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Sample records for aeruginosa extracellular products

  1. Phenazine production enhances extracellular DNA release via hydrogen peroxide generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Das, Theerthankar; Manefield, Mike

    2013-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa eDNA is a crucial component essential for biofilm formation and stability. In this study we report that release of eDNA is influenced by the production of phenazine in P. aeruginosa. A ∆phzA-G mutant of P. aeruginosa PA14 deficient in phenazine production generated significantly less eDNA in comparison with the phenazine producing strains. The relationship between eDNA release and phenazine production is bridged via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and subsequent H2O2 mediated cell lysis and ultimately release of chromosomal DNA into the extracellular environment as eDNA. PMID:23710274

  2. Abiotic factors in colony formation: effects of nutrition and light on extracellular polysaccharide production and cell aggregates of Microcystis aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang

    2013-07-01

    Colony morphology is important for Microcystis to sustain a competitive advantage in eutrophic lakes. The mechanism of colony formation in Microcystis is currently unclear. Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) has been reported to play an important role in cell aggregate formation of some phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultivated under varied abiotic conditions, including different nutrient, light, and temperature conditions, to investigate their effects on EPS production and morphological change. The results show that nutrient concentration and light intensity have great effects on EPS productionin M. aeruginosa. There was a considerable increase in EPS production after M. aeruginosa was cultivated in adjusted culture conditions similar to those present in the field (28.9 mg C/L, 1.98 mg N/L, 0.65 mg P/L, light intensity: 100 μmol/(m2 · s)). These results indicate that abiotic factors might be one of the triggers for colony formation in Microcystis.

  3. Effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, bound extracellular polymeric substances and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xun; Wang, Peifang; Chen, Bin; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in various water bodies during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Iron is an important micronutrient for algal growth and recently, the concentration of which has increased remarkably in freshwaters. In this paper, the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 was cultivated under non-iron (0μM), iron-limited (10μM) and iron-replete (100μM) conditions to investigate the effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, EPS and microcystin production. The results showed that algal cell density and chlorophyll-a content were maximal at the highest iron concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased notably under all three conditions in the early stage of experiment, of which the SOD activity recovered soon from oxidative stress in 10μM group. The productions of some protein-like substances and humic acid-like substances of bound EPS were inhibited in iron-containing groups in the early stage of experiment while promoted after the adaptation period of Microcystis aeruginosa. Iron addition is a factor affecting the formation of cyanobacterial blooms through its impact on the content of LB-EPS and the composition of TB-EPS. The intracellular MC-LR concentration and the productivity potential of MC-LR were the lowest in 0μM group and highest in 10μM group. No obvious extracellular release of MC-LR was observed during the cultivation time. Therefore, iron addition can promote the physiological activities of M. aeruginosa, but a greater harm could be brought into environment under iron-limited (10μM) condition than under iron-replete (100μM) condition. PMID:27337497

  4. Dihydroaeruginoic acid synthetase and pyochelin synthetase, products of the pchEF genes, are induced by extracellular pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Reimmann, C; Serino, L; Beyeler, M; Haas, D

    1998-11-01

    The siderophore pyochelin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is derived from one molecule of salicylate and two molecules of cysteine. Two cotranscribed genes, pchEF, encoding peptide synthetases have been identified and characterized. pchE was required for the conversion of salicylate to dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), the condensation product of salicylate and one cysteine residue and pchF was essential for the synthesis of pyochelin from Dha. The deduced PchE (156 kDa) and PchF (197 kDa) proteins had adenylation, thiolation and condensation/cyclization motifs arranged as modules which are typical of those peptide synthetases forming thiazoline rings. The pchEF genes were coregulated with the pchDCBA operon, which provides enzymes for the synthesis (PchBA) and activation (PchD) of salicylate as well as a putative thioesterase (PchC). Expression of a translational pchE'-'lacZ fusion was strictly dependent on the PchR regulator and was induced by extracellular pyochelin, the end product of the pathway. Iron replete conditions led to Fur (ferric uptake regulator)-dependent repression of the pchE'-'lacZ fusion. A translational pchD'-'lacZ fusion was also positively regulated by PchR and pyochelin and repressed by Fur and iron. Thus, autoinduction by pyochelin (or ferric pyochelin) and repression by iron ensure a sensitive control of the pyochelin pathway in P. aeruginosa. PMID:9846750

  5. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis on peritoneal dialysis catheters and the effects of extracellular products from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Maria; Arvidsson, Anna; Skepö, Marie; Nilsson, Martin; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Svensäter, Gunnel; Davies, Julia R

    2013-04-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis is a cause of infections related to peritoneal dialysis (PD). We have used a PD catheter flow-cell model in combination with confocal scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy to study biofilm formation by S. epidermidis. Adherence to serum-coated catheters was four times greater than to uncoated ones, suggesting that S. epidermidis binds to serum proteins on the catheter surface. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm supernatant interfered with the formation of a serum protein coat thereby reducing the capacity for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. Supernatants from ΔpelA, ΔpslBCD and ΔrhlAB strains of P. aeruginosa showed no differences from the wild-type supernatant indicating that the effect on serum coat formation was not due to rhamnolipids or the PelA and PslBCD polysaccharides. Supernatant from P. aeruginosa also dispersed established S. epidermidis biofilms. Supernatants lacking PelA or PslBCD showed no differences from the wild type but that from a ΔrhlAB strain, showed reduced, but not abolished, capacity for dispersal. This suggests that rhamnolipids are involved but not wholly responsible for the effect. Thus, supernatants from P. aeruginosa contain promising substances for the prevention and treatment of biofilm infections, although further work is required to identity more active components. PMID:23620182

  6. Phenazine virulence factor binding to extracellular DNA is important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Theerthankar; Kutty, Samuel K.; Tavallaie, Roya; Ibugo, Amaye I.; Panchompoo, Janjira; Sehar, Shama; Aldous, Leigh; Yeung, Amanda W. S.; Thomas, Shane R.; Kumar, Naresh; Gooding, J. Justin; Manefield, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics necessitates the identification of novel leads for infection control. Interference with extracellular phenomena, such as quorum sensing, extracellular DNA integrity and redox active metabolite release, represents a new frontier to control human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and hence reduce mortality. Here we reveal that the extracellular redox active virulence factor pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa binds directly to the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone of DNA and intercalates with DNA nitrogenous base pair regions. Binding results in local perturbations of the DNA double helix structure and enhanced electron transfer along the nucleic acid polymer. Pyocyanin binding to DNA also increases DNA solution viscosity. In contrast, antioxidants interacting with DNA and pyocyanin decrease DNA solution viscosity. Biofilms deficient in pyocyanin production and biofilms lacking extracellular DNA show similar architecture indicating the interaction is important in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. PMID:25669133

  7. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular secondary metabolite, Paerucumarin, chelates iron and is not localized to extracellular membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Qaisar, Uzma; Kruczek, Cassandra J; Azeem, Muhammed; Javaid, Nasir; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2016-08-01

    Proteins encoded by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pvcA-D operon synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin termed paerucumarin. The pvcA-D operon enhances the expression of the P. aeruginosa fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (cup) genes and this effect is mediated through paerucumarin. Whether pvcA-D and/or paerucumarin affect the expression of other P. aeruginosa genes is not known. In this study, we examined the effect of a mutation in pvcA-D operon the global transcriptome of the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1-UW. The mutation reduced the expression of several ironcontrolled genes including pvdS, which is essential for the expression of the pyoverdine genes. Additional transcriptional studies showed that the pvcA-D operon is not regulated by iron. Exogenously added paerucumarin enhanced pyoverdine production and pvdS expression in PAO1-UW. Iron-chelation experiments revealed that purified paerucumarin chelates iron. However, exogenously added paerucumarin significantly reduced the growth of a P. aeruginosa mutant defective in pyoverdine and pyochelin production. In contrast to other secondary metabolite, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), paerucumarin is not localized to the P. aeruginosa membrane vesicles. These results suggest that paerucumarin enhances the expression of iron-controlled genes by chelating iron within the P. aeruginosa extracellular environment. Although paerucumarin chelates iron, it does not function as a siderophore. Unlike PQS, paerucumarin is not associated with the P. aeruginosa cell envelope. PMID:27480638

  8. Extracellular DNA Acidifies Biofilms and Induces Aminoglycoside Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Mike; Charron-Mazenod, Laetitia; Moore, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms consist of surface-adhered bacterial communities encased in an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, exopolysaccharides, and proteins. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has a structural role in the formation of biofilms, can bind and shield biofilms from aminoglycosides, and induces antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence that eDNA is responsible for the acidification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic cultures and biofilms. Further, we show that acidic pH and acidification via eDNA constitute a signal that is perceived by P. aeruginosa to induce the expression of genes regulated by the PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component regulatory systems. Planktonic P. aeruginosa cultured in exogenous 0.2% DNA or under acidic conditions demonstrates a 2- to 8-fold increase in aminoglycoside resistance. This resistance phenotype requires the aminoarabinose modification of lipid A and the production of spermidine on the bacterial outer membrane, which likely reduce the entry of aminoglycosides. Interestingly, the additions of the basic amino acid l-arginine and sodium bicarbonate neutralize the pH and restore P. aeruginosa susceptibility to aminoglycosides, even in the presence of eDNA. These data illustrate that the accumulation of eDNA in biofilms and infection sites can acidify the local environment and that acidic pH promotes the P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance phenotype. PMID:26552982

  9. Extracellular biogenic nanomaterials inhibit pyoverdine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a novel insight into impacts of metal(loid)s on environmental bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Anee; Liu, Yang; Yang, Liang; Cao, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as mining, smelting, and industrial use have caused serious problems of metal(loid) pollution in nearly every country in the world. A wide range of environmental microorganisms are capable of transforming metal(loid)s into nanomaterials, i.e., biogenic nanomaterials (bio-NMs), in the environment. Although the impacts of various metal(loid)s on the ecosystems have been extensively studied, the potential influence of the bio-NMs generated in the environment to environmental organisms is largely unexplored. Using tellurium nanomaterials transformed from tellurite by a metal-reducing bacterium as model bio-NMs, we demonstrated that the bio-NMs significantly decreased siderophore production in an environmental bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both planktonic cultures and biofilms. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the bio-NMs inhibited the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis and transport of siderophores. Siderophores secreted by certain bacteria in microbial communities can be considered as public goods that can be exploited by local communities, playing an important role in shaping microbial communities. The inhibition of siderophore production by the bio-NMs implies that bio-NMs may have an important influence on the ecosystems through altering specific functions of environmental bacteria. Taken together, this study provides a novel insight into the environmental impacts of metal(loid)s. PMID:25273177

  10. Inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa by the extracellular substances from an Aeromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Ming-Jun; Wang, Meng-Hui; Jia, Rui-Bao; Li, Li

    2013-09-28

    Growth of Microcystis aeruginosa could be inhibited significantly within 24 h by the extracellular substances prepared from Aeromonas sp. strain FM. During the treatment, the concentration of extracellular soluble carbohydrates increased significantly in algal culture. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in M. aeruginosa cells, including breakage of the cell surface, secretion of mucilage, and intracellular disorganization of thylakoids, were observed. HPLC-MS analysis showed that the extracellular substances of Aeromonas sp. strain FM were a mixture of free amino acids, tripeptides, and clavulanate. Among these, the algae-lysis effects of lysine and clavulanate were confirmed. PMID:23727796

  11. Biodegradation and extracellular enzymatic activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain GF31 on β-cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Tang, Aixing; Wang, Bowen; Liu, Youyan; Li, Qingyun; Tong, Zhangfa; Wei, Yingjun

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain GF31, isolated from a contaminated soil, can effectively degrade β-cypermethrin (β-CP), as well as fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, and cyhalothrin. The highest level of degradation (81.2 %) was achieved with the addition of peptone. Surprisingly, the enzyme responsible for degradation was mainly localized to the extracellular areas of the bacteria, in contrast to the other known pyrethroid-degrading enzymes, which are intracellular. Although intact bacterial cells function at about 30 °C for biodegradation, similar to other degrading strains, the crude extracellular extract of strain GF31 remained biologically active at 60 °C. Moreover, the extract fraction showed good storage stability, maintaining >50 % of its initial activity following storage at 25 °C for at least 20 days. Significant differences in the characteristics of the crude GF31 extracellular extract compared with the known pyrethroid-degrading enzymes indicate the presence of a novel pyrethroid-degrading enzyme. Furthermore, the identification of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate from the degradation products suggests the possibility that β-CP degradation by both the strain and the crude extracellular fraction is achieved through a hydrolysis pathway. Further degradation of these two metabolites may lead to the development of an efficient method for the mineralization of these types of pollutants. PMID:25921758

  12. Extracellular Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylated proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 strain.

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Tassadit; Jarnier, Frédérique; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Hardouin, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine is known to be involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, signal transduction, and bacterial virulence. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular phosphoproteins of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 strain. We identified 28 phosphoproteins (59 phosphosites) including enzymes, with various phosphorylation sites, known as potent secreted virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The high phosphorylation level of these virulence factors might reflect a relationship between Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation and virulence. PMID:24965220

  13. PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR NUCLEIC ACIDS BY GENETICALLY ALTERED BACTERIA IN AQUATIC-ENVIRONMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. he presence or absence of the ambient microbial commun...

  14. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  15. BqsR/BqsS Constitute a Two-Component System That Senses Extracellular Fe(II) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kreamer, Naomi N. K.; Wilks, Jessica C.; Marlow, Jeffrey J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium best known as the predominant opportunistic pathogen infecting the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. In this context, it is thought to form biofilms, within which locally reducing and acidic conditions can develop that favor the stability of ferrous iron [Fe(II)]. Because iron is a signal that stimulates biofilm formation, we performed a microarray study to determine whether P. aeruginosa strain PA14 exhibits a specific transcriptional response to extracellular Fe(II). Among the genes that were most upregulated in response to Fe(II) were those encoding the two-component system BqsR/BqsS, previously identified for its role in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 biofilm decay (13); here, we demonstrate its role in extracellular Fe(II) sensing. bqsS and bqsR form an operon together with two small upstream genes, bqsP and bqsQ, and one downstream gene, bqsT. BqsR/BqsS sense extracellular Fe(II) at physiologically relevant concentrations (>10 μM) and elicit a specific transcriptional response, including its autoregulation. The sensor distinguishes between Fe(II), Fe(III), and other dipositive cations [Ca(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Zn(II)] under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The gene that is most upregulated by BqsR/BqsS, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), is PA14_04180, which is predicted to encode a periplasmic oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain (OB-fold) protein. Coincident with phenazine production during batch culture growth, Fe(II) becomes the majority of the total iron pool and bqsS is upregulated. The existence of a two-component system that senses Fe(II) indicates that extracellular Fe(II) is an important environmental signal for P. aeruginosa. PMID:22194456

  16. Effects of sulfate on microcystin production, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress in Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Gin, Karina Y H; He, Yiliang

    2016-02-01

    Increasing sulfate in freshwater systems, caused by human activities and climate change, may have negative effects on aquatic organisms. Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) is both a major primary producer and a common toxic cyanobacterium, playing an important role in the aquatic environment. This study first investigated the effects of sulfate on M. aeruginosa. The experiment presented here aims at analyzing the effects of sulfate on physiological indices, molecular levels, and its influencing mechanism. The results of our experiment showed that sulfate (at 40, 80, and 300 mg L(-1)) inhibited M. aeruginosa growth, increased both intracellular and extracellular toxin contents, and enhanced the mcyD transcript level. Sulfate inhibited the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa, based on the decrease in pigment content and the down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes after sulfate exposure. Furthermore, sulfate decreased the maximum electron transport rate, causing the cell to accumulate surplus electrons and form reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulfate also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which showed that sulfate damaged the cytomembrane. This damage contributed to the release of intracellular toxin to the culture medium. Although sulfate increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, expression of sod, and total antioxidant capacity in M. aeruginosa, it still overwhelmed the antioxidant system since the ROS level simultaneously increased, and finally caused oxidative stress. Our results indicate that sulfate has direct effects on M. aeruginosa, inhibits photosynthesis, causes oxidative stress, increases toxin production, and affects the related genes expression in M. aeruginosa. PMID:26490939

  17. Protective role of extracellular catalase (KatA) against UVA radiation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    One of the more stressful factors that Pseudomonas aeruginosa must face in nature is solar UVA radiation. In this study, the protective role of KatA catalase in both planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa against UVA radiation was determined by using the wild-type (PAO1) and an isogenic catalase deficient strain (katA). The katA strain was more sensitive than the wild-type, especially in the case of biofilms. Moreover, the wild-type biofilm was more resistant than its planktonic counterpart, but this was not observed in the katA strain. Striking KatA activity was detected in the matrix of katA(+) strains, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of this activity in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Provision of bovine catalase or KatA to the matrix of a katA biofilm significantly increased its UVA tolerance, demonstrating that extracellular KatA is essential to optimal defense against UVA in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Efficiency of photocatalytic treatments using TiO2 and UVA was lower in biofilms than in planktonic cells, but KatA and KatB catalases seem not to be responsible for the higher resistance of the sessile cells to this treatment. PMID:24491420

  18. Imaging Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Extracellular Polymer Scaffolds with Amphiphilic Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Ritenberg, Margarita; Nandi, Sukhendu; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Dandela, Rambabu; Meijler, Michael M; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-05-20

    Biofilm formation is a critical facet of pathogenesis and resilience of human, animal, and plant bacteria. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) constitute the physical scaffolding for bacterial biofilms and thus play central roles in their development and virulence. We show that newly synthesized amphiphilic fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) readily bind to the EPS scaffold of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major biofilm-forming pathogen, resulting in unprecedented microscopic visualization of the EPS structural features. Fluorescence microscopy analysis utilizing the C-dots reveals that the P. aeruginosa EPS matrix exhibits a remarkable dendritic morphology. The experiments further illuminate the growth kinetics of the EPS and the effect of external factors such as temperature. We also show that the amphiphilic C-dot platform enabled screening of substances disrupting biofilm development, specifically quorum sensing inhibitors. PMID:26882175

  19. Variation in assimilable organic carbon formation during chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa extracellular organic matter solutions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingbin; Yuan, Ting; Ni, Huishan; Li, Yanpeng; Hu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa extracellular organic matter (EOM) solutions under different conditions, to determine how the metabolites produced by these organisms affect water safety and the formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC). The effects of chlorine dosages, coagulant dosage, reaction time and temperature on the formation of AOC were investigated during the disinfection of M.aeruginosa metabolite solutions. The concentration of AOC followed a decreasing and then increasing pattern with increasing temperature and reaction time. The concentration of AOC decreased and then increased with increasing chlorination dosage, followed by a slight decrease at the highest level of chlorination. However, the concentration of AOC decreased continuously with increasing coagulant dosage. The formation of AOC can be suppressed under appropriate conditions. In this study, chlorination at 4mg/L, combined with a coagulant dose of 40mg/L at 20°C over a reaction time of 12hr, produced the minimum AOC. PMID:27372113

  20. Optimization of process parameters influencing the submerged fermentation of extracellular lipases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Padhiar, Jigita; Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2011-11-15

    The present study was aimed at optimization, production and partial purification of lipases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. Various nutritional and physical parameters affecting lipase production such as carbon and nitrogen supplements, pH, temperature, agitation speed and incubation time were studied. Refined sunflower oil (1% v/v) and tryptone at a pH of 6.2 favored maximum lipase production in Pseudomonas at 30 degrees C and 150 rpm, when incubated for 5 days. In C. albicans refined sunflower oil (3% v/v) and peptone resulted in maximum lipase production at pH 5.2, 30 degrees C and 150 rpm, when incubated for 5 days. In A. flavus coconut oil (3% v/v) and peptone yielded maximum lipase at pH 6.2, 37 degrees C, 200 rpm after an incubation period of 5 days. The lipases were partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. In P. aeruginosa enzyme activity of the dialyzed fraction was found to be 400 U mL-' and for C. albicans 410 U mL(-1). The dialysed lipase fraction from A. flavus demonstrated an activity of 460 U mL(-1). The apparent molecular weights of the dialyzed lipases were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The dialyzed lipase fraction obtained from P. aeruginosa revealed molecular weights of 47, 49 and 51 kDa, whereas, lipases from C. albicans and A. flavus demonstrated 3 bands (16.5, 27 and 51 kDa) and one band (47 kDa), respectively. These extracellular lipases may find wide industrial applications. PMID:22514878

  1. Pyocyanin facilitates extracellular DNA binding to Pseudomonas aeruginosa influencing cell surface properties and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Das, Theerthankar; Kutty, Samuel K; Kumar, Naresh; Manefield, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Pyocyanin is an electrochemically active metabolite produced by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a recognized virulence factor and is involved in a variety of significant biological activities including gene expression, maintaining fitness of bacterial cells and biofilm formation. It is also recognized as an electron shuttle for bacterial respiration and as an antibacterial and antifungal agent. eDNA has also been demonstrated to be a major component in establishing P. aeruginosa biofilms. In this study we discovered that production of pyocyanin influences the binding of eDNA to P. aeruginosa PA14 cells, mediated through intercalation of pyocyanin with eDNA. P. aeruginosa cell surface properties including cell size (hydrodynamic diameter), hydrophobicity and attractive surface energies were influenced by eDNA in the presence of pyocyanin, affecting physico-chemical interactions and promoting aggregation. A ΔphzA-G PA14 mutant, deficient in pyocynain production, could not bind with eDNA resulting in a reduction in hydrodynamic diameter, a decrease in hydrophobicity, repulsive physico-chemical interactions and reduction in aggregation in comparison to the wildtype strain. Removal of eDNA by DNase I treatment on the PA14 wildtype strain resulted in significant reduction in aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity and size and an increase in repulsive physico-chemical interactions, similar to the level of the ΔphzA-G mutant. The cell surface properties of the ΔphzA-G mutant were not affected by DNase I treatment. Based on these findings we propose that pyocyanin intercalation with eDNA promotes cell-to-cell interactions in P. aeruginosa cells by influencing their cell surface properties and physico-chemical interactions. PMID:23505483

  2. Investigation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis and their role in bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Harimawan, Ardiyan; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix in biofilm poses important functions such as a diffusion barrier to antimicrobial agents so that biofilm cells are more difficult to completely eliminate. Therefore, biofilm cells exhibit enhanced resilience unlike planktonic cells, and are more difficult to completely eliminate. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of bacterial adhesion to surfaces, knowledge of the composition and conformational properties of EPS produced during growth and biofilm formation is required, since their adhesive and conformational properties remain poorly understood at molecular level. Present study has provided further insights into identifying compositional and conformational properties of EPS produced by planktonic and biofilm cells of B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. Various spectroscopy analyses showed that EPS produced by the two different species were chemically dissimilar. More proteinaceous compounds were present in EPS from B. subtilis, while EPS from P. aeruginosa were characterized by greater carbohydrate components. However, relative proportions of polysaccharides and/or proteins constituents varied with the growth mode of the bacteria. AFM was then used to probe the adhesive nature of EPS produced by the bacteria by using Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy (SMFS). Comparison of the two bacterial species indicated that the presence of polysaccharides promoted the adhesion strength of the EPS while proteins had lesser adherence effects. Comparison of the two growth modes for the same bacterial strain also indicated that greater EPS production and enhanced cellular adhesion are associated with biofilm growth. PMID:27395039

  3. Extracellular polymeric substances facilitate the biosorption of phenanthrene on cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bai, Leilei; Xu, Huacheng; Wang, Changhui; Deng, Jiancai; Jiang, Helong

    2016-11-01

    Phytoplankton-derived extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are of vital importance for the biogeochemical cycles of hydrophobic organic pollutants in lake ecosystems. In this study, roles of loosely-bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) in biosorption of phenanthrene (PHE) on a typical cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated. The results showed that the biosorption of PHE on M. aeruginosa cell varied lasted 24 h, while the binding of PHE to LB-EPS and TB-EPS reached equilibrium within less than 2 h. The equilibrium biosorption capacities of M. aeruginosa cell, LB-EPS and TB-EPS were 6.78, 12.31, and 9.47 μg mg(-1), respectively, indicating that the binding of PHE to EPS was a considerable process involved in biosorption. Fluorescence quenching titration revealed that increasing temperature induced more binding sites in EPS for PHE and the binding process was driven by electrostatic force and hydrophobic interactions. Interestingly, dynamic and static quenching processes occurred simultaneously for the binding of PHE to protein-like substances in EPS, whereas the binding of PHE to humic-like substances belonged to static quenching. The relatively higher contents of proteins in LB-EPS produced a stronger binding capacity of PHE. Overall, the interactions between hydrophobic organic pollutants and cyanobacterial EPS are favorable to the bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic pollutants in cyanobacteria and facilitate the regulatory function of cyanobacterial biomass as a biological pump. PMID:27497347

  4. Development of potent inhibitors of pyocyanin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura C.; O’Loughlin, Colleen T.; Zhang, Zinan; Siryaporn, Albert; Silpe, Justin E.; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new approaches for the treatment of antimicrobial-resistant infections is an urgent public health priority. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogen, in particular, is a leading source of infection in hospital settings, with few available treatment options. In the context of an effort to develop antivirulence strategies to combat bacterial infection, we identified a series of highly effective small molecules that inhibit the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa. Interestingly, these new antagonists appear to suppress P. aeruginosa virulence factor production through a pathway that is independent of LasR and RhlR. PMID:25597392

  5. Chelation of Membrane-Bound Cations by Extracellular DNA Activates the Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J Q; Tang, Le; Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Parkins, Michael D; Lewenza, Shawn; Dong, Tao G

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs its type VI secretion system (T6SS) as a highly effective and tightly regulated weapon to deliver toxic molecules to target cells. T6SS-secreted proteins of P. aeruginosa can be detected in the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, who typically present a chronic and polymicrobial lung infection. However, the mechanism of T6SS activation in the CF lung is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that extracellular DNA (eDNA), abundant within the CF airways, stimulates the dynamics of the H1-T6SS cluster apparatus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Addition of Mg(2+) or DNase with eDNA abolished such activation, while treatment with EDTA mimicked the eDNA effect, suggesting that the eDNA-mediated effect is due to chelation of outer membrane-bound cations. DNA-activated H1-T6SS enables P. aeruginosa to nonselectively attack neighboring species regardless of whether or not it was provoked. Because of the importance of the T6SS in interspecies interactions and the prevalence of eDNA in the environments that P. aeruginosa inhabits, our report reveals an important adaptation strategy that likely contributes to the competitive fitness of P. aeruginosa in polymicrobial communities. PMID:27271742

  6. Production of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pili (fimbriae) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyne, P A; Haas, R; Meyer, T F; Davies, J K; Elleman, T C

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa K/2PfS, when transformed with an expression plasmid harboring the pilin gene (pilE1) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11, was able to express and assemble gonococcal pilin monomers into surface-associated pili, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and immunoelectron microscopy. Concomitant with the expression of gonococcal pili in P. aeruginosa was the virtual loss of production of P. aeruginosa K/2PfS pili normally associated with the host cell. Images PMID:1358873

