followed the eruption of the volcano Fuego in October 1974. Vertical structure consisted initially of multiple layers, which later merged to form a single, broader peak. Essentially all of the increased scattering was confined to altitudes below 20 km. Hence, aerosol layer centroids in 1975 were typically several km below their altitude prior to the eruption. Radiative and thermal consequences of the measured post-Fuego layer were computed using several recently published models. The models predict a temperature increase of several K at the altitude of the layer, caused by the infrared absorption bands of the sulfuric acid particles. The surface temperature decrease predicted by the models is considerably smaller than 1 K, partly because of the small optical thickness of the volcanic layer, and partly because of its short residence time relative to the earth-ocean thermal response time.

  19. A theoretical/experimental program to develop active optical pollution sensors: Quantitative remote Raman lidar measurements of pollutants from stationary sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poultney, S. K.; Brumfield, M. L.; Siviter, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Typical pollutant gas concentrations at the stack exits of stationary sources can be estimated to be about 500 ppm under the present emission standards. Raman lidar has a number of advantages which makes it a valuable tool for remote measurements of these stack emissions. Tests of the Langley Research Center Raman lidar at a calibration tank indicate that night measurements of SO2 concentrations and stack opacity are possible. Accuracies of 10 percent are shown to be achievable from a distance of 300 m within 30 min integration times for 500 ppm SO2 at the stack exits. All possible interferences were examined quantitatively (except for the fluorescence of aerosols in actual stack emissions) and found to have negligible effect on the measurements. An early test at an instrumented stack is strongly recommended.

  20. Atmospheric lidar research applying to H2O, O2 and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcilrath, T. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental research on a near infrared tunable dye laser was reported, and theoretical simulations were presented for various lidar configurations. The visible and nearinfrared wavelengths considered were suitable for observations of aerosols, water vapor, molecular oxygen pressure and temperature in the troposphere and above. The first phase of development work was described on a ruby pumped, tunable dye laser for the wavelength region 715 to 740 nanometers. Lidar simulations were summarized for measurements of H2O and for two color lidar observations of aerosols in the atmosphere.

  1. Lidar remote sensing of aerosols and clouds from space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Winker; J. Pelon

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, optical remote sensing from space has been performed using passive instruments. Active sensing by satellite lidars will soon add significant new capabilities for atmospheric sensing. The lidar technique is characterized by high vertical resolution and independence of lighting conditions. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) flew on the Space Shuttle in 1994 and demonstrated active sensing by lidar

  2. Water Vapor Measurements by Howard University Raman Lidar during the WAVES 2006 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, M.; Demoz, B. B.; Whiteman, D. N.; Venable, D. D.; Joseph E.; Gambacorta, A.; Wei, J.; Shephard, M. W.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Barnet, C. D.; Herman, R. L.; Fitzgibbon, J.; Connell, R.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio using the Howard University Raman Lidar is presented with emphasis on three aspects: i) performance of the lidar against collocated radiosondes and Raman lidar, ii) investigation of the atmospheric state variables when poor agreement between lidar and radiosondes values occurred and iii) a comparison with satellite-based measurements. The measurements were acquired during the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Sondes/Satellites 2006 field campaign. Ensemble averaging of water vapor mixing ratio data from ten night-time comparisons with Vaisala RS92 radiosondes shows on average an agreement within 10 % up to approx. 8 km. A similar analysis of lidar-to-lidar data of over 700 profiles revealed an agreement to within 20 % over the first 7 km (10 % below 4 km). A grid analysis, defined in the temperature - relative humidity space, was developed to characterize the lidar - radiosonde agreement and quantitatively localizes regions of strong and weak correlations as a function of altitude, temperature or relative humidity. Three main regions of weak correlation emerge: i) regions of low relative humidity and low temperature, ii) moderate relative humidity at low temperatures and iii) low relative humidity at moderate temperatures. Comparison of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder and Tropospheric Emission Sounder satellites retrievals of moisture with that of Howard University Raman Lidar showed a general agreement in the trend but the formers miss a lot of the details in atmospheric structure due to their low resolution. A relative difference of about 20 % is usually found between lidar and satellites measurements.

  3. Towards quantifying mesoscale flows in the troposphere using Raman lidar and Sondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoz, B.; Starr, D.; Evans, K.; Whiteman, D.; Melfi, S.; Turner, D.; Ferrare, R.; Goldsmith, J.; Schwemmer, G.; Cadirola, M.

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in the energetics of the boundary layer processes which in turn play a key role in regulating regional and global climate. It plays a primary role in Earth's hydrological cycle, in radiation balance as a direct absorber of infrared radiation, and in atmospheric circulation as a latent heat energy source, as well as in determining cloud development and atmospheric stability. Water vapor concentration, expressed as a mass mixing ratio (g kg(exp -l)), is conserved in all meteorological processes except condensation and evaporation. This property makes it an ideal choice for studying many of the atmosphere's dynamic features. Raman scattering measurements from lidar also allow retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio profiles at high temporal and vertical resolution. Raman lidars sense water vapor to altitudes not achievable with towers and surface systems, sample the atmosphere at much higher temporal resolution than radiosondes or satellites, and do not require strong vertical gradients or turbulent fluctuations in temperature that is required by acoustic sounders and radars. Analysis of highly-resolved water vapor profiles are used here to characterize two important mesoscale flows: thunderstorm outflows and a cold front passage. The data were obtained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (CART) by the groundbased Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories lidar (CART Raman lidar or CARL) and Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL). A detailed discussion of the SRL and CARL performance during the IOPs is given by others in this meeting.

  4. AGLITE: a multiwavelength lidar for aerosol size distributions, flux, and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Bingham, Gail E.; Swasey, Jason A.; Hancock, Jed J.; Crowther, Blake G.; Cornelsen, Scott S.; Marchant, Christian; Cutts, James N.; Huish, David C.; Earl, Curtis L.; Andersen, Jan M.; Cox, McLain L.

    2006-05-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a new multiwavelength lidar developed for the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture and its program on particle emissions from animal production facilities. The lidar incorporates a laser emitting simultaneous, pulsed Nd laser radiation at 355, 532 and 1064 nm at a PRF of 10 kHz. Lidar backscatter and extinction data are modeled to extract the aerosol information. All-reflective optics combined with dichroic and interferometric filters permit all the wavelength channels to be measured simultaneously, day or night, using photon counting by PMTs, an APD, and high speed scaling. The lidar is housed in a transportable trailer for all-weather operation at any accessible site. The laser beams are directed in both azimuth and elevation to targets of interest. We describe application of the lidar in a multidisciplinary atmospheric study at a swine production farm in Iowa. Aerosol plumes emitted from the hog barns were prominent phenomena, and their variations with temperature, turbulence, stability and feed cycle were studied, using arrays of particle samplers and turbulence detectors. Other lidar measurements focused on air motion as seen by long duration scans of the farm region. Successful operation of this lidar confirms the value of multiwavelength, eye-safe lidars for agricultural aerosol measurements.

  5. Forest fire smoke layers observed in the free troposphere over Portugal with a multiwavelength Raman lidar: optical and microphysical properties.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno Pereira, Sérgio; Preißler, Jana; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Silva, Ana Maria; Wagner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Vertically resolved optical and microphysical properties of biomass burning aerosols, measured in 2011 with a multiwavelength Raman lidar, are presented. The transportation time, within 1-2 days (or less), pointed towards the presence of relatively fresh smoke particles over the site. Some strong layers aloft were observed with particle backscatter and extinction coefficients (at 355 nm) greater than 5 Mm(-1)sr(-1) and close to 300 Mm(-1), respectively. The particle intensive optical properties showed features different from the ones reported for aged smoke, but rather consistent with fresh smoke. The Ångström exponents were generally high, mainly above 1.4, indicating a dominating accumulation mode. Weak depolarization values, as shown by the small depolarization ratio of 5% or lower, were measured. Furthermore, the lidar ratio presented no clear wavelength dependency. The inversion of the lidar signals provided a set of microphysical properties including particle effective radius below 0.2 ?m, which is less than values previously observed for aged smoke particles. Real and imaginary parts of refractive index of about 1.5-1.6 and 0.02i, respectively, were derived. The single scattering albedo was in the range between 0.85 and 0.93; these last two quantities indicate the nonnegligible absorbing characteristics of the observed particles. PMID:25114964

  6. Forest Fire Smoke Layers Observed in the Free Troposphere over Portugal with a Multiwavelength Raman Lidar: Optical and Microphysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno Pereira, Sérgio; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Silva, Ana Maria; Wagner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Vertically resolved optical and microphysical properties of biomass burning aerosols, measured in 2011 with a multiwavelength Raman lidar, are presented. The transportation time, within 1-2 days (or less), pointed towards the presence of relatively fresh smoke particles over the site. Some strong layers aloft were observed with particle backscatter and extinction coefficients (at 355?nm) greater than 5?Mm?1?sr?1 and close to 300?Mm?1, respectively. The particle intensive optical properties showed features different from the ones reported for aged smoke, but rather consistent with fresh smoke. The Ångström exponents were generally high, mainly above 1.4, indicating a dominating accumulation mode. Weak depolarization values, as shown by the small depolarization ratio of 5% or lower, were measured. Furthermore, the lidar ratio presented no clear wavelength dependency. The inversion of the lidar signals provided a set of microphysical properties including particle effective radius below 0.2??m, which is less than values previously observed for aged smoke particles. Real and imaginary parts of refractive index of about 1.5-1.6 and 0.02i, respectively, were derived. The single scattering albedo was in the range between 0.85 and 0.93; these last two quantities indicate the nonnegligible absorbing characteristics of the observed particles. PMID:25114964

  7. Scanning tropospheric ozone and aerosol lidar with double-gated photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Machol, Janet L; Marchbanks, Richard D; Senff, Christoph J; McCarty, Brandi J; Eberhard, Wynn L; Brewer, William A; Richter, Ronald A; Alvarez, Raul J; Law, Daniel C; Weickmann, Ann M; Sandberg, Scott P

    2009-01-20

    The Ozone Profiling Atmospheric Lidar is a scanning four-wavelength ultraviolet differential absorption lidar that measures tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Derived profiles from the lidar data include ozone concentration, aerosol extinction, and calibrated aerosol backscatter. Aerosol calibrations assume a clear air region aloft. Other products include cloud base heights, aerosol layer heights, and scans of particulate plumes from aircraft. The aerosol data range from 280 m to 12 km with 5 m range resolution, while the ozone data ranges from 280 m to about 1.2 km with 100 m resolution. In horizontally homogeneous atmospheres, data from multiple-elevation angles is combined to reduce the minimum altitude of the aerosol and ozone profiles to about 20 m. The lidar design, the characterization of the photomultiplier tubes, ozone and aerosol analysis techniques, and sample data are described. Also discussed is a double-gating technique to shorten the gated turn-on time of the photomultiplier tubes, and thereby reduce the detection of background light and the outgoing laser pulse. PMID:19151820

  8. Compact eye-safe backscatter lidar for aerosol studies in urban polar environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Fochesatto; Richard L. Collins; Jia Yue; Catherine F. Cahill; Kenneth Sassen

    2005-01-01

    We report a Compact Eye-Safe Backscatter Lidar (CESBL) system conceived for tropospheric aerosol research in the Arctic environment. The instrument will play an active role in the investigation of Arctic Haze and Ice Fog during winter time; intercontinental transport of Asian dust during springtime; and Aerosol plumes released from forest fires during summer time. In addition the system will perform

  9. Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Yuri; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Serikov, Ilya; Ansmann, Albert; Wandinger, Ulla; Althausen, Dietrich; Mattis, Ina; Müller, Detlef

    2005-06-01

    We propose to use a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) in a pure rotational Raman lidar to isolate return signals that are due to pure rotational Raman scattering from atmospheric nitrogen against the sky background. The main idea of this instrumental approach is that a FPI is applied as a frequency comb filter with the transmission peaks accurately matched to a comb of practically equidistant lines of a pure rotational Raman spectrum (PRRS) of nitrogen molecules. Thus a matched FPI transmission comb cuts out the spectrally continuous sky background light from the spectral gaps between the PRRS lines of nitrogen molecules while it is transparent to light within narrow spectral intervals about these lines. As the width of the spectral gaps between the lines of the PRRS of nitrogen molecules is ~114 times the width of an individual spectral line, cutting out of the sky background from these gaps drastically improves the signal-to-background ratio of the pure rotational Raman lidar returns. This application of the FPI enables one to achieve daytime temperature profiling in the atmosphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar in the visible and near-UV spectral regions. We present an analysis of application of the FPI to filtering out the pure rotational Raman lidar returns against the solar background. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach proposed, we present temperature profiles acquired during a whole-day measurement session in which a Raman lidar equipped with a FPI was used. For comparison, temperature profiles acquired with Vaisala radiosondes launched from the measurement site are also presented.

  10. Comparison of LIDAR and Cavity Ring-Down Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Study of Inferred Aerosol Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, W. L.; Massoli, P.; McCarty, B. J.; Machol, J. L.; Tucker, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    A LIDAR and a Cavity Ring-Down Aerosol Extinction Spectrometer (CRD) instrument simultaneously measured aerosol extinction at 355-nm wavelength from aboard the Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study II campaign. The CRD measured air sampled from the top of the common mast used by several in situ aerosol optical and chemical instruments. The LIDAR's scan sequence included near-horizontal stares (2° elevation angle) with pointing corrected for ship's roll. Aerosol extinction was retrieved using a variant of the slope method. The LIDAR therefore sampled air over a short vertical extent with midpoint higher above the surface than the CRD intake and at a horizontal distance of as much as a few kilometers. The CRD measured aerosol extinction at dry and at high (near-ambient) relative humidity (RH) levels, which were used to scale the measurements to ambient RH for the comparisons. Data from the two instruments for well-mixed conditions (supported by turbulence and atmospheric stability data) are compared to evaluate the degree of agreement between the two methods and reasons for differences. For instances of larger differences, the aerosol gradient below approximately 100 m altitude is inferred and examined in context of low-level meteorological parameters and LIDAR measurements at higher angles.

  11. Comparison of Aerosol Classification from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Omar, A. H.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired large datasets of aerosol extinction (532nm), backscatter (532 and 1064nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064nm) profiles during 349 science flights in 19 field missions across North America since 2006. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio"), aerosol depolarization ratios, and backscatter color ratio measurements from HSRL-1 are scale-invariant parameters that depend on aerosol type but not concentration. These four aerosol intensive parameters are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate composition types. The classification methodology uses models formed from "training cases" with known aerosol type. The remaining measurements are then compared with these models using the Mahalanobis distance. Aerosol products from the CALIPSO satellite include aerosol type information as well, which is used as input to the CALIPSO aerosol retrieval. CALIPSO aerosol types are inferred using a mix of aerosol loading-dependent parameters, estimated aerosol depolarization, and location, altitude, and surface type information. The HSRL instrument flies beneath the CALIPSO satellite orbit track, presenting the opportunity for comparisons between the HSRL aerosol typing and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask Aerosol Subtype product, giving insight into the performance of the CALIPSO aerosol type algorithm. We find that the aerosol classification from the two instruments frequently agree for marine aerosols and pure dust, and somewhat less frequently for pollution and smoke. In addition, the comparison suggests that the CALIPSO polluted dust type is overly inclusive, encompassing cases of dust combined with marine aerosol as well as cases without much evidence of dust. Qualitative classification of aerosol type combined with quantitative profile measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction has many useful applications. The HSRL products are used to apportion AOT by type and vertical location in the column, and to characterize the frequency of cases where multiple types are present in the column. Resolving scenes with multiple types in the column is not possible with passive imaging radiometer and polarimeter measurements. The HSRL aerosol type also has higher resolution than the CALIPSO layer-wise product and provides insight into the performance of CALIPSO layer separation. Information about the vertical distribution of aerosol types is useful for estimating radiative forcing, understanding aerosol lifetime and transport, and assessing the predictions of transport models. CALIPSO has been a pathfinder, providing the first long-term global data set of aerosol vertical distribution. Based on our results, a future satellite lidar similar to CALIPSO, but with the addition of polarization sensitivity at 1064 nm and the HSRL technique at 532 nm, could provide a significant advance in characterizing the vertical distribution of aerosol.

  12. Vertical aerosol structure and aerosol mixed layer heights determined with scanning shipborne lidars during the TexAQS II study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, B. J.; Senff, C. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Eberhard, W. L.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Machol, J.; Brewer, W. A.

    2007-12-01

    The NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL) deployed the Ozone Profiling Atmospheric LIDAR (OPAL) on the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the summer of 2006 for the Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II). Calibrated aerosol backscatter profiles were determined from data collected at the 355 nm wavelength using a modified Klett retrieval method. OPAL employs a unique scan sequence that consists of staring at multiple elevation angles between 2 and 90 degrees, which is repeated approx. every 90 sec. Blending the data from the various elevation angles allows to extend the aerosol backscatter profiles down to near the surface (approximately 10 meters ASL), while maintaining a high spatial resolution (5 meters). Successful application of this technique requires the aerosol distribution to be sufficiently horizontally homogeneous over several kilometers. Estimates of aerosol mixed layer height were determined by applying a Haar wavelet transform method to detect the gradient that is often present at the top of the boundary layer. Co-located on the R/V Ronald H. Brown, was NOAA/ESRL's High Resolution Doppler LIDAR (HRDL). Aerosol mixed layer heights were also estimated using the data from the 2 micron Doppler LIDAR. A comparison of the mixed layer heights as determined from each LIDAR's observations was used to choose the height of the layer likely connected with the surface. The vertical structure of aerosols in the lower troposphere, in particular the presence of aerosol layers above the boundary layer, is important in understanding radiative effects of aerosols. We will present aerosol backscatter structure in the lower troposphere encountered during the TexAQS II study as well as a comparison of relative aerosol content in the free troposphere compared to that within the boundary layer.

  13. Research of Cloud Temperature and Optical Depth Using Rotational-Vibrational Raman Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J.; McCormick, M. P.; Lei, L.

    2014-12-01

    The study of clouds plays a key role in the understanding of climate change. Reliable measurements of cloud temperature and optical depth are important for improving our understanding of cloud physics, cloud dynamics, and for validating cloud-resolving models. Raman Lidars have been proven to be a very useful remote sensing tool to measure cloud properties. In the paper, cloud temperature and optical depth are respectively obtained using rotational Raman technique and vibrational Raman technique. Results of cloud temperature and optical depth observed by the Hampton University (HU) Rotational-Vibrational Raman Lidar are presented. The paper emphatically discusses the influence of cloud optical depth on temperature of cloud base and top. From these measurements, the relation of low-altitude cloud optical depth and temperature is summarized. These analyses are unique in that they combine simultaneous measurements of these quantities that can lead to an improvement in the understanding of cloud radiation transfer and prediction of local weather.

  14. Variation in daytime troposphereic aerosol via LIDAR and sunphotometer measurements in Penang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F. Y.; Hee, W. S.; Hwee, S. L.; Abdullah, K.; Tiem, L. Y.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Lolli, S.; Holben, B.; Welton, E. J.

    2014-03-01

    Aerosol is one of the important factors that will influence the air quality, visibility, clouds, and precipitation processes in the troposphere. In this work, we investigated the variation of aerosol during daytime in Penang, Malaysia in certain days within July 2013. Vertical LIDAR scattering ratio and backscattering profiles, and columnar optical properties (optical depth, Angström exponent) of aerosols were measured using Raymetrics LIDAR and a CIMEL sunphotometer respectively. Specifically, we have determined the daytime variation of intensity and distribution level of aerosol, as well as the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and cloud classification. Subsequently, the data of columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and size distribution in the atmospheric were used to quantify the properties of aerosol variation during daytime over Penang, Malaysia.

  15. Aerosol Profile Measurements from the NASA Langley Research Center Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obland, Michael D.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John W.; Roers, Raymond R.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Since achieving first light in December of 2005, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been involved in seven field campaigns, accumulating over 450 hours of science data across more than 120 flights. Data from the instrument have been used in a variety of studies including validation and comparison with the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite mission, aerosol property retrievals combining passive and active instrument measurements, aerosol type identification, aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud top and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height determinations. Measurements and lessons learned from the HSRL are leading towards next-generation HSRL instrument designs that will enable even further studies of aerosol intensive and extensive parameters and the effects of aerosols on the climate system. This paper will highlight several of the areas in which the NASA Airborne HSRL is making contributions to climate science.

  16. Retrieval of aerosol properties from combined multiwavelength lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlow, Markus; Müller, Detlef; Tesche, Matthias; Eichler, Heike; Feingold, Graham; Eberhard, Wynn L.; Cheng, Ya-Fang

    2006-10-01

    Simulation studies were carried out with regard to the feasibility of using combined observations from sunphotometer (SPM) and lidar for microphysical characterization of aerosol particles, i.e., the retrieval of effective radius, volume, and surface-area concentrations. It was shown that for single, homogeneous aerosol layers, the aerosol parameters can be retrieved with an average accuracy of 30% for a wide range of particle size distributions. Based on the simulations, an instrument combination consisting of a lidar that measures particle backscattering at 355 and 1574 nm, and a SPM that measures at three to four channels in the range from 340 to 1020 nm is a promising tool for aerosol characterization. The inversion algorithm has been tested for a set of experimental data. The comparison with the particle size distribution parameters, measured with in situ instrumentation at the lidar site, showed good agreement.

  17. Parametric study of an excimer-pumped, nitrogen Raman shifter for lidar applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott E. Bisson

    1995-01-01

    A krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer-pumped, nitrogen Raman shifter has been studied for use in a wavelength-optimized solar-blind Raman lidar. First Stokes conversion efficiencies (248 â 263 nm) as high as 12% have been observed in Nâ:He gas mixtures. Both oscillator--amplifier and self-seeded configurations were investigated. Wavelength-dependent effects were investigated with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 and 266 nm. A

  18. Vertically resolved separation of dust and other aerosol types by a new lidar depolarization method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Ferrare, Richard A; Hostetler, Chris A; Yuan, Renmin; Zhang, Damao

    2015-06-01

    This paper developed a new retrieval framework of external mixing of the dust and non-dust aerosol to predict the lidar ratio of the external mixing aerosols and to separate the contributions of non-spherical aerosols by using different depolarization ratios among dust, sea salt, smoke, and polluted aerosols. The detailed sensitivity tests and case study with the new method showed that reliable dust information could be retrieved even without prior information about the non-dust aerosol types. This new method is suitable for global dust retrievals with satellite observations, which is critical for better understanding global dust transportation and for model improvements. PMID:26072778

  19. Characteristics of dust aerosols inferred from lidar depolarization measurements at two wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Lee, Choo Hie

    2006-10-01

    Lidar depolarization measurements were performed simultaneously at two wavelengths (532 and 1064 nm) in an Asian dust event. The observed particle depolarization ratio for 1064 nm was generally larger than that for 532 nm, and it was found that the mixing of Asian dust and other spherical aerosols must be taken into account. A simple two-component theory considering two types of aerosol (dust and spherical aerosols) was developed and applied to the observed data. The mixing ratio of dust and the backscatter-related Angström exponents for dust and spherical aerosols was derived. These parameters can be used to infer characteristics of the aerosols and the mixed states. PMID:16983435

  20. Raman Lidar Measurements during the International HZO Project. 1; Instrumentation and Analysis Techniques, Popular Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Comer, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Cadirola, M.; Rush, K.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere helps to determine the likelihood that severe storms may develop. The concentration of water vapor, though, is highly variable in space and time. And yet small changes in water vapor concentration over a short period of time or over a short spatial distance can determine whether a storm may or may not develop. Therefore, in order to improve the ability to forecast severe weather such as thunderstorms it is important to measure water vapor in the atmosphere with high spatial and temporal resolution. One of the most attractive research tools for measuring water vapor in the atmosphere with high spatial and temporal resolution is a Raman lidar. A Raman lidar consists of a laser transmitter, a telescope receiver and optics and electronics for processing opticand electronic signals. A laser pulse is emitted into the atmosphere and it interacts with molecules in the atmosphere causing them to become excited and to emit, through the Raman process, photons of different wavelength than emitted by the laser. The molecule that emitted these emitted. This is the way that a Raman lidar identifies water vapor molecules in the atmosphere. can be identified based on the wavelength of the photons One of the great challenges in Raman lidar measurements has been to make useful daytime measurements of the water vapor profile under bright daytime conditions. In this first of two papers, we describe the instrumentation and analysis of the first documented Raman lidar that is able to measure water vapor in the daytime with sufficient quality to permit the study of developing storm systems.

  1. Aerosol Optical Properties at NEAQS 2002 From Lidar, Sunphotometer, and Integrating Nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, W. L.; Senff, C. J.; Quinn, P. K.; Alvarez, R. J.; McCarty, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Optical measurements of aerosols were performed from the NOAA Research Vessel Ron Brown near the east coast of the United States for 3 weeks starting mid-July 2002. The instruments included a lidar (355 nm wavelength), a handheld sunphotometer (380, 440, 500, 675, and 870 nm), and an integrating nephelometer (450, 550, and 700 nm). Lidar extinction profiles are derived with constraint from the sunphotometer aerosol optical depth data when available. Typical extinction-to-backscatter values from these measurements for the same airmass types are used to retrieve extinction profiles at night and in cloudy periods. Temperature profile and wind shear data from radiosondes and vertical smoothness of the lidar backscatter profile are used to determine the vertical extent of the layer in which the aerosol particles can be considered well mixed. The fraction of the total column aerosol that is characterized by the near-surface in situ measurements is estimated from the lidar profile and depth of the mixed layer. Extinction values from the lowest gates of the lidar are compared with the nephelometer's aerosol scatter data when the atmosphere is apparently well mixed between the two heights. The optical characteristics for various sources (urban, rural, and maritime) are contrasted.

  2. Observations of water vapor by ground-based microwave radiometers and Raman lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Han; J. B. Snider; E. R. Westwater; S. H. Melfi; R. A. Ferrare

    1994-01-01

    In November to December 1991, a substantial number of remote sensors and in situ instruments were operated together in Coffeyville, Kansas, during the climate experiment FIRE II. Included in the suite of instruments were (1) the NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) three-channel microwave radiometer, (2) the NASA GSFC Raman lidar, (3) ETL radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and (4) frequent,

  3. Comparison of tropospheric delays from Raman lidar, radiosondes, GPS and DORIS during the MANITOUL experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bosser; O. Bock; C. Thom; J. Pelon; P. Willis; O. Martin; S. Nahmani; O. Garrouste

    2010-01-01

    Water vapor measurements from a Raman lidar developed conjointly by IGN and LATMOS\\/CNRS are used for documenting water vapor heterogeneities in the lower troposphere and correcting geodetic radio-signal propagation delays in clear sky conditions. This instrument has both capabilities for realizing zenith pointing and slant pointing measurements. During fall 2009, the system was deployed in Toulouse (France) in collaboration with

  4. Lidar profiling at two different wavelengths of aerosols and drizzle optical and microphysical characteristics in the frame MPLNET UV-Lidar integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Welton, E. J.; Lewis, J. R.; Berkoff, T.; Campbell, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show some preliminary results of the study of aerosol layers detection and drizzle episodes over NASA GSFC in spring 2012, when, for the first time, a UV elastic Lidar was integrated into the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), a federated network of Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems designed to continuously measure aerosol and cloud vertical structure, day and night, over long time periods required to contribute to climate change studies and provide ground validation for models and satellite sensors in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The two different wavelength lidar measurements (UV-VIS), together with Mie scattering simulations, permit to asses effective average size diameter of drizzle precipitation and biomass burning aerosol layers transiting over Goddard. Range corrected backscattering power during a drizzle episode. At 3 km where the cloud is melting a lidar dark band is clearly visible.

  5. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): a new lidar for aerosol and cloud profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, E. J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Palm, S. P.; Colarco, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability of the ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data. Results from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System general circulation model and data assimilation system (GEOS-5) have been used to generate the simulated data, and will be used to help process CATS data after launch.

  6. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a summary of the science objectives and simulated data. Input from the ICAP community is desired to help plan our NRT mission goals and interactions with ICAP forecasters.

  7. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. I - Lidar intercomparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Bowdle; Jeffry Rothermel; J. Michael Vaughan; Derek W. Brown; Madison J. Post

    1991-01-01

    An airborne continuous-wave (CW) focused CO2 Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar were to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6-micron wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter, the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than about 50 percent

  8. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10. 6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO sub 2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Bowdle; J. Rothermel; J. M. Vaughan; D. W. Brown; M. J. Post

    1991-01-01

    An airborne continuous wave (CW) focused COâ Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed COâ Doppler lidar were used to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6 μm wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than

  9. Detection of Stratospheric Sulfuric Acid Aerosols with Polarization Lidar: Theory, Simulations, and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, Georg

    2000-09-01

    The derivation of backscatter ratio profiles from polarization lidar measurements is discussed. The method is based on differences in depolarization between molecular backscattering and backscattering from spherical aerosol particles. Simulations show that the polarization algorithms yield backscatter ratios with uncertainties comparable with those obtained by Klett s method, provided that the backscattering process is dominated by molecular scattering. The technique could be utilized for monitoring the stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol layer during periods of background conditions. The polarization analysis method is discussed in light of simulation results and is applied to polarization lidar profiles observed during the ALBATROSS 1996 field measurement campaign.

  10. Estimating aerosol concentration and spectral backscatter with multi-wavelength range-resolved lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2005-11-01

    Algorithm development for detecting and discriminating atmospheric aerosols using range-resolved lidar is a straightforward, if non-trivial, application of well-established techniques of statistical signal processing assuming the aerosol backscatter coefficients are known as a function of wavelength. Unfortunately, in contrast to the analogous case of vapors, in most aerosol applications those coefficients are rarely known accurately. This is due to a combination of factors: (1) unknown refractive index dependence on wavelength, particularly for bioaerosols; (2) unknown particle size distribution; and (3) lack of particle sphericity making M e calculations unreliable. Uncertainties in any of these factors can distort the backscatter cross-section spectral dependence to the extent that aerosol identification becomes impossible. This paper presents a sequential algorithm for estimating both the aerosol concentration dependence on range and time and backscatter coefficient spectral signatures for a set of materials using M wavelengths with data available prior to the aerosol release for estimating the ambient lidar return. The rangedependence of the aerosol is modeled as an expansion of the concentration in an orthonormal basis set whose coefficients carry the time dependence. The basic idea is to run two estimators in parallel: a Kalman filter for the expansion coefficients, and a maximum likelihood estimator for the set of aerosol backscatter coefficients. These algorithms exchange information continuously over the data processing stream. The approach is illustrated on atmospheric backscatter lidar data collected by the U.S. Army multi-wavelength lidar from aerosol releases at the recent JBSDS trials at Dugway Proving Ground, UT.

  11. Development of a 266 nm Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, T.; Tsuda, T.; Yabuki, M.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    It is projected that localized extreme weather events could increase due to the effects of global warming, resulting in severe weather disasters, such as a torrential rain, floods, and so on. Understanding water vapor's behavior in the atmosphere is essen- tial to understand a fundamental mechanism of these weather events. Therefore, continuous monitoring system to measure the atmospheric water vapor with good spatio-temporal resolution is required. We have developed several water vapor Raman lidar systems employing the laser wavelengths of 355 and 532 nm. However, the signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman lidar strongly depends on the sky background because of the detection of the weak inelastic scattering of light by molecules. Therefore, these systems were mainly used during nighttime. Hence, we have newly developed a water vapor Raman lidar using a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 266 nm. This wavelength is in the ultraviolet (UV) range below 300 nm known as the "solar-blind" region, because practically all radiation at these wavelengths is absorbed by the ozone layer in the stratosphere. It has the advantage of having no daytime solar background radiation in the system. The lidar is equipped with a 25 cm receiving telescope and is used for measuring the light separated into an elastic backscatter signal and vibrational Raman signals of nitrogen and water vapor at wavelengths of 266.1, 283.6, and 294.6 nm, respectively. This system can be used for continuous water vapor measurements in the lower troposphere. This study introduces the design of the UV lidar system and shows the preliminary results of water vapor profiles.

  12. Optical Properties of Aerosols - Clouds - Contrails and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio By Lidar From The Jungfraujoch Research Station (3580 M Asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larchevêque, G.; Balin, I.; Quaglia, P.; Nessler, R.; Simeonov, V.; van den Bergh, H.; Calpini, B.

    The direct (as suspended particles) and indirect (by induced clouds/contrails) effects of the aerosols on the Sun - Earth system radiation budget is still remaining an important climate topic [IPCC, Report 2001]. The indirect effect is very complex (difficult to be quantified) is influencing also the hydrological cycle (evaporation/precipitation rates) [Ramamathan et al.,Science, Dec 2001]. Thus more space-time resolved measure- ments in order to retrieve optical, chemical and microphysical properties of aerosols are still needed. In this context the implementation of a new multi-wavelength (Ra- man) lidar system at the Jungfraujoch station (3580m ASL, January 2000) allows the retrieval of aerosols backscatter and extinction coefficients at 355nm, 532nm and 1064nm with a vertical resolution around 100 to 200m in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Depolarization studies (e.g. clouds) are also performed detecting parallel and cross polarization signals at 532nm. The water vapor mixing ratio retrieval is based on the spontaneous Raman shifts (387nm for N2 and 408nm for H2O) of the 355nm. This work will focus mainly on the results obtained using a 20cm diameter Newtonian configuration telescope. The Jungfraujoch lidar is part of the EARLINET European lidar network for aerosols measurements and is operating since May 2000. Furthermore these range resolved lidar measurements are bringing new insights in some of the column density measurements performed by FTIR or Sun photometry, or the passive microwave measurements, and are also linked to the direct "in situ" aerosols measurements.

  13. Global view of aerosol vertical distributions from CALIPSO lidar measurements and GOCART simulations: Regional and seasonal variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbin Yu; Mian Chin; David M. Winker; Ali H. Omar; Zhaoyan Liu; Chieko Kittaka; Thomas Diehl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines seasonal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosols through a statistical analysis of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar observations from June 2006 to November 2007. A data-screening scheme is developed to attain good quality data in cloud-free conditions, and the polarization measurement is used to separate dust from non-dust aerosol. The CALIPSO

  14. Rayleigh/raman Greenland Lidar Observations of Atmospheric Temperature During a Major Arctic Stratospheric Warming Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, John W.; Farley, Robert; Mcnutt, R.; Dao, Phan D.; Moskowitz, Warren P.

    1992-01-01

    Between Jan. 22 1991 to Feb. 5 1991, we made numerous observations of atmospheric temperature profiles between 10 and 70 km by using the combination of Rayleigh and Raman lidar systems contained in the PL Mobile Lidar Facility located at the National Science Foundation Incoherent Radar Facility of Sondrestrom in Greenland. The purpose of these measurements was to observe the dynamics of the winter Arctic stratosphere and mesosphere regions during a winter period from the succession of temperature profiles obtained in our campaign observations. Various aspects of this investigation are presented.

  15. Coordinated lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET-AS0S project during CALIPSO overpasses: a strong dust case study analysis with modeling support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Papayannis; V. Amiridis; L. Mona; R. E. Mamouri; A. Apituley; L. Alados-Arboledas; D. Balis; A. Chaikovski; F. de Tomasi; I. Grigorov; O. Gustafsson; H. Linnè; I. Mattis; V. Mitev; F. Molero; D. Müller; D. Nicolae; C. Pérez; A. Pietruczuk; J. P. Putaud; F. Ravetta; V. Rizi; F. Schnell; M. Sicard; V. Simeonov; K. Stebel; T. Trickl; G. D'Amico; G. Pappalardo; X. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Coordinated lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe are performed in the frame of the EARLINET-ASOS (2006-2011) project, which comprises 25 stations: 16 Raman lidar stations, including 8 multi-wavelength (3+2 station) Raman lidar stations, are used to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties. Since the launch of CALIOP, the two-wavelength lidar on board the CALIPSO satellite (June 2006) our lidar network

  16. Evaluations of cirrus contamination and screening in ground aerosol observations using collocated lidar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Liu, Gin-Rong; Campbell, James R.; Liew, Soo Chin; Barnes, John E.

    2012-08-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly subvisual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to screen in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to systematically examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) vertical feature mask (VFM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted; although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons; (2) challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed; and (3) estimates of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  17. Synergetic retrieval of atmospheric aerosol from a combination of lidar and radiometer ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, Anton; Dubovik, Oleg; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Goloub, Philippe; Tanre, Didier; Litvinov, Pavel; Lapyonok, Tatiana

    2013-05-01

    The new algorithm that simultaneously inverts co-incident ground-based observations by AERONET radiometer and multi-wavelength lidar is presented. The retrieval uses an assumption that a mixture of fine and coarse aerosol modes with vertically constant spectral optical properties can satisfactorily describe the vertical variability of aerosol spectral optical properties. In this model the shape of size distribution and complex refractive index are assumed to be height independent for each mode, while the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations can change arbitrarily for each mode. Consequently the inversion algorithm retrieves the size distribution, complex refractive index, single scattering albedo and vertical distribution of both fine and coarse aerosol modes. The concept of the method is presented and illustrated by the application of the developed method to the actual combined observations of lidar and radiometer.

  18. Intensity-modulated, stepped frequency cw lidar for distributed aerosol and hard target measurements.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Marc L; Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Dam, Thang Q; Lenox, Katey E; Price, Jeff R; Storey, John M; Wachter, Eric A; Fisher, Walt G

    2005-11-20

    A compact frequency-modulated, continuous wave (FM-cw) lidar system for measurement of distributed aerosol plumes and hard targets is presented. The system is based on intensity modulation of a laser diode and quadrature detection of the return signals. The advantages of using laser diode amplitude modulation and quadrature detection is a large reduction in the hardware required for processing and storing return signals as well as the availability of off-the-shelf integrated electronic components from the wireless and telecommunication communities. Equations to invert the quadrature signal components and determine spatial distributions of multiple targets are derived. Spatial scattering intensities are used to extract aerosol backscatter coefficients, which can then be directly compared to microphysics aerosol models for environmental measurements. Finally, results from laboratory measurements with a monostatic FM-cw lidar system with both hard targets and aerosols are discussed. PMID:16318194

  19. Laser radar characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere using range dependent lidar ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malladi, Satyanarayana; Soman Radha, Radhakrishnan; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sangipillai, Veerabuthiran; Bhargavan, Presennakumar; Vinjanampaty, Murty; Karnam, Reghunath

    2010-01-01

    Laser radar (lidar) provides an excellent tool for characterizing the physical properties of atmospheric aerosols which play a very important role in modifying the radiative budget of the Earth's atmosphere. One of the important issues in lidar research is to derive accurate backscattering or extinction coefficient profiles required for understanding the basic mechanisms in the formation of aerosols and identifying their sources and sinks. Most of the inversion methods used for deriving the aerosol coefficients assume a range independent value for the extinction-to- backscattering ratio [lidar ratio, (LR)]. However, it is known that in a realistic atmosphere the value of LR is range dependent and varies with the physical and chemical properties of the aerosols. In this paper, we use a variant of widely applied Klett's method to obtain the range dependent LR values and derive the aerosol extinction profiles with good accuracy. We present the lidar derived aerosol extinction profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere corresponding to different seasons of the year of two distinctly different stations in the Indian subcontinent namely Trivandrum (8.33° N, 77° E), Kerala, India, a coastal station and Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), Tirupati, India an inland station. The range dependent LR is derived corresponding to different seasons of the year at the two stations. The lidar ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC), aerosol scattering ratio and aerosol optical depth show strong to medium seasonal variation at both the stations. The lidar ratio values at Trivandum vary in the range of 11-38 sr whereas the values range from 20-34 sr at Gadanki. AEC values at the Trivandum station vary from 7.9x10-6 to 6.9x10-5 m-1 and at Gadanki station the variation is from 1.27x10-5 to 6.9x10-5 m-1. It is proposed to use back-trajectory analysis to understand the sources of aerosol at the two stations.

  20. Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell E. Warren; Richard G. Vanderbeek; Jeffrey L. Ahl

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent work by the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) in algorithm development for parameter estimation, detection, and classification of localized aerosols in the atmosphere using information provided by multiple-wavelength range-resolved lidar. The motivation for this work is the need to detect, locate, and identify potentially toxic atmospheric aerosols at safe standoff ranges using time-series

  1. Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parameswaran, K.; Rose, K. O.; Murthy, B. V. K.; Osborn, M. T.; Mcmaster, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    Aerosol extinction profiles obtained from lidar data at Trivandrum (8.6 deg N, 77 deg E) are compared with corresponding Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II extinction profiles. The agreement between the two is found to be satisfactory. The extinction profiles obtained by both the experiments showed a prominent peak at 23-24 km altitude in the stratosphere. The study revealed large variability in upper tropospheric extinction with location (latitude).

  2. Measurement of aerosol profiles using high-spectral-resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, D. A.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Caldwell, L. M.; She, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    High-spectral-resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar measurements of vertical profiles (1 to 5 km) of atmospheric pressure and density, as well as aerosol profiles, including backscatter ratio and extinction ratio are reported. These require simultaneous measurement of temperature. Use of the technique does not require any assumptions about the aerosol but does require that the pressure at one altitude is known and that the gas law of the air is known (e.g., an ideal gas).

  3. Aerosol and Cloud Interaction Observed From High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Wenying; Schuster, Gregory L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies utilizing satellite retrievals have shown a strong correlation between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud cover. However, these retrievals from passive sensors are subject to many limitations, including cloud adjacency (or 3D) effects, possible cloud contamination, uncertainty in the AOD retrieval. Some of these limitations do not exist in High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) observations; for instance, HSRL observations are not a ected by cloud adjacency effects, are less prone to cloud contamination, and offer accurate aerosol property measurements (backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient, lidar ratio, backscatter Angstrom exponent,and aerosol optical depth) at a neospatial resolution (less than 100 m) in the vicinity of clouds. Hence, the HSRL provides an important dataset for studying aerosol and cloud interaction. In this study, we statistically analyze aircraft-based HSRL profiles according to their distance from the nearest cloud, assuring that all profile comparisons are subject to the same large-scale meteorological conditions. Our results indicate that AODs from HSRL are about 17% higher in the proximity of clouds (approximately 100 m) than far away from clouds (4.5 km), which is much smaller than the reported cloud 3D effect on AOD retrievals. The backscatter and extinction coefficients also systematically increase in the vicinity of clouds, which can be explained by aerosol swelling in the high relative humidity (RH) environment and/or aerosol growth through in cloud processing (albeit not conclusively). On the other hand, we do not observe a systematic trend in lidar ratio; we hypothesize that this is caused by the opposite effects of aerosol swelling and aerosol in-cloud processing on the lidar ratio. Finally, the observed backscatter Angstrom exponent (BAE) does not show a consistent trend because of the complicated relationship between BAE and RH. We demonstrate that BAE should not be used as a surrogate for Angstrom exponent, especially at high RH.

  4. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-05-01

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as 20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given.

  5. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-05-10

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given.

  6. IIP Update: A Packaged Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver. Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  7. Aerosol and Cloud Observations and Data Products by the GLAS Polar Orbiting Lidar Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. The backscatter lidar operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. Both receiver channels meet and exceed their design goals, and beginning with a two month period through October and November 2003, an excellent global lidar data set now exists. The data products for atmospheric observations include the calibrated, attenuated backscatter cross section for cloud and aerosol; height detection for multiple cloud layers; planetary boundary layer height; cirrus and aerosol optical depth and the height distribution of aerosol and cloud scattering cross section profiles. The data sets are now in open release through the NASA data distribution system. The initial results on global statistics for cloud and aerosol distribution has been produced and in some cases compared to other satellite observations. The sensitivity of the cloud measurements is such that the 70% global cloud coverage result should be the most accurate to date. Results on the global distribution of aerosol are the first that produce the true height distribution for model inter-comparison.

  8. High altitude Balloon Borne Lidar experiment for the study of aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Ramaratnam, S.; Krishnan, A. R.; Presenna Kumar, Bharghavan; Jeswin Vetha Jeyasingh, J.; Sreekumar, S.; Joy, Sherly; Thirupathirajan, S.; Bhavanikumar, Y.; Devarajan, Anand

    Ground based light detection and ranging (LIDAR) instruments are routinely used for the study of aerosols and clouds using remote sensing technique. Such measurements can only give local/regional scale data. Space based system can provide data on global scale and the same can be used for climate modeling and weather forecasting applications. Development of a Balloon Borne Lidar (BBL) system was taken up as a precursor to the development of Space Borne Lidar system by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). A downward looking low power, high PRF laser based lidar system (Micro Pulse Lidar) operating at 532nm having 150mm Cassegrain type small telescope and a photomultiplier tube based photon counting data acquisition system was developed for the measurement of backscattered signal from aerosols and clouds. The BBL instrument was flown successfully in a high altitude balloon platform from National Balloon Facility in Hyderabad. The balloon reached a ceiling altitude of 35 km and scientific data on aerosol and clouds were collected for duration of 5 hours. This paper describes the design challenges and the technical complexity associated with the laser based active payload in a balloon platform. Preliminary results of the experiment will also be presented.

  9. Development and applications of tunable, narrow band lasers and stimulated Raman scattering devices for atmospheric lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    The main thrust of the program was the study of stimulated Raman processes for application to atmospheric lidar measurements. This has involved the development of tunable lasers, the detailed study of stimulated Raman scattering, and the use of the Raman-shifted light for new measurements of molecular line strengths and line widths. The principal spectral region explored in this work was the visible and near-IR wavelengths between 500 nm and 1.5 microns. Recent alexandrite ring laser experiments are reported. The experiments involved diode injection-locking, Raman shifting, and frequency-doubling. The experiments succeeded in producing tunable light at 577 and 937 nm with line widths in the range 80-160 MHz.

  10. Comparison of Modeled Backscatter using Measured Aerosol Microphysics with Focused CW Lidar Data over Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Vandana; Clarke, Antony D.; Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1997-01-01

    During NASA's GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) II flight mission over the Pacific Ocean in May-June 1990, extensive aerosol backscatter data sets from two continuous wave, focused CO2 Doppler lidars and an aerosol microphysics data set from a laser optical particle counter (LOPC) were obtained. Changes in aerosol loading in various air masses with associated changes in chemical composition, from sulfuric acid and sulfates to dustlike crustal material, significantly affected aerosol backscatter, causing variation of about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Some of the significant backscatter features encountered in different air masses were the low backscatter in subtropical air with even lower values in the tropics near the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), highly variable backscatter in the ITCZ, mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode, and high backscatter in an Asian dust plume off the Japanese coast. Differences in aerosol composition and backscatter for northern and southern hemisphere also were observed. Using the LOPC measurements of physical and chemical aerosol properties, we determined the complex refractive index from three different aerosol mixture models to calculate backscatter. These values provided a well-defined envelope of modeled backscatter for various atmospheric conditions, giving good agreement with the lidar data over a horizontal sampling of approximately 18000 km in the mid-troposphere.

  11. Atmospheric Boundary Layer temperature and humidity from new-generation Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, Martin; Higgins, Chad; Simeonov, Valentin; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Parlange, Marc B.

    2010-05-01

    Mixing ratio and temperature data, obtained with EPFL Raman lidar during the TABLE-08 experiment are presented. The processing methods will be discussed along with fundamental physics. An independent calibration is performed at different distances along the laser beam, demonstrating that the multi-telescopes design of the lidar system is reliable for field application. The maximum achievable distance as a function of time and/or space averaging will also be discussed. During the TABLE-08 experiment, different type of lidar measurements have been obtained including: horizontal and vertical time series, as well as boundary layer "cuts", during day and night. The high resolution data, 1s in time and 1.25 m in space, are used to understand the response of the atmosphere to variations in surface variability.

  12. Retrievals of Profiles of Fine And Coarse Aerosols Using Lidar And Radiometric Space Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram; Tanre, Didier; Leon, Jean-Francois; Pelon, Jacques; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In couple of years we expect the launch of the CALIPSO lidar spaceborne mission designed to observe aerosols and clouds. CALIPSO will collect profiles of the lidar attenuated backscattering coefficients in two spectral wavelengths (0.53 and 1.06 microns). Observations are provided along the track of the satellite around the globe from pole to pole. The attenuated backscattering coefficients are sensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosol particles, their shape and size. However the information is insufficient to be mapped into unique aerosol physical properties and vertical distribution. Infinite number of physical solutions can reconstruct the same two wavelength backscattered profile measured from space. CALIPSO will fly in formation with the Aqua satellite and the MODIS spectro-radiometer on board. Spectral radiances measured by MODIS in six channels between 0.55 and 2.13 microns simultaneously with the CALIPSO observations can constrain the solutions and resolve this ambiguity, albeit under some assumptions. In this paper we describe the inversion method and apply it to aircraft lidar and MODIS data collected over a dust storm off the coast of West Africa during the SHADE experiment. It is shown that the product of the single scattering albedo, omega, and the phase function, P, for backscattering can be retrieved from the synergism between measurements avoiding a priori hypotheses required for inverting lidar measurements alone. The resultant value of (omega)P(180 deg.) = 0.016/sr are significantly different from what is expected using Mie theory, but are in good agreement with recent results obtained from lidar observations of dust episodes. The inversion is robust in the presence of noise of 10% and 20% in the lidar signal in the 0.53 and 1.06 pm channels respectively. Calibration errors of the lidar of 5 to 10% can cause an error in optical thickness of 20 to 40% respectively in the tested cases. The lidar calibration errors cause degradation in the ability to fit the MODIS data. Therefore the MODIS measurements can be used to identify the calibration problem and correct for it. The CALIPSO-MODIS measurements of the profiles of fine and coarse aerosols, together with CALIPSO measurements of clouds vertical distribution, is expected to be critically important in understanding aerosol transport across continents and political boundaries, and to study aerosol-cloud interaction and its effect on precipitation and global forcing of climate.

  13. Portable digital lidar: a compact stand-off bioagent aerosol sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coorg R. Prasad; Hyo Sang Lee; In H. Hwang; Matthew Nam; Savyasachee L. Mathur; Belthur Ranganayakamma

    2001-01-01

    Remote detection of biological warfare agents (BWA) is crucial for providing early warning to ensure maximum survivability of personnel in the battlefield and other sensitive areas. Although the current generation of stand- off aerosol and fluorescence lidars have demonstrated stand- off detection and identification of BWA, their large size and cost make them difficult for field use. We have introduced

  14. Lidar and Sunphotometer observations of aerosol optical properties over Egbert, ON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, T.; O'Neill, N. T.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Freemantle, J.

    2006-05-01

    Optical properties of aerosols are routinely monitored using Lidar and Sunphotometer/Sky radiometer measurements over Egbert, ON. The objectives of this monitoring program are to better understand the optical coherency of these active and passive remote sensing techniques and eventually to achieve a climatology of extensive parameters such as the extinction-to-backscatter ratio required for lidar optical depth retrievals. Observations made within the context of this program revealed some interesting events related to the long and short range transport of smoke aerosols to the observing site. An interesting case study on June 2, 2003 showed smoke layers between 4 and 9 km in both the Zenith and Scanning Lidar data. Co-located CIMEL Sunphotometric/Sky radiometric measurements also showed an increase in fine mode aerosol optical depths corresponding to the Lidar smoke layer observations. Data from some of the AERONET stations in the Eastern US also indicated the presence of these smoke layers. A detailed study of backtrajectories and MODIS imagery indicate that the source of these smoke layers was the intense forest fire activity that occurred during the whole of the summer of 2003 in the Lake Baikal region of Siberia. In addition an interesting regional smoke event which originated from Lake Nipigon (Northwestern Ontario) forest fires was observed on June 23, 2005. Optical and physical properties observed and retrieved for these long and short range cases of smoke aerosol transport will be analyzed and compared.

  15. Comparison of aerosol optical properties and water vapor among ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during TARFOX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ferrare; S. Ismail; E. Browell; V. Brackett; M. Clayton; S. Kooi; S. H. Melfi; D. Whiteman; G. Schwemmer; K. Evans; P. Russell; J. Livingston; B. Schmid; B. Holben; L. Remer; A. Smirnov; P. V. Hobbs

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment. Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering

  16. Possibilities of warm cloud microstructure profiling with multiple-field-of-view Raman lidar.

    PubMed

    Malinka, Aleksey V; Zege, Eleonora P

    2007-12-10

    The possibilities of cloud characteristics retrieval with multiple-field-of-view Raman lidar are considered. It has been shown that the Raman lidar return is sensitive to two cloud characteristics; the scattering coefficient and the effective droplet size. This sensitivity is studied and the optimal receiver fields-of-view (FOVs) for cloud sounding are recommended. The optimal FOV values are estimated to be approximately R/H (R, the collecting optics radius, H, the cloud altitude) to measure the scattering coefficient profiles, and approximately 0.01z/H for the droplet size measurements (z, the cloud thickness). The algorithm based on the iterative scheme and singular value decomposition as a regularization procedure is presented and verified using computer simulation. The recommendations for profile retrieval with variable altitude resolution are given. PMID:18071372

  17. Assimilation of lidar signals: application to aerosol forecasting in the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Sartelet, K. N.; Bocquet, M.; Chazette, P.; Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Léon, J. F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Augustin, P.; Bach, J.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bush, X.; Comerón, A.; Delbarre, H.; García-Vízcaino, D.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz, C.; Nicolae, D.; Papayannis, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Preissler, J.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Wagner, F.; Dulac, F.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new application of assimilating lidar signals to aerosol forecasting. It aims at investigating the impact of a ground-based lidar network on analysis and short-term forecasts of aerosols through a case study in the Mediterranean. To do so, we employ a data assimilation (DA) algorithm based on the optimal interpolation method developed in the chemistry transport model (CTM) {Polair3D of the air quality modelling platform POLYPHEMUS. We assimilate hourly-averaged normalised range corrected lidar signals (PR2) retrieved from a 72 h period of intensive and continuous measurements performed in July 2012 by ground-based lidar systems of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) integrated into the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS) and an additional system in Corsica deployed in the framework of the pre-ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment)/TRAQA (TRAnsport à longue distance et Qualité de l'Air) campaign. This lidar campaign was dedicated to demonstrating the potential operationality of a research network like EARLINET and the potential usefulness of assimilation of lidar signals to aerosol forecasts. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and those with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 2.5 ?m but lower than 10 ?m (PM2.5-10) are analysed separately using the lidar observations at each DA step. First, we study the spatial and temporal influences of the assimilation of lidar signals on aerosol forecasting. We conduct sensitivity studies on algorithmic parameters, e.g. the horizontal correlation length (Lh) used in the background error covariance matrix (50 km, 100 km or 200 km), the altitudes at which DA is performed (0.75-3.5 km, 1.0-3.5 km or 1.5-3.5 km a.g.l.) and the assimilation period length (12 h or 24 h). We find that DA with Lh = 100 km and assimilation from 1.0 to 3.5 km a.g.l. during a 12 h assimilation period length leads to the best scores for PM10 and PM2.5 during the forecast period with reference to available measurements from surface networks. Secondly, the aerosol simulation results without and with lidar DA using the optimal parameters (Lh = 100 km, the assimilation altitude range from 1.0 to 3.5 {km a.g.l.} and 12 h DA period) are evaluated using the Level 2.0 (cloud-screened and quality-assured) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from AERONET, and mass concentration measurements (PM10 or PM2.5) from the French air quality network (BDQA) and the EMEP-Spain/Portugal network. The results show that the simulation with DA leads to better scores than the one without DA for PM2.5, PM10 and AOD. Additionally, the comparison of model results to evaluation data indicates that the temporal impact of assimilating lidar signals is longer than 36 h after the assimilation period.

  18. Enhancement of aerosol characterization using synergy of lidar and sun - photometer coincident observations: the GARRLiC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, A.; Dubovik, O.; Chaikovsky, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Lapyonok, T.; Tanré, D.; Litvinov, P.

    2013-03-01

    Currently most of experiments pursuing comprehensive characterization of atmosphere include coordinated observations by both lidar and radiometers in order to obtain important complimentary information about aerosol properties. The passive observations by radiometers from ground are mostly sensitive to the properties of aerosol in total atmospheric column and have very limited sensitivity to vertical structure of the atmosphere. Such observations are commonly used for measuring aerosol optical thickness and deriving the information about aerosol microphysics including aerosol particles shape, size distribution, and complex refractive index. In a contrast, lidar observations of atmospheric responses from different altitudes to laser pulses emitted from ground are designed to provide accurate profiling of the atmospheric properties. The interpretation of the lidar observation generally relies on some assumptions about aerosol type and loading. Here we present the GARRLiC algorithm (Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data) that simultaneously inverts co-incident lidar and radiometer observations and derives a united set of aerosol parameters. Such synergetic retrieval is expected to result in additional enhancements in derived aerosol properties because the backscattering observations by lidar add some sensitivity to the columnar properties of aerosol, while radiometric observations provide sufficient constraints on aerosol type and loading that generally are missing in lidar signals. GARRLiC is based on AERONET algorithm for inverting combined observations by radiometer and multi-wavelength elastic lidar observations. It is expected that spectral changes of backscattering signal obtained by multi-wavelength lidar at different altitudes provide some sensitivity to the vertical variability of aerosol particle sizes. In order to benefit from this sensitivity the algorithm is set to derive not only the vertical profile of total aerosol concentration but it also differentiates between the contributions of fine and coarse modes of aerosol. The detailed microphysical properties are assumed height independent and different for each mode and expected to be derived as a part of the retrieval. Thus, the GARRLiC inversion algorithm retrieves vertical distribution of both fine and coarse aerosol concentrations as well as the size distribution, complex refractive index and single scattering albedo for each mode. The potential and limitations of the method are demonstrated by the series of sensitivity tests. The practical outcome of the approach is illustrated by applications of the algorithm to the real lidar and radiometer observations obtained over selected AERONET site.

  19. Water vapour profiles from Raman lidar automatically calibrated by microwave radiometer data during HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foth, A.; Baars, H.; Di Girolamo, P.; Pospichal, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method to derive water vapour profiles from Raman lidar measurements calibrated by the integrated water vapour (IWV) from a collocated microwave radiometer during the intense observation campaign HOPE in the frame of the HD(CP)2 initiative. The simultaneous observation of a microwave radiometer and a Raman lidar allowed an operational and continuous measurement of water vapour profiles also during cloudy conditions. The calibration method provides results in a good agreement with conventional methods based on radiosondes. The calibration factor derived from the proposed IWV method is very stable with a relative uncertainty of 6%. This stability allows to calibrate the lidar even in the presence of clouds using the calibration factor determined during the closest in time clear sky interval. Based on the application of this approach, it is possible to retrieve water vapour profiles during all non-precipitating conditions. A statistical analysis shows a good agreement between the lidar measurements and collocated radiosondes. The relative biases amount to less than 6.7% below 2 km.

  20. A Raman lidar to measure water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, Martin; Higgins, Chad W.; Simeonov, Valentin; Ristori, Pablo; Pardyjak, Eric; Serikov, Ilya; Calhoun, Ronald; Bergh, Hubert van den; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-01-01

    A new multi-telescope scanning Raman lidar designed to measure the water vapor mixing ratio in the atmospheric boundary layer for a complete diurnal cycle with high resolution spatial (1.25 m) and temporal (1 s) resolutions is presented. The high resolution allows detailed measurements of the lower atmosphere and offers new opportunities for evaporation and boundary layer research, atmospheric profiling and visualization. This lidar utilizes a multi-telescope design that provides for an operational range with a nearly constant signal-to-noise ratio, which allows for statistical investigations of atmospheric turbulence. This new generation ground-based water vapor Raman lidar is described, and first observations from the Turbulent Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (TABLE) are presented. Direct comparison with in-situ point measurements obtained during the field campaign demonstrate the ability of the lidar to reliably measure the water vapor mixing ratio. Horizontal measurements taken with time are used to determine the geometric characteristics of coherent structures. Vertical scans are used to visualize nocturnal jet features, layered structures within a stably stratified atmosphere and the internal boundary layer structure over a lake.

  1. Development of a 9.3 micrometer CW LIDAR for the study of atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteside, B. N.; Schotland, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the basic requirements to obtain coherent or heterodyne mixing of the optical radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosols with that from a fixed frequency source. The continuous wave (CW) mode of operation for a coherent lidar is reviewed along with the associated lidar transfer equation. A complete optical design of the three major subsystems of a CW, coherent lidar is given. Lens design software is implemented to model and optimize receiver performance. Techniques for the opto-mechanical assembly and some of the critical tolerances of the coherent lidar are provided along with preliminary tests of the subsystems. Included in these tests is a comparison of the experimental and the theoretical average power signal-to-noise ratio. The analog to digital software used to evaluate the power spectrum of the backscattered signal is presented in the Appendix of this report.

  2. Aerosol size distribution and refractive index from bistatic lidar angular scattering measurements in the surface layer

    SciTech Connect

    Pandithurai, G.; Devara, P.C.S.; Raj, P.E.; Sharma, S. [Indian Inst. of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)] [Indian Inst. of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)

    1996-05-01

    The results of an inversion method by iteration for determining the aerosol size distribution and the refractive index of atmospheric aerosols in the surface layer from bistatic lidar angular scattering measurements, followed by a brief description of the experimental and data retrieval techniques are presented. The continuous wave, bistatic Argon ion lidar at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune (18{degree}31{prime}N, 73{degree}51{prime}E, 559 m AMSL), India has been used for the measurements. Results of the analysis of 420 samples collected over a 7 years` period indicate mean value of size and refractive indices of 4.0 and 1.6, respectively, with greater fraction of larger particles during premonsoon while smaller particles during post-monsoon months at the lidar site. The retrieved aerosol parameters are compared with those determined from spectroradiometer observations at the same site. The results are found well in agreement with those obtained previously by the authors using the library search method. The above observations of angular distribution of scattered intensity are used with an aerosol model to infer the dominant type of aerosols present in the environment in and around the experimental station.

  3. Pulsed compression for aerosol ranging with coherent pulse-Doppler lidar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Jerry L.

    1990-12-01

    This thesis provides a thorough review of conventional matched filter radar theory as it applies to aerosol sensing lidar. Basic matched-filter radar theory and the complex, dense aerosol target model eventually lead to a general derivation of the matched-filter radar receiver response to a dense aerosol target environment. The matched-filter response is obtained in terms of a two dimensional convolution of the target scattering function and the radar ambiguity function. The range and radial velocity resolution of various radar signals were compared using the matched-filter radar receiver and scattering function models. Pulse compression radar signals were compared to the simple radar pulses currently in use with existing lidar systems, and in each case, the pulse compression radar signal did not provide a significant improvement in combined range and radial velocity resolution.

  4. Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength CO II lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent work by ECBC in algorithm development for parameter estimation, detection, and classification of localized aerosols in the atmosphere using information provided by multiple-wavelength rangeresolved lidar. The motivation for this work is the need to detect, locate, and identify potentially toxic atmospheric aerosols at safe standoff ranges using time-series data collected at a discrete set of CO II laser wavelengths. The goals of the processing are to use the digitized transmitted and received backscatter array data to (1) decide if significant aerosol is present, (2) provide estimates of the range and size of the aerosol cloud, (3) produce estimates of the backscatter spectral dependence, and (4) use the backscatter signatures as feature vectors for training and implementation of a support vector machine aerosol classifier. The paper describes examples this processing derived from an extensive set of data collected by ECBC during JBSDS field-testing at Dugway Proving Ground.