  7. Extracellular matrix-associated proteins form an integral and dynamic system during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weipeng; Sun, Jin; Ding, Wei; Lin, Jinshui; Tian, Renmao; Lu, Liang; Liu, Xiaofen; Shen, Xihui; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Though the essential role of extracellular matrix in biofilm development has been extensively documented, the function of matrix-associated proteins is elusive. Determining the dynamics of matrix-associated proteins would be a useful way to reveal their functions in biofilm development. Therefore, we applied iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to evaluate matrix-associated proteins isolated from different phases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 biofilms. Among the identified 389 proteins, 54 changed their abundance significantly. The increased abundance of stress resistance and nutrient metabolism-related proteins over the period of biofilm development was consistent with the hypothesis that biofilm matrix forms micro-environments in which cells are optimally organized to resist stress and use available nutrients. Secreted proteins, including novel putative effectors of the type III secretion system were identified, suggesting that the dynamics of pathogenesis-related proteins in the matrix are associated with biofilm development. Interestingly, there was a good correlation between the abundance changes of matrix-associated proteins and their expression. Further analysis revealed complex interactions among these modulated proteins, and the mutation of selected proteins attenuated biofilm development. Collectively, this work presents the first dynamic picture of matrix-associated proteins during biofilm development, and provides evidences that the matrix-associated proteins may form an integral and well regulated system that contributes to stress resistance, nutrient acquisition, pathogenesis and the stability of the biofilm. PMID:26029669

  8. The Extracellular Matrix Component Psl Provides Fast-Acting Antibiotic Defense in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Nicole; Ramirez Millan, Maria; Caldara, Marina; Rusconi, Roberto; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Stocker, Roman; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria within biofilms secrete and surround themselves with an extracellular matrix, which serves as a first line of defense against antibiotic attack. Polysaccharides constitute major elements of the biofilm matrix and are implied in surface adhesion and biofilm organization, but their contributions to the resistance properties of biofilms remain largely elusive. Using a combination of static and continuous-flow biofilm experiments we show that Psl, one major polysaccharide in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix, provides a generic first line of defense toward antibiotics with diverse biochemical properties during the initial stages of biofilm development. Furthermore, we show with mixed-strain experiments that antibiotic-sensitive “non-producing” cells lacking Psl can gain tolerance by integrating into Psl-containing biofilms. However, non-producers dilute the protective capacity of the matrix and hence, excessive incorporation can result in the collapse of resistance of the entire community. Our data also reveal that Psl mediated protection is extendible to E. coli and S. aureus in co-culture biofilms. Together, our study shows that Psl represents a critical first bottleneck to the antibiotic attack of a biofilm community early in biofilm development. PMID:23950711

  9. NTBC treatment of the pyomelanogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate PA1111 inhibits pigment production and increases sensitivity to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ketelboeter, Laura M; M Ketelboeter, Laura; Potharla, Vishwakanth Y; Y Potharla, Vishwakanth; Bardy, Sonia L; L Bardy, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Pyomelanin is a brown/black extracellular pigment with antioxidant and iron acquisition properties that is produced by a number of different bacteria. Production of pyomelanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to increased resistance to oxidative stress and persistence in chronic infections. We demonstrate that pyomelanin production can be inhibited by 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC). This treatment increases sensitivity of pyomelanogenic P. aeruginosa strains to oxidative stress, without altering the growth rate or resistance to aminoglycosides. As such, NTBC has potential to function as an anti-virulence factor in treating pyomelanogenic bacterial infections. PMID:24801336

  10. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on the growth and toxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Lake Dianchi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Junqian; Song, Lirong; Li, Enhua; Wang, Xuelei; Xiao, Bangding

    2015-04-01

    The exogenous organic pollutant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) pollution and Microcystis bloom are two common phenomena in eutrophic lakes, but the effects of LAS alone on Microcystis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LAS on the growth, photochemical efficiency, and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa in the laboratory. Results showed that low LAS (≤10 mg/L) concentrations improved the growth of M. aeruginosa (12 days of exposure). High LAS (20 mg/L) concentrations inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa on the first 8 days of exposure; afterward, growth progressed. After 12 days of exposure, the concentrations of chlorophyll a in algal cells were not significantly affected by any of LAS concentrations (0.05 to 20 mg/L) in the present study; by contrast, carotenoid and protein concentrations were significantly inhibited when LAS concentrations reached as high as 20 mg/L. After 6 and 12 days of exposure, low LAS (≤10 mg/L) concentrations enhanced the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) of M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, LAS increased the microcystin production of M. aeruginosa. Extracellular and intracellular microcystin contents were significantly increased after M. aeruginosa was exposed to high LAS concentrations. Our results indicated that LAS in eutrophic lakes may increase the risk of Microcystis bloom and microcystin production. PMID:25382498

  11. Iron Depletion Enhances Production of Antimicrobials by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angela T.; Jones, Jace W.; Ruge, Max A.; Kane, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a heritable disease characterized by chronic, polymicrobial lung infections. While Staphylococcus aureus is the dominant lung pathogen in young CF patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa becomes predominant by adulthood. P. aeruginosa produces a variety of antimicrobials that likely contribute to this shift in microbial populations. In particular, secretion of 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolones (AQs) contributes to lysis of S. aureus in coculture, providing an iron source to P. aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. We previously showed that production of one such AQ, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), is enhanced by iron depletion and that this induction is dependent upon the iron-responsive PrrF small RNAs (sRNAs). Here, we demonstrate that antimicrobial activity against S. aureus during coculture is also enhanced by iron depletion, and we provide evidence that multiple AQs contribute to this activity. Strikingly, a P. aeruginosa ΔprrF mutant, which produces very little PQS in monoculture, was capable of mediating iron-regulated growth suppression of S. aureus. We show that the presence of S. aureus suppresses the ΔprrF1,2 mutant's defect in iron-regulated PQS production, indicating that a PrrF-independent iron regulatory pathway mediates AQ production in coculture. We further demonstrate that iron-regulated antimicrobial production is conserved in multiple P. aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from CF patients. These results demonstrate that iron plays a central role in modulating interactions of P. aeruginosa with S. aureus. Moreover, our studies suggest that established iron regulatory pathways of these pathogens are significantly altered during polymicrobial infections. IMPORTANCE Chronic polymicrobial infections involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, as the interplay between these two organisms exacerbates infection. This is in part due to enhanced

  12. Biogenic tellurium nanorods as a novel antivirulence agent inhibiting pyoverdine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Anee; Kathawala, Mustafa Hussain; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Wei Ning; Loo, Joachim Say Chye; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Yang, Liang; Cao, Bin

    2014-05-01

    While antibiotic resistance in bacteria is rapidly increasing, the development of new antibiotics has decreased in recent years. Antivirulence drugs disarming rather than killing pathogens have been proposed to alleviate the problem of resistance inherent to existing biocidal antibiotics. Here, we report a nontoxic biogenic nanomaterial as a novel antivirulence agent to combat bacterial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We synthesized, in an environmentally benign fashion, tellurium nanorods (TeNRs) using the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, and found that the biogenic TeNRs could effectively inhibit the production of pyoverdine, one of the most important virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that amyloids and extracellular polysaccharides Pel and Psl are not involved in the interactions between P. aeruginosa and the biogenic TeNRs, while flagellar movement plays an important role in the cell-TeNRs interaction. We further showed that the TeNRs (up to 100 µg/mL) did not exhibit cytotoxicity to human bronchial epithelial cells and murine macrophages. Thus, biogenic TeNRs hold promise as a novel antivirulence agent against P. aeruginosa. PMID:24222554

  13. A substitution at His-120 in the LasA protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa blocks enzymatic activity without affecting propeptide processing or extracellular secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, J K; Kessler, E; Ohman, D E

    1996-01-01

    The LasA protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade elastin and is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of this organism. LasA (20 kDa) is a member of the beta-lytic endopeptidase family of extracellular bacterial proteases, and it shows high-level staphylolytic activity. We sequenced the lasA gene from strain FRD1 and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli. The lasA gene encodes a precursor, known as pre-proLasA, of 45,582 Da. Amino-terminal sequence analysis allowed the identification of the signal peptidase cleavage site and revealed that the 31-amino-acid signal peptide was removed in E. coli. The remaining proLasA (42 kDa) did not undergo autoproteolytic processing and showed little staphylolytic activity. However, it was readily processed to a 20-kDa active staphylolytic protease by incubation with trypsin or with the culture filtrate of a P. aeruginosa lasAdelta mutant. Thus, removal of the propeptide (22 kDa) was required to convert proLasA into an active protease. Although LasA protease was critical for staphylolytic activity, other proteases like elastase were found to enhance staphylolysis. Under the control of an inducible trc promoter, lasA was overexpressed in P. aeruginosa and the processing intermediates were examined. Compared with wild-type cells, the overproducing cells accumulated more 42-kDa proLasA species, and the culture supernatants of the overproducing cells showed increased levels of active 20-kDa LasA protease. Small amounts of a 25-kDa extracellular LasA-related protein, which could represent a potential processing intermediate, were also observed. To better understand the structure-function relationships in LasA protease, we tested whether His-120-X-His-122 in the mature portion of LasA plays a role in activity. This motif and surrounding sequences are conserved in the related beta-lytic protease of Achromobacter lyticus. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change His-120 to Ala-120, thus forming the lasA5 allele

  14. Further characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum extracellular products.

    PubMed

    Barton, T A; Bannister, L A; Griffiths, S G; Lynch, W H

    1997-10-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonids, releases high concentrations of extracellular protein in tissues of infected fish. The extracellular protein consists almost entirely of a 57-kDa protein and derivatives of degradation and aggregation of the same molecule. The 57-kDa protein and its derivatives were fractionated into defined ranges of molecular mass. Separated fractions continued to produce degradation and aggregation products. One-dimensional electrophoretic separation of extracellular protein revealed a number of proteolytically active bands from > 100 to approximately 18 kDa associated with various 57-kDa protein derivatives in the different molecular mass fractions. Two-dimensional separation of extracellular protein showed that continued degradation and aggregation, similar both in location and behavior to some of the 57-kDa protein derivatives, was also displayed by the proteolytically active bands after their separation. Effects of reducing agents and sulfhydryl group proteinase inhibitors indicated a common mechanism for the proteolytically active polypeptides characteristic of a thiol proteinase. The results suggested that the 57-kDa protein and some of its derivatives undergo autolytic cleavage, releasing a proteolytically active polypeptide(s) of at least 18 kDa. Soluble polysaccharide-like material also was detected in extracellular products and tissue from infected fish. Antiserum to the polysaccharide-like material cross-reacted with O-polysaccharide of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida, suggesting some structural similarity between these polysaccharides. The polysaccharide and the proteolytic activity associated with the 57-kDa protein derivatives should be investigated with respect to the pathogenesis of R. salmoninarum infections. PMID:9480644

  15. Further characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum extracellular products.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, T A; Bannister, L A; Griffiths, S G; Lynch, W H

    1997-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonids, releases high concentrations of extracellular protein in tissues of infected fish. The extracellular protein consists almost entirely of a 57-kDa protein and derivatives of degradation and aggregation of the same molecule. The 57-kDa protein and its derivatives were fractionated into defined ranges of molecular mass. Separated fractions continued to produce degradation and aggregation products. One-dimensional electrophoretic separation of extracellular protein revealed a number of proteolytically active bands from > 100 to approximately 18 kDa associated with various 57-kDa protein derivatives in the different molecular mass fractions. Two-dimensional separation of extracellular protein showed that continued degradation and aggregation, similar both in location and behavior to some of the 57-kDa protein derivatives, was also displayed by the proteolytically active bands after their separation. Effects of reducing agents and sulfhydryl group proteinase inhibitors indicated a common mechanism for the proteolytically active polypeptides characteristic of a thiol proteinase. The results suggested that the 57-kDa protein and some of its derivatives undergo autolytic cleavage, releasing a proteolytically active polypeptide(s) of at least 18 kDa. Soluble polysaccharide-like material also was detected in extracellular products and tissue from infected fish. Antiserum to the polysaccharide-like material cross-reacted with O-polysaccharide of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida, suggesting some structural similarity between these polysaccharides. The polysaccharide and the proteolytic activity associated with the 57-kDa protein derivatives should be investigated with respect to the pathogenesis of R. salmoninarum infections. PMID:9480644

  16. Presence of the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin in the extracellular medium reduces toxic metal accumulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and increases bacterial metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Braud, Armelle; Geoffroy, Valérie; Hoegy, Françoise; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2010-06-01

    In order to get access to iron, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 produces two major siderophores pyoverdine (PVD) and pyochelin (PCH). Both siderophores are able to chelate many other metals in addition to iron. However, despite this property, only iron is transported efficiently into the bacteria by the PVD and PCH uptake pathways. Growth studies with P. aeruginosa strains showed a lower sensitivity to toxic metals for the siderophore-producing strain than for the mutants unable to produce siderophores. Moreover, addition of PVD or PCH to the growth medium of a siderophore-deficient strain considerably reduced the toxicity of toxic metals present at concentrations of 100 µM in iron-limited and iron-supplemented growth conditions. Measurement by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry of the concentration of metals present in bacteria incubated with metals in the presence or absence of PVD or PCH indicated that both siderophores were able to sequester metals from the extracellular medium of the bacteria, decreasing metal diffusion into the bacteria. Pyoverdine was able to sequester Al(3+) , Co(2+) , Cu(2+) , Eu(3+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) , Tb(3+) and Zn(2+) from the extracellular medium, and PCH, Al(3+) , Co(2+) , Cu(2+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) . Moreover, the presence of 100 µM Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) increased PVD production by 290% and 380%, respectively, in a medium supplemented with iron. All these data suggest that PVD and PCH may contribute to P. aeruginosa resistance to heavy metals. PMID:23766115

  17. Hydrocarbon assimilation and biosurfactant production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.K.; Fiechter, A.; Reiser, J. ); Kaeppeli, O. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors isolated transposon Tn5-GM-induced mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG201 that were unable to grow in minimal media containing hexadecane as a carbon source. Some of these mutants lacked extracellular rhamnolipids, as shown by measuring the surface and interfacial tensions of the cell culture supernatants. Furthermore, the concentrated culture media of the mutant strains were tested for the presence of rhamnolipids by thin-layer chromatography and for rhamnolipid activities, including hemolysis and growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Mutant 65E12 was unable to produce extracellular rhamnolipids under any of the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Mutant 65E12 was unable to produce extracellular rhamnolipids under any of the conditions tested, lacked the capacity to take up {sup 14}C-labeled hexadecane, and did not grow in media containing individual alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C{sub 12} to C{sub 19}. However, growth on these alkanes and uptake of ({sup 14}C)hexadecane were restored when small amounts of purified rhamnolipids were added to the cultures. Mutant 59C7 was unable to grow in media containing hexadecane, nor was it able to take up ({sup 14}C)hexadecane uptake. The addition of small amounts of rhamnolipids restored on alkanes and ({sup 14}C)hexadecane uptake. In glucose-containing media, however, mutant 59C7 produced rhamnolipids at levels about twice as high as those of the wild-type strain. These results show that rhamnolipids play a major role in hexadecane uptake and utilization by P.aeruginosa.

  18. Anaerobically controlled expression system derived from the arcDABC operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: application to lipase production.

    PubMed Central

    Winteler, H V; Schneidinger, B; Jaeger, K E; Haas, D

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobically inducible arcDABC operon encodes the enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Upon induction, the arcAB mRNAs and proteins reach high intracellular levels, because of a strong anaerobically controlled promoter and mRNA processing in arcD, leading to stable downstream transcripts. We explored the usefulness of this system for the construction of expression vectors. The lacZ gene of Escherichia coli was expressed to the highest levels when fused close to the arc promoter. Insertion of lacZ further downstream into arcA or arcB did not stabilize the intrinsically unstable lacZ mRNA. On the contrary, lacZ mRNA appeared to be a vulnerable endonuclease target destabilizing arcAB mRNAs in the 5'-to-3' direction in P. aeruginosa. The native arc promoter was modified for optional expression in the -10 sequence and in the -40 region, which is a binding site for the anaerobic regulator ANR. In P. aeruginosa grown either anaerobically or with oxygen limitation in unshaken cultures, this promoter was stronger than the induced tac promoter. The P. aeruginosa lipAH genes, which encode extracellular lipase and lipase foldase, respectively, were fused directly to the modified arc promoter in an IncQ vector plasmid. Semianaerobic static cultures of P. aeruginosa PAO1 carrying this recombinant plasmid overproduced extracellular lipase 30-fold during stationary phase compared with the production by strain PAO1 without the plasmid. Severe oxygen limitation, in contrast, resulted in poor lipase productivity despite effective induction of the ANR-dependent promoter, suggesting that secretion of active lipase is blocked by the absence of oxygen. In conclusion, the modified arc promoter is useful for driving the expression of cloned genes in P. aeruginosa during oxygen-limited growth and stationary phase. PMID:8795231

  19. Strategies for improved rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Jr, Nei; Freire, Denise M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants with potential for diversified industrial and environmental uses. The present study evaluated three strategies for increasing the production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1. The influence of pH, the addition of P. aeruginosa spent culture medium and the use of a fed-batch process were examined. The culture medium adjusted to pH 7.0 was the most productive. Furthermore, the pH of the culture medium had a measurable effect on the ratio of synthesized mono- and dirhamnolipids. At pH values below 7.3, the proportion of monorhamnolipids decreased from 45 to 24%. The recycling of 20% of the spent culture medium in where P. aeruginosa was grown up to the later stationary phase was responsible for a 100% increase in rhamnolipid volumetric productivity in the new culture medium. Finally, the use of fed-batch operation under conditions of limited nitrogen resulted in a 3.8-fold increase in the amount of rhamnolipids produced (2.9 g L−1–10.9 g L−1). These results offer promising pathways for the optimization of processes for the production of rhamnolipids. PMID:27257553

  20. Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-02-01

    The novel antimicrobial gallium is a nonredox iron III analogue with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, effective for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo in mouse and rabbit infection models. It interferes with iron metabolism, transport, and presumably its homeostasis. As gallium exerts its antimicrobial effects by competing with iron, we hypothesized that it ultimately will lead cells to an iron deficiency status. As iron deficiency promotes the expression of virulence factors in vitro and promotes the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in animal models, it is anticipated that treatment with gallium will also promote the production of virulence factors. To test this hypothesis, the reference strain PA14 and two clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were exposed to gallium, and their production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, elastase, alkaline protease, alginate, pyoverdine, and biofilm was determined. Gallium treatment induced the production of all the virulence factors tested in the three strains except for pyoverdine. In addition, as the Ga-induced virulence factors are quorum sensing controlled, co-administration of Ga and the quorum quencher brominated furanone C-30 was assayed, and it was found that C-30 alleviated growth inhibition from gallium. Hence, adding both C-30 and gallium may be more effective in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:24151196

  1. Mapping of mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa defective in pyoverdin production.

    PubMed Central

    Ankenbauer, R; Hanne, L F; Cox, C D

    1986-01-01

    Twelve mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO defective in pyoverdin production were isolated (after chemical and transposon mutagenesis) that were nonfluorescent and unable to grow on medium containing 400 microM ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). Four mutants were unable to produce hydroxamate, six were hydroxamate positive, one was temperature sensitive for pyoverdin production, and another was unable to synthesize pyoverdin on succinate minimal medium but was capable of synthesizing pyoverdin when grown on Casamino Acids medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). The mutations were mapped on the PAO chromosome. All the mutations affecting pyoverdin production were located at 65 to 70 min, between catA1 and mtu-9002. PMID:3087966

  2. Biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa FR using palm oil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando J S; Vazquez, Leonardo; De Campos, Norberto P; de França, Francisca P

    2006-03-01

    Biosurfactants production by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using palm oil as a sole carbon source was investigated. The experiments were carried out in 500-mL conical flasks containing 100 mL of mineral media supplemented with palm oil as the sole carbon source. The P. aeruginosa FR strain was able to reduce surface tension of three tested inorganic media. Rotation velocities from 100 to 150 rpm provided free-cell fermented media with the lowest surface tension of approx 33 mN/m. Emulsification index results of even 100% were achieved when diesel was used as oil phase. Eight surface-active compounds produced by the bacterium were identified by mass spectrometry. PMID:18563649

  3. Pel is a cationic exopolysaccharide that cross-links extracellular DNA in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Laura K.; Storek, Kelly M.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Coulon, Charlène; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Sadovskaya, Irina; Secor, Patrick R.; Tseng, Boo Shan; Scian, Michele; Filloux, Alain; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a complex, ordered process. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psl and Pel exopolysaccharides and extracellular DNA (eDNA) serve as structural components of the biofilm matrix. Despite intensive study, Pel’s chemical structure and spatial localization within mature biofilms remain unknown. Using specialized carbohydrate chemical analyses, we unexpectedly found that Pel is a positively charged exopolysaccharide composed of partially acetylated 1→4 glycosidic linkages of N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Guided by the knowledge of Pel’s sugar composition, we developed a tool for the direct visualization of Pel in biofilms by combining Pel-specific Wisteria floribunda lectin staining with confocal microscopy. The results indicate that Pel cross-links eDNA in the biofilm stalk via ionic interactions. Our data demonstrate that the cationic charge of Pel is distinct from that of other known P. aeruginosa exopolysaccharides and is instrumental in its ability to interact with other key biofilm matrix components. PMID:26311845

  4. Extracellular polysaccharide production by thraustochytrid protists.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ruchi; Raghukumar, Seshagiri; Tharanathan, R; Bhosle, N B

    2005-01-01

    Four strains of marine stramenopilan protists, the thraustochytrids, were studied for their ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). Observations by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed the production of a matrix of EPS around groups of cells in stationary cultures. EPS in shake culture filtrates ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 g/L. EPS production, which was studied in greater detail in 2 isolates, SC-1 and CW1, increased with age of cultures, reaching a peak in the stationary phase. Anion exchange chromatography yielded a single fraction of the EPS of both species. The EPS contained 39% to 53% sugars, besides proteins, lipids, uronic acids, and sulfates. Molecular weight of the EPS produced by SC-1 was approximately 94 kDa, and that of CW1, 320 kDa. Glucose formed the major component in the EPS of both isolates-galactose, mannose, and arabinose being the other components. Cultures of both isolates survived air-drying up to a period of 96 hours, suggesting a role for EPS in preventing desiccation of cells. PMID:15909227

  5. The rpoN gene product of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for expression of diverse genes, including the flagellin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Totten, P A; Lara, J C; Lory, S

    1990-01-01

    The product of the rpoN gene is an alternative sigma factor of RNA polymerase which is required for transcription of a number of genes in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including those that specify enzymes of nitrogen assimilation, amino acid uptake, and degradation of a variety of organic molecules. We have previously shown that transcription of the pilin gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa also requires RpoN (K. S. Ishimoto and S. Lory, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1954-1957, 1989) and have undertaken a more extensive survey of genes under RpoN control. Strains of P. aeruginosa that carry an insertionally inactivated rpoN gene were constructed and shown to be nonmotile because of the inability of these mutants to synthesize flagellin. The mutation in rpoN had no effect on expression of extracellular polypeptides, outer membrane proteins, and the alginate capsule. However, the rpoN mutants were glutamine auxotrophs and were defective in glutamine synthetase, indicating defects in nitrogen assimilation. In addition, the P. aeruginosa rpoN mutants were defective in urease activity. These findings indicate that the sigma factor encoded by the rpoN gene is used by P. aeruginosa for transcription of a diverse set of genes that specify biosynthetic enzymes, degradative enzymes, and surface components. These rpoN-controlled genes include pili and flagella which are required for full virulence of the organism. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2152909

  6. High-level expression of pseudolysin, the extracellular elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in Escherichia coli and its purification.

    PubMed

    Odunuga, Odutayo O; Adekoya, Olayiwola A; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2015-09-01

    Pseudolysin is the extracellular elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and belongs to the thermolysin-like family of metallopeptidases. Pseudolysin has been identified as a robust drug target and a biotechnologically important enzyme in the tanning industry. Previous attempts to purify active pseudolysin from P. aeruginosa or by expression in Escherichia coli yielded low quantities. Considerable expression and purification of secreted pseudolysin from Pichia pastoris has been reported but it is time-consuming and not cost-effective. We report the successful large-scale expression of pseudolysin in E. coli and purification of the correctly folded and active protein. The lasB gene that codes for the enzymatically active mature 33-kilodalton pseudolysin was expressed with a histidine tag under the control of the T7 promoter. Pseudolysin expressed highly in E. coli and was solubilized and purified in 8M urea by metal affinity chromatography. The protein was simultaneously further purified, refolded and buffer-exchanged on a preparative Superdex 200 column by a modified urea reverse-gradient size exclusion chromatography. Using this technique, precipitation of pseudolysin was completely eliminated. Refolded pseudolysin was found to be active as assessed by its ability to hydrolyze N-succinyl-ala-ala-ala-p-nitroanilide. The purification scheme yielded approximately 40 mg of pseudolysin per liter of expression culture and specific activity of 3.2U/mg of protein using N-succinyl-ala-ala-ala-p-nitroanilide as substrate. This approach provides a reproducible strategy for high-level expression and purification of active metallopeptidases and perhaps other inclusion body-forming and precipitation-prone proteins. PMID:25979480

  7. Genetics of Extracellular Protease Production in SACCHAROMYCOPSIS LIPOLYTICA

    PubMed Central

    Ogrydziak, David M.; Mortimer, Robert K.