  5. Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol distributions during the 1992 airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Grant, William B.; Ismail, Syed; Carter, Arlen F.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Langley airborne differential absorption lidar system was operated from the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and ozone (O3) across the Arctic vortex from January to March 1992. Aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption were found outside and inside the Arctic vortex with distinctly different scattering characteristics and spatial distributions in the two regions. The aerosol and O3 distributions clearly identified the edge of the vortex and provided additional information on vortex dynamics and transport processes. Few polar stratospheric clouds were observed during the AASE-2; however, those that were found had enhanced scattering and depolarization over the background Pinatubo aerosols. The distribution of aerosols inside the vortex exhibited relatively minor changes during the AASE-2. Ozone depletion inside the vortex as limited to less than or equal to 20 percent in the altitude region from 15-20 km.

  6. Advances In Global Aerosol Modeling Applications Through Assimilation of Satellite-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James; Hyer, Edward; Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey; Westphal, Douglas; Xian, Peng; Vaughan, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Modeling the instantaneous three-dimensional aerosol field and its downwind transport represents an endeavor with many practical benefits foreseeable to air quality, aviation, military and science agencies. The recent proliferation of multi-spectral active and passive satellite-based instruments measuring aerosol physical properties has served as an opportunity to develop and refine the techniques necessary to make such numerical modeling applications possible. Spurred by high-resolution global mapping of aerosol source regions, and combined with novel multivariate data assimilation techniques designed to consider these new data streams, operational forecasts of visibility and aerosol optical depths are now available in near real-time1. Active satellite-based aerosol profiling, accomplished using lidar instruments, represents a critical element for accurate analysis and transport modeling. Aerosol source functions, alone, can be limited in representing the macrophysical structure of injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth from passive satellite observations significantly improves the analysis of the initial state. However, this procedure can not fully compensate for any potential vertical redistribution of mass required at the innovation step. The expense of an inaccurate vertical analysis of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive forecast runs will likely diverge with height. In this paper, the application of a newly-designed system for 3D-VAR (x,y,z) assimilation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles derived from elastic-scattering lidar measurements is described [Campbell et al., 2009]. Performance is evaluated for use with the U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) by assimilating NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 0.532 ?m measurements [Winker et al., 2009]. Inversion retrievals of aerosol extinction are performed for one-degree latitudinal averages of CALIOP backscatter signal (thus matching the horizontal resolution of NAAPS) by constraining total column transmission using the model estimate of AOD at the corresponding wavelength. As such, this system serves as a post-processing module predicated on newly-operational NAAPS aerosol analysis fields that feature 2D-VAR assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Infrared Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD observations [Zhang and Reid, 2006; Zhang et al., 2008]. We describe the influence of 3D-VAR assimilation on NAAPS analyses and forecasts by considering the physical evolution of Saharan dust plumes during their advection across the tropical Atlantic basin. Steps taken towards characterizing spatial covariance parameters that broaden the horizontal influence of information obtained along the limited lidar orbital swath are discussed. This latter context is critical when comparing the efficacy and impact of 3D-VAR assimilation with that of 2D-VAR procedures, which benefit from passive observations with a relatively wide field-of-view and, therefore, greater/more routine global coverage. With multiple satellite-lidar projects either pending launch or in design stages, including the dual ESA missions (AEOLUS and EarthCARE), we describe the potential impact of future 3D-VAR assimilation activities; both for NAAPS forecast capabilities, and the anticipated growth in aerosol transport modeling efforts at federal and cooperative global agencies worldwide. 1 http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/aerosol/ References Campbell, J. R., J. S. Reid, D. L. Westphal, J. Zhang, E. J. Hyer, and E. J. Welton, CALIOP aerosol subset processing for global aerosol transport model data assimilation, in press, J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens., December 2009. Winker, D. M., M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms, J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol., 26, DOI:10.1175/2009JTECHA1281.1, 2009. Zhang,

  7. Enhancement of aerosol characterization using synergy of lidar and sun-photometer coincident observations: the GARRLiC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, A.; Dubovik, O.; Chaikovsky, A.; Goloub, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Tanré, D.; Litvinov, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the GARRLiC algorithm (Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data) that simultaneously inverts coincident lidar and radiometer observations and derives a united set of aerosol parameters. Such synergetic retrieval results in additional enhancements in derived aerosol properties because the back-scattering observations by lidar improve sensitivity to the columnar properties of aerosol, while radiometric observations provide sufficient constraints on aerosol amount and type that are generally missing in lidar signals. GARRLiC is based on the AERONET algorithm, improved to invert combined observations by radiometer and multi-wavelength elastic lidar observations. The algorithm is set to derive not only the vertical profile of total aerosol concentration but it also differentiates between the contributions of fine and coarse modes of aerosol. The detailed microphysical properties are assumed height independent and different for each mode and derived as a part of the retrieval. The GARRLiC inversion retrieves vertical distribution of both fine and coarse aerosol concentrations as well as the size distribution and complex refractive index for each mode. The potential and limitations of the method are demonstrated by the series of sensitivity tests. The effects of presence of lidar data and random noise on aerosol retrievals are studied. Limited sensitivity to the properties of the fine mode as well as dependence of retrieval accuracy on the aerosol optical thickness were found. The practical outcome of the approach is illustrated by applications of the algorithm to the real lidar and radiometer observations obtained over Minsk AERONET site.

  8. Aerosol and cloud sensing with the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, D. M.; McCormick, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar developed by NASA Langley Research Center to fly on the Space Shuttle. The LITE instrument is built around a three-wavelength ND:YAG laser and a 1-meter diameter telescope. The laser operates at 10 Hz and produces about 500 mJ per pulse at 1064 nm and 532 nm, and 150 mJ per pulse at 355 nm. The objective of the LITE program is to develop the engineering processes required for space lidar and to demonstrate applications of space-based lidar to remote sensing of the atmosphere. The LITE instrument was designed to study a wide range of cloud and aerosol phenomena. To this end, a comprehensive program of scientific investigations has been planned for the upcoming mission. Simulations of on-orbit performance show the instrument has sufficient sensitivity to detect even thin cirrus on a single-shot basis. Signal averaging provides the capability of measuring the height and structure of the planetary boundary layer, aerosols in the free troposphere, the stratospheric aerosol layer, and density profiles to an altitude of 40 km. The instrument has successfully completed a ground-test phase and is scheduled to fly on the Space Shuttle Discovery for a 9-day mission in September 1994.

  9. Comments on: Accuracy of Raman Lidar Water Vapor Calibration and its Applicability to Long-Term Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In a recent publication, LeBlanc and McDermid proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios.

  10. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a hurricane were made with the airborne Doppler lidar. Potential applications and plans for improvement will also be described.

  11. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distributions with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric and surface processes and feature. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of about a 1 Joule/pulse (eyesafe) lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and operations control system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (on an order of 1 micron in diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and concentration. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be about 1 m/s. A variety of applications has been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; an upper tropospheric jet stream; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a hurricane were made with the airborne Doppler lidar. Potential future applications, and plans for improvements, will also be identified.

  12. Aerosol Backscatter from Airborne Continuous Wave CO2 Lidars Over Western North America and the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol backscatter, beta, variability gives a direct indication of aerosol loading. Since aerosol variability is governed by regional sources and sinks as well as affected by its transport due to meteorological conditions, it is important to characterize this loading at different locations and times. Lidars are sensitive instruments that can effectively provide high-resolution, large-scale sampling of the atmosphere remotely by measuring aerosol beta, thereby capturing detailed temporal and spatial variability of aerosol loading, Although vertical beta profiles are usually obtained by pulsed lidars, airborne-focused CW lidars, with high sensitivity and short time integration, can provide higher resolution sampling in the vertical, thereby revealing detailed structure of aerosol layers. During the 1995 NASA Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission, NASA MSFC airborne-focused CW CO2 Doppler lidars, operating at 9.1 and 10.6-micrometers wavelength, obtained high resolution in situ aerosol beta measurements to characterize aerosol variability. The observed variability in beta at 9.1-micrometers wavelength with altitude is presented as well as comparison with some pulsed lidar profiles.

  13. Parametric study of an excimer-pumped, nitrogen Raman shifter for lidar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bisson, S.E. [Diagnostics Research Division, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States)

    1995-06-20

    A krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer-pumped, nitrogen Raman shifter has been studied for use in a wavelength-optimized solar-blind Raman lidar. First Stokes conversion efficiencies (248 {r_arrow} 263 nm) as high as 12% have been observed in N{sub 2}:He gas mixtures. Both oscillator--amplifier and self-seeded configurations were investigated. Wavelength-dependent effects were investigated with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 and 266 nm. A comparison of KrF- and Nd:YAG-pumped Raman shifting has shown that the beam quality of the excimer laser was a major factor in limiting the maximum first Stokes conversion efficiency.

  14. A lidar system for remote sensing of aerosols and water vapor from NSTS and Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delorme, Joseph F.

    1989-01-01

    The Tropical Atmospheric Lidar Observing System (TALOS) is proposed to be developed as a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for flight aboard the earth orbiting Space Station Freedom. TALOS will be capable of making high resolution vertical profile measurements of tropospheric water and tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols, clouds and temperature.

  15. Engineering of a water-vapour, Raman, elastic-backscatter Lidar at the Technical University of Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Sicard, Michaël; Tomás, Sergio; Muñoz, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Comerón, Adolfo

    2006-09-01

    Implementation of the pure-vibrational Raman spectra lidar method for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water-vapour, aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients is reported. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser provides the three elastic wavelengths of 1064, 532 and 355 nm while the return signal is collected by a 40-cm aperture telescope. A spot-to-spot fiber bundle conveys the light from the telescope focal plane to a specific polychromator especially simulated and designed with care on minimizing optical losses and physical dimensions. The reception field of view, which is limited by the fiber bundle characteristics, is the same for all wavelengths. By means of four customised dichroic filters and beam splitters, light is separated into the three elastic wavelengths (355, 532, 1064 nm) as well as the 386.7- and 607.4-nm N II-Raman-shifted wavelengths, and the 407.5-nm H IIO-Raman-shifted wavelength. Signal detection is achieved by using avalanche photodiodes at 1064 and 532 nm and analog acquisition while photomultiplier tubes and fast photon counting acquisition at the rest of the wavelengths. A specific design of the optoelectronics of the receiving channels is controlled by a distributed CPU thanks to a user-friendly LabView TM interface. User-configurable scanning tools are built-in, but can also be customized. In this work an overview of the system though particularly geared to the polychromator unit is presented as well as a power link-budget assessment, which is to include simulation of end-to-end transmissivities, will be discussed for the main channels involved. The first measurements have already been made at 1064, 532, and 607.4 nm.

  16. Developing a portable, autonomous aerosol backscatter lidar for network or remote operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2013-03-01

    Lidar has the ability to detect the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere and can therefore identify the existence and extent of aerosols with high spatial and temporal resolution, making it well suited for understanding atmospheric dynamics and transport processes. Environment Canada has developed a portable, autonomous lidar system that can be monitored remotely and operated continuously except during precipitation events. The lidar, housed in a small trailer, simultaneously emits two wavelengths of laser light (1064 nm and 532 nm) at energies of approximately 150 mJ/pulse/wavelength and detects the backscatter signal at 1064 nm and both polarizations at 532 nm. For laser energies of this magnitude, the challenge resides in designing a system that meets the airspace safety requirements for autonomous operations. Through the combination of radar technology, beam divergence, laser cavity interlocks and using computer log files, this risk was mitigated. A Continuum Inlite small footprint laser is the backbone of the system because of three design criteria: requiring infrequent flash lamp changes compared to previous Nd : YAG Q-switch lasers, complete software control capability and a built-in laser energy monitoring system. A computer-controlled interface was designed to monitor the health of the system, adjust operational parameters and maintain a climate-controlled environment. Through an Internet connection, it also transmitted the vital performance indicators and data stream to allow the lidar profile data for multiple instruments from near ground to 15 km, every 10 s, to be viewed, in near real-time via a website. The details of the system design and calibration will be discussed and the success of the instrument as tested within the framework of a national lidar network dubbed CORALNet (Canadian Operational Research Aerosol Lidar Network). In addition, the transport of a forest fire plume across the country will be shown as evidenced by the lidar network, HYSPLIT back trajectories, MODIS imagery and CALIPSO overpasses.

  17. Developing a portable, autonomous aerosol backscatter lidar for network or remote operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2012-11-01

    Lidar has the ability to detect the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere and can therefore identify the existence and extent of aerosols with high spatial and temporal resolution, making it well-suited for understanding atmospheric dynamics and transport processes. Environment Canada has developed a portable, autonomous lidar system that can be monitored remotely and operate continuously except during precipitation events. The lidar, housed in a small trailer, simultaneously emits two wavelengths of laser light (1064 nm and 532 nm) at energies of approximately 150 mJ/pulse/wavelength and detects the backscatter signal at 1064 nm and both polarizations at 532 nm. For laser energies of this magnitude, the challenge resides in designing a system that meets the airspace safety requirements for autonomous operations. Through the combination of radar technology, beam divergence, laser cavity interlocks and using computer log files, this risk was mitigated. A Continuum Inlite small footprint laser is the backbone of the system because of three design criteria: requiring infrequent flash lamp changes compared to previous Nd:YAG Q-switch lasers, complete software control capability and a built-in laser energy monitoring system. A computer-controlled interface was designed to monitor the health of the system, adjust operational parameters and maintain a climate-controlled environment. Through an internet connection, it also transmitted the vital performance indicators and data stream to allow the lidar profile data for multiple instruments from near ground to 15 km, every 10 s, to be viewed, in near real-time via a website. The details of the system design and calibration will be discussed and the success of the instrument as tested within the framework of a national lidar network dubbed CORALNet (Canadian Operational Research Aerosol Lidar Network). In addition, the transport of a forest fire plume across the country will be shown as evidenced by the lidar network, HYSPLIT back trajectories, MODIS imagery and CALIPSO overpasses.

  18. Remote sensing of the atmosphere by resonance Raman LIDAR

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Harder, D.; Leung, K.P.; Zuhoski, P.B. Jr.; Burr, D.; Chen, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    With the increased environmental awareness has come the need for technologies that can detect, identify and monitor pollutants and, where necessary, verify their destruction. This need is evidenced by the recent creation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), of which the Title 3-Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) amendments mandate the complete revision and expansion of the earlier Clean Air Act (CAA), section 112. As was pointed out by Grant, Kagann and McClenny, optical remote sensing technologies are expected to play a very important role in insuring that various facilities are in compliance with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for the reduction of HAP emissions that are called for in section 301 of Title 3. Unfortunately, however, many of these technologies have varying detection and applicability characteristics which often dictate the conditions under which one can use the sensor to detect, identify or monitor a chemical species. Some of the advantages that a Raman-based pollution sensor possess are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints), (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region), (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk), (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions), and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching, or interference from water). Early investigations were not able to take advantage of near-resonance enhancement of the Raman cross-section which occurs when the excitation frequency approaches an electronically excited state of the molecule. The enhancement of the scattering cross-section can be quite large, often approaching 4 to 6 orders of magnitude.

  19. Lidar observation of aerosol stratification in the lower troposphere over Pune during pre-monsoon season of 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ernest Raj; S M Sonbawne; S. M. Deshpande; P. C. S. Devara; Y. Jaya Rao; K. K. Dani; G. Pandithurai

    2008-01-01

    Lidar observations of aerosol vertical distributions in the lower troposphere along with observations of horizontal and vertical\\u000a winds from collocated UHF radar (Wind Profiler) over a tropical Indian station, Pune during the pre-monsoon season (March–May)\\u000a of 2006 as part of an ISRO-GBP national campaign (ICARB) have been examined. Lidar vertical profiles showed high aerosol concentrations\\u000a in the surface layers and

  20. Description and Evaluation of a Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Implemented on an Existing Lidar in the Southern Subtropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Baray; Jean Leveau; Jacques Porteneuve; Gerard Ancellet; Philippe Keckhut; Franoise Posny; Serge Baldy

    1999-01-01

    Rayleigh Mie lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature and aerosol profiles have been carried out at Reunion Island (southern tropics) since 1993. Since June 1998, an operational extension of the system is permitting additional measurements of tropospheric ozone to be made by differential absorption lidar. The emission wavelengths (289 and 316 nm) are obtained by stimulated Raman shifting of the fourth

  1. A New Way to Measure Cirrus Ice Water Content by Using Ice Raman Scatter with Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhien; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; Veselovskii, Igor

    2004-01-01

    High and cold cirrus clouds mainly contain irregular ice crystals, such as, columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, and dendrites, and have different impacts on the climate system than low-level clouds, such as stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus. The radiative effects of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate depend strongly on cirrus cloud microphysical properties including ice water content (IWC) and ice crystal sizes, which are mostly an unknown aspect of cinus clouds. Because of the natural complexity of cirrus clouds and their high locations, it is a challenging task to get them accurately by both remote sensing and in situ sampling. This study presents a new method to remotely sense cirrus microphysical properties by using ice Raman scatter with a Raman lidar. The intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved. Therefore, ice Raman scattering signal provides a more direct way to measure IWC than other remote sensing methods. Case studies show that this method has the potential to provide essential information of cirrus microphysical properties to study cloud physical processes in cirrus clouds.

  2. A Compact Mobile Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A compact mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric ozone air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars across the country. The lidar system consists of a UV and green laser transmitter, a telescope and an optical signal receiver with associated Licel photon counting and analog channels. The laser transmitter consist of a Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser with all the associated power and lidar control support units on a single system rack. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer and was deployed to Denver, CO July 15-August 15, 2014 supporting the DISCOVER-AQ campaign. Ozone curtain plots and the resulting science are presented.

  3. Using artificial neural networks to retrieve the aerosol type from multi-spectral lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, Doina; Belegante, Livio; Talianu, Camelia; Vasilescu, Jeni

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols can influence the microphysical and macrophysical properties of clouds and hence impact the energy balance, precipitation and the hydrological cycle. They have different scattering and absorption properties depending on their origin, therefore measured optical properties can be used to retrieve their physical properties, as well as to estimate their chemical composition. Due to the measurement limitations (spectral, uncertainties, range) and high variability of the aerosol properties with environmental conditions (including mixing during transport), the identification of the aerosol type from lidar data is still not solved. However, ground, airborne and space-based lidars provide more and more observations to be exploited. Since 2000, EARLINET collected more than 20,000 aerosol vertical profiles under various meteorological conditions, concerning local or long-range transport of aerosols in the free troposphere. This paper describes the basic algorithm for aerosol typing from optical data using the benefits of artificial neural networks. A relevant database was built to provide sufficient training cases for the neural network, consisting of synthetic and measured aerosol properties. Synthetic aerosols were simulated starting from the microphysical properties of basic components, internally mixed in various proportions. The algorithm combines the GADS database (Global Aerosol DataSet) to OPAC model (Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds) and T-Matrix code in order to compute, in an iterative way, the intensive optical properties of each aerosol type. Both pure and mixed aerosol types were considered, as well as their particular non-sphericity and hygroscopicity. Real aerosol cases were picked up from the ESA-CALIPSO database, as well as EARLINET datasets. Specific selection criteria were applied to identify cases with accurate optical data and validated sources. Cross-check of the synthetic versus measured aerosol intensive parameters was performed in order to ensure the homogeneity and consistency of the inputs considered for the neural network. Pure aerosol types are not sufficiently represented by the observations, as well as the mixtures of marine and volcanic, therefore only synthetic properties can be used for those. A Multilayer Perceptron neural network with three hidden layers was built and trained to retrieve the aerosol type based on 3a+2b+1d lidar data. Five pure aerosol types and eight mixtures were considered. About 70% of the total number of cases was used to train the network, 20% for the internal auto-testing and adjustments, and 10% for blind testing. Supervised training was applied until more than 90% of the synthetic cases, respectively more than 80% of the measurement cases were correctly identified. Preliminary results are presented, underlining the advantages and disadvantages of the neural network algorithm compared to other methods. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Program for research - Space Technology and Avanced Research - STAR, project no. 98/2013-DARLIOES, and by the ESA contract no. 4000110671/14/I-LG, NATALI. Keywords: EARLINET, ESA-CALIPSO, lidar, aerosol typing

  4. Intercomparison of Pulsed Lidar Data with Flight Level CW Lidar Data and Modeled Backscatter from Measured Aerosol Microphysics Near Japan and Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, D. R.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Menzies, R. T.; Bowdle, D. A.; Srivastava, V.; Pueschel, R. F.; Clarke, A. D.; Rothermel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscatter coefficient data were examined from two nights near Japan and Hawaii undertaken during NASA's Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) in May-June 1990. During each of these two nights the aircraft traversed different altitudes within a region of the atmosphere defined by the same set of latitude and longitude coordinates. This provided an ideal opportunity to allow flight level focused continuous wave (CW) lidar backscatter measured at 9.11-micron wavelength and modeled aerosol backscatter from two aerosol optical counters to be compared with pulsed lidar aerosol backscatter data at 1.06- and 9.25-micron wavelengths. The best agreement between all sensors was found in the altitude region below 7 km, where backscatter values were moderately high at all three wavelengths. Above this altitude the pulsed lidar backscatter data at 1.06- and 9.25-micron wavelengths were higher than the flight level data obtained from the CW lidar or derived from the optical counters, suggesting sample volume effects were responsible for this. Aerosol microphysics analysis of data near Japan revealed a strong sea-salt aerosol plume extending upward from the marine boundary layer. On the basis of sample volume differences, it was found that large particles were of different composition compared with the small particles for low backscatter conditions.

  5. Studies of Aerosol Vertical Profiles during GVAX Campaign Using Micropulse Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, D. N.; Coulter, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    In February and March 2012 a Micropulse Lidar (MPL) operated by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed in Nainital (29.38°N, 79.5°E, 2000 m asl), during the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). In the absence of clouds, the MPL, operating at 532 nm, produces profiles of atmospheric scattering that result from aerosols (Mie scattering) and molecules (Rayleigh-scattering). In combination with aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from the nearly co-located multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), these data are used to calculate vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients and AODs. The raw data used in this study are averaged in time for 10 seconds and 15 meters in altitude. Preliminary results indicate that aerosols were confined mostly below 1.5 to 2 km but with additional significant aerosol contributions up to 4-5 km. In some cases two distinct aerosol layers at different heights were also observed. The lower aerosol layer might be associated with penetration of accumulated aerosol from the nearby Ganges Valley to the site whereas upper layer may be due to the residual aerosols. A clear diurnal variation in aerosol extinction coefficients and AODs with higher values during the late afternoon was observed. Moreover, the aerosol extinction coefficients and AODs are higher in March as compared to the corresponding values in February. In order to assess the possible sources of the aerosol layers a seven days air-back trajectory analysis using NOAA-HYSPLIT model during these two months will also be presented.

  6. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D. OC; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cardirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL (Scanning Raman Lidar) and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20% . The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

  7. Fourier transform Raman lidar for trace gas detection and quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Sentell, J.C. [Coleman Research Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Raman technique, while a valuable tool in chemical and combustion research, is limited in many remote sensing applications because of the low Raman scattering cross-section, which may be three to five orders of magnitude below the Rayleigh (elastic) values. Two concepts for increasing the signal level are discussed. First, use a range-gated Fourier transform spectrometer to increase the system throughput and allow multiplexing advantages. The spectrum is obtained by performing a FFT on the resulting interferogram. Second, since the cross section goes as the fourth power of the optical frequency, use ultra-violet laser illumination, and separate the resulting fluorescence radiation by placing a known dispersion on the transmitted waveform. The techniques for achieving this function, and the mathematical formulation for the phase-modulated auto-correlation which result, are not evaluated in this paper. However, the approach does not appreciably lower the available resolution because the limits are imposed by the sampling function inherent to the finite-duration Michelson mirror scan. A conceptual design using a long-pulse, flashlamp-pumped dye laser is shown, and typical performance equations in the detection of Freon 12, CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}, are presented. For a one joule laser and a thirty (30) cm aperture operating in darkness, a concentration of 10{sup 23} molecules/m{sup 3} can be detected in a 60 km visibility at a range of 3.4 km. Much greater performance is obtained against molecules exhibiting the resonance Raman effect, such as nitrogen dioxide.

  8. Dust Aerosol Analysis and Prediction with Lidar Observations and Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiyama, T. T.; Tanaka, T. Y.; Shimizu, A.; Miyoshi, T.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a state-of-the-art data assimilation system for a global aerosol model with a four dimensional Ensemble Kalman Filter (4D-EnKF) in which Lidar observations, i.e., attenuated backscattering coefficient, depolarization ratio, and extinction coefficient, were successfully assimilated. The concentrations of dust, sulfate, and seasalt aerosols as well as the dust surface emission intensity were treated as control variables in this data assimilation system. The Lidar observations were obtained from the Level 1B dataset of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) or the dataset of the East Asian ground-based Lidar network operated by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan (NIES). With the use of these Lidar observations and 4D-EnKF system, aerosol data assimilation and prediction experiments were globally performed in the spring (March - May) of 2007. In this paper, we especially focus on the analysis and prediction of Asian dust which is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon sporadically affecting East Asian countries during the springtime. The analysis and prediction results derived from satellite and ground-based observations were compared with each other, and validated by independent observations: 1) aerosol optical depth measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) over East Asia, and 2) weather reports on aeolian dust events in East Asia derived from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Surface Synoptic Observations (SYNOP). Forecast scores were estimated by phenomenal discrimination (i.e. hit or not) using the SYNOP weather reports and a threshold of modeled dust surface concentration, for example, 100 micrograms/m3. Detailed four-dimensional structures of dust outflows from source regions, such as Taklimakan or Gobi desert, to the Pacific Ocean over the Korean Peninsula or the Japanese Archipelago were well reproduced by this data assimilation system. The intensity of dust emission at each grid point was also adjusted as a consequence of the inversion analysis of the four dimensional data assimilation. The short-range dust prediction was generally improved by using the results of the data assimilation analysis as initial conditions. These results are valuable for the comprehensive analysis of aerosol behavior as well as aerosol forecasting.

  9. Comparison of tropospheric delays from Raman lidar, radiosondes, GPS and DORIS during the MANITOUL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, P.; Bock, O.; Thom, C.; Pelon, J.; Willis, P.; Martin, O.; Nahmani, S.; Garrouste, O.

    2010-12-01

    Water vapor measurements from a Raman lidar developed conjointly by IGN and LATMOS/CNRS are used for documenting water vapor heterogeneities in the lower troposphere and correcting geodetic radio-signal propagation delays in clear sky conditions. This instrument has both capabilities for realizing zenith pointing and slant pointing measurements. During fall 2009, the system was deployed in Toulouse (France) in collaboration with Météo-France, IPGP, CNRS and CNES for an experiment devoted to investigate the impact of water vapor heterogeneities on the propagation of DORIS and GPS signals and subsequent position estimates. During this experiment the lidar was operated for the first time in a slant pointing mode realizing sky maps of slant wet delays which will be used for correcting GPS observations. A second pointing mode was used to track DORIS satellites (Envisat, SPOT4 and SPOT5) for assessing slant wet delays retrieved from DORIS geodetic solutions. The first results from this campaign show a good agreement between both geodetic techniques for zenith wet delay retrieval. The agreement between geodetic techniques, lidar, and radiosoundings are rather good as well, despite a bias remains. Lidar slant pointing measurements are intended to be compared to GPS and DORIS slant retrievals and then used for correcting the GPS data. They are expected to improve the positioning accuracy, especially the vertical component.

  10. Lidar measurements of Raman scattering at ultraviolet wavelength from mineral dust over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tatarov, Boyan; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho; Shin, Sung Kyun; Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min; Kim, Y J; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2011-01-17

    We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength. PMID:21263697

  11. Vertical Aerosol Backscatter Variability from an Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements using a continuous wave focused Doppler lidar at 9.1 micron wavelength were obtained over western North America and the Pacific Ocean during 13 - 26 September, 1995 as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on board the NASA DC8 aircraft. Backscatter variability was measured for approximately 52 flight hours, covering equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 25,000 km in the troposphere. Quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents which ranged between approximately 0.1 to 12.0 km altitude. Aerosol haze layers were encountered at different altitudes. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and over ocean were observed. A mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was found with modal value approximately 1O(exp -10)/m/sr, consistent with previous airborne and ground-based datasets.

  12. Daytime Raman lidar measurements of water vapor during the ARM 1997 water vapor intensive observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Because of the importance of water vapor, the ARM program initiated a series of three intensive operating periods (IOPs) at its CART (Cloud And Radiation Testbed) site. The goal of these IOPs is to improve and validate the state-of-the-art capabilities in measuring water vapor. To date, two of the planned three IOPs have occurred: the first was in September of 1996, with an emphasis on the lowest kilometer, while the second was conducted from September--October 1997 with a focus on both the upper troposphere and lowest kilometer. These IOPs provided an excellent opportunity to compare measurements from other systems with those made by the CART Raman lidar. This paper addresses primarily the daytime water vapor measurements made by the lidar system during the second of these IOPs.

  13. Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols over Menlo Park, California, October 1972 - March 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Viezee, W.; Hake, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    During an 18-month period, 30 nighttime observations of stratospheric aerosols were made using a ground based ruby lidar located near the Pacific coast of central California (37.5 deg. N, 122.2 deg. W). Vertical profiles of the lidar scattering ratio and the particulate backscattering coefficient were obtained by reference to a layer of assumed negligible particulate content. An aerosol layer centered near 21 km was clearly evident in all observations, but its magnitude and vertical distribution varied considerably throughout the observation period. A reduction of particulate backscattering in the 23- to 30-km layer during late January 1973 appears to have been associated with the sudden stratospheric warming which occurred at that time.

  14. Evaluations of Thin Cirrus Contamination and Screening in Ground Aerosol Observations Using Collocated Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly sub visual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to be screened in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to thin cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the CALIPSO vertical feature mask (VFM) and the MODIS-derived thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating thin cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) Quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted. Although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons, (2) Challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed, and (3) Estimation of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  15. Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ahl, Jeffrey L.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent work by the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) in algorithm development for parameter estimation, detection, and classification of localized aerosols in the atmosphere using information provided by multiple-wavelength range-resolved lidar. The motivation for this work is the need to detect, locate, and identify potentially toxic atmospheric aerosols at safe standoff ranges using time-series data collected at a discrete set of CO2 laser wavelengths. The paper describes examples this processing derived from an extensive set of data collected by ECBC during JBSDS field-testing at Dugway Proving Ground.

  16. A Compact Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Observations of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John W.; Cook, Anthony L.

    2002-01-01

    We are in the process of developing a nadir-viewing, aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) at NASA Langley Research Center. The system is designed to measure backscatter and extinction of aerosols and tenuous clouds. The primary uses of the instrument will be to validate spaceborne aerosol and cloud observations, carry out regional process studies, and assess the predictions of chemical transport models. In this paper, we provide an overview of the instrument design and present the results of simulations showing the instrument's capability to accurately measure extinction and extinction-to-backscatter ratio.