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Saccharomycopsis lipolytica with reduced ability to produce zones of clearing on skim-milk agar plates were isolated and their properties studied. For 18 mutants it was possible to score unambiguously segregants of crosses between these mutants and wild type for extracellular protease production. These mutants all produce reduced levels of extracellular protease in liquid culture. The mutations are recessive and are in nuclear genes. The 18 mutations define 10 or 11 complementation groups, no two of which are closely linked. Mutants in four of the complementation groups also produced reduced levels of extracellular RNAse, and the reduced levels of extracellular protease and RNAse production segregate together. Five of the mutants exhibited reduced mating frequency, and one mutant was osmotic remedial for extracellular protease production. These results demonstrate that many genes can affect extracellular protease production. Besides mutations in the structural gene and in regulatory genes, mutations are likely to be in genes involved in steps common to the production of several extracellular enzymes or in genes coding for cell wall or membrane components necessary for extracellular enzyme production. PMID:17248782

  8. Purification and characterization of extracellular lipase from a new strain: Pseudomonas aeruginosa SRT 9

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Prita S.; Bodade, Ragini G.; Rao, Srinivasa R.; Khobragade, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    An extra cellular lipase was isolated and purified from the culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa SRT 9 to apparent homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by chromatographic techniques on phenyl Sepharose CL- 4B and Mono Q HR 5/5 column, resulting in a purification factor of 98 fold with specific activity of 12307.8 U/mg. The molecular weight of the purified lipase was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 29 kDa with isoelectric point of 4.5. Maximum lipase activity was observed in a wide range of temperature and pH values with optimum temperature of 55ºC and pH 6.9. The lipase preferably acted on triacylglycerols of long chain (C14-C16) fatty acids. The lipase was inhibited strongly by EDTA suggesting the enzyme might be metalloprotein. SDS and metal ions such as Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Fe2+ decreased the lipase activity remarkedly. Its marked stability and activity in organic solvents suggest that this lipase is highly suitable as a biotechnological tool with a variety of applications including organo synthetic reactions and preparation of enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals. The Km and Vmax value of the purified enzyme for triolein hydrolysis were calculated to be 1.11 mmol/L and 0.05 mmol/L/min respectively. PMID:24031373

  9. The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Boo Shan; Zhang, Wei; Harrison, Joe J.; Quach, Tam P.; Song, Jisun Lee; Penterman, Jon; Singh, Pradeep K.; Chopp, David L.; Packman, Aaron I.; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Biofilm cells are less susceptible to antimicrobials than their planktonic counterparts. While this phenomenon is multifactorial, the ability of the biofilm matrix to reduce antibiotic penetration into the biofilm is thought to be of limited importance, as previous studies suggest that antibiotics move fairly rapidly through biofilms. In this study, we monitored the transport of two clinically relevant antibiotics, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin, into non-mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms. To our surprise, we showed that the positively charged antibiotic tobramycin is sequestered to the biofilm periphery, while the neutral antibiotic ciprofloxacin readily penetrated. We provide evidence that tobramycin in the biofilm periphery both stimulated a localized stress response and killed bacteria in these regions, but not in the underlying biofilm. Although it is unclear which matrix component binds tobramycin, its penetration was increased by the addition of cations in a dose-dependent manner, which led to increased biofilm death. These data suggest that ionic interactions of tobramycin with the biofilm matrix limit its penetration. We propose that tobramycin sequestration at the biofilm periphery is an important mechanism in protecting metabolically active cells that lie just below the zone of sequestration. PMID:23751003

  10. The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Boo Shan; Zhang, Wei; Harrison, Joe J; Quach, Tam P; Song, Jisun Lee; Penterman, Jon; Singh, Pradeep K; Chopp, David L; Packman, Aaron I; Parsek, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    Biofilm cells are less susceptible to antimicrobials than their planktonic counterparts. While this phenomenon is multifactorial, the ability of the matrix to reduce antibiotic penetration into the biofilm is thought to be of limited importance studies suggest that antibiotics move fairly rapidly through biofilms. In this study, we monitored the transport of two clinically relevant antibiotics, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin, into non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. To our surprise, we found that the positively charged antibiotic tobramycin is sequestered to the biofilm periphery, while the neutral antibiotic ciprofloxacin readily penetrated. We provide evidence that tobramycin in the biofilm periphery both stimulated a localized stress response and killed bacteria in these regions but not in the underlying biofilm. Although it is unclear which matrix component binds tobramycin, its penetration was increased by the addition of cations in a dose-dependent manner, which led to increased biofilm death. These data suggest that ionic interactions of tobramycin with the biofilm matrix limit its penetration. We propose that tobramycin sequestration at the biofilm periphery is an important mechanism in protecting metabolically active cells that lie just below the zone of sequestration. PMID:23751003

  11. ORGANOHALIDE FORMATION ON CHLORINATION OF ALGAL EXTRACELLULAR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When certain chemical and physical parameters were controlled during chlorination of algal extracellular products (ECP), organohalide formation was modified. In general, decreases in temperature and contact time decreased the generation of purgeable (POX), nonpurgeable (NPOX), an...

  12. Pyocyanin Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Confers Resistance to Ionic Silver

    PubMed Central

    Merrett, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Silver in its ionic form (Ag+), but not the bulk metal (Ag0), is toxic to microbial life forms and has been used for many years in the treatment of wound infections. The prevalence of bacterial resistance to silver is considered low due to the nonspecific nature of its toxicity. However, the recent increased use of silver as an antimicrobial agent for medical, consumer, and industrial products has raised concern that widespread silver resistance may emerge. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen that produces pyocyanin, a redox toxin and a reductant for molecular oxygen and ferric (Fe3+) ions. The objective of this study was to determine whether pyocyanin reduces Ag+ to Ag0, which may contribute to silver resistance due to lower bioavailability of the cation. Using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, pyocyanin was confirmed to be a reductant for Ag+, forming Ag0 nanoparticles and reducing the bioavailability of free Ag+ by >95% within minutes. Similarly, a pyocyanin-producing strain of P. aeruginosa (PA14) reduced Ag+ but not a pyocyanin-deficient (ΔphzM) strain of the bacterium. Challenge of each strain with Ag+ (as AgNO3) gave MICs of 20 and 5 μg/ml for the PA14 and ΔphzM strains, respectively. Removal of pyocyanin from the medium strain PA14 was grown in or its addition to the medium that ΔphzM mutant was grown in gave MICs of 5 and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Clinical isolates demonstrated similar pyocyanin-dependent resistance to Ag+. We conclude that pseudomonal silver resistance exists independently of previously recognized intracellular mechanisms and may be more prevalent than previously considered. PMID:25001302

  13. Impact of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jonathan B; Scoffield, Jessica; Woolnough, Jessica L; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes life-long chronic infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung by utilizing various adaptation strategies. Some of these strategies include altering metabolic pathways to utilize readily available nutrients present in the host environment. The airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphatidylcholine, a major component of lung surfactant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade phosphatidylcholine to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of usable carbon sources in the CF lung. In this study, we show that some CF-adapted P. aeruginosa isolates utilize glycerol more efficiently as a carbon source than nonadapted isolates. Furthermore, a mutation in a gene required for glycerol utilization impacts the production of several virulence factors in both acute and chronic isolates of P. aeruginosa. Taken together, the results suggest that interference with this metabolic pathway may have potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:25409940

  14. Inhibition of superoxide anion production by extracellular acidification in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Murata, Naoya; Mogi, Chihiro; Tobo, Masayuki; Nakakura, Takashi; Sato, Koichi; Tomura, Hideaki; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular acidification inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe- or C5a-induced superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production in differentiated HL-60 neutrophil-like cells and human neutrophils. A cAMP-increasing agonist, prostaglandin E(1), also inhibited the formyl peptide-induced O(2)(-) production. The inhibitory action on the O(2)(-) production by extracellular acidic pH was associated with cAMP accumulation and partly attenuated by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. A significant amount of mRNAs for T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) and other proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1)-family receptors is expressed in these cells. These results suggest that cAMP/protein kinase A, possibly through proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, may be involved in extracellular acidic pH-induced inhibition of O(2)(-) production. PMID:19539899

  15. Enzymatic Production of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species by Marine Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. M.; Andeer, P. F.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as intermediates in a myriad of biogeochemically important processes, including cell signaling pathways, cellular oxidative stress responses, and the transformation of both nutrient and toxic metals such as iron and mercury. Abiotic reactions involving the photo-oxidation of organic matter were once considered the only important sources of ROS in the environment. However, the recent discovery of substantial biological ROS production in marine systems has fundamentally shifted this paradigm. Within the last few decades, marine phytoplankton, including diatoms of the genus Thalassiosira, were discovered to produce ample extracellular quantities of the ROS superoxide. Even more recently, we discovered widespread production of extracellular superoxide by phylogenetically and ecologically diverse heterotrophic bacteria at environmentally significant levels (up to 20 amol cell-1 hr-1), which has introduced the revolutionary potential for substantial "dark" cycling of ROS. Despite the profound biogeochemical importance of extracellular biogenic ROS, the cellular mechanisms underlying the production of this ROS have remained elusive. Through the development of a gel-based assay to identify extracellular ROS-producing proteins, we have recently found that enzymes typically involved in antioxidant activity also produce superoxide when molecular oxygen is the only available electron acceptor. For example, large (~3600 amino acids) heme peroxidases are involved in extracellular superoxide production by a bacterium within the widespread Roseobacter clade. In Thalassiosira spp., extracellular superoxide is produced by flavoproteins such as glutathione reductase and ferredoxin NADP+ reductase. Thus, extracellular ROS production may occur via secreted and/or cell surface enzymes that modulate between producing and degrading ROS depending on prevailing geochemical and/or ecological conditions.

  16. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3) improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL) produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain p

  17. The macrophage chemotactic activity of Edwardsiella tarda extracellular products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemoattractant capabilities of Edwardsiella tarda extracellular products (ECP) were investigated from two isolates, the virulent FL6-60 parent and less virulent RET-04 mutant. Chemotaxis and chemokinesis were assayed in vitro using blind well chambers with peritoneal macrophages obtained from ...

  18. Antimicrobial effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on survivability and recovery of Campylobacter jejuni on poultry products.

    PubMed

    Davis, M A; Conner, D E

    2007-04-01

    Three types of poultry products representing differences in skin coverage were tested to determine the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to inhibit growth of Campylobacter jejuni. Processed ready-to-cook poultry carcasses were obtained from the Poultry Research Unit at Auburn University and were not subjected to any treatment to reduce or eliminate the native microflora on the carcasses. Carcasses were cut into wing sections (drumette, flat, tip), split breast pieces (with and without bone), and boneless, skinless breast pieces. Equal numbers of the 3 product types were subjected to 1 of 6 treatments: 1) uninoculated, 2) C. jejuni only, 3) P. aeruginosa type 1 only, 4) P. aeruginosa type 2 only, 5) C. jejuni + P. aeruginosa type 1, or 6) C. jejuni + P. aeruginosa type 2. Products were inoculated at 10(4) to 10(5) cfu. Postinoculation, equal numbers of product type were also subjected to the following: 1) aerobic or vacuum packaging, 2) storage temperature of 4 or 10 degrees C, and 3) storage of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 d. Products were sampled after storage duration to determine the population of C. jejuni and P. aeruginosa. Individual pieces were rinsed with 50 mL of buffered peptone water. The recovered rinse was used to make appropriate dilutions and spiral plated onto Campy-Cefex and Pseudomonas P agars. Campy-Cefex plates were incubated microaerophilically at 42 degrees C for 48 h, whereas Pseudomonas P plates were incubated aerobically at 37 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. Random suspect colonies on Campy-Cefex plates were confirmed by cell morphology when viewed under microscopic examination. Suspect colonies on Pseudomonas P plates produced a blue color in the medium indicative of glycerol reduction. At both 4 and 10 degrees C, neither type of P. aeruginosa inhibited the growth or survival of C. jejuni compared to plates that were inoculated with C. jejuni only. PMID:17369550

  19. Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Grown on Cashew Apple Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Maria V. P.; Souza, Maria C. M.; Benedicto, Sofia C. L.; Bezerra, Márcio S.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Saavedra Pinto, Gustavo A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    In this work, the ability of biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in batch cultivation using cashew apple juice (CAJ) and mineral media was evaluated. P. aeruginosa was cultivated in CAJ, which was supplemented with peptone (5.0 g/L) and nutritive broth. All fermentation assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 300 mL, incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm. Cell growth (biomass and cell density), pH, and superficial tension were monitored vs time. Surface tension was reduced by 10.58 and 41% when P. aeruginosa was cultivated in nutrient broth and CAJ supplemented with peptone, respectively. These results indicated that CAJ is an adequate medium for growth and biosurfactant production. Best results of biosurfactant production were obtained when CAJ was supplemented with peptone.

  20. PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR GUANOSINE-5'-MONOPHOSPHATE BY BACILLUS SUBTILIS

    PubMed Central

    Demain, A. L.; Miller, I. M.; Hendlin, D.

    1964-01-01

    Demain, A. L. (Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, N.J.), I. M. Miller, and D. Hendlin. Production of extracellular guanosine-5'-monophosphate by Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 88:991–995. 1964.—Wild-type Bacillus subtilis colonies were found to feed purineless mutants. A strain with high feeding capacity was selected for study, with a guanineless mutant of B. subtilis used as the assay organism. The factor was excreted during its growth phase in a complex medium containing starch and soybean meal extract. Nutritional studies led to the development of a defined medium to be used for biochemical studies and to aid in the isolation of the factor. Starch was replaced by maltose and the soybean meal extract by Mn++. Production of the factor was sensitive to the pH of the medium during growth. Practically its entire extracellular accumulation occurred before visible lysis. The factor was identified as guanosine-5'-monophosphate derived by extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of excreted ribonucleic acid. PMID:14219064

  1. Quantification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa hydrogen cyanide production by a polarographic approach.

    PubMed

    Blier, Anne-Sophie; Vieillard, Julien; Gerault, Eloïse; Dagorn, Audrey; Varacavoudin, Tony; Le Derf, Franck; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for numerous infections acquired in hospital especially in persons whose immune systems are weakened, such as with patient suffering from AIDS or cystic fibrosis. This bacterium produces a great diversity of virulence factors among them hydrogen cyanide (HCN) which is one of the most potent and toxic. A precise quantification of HCN or CN(-) ion is essential to understand the involvement of this toxin in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. In the present study, we present a new technique based on a polarographic approach to measure the production kinetics of HCN/CN(-) by P. aeruginosa strains, in several media commonly used in microbiology labs. The method was validated using mutants (hcnB- and hcnC-) which are unable to produce detectable HCN/CN(-). The kinetics of HCN/CN(-) production by P. aeruginosa in Luria Bertani (LB) medium showed a parabolic shape with a peak observed at 4, 5 and 8h for strains PA14, PAO1 and MPAO1, respectively. When bacteria were grown in ordinary nutrient broth (ONB) 2.5% medium, a less adapted medium for bacterial growth, the general profile of the kinetics was conserved but peak production was delayed (10 and 12h for PAO1 and MPAO1, respectively). When the bacteria were cultured in minimum medium MMC, bacterial growth was particularly slow and HCN/CN(-) production was markedly reduced. Taken together, this new polarographic method appears as a useful technique to detect and quantify HCN/CN(-) in routine media where the bacteria can express and regulate high amounts of toxins. With this method, we demonstrate that HCN/CN(-) production by P. aeruginosa is maximal at the end of the exponential growth phase and depends on the richness of the growth medium used. PMID:22537820

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus enhances elastase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen; Rajendran, Ranjith; Kerr, Stephen; Lappin, David F; Mackay, William G; Williams, Craig; Ramage, Gordon

    2015-09-01

    In the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung the presence of bacteria and fungi in the airways promotes an inflammatory response causing progressive lung damage, ultimately leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that polymicrobial interactions play an important role in promoting airway pathogenesis. We therefore examined the interplay between the most commonly isolated bacterial CF pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the most prevalent filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, to test this. Co-culture experiments showed that in the presence of A. fumigatus the production of P. aeruginosa elastase was enhanced. This was confirmed by the presence of zones of clearance on Elastin-Congo Red (ECR) agar, which was identified as elastase by mass spectrometry. When P. aeruginosa were grown in a co-culture model with mature A. fumigatus biofilms, 60% of isolates produced significantly more elastase in the presence of the filamentous fungi than in its absence (P < .05). The expression of lasB also increased when P. aeruginosa isolates PA01 and PA14 were grown in co-culture with A. fumigatus. Supernatants from co-culture experiments were also significantly toxic to a human lung epithelial cell line (19-38% cell cytotoxicity) in comparison to supernatants from P. aeruginosa only cultures (P < .0001). Here we report that P. aeruginosa cytotoxic elastase is enhanced in the presence of the filamentous fungi A. fumigatus, suggesting that this may have a role to play in the damaging pathology associated with the lung tissue in this disease. This indicates that patients who have a co-colonisation with these two organisms may have a poorer prognosis. PMID:26162475

  3. ZnO nanoparticles inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence factor production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-12-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of virulence factors, and biofilms of this bacterium are much more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. Thirty-six metal ions have been investigated to identify antivirulence and antibiofilm metal ions. Zinc ions and ZnO nanoparticles were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation and the production of pyocyanin, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), pyochelin, and hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa without affecting the growth of planktonic cells. Transcriptome analyses showed that ZnO nanoparticles induce the zinc cation efflux pump czc operon and several important transcriptional regulators (porin gene opdT and type III repressor ptrA), but repress the pyocyanin-related phz operon, which explains observed phenotypic changes. A mutant study showed that the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on the control of pyocyanin production and biofilm formation require the czc regulator CzcR. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles markedly increased the cellular hydrophilicity of P. aeruginosa cells. Our results support that ZnO nanoparticles are potential antivirulence materials against recalcitrant P. aeruginosa infections and possibly other important pathogens. PMID:24958247

  4. Enhanced production of extracellular ice nucleators from Erwinia herbicola.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingkun; Lee, Tung-Ching

    1998-12-01

    The effects of growth conditions and chemical or physical treatments on the production of extracellular ice nucleators (ECINs) by Erwinia herbicola cells were investigated. The spontaneous release of ECINs, active at temperatures higher than -4 degrees C, into the environment depended on culture conditions, with optimal production when cells were grown in yeast extract to an early stationary phase at temperatures below 22 degrees C. ECINs were vesicular, released from cell surfaces with sizes ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 &mgr;m as determined by ultrafiltration and transmission electron microscopy. Protein profiles of ECIN fractions during bacterial growth were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and Ina proteins were detected by Western blotting. ECIN production was enhanced 5-fold when cells were treated with EDTA and 20- to 30-fold when subjected to sonication. These conditions provide a means for large-scale preparationage> ECINs by E. herbicola. PMID:12501408

  5. Extracellular matrix production in vitro in cartilage tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is arising as a technique for the repair of cartilage lesions in clinical applications. However, fibrocartilage formation weakened the mechanical functions of the articular, which compromises the clinical outcomes. Due to the low proliferation ability, dedifferentiation property and low production of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) of the chondrocytes, the cartilage synthesis in vitro has been one of the major limitations for obtaining high-quality engineered cartilage constructs. This review discusses cells, biomaterial scaffolds and stimulating factors that can facilitate the cartilage-specific ECM production and accumulation in the in vitro culture system. Special emphasis has been put on the factors that affect the production of ECM macromolecules such as collagen type II and proteoglycans in the review, aiming at providing new strategies to improve the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage. PMID:24708713

  6. Valuable ingredients and feed toxicity evaluation of Microcystis aeruginosa acidolysis product in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Shiqun; Zhou, Qing; Xu, Yudi; Vanogtrop, Floris; Guo, Qijin; Liu, Guofeng; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    This research studied the extraction from Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrochloric acid method as a potentially valuable protein resource from eutrophic lakes. Amino acid composition, residual algal toxins, and heavy metals of the acidolysis product were studied. After 18 h of hydrochloric acid treatment, the product of M. aeruginosa contained 17 amino acids, 51.34% of total amino acid requirements, and 30.25% of the livestock and poultry essential amino acid (Eaa). The residual microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was 0.94 µg kg(-1), which was less than WHO drinking water limit of microcystins. The removal ratio of microcystins was higher than 99.99% during the process of hydrolysis. The concentration of heavy metals of the product was in compliance with feed standards. Furthermore, using Horn's method, Mouse Micronucleus Test and Sperm Shape Abnormality Test were conducted to study the forage safety of the product. Half lethal dose (LD50) of acidolysis product in mice was >9.09 g kg(-1) body weight, actually belonging to non-toxic grade. Every dose treatment did not significantly increase activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). The results of both micronucleus test and sperm shape abnormality test were negative, which suggested the product with no mutagenicity and sperm malformation effects. This study indicated that the acidolysis product of M. aeruginosa was safe to be used as a feed ingredient. PMID:25649189

  7. The role of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa anthranilate synthases in tryptophan and quorum signal production

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Gregory C.; Jorth, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in the lungs of individuals with the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Density-dependent production of toxic factors regulated by the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone; PQS) have been proposed to be involved in P. aeruginosa virulence. PQS biosynthesis requires conversion of the central metabolite chorismate to anthranilate by anthranilate synthase. This reaction is also the first step in tryptophan biosynthesis. P. aeruginosa possesses two functional anthranilate synthases, TrpEG and PhnAB, and these enzymes are not functionally redundant, as trpEG mutants are tryptophan auxotrophs but produce PQS while mutants in phnAB are tryptophan prototrophs but do not produce PQS in minimal media. The goal of the work described in this paper was to determine the mechanism for this lack of functional complementation of TrpEG and PhnAB. Our results reveal that overexpression of either enzyme compensates for tryptophan auxotrophy and PQS production in the trpEG and phnAB mutants respectively, leading to the hypothesis that differential regulation of these genes is responsible for the lack of functional complementation. In support of this hypothesis, trpEG was shown to be expressed primarily during low-density growth while phnAB was expressed primarily at high density. Furthermore, dysregulation of phnAB expression eliminated tryptophan auxotrophy in the P. aeruginosa trpEG mutant. Based on these data, we propose a model for anthranilate sequestration by differential transcriptional regulation of the two P. aeruginosa anthranilate synthase enzymes. PMID:23449919

  8. Widespread Production of Extracellular Superoxide by Heterotrophic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Julia M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Voelker, Bettina M.; Mendes, Chantal M.; Andeer, Peter F.; Zhang, Tong

    2013-06-01

    Superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) originate from several natural sources and profoundly influence numerous elemental cycles, including carbon and trace metals. In the deep ocean, the permanent absence of light precludes currently known ROS sources, yet ROS production mysteriously occurs. Here, we show that taxonomically and ecologically diverse heterotrophic bacteria from aquatic and terrestrial environments are a vast, unrecognized, and light-independent source of superoxide, and perhaps other ROS derived from superoxide. Superoxide production by a model bacterium within the ubiquitous Roseobacter clade involves an extracellular oxidoreductase that is stimulated by the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), suggesting a surprising homology with eukaryotic organisms. The consequences of ROS cycling in immense aphotic zones representing key sites of nutrient regeneration and carbon export must now be considered, including potential control of carbon remineralization and metal bioavailability.

  9. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) during chlorination of two algae species--Blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Liu, Jinjin; Yang, Mingli; Ma, Hongfang; Yuan, Baoling; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) commonly blooms in summer and Cyclotella meneghiniana (diatom) outbreaks in fall in the reservoirs that serve as drinking water sources in Southeast China. Herein, an evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) from them during chlorination should be conducted. Five DBPs including trichloromethane (TCM), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were monitored. The formation potential of TCM and TCNM was enhanced with the increase of reaction time and chlorine dosage, whereas that of DCAN, 1,1-DCP and 1,1,1-TCP increased first and then fell with continuing reaction time. M. aeruginosa showed higher DBPFP than C. meneghiniana, the yield of DBPs varied with components of algal cells. The DBPFP order from components of M. aeruginosa was cell suspension (CS) ≈ intracellular organic matter (IOM) > extracellular organic matter (EOM) > cell debris (CD), which indicated that IOM was the main DBP precursors for M. aeruginosa. The yields of DBPs from components of C. meneghiniana were in the order of CS>IOM≈ CD ≈ EOM, suggesting that three components made similar contributions to the total DBP formation. The amount of IOM with higher DBPFP leaked from both algae species increased with the chlorine dosage, indicating that chlorine dosage should be considered carefully in the treatment of eutrophic water for less destroying of the cell integrity. Though fluorescence substances contained in both algae species varied significantly, the soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic protein-like substances were the main cellular components that contributed to DBP formation for both algae. PMID:26100733

  10. Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

    2013-11-01

    This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90%, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75% in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin. PMID:23653319

  11. Production and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Candida guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anne Caroline Defranceschi; Fernandes, Maria Luiza; Mariano, André Bellin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular lipases from the endophytic yeast Candida guilliermondii isolated from castor leaves (Ricinus communis L.) were produced using low-cost raw materials such as agro-industrial residues and applying them in the esterification of oleic acid for evaluating their potential use in biodiesel production. After partial purification using ammonium sulfate, the enzyme was characterized and presented higher activity (26.8 ± 1.5 U mL(-1)) in the presence of 5 mmol L(-1) NaCl at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The production through submerged fermentation was formerly performed in 150 mL erlenmeyer flasks and, once the enzyme production was verified, assays in a 14 L bioreactor were conducted, obtaining 18 ± 1.4 U mL(-1). The produced enzyme was applied in the oleic acid esterification under different solvents: hexane, cyclohexane or cyclohexanone) and different acid:alcohol molar ratios. Higher ester conversion rate (81%) was obtained using hexane and the molar ratio of 1:9 was the best conditions using methanol. The results suggest the potential for development of endophytic yeast in the production of biocatalyst through submerged fermentation using agroindustrial residues as culture medium. PMID:25763060

  12. Production and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Anne Caroline Defranceschi; Fernandes, Maria Luiza; Mariano, André Bellin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular lipases from the endophytic yeast Candida guilliermondii isolated from castor leaves (Ricinus communis L.) were produced using low-cost raw materials such as agro-industrial residues and applying them in the esterification of oleic acid for evaluating their potential use in biodiesel production. After partial purification using ammonium sulfate, the enzyme was characterized and presented higher activity (26.8 ± 1.5 U mL−1) in the presence of 5 mmol L−1 NaCl at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The production through submerged fermentation was formerly performed in 150 mL erlenmeyer flasks and, once the enzyme production was verified, assays in a 14 L bioreactor were conducted, obtaining 18 ± 1.4 U mL−1. The produced enzyme was applied in the oleic acid esterification under different solvents: hexane, cyclohexane or cyclohexanone) and different acid:alcohol molar ratios. Higher ester conversion rate (81%) was obtained using hexane and the molar ratio of 1:9 was the best conditions using methanol. The results suggest the potential for development of endophytic yeast in the production of biocatalyst through submerged fermentation using agroindustrial residues as culture medium. PMID:25763060

  13. Cell-to-cell signaling and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed Central

    Van Delden, C.; Iglewski, B. H.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium responsible for severe nosocomial infections, life-threatening infections in immunocompromised persons, and chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The bacterium's virulence depends on a large number of cell-associated and extracellular factors. Cell-to-cell signaling systems control the expression and allow a coordinated, cell-density-dependent production of many extracellular virulence factors. We discuss the possible role of cell-to-cell signaling in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections and present a rationale for targeting cell-to-cell signaling systems in the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:9866731

  14. A novel technique using potassium permanganate and reflectance confocal microscopy to image biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix reveals non-eDNA networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Swearingen, Matthew C; Mehta, Ajeet; Mehta, Amar; Nistico, Laura; Hill, Preston J; Falzarano, Anthony R; Wozniak, Daniel J; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Stoodley, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms are etiologically important in the development of chronic medical and dental infections. The biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) determines biofilm structure and allows bacteria in biofilms to adapt to changes in mechanical loads such as fluid shear. However, EPS components are difficult to visualize microscopically because of their low density and molecular complexity. Here, we tested potassium permanganate, KMnO4, for use as a non-specific EPS contrast-enhancing stain using confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflectance mode. We demonstrate that KMnO4 reacted with EPS components of various strains of Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, yielding brown MnO2 precipitate deposition on the EPS, which was quantifiable using data from the laser reflection detector. Furthermore, the MnO2 signal could be quantified in combination with fluorescent nucleic acid staining. COMSTAT image analysis indicated that KMnO4 staining increased the estimated biovolume over that determined by nucleic acid staining alone for all strains tested, and revealed non-eDNA EPS networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. In vitro and in vivo testing indicated that KMnO4 reacted with poly-N-acetylglucosamine and Pseudomonas Pel polysaccharide, but did not react strongly with DNA or alginate. KMnO4 staining may have application as a research tool and for diagnostic potential for biofilms in clinical samples. PMID:26536894