  17. Estimation of multiple-aerosol concentration and backscatter using multi-wavelength range-resolved lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2007-09-01

    Previous work by the authors has produced statistically based methods for detecting, estimating and classifying aerosol materials in the atmosphere using multiple-wavelength range-resolved CO2 lidar. This work has thus far been limited to the presence of a single aerosol material at a given time within the lidar line-of-sight. Practical implementation requires the ability to detect and discriminate multiple aerosol materials present simultaneously such as smoke and dust in addition to hazardous materials. Treating mixtures of materials necessitates fundamentally different approaches from the single-material case since neither the aerosol backscatter wavelength-dependence nor the concentrations as a function of range are known. Because of this, linear processing cannot resolve the mixture data into its components unambiguously, and non-linear methods must be considered. In this paper we describe an empirical Bayes (EB) approach for resolving mixtures of aerosol into their components. The basic idea of EB is to use the same data to estimate the prior distribution of a set of parameters as that used to estimate the parameters themselves. In our case the concentration and backscatter are the parameters that are estimated with the help of a prior distribution of the backscatter. We implement the EB estimator through the EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm. The resulting processor is applied to injections of interferent dust into data sets collected by ECBC during JBSDS testing at Dugway Proving Ground, UT in 2006.

  18. Retrieval of aerosol size distribution based on GCV regularization with optical data of lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hua, Dengxin; Di, Huige; Wang, Yufeng; Zhao, Huan; Mao, Jiandong

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation balance both directly and indirectly. The aerosol size distribution (ASD) is one of the most important microphysical properties. In this paper, the generalized cross-validation (GCV) regularization method is used for the retrieval of ASD from three-wavelength lidar optical data. The numerical simulations are carried out using synthetic backscatter and extinction coefficients. Simulations results demonstrate that the ASD depends on particle refractive index. Choosing the suitable refractive index is crucial to retrieve aerosol size distribution accurately. Moreover, the numerical results show that, for the same refractive index, it is more suitable to retrieve broad ASD, which has larger mode width ?. The GCV regularization method has been tested for a set of experimental data from three-wavelength lidar, which provides backscatter coefficient at 355, 532 and 1064 nm and extinction coefficient at 355 and 532 nm. Experimental result shows that the retrieved size distribution belongs to the urban industrial type and fine mode. The result shows good agreement with the actural atmospheric aerosol size distribution of local area. Both the simulation and the expriment demonstrate that the GCV regularization method is feasible to retrieve the aerosol size distribution.

  19. Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements During the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Evans, K. D.; Berkoff, T. B.; Demoz, B. D.; DiGirolamo, P.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the Water Vapor IOP 2000 (WVIOP2000) and ARM FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) at the DOE SGP CART site in northern Oklahoma. These experiments occurred during the period of September and December, 2000. The goals of both the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX were to better characterize the water vapor measurement capability of numerous sensors in the lower atmosphere and upper troposphere, respectively. The SRL received several hardware upgrades in anticipation of these experiments that permitted improved measurements of water vapor during the daytime and in the upper troposphere (UT). The daytime SRL water vapor error statistics were demonstrated a factor of 2-3 improvement compared to the permanently stationed CART Raman lidar (CARL). The performance of the SRL in the UT showed improvements as well. The technological upgrades that permitted these improved SRL measurements could also be implemented in the CARL system. Data examples demonstrating the new daytime and upper tropospheric measurement capability of the SRL will be shown at the meeting. In addition, preliminary analysis will be presented on several topics: 1) inter comparison of the water vapor measurements for several water vapor sensors including SRL, CARL, the NASA/Langley Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) flown onboard the NASA DC-8, in-situ sensors flown on the DC-8, and the Max Planck Institute Differential Absorption Lidar 2) comparison of cirrus cloud measurements using SRL and CARL and 3) case studies of meteorological events that occurred during the IOPs such as a cold frontal passage on the night of September 23.

  20. Mid-latitude Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar for Observations from 15 to 120 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickwar, V. B.; Sox, L.; Heron, J. P.; Emerick, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The original Rayleigh scatter lidar system that ran from 1993-2004 at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7° N, 111.8° W) in the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU) is undergoing a series of upgrades to transform it into a Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) scatter lidar. The original lidar covered the mesosphere from 45 to 90 km. The upgraded system will cover the region from approximately 15 to 120 km. The scientific impetus for these upgrades is to enable measurements of densities and temperatures throughout the middle atmosphere, covering most of the stratosphere, all of the mesosphere and well into the lower thermosphere. Initially, at the upper end, this will provide good information about the poorly observed region between 90 and 120 km. When the whole system comes on line, it will better enable coupling studies across these regions. By normalizing the relative densities to NCEP reanalysis or radiosonde densities below 30 km, the densities will become absolute all the way up to 120 km. By adding these new observations to those from the original data set, we will continue to examine temperature trends in the mesosphere. The upgrade is based on increasing the telescope collecting area to almost 5 m2 and increasing the 532 nm laser power to 42 W at 30 Hz. The combined effect is a 70 times increase in sensitivity. This increase enables us to go higher. It will also enable us to go lower by making Raman observations possible in the stratosphere, which will allow us to untangle the Rayleigh and Mie returns. Initial observations are approaching 120 km. These observations show significant temperature differences at the highest altitudes when compared to the MSISe00 empirical model.

  1. Space-based laser for a cloud and aerosol backscatter lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, John H.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Williams-Byrd, Julie [National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681-2199 (United States); Hovis, Floyd [Fibertek, Inc., 510 Herndon Parkway, Herndon, Virginia 20170 (United States); Bradford, Charles M.; Schwiesow, Ron [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, Colorado 80306 (United States)

    1999-01-22

    NASA Langley Research Center in conjunction with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., are developing a small, lightweight, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser to enable a spaceborne backscatter lidar to measure clouds and aerosols. The frequency-doubled laser has total output energy of 220 mJ at 27 Hz. The laser has been specifically designed for space applications and features conductive cooling and a minimum three-year design life.

  2. Use of Probability Distribution Functions for Discriminating Between Cloud and Aerosol in Lidar Backscatter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhaoyan; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, Davd M.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Poole, Lamont R.; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; McGill, Mathew

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the algorithm hat will be used during the upcoming Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission for discriminating between clouds and aerosols detected in two wavelength backscatter lidar profiles. We first analyze single-test and multiple-test classification approaches based on one-dimensional and multiple-dimensional probability density functions (PDFs) in the context of a two-class feature identification scheme. From these studies we derive an operational algorithm based on a set of 3-dimensional probability distribution functions characteristic of clouds and aerosols. A dataset acquired by the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) is used to test the algorithm. Comparisons are conducted between the CALIPSO algorithm results and the CPL data product. The results obtained show generally good agreement between the two methods. However, of a total of 228,264 layers analyzed, approximately 5.7% are classified as different types by the CALIPSO and CPL algorithm. This disparity is shown to be due largely to the misclassification of clouds as aerosols by the CPL algorithm. The use of 3-dimensional PDFs in the CALIPSO algorithm is found to significantly reduce this type of error. Dust presents a special case. Because the intrinsic scattering properties of dust layers can be very similar to those of clouds, additional algorithm testing was performed using an optically dense layer of Saharan dust measured during the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE). In general, the method is shown to distinguish reliably between dust layers and clouds. The relatively few erroneous classifications occurred most often in the LITE data, in those regions of the Saharan dust layer where the optical thickness was the highest.

  3. Water vapor measurements by Raman lidar during the ARM 1997 water vapor intensive observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G.K. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Melfi, S.H. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, as it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter of radiation, and it also plays an important role in energy transport and cloud formation. Accurate, high resolution measurements of this variable are critical in order to improve the understanding of these processes and thus their ability to model them. Because of the importance of water vapor, the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program initiated a series of three intensive operating periods (IOPs) at its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. The goal of these IOPs is to improve and validate the state-of-the-art capabilities in measuring water vapor. To date, two of the planned three IOPs have occurred: the first was in September of 1996, with an emphasis on the lowest kilometer, while the second was conducted from September--October 1997 with a focus on both the upper troposphere and lowest kilometer. The ARM CART site is the home of several different water vapor measurement systems. These systems include a Raman lidar, a microwave radiometer, a radiosonde launch site, and an instrumented tower. During these IOPs, additional instrumentation was brought to the site to augment the normal measurements in the attempt to characterize the CART instruments and to address the need to improve water vapor measurement capabilities. Some of the instruments brought to the CART site include a scanning Raman lidar system from NASA/GSFC, additional microwave radiometers from NOAA/ETL, a chilled mirror that was flown on a tethersonde and kite system, and dewpoint hygrometer instruments flow on the North Dakota Citation. This paper will focus on the Raman lidar intercomparisons from the second IOP.

  4. Measurements of daytime and upper tropospheric water vapor profiles by Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Bisson, S.E.; Goldsmith, J.E.M.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most important atmospheric constituents needed for climate and meteorological studies is water vapor. Water vapor plays an important role in driving atmospheric circulations through latent heat release and in determining the earth`s radiation budget, both through its radiative effects (water vapor is the major greenhouse gas) and cloud formation. The vertical distribution of water vapor is particularly important because it not only determines convective stability but radiative effects are also strongly altitude dependent. At present, considerable controversy exists over the nature of the vertical redistribution of water vapor in a changing climate, and particularly the distribution of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Understanding upper tropospheric moistening processes such as deep convection are therefore of prime importance in addressing the water vapor feedback question. A powerful, proven technique for the continuous measurement of nighttime water vapor profiles (in clear skies or up to the lowest cloud level) with high spatial and temporal resolution is Raman lidar. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, a high performance dual field-of-view (fov), narrowband Raman lidar system capable of both daytime and nighttime operation has been developed. In this paper, the Sandia Raman lidar system is discussed along with its application to two problems of current interest: daytime tropospheric water vapor profile measurements and upper tropospheric water vapor. We present recent measurements of upper tropospheric moisture made at the DOE Cloud and Radiation Testbed site (CART) in Oklahoma. Recent daytime measurements are also presented.

  5. Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, Albert; Wandinger, Ulla; Riebesell, Maren; Weitkamp, Claus; Michaelis, Walfried

    1992-11-01

    Height profiles of the extinction and the backscatter coefficients in cirrus clouds are determined independently from elastic- and inelastic- (Raman) backscatter signals. An extended error analysis is given. Examples covering the measured range of extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) in ice clouds are presented. Lidar ratios between 5 and 15 sr are usually found. A strong variation between 2 and 20 sr can be observed within one cloud profile. Particle extinction coefficients determined from inelastic-backscatter signals and from elastic-backscatter signals by using the Klett method are compared. The Klett solution of the extinction profile can be highly erroneous if the lidar ratio varies along the measuring range. On the other hand, simple backscatter lidars can provide reliable information about the cloud optical depth and the mean cloud lidar ratio.

  6. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  7. Characterization of aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio from multiwavelength and multi-angular lidar profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michael; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Lopez, Miguel A.; Comeron, Adolfo; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Munoz, Constantino; Garcia-Vizcaino, David

    2003-04-01

    The newly developed Nd:YAG portable 3-D-scanning lidar from the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain) was used to improve our knowledge of the aerosols properties in the Barcelona area where an important number of pollution and saharan dust events can be observed all year round in the atmosphere. The system simultaneously operated at the 1064-nm and 532-nm elastic wavelengths, and was used in its scanning mode from 15 degrees to 70 degrees from zenith with 5 degree steps. A variational method was used to invert the multi-angular profiles and to retrieve the aerosols optical thickness and backscatter coefficient at each wavelength without making any assumption on the aerosol type. At the same time, the ratio of the backscatter profiles was used to retrieve the profile of the Angstrom coefficient in backscatter. The backscatter-to-extinction ratio could not be calculated directly but various values of this parameter were used in Klett method until backscatter coefficient profiles could match the one retrieved with the variational method (at least in some altitude regions). Very good agreement (differences less than 20%) was observed in the 0.3 - 2.5 km region with a value of 0.030 sr-1, whereas no agreement could be achieved above where supposedly mixed aerosols were initially observed. The lidar profiles closer to the zenith at both wavelengths allowed to calculate a new Angstrom coefficient in backscatter that is compared to the one retrieved by the variational method. The comparison showed good agreement in the lower layers and thus validated the backscatter-to-extinction ratio profiles used in the Klett method. However, the difficulties encountered to invert the lidar signal above an altitude of 1.6 km show that non negligible inhomogeneities of the atmosphere were present in each line of sight, proving the dense and fast-moving aerosol load over the Barcelona basin.

  8. Benefit of depolarization ratio at ? = 1064 nm for the retrieval of the aerosol microphysics from lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, J.; Freudenthaler, V.

    2014-05-01

    A better quantification of aerosol microphysical and optical properties is required to improve the modelling of aerosol effects on weather and climate. This task is methodologically demanding due to the huge diversity of aerosol composition and of their shape and size distribution, and due to the complexity of the relation between the microphysical and optical properties. Lidar remote sensing is a valuable tool to gain spatially and temporally resolved information on aerosol properties. Advanced lidar systems provide sufficient information on the aerosol optical properties for the retrieval of important aerosol microphysical properties. Recently, the mass concentration of transported volcanic ash, which is relevant for the flight safety of airplanes, was retrieved from measurements of such lidar systems in Southern Germany. The relative uncertainty of the retrieved mass concentration was on the order of ±50%. The present study investigates improvements of the retrieval accuracy when the capability of measuring the linear depolarization ratio at 1064 nm is added to the lidar setup. The lidar setups under investigation are based on the setup of MULIS and POLIS of the LMU in Munich which measure the linear depolarization ratio at 355 nm and 532 nm with high accuracy. By comparing results of retrievals applied to simulated lidar measurements with and without the depolarization at 1064 nm it is found that the availability of 1064 nm depolarization measurements reduces the uncertainty of the retrieved mass concentration and effective particle size by a factor of about 2-3. This significant improvement in accuracy is the result of the increased sensitivity of the lidar setup to larger particles. However, the retrieval of the single scattering albedo, which is relevant for the radiative transfer in aerosol layers, does hardly benefit from the availability of 1064 nm depolarization measurements.

  9. Combined Retrievals of Boreal Forest Fire Aerosol Properties with a Polarimeter and Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Ottaviani, M.; Ferrare, R.; Haire, J.; Hostetler, C.; Obland, M.; Rogers, R.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A.; Freitag, S.; Howell, S.; Kapustin, V.; McNaughton, C.

    2011-01-01

    Absorbing aerosols play an important, but uncertain, role in the global climate. Much of this uncertainty is due to a lack of adequate aerosol measurements. While great strides have been made in observational capability in the previous years and decades, it has become increasingly apparent that this development must continue. Scanning polarimeters have been designed to help resolve this issue by making accurate, multi-spectral, multi-angle polarized observations. This work involves the use of the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The RSP was designed as the airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), which was due to be launched as part of the (ultimately failed) NASA Glory mission. Field observations with the RSP, however, have established that simultaneous retrievals of aerosol absorption and vertical distribution over bright land surfaces are quite uncertain. We test a merger of RSP and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) data with observations of boreal forest fire smoke, collected during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS). During ARCTAS, the RSP and HSRL instruments were mounted on the same aircraft, and validation data were provided by instruments on an aircraft flying a coordinated flight pattern. We found that the lidar data did indeed improve aerosol retrievals using an optimal estimation method, although not primarily because of the constraints imposed on the aerosol vertical distribution. The more useful piece of information from the HSRL was the total column aerosol optical depth, which was used to select the initial value (optimization starting point) of the aerosol number concentration. When ground based sun photometer network climatologies of number concentration were used as an initial value, we found that roughly half of the retrievals had unrealistic sizes and imaginary indices, even though the retrieved spectral optical depths agreed within uncertainties to independent observations. The convergence to an unrealistic local minimum by the optimal estimator is related to the relatively low sensitivity to particles smaller than 0.1 ( m) at large optical thicknesses. Thus, optimization algorithms used for operational aerosol retrievals of the fine mode size distribution, when the total optical depth is large, will require initial values generated from table look-ups that exclude unrealistic size/complex index mixtures. External constraints from lidar on initial values used in the optimal estimation methods will also be valuable in reducing the likelihood of obtaining spurious retrievals.

  10. Raman characterization and chemical imaging of biocolloidal self-assemblies, drug delivery systems, and pulmonary inhalation aerosols: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi M. Mansour; Anthony J. Hickey

    2007-01-01

    This review presents an introduction to Raman scattering and describes the various Raman spectroscopy, Raman microscopy, and\\u000a chemical imaging techniques that have demonstrated utility in biocolloidal self-assemblies, pharmaceutical drug delivery systems,\\u000a and pulmonary research applications. Recent Raman applications to pharmaceutical aerosols in the context of pulmonary inhalation\\u000a aerosol delivery are discussed. The “molecular fingerprint” insight that Raman applications provide includes

  11. Compact Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcia, Joel; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    A small compact ozone differential absorption lidar capable of being deployed on a small aircraft or unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) has been tested. The Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser is pumped by a quadrupled Nd:YLF laser. Test results on the laser transmitter demonstrated 1.4 W in the IR and 240 mW in the green at 1000 Hz. The receiver consists of three photon-counting channels, which are a far field PMT, a near field UV PMT, and a green PMT. Each channel was tested for their saturation characteristics.

  12. A regional model of European aerosol transport: Evaluation with sun photometer, lidar and air quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, J.; Tegen, I.; Mattis, I.; Wolke, R.; Alados Arboledas, L.; Apituley, A.; Balis, D.; Barnaba, F.; Chaikovsky, A.; Sicard, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Pietruczuk, A.; Stoyanov, D.; Ravetta, F.; Rizi, V.

    2012-02-01

    Aerosol transport simulations within Europe were performed with the regional transport model COSMO-MUSCAT for two different time periods, July 19-26, 2006 and February 16-26, 2007. Simulated PM2.5, backscatter profiles and aerosol optical depths (AODs) were compared to observations, showing good agreements in magnitude, shape and day-to-day variations. Maximum AODs (>0.4) were found over Middle Europe and minimum AODs (<0.13) over the ocean during both time periods, corresponding to regions of high ( PM2.5 > 10 ?g m -3) and low ( PM2.5 < 4.0 ?g m -3) concentration near the surface. Vertical aerosol distributions were evaluated with lidar measurements from the EARLINET ground network and CALIPSO satellite retrievals. The characteristic vertical distribution and the differences for the summer and the winter cases were represented well by the regional model. Mean differences between -5.0 × 10 -7 to-2.0 × 10 -7 m -1 sr -1 (summer case) and -2.3 × 10 -6 to 1.0 × 10 -6 m -1 sr -1 (winter case) from 0.0 to 2.5 km altitude were found between observed (space-based lidar) and simulated backscatter coefficients. For the cases that were investigated in this study different prescriptions of the vertical distribution at the lateral model boundaries resulted in only small differences in aerosol distributions within the interior of the model region.

  13. Improved simulation of aerosol, cloud, and density measurements by shuttle lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Morley, B. M.; Livingston, J. M.; Grams, G. W.; Patterson, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Data retrievals are simulated for a Nd:YAG lidar suitable for early flight on the space shuttle. Maximum assumed vertical and horizontal resolutions are 0.1 and 100 km, respectively, in the boundary layer, increasing to 2 and 2000 km in the mesosphere. Aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated using 1.06 and 0.53 microns wavelengths independently. Error sources include signal measurement, conventional density information, atmospheric transmission, and lidar calibration. By day, tenuous clouds and Saharan and boundary layer aerosols are retrieved at both wavelengths. By night, these constituents are retrieved, plus upper tropospheric, stratospheric, and mesospheric aerosols and noctilucent clouds. Density, temperature, and improved aerosol and cloud retrievals are simulated by combining signals at 0.35, 1.06, and 0.53 microns. Particlate contamination limits the technique to the cloud free upper troposphere and above. Error bars automatically show effect of this contamination, as well as errors in absolute density nonmalization, reference temperature or pressure, and the sources listed above. For nonvolcanic conditions, relative density profiles have rms errors of 0.54 to 2% in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Temperature profiles have rms errors of 1.2 to 2.5 K and can define the tropopause to 0.5 km and higher wave structures to 1 or 2 km.

  14. Modeling LIDAR Detection of Biological Aerosols to Determine Optimum Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Aker, Pam M.

    2007-09-19

    This report summarizes work performed for a larger multi-laboratory project named the Background Interferent Measurement and Standards project. While originally tasked to develop algorithms to optimize biological warfare agent detection using UV fluorescence LIDAR, the current uncertainties in the reported fluorescence profiles and cross sections the development of any meaningful models. It was decided that a better approach would be to model the wavelength-dependent elastic backscattering from a number of ambient background aerosol types, and compare this with that generated from representative sporulated and vegetative bacterial systems. Calculations in this report show that a 266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm elastic backscatter LIDAR experiment will allow an operator to immediately recognize when sulfate, VOC-based or road dust (silicate) aerosols are approaching, independent of humidity changes. It will be more difficult to distinguish soot aerosols from biological aerosols, or vegetative bacteria from sporulated bacteria. In these latter cases, the elastic scattering data will most likely have to be combined with UV fluorescence data to enable a more robust categorization.

  15. Aerosol concentration measurements with a lidar ceilometer: results of a one year measuring campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan; Mueller, Wolfgang J.; Schaefer, Klaus P.

    2004-02-01

    The Vaisala ceilometer CT25K is an eye-safe commercial lidar mainly used to report cloud base heights and vertical visibility for aviation safety purposes. Compared to ceilometers with biaxial optics, its single lens design provides a higher signal-to-noise ratio for lidar return signals from distances below about 600 m, thus increasing its abilities to examine the mixing layer. A CT25K ceilometer took part in the environmental research project VALIUM at the Lower Saxony State Agency for Ecology (NLO) in Hannover, Germany, investigating the air pollution in an urban surrounding with various sensors. Lidar return signals are reported every 15 s with a height resolution of 15 m. This paper covers two aspects of the interpretation of these signals. The aerosol backscatter of the atmosphere up to 30 m is compared to the PM10 concentration reported by an in situ sensor every 30 minutes, and the results are interpreted in respect of meteorological parameters such as humidity, temperature, wind, and global radiation. With relative humidity values below 62 % and no rain present the correlation between ceilometer backscatter and PM10 values is good enough to qualify standard ceilometers as instruments for a quantitative analysis of the atmospheric aerosol contents. Backscatter values up to 1000 m height are presented that allow an estimation of the convective boundary layer top in dry weather situations. The atmospheric boundary layer structures derived from ceilometer data are compared to those reported by a SODAR and a RASS that also took part in the VALIUM research project. Finally the backscatter data quality of a double lens ceilometer is compared to that of the single lens CT25K ceilometer to investigate to what extent these lidar systems are also able to report aerosol concentration.

  16. Optical Properties of Remote Ocean Aerosols As Measured by an Air-borne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, B.; Spuler, S.; Vivekanandan, J.; Eloranta, E.

    2012-12-01

    A high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) was operated aboard the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Gulfstream V (GV) aircraft as part of the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogen species and Oxy-genated VOC (TORERO) field program. The HSRL makes calibrated measurements of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols and clouds: backscatter cross section, depolarization ratio and extinction. The lidar can make these calibrated measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds at distances in excess of 20 km. During the TORERO field program the lidar was used to detect and measure the optical properties of aerosol layers above or below the aircraft. Examples of the real-time and post-flight data products available from the lidar will be shown include calibrated backscatter cross section, depolarization ratio, extinction and integrated optical depth. These calibrated data products from the lidar will be used by other investigators to enhance their data processing. Backscatter cross section image taken on 27 January 2012 as the aircraft was profiling the atmosphere and the lidar was being switched between zenith and nadir pointing. Backscatter cross section image taken on 3 February 2012 from an altitude near 14km with cirrus clouds at 18km and a stratospheric aerosol layer between 19km and 21km as observed from below.

  17. Towards quantifying mesoscale flows in the troposphere using Raman lidar and sondes

    SciTech Connect

    Demoz, B.; Evans, K. [Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starr, D. [NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in the energetics of the boundary layer processes which in turn play a key role in regulating regional and global climate. It plays a primary role in Earth`s hydrological cycle, in radiation balance as a direct absorber of infrared radiation, and in atmospheric circulation as a latent heat energy source as well as in determining cloud development and atmospheric stability. Water vapor concentration, expressed as a mass mixing ratio, is conserved in all meteorological processes except condensation and evaporation. This property makes it an ideal choice for studying many of the atmosphere`s dynamic features. Raman scattering measurements from lidar also allow retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio profiles at high temporal and vertical resolution. Raman lidars sense water vapor to altitudes not achievable with towers and surface systems, sample the atmosphere at much higher temporal resolution than radiosondes or satellites, and do not require strong vertical gradients or turbulent fluctuations in temperature that is required by acoustic sounders and radars. Analysis of highly resolved water vapor profiles are used here to characterize two important mesoscale flows: thunderstorm outflows and a cold front passage.

  18. Instrumental correction of the uneven PMT aging effect on the calibration constant of a water vapor Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Fastig, Shlomo; Haefele, Alexander; Calpini, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    The water vapor profile derived from Raman lidar measurements is obtained by taking the ratio of water vapor and nitrogen Raman-shifted signals. The proportionality factor that converts the signal ratio to water vapor/air mixing ratio is referred to as lidar calibration constant. The calibration constant depends on the water vapor and nitrogen Raman cross sections and on the efficiencies of the respective Raman channels including the photomultiplier tube (PMT) efficiency. Unequal, gradual changes in the PMTs efficiencies due to fatigue effects may lead to gradual alteration of the calibration constant. Such an effect has been observed during the seven- year continuous operation of the RAman Lidar for Moisture Observations (RALMO)1 . A more detailed research2 , has shown that the calibration constant change is more pronounced during summer time probably due to the higher light exposure. Periodical recalibration of the lidar with radiosonde measurements is used to correct the calibration constant. This approach, however, induces additional systematic errors due to the nature of the calibration procedure and the dispersion of the radiosonde parameters. We present a new, instrumental method for automated correction of the calibration constant. By this method, a correction factor is deduced from the ratio of the signals of the two photomultipliers which are illuminated simultaneously by a single, stabilized UV-LED light source. The LED light is delivered to the photomultipliers by a set of additional mirrors and a beam splitter installed inside the grating polychromator used to separate the Raman signals. The correction measurements are taken before midnight. To minimize the data loss, the lidar's laser is operated during the measurements and a shatter at the polychromator entrance is used to block any atmospheric signals. The use of stabilized light source also allows evaluating the individual photomultipliers aging rates, essential for the instrument maintenance.

  19. Cloud and Aerosol Measurements from the GLAS Polar Orbiting Lidar: First Year Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. GLAS is approaching six months of on orbit data operation. These data from thousands of orbits illustrate the ability of space lidar to accurately and dramatically measure the height distribution of global cloud and aerosol to an unprecedented degree. There were many intended science applications of the GLAS data and significant results have already been realized. One application is the accurate height distribution and coverage of global cloud cover with one goal of defining the limitation and inaccuracies of passive retrievals. Comparison to MODIS cloud retrievals shows notable discrepancies. Initial comparisons to NOAA 14&15 satellite cloud retrievals show basic similarity in overall cloud coverage, but important differences in height distribution. Because of the especially poor performance of passive cloud retrievals in polar regions, and partly because of high orbit track densities, the GLAS measurements are by far the most accurate measurement of Arctic and Antarctica cloud cover from space to date. Global aerosol height profiling is a fundamentally new measurement from space with multiple applications. A most important aerosol application is providing input to global aerosol generation and transport models. Another is improved measurement of aerosol optical depth. Oceanic surface energy flux derivation from PBL and LCL height measurements is another application of GLAS data that is being pursued. A special area of work for GLAS data is the correction and application of multiple scattering effects. Stretching of surface return pulses in excess of 40 m from cloud propagation effects and other interesting multiple scattering phenomena have been observed. As an EOS project instrument, GLAS data products are openly available to the science community. First year results from GLAS are summarized.

  20. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1992-12-31

    A research program on the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions is proposed. The experiments involve measuring changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol. Aerosols with differing surface properties will be generated by changing the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. Kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modelling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol will be measured, both before and after reaction, using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Information about the detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during the course of the reaction. Studies will focus on the condensation and oxidation of sulfur species (sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide) on water aerosols.

  1. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    A research program on the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions is proposed. The experiments involve measuring changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol. Aerosols with differing surface properties will be generated by changing the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. Kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modelling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol will be measured, both before and after reaction, using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Information about the detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during the course of the reaction. Studies will focus on the condensation and oxidation of sulfur species (sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide) on water aerosols.

  2. Multidimensional Lidar, Sunphotometer and Aircraft Observations of Urban Aerosols during the DISCOVER-AQ Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Berkoff, T.; Delgado, R.; Orozco, D.; McCann, K. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Anderson, B. E.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Mission is a five-year multisite experiment to better understand the relationship between satellite measured variables (columnar) with surface concentrations, required for air quality assessment and regulation. The first DISCOVER-AQ experiment was held in the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor during July 2011 and involved eleven lidars and two aircraft to provide the vertical profiles needed to close the vertical column with surface measures. In addition, over 40 sunphotometers were employed on a grid to add to the horizontal dimension during the DRAGON experiment, running concurrently. This paper is a preliminary look at a range of results from the experiment from very clear days, where the closure is relatively simple, to highly complex and varied aerosol regimes. Clearly important in the closure is the humidification of the aerosol that showed spatial variations in all three dimensions and may, in fact, dominate the relationship between aerosol optical depth and particle mass on a single day basis. Aerosol speciation analysis and in-situ microphysics from the aircraft is still being assessed and may explain scattering differences seen in depolarization of the aerosol and in aerosol layers confined to the PBL and aloft.

  3. Aerosol Retrieval from Dual-wavelength Polarization Lidar Measurements over Tropical Pacific Ocean and Validation of a Global Aerosol Transport Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nishizawa; N. Sugimoto; I. Matsui; A. Shimizu; T. Takemura; H. Okamoto

    2009-01-01

    Spatial distributions of water-soluble, sea-salt and dust aerosols over the Tropical Pacific Ocean were analyzed from shipborne, dual-wavelength polarization Mie-scattering lidar measurements. The shipborne measurements by the R\\/V MIRAI were conducted over the Tropical Pacific Ocean in 2001, 2004, and 2006. We used an algorithm to retrieve the extinction coefficients for water-soluble, sea-salt and dust particles from the three-channel lidar

  4. Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Whiteman; F. Russo; B. Demoz; L. M. Miloshevich; I. Veselovskii; S. Hannon; Z. Wang; H. Vömel; F. Schmidlin; B. Lesht; P. J. Moore; A. S. Beebe; A. Gambacorta; C. Barnet

    2006-01-01

    Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde.

  5. Global view of aerosol vertical distributions from CALIPSO lidar measurements and GOCART simulations: Regional and seasonal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Winker, David M.; Omar, Ali H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Kittaka, Chieko; Diehl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines seasonal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosols through a statistical analysis of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar observations from June 2006 to November 2007. A data-screening scheme is developed to attain good quality data in cloud-free conditions, and the polarization measurement is used to separate dust from non-dust aerosol. The CALIPSO aerosol observations are compared with aerosol simulations from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation Transport (GOCART) model and aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The CALIPSO observations of geographical patterns and seasonal variations of AOD are generally consistent with GOCART simulations and MODIS retrievals especially near source regions, while the magnitude of AOD shows large discrepancies in most regions. Both the CALIPSO observation and GOCART model show that the aerosol extinction scale heights in major dust and smoke source regions are generally higher than that in industrial pollution source regions. The CALIPSO aerosol lidar ratio also generally agrees with GOCART model within 30% on regional scales. Major differences between satellite observations and GOCART model are identified, including (1) an underestimate of aerosol extinction by GOCART over the Indian sub-continent, (2) much larger aerosol extinction calculated by GOCART than observed by CALIPSO in dust source regions, (3) much weaker in magnitude and more concentrated aerosol in the lower atmosphere in CALIPSO observation than GOCART model over transported areas in midlatitudes, and (4) consistently lower aerosol scale height by CALIPSO observation than GOCART model. Possible factors contributing to these differences are discussed.