  15. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Amanda L.; Sims, James W.; Fullmer, Alexis; Ellison, Serena; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as increased yields or the generation of new metabolites from otherwise silent genes in addition to reducing or limiting the production of undesirable metabolites. In this paper, we discuss the metabolic profiles of a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of a number of potential chemical epigenetic regulators, adjusting carbon sources and co-culturing with other microbes to induce a competitive response. As a result of these stressors certain groups of antibiotics or antimalarial agents were increased most notably when treating P. aeruginosa with sceptrin and co-culturing with another Pseudomonas sp. An interesting cross-talking event between these two Pseudomonas species when cultured together and exposed to sceptrin was observed. PMID:23563743

  16. Efficient production and enhanced tumor delivery of engineered extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Watson, Dionysios C; Bayik, Defne; Srivatsan, Avinash; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Valentin, Antonio; Niu, Gang; Bear, Jenifer; Monninger, Mitchell; Sun, Mei; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Jones, Jennifer C; Felber, Barbara K; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Gursel, Ihsan; Pavlakis, George N

    2016-10-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes and microvesicles, are nano-sized intercellular communication vehicles that participate in a multitude of physiological processes. Due to their biological properties, they are also promising candidates for the systemic delivery of therapeutic compounds, such as cytokines, chemotherapeutic drugs, siRNAs and viral vectors. However, low EV production yield and rapid clearance of administered EV by liver macrophages limit their potential use as therapeutic vehicles. We have used a hollow-fiber bioreactor for the efficient production of bioactive EV bearing the heterodimeric cytokine complex Interleukin-15:Interleukin-15 receptor alpha. Bioreactor culture yielded ∼40-fold more EV per mL conditioned medium, as compared to conventional cell culture. Biophysical analysis and comparative proteomics suggested a more diverse population of EV in the bioreactor preparations, while serum protein contaminants were detectable only in conventional culture EV preparations. We also identified the Scavenger Receptor Class A family (SR-A) as a novel monocyte/macrophage uptake receptor for EV. In vivo blockade of SR-A with dextran sulfate dramatically decreased EV liver clearance in mice, while enhancing tumor accumulation. These findings facilitate development of EV therapeutic methods. PMID:27522254

  17. Antigenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae extracellular products and vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pasnik, D J; Evans, J J; Panangala, V S; Klesius, P H; Shelby, R A; Shoemaker, C A

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major bacterial pathogen that is the cause of serious economic losses in many species of freshwater, marine and estuarine fish worldwide. A highly efficacious S. agalactiae vaccine was developed using extracellular products (ECP) and formalin-killed whole cells of S. agalactiae. The vaccine efficacy following storage of S. agalactiae ECP and formalin-killed S. agalactiae cells at 4 degrees C for 1 year was determined. The stored ECP containing S. agalactiae formalin-killed cells failed to prevent morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated fish, and the relative percentage survival was 29. Serum antibody responses of the stored ECP and freshly prepared ECP against soluble whole cell extract of S. agalactiae indicated that significantly less antibody was produced in fish immunized with stored ECP and S. agalactiae cells than in those fish immunized with freshly prepared ECP and S. agalactiae cells at day 31 post-vaccination. Silver staining of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels and immunostaining of Western blots with tilapia antiserum to S. agalactiae revealed that predominant 54 and 55 kDa bands were present in the freshly prepared ECP fraction. The 55 kDa band was absent from the stored ECP and new bands below 54 kDa appeared on the Western blot. The results of this study on S. agalactiae ECP provide evidence for a correlation between protection and antibody production to ECP and for the importance of the 55 kDa ECP antigen for vaccine efficacy. PMID:15813862

  18. Production of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Growing Onion Bulbs Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa E (HQ324110)

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed H.; Bashandy, Shymaa R.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it may be produced by plants and act as defence system. Pantolactone and myristic acid were selected to explore their effects on growth and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exogenous application of pantolactone and myristic acid significantly inhibited pyocyanin production, protease, and lipase and polygalacturonase activity but did not have any significant effects on bacterial growth. The inhibition of virulence factors without reduction in bacterial growth may be providing strong support that these chemical molecules are general quorum sensing inhibitors than an antibacterial effect. Disruption of quorum sensing of pathogen indicates that this new approach has potential in fighting bacterial infections in human and plants. PMID:23724316

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Persistence, along with the Production of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Virulence Factors, Are Disrupted by a Triterpenoid Coumarate Ester Isolated from Dalbergia trichocarpa, a Tropical Legume

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Laurent; Huet, Joelle; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; El Jaziri, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extracts of Dalbergia trichocarpa bark have been shown to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms, which are key regulators of virulence factor expression and implicated in biofilm formation. One of the active compounds has been isolated and identified as oleanolic aldehyde coumarate (OALC), a novel bioactive compound that inhibits the formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and its maintenance as well as the expression of the las and rhl QS systems. Consequently, the production of QS-controlled virulence factors including, rhamnolipids, pyocyanin, elastase and extracellular polysaccharides as well as twitching and swarming motilities is reduced. Native acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) production is inhibited by OALC but exogenous supply of AHLs does not restore the production of virulence factors by OALC-treated cultures, indicating that OALC exerts its effect beyond AHLs synthesis in the QS pathways. Further experiments provided a significant inhibition of the global virulence factor activator gacA by OALC. OALC disorganizes established biofilm structure and improves the bactericidal activity of tobramycin against biofilm-encapsulated PAO1 cells. Finally, a significant reduction of Caenorhabditis elegans paralysis was recorded when the worms were infected with OALC-pre-treated P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these results show that triterpenoid coumarate esters are suitable chemical backbones to target P. aeruginosa virulence mechanisms. PMID:26186595

  20. Coordination of Swarming Motility, Biosurfactant Synthesis, and Biofilm Matrix Exopolysaccharide Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Shan; Zhang, Zhenyin; Wei, Qing; Yan, Lu; Ai, Guomin; Liu, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a complex process in which many factors are involved. Bacterial swarming motility and exopolysaccharides both contribute to biofilm formation, yet it is unclear how bacteria coordinate swarming motility and exopolysaccharide production. Psl and Pel are two key biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This opportunistic pathogen has three types of motility, swimming, twitching, and swarming. In this study, we found that elevated Psl and/or Pel production reduced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa but had little effect on swimming and twitching. The reduction was due to decreased rhamnolipid production with no relation to the transcription of rhlAB, two key genes involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids. Rhamnolipid-negative rhlR and rhlAB mutants synthesized more Psl, whereas exopolysaccharide-deficient strains exhibited a hyperswarming phenotype. These results suggest that competition for common sugar precursors catalyzed by AlgC could be a tactic for P. aeruginosa to balance the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and rhamnolipids and to control bacterial motility and biofilm formation inversely because the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids, Psl, and Pel requires AlgC to provide the sugar precursors and an additional algC gene enhances the biosynthesis of Psl and rhamnolipids. In addition, our data indicate that the increase in RhlI/RhlR expression attenuated Psl production. This implied that the quorum-sensing signals could regulate exopolysaccharide biosynthesis indirectly in bacterial communities. In summary, this study represents a mechanism that bacteria utilize to coordinate swarming motility, biosurfactant synthesis, and biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide production, which is critical for biofilm formation and bacterial survival in the environment. PMID:25172852

  1. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms. PMID:25464282

  2. Kinetic modeling of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including cell density-dependent regulation.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24770383

  3. C-type natriuretic peptide modulates quorum sensing molecule and toxin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Blier, Anne-Sophie; Veron, Wilfried; Bazire, Alexis; Gerault, Eloïse; Taupin, Laure; Vieillard, Julien; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Le Derf, Franck; Orange, Nicole; Hulen, Christian; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates its virulence expression and establishment in the host in response to modification of its environment. During the infectious process, bacteria are exposed to and can detect eukaryotic products including hormones. It has been shown that P. aeruginosa is sensitive to natriuretic peptides, a family of eukaryotic hormones, through a cyclic nucleotide-dependent sensor system that modulates its cytotoxicity. We observed that pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) increases the capacity of the bacteria to kill Caenorhabditis elegans through diffusive toxin production. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) did not affect the capacity of the bacteria to kill C. elegans. The bacterial production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was enhanced by both BNP and CNP whereas the production of phenazine pyocyanin was strongly inhibited by CNP. The amount of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), a precursor to 2-heptyl-3-hydroxyl-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; PQS), decreased after CNP treatment. The quantity of 2-nonyl-4-quinolone (HNQ), another quinolone which is synthesized from HHQ, was also reduced after CNP treatment. Conversely, both BNP and CNP significantly enhanced bacterial production of acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) [e.g. 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) and butanoylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL)]. These results correlate with an induction of lasI transcription 1 h after bacterial exposure to BNP or CNP. Concurrently, pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with either BNP or CNP enhanced PAO1 exotoxin A production, via a higher toxA mRNA level. At the same time, CNP led to elevated amounts of algC mRNA, indicating that algC is involved in C. elegans killing. Finally, we observed that in PAO1, Vfr protein is essential to the pro-virulent effect of CNP whereas the regulator PtxR supports only a part of the CNP pro-virulent activity. Taken together, these data reinforce the hypothesis that during

  4. C-type natriuretic peptide modulates quorum sensing molecule and toxin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Blier, Anne-Sophie; Veron, Wilfried; Bazire, Alexis; Gerault, Eloïse; Taupin, Laure; Vieillard, Julien; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Le Derf, Franck; Orange, Nicole; Hulen, Christian; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates its virulence expression and establishment in the host in response to modification of its environment. During the infectious process, bacteria are exposed to and can detect eukaryotic products including hormones. It has been shown that P. aeruginosa is sensitive to natriuretic peptides, a family of eukaryotic hormones, through a cyclic nucleotide-dependent sensor system that modulates its cytotoxicity. We observed that pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) increases the capacity of the bacteria to kill Caenorhabditis elegans through diffusive toxin production. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) did not affect the capacity of the bacteria to kill C. elegans. The bacterial production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was enhanced by both BNP and CNP whereas the production of phenazine pyocyanin was strongly inhibited by CNP. The amount of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), a precursor to 2-heptyl-3-hydroxyl-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; PQS), decreased after CNP treatment. The quantity of 2-nonyl-4-quinolone (HNQ), another quinolone which is synthesized from HHQ, was also reduced after CNP treatment. Conversely, both BNP and CNP significantly enhanced bacterial production of acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) [e.g. 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) and butanoylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL)]. These results correlate with an induction of lasI transcription 1 h after bacterial exposure to BNP or CNP. Concurrently, pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with either BNP or CNP enhanced PAO1 exotoxin A production, via a higher toxA mRNA level. At the same time, CNP led to elevated amounts of algC mRNA, indicating that algC is involved in C. elegans killing. Finally, we observed that in PAO1, Vfr protein is essential to the pro-virulent effect of CNP whereas the regulator PtxR supports only a part of the CNP pro-virulent activity. Taken together, these data reinforce the hypothesis that during

  5. Nitrite Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Released by Antimicrobial Agents and Complement Induces Interleukin-8 Production in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sar, Borann; Oishi, Kazunori; Wada, Akihiro; Hirayama, Toshiya; Matsushima, Kouji; Nagatake, Tsuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    We have recently reported that nitrite reductase, a bifunctional enzyme located in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) generation in a variety of respiratory cells, including bronchial epithelial cells (K. Oishi et al. Infect. Immun. 65:2648–2655, 1997). In this report, we examined the mode of nitrite reductase (PNR) release from a serum-sensitive strain of live P. aeruginosa cells during in vitro treatment with four different antimicrobial agents or human complement. Bacterial killing of P. aeruginosa by antimicrobial agents induced PNR release and mediated IL-8 production in human bronchial epithelial (BET-1A) cells. Among these agents, imipenem demonstrated rapid killing of P. aeruginosa as well as rapid release of PNR and resulted in the highest IL-8 production. Complement-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa was also associated with PNR release and enhanced IL-8 production. The immunoprecipitates of the aliquots of bacterial culture containing imipenem or complement with anti-PNR immunoglobulin G (IgG) induced a twofold-higher IL-8 production than did the immunoprecipitates of the aliquots of bacterial culture with a control IgG. These pieces of evidence confirmed that PNR released in the aliquots of bacterial culture was responsible for IL-8 production in the BET-1A cells. Furthermore, the culture supernatants of the BET-1A cells stimulated with aliquots of bacterial culture containing antimicrobial agents or complement similarly mediated neutrophil migration in vitro. These data support the possibility that a potent inducer of IL-8, PNR, could be released from P. aeruginosa after exposure to antimicrobial agents or complement and contributes to neutrophil migration in the airways during bronchopulmonary infections with P. aeruginosa. PMID:10103183

  6. Biofilm Formation and β-Lactamase Production in Burn Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Samira; Eftekhar, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen characterized by its innate resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Plasmid-mediated drug resistance also occurs by the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), metallo β-lactamases (MBL), and AmpC β-lactamases. Another important factor for establishment of chronic infections by P. aeruginosa is biofilm formation mediated by the psl gene cluster. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation and presence of the pslA gene in burn isolates of P. aeruginosa as well as the association of antibiotic resistance, MBL, ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase production with biofilm formation among the isolates. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two burn isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran from August to October 2011. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion assay. MBL, AmpC and ESBL production were screened using the double disc synergy test, AmpC disc test and combined disc diffusion assay, respectively. The potential to form biofilm was measured using the microtiter plate assay and pslA gene was detected using specific primers and PCR. Results: Biofilm formation was observed in 43.5% of the isolates, of which 66.7% produced strong and 33.3% formed weak biofilms. All biofilm-positive and 14.2% of biofilm-negative isolates harbored the pslA gene. MBL, AmpC and ESBL production were significantly higher in the biofilm-positive isolates (70.3%, 62.9% and 33.3%, respectively) compared to the biofilm-negative strains (31.4%, 34.2% and 20%, respectively). Overall, 19 isolates (30.6%) co-produced MBL and AmpC, among which the majority were biofilm-positive (63.1%). Finally, four isolates (6.4%) had all three enzymes, of which 3 (75%) produced biofilm. Conclusions: Biofilm formation (both strong and weak) strongly correlated with pslA gene carriage. Biofilm formation also correlated with MBL and AmpC

  7. Enhancing the Feasibility of Microcystis aeruginosa as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production under the Influence of Various Factors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Moon Geon; Seo, Hyo Jin; Shin, Jin Hyuk; Shin, Tai Sun; Yoon, Yang Ho; Kim, Min Yong; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jong Deog

    2016-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater microalga, is capable of producing and accumulating different types of sugars in its biomass which make it a good feedstock for bioethanol production. Present study aims to investigate the effect of different factors increasing growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa. MF media (modified BG11 media) and additional ingredients such as aminolevulinic acid (2 mM), lysine (2.28 mM), alanine (1 mM), and Naphthalene acetic acid (1 mM) as cytokine promoted M. aeruginosa growth and sugar contents. Salmonella showed growth-assisting effect on M. aeruginosa. Enhanced growth rate and carbohydrates contents were observed in M. aeruginosa culture grown at 25°C under red LED light of 90 μmolm(-2)s(-1) intensity. More greenish and carbohydrates rich M. aeruginosa biomass was prepared (final OD660 nm = 2.21 and sugar contents 10.39 mM/mL) as compared to control (maximum OD660 nm = 1.4 and sugar contents 3 mM/mL). The final algae biomass was converted to algae juice through a specific pretreatment method. The resulted algae Juice was used as a substrate in fermentation process. Highest yield of bioethanol (50 mM/mL) was detected when Brettanomyces custersainus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia stipitis were used in combinations for fermentation process as compared to their individual fermentation. The results indicated the influence of different factors on the growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa and its feasibility as a feedstock for fermentative ethanol production. PMID:27556034

  8. Enhancing the Feasibility of Microcystis aeruginosa as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production under the Influence of Various Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon Geon; Seo, Hyo Jin; Shin, Jin Hyuk; Shin, Tai Sun; Kim, Min Yong; Choi, Jong Il

    2016-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater microalga, is capable of producing and accumulating different types of sugars in its biomass which make it a good feedstock for bioethanol production. Present study aims to investigate the effect of different factors increasing growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa. MF media (modified BG11 media) and additional ingredients such as aminolevulinic acid (2 mM), lysine (2.28 mM), alanine (1 mM), and Naphthalene acetic acid (1 mM) as cytokine promoted M. aeruginosa growth and sugar contents. Salmonella showed growth-assisting effect on M. aeruginosa. Enhanced growth rate and carbohydrates contents were observed in M. aeruginosa culture grown at 25°C under red LED light of 90 μmolm−2s−1 intensity. More greenish and carbohydrates rich M. aeruginosa biomass was prepared (final OD660 nm = 2.21 and sugar contents 10.39 mM/mL) as compared to control (maximum OD660 nm = 1.4 and sugar contents 3 mM/mL). The final algae biomass was converted to algae juice through a specific pretreatment method. The resulted algae Juice was used as a substrate in fermentation process. Highest yield of bioethanol (50 mM/mL) was detected when Brettanomyces custersainus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia stipitis were used in combinations for fermentation process as compared to their individual fermentation. The results indicated the influence of different factors on the growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa and its feasibility as a feedstock for fermentative ethanol production. PMID:27556034

  9. Human host defense peptide LL-37 stimulates virulence factor production and adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Strempel, Nikola; Neidig, Anke; Nusser, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Vieillard, Julien; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Overhage, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic stress, in a highly specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analyses of P. aeruginosa cells exposed to LL-37 revealed an upregulation of gene clusters involved in the production of quorum sensing molecules and secreted virulence factors (PQS, phenazine, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), elastase and rhamnolipids) and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification as well as an induction of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexGHI-OpmD. Accordingly, we detected significantly elevated levels of toxic metabolites and proteases in bacterial supernatants after LL-37 treatment. Pre-incubation of bacteria with LL-37 for 2 h led to a decreased susceptibility towards gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Quantitative Realtime PCR results using a PAO1-pqsE mutant strain present evidence that the quinolone response protein and virulence regulator PqsE may be implicated in the regulation of the observed phenotype in response to LL-37. Further experiments with synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides IDR-1018, 1037 and HHC-36 showed no induction of pqsE expression, suggesting a new role of PqsE as highly specific host stress sensor. PMID:24349231

  10. Human Host Defense Peptide LL-37 Stimulates Virulence Factor Production and Adaptive Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Strempel, Nikola; Neidig, Anke; Nusser, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Vieillard, Julien; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Overhage, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic stress, in a highly specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analyses of P. aeruginosa cells exposed to LL-37 revealed an upregulation of gene clusters involved in the production of quorum sensing molecules and secreted virulence factors (PQS, phenazine, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), elastase and rhamnolipids) and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification as well as an induction of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexGHI-OpmD. Accordingly, we detected significantly elevated levels of toxic metabolites and proteases in bacterial supernatants after LL-37 treatment. Pre-incubation of bacteria with LL-37 for 2 h led to a decreased susceptibility towards gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Quantitative Realtime PCR results using a PAO1-pqsE mutant strain present evidence that the quinolone response protein and virulence regulator PqsE may be implicated in the regulation of the observed phenotype in response to LL-37. Further experiments with synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides IDR-1018, 1037 and HHC-36 showed no induction of pqsE expression, suggesting a new role of PqsE as highly specific host stress sensor. PMID:24349231

  11. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound. PMID:27226531

  12. Simultaneous production of alkaline lipase and protease by antibiotic and heavy metal tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Gautam, Pallavi; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-09-01

    An efficient bacterial strain capable of simultaneous production of lipase and protease in a single production medium was isolated. Thirty six bacterial strains, isolated from diverse habitats, were screened for their lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Of these, only one bacterial strain was found to be lipase and protease producer. The 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain (NSD-09) was in close identity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The maximum lipase (221.4 U/ml) and protease (187.9 U/ml) activities were obtained after 28 and 24 h of incubation, respectively at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Castor oil and wheat bran were found to be the best substrate for lipase and protease production, respectively. The strain also exhibited high tolerance to lead (1450 µg/ml) and chromium (1000 µg/ml) in agar plates. It also showed tolerance to other heavy metals, such as Co(+2) , Zn(+2) , Hg(+2) , Ni(+2) and Cd(+2) . Therefore, this strain has scope for tailing bioremediation. Presumably, this is the first attempt on P. aeruginosa to explore its potential for both industrial and environmental applications. PMID:22961768

  13. Discovery of an inhibitor of the production of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin in wild-type cells

    PubMed Central

    Morkunas, Bernardas; Gal, Balint; Galloway, Warren R J D; Hodgkinson, James T; Ibbeson, Brett M; Sing Tan, Yaw; Welch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pyocyanin is a small molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infections by this notorious opportunistic pathogen. The inhibition of pyocyanin production has been identified as an attractive antivirulence strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we report the discovery of an inhibitor of pyocyanin production in cultures of wild-type P. aeruginosa which is based around a 4-alkylquinolin-2(1H)-one scaffold. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported example of pyocyanin inhibition by a compound based around this molecular framework. The compound may therefore be representative of a new structural sub-class of pyocyanin inhibitors, which could potentially be exploited in in a therapeutic context for the development of critically needed new antipseudomonal agents. In this context, the use of wild-type cells in this study is notable, since the data obtained are of direct relevance to native situations. The compound could also be of value in better elucidating the role of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa infections. Evidence suggests that the active compound reduces the level of pyocyanin production by inhibiting the cell–cell signalling mechanism known as quorum sensing. This could have interesting implications; quorum sensing regulates a range of additional elements associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa and there is a wide range of other potential applications where the inhibition of quorum sensing is desirable. PMID:27559393

  14. Production of biosurfactant from a new and promising strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1.

    PubMed

    Santa Anna, L M; Sebastian, G V; Pereira, N; Alves, T L; Menezes, E P; Freire, D M

    2001-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 strain, isolated from the water of oil production in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated as a potential rhamnolipid type of biosurfactant producer. The production of biosurfactants was investigated using different carbon sources (n-hexadecane, paraffin oil, glycerol, and babassu oil) and inoculum concentrations (0.0016-0.008 g/L). The best results were obtained with glycerol as the substrate and an initial cell concentration of 0.004 g/L. A C:N ratio of 22.8 led to the greatest production of rhamnolipids (1700 mg/L) and efficiency (1.18 g of rhamnolipid/g of dry wt). PMID:11963874

  15. All-trans retinoic acid and extracellular Ca2+ differentially influence extracellular matrix production by human skin in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Varani, J.; Larson, B. K.; Perone, P.; Inman, D. R.; Fligiel, S. E.; Voorhees, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Two-mm full-thickness punch biopsies of human skin were placed in organ culture in a serum-free, growth factor-free basal medium. Under conditions of low extracellular Ca2+ (0.15 mmol/L), the tissue quickly degenerated. However, degeneration was prevented when the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was increased to 1.4 mmol/L. The tissue remained histologically normal in appearance and biochemically active for up to 12 days. The addition of 3 mumol/L all-trans retinoic acid (RA) to the low-Ca2+ culture medium also prevented tissue degeneration. However, in contrast to what was seen in the presence of 1.4 mmol/L Ca2+, epidermal differentiation did not occur normally in the presence of RA. Rather, the upper layers of the epidermis routinely separated from the underlying basal cells. Fibronectin production by the organ cultured skin was examined. Biosynthetic labeling/immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that incubation of the tissue in basal medium containing 1.4 mmol/L Ca2+ resulted in a high level of fibronectin production relative to the amount produced in basal medium containing 0.15 mmol/L Ca2+. In contrast, the addition of 3 mumol/L RA to the low Ca2+ basal medium did not stimulate fibronectin production. Similar results were observed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays where the addition of Ca2+ to a final concentration of 1.4 mmol/L stimulated fibronectin and thrombospondin production whereas RA (3 mumol/L) did not. Although RA by itself failed to stimulate extracellular matrix production, the addition of 3 mumol/L RA to basal medium containing 1.4 mmol/L Ca2+ led to a further increase in fibronectin production over that seen in the presence of 1.4 mmol/L Ca2+ alone. Taken together, these data indicate that although either 1.4 mmol/L Ca2+ or 3 mumol/L RA facilitates survival of organ-cultured skin in basal medium, they have very different effects on extracellular matrix production. This supports the view, based on histological appearance, that the two

  16. Salt stress represses production of extracellular proteases in Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Huang, C L; Feng, H

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus is able to secrete subtilisin-like prote-ases, one of which has been purified and characterized biochemically, demonstrating great potential for use in industrial applications. In the current study, the biosynthesis and transcription of extracellular pro-teases in B. pumilus (BA06) under salt stress were investigated using various methods, including a proteolytic assay, zymogram analysis, and real-time PCR. Our results showed that total extracellular proteolytic activity, both in fermentation broth and on milk-containing agar plates, was considerably repressed by salt in a dosage-dependent manner. As Bacillus species usually secret multiple extracellular proteases, a vari-ety of individual extracellular protease encoding genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis. It was shown that proteases encoded by the aprE and aprX genes were the major proteases in the fermentation broth in terms of their transcripts in B. pumilus. Further, transcription of aprE, aprX, and epr genes was indeed repressed by salt stress. In con-trast, transcription of other genes (e.g., vpr and wprA) was not repressed or significantly affected by the salt. Conclusively, salt stress represses total extracellular proteolytic activity in B. pumilus, which can largely be ascribed to suppression of the major protease-encoding genes (aprE, aprX) at the transcriptional level. In contrast, transcription of other pro-tease-encoding genes (e.g., vpr, wprA) was not repressed by salt stress. PMID:25966269

  17. Extracellular polymeric substances buffer against the biocidal effect of H2O2 on the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Lee, Duu-Jong; Halik, Umut

    2015-02-01

    H2O2 is an emerging biocide for bloom-forming cyanobacteria. It is important to investigate the H2O2 scavenging ability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of cyanobacteria because EPS with strong antioxidant activity may "waste" considerable amounts of H2O2 before it kills the cells. In this study, the buffering capacity against H2O2 of EPS from the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated. IC50 values for the ability of EPS and vitamin C (VC) to scavenge 50% of the initial H2O2 concentration were 0.097 and 0.28 mg mL(-1), respectively, indicating the higher H2O2 scavenging activity of EPS than VC. Both proteins and polysaccharides are significantly decomposed by H2O2 and the polysaccharides were more readily decomposed than proteins. H2O2 consumed by the EPS accounted for 50% of the total amount of H2O2 consumed by the cells. Cell growth and photosynthesis were reduced more for EPS-free cells than EPS coated cells when the cells were treated with 0.1 or 0.2 mg mL(-1) H2O2, and the maximum photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm of EPS coated cells recovered to higher values than EPS-free cells. Concentrations of H2O2 above 0.3 mg mL(-1) completely inhibited photosynthesis and no recovery was observed for both EPS-free and EPS coated cells. This shows that EPS has some buffering capacity against the killing effect of H2O2 on cyanobacterial cells. Such a strong H2O2 scavenging ability of EPS is not favorable for killing bloom-forming cyanobacteria. The high H2O2 scavenging capacity means considerable amounts of H2O2 have to be used to break through the EPS barrier before H2O2 exerts any killing effects on the cells. It is therefore necessary to determine the H2O2 scavenging capacity of the EPS of various bloom-forming cyanobacteria so that the cost-effective amount of H2O2 needed to be used for killing the cyanobacteria can be estimated. PMID:25463931

  18. UV-B Exposure Affects the Biosynthesis of Microcystin in Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Cells and Its Degradation in the Extracellular Space.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang

    2015-10-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxic heptapeptides produced by cyanobacteria that can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. MC synthesis and degradation are thought to be influenced by several different physical and environmental parameters. In this study, the effects of different intensities of UV-B radiation on MC biosynthesis in Microcystis cells and on its extracellular degradation were investigated by mRNA analysis and degradation experiments. Exposure to UV-B at intensities of 1.02 and 1.45 W/m² not only remarkably inhibited the growth of Microcystis, but also led to a decrease in the MC concentration. In addition, mcyD transcription was decreased under the same UV-B intensities. These results demonstrated that the effects of UV-B exposure on the biosynthesis of MCs in Microcystis cells could be attributed to the regulation of mcy gene transcription. Moreover, the MC concentration was decreased significantly after exposure to different intensities of UV-B radiation. Of the three MC variants (MC-LR, -RR and -YR, L, R and Y are abbreviations of leucine, arginine and tyrosine), MC-LR and MC-YR were sensitive to UV-B radiation, whereas MC-RR was not. In summary, our results showed that UV-B radiation had a negative effect on MC production in Microcystis cells and MC persistence in the extracellular space. PMID:26492272

  19. UV-B Exposure Affects the Biosynthesis of Microcystin in Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Cells and Its Degradation in the Extracellular Space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxic heptapeptides produced by cyanobacteria that can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. MC synthesis and degradation are thought to be influenced by several different physical and environmental parameters. In this study, the effects of different intensities of UV-B radiation on MC biosynthesis in Microcystis cells and on its extracellular degradation were investigated by mRNA analysis and degradation experiments. Exposure to UV-B at intensities of 1.02 and 1.45 W/m2 not only remarkably inhibited the growth of Microcystis, but also led to a decrease in the MC concentration. In addition, mcyD transcription was decreased under the same UV-B intensities. These results demonstrated that the effects of UV-B exposure on the biosynthesis of MCs in Microcystis cells could be attributed to the regulation of mcy gene transcription. Moreover, the MC concentration was decreased significantly after exposure to different intensities of UV-B radiation. Of the three MC variants (MC-LR, -RR and -YR, L, R and Y are abbreviations of leucine, arginine and tyrosine), MC-LR and MC-YR were sensitive to UV-B radiation, whereas MC-RR was not. In summary, our results showed that UV-B radiation had a negative effect on MC production in Microcystis cells and MC persistence in the extracellular space. PMID:26492272

  20. Heterologous production of death ligands' and death receptors' extracellular domains: structural features and efficient systems.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Michiro

    2012-08-01

    The extracellular domains of death ligands and those of death receptors are closely related to many serious human diseases through the initiation of apoptosis. Recombinant production of the extracellular domains has been investigated due to demand for a large amount of purified samples, which are a prerequisite for their biochemical characterization and constitute the fundamentals of medical applications. This review focuses on the recombinant production of extracellular domains of the major members of death ligand and death receptor families using non-mammalian expression systems with an emphasis on Fas ligand and Fas receptor. In contrast to the efficient production of the functional extracellular domains of TRAIL, TNFα and LTα by intracellular expression systems using Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris, that of Fas ligand requires the secretory expression systems using P. pastoris or Dictyostelium discoideum, and the productivity in P. pastoris was largely dependent on tag sequence, potential N-glycosylation site and expressed protein region. On the other hand, the exploitation of insect cell systems is generally useful for the preparation of functional extracellular domains of death receptors containing many disulfide bridges in the absence of extended secondary structure, and a Bombyx mori larvae secretion system presented a superior productivity for human Fas receptor extracellular domain. Based on the results obtained so far, further efforts should be devoted to the artificial control of death ligand - death receptor interactions in order to make a contribution to medicine, represented by the development of novel biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22762186

  1. Utilization of Crude Glycerol as a Substrate for the Production of Rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Eraqi, Walaa A.; Yassin, Aymen S.; Ali, Amal E.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by bacteria or yeast utilizing different substrates as sugars, glycerol, or oils. They have important applications in the detergent, oil, and pharmaceutical industries. Glycerol is the product of biodiesel industry and the existing glycerol market cannot accommodate the excess amounts generated; consequently, new markets for refined glycerol need to be developed. The aim of present work is to optimize the production of microbial rhamnolipid using waste glycerol. We have developed a process for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants using glycerol as the sole carbon source by a local Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that was obtained from an extensive screening program. A factorial design was applied with the goal of optimizing the rhamnolipid production. The highest production yield was obtained after 2 days when cells were grown in minimal salt media at pH 6, containing 1% (v/v) glycerol and 2% (w/v) sodium nitrate as nitrogen source, at 37°C and at 180 rpm, and reached 2.164 g/L after 54 hours (0.04 g/L h). Analysis of the produced rhamnolipids by TLC, HPLC, and FTIR confirmed the nature of the biosurfactant as monorhamnolipid. Glycerol can serve as a source for the production of rhamnolipid from microbial isolates providing a cheap and reliable substrate. PMID:26942014

  2. Utilization of Crude Glycerol as a Substrate for the Production of Rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Eraqi, Walaa A; Yassin, Aymen S; Ali, Amal E; Amin, Magdy A

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by bacteria or yeast utilizing different substrates as sugars, glycerol, or oils. They have important applications in the detergent, oil, and pharmaceutical industries. Glycerol is the product of biodiesel industry and the existing glycerol market cannot accommodate the excess amounts generated; consequently, new markets for refined glycerol need to be developed. The aim of present work is to optimize the production of microbial rhamnolipid using waste glycerol. We have developed a process for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants using glycerol as the sole carbon source by a local Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that was obtained from an extensive screening program. A factorial design was applied with the goal of optimizing the rhamnolipid production. The highest production yield was obtained after 2 days when cells were grown in minimal salt media at pH 6, containing 1% (v/v) glycerol and 2% (w/v) sodium nitrate as nitrogen source, at 37°C and at 180 rpm, and reached 2.164 g/L after 54 hours (0.04 g/L h). Analysis of the produced rhamnolipids by TLC, HPLC, and FTIR confirmed the nature of the biosurfactant as monorhamnolipid. Glycerol can serve as a source for the production of rhamnolipid from microbial isolates providing a cheap and reliable substrate. PMID:26942014

  3. Accumulation of Pyrimidine Intermediate Orotate Decreases Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Niazy, Abdurahman; Hughes, Lee E

    2015-08-01

    The impact of orotate accumulation in the medically important bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied by deleting pyrE, the gene encoding orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and responsible for converting orotate into orotate monophosphate within the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. The pyrE mutant accumulated orotate and exhibited decreased production of hemolysin, casein protease, and elastase. Feeding orotate at a concentration of 51.25 μM to the wild type, PAO1, likewise decreased production of these factors except for hemolysin, which was not affected. A significant increase in the pigments pyocyanin and pyoverdin was also observed. Pyocyanin increase in the pyrE mutant was heightened when the mutant was supplemented with orotate. Although pyoverdin production in the wild-type PAO1 was unaffected by orotate supplementation, a decrease in the mutant's production was observed when supplemented with orotate. These results indicate a significant reduction in virulence factor production in the pyrE mutant and reduction in some virulence factors in the wild type when supplemented with orotate. PMID:25917504

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgR Phosphorylation Modulates Rhamnolipid Production and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Okkotsu, Yuta; Tieku, Prince; Fitzsimmons, Liam F.; Churchill, Mair E.

    2013-01-01

    AlgR is a key Pseudomonas aeruginosa transcriptional response regulator required for virulence. AlgR activates alginate production and twitching motility but represses the Rhl quorum-sensing (QS) system, including rhamnolipid production. The role of AlgR phosphorylation is enigmatic, since phosphorylated AlgR (AlgR-P) is required for twitching motility through the fimU promoter but is not required for the activation of alginate production. In order to examine the role of AlgR phosphorylation in vivo, a PAO1 algRD54E strain (with algR encoding a D-to-E change at position 54), which constitutively activates fimU transcription and exhibits twitching motility, was created. A corresponding PAO1 algRD54N strain (with algR encoding a D-to-N change at position 54) that does not activate fimU or twitching motility was compared to PAO1, PAO1 algRD54E, PAO1 ΔalgZ (deletion of the algZ [fimS] gene, encoding a putative histidine kinase), and PAO1 ΔalgR for swarming motility, rhamnolipid production, and rhlA transcription. PAO1 and PAO1 algRD54E produced approximately 2-fold-higher levels of rhamnolipids than PAO1 algRD54N and PAO1 ΔalgZ, thereby indicating that phosphorylated AlgR is required for normal rhamnolipid production. Examination of purified AlgR, AlgR-P, AlgR D54N, and AlgR D54E showed that AlgR-P and AlgR D54E bound preferentially to the fimU and rhlA promoters. Additionally, AlgR-P bound specifically to two sites within the rhlA promoter that were not bound by unphosphorylated AlgR. Taken together, these results indicate that phosphorylated AlgR-P has increased affinity for the rhlA promoter and is required for the coordinate activation of twitching motility, rhamnolipid production, and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa. PMID:24097945

  5. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSVP20 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and its physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Adgaba, Nuru; Khan, Khalid Ali; Pruthi, Vikas; Al-Waili, Noori

    2015-11-01

    Among 348 microbial strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, five were selected for their ability to produce biosurfactant based on battery of screening assay including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop collapse assay, emulsification activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity studies. Of these, bacterial isolate DSVP20 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865644) based on biochemical characterization and the 16S rDNA analysis, and it was found to be a potential candidate for biosurfactant production. Maximum biosurfactant production recorded by P. aeruginosa DSVP20 was 6.7 g/l after 72 h at 150 rpm and at a temperature of 30 °C. Chromatographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) revealed that it was a glycolipid in nature which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bioremediation studies using purified biosurfactant showed that P. aeruginosa DSVP20 has the ability to degrade eicosane (97%), pristane (75%), and fluoranthene (47%) when studied at different time intervals for a total of 7 days. The results of this study showed that the P. aeruginosa DSVP20 and/or biosurfactant produced by this isolate have the potential role in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. PMID:26146372

  6. Analysis of quorum sensing-dependent virulence factor production and its relationship with antimicrobial susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory isolates.

    PubMed

    Karatuna, O; Yagci, A

    2010-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe respiratory infections. The pathogenesis of these infections is multifactorial and the production of many virulence factors is regulated by quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism. The two well defined QS systems in P. aeruginosa, the las and rhl systems, rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone signal molecules, also termed autoinducers. We assessed the activity of QS-dependent virulence factors (including elastase, alkaline protease, pyocyanin and biofilm production) in respiratory isolates of P. aeruginosa and their relationship with antimicrobial susceptibility. We identified sixteen isolates displaying impaired phenotypic activity; among them, eleven isolates were also defective in autoinducer production, and therefore considered QS-deficient. Six of the QS-deficient isolates failed to amplify one or more of the four QS regulatory genes (lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR) with PCR: one isolate was negative for rhlR, two isolates were negative for rhlI and rhlR and three isolates were negative for all four genes. The isolates that were negative for virulence factor production were generally less susceptible to the antimicrobials and statistically significant correlations were observed between the lack of elastase production and resistance to piperacillin and ceftazidime; between failure in alkaline protease production and resistance to tobramycin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin; and between failure in pyocyanin production and resistance to amikacin, tobramycin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The results obtained indicate that, despite the pivotal role of QS in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa respiratory infections, QS-deficient strains are still capable of causing infections and tend to be less susceptible to antimicrobials. PMID:20132256

  7. Enhancement of Rhamnolipid Production in Residual Soybean Oil by an Isolated Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, C. J. B.; França, F. P.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.; Resende, M. M.; Cardoso, V. L.

    In the present work, the production of rhamnolipid from residual soybean oil (RSO) from food frying facilities was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of contaminated lagoon, isolated from a hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The optimization of RSO, amonium nitrate, and brewery residual yeast concentrations was accomplished by a central composite experimental design and surface response analysis. The experiments were performed in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50mL of mineral medium, at 170 rpm and 30±1°C, for a 48-h fermentation period. Rhamnolipid production has been monitored by measurements of surface tension, rhamnose concentration, and emulsifying activity. The best-planned results, located on the central point, have corresponded to 22g/L of RSO, 5.625 g/ L of NH4NO3' and 11.5 g/L of brewery yeast. At the maximum point the values for rhamnose and emulsifying index were 2.2g/L and 100%, respectively.

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical detection of a thiazolyl-indole natural product isolated from the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Buzid, Alyah; Muimhneacháin, Eoin Ó; Reen, F Jerry; Hayes, Phyllis E; Pardo, Leticia M; Shang, Fengjun; O'Gara, Fergal; Sperry, Jonathan; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D; McGlacken, Gerard P

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, capable of surviving in a broad range of natural environments and quickly acquiring resistance. It is associated with hospital-acquired infections, particularly in patients with compromised immunity, and is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa is also of nosocomial importance on dairy farms and veterinary hospitals, where it is a key morbidity factor in bovine mastitis. P. aeruginosa uses a cell-cell communication system consisting of signalling molecules to coordinate bacterial secondary metabolites, biofilm formation, and virulence. Simple and sensitive methods for the detection of biomolecules as indicators of P. aeruginosa infection would be of great clinical importance. Here, we report the synthesis of the P. aeruginosa natural product, barakacin, which was recently isolated from the bovine ruminal strain ZIO. A simple and sensitive electrochemical method was used for barakacin detection using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, based on cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The influence of electrolyte pH on the peak potential and peak currents was also investigated. At pH 2.0, the peak current was linearly dependent on barakacin concentration (in the range used, 1-10 μM), with correlation coefficients greater than 0.98 on both electrodes. The detection limit (S/N = 3) on the BDD electrode was 100-fold lower than that obtained on the GC electrode. The optimized method using the BDD electrode was extended to bovine (cow feces) and human (sputum of a CF patient) samples. Spiked barakacin was easily detected in these matrices at a limit of 0.5 and 0.05 μM, respectively. Graphical abstract Electrochemical detection of barakacin. PMID:27473426

  9. CysB Negatively Affects the Transcription of pqsR and Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, John M.; Hudson, L. Lynn; Wells, Greg; Coleman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitous in the environment, and it is an opportunistic pathogen that can infect a variety of hosts, including humans. During the process of infection, P. aeruginosa coordinates the expression of numerous virulence factors through the production of multiple cell-to-cell signaling molecules. The production of these signaling molecules is linked through a regulatory network, with the signal N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone and its receptor LasR controlling the induction of a second acyl-homoserine lactone signal and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). LasR-mediated control of PQS occurs partly by activating the transcription of pqsR, a gene that encodes the PQS receptor and is necessary for PQS production. We show that LasR interacts with a single binding site in the pqsR promoter region and that it does not influence the transcription of the divergently transcribed gene, nadA. Using DNA affinity chromatography, we identified additional proteins that interact with the pqsR-nadA intergenic region. These include the H-NS family members MvaT and MvaU, and CysB, a transcriptional regulator that controls sulfur uptake and cysteine biosynthesis. We show that CysB interacts with the pqsR promoter and that CysB represses pqsR transcription and PQS production. Additionally, we provide evidence that CysB can interfere with the activation of pqsR transcription by LasR. However, as seen with other CysB-regulated genes, pqsR expression was not differentially regulated in response to cysteine levels. These findings demonstrate a novel role for CysB in influencing cell-to-cell signal production by P. aeruginosa. IMPORTANCE The production of PQS and other 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolone (HAQs) compounds is a key component of the P. aeruginosa cell-to-cell signaling network, impacts multiple physiological functions, and is required for virulence. PqsR directly regulates the genes necessary for HAQ production

  10. Facultative Control of Matrix Production Optimizes Competitive Fitness in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 Biofilm Models

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jonas S.; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Squyres, Georgia R.; Price-Whelan, Alexa; de Santiago Torio, Ana; Song, Angela; Cornell, William C.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2015-01-01

    As biofilms grow, resident cells inevitably face the challenge of resource limitation. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, electron acceptor availability affects matrix production and, as a result, biofilm morphogenesis. The secreted matrix polysaccharide Pel is required for pellicle formation and for colony wrinkling, two activities that promote access to O2. We examined the exploitability and evolvability of Pel production at the air-liquid interface (during pellicle formation) and on solid surfaces (during colony formation). Although Pel contributes to the developmental response to electron acceptor limitation in both biofilm formation regimes, we found variation in the exploitability of its production and necessity for competitive fitness between the two systems. The wild type showed a competitive advantage against a non-Pel-producing mutant in pellicles but no advantage in colonies. Adaptation to the pellicle environment selected for mutants with a competitive advantage against the wild type in pellicles but also caused a severe disadvantage in colonies, even in wrinkled colony centers. Evolution in the colony center produced divergent phenotypes, while adaptation to the colony edge produced mutants with clear competitive advantages against the wild type in this O2-replete niche. In general, the structurally heterogeneous colony environment promoted more diversification than the more homogeneous pellicle. These results suggest that the role of Pel in community structure formation in response to electron acceptor limitation is unique to specific biofilm models and that the facultative control of Pel production is required for PA14 to maintain optimum benefit in different types of communities. PMID:26431965

  11. Differential effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on biofilm formation by different strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Maria; Davies, Julia R; Chávez de Paz, Luis E; Svensäter, Gunnel

    2010-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis are common opportunistic pathogens associated with medical device-related biofilm infections. 16S rRNA-FISH and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study these two bacteria in dual-species biofilms. Two of the four S. epidermidis strains used were shown to form biofilms more avidly on polymer surfaces than the other two strains. In dual-species biofilms, the presence of P. aeruginosa reduced biofilm formation by S. epidermidis, although different clinical isolates differed in their susceptibility to this effect. The most resistant isolate coexisted with P. aeruginosa for up to 18 h and was also resistant to the effects of the culture supernatant from P. aeruginosa biofilms, which caused dispersal from established biofilms of other S. epidermidis strains. Thus, different strains of S. epidermidis differed in their capacity to withstand the action of P. aeruginosa, with some being better equipped than others to coexist in biofilms with P. aeruginosa. Our data suggest that where S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa are present on abiotic surfaces such as medical devices, S. epidermidis biofilm formation can be inhibited by P. aeruginosa through two mechanisms: disruption by extracellular products, possibly polysaccharides, and, in the later stages, by cell lysis. PMID:20528934

  12. A crucial role of Flagellin in the induction of airway mucus production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ben Mohamed, Fatima; Mohamed, Fatima Ben; Garcia-Verdugo, Ignacio; Medina, Mathieu; Balloy, Viviane; Chignard, Michel; Ramphal, Reuben; Touqui, Lhousseine

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections. Flagellin is a P. aeruginosa virulence factor involved in host response to this pathogen. We examined the role of flagellin in P. aeruginosa-induced mucus secretion. Using a mouse model of pulmonary infection we showed that PAK, a wild type strain of P. aeruginosa, induced airway mucus secretion and mucin muc5ac expression at higher levels than its flagellin-deficient mutant (ΔFliC). PAK induced expression of MUC5AC and MUC2 in both human airway epithelial NCI-H292 cell line and in primary epithelial cells. In contrast, ΔFliC infection had lower to no effect on MUC5AC and MUC2 expressions. A purified P. aeruginosa flagellin induced MUC5AC expression in parallel to IL-8 secretion in NCI-H292 cells. Accordingly, ΔFliC mutant stimulated IL-8 secretion at significantly lower levels compared to PAK. Incubation of NCI-H292 cells with exogenous IL-8 induced MUC5AC expression and pre-incubation of these cells with an anti-IL-8 antibody abrogated flagellin-mediated MUC5AC expression. Silencing of TLR5 and Naip, siRNA inhibited both flagellin-induced MUC5AC expression and IL-8 secretion. Finally, inhibition of ERK abolished the expression of both PAK- and flagellin-induced MUC5AC. We conclude that: (i) flagellin is crucial in P. aeruginosa-induced mucus hyper-secretion through TLR5 and Naip pathways; (ii) this process is mediated by ERK and amplified by IL-8. Our findings help understand the mechanisms involved in mucus secretion during pulmonary infectious disease induced by P. aeruginosa, such as in cystic fibrosis. PMID:22768318

  13. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Moreover, calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. Our results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.

  14. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZmore » domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Moreover, calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. Our results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.« less

  15. Extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolase production by A. flavus isolates contributes to crop invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium ut...

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of interlinked public goods traits: an experimental study of siderophore production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ross-Gillespie, A; Dumas, Z; Kümmerli, R

    2015-01-01

    Public goods cooperation is common in microbes, and there is much interest in understanding how such traits evolve. Research in recent years has identified several important factors that shape the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, yet few studies have investigated scenarios involving interactions between multiple public goods. Here, we offer general predictions about the evolutionary trajectories of two public goods traits having positive, negative or neutral regulatory influence on one another's expression, and we report on a test of some of our predictions in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa's production of two interlinked iron-scavenging siderophores. First, we confirmed that both pyoverdine and pyochelin siderophores do operate as public goods under appropriate environmental conditions. We then tracked their production in lines experimentally evolved under different iron-limitation regimes known to favour different siderophore expression profiles. Under strong iron limitation, where pyoverdine represses pyochelin, we saw a decline in pyoverdine and a concomitant increase in pyochelin - consistent with expansion of pyoverdine-defective cheats derepressed for pyochelin. Under moderate iron limitation, pyochelin declined - again consistent with an expected cheat invasion scenario - but there was no concomitant shift in pyoverdine because cross-suppression between the traits is unidirectional only. Alternating exposure to strong and moderate iron limitation caused qualitatively similar though lesser shifts compared to the constant-environment regimes. Our results confirm that the regulatory interconnections between public goods traits can significantly modulate the course of evolution, yet also suggest how we can start to predict the impacts such complexities will have on phenotypic divergence and community stability. PMID:25421271

  17. Production of extracellular enzymes in the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Saba; Ahmad, Anis; Purwar, Abhinav; Khan, Nausheen; Kundan, Rishi; Gupta, Garima

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms as well as strategies for purification and characterization of potential enzymes involved in pathogenesis of entomopathogenic fungi. The test strain of Verticillium lecanii that was screened, during the present investigation, proved to be an efficient producer of protein and polysaccharide degrading enzymes (amylase, protease, and lipase), hence indicating versatility in biochemical mechanisms. Halo zones produced colony growth of V. lecanii on agar confirmed activity of protease, amylase and lipase enzyme by the V. lecanii isolate. Enzymatic Index (EI) observed were: Protease - 2.195, Amylase- 2.196, Lipase- 2.147. Spectrophotometric analysis of enzymatic activity of V.lecanii at five different pH - 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 revealed that highest proteolytic activity of the V. lecanii isolate was reported at pH 7 and 9 whereas proteolytic activity was minimum at acidic pH 3. Maximum amylolytic activity of V. lecanii on the 7(th) day of inoculation was at pH 3 i.e. in an acidic environment in contrast to neutral pH 7. Maximum lipolytic activity of V. lecanii was found at pH 7. Since enzyme production in entomopathogenic fungi is specific and forms an important criterion for successful development as well as improvement of mycoinsecticides, hence a significant conclusion from the present analysis is the degree of variation in secretion of enzymes in test strain of Verticillium lecanii. PMID:23515428

  18. Extracellular ligninolytic enzymes production by Pleurotus eryngii on agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Gillet (MCC58) was investigated for its ligninolytic ability to produce laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzymes through solid-state fermentation using apricot and pomegranate agroindustrial wastes. The reducing sugar, protein, lignin, and cellulose levels in these were studied. Also, the production of these ligninolytic enzymes was researched over the growth of the microorganism throughout 20 days, and the reducing sugar, protein, and nitrogen levels were recorded during the stationary cultivation at 28 ± 0.5°C. The highest Lac activity was obtained as 1618.5 ± 25 U/L on day 12 of cultivation using apricot. The highest MnP activity was attained as 570.82 ± 15 U/L on day 17 in pomegranate culture and about the same as apricot culture. There were low LiP activities in both cultures. The maximum LiP value detected was 16.13 ± 0.8 U/L in apricot cultures. In addition, AAO activities in both cultures showed similar trends up to day 17 of cultivation, with the highest AAO activity determined as 105.99 ± 6.3 U/L on day 10 in apricot cultures. Decolorization of the azo dye methyl orange was also achieved with produced ligninolytic enzymes by P. eryngii using apricot and pomegranate wastes. PMID:24279903

  19. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  20. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-05-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Extracellular Acid Production to Determine Glycolytic Rate.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Brand, Martin D

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular measurement of oxygen consumption and acid production is a simple and powerful way to monitor rates of respiration and glycolysis(1). Both mitochondrial (respiration) and non-mitochondrial (other redox) reactions consume oxygen, but these reactions can be easily distinguished by chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. However, while mitochondrial oxygen consumption is an unambiguous and direct measurement of respiration rate(2), the same is not true for extracellular acid production and its relationship to glycolytic rate (3-6). Extracellular acid produced by cells is derived from both lactate, produced by anaerobic glycolysis, and CO2, produced in the citric acid cycle during respiration. For glycolysis, the conversion of glucose to lactate(-) + H(+) and the export of products into the assay medium is the source of glycolytic acidification. For respiration, the export of CO2, hydration to H2CO3 and dissociation to HCO3(-) + H(+) is the source of respiratory acidification. The proportions of glycolytic and respiratory acidification depend on the experimental conditions, including cell type and substrate(s) provided, and can range from nearly 100% glycolytic acidification to nearly 100% respiratory acidification (6). Here, we demonstrate the data collection and calculation methods needed to determine respiratory and glycolytic contributions to total extracellular acidification by whole cells in culture using C2C12 myoblast cells as a model. PMID:26709455

  2. Engineering PQS Biosynthesis Pathway for Enhancement of Bioelectricity Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bin; Seviour, Thomas; Nesatyy, Victor J.; Marsili, Enrico; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Song, Hao; Loo, Joachim Say Chye; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the redox shuttle, phenazines, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an ubiquitous microorganism in wastewater microflora, is regulated by the 2-heptyl-3,4-dihydroxyquinoline (PQS) quorum-sensing system. However, PQS inhibits anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. We constructed a P. aeruginosa strain that produces higher concentrations of phenazines under anaerobic conditions by over-expressing the PqsE effector in a PQS negative ΔpqsC mutant. The engineered strain exhibited an improved electrical performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and potentiostat-controlled electrochemical cells with an approximate five-fold increase of maximum current density relative to the parent strain. Electrochemical analysis showed that the current increase correlates with an over-synthesis of phenazines. These results therefore demonstrate that targeting microbial cell-to-cell communication by genetic engineering is a suitable technique to improve power output of bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:23700414

  3. Tasco®: A Product of Ascophyllum nodosum Enhances Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan T.; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Tasco®, a product made from the brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) were tested for the ability to protect Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. A water extract of Tasco® (TWE) reduced P. aeruginosa inflicted mortality in the nematode. The TWE, at a concentration of 300 µg/mL, offered the maximum protection and induced the expression of innate immune response genes viz.; zk6.7 (Lypases), lys-1 (Lysozyme), spp-1 (Saponin like protein), f28d1.3 (Thaumatin like protein), t20g5.7 (Matridin SK domain protein), abf-1 (Antibacterial protein) and f38a1.5 (Lectin family protein). Further, TWE treatment also affected a number of virulence components of the P. aeuroginosa and reduced its secreted virulence factors such as lipase, proteases and toxic metabolites; hydrogen cyanide and pyocyanin. Decreased virulence factors were associated with a significant reduction in expression of regulatory genes involved in quorum sensing, lasI, lasR, rhlI and rhlR. In conclusion, the TWE-treatment protected the C. elegans against P. aeruginosa infection by a combination of effects on the innate immunity of the worms and direct effects on the bacterial quorum sensing and virulence factors. PMID:22363222

  4. Extracellular lipase production by a sapwood-staining fungus, Ophiostoma piceae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Breuil, C

    1995-11-01

    The extracellular lipase production of a sapwood-staining fungus, Ophiostoma piceae, grown in liquid media, was optimally active at pH 5.5 and 37°C. Although glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and dextrin, as carbon sources for growth gave similar mycelial yields, which were higher than those obtained with arabinose, galactose or raffinose, the cells growing on those carbohydrates produced little extracellular lipase. However, both high biomass and lipase activity were obtained when plant oils (olive, soybean, corn, sunflower seed, sesame, cotton seed or peanut) were used as carbon sources. Among the nitrogen sources examined, Casamino acids gave the best growth, whereas (NH4)2SO4 gave the best lipase production. The highest lipase productivity seen was obtained in a medium with olive oil as carbon source and a combination of (NH4)2SO4and peptone as nitrogen source. PMID:24415011

  5. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a

  6. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained industrial attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from ...