  6. New Lidar Capabilities in Space: An Overview of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Hlavka, D. L.; Selmer, P. A.; Hart, W. D.; Palm, S. P.; Nowottnick, E. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rodier, S. D.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Buchard, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), built at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a payload for the International Space Station (ISS), is set to launch in the late 2014. CATS is an elastic backscatter lidar operating in one of three science modes with three wavelengths (1064, 532, 355 nm) and HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at the 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths. The CATS science modes are described in Figure 1. The ISS orbit is a 51 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of about 405 km. This orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three day repeat cycle. Thus, science applications of CATS include cloud and aerosol climate studies, air quality monitoring, and smoke/volcanic plume tracking. Current uncertainties in cloud and aerosol properties limit our ability to accurately model the Earth's climate system and predict climate change. These limitations are due primarily to difficulties in adequately measuring aerosols and clouds on a global scale. A primary science objectives of CATS is to provide global aerosol and cloud vertical profile data in near real time to for assimilation in aerosol transport models such as the NASA GEOS-5 model. Furthermore, the vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties provided by CATS will complement current and future passive satellite sensors. Another important science objective of CATS is to advance technology in support of future mission development. CATS will employ 355 nm and HSRL capabilities, as well as depolarization at multiple wavelengths. These expanded measurement capabilities will provide the science community with new and improved global data products that have yet to be retrieved from space-based lidar. In preparation for launch, simulations of the CATS lidar signal are produced using GEOS5 model data to develop and test future data products. An example of the simulated CATS attenuated total backscatter for the 532 nm parallel channel is shown in Figure 2 using the GEOS-5 model forecast from 15 July 2009. This work provides an overview of the CATS mission, science objectives and simulated data.

  7. Instrumental correction of the uneven PMT aging effect on the calibration constant of a water vapor Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Fastig, Shlomo; Haefele, Alexander; Martucci, Giovanni; Calpini, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    The water vapor profile derived from Raman lidar measurements is obtained from the ratio of water vapor to nitrogen Raman-shifted returns. The proportionality factor converting the signal ratio to water vapor/air mixing ratio is referred to as lidar calibration constant. The calibration constant is a function of the water vapor and nitrogen Raman cross sections and the efficiencies of the respective Raman channels including the photomultiplier tubes (PMT) efficiencies. Unequal, gradual changes in the water vapor and nitrogen channels PMT efficiencies due to aging effects lead to steady alteration of the calibration constant. This effect has been observed during the seven- year continuous operation of the RAman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO)1. A more detailed research2, has shown that the calibration constant change is more pronounced during summer time, which is explained by the higher daylight exposure of the PMTs during this period. Periodical recalibration of the lidar with radiosonde measurements is used to correct the calibration constant. This approach, however, induces additional systematic errors due to the nature of the calibration procedure and because of sonde-to-sonde accuracy variations. The systematic errors could induce artefacts leading to an incorrect interpretation of certain data points in the framework of climatological studies. To resolve this problem we developed a new, instrumental method for automated correction of the lidar calibration constant. By this method, the change in the water vapor and the nitrogen PMTs efficiencies are estimated from the PMTs responses measured when they are illuminated simultaneously by a single stabilized LED light source. A correction factor is deduced from the ratio of the signals of the two photomultipliers. The correction measurements are taken automatically once daily before midnight. The correction is applied when the correction factor exceeds a predefined threshold for several days. The method principle, the instrumental setup and preliminary results will be presented. References a. T. Dinoev, V. Simeonov, Y. Archinov, S. Bobrovnikov, P. Ristori, B. Calpini, M. Parlange, H. Van den Bergh, "Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations, RALMO - Part I: Instrument description", Atmosph. Meas. Techn., 6, pp.1329-1346, (2013) b. E. Brocard, R. Philipona, A. Haefele, G. Romanens, D. Ruffieux, V. Simeonov, and B. Calpini, " Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations, RALMO - Part 2: Validation of water vapour measurements", Atmosph. Meas. Techn. , 6, pp. 1347-1358, (2013)

  8. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  9. SAWA experiment properties of mineral dust aerosol as seen by synergic lidar and sun-photometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardas, A. E.; Markowicz, K. M.; Malinowski, S. P.; Karasi?ski, G.; Stacewicz, T.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Hochhertz, C.; Woeste, L.

    2006-11-01

    We propose a method of retrieving basic information on mineral dust aerosol particles from synergic sun-photometer and multi-wavelength lidar measurements as well as from the observations of lidar light depolarisation. We use this method in a case study of mineral dust episode in Central Europe. Lidar signals are inversed with a modified Klett-Fernald algorithm. Aerosol optical depth measured with the sun-photometer allows to reduce uncertainties in the inversion procedure through which we estimate vertical profile of aerosol extinction. Next we assume that aerosol particles may be represented by ensemble of randomly oriented, identical spheroids. Having calculated vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients for lidar wavelengths, we compute the profiles of local Angstrom exponent. We use laser beam depolarisation together with the calculated Angstrom exponents to estimate the shapes (aspect ratios) and sizes of the spheroids. Numerical calculations are performed with the transition matrix (T-matrix) algorithm by M. Mishchenko. The proposed method was first used during SAWA measurement campaign in Warsaw, spring 2005, to characterise the particles of desert dust, drifting over Poland with a southern-eastern wind (13-14 April). Observations and T-matrix calculations show that mode radii of spheroids representative for desert aerosols' particles are in the range of 0.15-0.3 ?m, while their aspect ratios are lower than 0.7 or larger than 1.7.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF EZ LIDAR AND ARM\\/SGP MPL LIDAR PERFORMANCES FOR QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF AEROSOL AND CLOUDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Lolli; Laurent Sauvage; Iwona Stachlewska; Richard Coulter; Rob Newsom

    The objective of this work is to assess the performances of EZ LIDAR™ (EZ) instrument with regard to those of a Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) type 4, deployed at the ARM site in South Great Plains, Oklahoma, in October 2006. Results show that EZ lidar measurements performances are equivalent to those of ARM site MPL Lidar. A quantitative assessment of

  11. Inclined lidar observations of boundary layer aerosol particles above the Kongsfjord, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Astrid; Ström, Johan; Ritter, Christoph; Neuber, Roland; Yoon, Young; Chae, Nam; Shiobara, Masataka

    2012-10-01

    An inclined lidar with vertical resolution of 0.4 m was used for detailed boundary layer studies and to link observations at Zeppelin Mountain (474 m) and Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. We report on the observation of aerosol layers directly above the Kongsfjord. On 29 April 2007, a layer of enhanced backscatter was observed in the lowest 25 m above the open water surface. The low depolarization ratio indicated spherical particles. In the afternoon, this layer disappeared. The ultrafine particle concentration at Zeppelin and Corbel station (close to the Kongsfjord) was low. On 1 May 2007, a drying process in the boundary layer was observed. In the morning, the atmosphere up to Zeppelin Mountain showed enhanced values of the backscatter coefficient. Around noon, the top of the highly reflecting boundary layer decreased from 350 to 250 m. The top of the boundary layer observed by lidar was confirmed by radiosonde data.

  12. Troposphere-Stratosphere transport in the tropics from CALIPSO lidar aerosols measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, J.-P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.

    2009-04-01

    Troposphere Stratosphere transport in the tropics from CALIPSO lidar aerosols measurements J.P. Vernier, J.P. Pommereau, A. Garnier and J. Pelon CNRS-LATMOS Verrières le Buisson, 91371 France The evolution of the aerosols in the tropical tropopause region is investigated from the CALIOP lidar measurements onboard the CALIPSO satellite. After applying a correction for calibration and appropriate cloud mask, a consistent picture of the aerosols since the beginning of the mission in June 2006 until present is provided. Most remarkable features are the presence of several volcanic plumes at various levels further lifted by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and the injection of clean washed-out tropospheric air up to 19-20 km particularly intense during the maximum land convective season in February-March resulting in the cleansing of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Most important implications relevant to Troposphere to Stratosphere transport is the suggestion of the existence of a maximum static stability layer at about 19.5 km (450 K, 60 hPa) suggesting a decoupling of the circulation between Holton's "lowermost stratosphere" and "overworld", and the importance at global scale of fast convective overshooting of tropospheric air across the tropopause up to the altitude of the above static layer.

  13. Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Tymon; Pflug, Bringfried

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed, direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas. The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditions affect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface as well as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are produced by various air sea interactions. This paper presents the results of measurements taken at numerous coastal stations between 1992 and 2006 using an FLS-12 lidar system together with other supporting instrumentation. The investigations demonstrated that near-water layers in coastal areas differ significantly from those over open seas both in terms of structure and physical properties. Taking into consideration the above mentioned factors, aerosol concentrations and optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layer as a function of offshore distance and altitude at various coastal sites in two seasons. The lidar results show that the remote sensing algorithms used currently in coastal areas need verification and are not fully reliable.

  14. Closure study on optical and microphysical properties of a mixed urban and Arctic haze air mass observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Detlef; Mattis, Ina; Ansmann, Albert; Wehner, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Wandinger, Ulla; Dubovik, Oleg

    2004-07-01

    We present a comprehensive optical and microphysical characterization of an intense haze event observed over Leipzig (51.3°N, 12.4°E), Germany, in April 2002. This event was characterized by unusually high optical depths. The haze consisted of a mixture of urban and Arctic haze aerosols which were advected from the Arctic regions across eastern Europe and Scandinavia. For the first time a closure study on such an event could be carried out on the basis of combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer. This study also served as a performance test of the inversion algorithms that are used for retrieving microphysical particle properties from the optical data sets. A comparison of parameters derived in this study to respective quantities determined in the Arctic regions showed that Arctic-haze-like material dominated the optical and microphysical particle properties, although a significant amount of this haze must have consisted of urban aerosols. The urban aerosols from eastern Europe had properties rather similar to those characteristic for the well-aged particles of Arctic haze. The major part of the haze was confined to heights below 3 km. Optical depth was 0.4-0.5 at 532 nm on 8 April 2002. The particle backscatter-to-extinction (lidar) ratio varied between 35 and 75 sr at 355 and 532 nm. The Ångström exponent of particle extinction in the wavelength range from 355 to 532 nm was 1.8-2.8. The inversion of the lidar optical data resulted in particle effective radii around 0.19 ± 0.04 ?m, volume concentrations of 16-33 ?m3 cm-3, surface area concentrations of 270-510 ?m2 cm-3, and a single-scattering albedo around 0.97 ± 0.06 at 532 nm. Particle size distributions showed a rather pronounced monomodal structure in the accumulation mode, which is characteristic for well-aged particles. The particle properties derived from the two instruments agreed well for intensive parameters, i.e., Ångström exponents, lidar ratio, effective radius, and single-scattering albedo. Extensive parameters, i.e., total particle surface area and particle volume concentration, showed similar values.

  15. LABVIEW graphical user interface for precision multichannel alignment of Raman lidar at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspey, R. A.; McDermid, I. S.; Leblanc, T.; Howe, J. W.; Walsh, T. D.

    2008-09-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory operates lidar systems at Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California (34.4°N, 117.7°W) and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (19.5°N, 155.6°W) under the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. To complement these systems a new Raman lidar has been developed at TMF with particular attention given to optimizing water vapor profile measurements up to the tropopause and lower stratosphere. The lidar has been designed for accuracies of 5% up to 12 km in the free troposphere and a detection capability of <5 ppmv. One important feature of the lidar is a precision alignment system using range resolved data from eight Licel transient recorders, allowing fully configurable alignment via a LABVIEW/C++ graphical user interface (GUI). This allows the lidar to be aligned on any channel while simultaneously displaying signals from other channels at configurable altitude/bin combinations. The general lidar instrumental setup and the details of the alignment control system, data acquisition, and GUI alignment software are described. Preliminary validation results using radiosonde and lidar intercomparisons are briefly presented.

  16. LABVIEW graphical user interface for precision multichannel alignment of Raman lidar at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility.

    PubMed

    Aspey, R A; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Howe, J W; Walsh, T D

    2008-09-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory operates lidar systems at Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California (34.4 degrees N, 117.7 degrees W) and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (19.5 degrees N, 155.6 degrees W) under the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. To complement these systems a new Raman lidar has been developed at TMF with particular attention given to optimizing water vapor profile measurements up to the tropopause and lower stratosphere. The lidar has been designed for accuracies of 5% up to 12 km in the free troposphere and a detection capability of <5 ppmv. One important feature of the lidar is a precision alignment system using range resolved data from eight Licel transient recorders, allowing fully configurable alignment via a LABVIEW/C++ graphical user interface (GUI). This allows the lidar to be aligned on any channel while simultaneously displaying signals from other channels at configurable altitude/bin combinations. The general lidar instrumental setup and the details of the alignment control system, data acquisition, and GUI alignment software are described. Preliminary validation results using radiosonde and lidar intercomparisons are briefly presented. PMID:19044439

  17. Upper tropospheric water vapor: A field campaign of two Raman lidars, Airborne hygrometers, and Radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. Harvey; Turner, Dave; Evans, Keith; Whiteman, Dave; Schwemmer, Geary; Ferrare, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor in the atmosphere plays an important role in radiative transfer and the process of radiative balance so critical for understanding global change. It is the principal ingredient in cloud formation, one of the most difficult atmospheric processes to model, and the most variable component of the Earth-atmosphere albedo. And as a free molecule, it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter, thus, the most important greenhouse gas. The radiative impact of water vapor is important at all levels of the atmosphere. Even though moisture decreases by several orders-of-magnitude from the Earth's surface to the tropopause, recent research has shown that, from a radiative standpoint, a small percentage change in water vapor at any level is nearly equivalent. Therefore accurate and precise measurements of this important atmospheric constituent are needed at all levels to evaluate the full radiative impact. The need for improved measurements in the upper troposphere is particularly important because of the generally hostile (very dry and cold) conditions encountered. Because of the importance of water vapor to the understanding of radiative transfer, the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program initiated a series of measurement campaigns at the Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, especially focused on atmospheric water vapor. Three water vapor intensive observation period (water vapor IOP) campaigns were planned. Two of the water vapor IOP campaigns have been completed: the first IOP was held during the fall of 1996 with a focus on boundary layer water vapor measurements, and the second was conducted during the fall of 1997 with a focus on both boundary layer moisture e and moisture in the upper troposphere. This paper presents a review of the intercomparisons of water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere aquired during the second water vapor IOP. Data to be presented include water vapor measurements ements from: two Raman Lidars, the NASA Goddard Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) and the CART Raman Lidar (CARL), a number of Vaisala radiosondes launched during the IOP campaign, and a dew point hygrometer flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation Aircraft.

  18. Visibility and aerosol measurement by diode-laser random-modulation CW lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, N.; Baba, H.; Sakurai, K.; Ueno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1986-01-01

    Examples of diode laser (DL) random-modulation continuous wave (RM-CW) lidar measurements are reported. The ability of the measurement of the visibility, vertical aerosol profile, and the cloud ceiling height is demonstrated. Although the data shown here were all measured at night time, the daytime measurement is, of course, possible. For that purpose, accurate control of the laser frequency to the center frequency of a narrow band filter is required. Now a new system with a frequency control is under construction.

  19. Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ji, Qiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Piketh, Stuart J.; Barenbrug, Marguerite; Holben, Brent N.

    2003-07-01

    During the Aerosol Recirculation and Rainfall Experiment (ARREX 1999) and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) dry season experiments, a micropulse lidar (523 nm) instrument was operated at the Skukuza Airport in northeastern South Africa. The lidar was colocated with a diverse array of passive radiometric equipment. For SAFARI 2000, a daytime time series of layer mean aerosol optical properties, including layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratios and vertical extinction cross-section profiles are derived from the synthesis of the lidar data and aerosol optical depths from available AERONET Sun photometer data. Combined with derived spectral Angstrom exponents, normalized broadband flux measurements, and calculated air mass back-trajectories, the temporal evolution of the surface aerosol layer optical properties is analyzed for climatological trends. For dense biomass smoke events the extinction-to-backscatter ratio is between 50 and 90 sr, and corresponding spectral Angstrom exponent values are between 1.50 and 2.00. Observations of an advecting smoke event during SAFARI 2000 are shown. The smoke was embedded within two distinct stratified thermodynamic layers causing the particulate mass to advect over the instrument array in an incoherent manner on the afternoon of 1 September 2000. Significant surface broadband flux forcing of over -50 W/m2 was measured in this event. The evolution of the vertical aerosol extinction profile is profiled using the lidar data. Finally, observations of persistent elevated aerosol layers during ARREX 1999 are presented and discussed. Back-trajectory analyses combined with lidar and Sun photometer measurements indicate the likelihood for these aerosols being the result of long-range particulate transport from the southern and central South America.

  20. Methodology and sample results of retrieving aerosol parameters by combined multiwavelength lidar and Sun-sky scanning measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovsky, Anatoly P.; Bril, A. I.; Barun, Vladimir V.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, Philippe; Sobolewski, P.

    2004-02-01

    Scientific groups engaged within the frame of the observation networks AERONET and EARLINET perform this work. The methodology of coordinated multi-frequency lidar and radiometric investigation of atmospheric aerosols is being developed for using in network observations. The method to process data of a comprehensive experiment utilizes the approach1,2 designed to process CIMEL data. The retrieval of altitude profiles of aerosol parameters is based on solving a common equation set including lidar equations, equations for the whole atmospheric depth, and constraints on the smoothness of the solutions. The results of numerical experiments are given in the paper to estimate errors while retrieving aerosol parameters. The measurement procedure and algorithms for data processing were refined during the summer-autumn, 2002 at the stations of the Institute of Physics (Minsk, Belarus; Institute of Geophysics (Belsk, Poland). The stations were equipped by devices CIMEL and three-frequency lidars (532, 694, and 1064 nm). The CIMELs operated according to the routine AERONET program during the measurements. To provide gathering the data on the whole areosol layer, a series of lidar observations was made at different elevation angles. A pro9cedure to successively approach to an optimal estimation of aerosol parameters is proposed in this work to enable data processing with real measurement errors. The results of retrieving vertical profiles of aerosol fraction concentrations are presented for different quality of measurement information.

  1. Vertical profiling of marine aerosol, dust and their mixtures utilizing the synergy of sunphotometer and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Lopatin, Anton; Marinou, Eleni; Engelman, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert; Solomos, Stavros; Dubovik, Oleg; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Current and future lidar products from space missions (CALIPSO, ADM-Aeolus, EarthCARE) aim to improve our understanding of atmospheric dynamics and aerosol/cloud interactions on global scale. However, the lidar instruments onboard these three missions (CALIOP, ALADIN, ATLID) are different systems, operating at different wavelengths and providing different sets of measured parameters. In order to spectrally homogenize the datasets, aerosol/cloud-type-dependent spectral conversion factors are needed to be applied to all lidar-related properties (extinction, backscatter and depolarization), based on the aerosol/cloud classification of the space-borne observations. The well-established European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) offers the unique opportunity to support such an effort. However, EARLINET database suffers from lack of information for specific aerosol types such as marine and mixed dust/marine cases. Unfortunately, these types are not observed in EARLINET's core stations, since the stations are mostly located at continental sites and are influenced by urban pollution. Moreover, the lidar systems near the coastlines suffer from the inability to measure at the first few hundred meters (500-1000 m) due to their technical design, which results in an incomplete laser/telescope overlap region. Towards the study of marine and marine-dust aerosol mixtures we organized the experimental campaign of "Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin" (CHARADMexp), on June 20 to July 10, at Finokalia, Grete, Greece. Our aim was to derive optical, microphysical and chemical properties of the marine component and its mixtures with dust, employing sophisticated instrumentation installed on the site of Finokalia ACTRIS station, where only marine and dust particles are present 95% of the time. Specifically, aerosol characterization was established by the "Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data" (GARRLiC), a technique that combines ground-based lidar and sunphotometer measurements, developed in the frame of ACTRIS. Our results for cases of marine-only, dust-only and mixtures of marine and dust retrievals provide an evaluation of the algorithm capabilities for marine environments, producing vertical profiles of physical and optical properties of marine and dust particles.

  2. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond [School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Selangor DarulEhsan, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-10

    Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

  3. Raman Lidar Measurements During the International H2O Project. 2; Instrument Comparisons and Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Corner, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Sabatino, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U. S. The SRL system configuration and methods of data analysis were described in part I of this paper. In this second part, comparisons of SRL water vapor measurements and those of chilled mirror radiosonde and LASE airborne water vapor lidar are performed. Two case studies are presented; one for daytime and one for nighttime. The daytime case study is of a convectively driven boundary layer event and is used to characterize the SRL water vapor random error characteristics. The nighttime case study is of a thunderstorm-generated cirrus cloud case that is studied in it s meteorological context. Upper tropospheric humidification due to precipitation from the cirrus cloud is quantified as is the cirrus cloud ice water content and particle depolarization ratio. These detailed cirrus cloud measurements are being used in a cirrus cloud modeling study.

  4. Subtropical Cirrus Properties Derived from GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements during CAMEX 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Wang, Z.; Demoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island, Bahamas for the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 3) held in August - September, 1998 and acquired an extensive set of water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements (Whiteman et al., 2001). The cirrus data studied here have been segmented by generating mechanism. Distinct differences in the optical properties of the clouds are found when the cirrus are hurricane-induced versus thunderstom-induced. Relationships of cirrus cloud optical depth, mean cloud temperature, and layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S) are presented and compared with mid-latitude and tropical results. Hurricane-induced cirrus clouds are found to generally possess lower values of S than thunderstorm induced clouds. Comparison of these measurements of S are made with other studies revealing at times large differences in the measurements. Given that S is a required parameter for spacebased retrievals of cloud optical depth using backscatter lidar, these large diffaences in S measurements present difficulties for space-based retrievals of cirrus cloud extinction and optical depth.

  5. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During The Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D OC.; Eloranta, E. W.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from less than 0.01 to 1.5. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied. A correction technique is presented which minimizes the influences of multiple scattering and derives information about cirrus cloud optical and physical properties. The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.005 or greater. Using the ISCCP detection threshold for cirrus clouds on the GOES data presented here, a high bias of up to 40% in the GOES precipitable water retrieval was found.

  6. A new high spectral resolution lidar technique for direct retrievals of cloud and aerosol extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS) is a Doppler lidar system and high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) recently developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). ACATS passes the returned atmospheric backscatter through a single etalon and divides the transmitted signal into several channels (wavelength intervals), which are measured simultaneously and independently (Figure 1). Both the particulate and molecular scattered signal can be directly and unambiguously measured, allowing for direct retrievals of particle extinction. The broad Rayleigh-scattered spectrum is imaged as a nearly flat background, illustrated in Figure 1c. The integral of the particulate backscattered spectrum is analogous to the aerosol measurement from the typical absorption filter HSRL technique in that the molecular and particulate backscatter components can be separated (Figure 1c and 1d). The main difference between HSRL systems that use the iodine filter technique and the multichannel etalon technique used in the ACATS instrument is that the latter directly measures the spectral broadening of the particulate backscatter using the etalon to filter out all backscattered light with the exception of a narrow wavelength interval (1.5 picometers for ACATS) that contains the particulate spectrum (grey, Figure 1a). This study outlines the method and retrieval algorithms for ACATS data products, focusing on the HSRL derived cloud and aerosol properties. While previous ground-based multi-channel etalon systems have been built and operated for wind retrievals, there has been no airborne demonstration of the technique and the method has not been used to derive HSRL cloud and aerosol properties. ACATS has flown on the NASA ER-2 during flights over Alaska in July 2014 and as part of the Wallops Airborne Vegetation Experiment (WAVE) in September 2012. This study will focus on the HSRL aspect of the ACATS instrument, since the method and retrieval algorithms have direct application to the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2014. Initial ACATS HSRL results and data products, as well as comparisons to coincident Cloud Physics Lidar data will be presented.

  7. Southern Hemisphere Lidar Measurements of the Aerosol Clouds from Mt. Pinatubo and Mt. Hudson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Stuart A.; Manson, Peter J.; Patterson, Graeme R.

    1992-01-01

    On 19 Jul., 1991, during tests to determine the ability of the newly-modified CSIRO Ns:YAG lidar to measure signals from the stratosphere before the arrival of dust from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, a strongly scattering layer was detected at an altitude of 2 km. That evening, the spectacular sunset and twilight were typical of volcanically disturbed conditions. Lidar measurements at 532 nm were made between 1400 and 1500 EST (0400-0500 UT) on 19 Jul. through broken cloud. Approximately 3800 laser firings were averaged in 256 shot blocks. These and subsequent data have been analyzed to produce profiles of aerosol volume backscatter function and scattering ratio. Clouds again prevented a clear view of the twilights on the next two nights, although there was some evidence for an enhanced glow. The evidence suggested that the aerosol layer had disappeared. An explanation for this disappearance and the earlier than expected arrival of the layer over Melbourne was required. Nimbus 7 TOMS data for 23 Jun. showed that the SO2 from the eruption had extended at least 11000 km to the west and that the southern boundary of the cloud had reached 15 degrees S just 8 days after the climactic eruption. It can be assumed that this cloud also contained dust and sulphuric acid aerosol. It was proposed that a section had then been broken away from the main cloud and carried south by a large scale eddy between the low latitude easterlies and the strong mid-latitude westerlies which finally carried the aerosol cloud over southern Australia. Accompanying 30 mb wind data showed a counter clockwise circulation, responsible for the transport, located in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Investigation of wintertime cold-air pools and aerosol layers in the Salt Lake Valley using a lidar ceilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Joseph Swyler

    This thesis investigates the utility of lidar ceilometers, a type of aerosol lidar, in improving the understanding of meteorology and air quality in persistent wintertime stable boundary layers, or cold-air pools, that form in urbanized valley and basin topography. This thesis reviews the scientific literature to survey the present knowledge of persistent cold-air pools, the operating principles of lidar ceilometers, and their demonstrated utility in meteorological investigations. Lidar ceilometer data from the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study (PCAPS) are then used with meteorological and air quality data from other in situ and remote sensing equipment to investigate cold-air pools that formed in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during the winter of 2010-2011. The lidar ceilometer is shown to accurately measure aerosol layer depth and aerosol loading, when compared to visual observations. A linear relationship is found between low-level lidar backscatter and surface particulate measurements. Convective boundary layer lidar analysis techniques applied to cold-air pool ceilometer profiles can detect useful layer characteristics. Fine-scale waves are observed and analyzed within the aerosol layer, with emphasis on Kelvin-Helmholz waves. Ceilometer aerosol backscatter profiles are analyzed to quantify and describe mixing processes in persistent cold-air pools. Overlays of other remote and in-situ observations are combined with ceilometer particle backscatter to describe specific events during PCAPS. This analysis describes the relationship between the aerosol layer and the valley inversion as well as interactions with large-scale meteorology. The ceilometer observations of hydrometers are used to quantify cloudiness and precipitation during the project, observing that 50% of hours when a PCAP was present had clouds or precipitation below 5 km above ground level (AGL). Then, combining an objective technique for determining hourly aerosol layer depths and correcting this subjectively during periods with low clouds or precipitation, a time series of aerosol depths was obtained. The mean depth of the surface-based aerosol layer during PCAP events was 1861 m MSL with a standard deviation of 135 m. The aerosol layer depth, given the approximate 1300 m altitude of the valley floor, is thus about 550 m, about 46% of the basin depth. The aerosol layer is present during much of the winter and is removed only during strong or prolonged precipitation periods or when surface winds are strong. Nocturnal fogs that formed near the end of high-stability PCAP episodes had a limited effect on aerosol layer depth. Aerosol layer depth was relatively invariant during the winter and during the persistent cold-air pools, while PM10 concentrations at the valley floor varied with bulk atmospheric stability associated primarily with passage of large-scale high- and low-pressure weather systems. PM10 concentrations also increased with cold-air pool duration. Mean aerosol loading in the surface-based aerosol layer, as determined from ceilometer backscatter coefficients, showed weaker variations than those of surface PM10 concentrations, suggesting that ineffective vertical mixing and aerosol layering are present in the cold-air pools. This is supported by higher time-resolution backscatter data, and it distinguishes the persistent cold-air pools from well-mixed convective boundary layers where ground-based air pollution concentrations are closely related to time-dependent convective boundary layer/aerosol depths. These results are discussed along with recommendations for future explorations of the ceilometer and cold-air pool topics.

  9. Lidar Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone, Aerosols and Temperature during the SAUNA Campaign at Sodankyla, Finland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, T.; Twigg, L.; Sumnicht, G.; McPeters, R.; Bojkov, B.; Kivi, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Sodankyla Total Column Ozone Intercomparison (SAUNA) campaign took place at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Center (FMI-ARC) at Sodankyla, Finland (67.37 N) in two separate phases during early spring 2006, and winter 2007. These campaigns has several goals: to determine and improve the accuracy of total column ozone measurements during periods of low solar zenith angle and high total column ozone; to determine the effect of ozone profile shape on the total column retrieval; and to make validate satellite ozone measurements under these same conditions. The GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar (STROZ), which makes profile measurements of ozone temperature, aerosols and water vapor participated in both phases of the campaign. During the deployments, more than 30 profile measurements were made by the lidar instrument, along with Dobson, Brewer, DOAS, ozonesonde, and satellite measurements. The presentation will concentrate on STROZ lidar results from the second phase of the campaign and comparisons with other instruments will be discussed. This will include both ground-based and satellite comparisons.

  10. The Earth Clouds and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) Mission: Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Imager algorithms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, David; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Wandinger, Ulla; Hünerbein, Anjah; Fischer, Jurgen; von Bismarck, Jonas; Eisinger, Michael; Lajas, Dulce; Wehr, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    The value of multi-sensor remote sensing applied to clouds and aerosol has become clear in recent years. For example, combinations of instruments including passive radiometers, lidars and cloud radars have proved invaluable for their ability to retrieve profiles of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties. This is amply illustrated by various results from the US-DoE ARM (and similar) surface sites as well as results from data collected by sensors aboard the A-train satellites CloudSat, CALIPSO, and Terra. The Earth Clouds Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is a combined ESA/JAXA mission to be launched in 2018 which has been designed with sensor-synergy playing a key role. The mission consists of a cloud-profiling radar (CPR), a high-spectral resolution cloud/aerosol lidar (ATLID), a cloud/aerosol multi-spectral imager (MSI), and a three-view broad-band radiometer (BBR). The mission will deliver cloud, aerosol and radiation products focusing on horizontal scales ranging from 1 km to 10 km. EarthCARE data will be used in multiple ways ranging from model evaluation studies, to GCM-orientated cloud microphysical property parameterization development, to data assimilation activities. Recently a number of activities, funded by ESA, have kicked-off which will ultimately deliver operational algorithms for EarthCARE. One of these activities is the "Atmospheric Products from Imager and Lidar" (APRIL) project which focuses on the development of lidar, imager and combined lidar-imager cloud and aerosol algorithms. In this presentation an overview of the APRIL algorithms within the wider context of the planned EarthCARE processing chain will be given.

  11. Comments on "Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements".

    PubMed

    Whiteman, David N; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-05-20

    In a recent publication, Leblanc and McDermid [Appl. Opt., 47, 5592 (2008)]APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.005592 proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios. Scanning of the full telescope aperture with the calibration lamp can circumvent most of these limitations. Based on the work done to date, it seems likely that the use of multiple calibration lamps in different fixed positions in front of the telescope may provide sufficient redundancy for long-term calibration needs. Further full-aperture scanning experiments, performed over an extended period of time, are needed to determine a "best practice" for the use of multiple calibration lamps in the hybrid technique. PMID:21614108

  12. Global Lidar Measurements of Clouds and Aerosols from Space Using the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Dennis L.; Palm, S. P.; Welton, E. J.; Hart, W. D.; Spinhirne, J. D.; McGill, M.; Mahesh, A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is scheduled for launch on the ICESat satellite as part of the NASA EOS mission in 2002. GLAS will be used to perform high resolution surface altimetry and will also provide a continuously operating atmospheric lidar to profile clouds, aerosols, and the planetary boundary layer with horizontal and vertical resolution of 175 and 76.8 m, respectively. GLAS is the first active satellite atmospheric profiler to provide global coverage. Data products include direct measurements of the heights of aerosol and cloud layers, and the optical depth of transmissive layers. In this poster we provide an overview of the GLAS atmospheric data products, present a simulated GLAS data set, and show results from the simulated data set using the GLAS data processing algorithm. Optical results from the ER-2 Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), which uses many of the same processing algorithms as GLAS, show algorithm performance with real atmospheric conditions during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000).