  7. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have gained important attentions because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from different unsatu...

  8. Antimicrobial potential of bioconverted products of omega-3 fatty acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...

  9. The effects of nickel(II) complexes with imidazole derivatives on pyocyanin and pyoverdine production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gałczyńska, Katarzyna; Kurdziel, Krystyna; Adamus-Białek, Wioletta; Wąsik, Sławomir; Szary, Karol; Drabik, Marcin; Węgierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Lankoff, Anna; Arabski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is problematic in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). P. aeruginosa secretes a diversity of pigments, such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of complexes of nickel(II) ([Ni(iaa)2(H2O)2]·H2O (iaa = imidazole-4-acetate anion), [Ni(1-allim)6](NO3)2 (1-allim = 1-allylimidazole) and NiCl2 on pyocyanin and pyoverdine production by 23 strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis under growth conditions specific for the CF respiratory system. The antibacterial effects and biophysical properties of the tested substances were measured by spectrofluorometric techniques, as well as by laser interferometry, confocal and atomic force microscopy. The cytotoxic properties of all compounds were measured by Annexin/IP assay against A549 cells. All tested compounds have no effect on pyocyanin production and decrease the pyoverdine secretion in about 40% of tested P. aeruginosa strains at non-cytotoxic range of concentrations. Imidazole-4-acetate anion and 1-allylimidazole have good diffusion properties in the mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. In conclusion, the tested nickel(II) complexes do not have clinical implications in P. aeruginosa eradication in cystic fibrosis. The diffusion properties of 1-allylimidazole and imidazole-4-acetate and their lack of effect on A549 cells suggest that they might be considered for chemical synthesis with other transition metals. PMID:26645324

  10. Extracellular peptidase hunting for improvement of protein production in plant cells and roots

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand, Jérôme; Bouché, Frédéric; Desiron, Carole; Stautemas, Jennifer; de Lemos Esteves, Frédéric; Périlleux, Claire; Tocquin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based recombinant protein production systems have gained an extensive interest over the past few years, because of their reduced cost and relative safety. Although the first products are now reaching the market, progress are still needed to improve plant hosts and strategies for biopharming. Targeting recombinant proteins toward the extracellular space offers several advantages in terms of protein folding and purification, but degradation events are observed, due to endogenous peptidases. This paper focuses on the analysis of extracellular proteolytic activities in two production systems: cell cultures and root-secretion (rhizosecretion), in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Proteolytic activities of extracellular proteomes (secretomes) were evaluated in vitro against two substrate proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum immunoglobulins G (hIgGs). Both targets were found to be degraded by the secretomes, BSA being more prone to proteolysis than hIgGs. The analysis of the proteolysis pH-dependence showed that target degradation was mainly dependent upon the production system: rhizosecretomes contained more peptidase activity than extracellular medium of cell suspensions, whereas variations due to plant species were smaller. Using class-specific peptidase inhibitors, serine, and metallopeptidases were found to be responsible for degradation of both substrates. An in-depth in silico analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data from Arabidopsis was then performed and led to the identification of a limited number of serine and metallo-peptidases that are consistently expressed in both production systems. These peptidases should be prime candidates for further improvement of plant hosts by targeted silencing. PMID:25705212

  11. Effects of cyanobacterial extracellular products and gibberellic acid on salinity tolerance in Oryza sativa L

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, AA; Stella, AM; Storni, MM; Zulpa, G; Zaccaro, MC

    2006-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the productivity of rice, the staple diet in many countries. Gibberellic acid has been reported to reduce NaCl-induced growth inhibition in some plants including rice. Most paddy soils have a natural population of Cyanobacteria, prokaryotic photosynthethic microorganisms, which synthesize and liberate plant growth regulators such as gibberellins that could exert a natural beneficial effect on salt stressed rice plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the cyanobacterium Scytonema hofmanni extracellular products on the growth of rice seedlings inhibited by NaCl and to compare it with the effect of the gibberellic acid in the same stress condition. Growth (length and weight of the seedlings) and biochemical parameters (5-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity, total free porphyrin and pigments content) were evaluated. Salt exposure negatively affected all parameters measured, with the exception of chlorophyll. Chlrorophyll concentrations nearly doubled upon exposure to high salt. Gibberellic acid counteracted the effect of salt on the length and dry weight of the shoot, and on carotenoid and chlorophyll b contents. Extracellular products nullified the salt effect on shoot dry weight and carotenoid content; partially counteracted the effect on shoot length (from 54% to 38% decrease), root dry weight (from 59% to 41% decrease) and total free porphyrin (from 31 to 13% decrease); reduced by 35% the salt increase of chlorophyll a; had no effect on root length and chlorophyll b. Gibberellic acid and extracellular products increased 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity over the control without salt. When coincident with high salinity, exposure to either EP or GA3, resulted in a reversal of shoot-related responses to salt stress. We propose that Scytonema hofmanni extracellular products may counteract altered hormone homeostasis of rice seedlings under salt stress by producing gibberellin-like plant

  12. High-level production of extracellular lipase by Yarrowia lipolytica mutants from methyl oleate.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Farshad; Destain, Jacqueline; Nahvi, Iraj; Thonart, Philippe; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Hamid

    2011-10-01

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades efficiently low-cost hydrophobic substrates for the production of various added-value products such as lipases. To obtain yeast strains producing high levels of extracellular lipase, Y. lipolytica DSM3286 was subjected to mutation using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and ultraviolet (UV) light. Twenty mutants were selected out of 1600 mutants of Y. lipolytica treated with EMS and UV based on lipase production ability on selective medium. A new industrial medium containing methyl oleate was optimized for lipase production. In the 20 L bioreactor containing new industrial medium, one UV mutant (U6) produced 356 U/mL of lipase after 24h, which is about 10.5-fold higher than that produced by the wild type strain. The properties of the mutant lipase were the same as those of the wild type: molecular weight 38 kDa, optimum temperature 37°C and optimum pH 7. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of extracellular lipase gene (LIP2) in wild type and mutant strains were determined. Only two silent substitutions at 362 and 385 positions were observed in the ORF region of LIP2. Two single substitutions and two duplications of the T nucleotide were also detected in the promoter region. LIP2 sequence comparison of the Y. lipolytica DSM3286 and U6 strains shows good targets to effective DNA recombinant for extracellular lipase of Y. lipolytica. PMID:21324386

  13. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Tehreema; Niaz, Mubashir; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Haq, Ikram ul

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var.microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42a U mL-1 (W) and 42.49 ± 3.91a U mL-1 (M) after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant strain. There is overall increase of 109% (W) and 124% (M) in the production of extracellular lipases as compared to shake flask. Another significant finding of the present study is that the fermentation period is reduced to 30 h in case of wild and 23 h in case of mutant from 48 h in shake flask studies. The specific productivity of mutant strain (qp = 377.3 U/g cells/h) was several folds higher than wild strain. The specific production rate and growth coefficient revealed the hyperproducibility of extracellular lipases using mutant IIB-63NTG-7. PMID:24031595

  14. Optimization of environmental factors for improved production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 on glycerol.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Manab; Sarma, Hemen

    2012-08-01

    A biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 (identified on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis) with good foaming and emulsification properties has been isolated from crude oil contaminated sites. Optimization of different environmental factors was carried out with an objective to achieve maximum production of biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was estimated in terms of surface tension reduction and emulsification (E24) index. It was recorded that the isolated strain produced highest biosurfactant after 48 h of incubation at 37.5 °C, with a pH range of 7-8 and at salinity <0.8% (w/v). Ammonium nitrate used in the experiment was the best nitrogen source for the growth of biomass of P. aeruginosa RS29. On the other hand sodium and potassium nitrate enhanced the production of biosurfactant (Surface tension, 26.3 and 26.4 mN/m and E24 index, 80 and 79% respectively). The CMC of the biosurfactant was 90 mg/l. Maximum biomass (6.30 g/l) and biosurfactant production (0.80 g/l) were recorded at an optimal C/N ratio of 12.5. Biochemical analysis and FTIR spectra confirmed that the biosurfactant was rhamnolipid in nature. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of C(8) and C(10) fatty acid components in the purified biosurfactant. PMID:22144225

  15. Efficient extracellular production of κ-carrageenase in Escherichia coli: effects of wild-type signal sequence and process conditions on extracellular secretion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhemin; Tian, Lin; Chen, Yulin; Mou, Haijin

    2014-09-20

    Signal peptides direct proteins to translocate across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. This study aimed to improve the level of extracellular secretion of recombinant carrageenase by recombining the gene encoding wild-type signal peptide (OmpZ) of Zobellia sp. ZM-2 κ-carrageenase into the expression vector pProEX-HTa-cgkZ. The recombinant strain BL21-HTa-cgkZ achieved extracellular secretion of κ-carrageenase. The effects of induction, culture conditions, and additives were investigated to further promote the extracellular secretion of the enzyme. Results showed that the wild-type signal sequence secreted recombinant κ-carrageenase out of the cytoplasmic membrane. Low temperature (23 °C) and optimum isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside concentration (0.9 mM) favored soluble protein expression. Moreover, additives such as lactose, glycine, Tween-80, and TritonX-100 promoted the release of intracellular enzymes. The existence of OmpZ resulted in 51% of the total κ-carrageenase accumulation secreted into culture medium, and 33% accumulated in the periplasmic space. High extracellular secretion of recombinant κ-carrageenase under the optimum conditions showed promising applications of the process for extracellular protein production. PMID:24929200

  16. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A41 using palm oil as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Thaniyavarn, Jiraporn; Chongchin, Aree; Wanitsuksombut, Nopparat; Thaniyavarn, Suthep; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh; Leepipatpiboon, Natthanant; Morikawa, Masaaki; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2006-08-01

    Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A41, a strain isolated from seawater in the gulf of Thailand, was examined when grown in defined medium containing 2% vegetable oil or fatty acid as a carbon source in the presence of vitamins, trace elements and 0.4% NH(4)NO(3), at pH 7 and 30 degrees C with 200 rpm-shaking for 7 days. The yield of biosurfactant steadily increased even after a stationary phase. Under such conditions the surface tension of the medium was lowered from 55-70 mN/m to 27.8-30 mN/m with every carbon source tested. However, types of carbon sources were found to affect biosurfactant yield. The yields of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were 6.58 g/L, 2.91 g/L and 2.93 g/L determined as rhamnose content when olive oil, palm oil and coconut oil, respectively, were used as a carbon source. Among them, biosurfactant obtained from palm oil was the best in lowering surface tension of the medium. Increase in biosurfactant activities in terms of oil displacement test and rhamnose content were observed to be higher with shorter chain fatty acids than that of the longer chains (C12>C14>C16). In addition, we found that C18:2, highly unsaturated fatty acid, showed higher oil displacement activity and rhamnose content than that of C18:1. The optimal oil displacement activity was found at pH 7-9 and in the presence of 0.5-3% NaCl. The oil displacement activity was stable to temperatures up to 100 degrees C for 15 h. Surface tension reduction activity was relatively stable at pH 2-12 and 0-5% of NaCl. Emusification activity tested with various types of hydrocarbons and vegetable oils showed similarity of up to 60% stability. The partially purified biosurfactant via TLC and silica gel column chromatography gave three main peaks on HPLC with mass spectra of 527, 272, and 661 m/z respectively, corresponding to sodium-monorhamnodecanoate, hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and an unknown compound, respectively. PMID:17116970

  17. Sodium houttuyfonate affects production of N-acyl homoserine lactone and quorum sensing-regulated genes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Daqiang; Huang, Weifeng; Duan, Qiangjun; Li, Fang; Cheng, Huijuan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH), commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa. PMID:25505457

  18. Lead-enhanced siderophore production and alteration in cell morphology in a Pb-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 4EA.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    A lead-resistant bacterial strain 4EA from soil contaminated with car battery waste from Goa, India was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This lead-resistant bacterial isolate interestingly revealed lead-enhanced siderophore (pyochelin and pyoverdine) production up to 0.5 mM lead nitrate whereas cells exhibit a significant decline in siderophore production above 0.5 mM lead nitrate. The bacterial cells also revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as size reduction when exposed to 0.8 mM lead nitrate. Enhanced production of siderophore was evidently detected by chrome azurol S agar diffusion (CASAD) assay as increase in diameter of orange halo, and reduction in bacterial size along with significant biosorption of lead was recorded by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 4EA also exhibits cross tolerance to other toxic metals viz. cadmium, mercury, and zinc besides resistance to multiple antibiotics such as ampicillin, erythromycin, amikacin, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, mecillinam, lincomycin, ciphaloridine, oleondamycin, and nalidixic acid. PMID:20661573

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA RECA' ANALOG AND ITS PROTEIN PRODUCT: 'REC-102' IS A MUTANT ALLELE OF THE 'P. AERUGINOSA' PAO 'RECA' GENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloned was a 2.3 kilobase pair fragment of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO chromosome which is capable of complementing recA mutations of Escherichia coli. The recA-complementing activity was further localized to a 1.5 kilobase pair PvuII-HindIII fragment. The direction of transcr...

  20. Modulation of Type III Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Involvement of the PA4857 Gene Product

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Miao; Zhao, Jingru; Kang, Huaping; Kong, Weina; Zhao, Yuanyu; Wu, Min; Liang, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious acute or chronic infections in humans. Acute infections typically involve the type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and bacterial motility, whereas chronic infections are often associated with biofilm formation and the type VI secretion system. To identify new genes required for pathogenesis, a transposon mutagenesis library was constructed and the gene PA4857, named tspR, was found to modulate T3SS gene expression. Deletion of P. aeruginosa tspR reduced the virulence in a mouse acute lung infection model and diminished cytotoxicity. Suppression of T3SS gene expression in the tspR mutant resulted from compromised translation of the T3SS master regulator ExsA. TspR negatively regulated two small RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, which control RsmA. Our data demonstrated that defects in T3SS expression and biofilm formation in retS mutant could be partially restored by overexpression of tspR. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the newly identified retS-tspR pathway is coordinated with the retS-gacS system, which regulates the genes associated with acute and chronic infections and controls the lifestyle choice of P. aeruginosa. PMID:26858696

  1. Presence of exoY, exoS, exoU and exoT genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm production among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Somayeh; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Baghi, Hossein Bannazadeh; Shokrian, Saeed; Najaf, Khadijeh; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi; Shahrivar, Firooz; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as Gram-negative rod bacilli, has an important role in human infection. In the present study we aimed to investigate the presence of exo genes and biofilm production among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Northwest Iran. Material and methods: 160 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected and identified by biochemical tests and were characterized for antibiotic resistance. Biofilm production was evaluated by microtiter plate assay and the presence of exo genes was evaluated by allele-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The most effective antibiotics against isolates were colistin and polymyxin B. 87% of the isolates were biofilm producers of which 69% were strongly biofilm producers. 55% of the isolates carried exoY, 52% of the isolates carried exoU, and 26.3% and 5% carried exoS and exoT, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed different distribution of exo genes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in Northwest Iran. ExoS and exoU were more prevalent in non-biofilm producers and exoY was more prevalent in biofilm producer isolates. These results might indicate the importance of exoY in biofilm production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26958458

  2. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretory product pyocyanin inactivates alpha1 protease inhibitor: implications for the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Britigan, B E; Railsback, M A; Cox, C D

    1999-03-01

    Alpha1 Protease inhibitor (alpha1PI) modulates serine protease activity in the lung. Reactive oxygen species inactivate alpha1PI, and this process has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of forms of lung injury. An imbalance of protease-antiprotease activity is also detected in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis-associated lung disease who are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa secretes pyocyanin, which, through its ability to redox cycle, induces cells to generate reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that redox cycling of pyocyanin could lead to inactivation of alpha1PI. When alpha1PI was exposed to NADH and pyocyanin, a combination that results in superoxide production, alpha1PI lost its ability to form an inhibitory complex with both porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and trypsin. Similarly, addition of pyocyanin to cultures of human airway epithelial cells to which alpha1PI was also added resulted in a loss of the ability of alpha1PI to form a complex with PPE or trypsin. Neither superoxide dismutase, catalase, nor dimethylthiourea nor depletion of the media of O2 to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species blocked pyocyanin-mediated inactivation of alpha1PI. These data raise the possibility that a direct interaction between reduced pyocyanin and alpha1PI is involved in the process. Consistent with this possibility, pretreatment of alpha1PI with the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol also inhibited binding of trypsin to alpha1PI. These data suggest that pyocyanin could contribute to lung injury in the P. aeruginosa-infected airway of cystic fibrosis patients by decreasing the ability of alpha1PI to control the local activity of serine proteases. PMID:10024562

  3. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Secretory Product Pyocyanin Inactivates α1 Protease Inhibitor: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Britigan, Bradley E.; Railsback, Michelle A.; Cox, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    α1 Protease inhibitor (α1PI) modulates serine protease activity in the lung. Reactive oxygen species inactivate α1PI, and this process has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of forms of lung injury. An imbalance of protease-antiprotease activity is also detected in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis-associated lung disease who are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa secretes pyocyanin, which, through its ability to redox cycle, induces cells to generate reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that redox cycling of pyocyanin could lead to inactivation of α1PI. When α1PI was exposed to NADH and pyocyanin, a combination that results in superoxide production, α1PI lost its ability to form an inhibitory complex with both porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and trypsin. Similarly, addition of pyocyanin to cultures of human airway epithelial cells to which α1PI was also added resulted in a loss of the ability of α1PI to form a complex with PPE or trypsin. Neither superoxide dismutase, catalase, nor dimethylthiourea nor depletion of the media of O2 to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species blocked pyocyanin-mediated inactivation of α1PI. These data raise the possibility that a direct interaction between reduced pyocyanin and α1PI is involved in the process. Consistent with this possibility, pretreatment of α1PI with the reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol also inhibited binding of trypsin to α1PI. These data suggest that pyocyanin could contribute to lung injury in the P. aeruginosa-infected airway of cystic fibrosis patients by decreasing the ability of α1PI to control the local activity of serine proteases. PMID:10024562

  4. The pilG gene product, required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus production and twitching motility, is homologous to the enteric, single-domain response regulator CheY.

    PubMed Central

    Darzins, A

    1993-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilG gene, encoding a protein which is involved in pilus production, was cloned by phenotypic complementation of a unique, pilus-defective mutant of strain PAO1. This mutant, designated FA2, although resistant to the pilus-specific phage D3112 was sensitive to the pilus-specific phages B3 and F116L. In spite of the unusual phage sensitivity pattern, FA2 lacked the ability to produce functional polar pili (pil) and was incapable of twitching motility (twt). Genetic analysis revealed that the FA2 pil mutation, designated pilG1, mapped near the met-28 marker located at 20 min and was distinct from the previously described pilT mutation. This map location was confirmed by localization of a 6.2-kb EcoRI fragment that complemented FA2 on the SpeI and DpnI physical map of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 chromosome. A 700-bp region encompassing the pilG gene was sequenced, and a 405-bp open reading frame, with characteristic P. aeruginosa codon bias, was identified. The molecular weight of the protein predicted from the amino acid sequence of PilG, which was determined to be 14,717, corresponded very closely to that of a polypeptide with the apparent molecular weight of 15,000 detected after expression of pilG from the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli. Moreover, the predicted amino acid sequence of PilG showed significant homology to that of the enteric CheY protein, a single-domain response regulator. A chromosomal pilG insertion mutant, constructed by allele replacement of the wild-type gene, was not capable of pilus production or twitching motility but displayed normal flagellum-mediated motility. These results, therefore, suggest that PilG may be an important part of the signal transduction system involved in the elaboration of P. aeruginosa pili. Images PMID:8104179

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI production as an integrated process using the wastes from sunflower-oil refining as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Benincasa, Maria; Accorsini, Fábio Raphael

    2008-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI produced surface active rhamnolipids when cultivated on waste from the sunflower-oil process under different conditions. These biosurfactants, which reduce the superficial and interfacial tensions between fluids, offer advantages over their chemical counterparts, especially because of their ecological acceptability. These molecules can be used in fields as diverse as chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries. In this work, we present the effect of C/N ratio on growth and production yield. The best production yields (Y P/S) were achieved for C/N ratios (in g/g) of 8/1 (0.22) and 6.4/1 (0.23). The product concentration was very satisfactory (7.3g/L) at C/N ratio of 8/1, especially when considering that the substrate was basically composed of wastes that would otherwise constitute an environmental disposal problem. PMID:17698353

  6. Extracellular Production and Degradation of Superoxide in the Coral Stylophora pistillata and Cultured Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Saragosti, Eldad; Tchernov, Dan; Katsir, Adi; Shaked, Yeala

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a major role in cell death pathways and bleaching in scleractinian corals. Direct measurements of ROS in corals are conspicuously in short supply, partly due to inherent problems with ROS quantification in cellular systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we characterized the dynamics of the reactive oxygen species superoxide anion radical (O2−) in the external milieu of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Using a sensitive, rapid and selective chemiluminesence-based technique, we measured extracellular superoxide production and detoxification activity of symbiont (non-bleached) and aposymbiont (bleached) corals, and of cultured Symbiodinium (from clades A and C). Bleached and non-bleached Stylophora fragments were found to produce superoxide at comparable rates of 10−11–10−9 mol O2− mg protein−1 min−1 in the dark. In the light, a two-fold enhancement in O2− production rates was observed in non-bleached corals, but not in bleached corals. Cultured Symbiodinium produced superoxide in the dark at a rate of . Light was found to markedly enhance O2− production. The NADPH Oxidase inhibitor Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) strongly inhibited O2− production by corals (and more moderately by algae), possibly suggesting an involvement of NADPH Oxidase in the process. An extracellular O2− detoxifying activity was found for bleached and non-bleached Stylophora but not for Symbiodinium. The O2− detoxifying activity was partially characterized and found to resemble that of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Conclusions/Significance The findings of substantial extracellular O2− production as well as extracellular O2− detoxifying activity may shed light on the chemical interactions between the symbiont and its host and between the coral and its environment. Superoxide production by Symbiodinium possibly implies that algal bearing corals are more susceptible to an internal

  7. Discovery and Analysis of Natural-Product Compounds Inhibiting Protein Synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanmei; Keniry, Megan; Palmer, Stephanie O; Bullard, James M

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation (A/T) protein synthesis system composed of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases (PheRS), ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa This system has been used for high-throughput screening of a natural-compound library. Assays were developed for each component of the system to ascertain the specific target of inhibitory compounds. In high-throughput screens, 13 compounds were identified that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.3 to >80 μM. MICs were determined for the compounds against the growth of a panel of pathogenic organisms, including Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae Three of the compounds were observed to have broad-spectrum activity and inhibited a hypersensitive strain of P. aeruginosa with MICs of 8 to 16 μg/ml. The molecular target of each of the three compounds was determined to be PheRS. One compound was found to be bacteriostatic, and one compound was bactericidal against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The third compound was observed to be bacteriostatic against Gram-positive and bactericidal against Gram-negative bacteria. All three compounds were competitive with the substrate ATP; however, one compound was competitive, one was uncompetitive, and one noncompetitive with the amino acid substrate. Macromolecular synthesis assays confirm the compounds inhibit protein synthesis. The compounds were shown to be more than 25,000-fold less active than the control staurosporine in cytotoxicity MTT testing in human cell lines. PMID:27246774

  8. Extracellular matrix production and calcium carbonate precipitation by coral cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Helman, Yael; Natale, Frank; Sherrell, Robert M; Lavigne, Michèle; Starovoytov, Valentin; Gorbunov, Maxim Y; Falkowski, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of multicellularity in animals required the production of extracellular matrices that serve to spatially organize cells according to function. In corals, three matrices are involved in spatial organization: (i) an organic ECM, which facilitates cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion; (ii) a skeletal organic matrix (SOM), which facilitates controlled deposition of a calcium carbonate skeleton; and (iii) the calcium carbonate skeleton itself, which provides the structural support for the 3D organization of coral colonies. In this report, we examine the production of these three matrices by using an in vitro culturing system for coral cells. In this system, which significantly facilitates studies of coral cell physiology, we demonstrate in vitro excretion of ECM by primary (nondividing) tissue cultures of both soft (Xenia elongata) and hard (Montipora digitata) corals. There are structural differences between the ECM produced by X. elongata cell cultures and that of M. digitata, and ascorbic acid, a critical cofactor for proline hydroxylation, significantly increased the production of collagen in the ECM of the latter species. We further demonstrate in vitro production of SOM and extracellular mineralized particles in cell cultures of M. digitata. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of Sr/Ca ratios revealed the particles to be aragonite. De novo calcification was confirmed by following the incorporation of (45)Ca into acid labile macromolecules. Our results demonstrate the ability of isolated, differentiated coral cells to undergo fundamental processes required for multicellular organization. PMID:18162537

  9. Inhibitors of Serine Proteases in Regulating the Production and Function of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Pawel; Majchrzak-Gorecka, Monika; Grygier, Beata; Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Joanna; Osiecka, Oktawia; Cichy, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), DNA webs released into the extracellular environment by activated neutrophils, are thought to play a key role in the entrapment and eradication of microbes. However, NETs are highly cytotoxic and a likely source of autoantigens, suggesting that NET release is tightly regulated. NET formation involves the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE), which cleaves histones, leading to chromatin decondensation. We and others have recently demonstrated that inhibitors of NE, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and SerpinB1, restrict NET production in vitro and in vivo. SLPI was also identified as a NET component in the lesional skin of patients suffering from the autoinflammatory skin disease psoriasis. SLPI-competent NET-like structures (a mixture of SLPI with neutrophil DNA and NE) stimulated the synthesis of interferon type I (IFNI) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in vitro. pDCs uniquely respond to viral or microbial DNA/RNA but also to nucleic acids of “self” origin with the production of IFNI. Although IFNIs are critical in activating the antiviral/antimicrobial functions of many cells, IFNIs also play a role in inducing autoimmunity. Thus, NETs decorated by SLPI may regulate skin immunity through enhancing IFNI production in pDCs. Here, we review key aspects of how SLPI and SerpinB1 can control NET production and immunogenic function. PMID:27446090

  10. Extracellular enzyme production by Rhizopus and Mucor species on solid media.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D P; Eribo, B E

    1984-01-01

    Solid media were employed to determine the presence and absence of extracellular enzyme production by two genera of fruit-rot fungi, Rhizopus and Mucor. The results of this investigation revealed that phosphatase was released into the cultural medium by all the fungi examined; however, only R. oryzae, R. tritici, M. mucedo, and M. piriformis showed the possibility of being high producers of the enzyme. Protease, urease, ribonuclease, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, at varying levels of activity, were detected, in the majority of the fungi, in the cultural medium. PMID:6370396

  11. 7-fluoroindole as an antivirulence compound against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Cho, Moo Hwan; Kim, Jung-Ae; Lee, Jintae

    2012-04-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has necessitated new therapeutic approaches for combating persistent bacterial infection. An alternative approach is regulation of bacterial virulence instead of growth suppression, which can readily lead to drug resistance. The virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa depends on a large number of extracellular factors and biofilm formation. Thirty-one natural and synthetic indole derivatives were screened. 7-fluoroindole (7FI) was identified as a compound that inhibits biofilm formation and blood hemolysis without inhibiting the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells. Moreover, 7FI markedly reduced the production of quorum-sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone, pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, two siderophores, pyoverdine and pyochelin. 7FI clearly suppressed swarming motility, protease activity and the production of a polymeric matrix in P. aeruginosa. However, unlike natural indole compounds, synthetic 7FI did not increase antibiotic resistance. Therefore, 7FI is a potential candidate for use in an antivirulence approach against persistent P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:22251040

  12. Vanadate and triclosan synergistically induce alginate production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Damron, F. Heath; Davis, Michael R.; Withers, T. Ryan; Ernst, Robert K.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Yu, Guangli; Yu, Hongwei D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Alginate overproduction by P. aeruginosa strains, also known as mucoidy, is associated with chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). It is not clear how alginate induction occurs in the wild type (wt) mucA strains. When grown on Pseudomonas isolation agar (PIA), P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 and PA14 are nonmucoid producing minimal amounts of alginate. Here we report the addition of ammonium metavanadate (AMV), a phosphatase inhibitor, to PIA (PIA-AMV) induced mucoidy in both these laboratory strains and early lung colonizing nonmucoid isolates with a wt mucA. This phenotypic switch was reversible depending on the availability of vanadate salts and triclosan, a component of PIA. Alginate induction in PAO1 on PIA-AMV was correlated with increased proteolytic degradation of MucA, and required envelope proteases AlgW or MucP, and a two-component phosphate regulator, PhoP. Other changes included the addition of palmitate to lipid A, a phenotype also observed in chronic CF isolates. Proteomic analysis revealed the upregulation of stress chaperones, which was confirmed by increased expression of the chaperone/protease MucD. Altogether, these findings suggest a model of alginate induction and the PIA-AMV medium may be suitable for examining early lung colonization phenotypes in CF before the selection of the mucA mutants. PMID:21631603

  13. Effect of environmental conditions on extracellular lipases production and fungal morphology from Aspergillus niger MYA 135.

    PubMed

    Colin, Veronica Leticia; Baigori, Mario Domingo; Pera, Licia Maria

    2010-02-01

    Under the current assay conditions, lipase production in mineral medium was only detected in the presence of vegetable oils, reaching the highest specific activity with olive oil. In this way, effect of different environmental conditions on fungal morphology and olive oil-induced extracellular lipases production from Aspergillus niger MYA 135 was studied. It was observed that addition of 1.0 g l(-1) FeCl(3)to the medium encouraged filamentous growth and increased the specific activity 6.6 fold after 4 days of incubation compared to the control. However, major novelty of this study was the satisfactory production of an acidic lipase at initial pH 3 of the culture medium (1.74 +/- 0.06 mU microg(-1)), since its potencial applications in food and pharmaceutical industry are highly promising. PMID:20082373

  14. Extracellular xylanase production by Pleurotus species on lignocellulosic wastes under in vivo condition using novel pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Pandey, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Srivastava, A K; Pandey, V K

    2012-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanase by three species of Pleurotus species i.e. P. florida, P. flabellatus and P. sajor caju was studied under in vivo condition during their cultivation on pretreated lignocellulosic wastes. Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and ashoka (Saraca indica) leaves extract were used for pretreatment of paddy straw and wheat straw. Between these two wastes, paddy straw pretreated with neem oil, supported better xylanase production than wheat straw. Initially, xylanase production was low but it increased in subsequent days and reached at peak on 25th day of cultivation of Pleurotus species. Thereafter, there was decrease in the activity of the enzyme. On 25th day of incubation P. florida produced maximum xylanase on neem oil pretreated paddy straw i.e. 10.59 Uh—1ml—1. Among the three species, P. florida showed maximum enzyme activity followed by P. flabellatus and P. sajor caju. PMID:23273208

  15. Extensive Reduction of Cell Viability and Enhanced Matrix Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Flow Biofilms Treated with a d-Amino Acid Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zoe; Tani, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 flow biofilms with a d-amino acid mixture caused significant reductions in cell biomass by 75% and cell viability by 71%. No biofilm disassembly occurred, and matrix production increased by 30%, thereby providing a thick protective cover for remaining viable or persister cells. PMID:23220960

  16. Extracellular acidification stimulates GPR68 mediated IL-8 production in human pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Vikash; Karamitri, Angeliki; Richards, Paul; Cormier, Françoise; Ramond, Cyrille; Jockers, Ralf; Armanet, Mathieu; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis are often associated with extracellular acidification and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which human β-cells sense and respond to acidic pH remain elusive. In this study, using the recently developed human β-cell line EndoC-βH2, we demonstrate that β-cells respond to extracellular acidification through GPR68, which is the predominant proton sensing receptor of human β-cells. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we provide evidence that the β-cell enriched transcription factor RFX6 is a major regulator of GPR68. Further, we show that acidic pH stimulates the production and secretion of the chemokine IL-8 by β-cells through NF-кB activation. Blocking of GPR68 or NF-кB activity severely attenuated acidification induced IL-8 production. Thus, we provide mechanistic insights into GPR68 mediated β-cell response to acidic microenvironment, which could be a new target to protect β-cell against acidosis induced inflammation. PMID:27166427

  17. Extracellular electron transfer from cathode to microbes: application for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Choi, Okkyoung; Sang, Byoung-In

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer in microorganisms has been applied for bioelectrochemical synthesis utilizing microbes to catalyze anodic and/or cathodic biochemical reactions. Anodic reactions (electron transfer from microbe to anode) are used for current production and cathodic reactions (electron transfer from cathode to microbe) have recently been applied for current consumption for valuable biochemical production. The extensively studied exoelectrogenic bacteria Shewanella and Geobacter showed that both directions for electron transfer would be possible. It was proposed that gram-positive bacteria, in the absence of cytochrome C, would accept electrons using a cascade of membrane-bound complexes such as membrane-bound Fe-S proteins, oxidoreductase, and periplasmic enzymes. Modification of the cathode with the addition of positive charged species such as chitosan or with an increase of the interfacial area using a porous three-dimensional scaffold electrode led to increased current consumption. The extracellular electron transfer from the cathode to the microbe could catalyze various bioelectrochemical reductions. Electrofermentation used electrons from the cathode as reducing power to produce more reduced compounds such as alcohols than acids, shifting the metabolic pathway. Electrofuel could be generated through artificial photosynthesis using electrical energy instead of solar energy in the process of carbon fixation. PMID:26788124

  18. Extracellular acidification stimulates GPR68 mediated IL-8 production in human pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikash; Karamitri, Angeliki; Richards, Paul; Cormier, Françoise; Ramond, Cyrille; Jockers, Ralf; Armanet, Mathieu; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis are often associated with extracellular acidification and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which human β-cells sense and respond to acidic pH remain elusive. In this study, using the recently developed human β-cell line EndoC-βH2, we demonstrate that β-cells respond to extracellular acidification through GPR68, which is the predominant proton sensing receptor of human β-cells. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we provide evidence that the β-cell enriched transcription factor RFX6 is a major regulator of GPR68. Further, we show that acidic pH stimulates the production and secretion of the chemokine IL-8 by β-cells through NF-кB activation. Blocking of GPR68 or NF-кB activity severely attenuated acidification induced IL-8 production. Thus, we provide mechanistic insights into GPR68 mediated β-cell response to acidic microenvironment, which could be a new target to protect β-cell against acidosis induced inflammation. PMID:27166427

  19. Quorum sensing systems differentially regulate the production of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1201.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuang; Zhou, Lian; Jin, Kaiming; Jiang, Haixia; He, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1201 is a newly identified rhizobacterium that produces high levels of the secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), the newly registered biopesticide Shenqinmycin. PCA production in liquid batch cultures utilizing a specialized PCA-promoting medium (PPM) typically occurs after the period of most rapid growth, and production is regulated in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. PA1201 contains two PCA biosynthetic gene clusters phz1 and phz2; both clusters contribute to PCA production, with phz2 making a greater contribution. PA1201 also contains a complete set of genes for four QS systems (LasI/LasR, RhlI/RhlR, PQS/MvfR, and IQS). By using several methods including gene deletion, the construction of promoter-lacZ fusion reporter strains, and RNA-Seq analysis, this study investigated the effects of the four QS systems on bacterial growth, QS signal production, the expression of phz1 and phz2, and PCA production. The possible mechanisms for the strain- and condition-dependent expression of phz1 and phz2 were discussed, and a schematic model was proposed. These findings provide a basis for further genetic engineering of the QS systems to improve PCA production. PMID:27456813

  20. Quorum sensing systems differentially regulate the production of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1201

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuang; Zhou, Lian; Jin, Kaiming; Jiang, Haixia; He, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1201 is a newly identified rhizobacterium that produces high levels of the secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), the newly registered biopesticide Shenqinmycin. PCA production in liquid batch cultures utilizing a specialized PCA-promoting medium (PPM) typically occurs after the period of most rapid growth, and production is regulated in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. PA1201 contains two PCA biosynthetic gene clusters phz1 and phz2; both clusters contribute to PCA production, with phz2 making a greater contribution. PA1201 also contains a complete set of genes for four QS systems (LasI/LasR, RhlI/RhlR, PQS/MvfR, and IQS). By using several methods including gene deletion, the construction of promoter-lacZ fusion reporter strains, and RNA-Seq analysis, this study investigated the effects of the four QS systems on bacterial growth, QS signal production, the expression of phz1 and phz2, and PCA production. The possible mechanisms for the strain- and condition-dependent expression of phz1 and phz2 were discussed, and a schematic model was proposed. These findings provide a basis for further genetic engineering of the QS systems to improve PCA production. PMID:27456813

  1. Influences of environmental factors on bacterial extracellular polymeric substances production in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Peng, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Bioclogging of natural porous media occurs frequently under a wide range of conditions. It may influence the performance of permeable reactive barrier and constructed wetland. It is also one of the factors that determine the effect of artificial groundwater recharge and in situ bioremediation process. In this study, a series of percolation column experiments were conducted to simulate bioclogging process in porous media. The predominant bacteria in porous media which induced clogging were identified to be Methylobacterium, Janthinobacterium, Yersinia, Staphylococcus and Acidovorax, most of which had been shown to effectively produce viscous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The column in which EPS production was maximized also coincided with the largest reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media. In addition, carbon concentration was the most significant factor to affect polysaccharide, protein and EPS secretion, followed by phosphorus concentration and temperature. The coupled effect of carbon and phosphorus concentration was also very important to stimulate polysaccharide and EPS production.

  2. Detection of a vascular permeability factor in the extracellular products of Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    Bandín, I; Santos, Y; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1992-09-01

    The presence of vascular permeability factors in the extracellular products (ECP) of 10 strains of Renibacterium salmoninarum with different geographical origin and serological characteristics are reported. All the ECP produced haemorrhagic and/or oedematous zones at the injection site with a diameter ranging from 10-30 mm. However, the ECP samples did not display toxic effect in fish at the same dose as inoculated in rabbit (180-400 micrograms protein/0.1 ml). No differences were observed in the production of this dermatotoxic factor between the two antigenic groups found in this microorganism. Whereas heating (80 and 100 degrees C/15 min) the ECP samples resulted in a complete loss of their proteolytic activity, only a decrease (but not total inactivation) of the dermatotoxic effects was detected. Therefore, although proteases could be implicated in the permeability factor, they are not totally responsible for this activity. PMID:1291845

  3. Enhancement of extracellular pullulanase production from recombinant Escherichia coli by combined strategy involving auto-induction and temperature control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Nie, Yao; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Rong

    2014-04-01

    Pullulanase was extracellularly produced with an engineered Escherichia coli with a combined strategy. When auto-induction instead of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction method was implemented, we observed increased extracellular activity (4.2 U ml(-1)) and cell biomass (7.95 g DCW l(-1)). Subsequent investigation of temperature effect on fermentation showed cultivation performed at 25 °C presented the highest extracellular titer and cell biomass. In order to reduce the extended production period, we developed a two-stage temperature control strategy. Its application not only reduced the production period from 72 to 36 h, but also further enhanced the yield of extracellular pullulanase. Finally, with a view to releasing more intracellular pullulanase, we altered cell membrane permeability with various medium additives. As a result, extracellular titer was elevated to 68.23 U ml(-1), nearly 35-fold higher than that with IPTG induction method. The combined strategy developed here may be useful for the production of other extracellular proteins by recombinant E. coli. PMID:23912330

  4. Medium factors on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and a simplifying medium for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Jidong; Han, Siqin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extensively studied. But effect of medium composition on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa was unknown. A simplifying medium facilitating anaerobic production of rhamnolipid is urgently needed for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Medium factors affecting anaerobic production of rhamnolipid were investigated using P. aeruginosa SG (Genbank accession number KJ995745). Medium composition for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa is different from that for aerobic production of rhamnolipid. Both hydrophobic substrate and organic nitrogen inhibited rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions. Glycerol and nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen source. The commonly used N limitation under aerobic conditions was not conducive to rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions because the initial cell growth demanded enough nitrate for anaerobic respiration. But rhamnolipid was also fast accumulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Sufficient phosphate was needed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) are required for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Results will contribute to isolation bacteria strains which can anaerobically produce rhamnolipid and medium optimization for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Based on medium optimization by response surface methodology and ions composition of reservoir formation water, a simplifying medium containing 70.3 g/l glycerol, 5.25 g/l NaNO3, 5.49 g/l KH2PO4, 6.9 g/l K2HPO4·3H2O and 0.40 g/l MgSO4 was designed. Using the simplifying medium, 630 mg/l of rhamnolipid was produced by SG, and the anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil to EI24 = 82.5 %. The simplifying medium was promising for in situ MEOR applications. PMID:26925616

  5. The Gac/Rsm and cyclic-di-GMP signalling networks coordinately regulate iron uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Visaggio, Daniela; Heeb, Stephan; Kaever, Volkhard; Cámara, Miguel; Visca, Paolo; Imperi, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile bacterial pathogen capable of occupying diverse ecological niches. To cope with iron limitation, P. aeruginosa secretes two siderophores, pyoverdine and pyochelin, whose ability to deliver iron to the cell is crucial for biofilm formation and pathogenicity. In this study, we describe a link between iron uptake and the Gac/Rsm system, a conserved signal transducing pathway of P. aeruginosa that controls the production of extracellular products and virulence factors, as well as the switch from planktonic to biofilm lifestyle. We have observed that pyoverdine and pyochelin production in P. aeruginosa is strongly dependent on the activation state of the Gac/Rsm pathway, which controls siderophore regulatory and biosynthetic genes at the transcriptional level, in a manner that does not involve regulation of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) expression. Gac/Rsm-mediated regulation of iron uptake genes appears to be conserved in different P. aeruginosa strains. Further experiments led to propose that the Gac/Rsm system regulates siderophore production through modulation of the intracellular levels of the second messenger c-di-GMP, indicating that the c-di-GMP and the Gac/Rsm regulatory networks essential for biofilm formation can also coordinately control iron uptake in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23796404

  6. Effect of metallo-β-lactamase production and multidrug resistance on clinical outcomes in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood stream infections (BSI) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lead to poor clinical outcomes. The worldwide emergence and spread of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing, often multidrug-resistant organisms may further aggravate this problem. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa (MBL-PA) and various other resistance phenotypes on clinical outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in three German hospitals. Medical files from 2006 until 2012 were studied, and a number of 113 patients with P. aeruginosa BSI were included. The presence of VIM, IMP and NDM genes was detected using molecular techniques. Genetic relatedness was assessed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The effect of resistance patterns or MBL production on clinical outcomes was investigated by using multivariate Cox regression models. Results In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with MBL-PA and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. However, neither BSI with MBL-PA nor BSI with various resistance phenotypes of P. aeruginosa were independently associated with mortality or length of hospital stay. In multivariate models, the SAPS II score (HR 1.046), appropriate definitive treatment (HR range 0.25-0.26), and cardiovascular disease (HR range 0.44-0.46) were independent predictors of mortality. Concomitant infections were associated with an excess length of stay (HR < 1). Conclusions Medication with appropriate antimicrobial agents at any time during the course of infection remains the key for improving clinical outcomes in patients with P. aeruginosa BSI and should be combined with a strict implementation of routine infection control measures. PMID:24176052

  7. Species-level variability in extracellular production rates of reactive oxygen species by diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Robin; Roe, Kelly; Hansel, Colleen; Voelker, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    Biological production and decay of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) likely have significant effects on the cycling of trace metals and carbon in marine systems. In this study, extracellular production rates of H2O2 and O2- were determined for five species of marine diatoms in the presence and absence of light. Production of both ROS was measured in parallel by suspending cells on filters and measuring the ROS downstream using chemiluminescence probes. In addition, the ability of these organisms to break down O2- and H2O2 was examined by measuring recovery of O2- and H2O2 added to the influent medium. O2- production rates ranged from undetectable to 7.3 x 10-16 mol cell-1 hr-1, while H2O2 production rates ranged from undetectable to 3.4 x 10-16 mol cell-1 hr-1. Results suggest that extracellular ROS production occurs through a variety of pathways even amongst organisms of the same genus. Thalassiosira spp. produced more O2- in light than dark, even when the organisms were killed, indicating that O2- is produced via a passive photochemical process on the cell surface. The ratio of H2O¬2 to O2- production rates was consistent with production of H2O2 solely through dismutation of O2- for T. oceanica, while T. pseudonana made much more H2O2 than O2 . T. weissflogii only produced H2O2 when stressed or killed. P. tricornutum cells did not make cell-associated ROS, but did secrete H2O2-producing substances into the growth medium. In all organisms, recovery rates for killed cultures (94-100% H2O2; 10-80% O2-) were consistently higher than those for live cultures (65-95% H2O2; 10-50% O2-). While recovery rates for killed cultures in H2O2 indicate that nearly all H2O2 was degraded by active cell processes, O2- decay appeared to occur via a combination of active and passive processes. Overall, this study shows that the rates and pathways for ROS production and decay vary greatly among diatom species, even between those that are

  8. Species-Level Variability in Extracellular Production Rates of Reactive Oxygen Species by Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Robin J; Roe, Kelly L; Hansel, Colleen M; Voelker, Bettina M

    2016-01-01

    Biological production and decay of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O[Formula: see text]) likely have significant effects on the cycling of trace metals and carbon in marine systems. In this study, extracellular production rates of H2O2 and O[Formula: see text] were determined for five species of marine diatoms in the presence and absence of light. Production of both ROS was measured in parallel by suspending cells on filters and measuring the ROS downstream using chemiluminescence probes. In addition, the ability of these organisms to break down O[Formula: see text] and H2O2 was examined by measuring recovery of O[Formula: see text] and H2O2 added to the influent medium. O[Formula: see text] production rates ranged from undetectable to 7.3 × 10(-16) mol cell(-1) h(-1), while H2O2 production rates ranged from undetectable to 3.4 × 10(-16) mol cell(-1) h(-1). Results suggest that extracellular ROS production occurs through a variety of pathways even amongst organisms of the same genus. Thalassiosira spp. produced more O[Formula: see text] in light than dark, even when the organisms were killed, indicating that O[Formula: see text] is produced via a passive photochemical process on the cell surface. The ratio of H2O2 to O[Formula: see text] production rates was consistent with production of H2O2 solely through dismutation of O[Formula: see text] for T. oceanica, while T. pseudonana made much more H2O2 than O[Formula: see text]. T. weissflogii only produced H2O2 when stressed or killed. P. tricornutum cells did not make cell-associated ROS, but did secrete H2O2-producing substances into the growth medium. In all organisms, recovery rates for killed cultures (94-100% H2O2; 10-80% O[Formula: see text]) were consistently higher than those for live cultures (65-95% H2O2; 10-50% O[Formula: see text]). While recovery rates for killed cultures in H2O2 indicate that nearly all H2O2 was degraded by active cell processes, O

  9. Species-Level Variability in Extracellular Production Rates of Reactive Oxygen Species by Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Robin J.; Roe, Kelly L.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Voelker, Bettina M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological production and decay of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) likely have significant effects on the cycling of trace metals and carbon in marine systems. In this study, extracellular production rates of H2O2 and O2- were determined for five species of marine diatoms in the presence and absence of light. Production of both ROS was measured in parallel by suspending cells on filters and measuring the ROS downstream using chemiluminescence probes. In addition, the ability of these organisms to break down O2- and H2O2 was examined by measuring recovery of O2- and H2O2 added to the influent medium. O2- production rates ranged from undetectable to 7.3 × 10−16 mol cell−1 h−1, while H2O2 production rates ranged from undetectable to 3.4 × 10−16 mol cell−1 h−1. Results suggest that extracellular ROS production occurs through a variety of pathways even amongst organisms of the same genus. Thalassiosira spp. produced more O2- in light than dark, even when the organisms were killed, indicating that O2- is produced via a passive photochemical process on the cell surface. The ratio of H2O2 to O2- production rates was consistent with production of H2O2 solely through dismutation of O2- for T. oceanica, while T. pseudonana made much more H2O2 than O2-. T. weissflogii only produced H2O2 when stressed or killed. P. tricornutum cells did not make cell-associated ROS, but did secrete H2O2-producing substances into the growth medium. In all organisms, recovery rates for killed cultures (94–100% H2O2; 10–80% O2-) were consistently higher than those for live cultures (65–95% H2O2; 10–50% O2-). While recovery rates for killed cultures in H2O2 indicate that nearly all H2O2 was degraded by active cell processes, O2- decay appeared to occur via a combination of active and passive processes. Overall, this study shows that the rates and pathways for ROS production and decay vary greatly among diatom species, even

  10. Extracellular α-Galactosidase from Trichoderma sp. (WF-3): Optimization of Enzyme Production and Biochemical Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Aishwarya Singh; Kumar, Arunesh; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.; Sharma, B.