  13. Evaluation of model-simulated water vapor profiles as a tool for aerosol hygroscopicity studies: based upon lidar and microwave radiometer measurements from the HygrA-CD campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labzovskii, Lev; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Papayannis, Alexandros; Banks, Robert; Baldasano, José Maria

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapor content information is needed as input for various studies devoted to hygroscopic growth of aerosols. Due to the limited amount of experimental datasets of water vapor content, numerical weather prediction is frequently used for these studies. The capability of model-simulated water vapor is evaluated using experimental data from measurements. This work is devoted to the comparison between experimental water vapor retrieval based on Raman lidar, microwave radiometer and radiosounding measurements, and numerical modeling of water vapor. A Raman multi-wavelength lidar is used as a core instrument for high-spatial resolution water vapor retrievals for this study. It has a capability to detect water vapor based on the Raman signals obtained at 387 and 408 nm. A second main instrument is the microwave radiometer which provides relative and absolute humidity profiles based on the detection of atmospheric water vapor emission continuously. Radiosoundings are also used in this work for lidar-derived water vapor mixing ratio calibration and validation. The experimental data presented here is acquired during the HygrA-CD campaign held in Athens from May to June 2014. During the HygrA-CD 198 hourly profiles of water vapor mixing ratio were retrieved from lidar measurements, while the microwave radiometer performed 25 days of continuous measurements, while more than 20 radiosondes were launched. The WRF (Weather and Forecasting Model) model was used during the campaign to simulate water vapor mixing ratio profiles. A comparison between the retrieved profiles is presented, assessing the uncertainties associated to both instruments and simulations. Keywords: Lidar, Microwave Radiometer, Water vapor retrieval, Water Vapor Mixing Ratio Acknowledgments: This work has been supported by the program of FP-7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN under grant no. 289923 - ITaRS

  14. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  15. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

    2009-05-05

    This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system. Analysis of the aerosol and water vapor data collected by the Raman lidar during the 2003 Aerosol IOP indicated that the sensitivity of the lidar was significantly lower than when the lidar was initially deployed. A detailed analysis after the IOP of the long-term dataset demonstrated that the lidar began degrading in early 2002, and that it lost approximately a factor of 4 in sensitivity between 2002 and 2004. We participated in the development of the remediation plan for the system to restore its initial performance. We conducted this refurbishment and upgrade from May- September 2004. This remediation lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of 10 and 30 for the Raman lidar's water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol backscatter coefficient data, respectively as compared to the signal strengths when the system was first deployed. The DOE ARM Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE), which was conducted during September 2005, evaluated the impact of these modifications and upgrades on the SGP Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and optical thickness. The CARL modifications significantly improved the accuracy and temporal resolution of the aerosol measurements. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Raman lidar were also used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter-Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) (http://nansen.ipsl.jussieu.fr/AEROCOM/aerocomhome.html) project. There was a wide range in how the models represent the aerosol extinction profiles over the ARM SGP site, even though the average annual AOT represented by the various models and measured by CARL and the Sun photometer were in general agreement, at least within the standard deviations of the averages. There were considerable differences in the average vertical distributions among the models, even among models that had similar average aerosol optical thickness. Deviations between mean aerosol extinction profiles were generally small (~20-30%) for altitudes above 2 km, and grew consider

  16. Comparison of Raman lidar water vapor calibration using GPS, radiosoundigs and ground observations. Application for GPS positioning purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, P.; Bock, O.; Thom, C.; Pelon, J.

    2011-12-01

    Water vapor measurements from a mobile Raman lidar developed conjointly by IGN and LATMOS/CNRS are used for documenting water vapor heterogeneities in the lower troposphere and correcting geodetic (as GPS) radio-signal propagation delays in clear sky conditions. This instrument has both capabilities for realizing zenith pointing and slant pointing measurements. This instrument has been involved in different experiments in these past few years (VAPIC-2004, COPS-2007, MANITOUL-2009) providing an interesting set of data acquired under various atmospheric conditions in different geographic areas. These data are now used to evaluate different strategies for lidar humidity measurement calibration, considering collocated GPS observations, radiosoundings profiles and humidity measurements. A new method of calibration using GPS observations analysis has therefore been developed. The joint processing of GPS and lidar data is also shown to improve the GPS positioning.

  17. Initial assessment of space-based lidar CALIOP aerosol and cloud layer structures through inter-comparison with a ground-based back-scattering lidar and CloudSat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-W. Kim; S.-C. Yoon; E.-S. Chung; B.-J. Sohn; S. Berthier; J.-C. Raut; P. Chazette; F. Dulac

    2009-01-01

    This study presents results of the intercomparison of aerosol\\/cloud top and bottom heights obtained from a space-borne active sensor Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO, and the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) onboard CloudSat, and the space-borne passive sensor Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua, and ground-based 2-wavelenght polarization lidar system (532 and 1064 nm) at Seoul National

  18. Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Water Vapor Measurements Using Optimized Raman Lidar and Balloon-borne Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, D.; Venable, D.; Demoz, B.; Joseph, E.; Miloshevich, L.; Voemel, H.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, S.

    2008-12-01

    Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor concentrations are important for reasons of atmospheric radiation and composition but the measurement challenge of quantifying concentrations at these altitudes is significant. Recent advances in Raman lidar technology now permit measurements of water vapor with high precision to well beyond the tropopause. Measurements demonstrating significant sensitivity to water vapor at altitudes of 20-24 km were acquired by the NASA/GSFC ALVICE Raman lidar both at the Table Mountain Facility of the Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Wrightwood, CA and at the Howard University Beltsville Campus in Beltsville, MD during 2007 and 2008. We show comparisons of these measurements with Crygenic Frostpoint Hygrometer. We also show the results of an empirical correction to Vaisala RS-92 radiosonde that permits useful measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  19. On recent (2008-2012) stratospheric aerosols observed by lidar over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Nakamae, K.; Morino, I.; Arai, K.; Okumura, H.; Takubo, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Mano, Y.; Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in stratospheric aerosols caused by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Nabro (13.37° N, 41.70° E) on 12 June 2011 was detected by lidar at Tsukuba (36.05° N, 140.13° E) and Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) in Japan. The maximum backscattering ratios at a wavelength of 532 nm were 2.0 at 17.0 km on 10 July 2011 at Tsukuba and 3.6 at 18.2 km on 23 June 2011 at Saga. The maximum integrated backscattering coefficients (IBCs) at 532 nm above the first tropopause height were 4.18×10-4 sr-1 on 11 February 2012 at Tsukuba and 4.19×10-4 sr-1 on 23 June 2011 at Saga, respectively. A time series of lidar observational results at Tsukuba have also been reported from January 2008 through May 2012. Increases in stratospheric aerosols were observed after the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Kasatochi (52.18° N, 175.51° E) in August 2008 and Mt. Sarychev Peak (48.09° N, 153.20° E) in June 2009. The yearly averaged IBCs at Tsukuba were 2.54×10-4 sr-1, 2.48×10-4 sr-1, 2.45×10-4 sr-1, and 2.20×10-4 sr-1 for 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. These values were about twice the IBC background level (1.21×10-4 sr-1) from 1997 to 2001 at Tsukuba. We briefly discuss the influence of the increased aerosols on climate and the implications for analysis of satellite data.

  20. On recent (2008-2012) stratospheric aerosols observed by lidar over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Nakamae, K.; Morino, I.; Arai, K.; Okumura, H.; Takubo, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Mano, Y.; Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.

    2012-09-01

    An increase in stratospheric aerosols caused by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Nabro (13.37° N, 41.70° E) on 12 June 2011 was first detected by lidar at Tsukuba (36.05° N, 140.13° E) and Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) in Japan. The maximum backscattering ratios at a wavelength of 532 nm were 2.0 at 17.0 km on 10 July 2011 at Tsukuba and 3.6 at 18.2 km on 23 June 2011 at Saga. The maximum integrated backscattering coefficients (IBCs) above the first tropopause height were 4.18 × 10-4 sr-1 on 11 February 2012 at Tsukuba and 4.19 × 10-4 sr-1 on 23 June 2011 at Saga, respectively. A time series of lidar observational results at Tsukuba have also been reported from January 2008 through May 2012. Increases in stratospheric aerosols were observed after the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Kasatochi (52.18° N, 175.51° E) in August 2008 and Mt. Sarychev Peak (48.09° N, 153.20° E) in June 2009. The yearly averaged IBCs at Tsukuba were 2.60 × 10-4 sr-1, 2.52 × 10-4 sr-1, 2.45 × 10-4 sr-1, and 2.20 × 10-4 sr-1 for 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. These values were about twice the IBC background level (1.21 × 10-4 sr-1) from 1997 to 2001 at Tsukuba. We briefly discuss the influence of the increased aerosols on climate and the implications for analysis of satellite data.

  1. Airborne lidar study of the vertical distribution of aerosols over Hyderabad, an urban site in central India, and its implication for radiative forcing calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhavi, H.; Jayaraman, A.

    2006-10-01

    Use of a compact, low power commercial lidar onboard a small aircraft for aerosol studies is demonstrated. A Micro Pulse Lidar fitted upside down in a Beech Superking aircraft is used to measure the vertical distribution of aerosols in and around Hyderabad, an urban location in the central India. Two sorties were made, one on 17 February 2004 evening hours and the other on 18 February 2004 morning hours for a total flight duration of four hours. Three different algorithms, proposed by Klett (1985), Stephens et al. (2001) and Palm et al. (2002) for deriving the aerosol extinction coefficient profile from lidar data are studied and is shown that the results obtained from the three methods compare within 2%. The result obtained from the airborne lidar is shown more useful to study the aerosol distribution in the free troposphere than that obtained by using the same lidar from ground. Using standard radiative transfer model the aerosol radiative forcing is calculated and is shown that knowledge on the vertical distribution of aerosols is very important to get more realistic values than using model vertical profiles of aerosols. We show that for the same aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but for different vertical profiles of aerosol extinction the computed forcing values differ with increasing altitude and improper selection of the vertical profile can even flip the sign of the forcing at tropopause level.

  2. Visible wavelength Doppler Lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Wilbert R.; Fischer, Kenneth W.; Abreu, Vincent J.; McGill, Matthew J.; Irgang, Todd D.; Barnes, John E.

    1994-06-01

    The University of Michigan's Space Physics Research Laboratory has constructed a mobile high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar capable of measuring wind and aerosol loading profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The system uses a 3-W pulsed frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm as the active source. Backscattered signal is collected by a 44.4-cm-diameter Newtonian telescope. A two axis mirror scanning system allows the instrument to achieve full sky coverage. A pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers in combination with a narrowband (0.1nm) interference filter are used to filter daylight background and provide a high spectral resolving element to measure the Doppler shift. In addition, the aerosol and molecular scattered components of the signal can be separated, giving a measure of the relative aerosol loading. Measurements have been made day and night in the boundary layer with vertical resolution of 100 m and a temporal resolution of approximately 5 minutes. Accuracy of the wind velocity is on the order of 1 to 2 m/s in the boundary layer.

  3. Correction technique for raman water vapor lidar signal dependent bias and suitability for water vapor trend monitoring in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L.; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.; Vömel, H.

    2011-12-01

    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In an appendix we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde during the campaign. A new radiosonde based calibration algorithm is presented that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted all Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the data. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most resistant to additional noise sources. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper tropospheric water vapor profiles to be consistently measured by Raman lidar within NDACC and elsewhere despite the prevalence of instrumental and atmospheric effects that can contaminate the very low signal to noise measurements in the UT.

  4. Cloud and aerosol observation planned with the space-borne lidar “ELISE” and the ATMOS-B1\\/ERM lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NOBUO SUGIMOTO; Zhaoyan Liu; PETER VOELGER; YASUHIRO SASANO

    2000-01-01

    Simulation studies have been carried out for the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment (ELISE) for the Mission Demonstration Test Satellite-2 (MDS-2), which unfortunately was canceled, and for the new spaceborne lidar for the ATMOS-B1\\/ERM program. The new lidar, which is currently studied by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for the NASDA-ESA joint Earth radiation mission (ATMOS-B1\\/ERM), is a

  5. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various Earth surfaces giving good agreement, suggesting that the lidar efficiency, and thus a lidar calibration factor for detection, can be estimated fairly well using Earth's surface signal.

  6. Lidar Observations of the Pinatubo Stratospheric Aerosol Cloud over Frascati, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congeduti, Fernando; Adriani, Alberto; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Centurioni, Sante

    1992-01-01

    The Pinatubo eruption of June 1991 introduced large plumes into the local stratosphere. On several occasions, volcanic gases and particles reached altitudes of about 30 km, and spread towards the west. A lidar system has been operating to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric aerosol cloud. The backscattering ratio profiles of eight different measurements were chosen to summarize the most significant occurrences of the event. Since the beginning of the winter planetary wave activity, the Pinatubo cloud integrated backscatter exceeded El Chichon's. In this context, the perturbation generated by El Chichon can only be assumed as a lower limit of the one which will follow the Pinatubo eruption. Observations of the event are still in progress.

  7. Analysis of the performance of a coherent pulsed fiber lidar for aerosol backscatter applications.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Guy N; Roberts, P John; Eacock, Justin R; Harris, Michael

    2002-10-20

    The antenna and the Doppler estimation characteristics of a coherent pulsed lidar intended for short-range aerosol backscatter applications have been analyzed. The system used fiber-optic interconnects and operated at a wavelength of 1.548 microm. The range dependence of the signal for various bistatic and monostatic antenna configurations has been determined. The system operated in a low-pulse-energy, high-pulse-repetition-rate mode, and the Doppler estimates from the return signal were achieved with a multipulse accumulation procedure. The expected performance of the accumulation in this low-photocount regime was compared with the data obtained from the system, and a reasonable level of agreement was demonstrated. PMID:12396197

  8. The evaluation of a shuttle borne lidar experiment to measure the global distribution of aerosols and their effect on the atmospheric heat budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, S. T.; Joseph, J. H.; Trauger, J. T.; Guetter, P. J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Lawler, J. E.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Odell, A. P.; Roesler, F. L.; Weinman, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A shuttle-borne lidar system is described, which will provide basic data about aerosol distributions for developing climatological models. Topics discussed include: (1) present knowledge of the physical characteristics of desert aerosols and the absorption characteristics of atmospheric gas, (2) radiative heating computations, and (3) general circulation models. The characteristics of a shuttle-borne radar are presented along with some laboratory studies which identify schemes that permit the implementation of a high spectral resolution lidar system.

  9. Aglite lidar: Calibration and retrievals of well characterized aerosols from agricultural operations using a three-wavelength elastic lidar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. AGLITE is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL) to measure the spatial...

  10. Aglite lidar: calibration and retrievals of well characterized aerosols from agricultural operations using a three-wavelength elastic lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir V. Zavyalov; Christian C. Marchant; Gail E. Bingham; Thomas D. Wilkerson; Jerry L. Hatfield; Randal S. Martin; Philip J. Silva; Kori D. Moore; Jason Swasey; Douglas J. Ahlstrom; Tanner L. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. AGLITE is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL) to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of particulate concentrations around an agricultural facility. The retrieval algorithm takes advantage of measurements taken simultaneously

  11. Progress on the Use of Combined Analog and Photon Counting Detection for Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Rob; Turner, Dave; Clayton, Marian; Ferrare, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Raman Lidar (CARL) was upgraded in 2004 with a new data system that provides simultaneous measurements of both the photomultiplier analog output voltage and photon counts. The so-called merge value added procedure (VAP) was developed to combine the analog and count-rate signals into a single signal with improved dynamic range. Earlier versions of this VAP tended to cause unacceptably large biases in the water vapor mixing ratio during the daytime as a result of improper matching between the analog and count-rate signals in the presence of elevated solar background levels. We recently identified several problems and tested a modified version of the merge VAP by comparing profiles of water vapor mixing ratio derived from CARL with simultaneous sonde data over a six month period. We show that the modified merge VAP significantly reduces the daytime bias, and results in mean differences that are within approximately 1% for both nighttime and daytime measurements.

  12. Convective characteristics of the nocturnal urban boundary layer as observed with Doppler sodar and Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, S.; di Sarra, A.; Fiocco, G.; Fuà, D.; Lena, F.; Rao, M. P.

    1996-06-01

    Convective plume patterns, characteristic of clear sky and light wind daytime boundary layers over land, were observed for two nights with a tri-axial Doppler sodar operated in the central area of Rome during the summer of 1994. An urban heat island effect, combined with a continuation of a breeze from the sea late into night during both days, is believed to be responsible for the observed nocturnal convection. Estimates of the surface heat flux and the vertical velocity scaling parameter are obtained from profiles of vertical velocity variance, and the Raman lidar water vapor measurements are used to obtain the humidity scaling parameter. Convective scaling results for vertical wind and humidity fairly agree with the results of other experiments and models. On the basis of available measurements, it appears that mixed-layer similarity formulations used to characterize the daytime convective boundary layer over horizontally homogeneous surfaces can also be applied to the nocturnal urban boundary layer during periods of reasonable convective activity.

  13. Temperature profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer with rotational Raman lidar during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, E.; Behrendt, A.; Le Mounier, F.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2015-03-01

    The temperature measurements of the rotational Raman lidar of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH RRL) during the High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observation Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in April and May 2013 are discussed. The lidar consists of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm with 10 W average power at 50 Hz, a two-mirror scanner, a 40 cm receiving telescope, and a highly efficient polychromator with cascading interference filters for separating four signals: the elastic backscatter signal, two rotational Raman signals with different temperature dependence, and the vibrational Raman signal of water vapor. The main measurement variable of the UHOH RRL is temperature. For the HOPE campaign, the lidar receiver was optimized for high and low background levels, with a novel switch for the passband of the second rotational Raman channel. The instrument delivers atmospheric profiles of water vapor mixing ratio as well as particle backscatter coefficient and particle extinction coefficient as further products. As examples for the measurement performance, measurements of the temperature gradient and water vapor mixing ratio revealing the development of the atmospheric boundary layer within 25 h are presented. As expected from simulations, a reduction of the measurement uncertainty of 70% during nighttime was achieved with the new low-background setting. A two-mirror scanner allows for measurements in different directions. When pointing the scanner to low elevation, measurements close to the ground become possible which are otherwise impossible due to the non-total overlap of laser beam and receiving telescope field of view in the near range. An example of a low-level temperature measurement is presented which resolves the temperature gradient at the top of the stable nighttime boundary layer 100 m above the ground.

  14. Temperature profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer with rotational Raman lidar during the HD(CP)2 observational prototype experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, E.; Behrendt, A.; Le Mounier, F.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2014-11-01

    The temperature measurements of the Rotational Raman Lidar of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH RRL) during the High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in April and May 2013 are discussed. The lidar consists of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm with 10 W average power at 50 Hz, a two-mirror scanner, a 40 cm receiving telescope and a highly efficient polychromator with cascading interference filters for separating four signals: the elastic backscatter signal, two rotational Raman signals with different temperature dependence, and the vibrational Raman signal of water vapor. The main measurement variable of the UHOH RRL is temperature. For the HOPE campaign, the lidar receiver was optimized for high and low background levels, respectively, with a novel switch for the passband of the second rotational Raman channel. The instrument delivers atmospheric profiles of water vapor mixing ratio as well as particle backscatter coefficient and particle extinction coefficient as further products. As examples for the measurement performance, measurements of the temperature gradient and water vapor mixing ratio revealing the development of the atmospheric boundary layer within 25 h are presented. As expected from simulations, a significant advance during nighttime was achieved with the new low-background setting. A two-mirror scanner allows for measurements in different directions. When pointing the scanner to low elevation, measurements close to the ground become possible which are otherwise impossible due to the non-total overlap of laser beam and receiving telescope field-of-view in the near range. We present an example of a low-level temperature measurement which resolves the temperature gradient at the top of the stable nighttime boundary layer a hundred meters above the ground.

  15. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 laser and electro-optic technology for space-based sodium lidar instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nm. A CW External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nm. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nm. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9W @ 532 nm wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  16. Analysis of Raman Lidar and Radiosonde Measurements from the AWEX-G Field Campaign and Its Relation to Aqua Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Russo, F.; Demoz, B.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Veselovskii, I.; Hannon, S.; Wang, Z.; Vomel, H.; Schmidlin, F.; Lesht, B.; Moore, P. J.; Beebe, A. S.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.

    2006-01-01

    Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was held in October-November 2003 with the goal of bringing validation technologies to a common site for intercomparison and resolving the measurement discrepancies. Using the University of Colorado Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) as the water vapor reference, the AWEX-G field campaign permitted correction techniques to be validated for Raman lidar, Vaisala RS80-H and RS90/92 that significantly improve the absolute accuracy of water vapor measurements from these systems particularly in the upper troposphere. Mean comparisons of radiosondes and lidar are performed demonstrating agreement between corrected sensors and the CFH to generally within 5% thereby providing data of sufficient accuracy for Aqua validation purposes. Examples of the use of the correction techniques in radiance and retrieval comparisons are provided and discussed.

  17. Photon-counting lidar for aerosol detection and 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Richard M.; Richardson, Jonathan; Garnier, Robert; Ireland, David; Bickmeier, Laura; Siracusa, Christina; Quinn, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Laser-based remote sensing is undergoing a remarkable advance due to novel technologies developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. We have conducted recent experiments that have demonstrated the utility of detecting and imaging low-density aerosol clouds. The Mobile Active Imaging LIDAR (MAIL) system uses a Lincoln Laboratory-developed microchip laser to transmit short pulses at 14-16 kHz Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF), and a Lincoln Laboratory-developed 32x32 Geiger-mode Avalanche-Photodiode Detector (GmAPD) array for singlephoton counting and ranging. The microchip laser is a frequency-doubled passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser providing an average transmitted power of less than 64 milli-Watts. When the avalanche photo-diodes are operated in the Geiger-mode, they are reverse-biased above the breakdown voltage for a time that corresponds to the effective range-gate or range-window of interest. The time-of-flight, and therefore range, is determined from the measured laser transmit time and the digital time value from each pixel. The optical intensity of the received pulse is not measured because the GmAPD is saturated by the electron avalanche. Instead, the reflectivity of the scene, or relative density of aerosols in this case, is determined from the temporally and/or spatially analyzed detection statistics.

  18. Lidar Ratios for Dust Aerosols Derived From Retrievals of CALIPSO Visible Extinction Profiles Constrained by Optical Depths from MODIS-Aqua and CALIPSO/CloudSat Ocean Surface Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Stuart A.; Josset, Damien B.; Vaughan, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    CALIPSO's (Cloud Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) analysis algorithms generally require the use of tabulated values of the lidar ratio in order to retrieve aerosol extinction and optical depth from measured profiles of attenuated backscatter. However, for any given time or location, the lidar ratio for a given aerosol type can differ from the tabulated value. To gain some insight as to the extent of the variability, we here calculate the lidar ratio for dust aerosols using aerosol optical depth constraints from two sources. Daytime measurements are constrained using Level 2, Collection 5, 550-nm aerosol optical depth measurements made over the ocean by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board the Aqua satellite, which flies in formation with CALIPSO. We also retrieve lidar ratios from night-time profiles constrained by aerosol column optical depths obtained by analysis of CALIPSO and CloudSat backscatter signals from the ocean surface.

  19. Comparing simultaneous stratospheric aerosol and ozone lidar measurements with SAGE II data after the Mount Pinatubo eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, G.K.; Poole, L.R.; McCormick, M.P. [Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [and others] [Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); and others

    1995-07-15

    Stratospheric aerosol and ozone profiles obtained simultaneously from the lidar station at the University of L`Aquila (42.35{degrees}N, 13.33{degrees}E, 683m above sea level) during the first 6 months following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo are compared with corresponding nearby Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II profiles. The agreement between the two data sets is found to be reasonably good. The temporal change of aerosol profiles obtained by both techniques showed the intrusion and growth of Pinatubo aerosols. In addition, ozone concentration profiles derived from an empirical time-series model based on SAGE II ozone data obtained before the Pinatubo eruption are compared with measured profiles. Good agreement is shown in the 1991 profiles, but ozone concentrations measured in January 1992 were reduced relative to time-series model estimates. Possible reasons for the differences between measured and model-based ozone profiles are discussed. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Sensitivity of the lidar solution to errors of the aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio: influence of a monotonic change in the aerosol extinction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vladimir A.

    1995-06-01

    Unlike other errors in the lidar equation solution for the two-component atmosphere, the error of the measured aerosol extinction coefficient caused by inaccuracies in the assumed aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratios significantly depends on the aerosol spatial inhomogeneity. In a slightly nonhomogeneous atmosphere, an incorrect value in the assumed aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio does not significantly corrupt the measurement result, whereas in an atmosphere with a large monotonic change of the aerosol extinction [e.g., in the lower troposphere], the incorrect value yields a large distortion of the retrieved extinction-coefficient profile. In the latter case, even the far-end solution can produce a large error in the retrieved extinction coefficient. The analytical formulas for the determination of the range errors, obtained for the Klett and the optical-depth solutions, show that these errors significantly depend on the method of the boundary-condition determination. Distortions of the retrieved aerosol extinction profiles are, in general, larger if the assumed aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio is underestimated in relation to the real value.

  1. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering. 1992 Annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1993-01-30

    This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

  2. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1993-01-30

    This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

  3. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar. Part 2; Ground Based

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Cadirola, Martin; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Rush, Kurt; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The same RASL hardware as described in part I was installed in a ground-based mobile trailer and used in a water vapor lidar intercomparison campaign, hosted at Table Mountain, CA, under the auspices of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The converted RASL hardware demonstrated high sensitivity to lower stratospheric water vapor indicating that profiling water vapor at those altitudes with sufficient accuracy to monitor climate change is possible. The measurements from Table Mountain also were used to explain the reason, and correct , for sub-optimal airborne aerosol extinction performance during the flight campaign.

  4. Micropulse lidar-derived aerosol optical depth climatology at ARM sites worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, D. N.; Coulter, R. L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on climatology of the vertical distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD (z)) from micropulse lidar (MPL) observations for climatically different locations worldwide. For this, a large data set obtained by MPL systems operating at 532 nm during the 4 year period 2007-2010 was used to derive vertical profiles of AOD (z) by combining the corresponding AOD data as an input from an independent measurement using nearly colocated multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) systems at five different U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites—three permanent sites (SGP in north-central Oklahoma, at 36.6°N, 97.5°W, 320 m; TWP-Darwin in the tropical western Pacific, at 12.4°S, 130.9°E, 30 m; and NSA at Barrow on the North Slope of Alaska, at 71.3°N, 156.6°W, 8 m) and two mobile facility sites (GRW at Graciosa Island in the Azores, at 39°N, 28°W, 15 m; and FKB in the Black Forest of Germany, at 48.5°N, 8.4°E, 511 m). Therefore, amount of data used in this study is constrained by the availability of the MFRSR data. The MPL raw data were averaged for 30 s in time and 30 m in altitude. The diurnally averaged AOD (z) profiles from 4 years were combined to obtain a multiyear vertical profile of AOD (z) climatology at various ARM sites, including diurnal, day-to-day, and seasonal variabilities. Most aerosols were found to be confined to 0-2 km (approximately the planetary boundary layer region) at all sites; however, all sites exhibited measurable aerosols well above the mixed layer, with different height maxima. The entire data set demonstrates large day-to-day variability at all sites. However, there is no significant diurnal variation in AOD (z) at all sites. Significant interannual variability was observed at the SGP site. Clear seasonal variations in AOD (z) profiles exist for all five sites, but seasonal behavior was distinct. Moreover, the different seasonal variability for the lower level (0 to ~2 km) versus the level above indicates a contribution of different types of air masses from different sources. The lower annual mean AOD (z) values (0.093 ± 0.033 for daytime and 0.093 ± 0.05 for nighttime) observed near the surface at GRW are not unexpected for maritime aerosols (mostly sea salt), and the corresponding higher values at SGP (0.118 ± 0.038 for daytime and 0.11 ± 0.05 for nighttime), FKB (0.124 ± 0.042 for daytime and 0.127 ± 0.047 for nighttime), and TWP (0.13 ± 0.078 for daytime and 0.14 ± 0.073 for nighttime) are usual for continental aerosols. The annual mean AOD (z) values observed near the surface during daytime and nighttime for NSA were 0.1 ± 0.042 and 0.09 ± 0.037, respectively. These results will aid the scientific community in understanding aerosol properties and boundary layer dynamics and in improving the incorporation of aerosol radiative effects into global climate models.

  5. Assessment of CALIPSO attenuated backscatter and aerosol retrievals with a combined ground-based multi-wavelength lidar and sunphotometer measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yonghua; Cordero, Lina; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Sam

    2014-02-01

    CALIPSO Level-1 attenuated backscatter and Level-2 aerosol products (Version-3.01) are evaluated with a combined ground-based lidar and AERONET-sunphotometer measurements in the daytime over the New York metropolitan area. To assess the CALIPSO Level-1 product, we combine the co-located ground-lidar and sunphotometer to derive aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles, and then simulate the CALIPSO equivalent attenuated backscatter coefficients. Direct statistical comparisons show a strong correlation (R = 0.92) and modest relative errors. Both dust and smoke plume events are focused to evaluate CALIPSO Level-2 aerosol layer products. The CALIPSO algorithms for cloud-aerosol discrimination and aerosol type classification are shown for the most part to work well, with a few exceptions in cases of aloft plumes with high aerosol loading. Small partitions of dense smoke are misclassified as the clouds or polluted dusts in the CALIPSO product. The aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients are generally consistent between the CALIPSO and ground-based retrievals, but both geometric thickness and column optical depths of aerosol layers from CALIPSO products are underestimated. In addition, we find that some weakly scattering aerosol layers are clearly displayed by the ground-based lidar, but not identified by the current CALIPSO algorithm due to the detection sensitivity issue.

  6. Remote sensing of water vapour from the synergy of Raman lidar, GPS and in-situ observations during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Olivier; David, Leslie; Bosser, Pierre; Thom, Christian; Pelon, Jacques; Keckhut, Philippe; Sarkissian, Alain; Bourcy, Thomas; Tzanos, Diane; Tournois, Guy

    2013-04-01

    The DEMEVAP (DEvelopment of MEthods for remote sensing of water VAPor) project aims at developing improved reference humidity sounding methods based on the combined used of scanning Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. The goal is to achieve absolute accuracy better than 3% on the column integrated water vapour (IWV). An intensive observing period was conducted in September-October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France, with the aim of intercomparing several different techniques and instruments. It involved two Raman lidars, four radiosonde measurement systems, five GPS stations, a stellar spectrometer, and several ground-based capacitive and dew-point sensors. Observations were collected over 17 nights during which 26 balloons were released which carried a total of 79 radiosondes. Most of the balloons carried 3 or 4 different sonde types simultaneously (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow-White). The comparison of IWV measurements from the four radiosonde types to GPS reveals biases of -11% to +7%. Comparison of water vapour profiles from the radiosondes to the IGN scanning Raman lidar profiles reveals mostly dry and wet biases in the radiosondes data in dry layers in the middle and upper troposphere. Several Raman lidar calibration methods are evaluated which adjust the lidar measurements either on ground-based capacitive or dew-point sensors measurements, on radiosonde data or on GPS PWV data. Another method adjusts the lidar calibration constant as an extra parameter during GPS processing. All these methods show a good degree of consistency and yield a repeatability of 2 to 5% during the first 3-week period of the experiment. A drift in the calibration constant is observed throughout the full time of the experiment which is partly explained by a temperature-dependent bias in the lidar measurements induced by the progressive cooling of the atmosphere. Modelling and correcting this effect or modifying the Raman lidar detection system should allow achieving a 3% level of accuracy into the long term and make the Raman lidar technique suitable to detect biases or to calibrate data from other techniques (e.g., radiosondes, visible spectrometers and microwave radiometers).

  7. Correction technique for Raman water vapor lidar signal-dependent bias and suitability for water vapor trend monitoring in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L.; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.; Vömel, H.

    2012-11-01

    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE (Atmospheric Laboratory for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education) mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In appendices we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements during the campaign, on a new radiosonde based calibration algorithm that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant, and on other results of the ALVICE deployment. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted the Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated, revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the bias. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Good agreement is found between corrected ALVICE lidar measurments and those of RS92, frost point hygrometer and total column water. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most robust. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper tropospheric water vapor profiles to be consistently measured by Raman lidar within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and elsewhere, despite the prevalence of instrumental and atmospheric effects that can contaminate the very low signal to noise measurements in the UT.

  8. Correction Technique for Raman Water Vapor Lidar Signal-Dependent Bias and Suitability for Water Wapor Trend Monitoring in the Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.; Voemel, H.

    2012-01-01

    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE (Atmospheric Laboratory for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education) mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In appendices we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements during the campaign, on a new radiosonde based calibration algorithm that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant, and on other results of the ALVICE deployment. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted the Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated, revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the bias. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Good agreement is found between corrected ALVICE lidar measurments and those of RS92, frost point hygrometer and total column water. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most robust. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper tropospheric water vapor profiles to be consistently measured by Raman lidar within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and elsewhere, despite the prevalence of instrumental and atmospheric effects that can contaminate the very low signal to noise measurements in the UT.

  9. Theory of CW lidar aerosol backscatter measurements and development of a 2.1 microns solid-state pulsed laser radar for aerosol backscatter profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Henderson, Sammy W.; Frehlich, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The performance and calibration of a focused, continuous wave, coherent detection CO2 lidar operated for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter coefficient, B(m), was examined. This instrument functions by transmitting infrared (10 micron) light into the atmosphere and collecting the light which is scattered in the rearward direction. Two distinct modes of operation were considered. In volume mode, the scattered light energy from many aerosols is detected simultaneously, whereas in the single particle mode (SPM), the scattered light energy from a single aerosol is detected. The analysis considered possible sources of error for each of these two cases, and also considered the conditions where each technique would have superior performance. The analysis showed that, within reasonable assumptions, the value of B(m) could be accurately measured by either the VM or the SPM method. The understanding of the theory developed during the analysis was also applied to a pulsed CO2 lidar. Preliminary results of field testing of a solid state 2 micron lidar using a CW oscillator is included.

  10. Aerosol disturbances of the stratosphere over Tomsk according to data of lidar observations in volcanic activity period 2006-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, Andrey P.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Dolgii, Sergey I.; Nevzorov, Aleksey V.; Trifonov, Dimitar A.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize and analyze the lidar measurements (Tomsk: 56.5°N; 85.0°E) of the optical characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) in the volcanic activity period 2006-2011. The background SAL state with minimal aerosol content, which was observed since 1997 under the conditions of long-term volcanically quiescent period, was interrupted in October 2006 by a series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of the Pacific Ring of Fire: Rabaul (October 2006, New Guinea); Okmok and Kasatochi (July-August 2008, Aleutian Islands); Redoubt (March-April 2009, Alaska); Sarychev Peak (June 2009, Kuril Islands), and Grimsvötn (May 2011, Iceland). A short-term and minor disturbance of the lower stratosphere was also observed in April 2010 after eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull. The developed regional empirical model of the vertical distribution of background SAL optical characteristics was used to identify the periods of elevated stratospheric aerosol content after each of the volcanic eruptions.

  11. Indirect aerosol hygroscopic growth observations with a backscattering lidar, part II: five day breeze onset data analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Landulfo, Eduardo; Gandu, Adilson W.; da Silva Lopes, Fabio Juliano; da Costa, Renata F.; Nakaema, Walter

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have received much attention in recent years due to their importance in climate change. The influence of these particles on Earth's radiative budget depends on a number of factors, including their size distribution and chemical composition. This work addresses a particular property of aerosols, namely, the extent to which they have affinity for water vapor. The size increase of aerosol particles resulting from water vapor uptake has important implications for the direct scattering of radiation and cloud droplets formation. We used a single-wavelength backscatter LIDAR (532 nm), and relative humidity profiles obtained from radiosounding to assess the hygroscopic growing factor of aerosols over Sao Paulo metropolitan region, for five days altogether on March and September 2007 and August 2009. In these days we had a breeze onset over the metropolitan area, potentially bringing marine aerosols and humidity from the Atlantic Ocean. In this way we were able to detect a change in the boundary layer aerosol optical properties during these onsets using range corrected backscattering signal from LIDAR and a detailed analysis on the changes in backscattering coefficient profiles by a Klett analysis. In order to infer the hygroscopic growing factor, we developed a fitting model algorithm, proposed in the literature, calculating the backscattering coefficient at 532 nm for periods before and during the breeze and comparing the same profiles at various altitude levels with a reference profile at the lowest relative humidity level whithin the mixing layer. In addition, we performed a comparison between the thirty minutes backscattering profiles inside the breeze with a reference thirty minutes backscattering profile before the breeze.

  12. Retrievals of precipitable water vapor using star photometry: Assessment with Raman lidar and link to sun photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Lyamani, H.; Fernández-Gálvez, J.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    This work deals with the applicability of a star photometer to retrieve precipitable water vapor (W) at nighttime by means of direct irradiance from stars using a 940 nm narrowband filter. Retrievals are assessed with simultaneous data from a Raman lidar system and linked with daytime values from a sun photometer using measurements taken from March to May 2007 at an urban site. Calibration of both the star and sun photometers was performed by the Modified Astronomical Langley Method. The retrieval of W from photometers is based on a look up table using a simplified expression for the water vapor transmittance and the relative optical water vapor air mass. This methodology presents a systematic uncertainty in W below 3% and 6% for sun and star photometry, respectively. Retrievals of W from star photometry were 9% above those obtained from the Raman lidar technique, but with a great agreement in the temporal evolution from both instruments. The link of daytime and nighttime values of W using sun and star photometers for a more extended database showed a smooth continuity between consecutive periods.

  13. Evaluation of MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals by coincident observations using CRDS, lidar, and sky radiometer in Tsukuba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Nakayama, T.; Shimizu, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Nagai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Zaizen, Y.; Kagamitani, S.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coincident aerosol observations of Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), lidar, and sky radiometer were conducted in Tsukuba, Japan on 5-18 October 2010. MAX-DOAS aerosol retrieval (for aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth at 476 nm) was evaluated from the viewpoint of the need for a correction factor for oxygen collision complexes (O4 or O2-O2) absorption. The present study strongly supports this need, as systematic residuals at relatively high elevation angles (20 and 30°) were evident in MAX-DOAS profile retrievals conducted without the correction. However, adopting a single number for the correction factor (fO4 = 1.25) for all of the elevation angles led to systematic overestimation of near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, as reported in the literature. To achieve agreement with all three observations, we limited the set of elevation angles to ? 10° and adopted an elevation-angle-dependent correction factor for practical profile retrievals with scattered light observations by a ground-based MAX-DOAS. With these modifications, we expect to minimize the possible effects of temperature-dependent O4 absorption cross section and uncertainty in DOAS fit on an aerosol profile retrieval, although more efforts are encouraged to quantitatively identify a physical explanation for the need of a correction factor.

  14. Lidar Observations of Tropospheric Aerosols Over Northeastern South Africa During the ARREX and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ji, Qiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Piketh, Stuart J.; Barenbrug, Marguerite; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the ARREX-1999 and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season experiments a micropulse lidar (523 nm) instrument was operated at the Skukuza Airport in northeastern South Africa. The Mar was collocated with a diverse array of passive radiometric equipment. For SAFARI-2000 the processed Mar data yields a daytime time-series of layer mean/derived aerosol optical properties, including extinction-to-backscatter ratios and vertical extinction cross-section profile. Combined with 523 run aerosol optical depth and spectral Angstrom exponent calculations from available CIMEL sun-photometer data and normalized broadband flux measurements the temporal evolution of the near surface aerosol layer optical properties is analyzed for climatological trends. For the densest smoke/haze events the extinction-to-backscatter ratio is found to be between 60-80/sr, and corresponding Angstrom exponent calculations near and above 1.75. The optical characteristics of an evolving smoke event from SAFARI-2000 are extensively detailed. The advecting smoke was embedded within two distinct stratified thermodynamic layers, causing the particulate mass to advect over the instrument array in an incoherent manner on the afternoon of its occurrence. Surface broadband flux forcing due to the smoke is calculated, as is the evolution in the vertical aerosol extinction profile as measured by the Han Finally, observations of persistent elevated aerosol during ARREX-1999 are presented and discussed. The lack of corroborating observations the following year makes these observation; both unique and noteworthy in the scope of regional aerosol transport over southern Africa.

  15. Comparison of Riparian Evapotranspiration Estimated Using Raman LIDAR and Water Balance Based Estimates from a Soil Moisture Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, J. A.; Rajaram, H.; Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J.; Eichinger, W. E.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (RET) is an important component of basin-wide evapotranspiration (ET), especially in subhumid to semi-arid regions, with significant impacts on water management and conservation. A common method of measuring ET is using the eddy correlation technique. However, since most riparian zones are narrow, eddy correlation techniques are not applicable because of limited fetch distance. Techniques based on surface-subsurface water balance are applicable in these situations, but their accuracy is not well constrained. In this study, we estimated RET within a 100 meter long and 40 meter wide riparian zone along Rock Creek in the Whitewater Basin in central Kansas using a water balance approach and Raman LIDAR measurements. A total of six soil moisture profiles (with six soil moisture sensors in each profile) and water-table measurements were used to estimate subsurface water storage (total soil moisture, TSM). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-University of Iowa (UI) Raman LIDAR was used to measure the water vapor concentrations in three dimensions where the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was used to obtain the spatially resolved fluxes. The LIDAR system included a 1.064 micron Nd:YAG laser with a Cassagrain telescope with a laser pulse of 50Hz with 25mJ of energy per pulse. Estimates of RET obtained from TSM changes were compared to LIDAR estimates obtained from three-dimensional water vapor concentrations of the atmosphere directly above and downwind of the riparian vegetation. The LIDAR measurements help to validate the TSM based estimates of RET and constrain their accuracy. RET estimates obtained from TSM changes in individual soil moisture profiles exhibited a large variability (up to a factor 8). This variability results from the highly heterogeneous soils in the vadose zone (2-3 m thick), where soil moisture (rather than groundwater) is the major source of water for riparian vegetation. Variable vegetation density and species also likely contribute to the variability. Reach-integrated RET estimates obtained using TSM changes from all of the six profiles compare very well with the LIDAR estimates. RET estimates obtained from the LIDAR were 3.8 mm/day and 4.6 mm/day for 7/8/2011 and 7/9/2011 respectively, and the estimates derived from the TSM balance were 3.9 mm/day and 4.3 mm/day for the same days. The water-balance based approach is very cost-effective, even with the large number of soil moisture sensors deployed. However, the high degree of variability in the RET estimates from individual profiles suggests caution in the application and interpretation of water balance based techniques in vadose zones with natural vegetation, unless large sensor networks are used. The LIDAR measurements provide reliable reach-integrated estimates of RET.

  16. Chemical characterization of aerosol particles by laser Raman spectroscopy. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, K.H.

    1999-12-01

    The importance of aerosol particles in many branches of science, such as atmospheric chemistry, combustion, interfacial science, and material processing, has been steadily growing during the past decades. One of the unique properties of these particles is the very high surface-to-volume ratios, thus making them readily serve as centers for gas-phase condensation and heterogeneous reactions. These particles must be characterized by size, shape, physical state, and chemical composition. Traditionally, optical elastic scattering has been applied to obtain the physical properties of these particle (e.g., particle size, size distribution, and particle density). These physical properties are particularly important in atmospheric science as they govern the distribution and transport of atmospheric aerosols.

  17. INTERCOMPARISON OF WATER VAPOR CALIBRATION CONSTANTS DERIVED FROM IN-SITU AND DISTANT SOUNDINGS FOR A RAMAN-LIDAR OPERATING IN THE AMAZON

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Henrique

    INTERCOMPARISON OF WATER VAPOR CALIBRATION CONSTANTS DERIVED FROM IN-SITU AND DISTANT SOUNDINGS Ambiente, INPA/UEA, Manaus-AM - Brazil ABSTRACT Water vapor profiles derived from UV Raman Lidar mea have focused on the complex relation be- tween water vapor variability and deep convection

  18. Lidar Observation of Aerosol and Temperature Stratification over Urban Area During the Formation of a Stable Atmospheric PBL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolev, I.; Parvanov, O.; Kaprielov, B.; Mitev, V.; Simeonov, V.; Grigorov, I.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the processes in the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) over urban areas were intensely investigated, due to ecological problems related to the air, soil, and water pollution. New pollution sources in new residential districts, when in contradiction to the microclimate and topography requirements of that region, create a number of considerable hazards and problems. The present study is a continuation of our preceding investigations and aims at revealing the aerosol structure and stratification during the transition after sunset as measured by two lidars. Such observation of the nocturnal, stable PBL formation over an urban area in Bulgaria has not been reported before. The lidars' high time and spatial resolutions allow the changes of the internal structure of the PBL's part located above the surface layer to be observed.

  19. LIDAR observations of lower stratospheric aerosols over South Africa linked to large scale transport across the southern subtropical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencherif, H.; Portafaix, T.; Baray, J. L.; Morel, B.; Baldy, S.; Leveau, J.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Moorgawa, A.; Michaelis, M. M.; Diab, R.

    2003-04-01

    The study of the variability of stratospheric aerosols and the transfer between the different atmospheric regions improves our understanding of dynamical processes involved in isentropic exchanges that take place episodically in the lower stratosphere through the subtropical barrier. One useful approach consists in combining in situ ground-based and global measurements with numerical analyses. The present paper reports on a case study of a horizontal transfer evidenced first by Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR observations over Durban (/29.9°S, /31.0°E, South Africa). Additional data from MeteoSat and SAGE-2 experiments, and from ECMWF meteorological analysis have been used in this study. Contour advection maps of potential vorticity from the MIMOSA model derived from ECMWF fields, were also used. By the end of April, 1999, LIDAR observations showed that aerosol extinction, in the lower stratosphere, has increased significantly and abnormally in comparison with other LIDAR and SAGE-2 observations recorded for the period from April 20 to June 14, 1999. The dynamical context of this case study seems to exclude the possibility of a local influence of the subtropical jet stream or tropical convection, which could inject air masses enriched with tropospheric aerosols into the stratosphere. On the contrary, a high-resolution model based on PV advection calculations and ECMWF meteorological analyses shows that air masses are isentropically advected from the equatorial zone close to Brazil. They cross the southern barrier of the tropical reservoir due to laminae stretching and reach the southern subcontinent of Africa 5-6 days later.

  20. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Water Vapor, Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosols in the Tropics Near Central America During the TC4 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooi, Susan; Fenn, Marta; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, John; Browell, Edward; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Simpson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Large scale distributions of ozone, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds were measured throughout the troposphere by two NASA Langley lidar systems on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) over Central and South America and adjacent oceans in the summer of 2007. Special emphasis was placed on the sampling of convective outflow and transport, sub-visible cirrus clouds, boundary layer aerosols, Saharan dust, volcanic emissions, and urban and biomass burning plumes. This paper presents preliminary results from this campaign, and demonstrates the value of coordinated measurements by the two lidar systems.

  1. Sun photometer and lidar measurements of the plume from the Hawaii Kilauea Volcano Pu'u O'o vent: Aerosol flux and SO2 lifetime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, J.N.; Horton, K.A.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Lienert, B.; Sharma, S.K.; Lau, E.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Oppenheimer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol optical depths and lidar measurements were obtained under the plume of Hawaii Kilauea Volcano on August 17, 2001, ???9 km downwind from the erupting Pu'u O'o vent. Measured aerosol optical depths (at 500 nm) were between 0.2-0.4. Aerosol size distributions inverted from the spectral sun photometer measurements suggest the volcanic aerosol is present in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.5 micron diameter), which is consistent with past in situ optical counter measurements. The aerosol dry mass flux rate was calculated to be 53 Mg d-1. The estimated SO2 emission rate during the aerosol measurements was ???1450 Mg d-1. Assuming the sulfur emissions at Pu'u O'o vent are mainly SO2 (not aerosol), this corresponds to a SO2 half-life of 6.0 hours in the atmosphere.

  2. Observations of Asian dust and air-pollution aerosols using a network of ground-based Mie-scattering lidars (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro; Dong, Xuhui; Zhao, Shuli; Zhou, Jun; Lee, Choo-Hie; Uno, Itsushi

    2005-05-01

    We conduct network observations using ground-based Mie-scattering lidars in Asian region in cooperation with various research organizations and Universities. Primary purpose of the network is for studying generation and transport of Asian dust, observing air pollution and biomass burning aerosols for atmospheric environment studies, observing aerosol vertical distribution and temporal variation for atmospheric radiation studies and climatology, and for validation of chemical transport models and satellite remote sensors. At present, lidars are operated continuously at twelve locations in Japan, China, Korea, and Thailand. The lidars used in the network are two-wavelength (532 nm and 1064 nm) Mie-scattering lidars having depolarization measurement function at 532nm. Flashlamp-pumped compact Nd:YAG lasers are used as the light source. We developed a method for estimating the extinction coefficient of non-spherical air-pollution aerosols separately using the depolarization ratio. This method is based on a simple assumption that observed aerosols are external mixture of two types of aerosols, but it is practically very useful especially for inter-comparison with chemical transport models. We also studied a method for characterizing aerosols using the depolarization ratio and the wavelength dependence of the backscatter coefficient. Asian dust phenomena were observed with the network since spring of 2001. The frequency of the occurrence of dust events and the vertical distribution characteristics were analyzed. Also, seasonal and year-to-year variations were analyzed. At the same time, transport of dust and air-pollution aerosols were studied by comparing the temporal variation of lidar profiles with chemical transport model results.

  3. Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. II Comparison of measurements made by SAM II, dustsondes and airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Fuller, W. H.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Woods, D. C.; Swissler, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results are shown from the first set of measurements conducted to validate extinction data from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II). Dustsonde-measured number density profiles and lidar-measured backscattering profiles for two days are converted to extinction profiles, and are shown to agree within their respective uncertainties at all heights above the tropopause. Near the tropopause, agreement depends on use of model size distributions with larger particles, having radii greater than 0.6 microns. The presence of such large particles is supported by measurements made elsewhere, is suggested by the in situ size distribution measurements reported, and is likely to have an important bearing on the radiative impact of the total stratospheric aerosol. It is concluded that the SAM II extinction data and uncertainty estimates are supported.

  4. Evaluating CALIOP Nighttime Level 2 Aerosol Profile Retrievals Using a Global Transport Model Equipped with Two-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation and Ground-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Tackett, J. L.; Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Westphal, D. L.; Vaughan, M.; Winker, D. M.; Welton, E. J.; Prospero, J. M.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.

    2011-12-01

    Launched in 2006, the Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization instrument (CALIOP) flown aboard the NASA/CNES Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite has collected the first high-resolution global, inter-seasonal and multi-year measurements of aerosol structure. Profiles for aerosol particle extinction coefficient and column-integrated optical depth (AOD) are unique and highly synergistic satellite measurements, given the limitations of passive aerosol remote sensors from resolving information vertically. However, accurate value-added (Level 2.0) CALIOP aerosol products require comprehensive validation of retrieval techniques and calibration stability. Daytime Level 2.0 CALIOP AOD retrievals have been evaluated versus co-located NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-AQUA) data. To date, no corresponding investigation of nighttime retrieval performance has been conducted from a lack of requisite global nighttime validation datasets. In this paper, Version 3.01 CALIOP 5-km retrievals of nighttime 0.532 ?m AOD from 2007 are evaluated versus corresponding 0.550 ?m AOD analyses derived with the global 1° x 1° U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS). Mean regional profiles of CALIOP nighttime 0.532 ?m extinction coefficient are assessed versus NASA Micropulse Lidar Network and NIES Skynet Lidar Network measurements. NAAPS features a two-dimensional variational assimilation procedure for quality-assured MODIS and NASA Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) AOD products. Whereas NAAPS nighttime AOD datasets represent a nominal 12-hr forecast field, from lack of MODIS/MISR retrievals for assimilation in the dark sector of the model, evaluation of NAAPS 00-hr analysis and 24-hr forecast skill versus MODIS and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicates adequate stability for conducting this study. Corresponding daytime comparisons of CALIOP retrievals with NAAPS, MPLNET and Skynet are described as context.

  5. Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during a European pollution outbreak of ACE2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrille Flamant; Jacques Pelon; Patrick Chazette; Vincent Trouillet; Patricia K. Quinn; Robert Frouin; Didier Bruneau; Jean François Leon; Timothy S. Bates; James Johnson; John Livingston

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of the aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties associ- ated with an European pollution outbreak which occured during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are presented. Size distribution spectra measured over the ocean near Sagres (Portugal), on-board the Research Vessel Vodyanitsky and on-board the Avion de Recherche Atmospherique et Teledetection (ARAT) have been used to parameterize the

  6. Four-wavelength lidar evaluation of particle characteristics and aerosol densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthe, E. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Delateur, S. A.; Nielsen, N. B.

    1985-06-01

    The SRI International four-wavelength (0.53, 1.06, 3.8, 10.6 micron) lidar systems was used during the SNOW-ONE-B and Smoke Week XI/SNOW-TWO field experiments to validate its capabilities in assessing obscurant optical and physical properties. The lidar viewed along a horizontal path terminated by a passive reflector. Data examples were analyzed in terms of time-dependent transmission, wavelength dependence of optical depth, and range-resolved extinction coefficients. Three methods were used to derive extinction data from the lidar signatures. These were target method, Klett method and experimental data method. The results of the field and analysis programs are reported in the journal and conference papers that are appended to this report, and include: comparison study of lidar extinction methods, submitted to applied optics, error analysis of lidar solution techniques for range-resolved extinction coefficients based on observational data, smoke/obscurants symposium 9, Four--Wavelength Lidar Measurements from smoke week 6/SNOW-TWO, smoke/obscurants symposium 8, SNOW-ONE-B multiple-wavelength lidar measurements. Snow symposium 3, and lidar applications for obscurant evaluations, smoke/obscurants Symposium 7. The report also provides a summary of background work leading to this project, and of project results.

  7. Estimation of spatially distributed latent energy flux over complex terrain using a scanning water-vapor Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.I.; Eichinger, W.; Archuleta, J.; Cottingame, W.; Osborne, M.; Tellier, L.

    1995-09-01

    Evapotranspiration is one of the critical variables in both water and energy balance models of the hydrological system. The hydrologic system is driven by the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and as such is a spatially distributed process. Traditional techniques rely on point sensors to collect information that is then averaged over a region. The assumptions involved in spatially average point data is of limited value (1) because of limited sensors in the arrays, (2) the inability to extend and interpret the Measured scalars and estimated fluxes at a point over large areas in complex terrain, and (3) the limited understanding of the relationship between point measurements of spatial processes. Remote sensing technology offers the ability to collect detailed spatially distributed data. However, the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s volume-imaging, scanning water-vapor Raman lidar has been shown to be able to estimate the latent energy flux at a point. The extension of this capability to larger scales over complex terrain represents a step forward. This abstract Outlines the techniques used to estimate the spatially resolved latent energy flux. The following sections describe the site, model, data acquired, and lidar estimated latent energy ``map``.

  8. Lidar measurements of boundary layers, aerosol scattering and clouds during project FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, Edwin W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A detailed account of progress achieved under this grant funding is contained in five journal papers. The titles of these papers are: The calculation of area-averaged vertical profiles of the horizontal wind velocity using volume imaging lidar data; Volume imaging lidar observation of the convective structure surrounding the flight path of an instrumented aircraft; Convective boundary layer mean depths, cloud base altitudes, cloud top altitudes, cloud coverages, and cloud shadows obtained from Volume Imaging Lidar data; An accuracy analysis of the wind profiles calculated from Volume Imaging Lidar data; and Calculation of divergence and vertical motion from volume-imaging lidar data. Copies of these papers form the body of this report.

  9. Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

  10. Comparative analysis of measurements of stratospheric aerosol by lidar and aerosol sonde above Ny-Ålesund in the winter of 1995 [Comparative analysis of lidar and OPC observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Shiraishi; Masahiko Hayashi; Motowo Fujiwara; Takashi Shibata; Masaharu Watanabe; Yasunobu Iwasaka; Roland Neuber; Takashi Yamanouchi

    Solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) layers observed by lidar and a balloon-borne optical particle counter (OPC) on 17 December 1995 are reexamined in a comparative analysis framework. The typical radius of solid particles in the observed PSC is determined through the comparative analysis to have been approximately 2.3 ?m. A backward trajectory analysis for the air mass in which the solid

  11. Methodological developments for the remote sensing of water vapor combining Raman lidar, GPS and in-situ observations: results from the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, P.; Bock, O.; Thom, C.; Pelon, J.; Keckhut, P.; Bourcy, T.; Tzanos, D.

    2012-12-01

    Measuring water vapour in the atmosphere is still a challenging topic for ever more demanding geophysical applications requiring high absolute accuracy, both at high and low water vapour concentrations, and long term stability. Changes in instruments or sensor types make this task very difficult and require a reference technique for inter-calibration purposes. Scanning Raman lidars have been shown in the past to be a potential candidate technique for transferring absolute calibration from ground-based sensors to other systems such as profilers (e.g. radiosondes and remote-sensing techniques like spectrometers and radiometers) and/or precipitable water vapour (PWV) measurements (e.g. from GPS or dual-channel microwave radiometers). The DEMEVAP (DEvelopment of MEthods for remote sensing of water VAPor) project aims at developing improved reference humidity sounding methods based on the combined used of scanning Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. The ultimate goal is to achieve absolute accuracy better than 3% on the total column water vapour. An intensive observing period was conducted in September-October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France, which involved two Raman lidars, four radiosonde measurement systems, five GPS stations, a stellar spectrometer, and several ground-based capacitive and dew-point sensors. Observations were collected over 17 nights during which 26 balloons were released which carried a total of 79 radiosondes. Most of the balloons carried 3 or 4 different sonde types simultaneously (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow-White) for comparison purposes. The dataset collected during DEMEVAP 2011 is used to assess several GPS and Raman lidar calibration methods and evaluate the humidity bias of different operational radiosonde types. The four radiosonde systems show biases of -11 to +7% compared to GPS PWV. Several Raman lidar calibration methods using either radiosonde profiles or GPS PWV measurements are compared to a hybrid method combining GPS and lidar data at the observation level. All these methods show a good degree of repeatability in the estimated lidar calibration constant of 2 to 5%.

  12. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  13. Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and Backscatter Relationships

    E-print Network

    Cho, Hyoun-Myoung

    2012-02-14

    properties of clouds and aerosols. The relationships between depolarization ratio and backscatter allow us to retrieve particle thermodynamic phase and shape and/or orientation of aerosols and clouds. The first part is devoted to the investigation...

  14. General formula for the errors in aerosol properties determined from lidar measurements at a single wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, C.

    1985-04-01

    The present study provides a general formula for the estimated error in the aerosol extinction coefficient at any range for any measured distribution of this quantity. The conducted investigation represents an extension of the error analysis for aerosol extinction coefficients performed by Klett (1981) who assumed a homogeneous atmosphere with uniform aerosol distribution. The investigation takes also into account a study done by Sasono and Nakane (1984) for a horizontal path in an atmosphere assumed to have a sinusoidally varying concentration of aerosol.

  15. Evaluation of vegetation fire smoke plume dynamics and aerosol load using UV scanning lidar and fire-atmosphere modelling during the Mediterranean Letia 2010 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy-Cancellieri, V.; Augustin, P.; Filippi, J. B.; Mari, C.; Fourmentin, M.; Bosseur, F.; Morandini, F.; Delbarre, H.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation fires emit large amount of gases and aerosols which are detrimental to human health. Smoke exposure near and downwind of fires depends on the fire propagation, the atmospheric circulations and the burnt vegetation. A better knowledge of the interaction between wildfire and atmosphere is a primary requirement to investigate fire smoke and particle transport. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the usefulness of an UV scanning lidar to characterize the fire smoke plume and consequently validate fire-atmosphere model simulations. An instrumented burn was conducted in a Mediterranean area typical of ones frequently concern by wildfire with low dense shrubs. Using Lidar measurements positioned near the experimental site, fire smoke plume was thoroughly characterized by its optical properties, edge and dynamics. These parameters were obtained by combining methods based on lidar inversion technique, wavelet edge detection and a backscatter barycenter technique. The smoke plume displacement was determined using a digital video camera coupled with the Lidar. The simulation was performed using a meso-scale atmospheric model in a large eddy simulation configuration (Meso-NH) coupled to a fire propagation physical model (ForeFire) taking into account the effect of wind, slope and fuel properties. A passive numerical scalar tracer was injected in the model at fire location to mimic the smoke plume. The simulated fire smoke plume width remained within the edge smoke plume obtained from lidar measurements. The maximum smoke injection derived from lidar backscatter coefficients and the simulated passive tracer was around 200 m. The vertical position of the simulated plume barycenter was systematically below the barycenter derived from the lidar backscatter coefficients due to the oversimplified properties of the passive tracer compared to real aerosols particles. Simulated speed and horizontal location of the plume compared well with the observations derived from the videography and lidar method suggesting that fire convection and advection were correctly taken into account.

  16. Boundary Layer Aerosol Composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-micron CW Lidars and Modeled Backscatter from Size Distribution Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, D. R.; Jarzembski, M. A.; Srivastava, V.; Pueschel, R. F.; Howard, S. D.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An inversion technique has been developed to determine volume fractions of an atmospheric aerosol composed primarily of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate and water combined with fixed concentration of elemental and organic carbon. It is based on measured aerosol backscatter obtained with 9.11 - and 10.59-micron wavelength continuous wave CO2 lidars and modeled backscatter from aerosol size distribution data. The technique is demonstrated during a flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, California on 19 September, 1995. Volume fraction of each component and effective complex refractive index of the composite particle were determined assuming an internally mixed composite aerosol model. The volume fractions were also used to re-compute aerosol backscatter, providing good agreement with the lidar-measured data. The robustness of the technique for determining volume fractions was extended with a comparison of calculated 2.1,-micron backscatter from size distribution data with the measured lidar data converted to 2.1,-micron backscatter using an earlier derived algorithm, verifying the algorithm as well as the backscatter calculations.

  17. Clear-column closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol extinction during ACE-Asia using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ and ship-based lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, D.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Welton, E.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Jonsson, H.; Seinfeld, J.; Flagan, R.; Covert, D.

    2002-12-01

    The Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. Closure experiments are an important step towards reducing these uncertainties. Closure studies have revealed important insights about aerosol sampling and inadvertent modification in such previous aerosol studies as TARFOX, ACE-2 and SAFARI 2000. In this paper we assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation measured by the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) and derived from airborne in situ and ship-based lidar methods during the Spring 2001 phase of the ACE-Asia field experiment. Aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter, AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 14 wavelengths between 354 and 1558 nm, yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and columnar water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. Aboard the same aircraft aerosol extinction has also been derived from in situ measurements of scattering (nephelometers) and absorption (particle soot absorption photometer, PSAP) or calculated from particle size distribution measurements (mobility analyzers and aerodynamic particle sizers). Twin Otter vertical profiles flown near the R. V. Ronald H. Brown allowed extinction profile comparisons with a Micro Pulse Lidar operated aboard the ship. The extinction profiles obtained by the different techniques show good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled.

  18. Coupling groundbased ALOMAR lidar measurements to high resolution global modelling and CALIPSO backscatter assimilation to characterize aerosol properties in the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumelet, J.; Keckhut, P.; Bekki, S.; Vernier, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are involved in cloud formation processes, especially in polar regions where thermodynamical conditions lead to polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) formation. Beside the well-known chemical effect of these clouds on polar ozone, the overall radiative impact of PSC and especially stratospheric aerosols remains unclear. Assessing the global stratospheric sulphuric load remains an issue, as measurements require both global coverage and high sensitivity. Volcanic eruptions regularly impact this aerosol budget even at high latitudes, as the stratospheric circulation takes particles throughout the dynamical barriers up to the polar regions. Around the 13th of June, 2011, the Eritrean Nabro volcano experienced a major eruption, injecting dust and particles in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. The transport of the newly oxydized aerosols has been reported by the CALIOP/CALIPSO spaceborne lidar. The particles produced significant optical backscatter for several months. We use a high-resolution microphysical-transport model to gain access to the small filamentary structures of the volcanic plume. CALIOP backscatters are assimilated into such a model to provide accurate constraints on the advection over time at stratospheric altitudes, where the horizontal transport is dominant. Validation is locally performed against ground-based lidar measurements acquired at the ALOMAR observatory, where microphysical aerosol properties derived from multiwavelength lidar can be compared to the model-calculated ones. Coupling the advanced detection capabilities of a stratospheric lidar to high-resolution global modelling allows for global assessment of aerosol and cloud surface area densities and volumes, which are of critical importance in ozone depletion processes.

  19. Comparisons of the Raman lidar measurements of the tropospheric water vapor profiles with radiosondes, meteorological observation tower, and GPS at Tsukuba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Masahisa; Matsumura, Takatsugu; Orikasa, Narihiro; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2006-09-01

    The vertical distributions of the water vapor mixing ratio (w) were measured by Raman lidar at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan, in 2000 to 2004. The measured values were compared with those obtained with radiosondes, hygrometers on the meteorological observation tower, and Global Positional System (GPS) antennas. The values of w obtained with the lidar agreed within 9% with those obtained with the Meisei RS2-91 radiosonde for w > 0.5 g/kg -1. However, they were systematically higher than those obtained with the Vaisala RS80-A radiosonde for that region. The vertical variations of w obtained with the lidar were similar to those obtained with the Meisei RS-01G and Meteolabor Snow White radiosondes for w > 0.3 g/kg -1. The temporal variations of w obtained with the lidar were similar to those obtained with the hygrometers at heights between 50 and 213 m on the tower, although the absolute values differed systematically due to the incomplete overlap of the laser beam and the receiver's field of view at the lower heights. The precipitable water vapor content obtained with the lidar generally agreed with those obtained with GPS, except for the period when the large spatial inhomogeneity of w was present.

  20. New ARM measurements of clouds, aerosols, and the atmospheric state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, J. H.; Voyles, J.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has recently enhanced its observational capabilities at its fixed and mobile sites as well as its aerial facility. New capabilities include scanning radars, several types of lidars, an array of aerosol instruments, and in situ cloud probes. All ARM sites have been equipped with dual frequency scanning cloud radars that will provide three-dimensional observations of cloud fields for analysis of cloud field evolution. Sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and Papua New Guinea have also received scanning centimeter wavelength radars for observing precipitation fields. This combination of radars will provide the means to study the interaction of clouds and precipitation. New lidars include a Raman lidar in Darwin, Australia and High Spectral Resolution Lidars in Barrow and with the second ARM Mobile Facility. Each of these lidars will provide profiles of aerosol extinction while the Raman will also measure profiles of water vapor. ARM has also expanded its capabilities in the realm of aerosol observations. ARM is adding Aerosol Observing Systems to its sites in Darwin and the second mobile facility. These aerosol systems principally provided measurements of aerosol optical properties. Additionally, a new Mobile Aerosol Observing System has been developed that includes a variety of instruments to provide information about aerosol chemistry and size distributions. Many of these aerosol instruments are also available for the ARM Aerial Facility. The Aerial Facility also now includes a variety of cloud probes for measuring size distribution and water content. The new array of ARM instruments is intended to build upon the existing ARM capabilities to better study the interactions among aerosol, clouds, and precipitation. Data from these instruments are now available and development of advanced data products is underway.

  1. New ARM Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, and the Atmospheric State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, J.

    2012-04-01

    The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has recently enhanced its observational capabilities at its fixed and mobile sites as well as its aerial facility. New capabilities include scanning radars, several types of lidars, an array of aerosol instruments, and in situ cloud probes. All ARM sites have been equipped with dual frequency scanning cloud radars that will provide three-dimensional observations of cloud fields for analysis of cloud field evolution. Sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and Papua New Guinea have also received scanning centimeter wavelength radars for observing precipitation fields. This combination of radars will provide the means to study the interaction of clouds and precipitation. New lidars include a Raman lidar in Darwin, Australia and High Spectral Resolution Lidars in Barrow and with the second ARM Mobile Facility. Each of these lidars will provide profiles of aerosol extinction while the Raman will also measure profiles of water vapor. ARM has also expanded its capabilities in the realm of aerosol observations. ARM is adding Aerosol Observing Systems to its sites in Darwin and the second mobile facility. These aerosol systems principally provided measurements of aerosol optical properties. In addition, a new Mobile Aerosol Observing System has been developed that includes a variety of instruments to provide information about aerosol chemistry and size distributions. Many of these aerosol instruments are also available for the ARM Aerial Facility. The Aerial Facility also now includes a variety of cloud probes for measuring size distribution and water content. The new array of ARM instruments is intended to build upon the existing ARM capabilities to better study the interactions among aerosol, clouds, and precipitation. Data from these instruments are now available and development of advanced data products is underway.

  2. Airborne Lidar measurements of aerosols, mixed layer heights, and ozone during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS summer field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Shipley, S. T.; Butler, C. F.; Ismail, S.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed summary of the NASA Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV DIAL) data archive obtained during the EPA Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode/Northeast Regional Oxidant Study (PEPE/NEROS) Summer Field Experiment Program (July through August 1980) is presented. The UV dial data set consists of remote measurements of mixed layer heights, aerosol backscatter cross sections, and sequential ozone profiles taken during 14 long-range flights onboard the NASA Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft. These data are presented in graphic and tabular form, and they have been submitted to the PEPE/NEROS data archive on digital magnetic tape. The derivation of mixing heights and ozone profiles from UV Dial signals is discussed, and detailed intercomparisons with measurements obtained by in situ sensors are presented.

  3. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation on Simulated Sea-Spray Aerosol Using Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, G. P.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The deliquescence and heterogeneous ice nucleation behavior of simulated sea-spray aerosol was probed from 215 to 235 K using Raman microscopy coupled to an environmental cell. Water uptake prior to deliquescence was also probed on sea-salt particles along deliquescence/ice nucleation experimental trajectories. Synthetic sea-salt particles were generated from solutions of aquarium salt, which emulates all major and minor ions that are found in saltwater. Our results indicate that, under cirrus cloud conditions, sea-salt particles will be in an internally mixed liquid-solid phase, with a brine layer surrounding a crystalline core. Above 230 K, the core of the internally mixed liquid-solid particle fully deliquesces prior to ice nucleation. Below 225 K, however, the crystalline core can act as efficient immersion-mode ice nuclei prior to full liquefaction. To simulate the presence of carbohydrate-like organics in sea spray aerosol, sea-salt particles were mixed with the disaccharide sucrose 1:1 by mass. At low relative humidity, the sea-salt particles effloresced into an amorphous organic-salt matrix. Above 225 K, sea-salt/sucrose particles fully deliquesce prior to ice nucleation; however, at lower temperatures, the organic-salt matrix was found to be glassy and could act as an efficient depositional ice nucleus. This work suggests the possible role of sea-salt aerosol in low-temperature ice nucleation. Consistent with this, data from aircraft campaigns suggests sea-salt aerosol is enhanced in ice residuals from low-temperature anvil cirrus whose convective inflow regions are primarily marine environments.

  4. Lidars as an operational tool for meteorology and advanced atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Dinoev, Todor; Serikov, Ilya; Froidevaux, Martin; Bartlome, Marcel; Calpini, Bertrand; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Ristori, Pablo; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc; Archinov, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The talk will present the concept and observation results of three advanced lidar systems developed recently at the Swiss federal Institute of Technology- Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland. Two of the systems are Raman lidars for simultaneous water vapor, temperature and aerosol observations and the third one is an ozone UV DIAL system. The Ranan lidars use vibrational water vapor and nitrogen signals to derive water vapor mixing ratio and temperature, aerosol extinction and backscatter are measured using pure-rotational Raman and elastic signals. The first Raman lidar (RALMO) is a fully automated, water vapor /temperature/aerosol lidar developed for operational use by the Swiss meteorological office (MeteoSiss). The lidar supplies water vapor mixing ratio and temperature plus aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at 355 nm. The operational range of the lidar is 100-7000 m (night time) and 100- 5000 m (daytime) with time resolution of 30 min. The spatial resolution varies with height from 25 to 300 m in order to maintain the maximum measurement error of 10%. The system is designed to provide long-term database with minimal instrument-induced variations in time of the measured parameters. The lidar has been in regular operation in the main aerological station of Meteoswiss- Payerne since September 2008. The second Raman lidar is a new generation, solar-blind system with an operational range 10-500 m and high spatial (1.5 m) and temporal (1 s) resolutions designed for simultaneous humidity, temperature, and aerosol measurements in the lower atmosphere. To maintain the measurement accuracy while operating with fixed spatial and temporal resolution, the receiver is designed to provide lower than ten dynamic range of the signals within the distance range of the lidar. The lidar has 360° azimuth and 240°elevation scanning ability. The lidar was used in two field campaigns aiming to study the structure of the lower atmosphere over complex terrains and, in particular, to advance our understanding of turbulent blending mechanisms in the unstable atmosphere. The third lidar is an ozone UV DIAL system designed for studies of the upper troposphere, lower stratosphere ozone exchange processes. The lidar is based on a commercial fourth harmonic Nd:YAG laser. The DIAL wavelengths (284 and 304 nm) are produced by stimulated Raman conversion in high pressure nitrogen. A 76 cm in diameter Cassegrein telescope is used in the receiver and the spectral separation of the signals is carried out by an imaging-grating based polychromator. The operational distance of the lidar is 6000 -12000 m ASL with a statistical error lower than 10%. The lidar is deployed at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch at 3600 m altitude in the Swiss Alps. The lidar accuracy was verified by comparison to profiles taken by ECC balloon-borne sondes launched by Meteoswiss from Payerne. The lidar has been in use from September 2008 and since that time several stratospheric intrusions and cases of intercontinental transport and transport from the atmospheric boundary layer have been observed.

  5. Comparative analysis of measurements of stratospheric aerosol by lidar and aerosol sonde above Ny-Ålesund in the winter of 1995 [Comparative analysis of lidar and OPC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Koichi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Motowo; Shibata, Takashi; Watanabe, Masaharu; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Neuber, Roland; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) layers observed by lidar and a balloon-borne optical particle counter (OPC) on 17 December 1995 are reexamined in a comparative analysis framework. The typical radius of solid particles in the observed PSC is determined through the comparative analysis to have been approximately 2.3 ?m. A backward trajectory analysis for the air mass in which the solid particles were observed shows that the air mass had experienced temperatures 2-3 K below the frost point of nitric acid tri-hydrate (NAT) during the 4 days preceding the observations. The back-trajectory analysis traces the air mass back to northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island on 16 December, one day before the observations. A microphysical box model is used to investigate possible mechanisms of formation for the observed solid particles. The results of this model suggest that the solid particles formed under mesoscale temperature fluctuations associated with mountain lee wave activity induced by the relatively high terrestrial elevations of northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island.

  6. Durban atmospheric lidar program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorgawa, Ashokabose; Michaelis, Max M.; Diab, R. D.; Anderson, J.; Kuppen, M.; Prause, A. R.; McKenzie, Edric; Porteneuve, Jacques; Leveau, Jean; Bencherif, Hassan; Morel, B.; Cunningham, P. F.

    2000-08-01

    A brief description and use of two LIDAR (Acronym for LIght Detection And Ranging) systems in the measurements of atmospheric aerosols and vertical temperature profiles above Durban are presented. Early local aerosol profiles for low medium and high altitudes from the old LIDAR are shown. With the recent installation of the new LIDAR, vertical temperature measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are made possible. A first validation of the new LIDAR has been carried out showing atmospheric wave activity above the Southern African continent for the first time. It is envisaged in the future to correlate the results obtained with the new LIDAR, especially for the low altitude, with those of the old LIDAR. Plans are also going ahead to implement an additional channel on the new LIDAR which will measure ozone concentration in the troposphere.

  7. Lidar-observed enhancement of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau induced by the Nabro volcano eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Q. S.; Li, C. C.; Ma, J. Z.; Wang, H. Q.; Yan, X. L.; Lu, J.; Liang, Z. R.; Qi, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients were measured by a micro-pulse lidar at Naqu (31.5° N, 92.1° E; 4508 m a.m.s.l.), a meteorological station located on the central part of the Tibetan Plateau during summer 2011. Observations show a persistent maximum in aerosol extinction coefficients in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS). These aerosol layers were generally located at an altitude of 18-19 km a.m.s.l., 1-2 km higher than the tropopause, with broad layer depth ranging approximately 3-4 km and scattering ratio of 4-9. Daily averaged aerosol optical depths (AODs) of the enhanced aerosol layers in UTLS over the Tibetan Plateau varied from 0.007 to 0.030, in agreement with globally averaged levels of 0.018 ± 0.009 at 532 nm from previous observations, but the percentage contributions of the enhanced aerosol layers to the total AOD over the Tibetan Plateau are higher than those observed elsewhere. The aerosol layers in UTLS wore off gradually with the reducing intensity of the Asian monsoon over the Tibetan Plateau at the end of August. The eruption of Nabro volcano on 13 June 2011 is considered an important factor to explain the enhancement of tropopause aerosols observed this summer over the Tibetan Plateau.

  8. New Mobile Lidar Systems Aboard Ultra-Light Aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Shang, Xiaoxia; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Two lidar systems embedded on ultra light aircraft (ULA) flew over the Rhone valley, south-east of France, to characterize the vertical extend of pollution aerosols in this area influenced by large industrial sites. The main industrial source is the Etang de Berre (43°28' N, 5°01' E), close to Marseille city. The emissions are mainly due to metallurgy and petrochemical factories. Traffic related to Marseille's area contribute to pollution with its ~1500000 inhabitants. Note that the maritime traffic close to Marseille may play an important role due to its position as the leading French harbor . For the previous scientific purpose and for the first time on ULA, we flew a mini-N2 Raman lidar system to help the assessment of the aerosol optical properties. Another Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard a second ULA. The lidars are compact and eye safe instruments. They operate at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight of 0.75 m. Different flights plans were tested to use the two lidars in synergy. We will present the different approaches and discuss both their advantages and limitations. Acknowledgements: the lidar systems have been developed by CEA. They have been deployed with the support of FERRING France. We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint, François Bernard and José Coutet, and the Air Creation ULA Company for logistical help during the ULA campaign.

  9. Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.; Goldsmith, JE M.

    1999-08-01

    Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This instrument, which makes high-resolution measurements of water vapor both spatially and temporally, is capable of making these measurements with no operator interaction (other than initial startup) for days at a time. Water vapor measurements collected during the 1996 and 1997 WVIOPs are discussed here, illustrating both the nighttime and daytime capabilities of this system. System characteristics, calibration issues, and techniques are presented. Finally, detailed intercomparisons of the lidar's data with those from a microwave radiometer, radiosondes, an instrumented tower, a chilled mirror flown on both a tethersonde and a kite, and measurements from aircraft are shown and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and stability of this system for both nighttime and daytime measurements.

  10. Raman shifter optimized for lidar at a 1.5 microm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Mayor, Shane D

    2007-05-20

    A Raman shifter is optimized for generating high-energy laser pulses at a 1.54 microm wavelength. A forward-scattering design is described, including details of the multiple pass and nonfocused optical design, Stokes injection seeding, and internal gas recirculation. First-Stokes conversion efficiencies up to 43%--equivalent to 62% photon conversion efficiency--were measured. Experimental results show output average power in excess of 17.5 W, pulse energies of 350 mJ at 50 Hz, with good beam quality (M2<6). Narrow bandwidth and tunable output is produced when pumping with a single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser and seeding the process with a Stokes wavelength narrowband laser diode. PMID:17514248

  11. Column Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-Asia Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ and Ship-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, A.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Russells, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, E. J.; Seinfield, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    We assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne sunphotometry and derived from airborne in-situ, and ship-based lidar measurements during the April 2001 Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The airborne data presented here were obtained aboard the Twin Otter aircraft. Comparing aerosol extinction o(550 nm) from four different techniques shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled. The sigma(550 nm) computed from airborne in-situ size distribution and composition measurements shows good agreement with airborne sunphotometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers dominated by dust if the particles are assumed to be spherical. The sigma(550 nm) from airborne in-situ scattering and absorption measurements are about approx. 13% lower than those obtained from airborne sunphotometry during 14 vertical profiles. Combining lidar and the airborne sunphotometer measurements reveals the prevalence of dust layers at altitudes up to 10 km with layer aerosol optical depth (from 3.5 to 10 km altitude) of approx. 0.1 to 0.2 (500 nm) and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 59-71 sr (523 nm). The airborne sunphotometer aboard the Twin Otter reveals a relatively dry atmosphere during ACE- Asia with all water vapor columns less than 1.5 cm and water vapor densities w less than 12 g/cu m. Comparing layer water vapor amounts and w from the airborne sunphotometer to the same quantities measured with aircraft in-situ sensors leads to a high correlation (r(sup 3)=0.96) but the sunphotometer tends to underestimate w by 7%.

  12. Horizontal distribution of aerosol extinction coefficient observed by lidar near the shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakalova, Toni S.; Kolev, Ivan N.; Grigorov, Ivan V.; Parvanov, Orlin

    1999-05-01

    Observations of the horizontal distribution of the aerosol extinction coefficient within the atmospheric marine boundary layer are presented. The extinction coefficient profiles are calculated using Klett's inversion method. The variations in aerosol optical properties caused by the underlying surface are studied. Constant-elevation cross sections of extinction distribution along different azimuths over land and sea surfaces ((sigma) equals 0.23 divided by 0.14 km-1 and (sigma) equals 0.2 - 0.29 km-1 over land and sea respectively) are presented and analyzed.

  13. The 2013 Chico Lidar Wind Sensing Experiment: Two-component winds above the reach of typical meteorological masts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, S. D.; Derian, P.

    2013-12-01

    We operated the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and a Doppler lidar at the California State University Chico Farm from May through November of 2013. The Doppler lidar was used to validate wind estimates derived from the REAL images using two motion estimation algorithms: cross-correlaion and wavelet-based optical flow. Validation was performed in two ways. First, the Doppler lidar was located 1.53 km range from the REAL, and it performed high elevation-angle conic scans in order to provide vertical profiles of horizontal winds in a column above the instrument. Doing so enabled us to validate REAL wind estimates at 50, 100, and 150 m AGL through comparison of time-series data. For the second form of validation, we colocated the Doppler lidar with the REAL so that both instruments could perform horizontal sector scans of the same area. This method enabled us to validate the spatial characteristics of the vector fields derived from the REAL data. The experiment is ongoing at the time of this writing. Highlights of preliminary research results will be presented. The Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) at the CSU Chico farm. View of the Doppler lidar looking SSW across the CSU Chico Farm toward the REAL.

  14. Application of Cabauw lidar data for campaigns, new methodology development and validation activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apituley, Arnoud; Donovan, Dave; de Bruine, Marco; Sanders, Bram; de Haij, Marijn

    2015-04-01

    Caeli, the Cabauw Water Vapour, Aerosol and Cloud lidar, is a high-performance multi-wavelength Raman lidar and is part of EARLINET. It is one of the key instruments installed at the Cesar Observatory in Cabauw, located in the western part of The Netherlands (51.971° N, 4.927° E) in a polder 0.7 m below mean sealevel. At the site a large set of instruments is operated to study the atmosphere and its interaction with the land surface. Also operated at the site are a UV-backscatter lidar with depolarisation and a ceilometer. The Cabauw lidar data were used for the development of several new methods, as well as in the validation of new techniques based on other sensor data. The potential of the site that is equipped with a suite of in-situ and remote sensing equipment provides the possibility to develop new methods, and test them using independent observations. A method for estimations of the mass load of volcanic ash based on depolarisation lidar data was developed and could be tested using the Raman lidar data. A new method for tracking the height of the boundary layer using graph theory was developed and could be tested using the wind profiler. The lidar data was also used for testing a new technique to derive the aerosol layer height from passive satellite observations in the O2 A-band, that can be applied in future operational earth observation platforms. The EARLINET Raman lidar acts as the reference instrument in the selection procedure for a new ceilometer for the Dutch ceilometer network. Future work will include validation activities for the upcoming European satellite missions Aeolus, Sentinel-5p/TROPOMI and EarthCare.

  15. Lidars for control and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Vadim E.; Shemanin, Valery G.

    1998-01-01

    Laser radiation has a wide application in molecules Raman lidar control and its concentration measurement in atmosphere under industrial regions for creation people good living conditions. Back scattering vibration Raman lidar equation computer simulation for iodine molecules and its heavy isotopes with YAG-Nd, cuprous vapor and excimer lasers have been made to choose optimal lidar system for studied molecules monitoring in atmosphere. Background stray sunlight power were calculated to determine the minimum molecules concentration at ranging distance up to 6 km.

  16. Tropospheric ozone and aerosol variability observed at high latitudes with an airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Kooi, Susan A.; Grant, William B.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale summertime (July-August) distributions of O3 and aerosols were observed in a broad range of atmosphere conditions over the tundra, ice, and ocean regions near Alaska in 1988 and over the lowlands and boreal forests of Canada in 1990. The tropospheric O3 budget in the high-latitude regions was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions, and deposition at the surface was found to be the main sink for O3 in the troposphere. Enhanced levels of O3 were observed in plumes from fires in Alaska and Canada. This paper discusses the large-scale variability of O3 and aerosols observed in the high-latitude regions during these field experiments.

  17. Scanning Backscatter Lidar Observations for Characterizing 4-D Cloud and Aerosol Fields to Improve Radiative Transfer Parameterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.

    2005-01-01

    Clouds have a powerful influence on atmospheric radiative transfer and hence are crucial to understanding and interpreting the exchange of radiation between the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and space. Because clouds are highly variable in space, time and physical makeup, it is important to be able to observe them in three dimensions (3-D) with sufficient resolution that the data can be used to generate and validate parameterizations of cloud fields at the resolution scale of global climate models (GCMs). Simulation of photon transport in three dimensionally inhomogeneous cloud fields show that spatial inhomogeneities tend to decrease cloud reflection and absorption and increase direct and diffuse transmission, Therefore it is an important task to characterize cloud spatial structures in three dimensions on the scale of GCM grid elements. In order to validate cloud parameterizations that represent the ensemble, or mean and variance of cloud properties within a GCM grid element, measurements of the parameters must be obtained on a much finer scale so that the statistics on those measurements are truly representative. High spatial sampling resolution is required, on the order of 1 km or less. Since the radiation fields respond almost instantaneously to changes in the cloud field, and clouds changes occur on scales of seconds and less when viewed on scales of approximately 100m, the temporal resolution of cloud properties should be measured and characterized on second time scales. GCM time steps are typically on the order of an hour, but in order to obtain sufficient statistical representations of cloud properties in the parameterizations that are used as model inputs, averaged values of cloud properties should be calculated on time scales on the order of 10-100 s. The Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) provides exceptional temporal (100 ms) and spatial (30 m) resolution measurements of aerosol and cloud backscatter in three dimensions. HARLIE was used in a ground-based configuration in several recent field campaigns. Principal data products include aerosol backscatter profiles, boundary layer heights, entrainment zone thickness, cloud fraction as a function of altitude and horizontal wind vector profiles based on correlating the motions of clouds and aerosol structures across portions of the scan. Comparisons will be made between various cloud detecting instruments to develop a baseline performance metric.

  18. Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using a ground-based lidar in Seoul, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-W. Kim; S. Berthier; J.-C. Raut; P. Chazette; F. Dulac; S.-C. Yoon

    2008-01-01

    We present initial validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite using coincidental observations from a ground-based lidar in Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea (37.46° N, 126.95° E). We analyze six selected cases between September 2006 and February 2007, including 3 daytime and 3 night-time observations and covering different types of clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Apparent

  19. Southeast Asian Summer Burning: A Micro Pulse Lidar Network Study of Aerosol Particle Physical Properties near Fires in Borneo and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Welton, E. J.; Holben, B. N.; Campbell, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    In August and September 2012, as part of the continuing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) project, three autonomous elastic-scattering 355 nm lidars were deployed by the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) to Sumatra and Borneo, measuring the vertical profile of aerosol particle scattering during peak burning season. In coordination with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), a regional characterization of aerosol particle physical properties and distribution was performed. In addition to a permanent regional network site at Singapore, the three temporary sites established for this research include Jambi (Sumatra, Indonesia), Kuching (northwest Borneo, Malaysia) and Palangkaraya (south-central Borneo, Indonesia). In this paper, we discuss the mission and instruments, and introduce data products available to the community through the MPLNET online website. We further describe initial results of the study, including a contrast of mean vertical scattering profiles versus those observed near active fire sources at Jambi and Palangkaraya, and resolve longer-range particle evolution at receptor sites, like Kuching, that are most commonly 1-2 days downwind of larger fire complexes.

  20. Iterative method for the retrieval of the aerosol backscatter coefficient and the Ångstrom exponent from bi-wavelength lidar data in low-transmittance atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michael; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Comeron, Adolfo; Lopez, Miguel Angel

    2004-11-01

    A method based on the advantage of a bi-wavelength lidar system has been developed and tested. The method departs from the fact that in nearly transparent atmospheres (weak extinctions), the ratio of the lidar signals at both wavelengths gives the Ångstrom exponent in backscatter with very low uncertainty. The method consists in (i) assuming a linear relationship between the Ångstrom exponent in backscatter and the Ångstrom exponent in extinction (usually called Ångstrom exponent), (ii) approximating by a first order development the ratio of the transmittances, (iii) and forcing the resulting Ångstrom exponent. Profiles of the Ångstrom exponent, and the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 1064 and 532 nm were retrieved. The aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles were compared to Klett inversion results in the lowest part of the atmosphere containing aerosols, [0 - 3 km], in a rural environment in summertime: the agreement is better than 12 % at 1064 nm, and better than 35 % at 532 nm, indicating a greater dependency to the initial assumptions in the visible range.

  1. Lidar measurements carried out during the 28 February 2013 lava fountain event at Mt. Etna, in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scollo, Simona; Boselli, Antonella; Coltelli, Mauro; Leto, Giuseppe; Pisani, Gianluca; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Mt. Etna, in Italy, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Since 2011, the New South East Crater produced lava fountains that formed eruption columns rising up to several kilometers above sea level and fine ash dispersed hundreds kilometers away from the central craters. One of these events occurred during the 28 February 2013. The volcanic plume was directed toward the E and reached, during the climax phase, an height greater than 9 km above sea level. Lidar measurements were performed immediately after the lava fountain activity by a new portable Raman scanning Lidar system that is operating in Catania since 2013. The Lidar is operated at the Serra La Nave station, only 7 km away far from the Etna summits, and, during the winter seasons, at the INAF-Astrophysical Observatory in Catania. The Lidar named AMPLE is a portable multiwavelength scanning lidar system with depolarization measurement capability, able to carry out high quality 3D map of particle optical and microphysical properties. The laser source is a doubled and tripled diode pumped Nd:YAG laser, with a repetition rate of 1KHz. The Lidar system detects the elastic Lidar returns at 355nm and the N2 Raman Lidar echoes at 386nm. Each signal is acquired with a raw spatial resolution varying from 30cm to 30m. Results of the measurements performed on 28 February 2013 show different layers: the first layer below 1.5 km corresponds to smaller not depolarizing particles of local origin while the layer up to 7 km, is related to volcanic ash coming from Etna. A discrimination between spherical and non-spherical particles in the volcanic plume is clear from the aerosol depolarization values in the atmospheric column interested by the volcanic plume. Some differences in the aerosol size and typology are also highlighted by the Lidar Ratio values. Lidar measurements presented here show new insights on the plume dynamics during Etna lava fountain events.

  2. Ceilometer for aerosol profiling: comparison with the multiwavelength in the frame of INTERACT (INTERcomparison of Aerosol and Cloud Tracking)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, Fabio; Vande Hey, Joshua; Rosoldi, Marco; Amato, Francesco; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Observations of cloud base height are important for meteorology, observations of aerosols are important for air quality applications, observations of cloud cover and aerosols address key uncertainties in climate study. To improve parameterization and uncertainties of numerical models, observations provided by high resolution networks of ground-based instruments are needed. In order to achieve broad, high resolution coverage, low-cost instruments are preferable, though it is essential that the sensitivity, stability, biases and uncertainties of these instruments are well-understood. Despite of their differences from more advanced and more powerful lidars, low construction and operation cost of ceilometer, originally designed for cloud base height monitoring, has fostered their use for the quantitative study of aerosol properties. The large number of ceilometers available worldwide represent a strong motivation to investigate to which extent they can be used to fill the geographical gaps between advanced lidar stations and how their continuous data flow can be linked to existing networks of the advanced lidars, like EARLINET (European Aerosol research LIdar NETwork). In order to make the best use of existing and future ceilometer deployments, ceilometer must be better characterized. This is the purpose of the INTERACT campaign carried out in the frame of ACTRIS Transnational Access activities at CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO - 760 m a.s.l., 40.60 N, 15.72 E). In this paper, an overview of the results achieved during the campaign is provided. In particular multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate the capability of ceilometers to provide reliable information about atmospheric aerosol content through the INTERACT (INTERcomparison of Aerosol and Cloud Tracking) campaign carried out at the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (760 m a.s.l., 40.60N, 15.72E), in the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosol Clouds Trace gases Research InfraStructure) FP7 project. This work is the first time that three different commercial ceilometers with an advanced Raman lidar are compared over a period of six months. The comparison of the attenuated backscatter profiles from a multi-wavelength Raman lidar and three ceilometers (CHM15k, CS135s, CT25K) reveals differences due to the expected discrepancy in the SNR but also due to effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the short and mid-term stability of ceilometer calibration. A large instability of ceilometers in the incomplete overlap region has also been observed, making the use of a single overlap correction function for the whole duration of the campaign critical. Therefore, technological improvements of ceilometers towards their operational use in the monitoring of the atmospheric aerosol in the low and free troposphere are needed.

  3. Validation of CALIPSO Lidar Observations Using Data From the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Hostetler; J. W. Hair; Z. Liu; R. A. Ferrare; D. B. Harper; A. L. Cook; M. A. Vaughan; C. R. Trepte; D. M. Winker

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on comparisons of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) spacecraft with data acquired with the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). A series of aircraft validation flights was initiated on 14 June 2006, soon after the completion of the CALIPSO satellite