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been reported earlier for their excellent capacity of secreting extracellular α-galactosidase. This communication focuses on the optimization of culture conditions for optimal production of enzyme and its characterization. The evaluation of the effects of different enzyme assay parameters such as stability, pH, temperature, substrate concentrations, and incubation time on enzyme activity has been made. The most suitable buffer for enzyme assay was found to be citrate phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 6.0) for optimal enzyme activity. This enzyme was fairly stable at higher temperature as it exhibited 72% activity at 60°C. The enzyme when incubated at room temperature up to two hours did not show any significant loss in activity. It followed Michaelis-Menten curve and showed direct relationship with varying substrate concentrations. Higher substrate concentration was not inhibitory to enzyme activity. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), maximum rate of reaction (Vmax), Kcat, and catalytic efficiency values for this enzyme were calculated from the Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot and were found to be 0.5 mM, 10 mM/s, 1.30 U mg−1, and 2.33 U mg−1 mM−1, respectively. This information would be helpful in understanding the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of extracellular α-galactosidase from other microbial sources. PMID:26609435

  11. Extracellular production of Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica lipase B with genuine primary sequence in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ujiie, Ayana; Nakano, Hideo; Iwasaki, Yugo

    2016-03-01

    An Escherichia coli expression system was established to produce recombinant extracellular Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica lipase B (CALB). With the aim of producing the genuine CALB without additional amino acid residues, the mature portion of the CALB gene was fused seamlessly to a pelB signal sequence and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using the pET system. Inducing gene expression at low temperature (20°C) was crucial for the production of active CALB; higher temperatures caused inclusion body formation. Prolonged induction for 48 h at 20°C allowed for the enzyme to be released into the culture medium, with more than half of the activity detected in the culture supernatant. A catalytically inactive CALB mutant (S105A) protein was similarly released, suggesting that the lipid-hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme was not the reason for the release. The CALB production level was further improved by optimizing the culture medium. Under the optimized conditions, the CALB in the culture supernatant amounted to 550 mg/L. The recombinant CALB was purified from the culture supernatant, yielding 5.67 mg of purified CALB from 50 mL of culture. N-terminal sequencing and ESI-MS analyses showed proper removal of the pelB signal sequence and the correct molecular weight of the protein, respectively, confirming the structural integrity of the recombinant CALB. The kinetic parameters towards p-nitrophenylbutyrate and the enantiomeric selectivity on rac-1-phenylethylacetate of the recombinant CALB were consistent with those of the authentic CALB. This is the first example of E. coli-based extracellular production of a CALB enzyme without extra amino acid residues. PMID:26272415

  12. The role of 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Jordon D.; Chen, Wei; Parnham, Stuart; Beauchesne, Kevin; Moeller, Peter; Flume, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria synchronize group behaviors using quorum sensing, which is advantageous during an infection to thwart immune cell attack and resist deleterious changes in the environment. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (Pqs) quorum-sensing system is an important component of an interconnected intercellular communication network. Two alkylquinolones, 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ) and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS), activate transcriptional regulator PqsR to promote the production of quinolone signals and virulence factors. Our work focused on the most abundant quinolone produced from the Pqs system, 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ), which was shown previously to sustain pyocyanin production and antifungal activity of P. aeruginosa. However, little is known about how DHQ affects P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. Using C. elegans as a model for P. aeruginosa infection, we found pqs mutants only able to produce DHQ maintained virulence towards the nematodes similar to wild-type. In addition, DHQ-only producing mutants displayed increased colonization of C. elegans and virulence factor production compared to a quinolone-null strain. DHQ also bound to PqsR and activated the transcription of pqs operon. More importantly, high extracellular concentration of DHQ was maintained in both aerobic and anaerobic growth. High levels of DHQ were also detected in the sputum samples of cystic fibrosis patients. Taken together, our findings suggest DHQ may play an important role in sustaining P. aeruginosa pathogenicity under oxygen-limiting conditions. PMID:26788419

  13. NG2 proteoglycan increases mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Jing; Wang Yang; Zhu, Zhonghua; Liu Jianshe; Wang Yumei; Zhang Chun; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Lang, Florian; Feng Yuxi

    2007-10-05

    As a membrane-spanning protein, NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan interacts with molecules on both sides of plasma membrane. The present study explored the role of NG2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the normal kidneys, NG2 was observed predominantly in glomerular mesangium, Bowman's capsule and interstitial vessels. Both mRNA and protein expression in kidneys was significantly higher in strepozotocin-induced diabetic rats than that in normal rats. In the cultured rat mesangial cell line HBZY-1, overexpression of NG2 promoted mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production, such as type VI collagen and laminin. Furthermore, target knockdown of NG2 resulted in decreased cell proliferation and ECM formation. The observations suggest that NG2 is up-regulated in diabetic nephropathy. It actively participates in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating proliferation of mesangial cells and deposition of ECM.

  14. Lipase and Protease Double-Deletion Mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens Suitable for Extracellular Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myunghan; Moon, Yuseok; Oh, Mi Jin; Han, Sang Bin; Park, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens, a widespread Gram-negative bacterium, is an ideal protein manufacturing factory (PMF) because of its safety, robust growth, and high protein production. P. fluorescens possesses a type I secretion system (T1SS), which mediates secretion of a thermostable lipase (TliA) and a protease (PrtA) through its ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Recombinant proteins in P. fluorescens are attached to the C-terminal signal region of TliA for transport as fusion proteins to the extracellular medium. However, intrinsic TliA from the P. fluorescens genome interferes with detection of the recombinant protein and the secreted recombinant protein is hydrolyzed, due to intrinsic PrtA, resulting in decreased efficiency of the PMF. In this research, the lipase and protease genes of P. fluorescens SIK W1 were deleted using the targeted gene knockout method. Deletion mutant P. fluorescens ΔtliA ΔprtA secreted fusion proteins without TliA or protein degradation. Using wild-type P. fluorescens as an expression host, degradation of the recombinant protein varied depending on the type of culture media and aeration; however, degradation did not occur with the P. fluorescens ΔtliA ΔprtA double mutant irrespective of growth conditions. By homologous expression of tliA and the ABC transporter in a plasmid, TliA secreted from P. fluorescens ΔprtA and P. fluorescens ΔtliA ΔprtA cells was found to be intact, whereas that secreted from the wild-type P. fluorescens and P. fluorescens ΔtliA cells was found to be hydrolyzed. Our results demonstrate that the P. fluorescens ΔtliA ΔprtA deletion mutant is a promising T1SS-mediated PMF that enhances production and detection of recombinant proteins in extracellular media. PMID:23042178

  15. Effect of herbizid and touchdown herbicides on soil fungi and on production of some extracellular enzymes.

    PubMed

    El-Said, A H M; Abdel-Hafez, S I I; Saleem, A

    2005-01-01

    Glucophilic and cellulose-decomposing fungi were significantly reduced in soil samples treated with 0.019-0.152 mg a.i./kg soil of the herbicides Herbizid and Touchdown. The decrease was regularly correlated with the doses of the two herbicides and persisted till the end of the experiment (12 weeks). The isolated fungi were found to be able to produce hydrolytic extracellular enzymes in solid media but with variable capabilities. The ability to produce enzymes was adversily affected by the incorporation of herbicides in culture media. Lower doses of herbicides were occasionally promotive to enzyme production and mycelial growth of some fungi. Incorporation of 50 ppm of Herbizid and Touchdown significantly activated amylase production and mycelial dry weight in cultures of Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor hiemalis and Penicillium chrysogenum. There was a significant increase in C1-cellulase produced by F. oxysporum and P. aurantiogriseum when cultures were treated with 50, 100 and 200 ppm of Herbizid which induced also more Cx-cellulase production by P. chrysogenum. Lipase and protease production was always lower in treated than in control fungal cultures. PMID:15957238

  16. Study on improvement of extracellular production of recombinant Thermobifida fusca cutinase by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Liu, Zhiguo; Chen, Jian; Wu, Jing

    2011-09-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most commonly used host strains for recombinant protein production. More and more research works on the production of recombinant protein indicate that extracellular production throughout a culture medium is more convenient and attractive compared to intracellular production. In present work, inducing temperature and isopropyl β-D: -1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentration were investigated to decrease the formation of inclusion body and increase the amount of soluble recombinant cutinase initially. Enzyme activity in the culture medium reached to 118.9 U/ml at 64 h of culture, and no inclusion body was detected in cytoplasm under the inducement condition of 0.2 mM IPTG and 30°C. In addition, it was found that a large amount of cutinase had been accumulated in periplasm since 16-h cultivation under the same inducement condition. Therefore, glycine and surfactant sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDOC) were further used to promote the leakage of recombinant cutinase from periplasm. Supplied with 100 mM glycine and 1 mM TDOC, the amount of cutinase in periplasm decreased remarkably, and the activity in the culture medium reached to 146.2 and 149.2 U/ml after 54 h of culturing, respectively. PMID:21594592

  17. Capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans modulate production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juliana D B; Nascimento, Michelle T C; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Morrot, Alexandre; Heise, Norton; Nunes, Marise P; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; DosReis, George A; Saraiva, Elvira M; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the in vitro modulation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps) induced in human neutrophils by the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, evaluating the participation of capsular polysaccharides glucuronoxylomanan (GXM) and glucuronoxylomannogalactan (GXMGal) in this phenomenon. The mutant acapsular strain CAP67 and the capsular polysaccharide GXMGal induced NET production. In contrast, the wild-type strain and the major polysaccharide GXM did not induce NET release. In addition, C. neoformans and the capsular polysaccharide GXM inhibited PMA-induced NET release. Additionally, we observed that the NET-enriched supernatants induced through CAP67 yeasts showed fungicidal activity on the capsular strain, and neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, collagenase and histones were the key components for the induction of NET fungicidal activity. The signaling pathways associated with NET induction through the CAP67 strain were dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD-4). Neither polysaccharide induced ROS production however both molecules blocked the production of ROS through PMA-activated neutrophils. Taken together, the results demonstrate that C. neoformans and the capsular component GXM inhibit the production of NETs in human neutrophils. This mechanism indicates a potentially new and important modulation factor for this fungal pathogen. PMID:25620354

  18. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for Extracellular Lipase Production from Aspergillus niger Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Zhi; Guo, Hongtao; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    Lipase produced by Aspergillus niger is widely used in various industries. In this study, extracellular lipase production from an industrial producing strain of A. niger was improved by medium optimization. The secondary carbon source, nitrogen source, and lipid were found to be the three most influential factors for lipase production by single-factor experiments. According to the statistical approach, the optimum values of three most influential parameters were determined: 10.5 g/L corn starch, 35.4 g/L soybean meal, and 10.9 g/L soybean oil. Using this optimum medium, the best lipase activity was obtained at 2,171 U/mL, which was 16.4% higher than using the initial medium. All these results confirmed the validity of the model. Furthermore, results of the Box-Behnken Design and quadratic models analysis indicated that the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio significantly influenced the enzyme production, which also suggested that more attention should be paid to the C/N ratio for the optimization of enzyme production. PMID:26366414

  19. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for Extracellular Lipase Production from Aspergillus niger Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Zhi; Guo, Hongtao; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    Lipase produced by Aspergillus niger is widely used in various industries. In this study, extracellular lipase production from an industrial producing strain of A. niger was improved by medium optimization. The secondary carbon source, nitrogen source, and lipid were found to be the three most influential factors for lipase production by single-factor experiments. According to the statistical approach, the optimum values of three most influential parameters were determined: 10.5 g/L corn starch, 35.4 g/L soybean meal, and 10.9 g/L soybean oil. Using this optimum medium, the best lipase activity was obtained at 2,171 U/mL, which was 16.4% higher than using the initial medium. All these results confirmed the validity of the model. Furthermore, results of the Box-Behnken Design and quadratic models analysis indicated that the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio significantly influenced the enzyme production, which also suggested that more attention should be paid to the C/N ratio for the optimization of enzyme production. PMID:26366414

  20. Extracellular enzyme production and cheating in Pseudomonas fluorescens depend on diffusion rates

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Steven D.; Lu, Lucy; Kent, Alyssa G.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria produce extracellular enzymes to obtain resources from complex chemical substrates, but this strategy is vulnerable to cheating by cells that take up reaction products without paying the cost of enzyme production. We hypothesized that cheating would suppress enzyme production in co-cultures of cheater and producer bacteria, particularly under well-mixed conditions. To test this hypothesis, we monitored protease expression and frequencies of Pseudomonas fluorescens producer and cheater genotypes over time in mixed liquid cultures and on agar plates. In mixed culture inoculated with equal frequencies of cheaters and producers, enzyme concentration declined to zero after 20 days, consistent with our hypothesis. We observed a similar decline in cultures inoculated with producers only, suggesting that cheater mutants arose de novo and swept the population. DNA sequencing showed that genetic changes most likely occurred outside the protease operon. In one experimental replicate, the population regained the ability to produce protease, likely due to further genetic changes or population dynamics. Under spatially structured conditions on agar plates, cheaters did not sweep the population. Instead, we observed a significant increase in the variation of enzyme activity levels expressed by clones isolated from the population. Together these results suggest that restricted diffusion favors a diversity of enzyme production strategies. In contrast, well-mixed conditions favor population sweeps by cheater strains, consistent with theoretical predictions. Cheater and producer strategies likely coexist in natural environments with the frequency of cheating increasing with diffusion rate. PMID:24782855

  1. Direct Regulation of Extracellular Chitinase Production by the Transcription Factor LeClp in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiyong; Chen, Hongfu; Shen, Yuemao; Du, Liangcheng; Chou, Shan-Ho; Liu, Hongxia; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2016-09-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a gram-negative bacterial biological control agent that produces abundant extracellular enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of fungal pathogens. In strain OH11, an isolate from China, the global regulator LeClp controls the production of extracellular chitinase by regulating the transcription of the chitinase-encoding gene chiA. Using a combination of bioinformatic, genetic, and biochemical methods, we show that LeClp regulates chiA transcription by directly binding to the chiA promoter region. Although LeClp appears to be important in this role, it is not the sole regulator of chiA transcription. Furthermore, the sequence analysis of putative LeClp binding sites indicated that the LeClp homolog could be involved in the regulation of extracellular chitinase production in diverse Lysobacter spp. by a mechanism similar to that in L. enzymogenes. Our findings present new insights into the molecular mechanism of LeClp in controlling extracellular chitinase activity, providing a fundamental road to elucidate how LeClp regulates the production of other extracellular lytic enzymes in L. enzymogenes. PMID:27385597

  2. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production. PMID:25277968

  3. Production of an extracellular thermohalophilic lipase from a moderately halophilic bacterium, Salinivibrio sp. strain SA-2.

    PubMed

    Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Salehghamari, Ensieh; Khajeh, Khosro; Kabiri, Mahbube; Naddaf, Saied

    2008-06-01

    Fifty strains of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from various salty environments in Iran. A strain designated as SA-2 was shown to be the best producer of extracellular lipase and was selected for further studies. Biochemical and physiological characterization along with 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed SA-2 in the genus Salinivibrio. The optimum salt, pH, temperature and aeration for enzyme production were 0.1 M KCl, pH 8, 35 degrees C and 150 rpm, respectively. The enzyme production was synchronized bacterial growth and reached a maximum level during the early-stationary phase in the basal medium containing 1 M NaCl. Triacylglycerols enhanced lipase production, while carbohydrates had inhibitory effects on it. The maximum lipase activity was obtained at pH 7.5, 50 degrees C and CaCl(2) concentration of 0.01 M. The enzyme was stable at pH range of 7.5-8 and retained 90% of its activity at 80 degrees C for 30 min. Different concentrations of NaNO(3), Na(2)SO(4), KCl and NaCl had no affect on lipase stability for 3 h. These results suggest that the lipase secreted by Salinivibrio sp. strain SA-2 is industrially important from the perspective of its tolerance to a broad temperature range, its moderate thermoactivity and its high tolerance to a wide range of salt concentrations (0-3 M NaCl). PMID:18506896

  4. Inhibitory effects of extracellular products from oral bacteria on human fibroblasts and stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Higerd, T B; Vesole, D H; Goust, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extracellular products of 12 strains of Streptococcus mutans and 5 additional species of oral bacteria were analyzed for their ability to inhibit proliferation of fibroblastoid cells (HeLa and AV3) and blast transformation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from normal individuals. Products from S. mutans strains AHT and BHT, Streptococcus intermedius, and Actinomyces viscosus inhibited [3H]thymidine uptake by fibroblastoid cells and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. Products from S. mutans E49, Streptococcus salivarius, and Actinomyces naeslundii inhibited blast transformation of human lymphocytes but did not significantly inhibit the growth of fibroblastoid cells. Preparations from S. intermedius gave the greatest inhibitory activity against both target cell types; initial characterization of this preparation suggested a single factor active in both assays, in that the heat lability and Sephadex G-200 elution profile were similar for the inhibitory activity seen with the two cell types. The molecular weight of the inhibitor, estimated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Ultragel AcA34, was approximately 160,000. The results strongly suggest that oral bacteria produce heat-labile substances that interfere with fibroblast proliferation and alter the lymphocytic immunological response. Images PMID:689736

  5. Inhibitory effects of extracellular products from oral bacteria on human fibroblasts and stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Higerd, T B; Vesole, D H; Goust, J M

    1978-08-01

    Extracellular products of 12 strains of Streptococcus mutans and 5 additional species of oral bacteria were analyzed for their ability to inhibit proliferation of fibroblastoid cells (HeLa and AV3) and blast transformation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from normal individuals. Products from S. mutans strains AHT and BHT, Streptococcus intermedius, and Actinomyces viscosus inhibited [3H]thymidine uptake by fibroblastoid cells and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. Products from S. mutans E49, Streptococcus salivarius, and Actinomyces naeslundii inhibited blast transformation of human lymphocytes but did not significantly inhibit the growth of fibroblastoid cells. Preparations from S. intermedius gave the greatest inhibitory activity against both target cell types; initial characterization of this preparation suggested a single factor active in both assays, in that the heat lability and Sephadex G-200 elution profile were similar for the inhibitory activity seen with the two cell types. The molecular weight of the inhibitor, estimated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Ultragel AcA34, was approximately 160,000. The results strongly suggest that oral bacteria produce heat-labile substances that interfere with fibroblast proliferation and alter the lymphocytic immunological response. PMID:689736

  6. Production of extracellular polysaccharide by Bacillus megaterium RB-05 using jute as substrate.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna; Adhikari, Basudam

    2011-06-01

    Bacillus megaterium RB-05 was grown on glucose and on "tossa-daisee" (Corchorus olitorius)-derived jute, and production and composition of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) were monitored. An EPS yield of 0.065 ± 0.013 and of 0.297 g ± 0.054 g(-1) substrate after 72 h was obtained for glucose and jute, respectively. EPS production in the presence of jute paralleled bacterial cellulase activity. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix assisted LASER desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the EPS synthesized in jute culture (JC) differed from that synthesized in glucose mineral salts medium (GMSM). While fucose was only a minor constituent (4.9 wt.%) of EPS from GMSM, it a major component (41.9 wt.%) of EPS synthesized in JC. This study establishes jute as an effective fermentation substrate for EPS production by a cellulase-producing bacterium. PMID:21507629

  7. Variability in the production of extracellular enzymes by entomopathogenic fungi grown on different substrates

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Valério, Henrique Maia; Feltrin, Thaisa; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are important controllers of pest-insects populations in agricultural production systems and in natural environment. These fungi have enzymatic machinery which involve since the recognition and adherence of spores in their hosts culminating with infection and death of these insects. The main objective of this study was to analyzed extracellular enzyme production of the fungi strains Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces sp when cultured on substrates. These fungi were grown in minimal media containing specific substrates for the analysis of different enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, esterases, lipases, proteases (gelatin and caseinase), pectinases and cuticles of Musca domestica larvae and adults. All the assays were performed with and without the presence of dextrose in the culture media. The quantification of enzyme activity was performed by the ratio of halo / colony (H/C) and the results subjected to variance analysis level of 5% (ANOVA) followed by post-Tukey test. All strains were positive for lipase and also they showed a high significant enzyme production for gelatin at concentrations of 4 and 1%. B. bassiana and Paecilomyces sp. were positive for amylase, pectinase and caseinase, and only Paecilomyces sp. showed cellulase activity. PMID:24031896

  8. High-level extracellular production and characterization of Candida antarctica lipase B in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Eom, Gyeong Tae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Song, Bong Keun; Chung, Keun-Wo; Kim, Young-Wun; Song, Jae Kwang

    2013-08-01

    The gene encoding lipase B from Candida antarctica (CalB) was expressed in Pichia pastoris after it was synthesized by the recursive PCR and cloned into the Pichia expression plasmid, pPICZαA. The CalB was successfully secreted in the recombinant P. pastoris strain X-33 with an apparent molecular weight of 34 kDa. For 140 h flask culture, the dry cell weight and the extracellular lipase activity reached at 5.4 g/l and 57.9 U/l toward p-nitrophenyl palmitate, respectively. When we performed the fed-batch fermentation using a methanol feeding strategy for 110 h, the dry cell weight and the extracellular lipase activity were increased to 135.7 g/l and 11,900 U/l; the CalB protein concentration was 1.18 g/l of culture supernatant. The characteristics of CalB recovered from the P. pastoris culture were compared with the commercial form of CalB produced in Aspergillus oryzae. The kinetic constants and specific activity, the effects of activity and stability on temperature and pH, the glycosylation extent, the degree of immobilization on macroporous resin and the yield of esterification reaction between oleic acid and n-butanol were almost identical to each other. Therefore, we successfully proved that the Pichia-based expression system for CalB in this study was industrially promising compared with one of the most efficient production systems. PMID:23571105

  9. Evaluating the influence of light intensity in mcyA gene expression and microcystin production in toxic strains of Planktothrix agardhii and Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Daniel; Churro, Catarina; Valério, Elisabete

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are phytoplanktonic organisms widely occurring in freshwaters, being frequently associated with the production of toxins, namely microcystins (MCs). MCs are produced non-ribosomally by a multienzyme complex (mcy genes). It has been reported that environmental factors, such as light intensity, can influence toxin production. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of light intensity in the transcription of the mcyA gene and corresponding production of microcystins in toxic isolates of Planktothrix agardhii, where little is known, and compare them to Microcystis aeruginosa. For that purpose, cultures were exposed to three different light intensities (4, 20 and 30 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) for 18 days at 20 ± 1 °C. The growth was followed daily using absorbance readings. Samples were collected at each growth stage for cell counting, microcystins quantification and RNA extraction. The level of transcripts was quantified by RT-qPCR and the relative expression determined using 16S rDNA, gltA and rpoC1 as reference genes. The most stable reference genes in M. aeruginosa were rpoC1 and gltA, whereas in P. agardhii were 16S rDNA and gltA. There was a correspondence between the growth rate and light intensity in M. aeruginosa and P. agardhii. The growth rates for both species were lower at 4 and higher at 30 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). Microcystin concentration per cell was similar between light intensities in M. aeruginosa and over time, while in P. agardhii it was higher in the stationary phase at 4 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). There were differences in the expression of mcyA between the two species. In M. aeruginosa, the highest levels of expression occurred at 4 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) in the adaptation phase, whereas for P. agardhii it was at 4μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) in the exponential growth phase. Our results indicate that the light intensities tested had distinct influences on the growth, microcystin production and mcyA expression levels

  10. Rhamnolipids Modulate Swarming Motility Patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Caiazza, Nicky C.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; O'Toole, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of twitching, swimming, and swarming motility. The latter form of translocation occurs on semisolid surfaces, requires functional flagella and biosurfactant production, and results in complex motility patterns. From the point of inoculation, bacteria migrate as defined groups, referred to as tendrils, moving in a coordinated manner capable of sensing and responding to other groups of cells. We were able to show that P. aeruginosa produces extracellular factors capable of modulating tendril movement, and genetic analysis revealed that modulation of these movements was dependent on rhamnolipid biosynthesis. An rhlB mutant (deficient in mono- and dirhamnolipid production) and an rhlC mutant (deficient in dirhamnolipid production) exhibited altered swarming patterns characterized by irregularly shaped tendrils. In addition, agar supplemented with rhamnolipid-containing spent supernatant inhibited wild-type (WT) swarming, whereas agar supplemented with spent supernatant from mutants that do not make rhamnolipids had no effect on WT P. aeruginosa swarming. Addition of purified rhamnolipids to swarming medium also inhibited swarming motility of the WT strain. We also show that a sadB mutant does not sense and/or respond to other groups of swarming cells and this mutant was capable of swarming on media supplemented with rhamnolipid-containing spent supernatant or purified rhamnolipids. The abilities to produce and respond to rhamnolipids in the context of group behavior are discussed. PMID:16237018

  11. Detection of elastase production in Escherichia coli with the elastase structural gene from several non-elastase-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, E; Kawamoto, S; Fukushima, J; Hamajima, K; Onishi, H; Miyagi, Y; Inami, S; Morihara, K; Okuda, K

    1991-01-01

    The elastase structural gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455 has been cloned and sequenced. Using this gene as a probe, we cloned the DNA fragments (pEL3080R, pEL10, and pEL103R) of the elastase gene from non-elastase-producing strains (P. aeruginosa IFO 3080, N-10, and PA103 respectively). These three Pseudomonas strains showed no detectable levels of elastase antigenicity by Western blotting (immunoblotting) or by elastase activity. When elastase structural genes about 8 kb in length were cloned into pUC18, an Escherichia coli expression vector, we were able to detect both elastase antigenicity and elastolytic activity in two bacterial clones (E. coli pEL10 and E. coli pEL103R). However, neither elastolytic activity nor elastase antigenicity was detected in the E. coli pEL3080R clone, although elastase mRNA was observed. The partial restriction map determined with several restriction enzymes of these three structural genes corresponded to that of P. aeruginosa IFO 3455. We sequenced the three DNA segments of the elastase gene from non-elastase-producing strains and compared the sequences with those from the elastase-producing P. aeruginosa strains IFO 3455 and PAO1. In P. aeruginosa N-10 and PA103, the sequences were almost identical to those from elastase-producing strains, except for several nucleotide differences. These minor differences may reflect a microheterogeneity of the elastase gene. These results suggest that two of the non-elastase-producing strains have the normal elastase structural gene and that elastase production is repressed by regulation of this gene expression in P. aeruginosa. Possible reasons for the lack of expression in these two strains are offered in this paper. In P. aeruginosa IFO 3080, the sequence had a 1-base deletion in the coding region, which should have caused a frameshift variation in the amino acid sequence. At present, we have no explanation for the abnormal posttransciptional behavior of this strain. Images PMID

  12. Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some being used as biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium utilizing larch xylan as a sole carbon substrate. Four of the tested isolates produced reasonably high levels of esterase activity, while the atoxigenic biocontrol agent NRRL 21882 isolate esterase level was significantly lower than the others. Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious levels of pectinolytic activity when grown on a pectin medium. The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other tested isolates. In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of endopolygalacturonase (pectinase) P2c, as ascertained by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Isolate NRRL 21882 displayed low levels of both pectinase P2c and pectin methyl esterase. A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of atoxigenic isolates to produce xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases mimics that of toxigenic isolates and, therefore, contributes to the ability of atoxigenic isolates to occupy the same niche as A. flavus toxigenic isolates. PMID:26295409

  13. Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Jay E

    2015-08-01

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some being used as biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium utilizing larch xylan as a sole carbon substrate. Four of the tested isolates produced reasonably high levels of esterase activity, while the atoxigenic biocontrol agent NRRL 21882 isolate esterase level was significantly lower than the others. Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious levels of pectinolytic activity when grown on a pectin medium. The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other tested isolates. In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of endopolygalacturonase (pectinase) P2c, as ascertained by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Isolate NRRL 21882 displayed low levels of both pectinase P2c and pectin methyl esterase. A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of atoxigenic isolates to produce xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases mimics that of toxigenic isolates and, therefore, contributes to the ability of atoxigenic isolates to occupy the same niche as A. flavus toxigenic isolates. PMID:26295409

  14. The combined eff ects of Dolichospermum flos-aquae, light, and temperature on microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruoqi; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Jiadong; Zheng, Hongye; Shen, Fei; Xue, Yarong; Liu, Changhong

    2016-03-01

    The eff ects of light, temperature, and coculture on the intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) quota of Microcystis aeruginosa were evaluated based on coculture experiments with nontoxic Dolichospermum (Anabaena) flos-aquae. The MC-LR quota and transcription of mcyB and mcyD genes encoding MC synthetases in M. aeruginosa were evaluated on the basis of cell counts, high-performance liquid chromatography, and reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The MC-LR quotas of M. aeruginosa in coculture with a 1/1 ratio of inoculum of the two species were significantly lower relative to monocultures 6-d after inoculation. Decreased MC-LR quotas under coculture conditions were enhanced by increasing the D. flos-aquae to M. aeruginosa ratio in the inoculum and by environmental factors, such as temperature and light intensity. Moreover, the transcriptional concentrations of mcyB and mcyD genes in M. aeruginosa were significantly inhibited by D. flos-aquae competition in coculture (P <0.01), lowered to 20% of initial concentrations within 8 days. These data suggested that coculture eff ects by D. flos-aquae not only reduced M. aeruginosa's intracellular MC-LR quota via inhibition of genes encoding MC synthetases, but also that this eff ect was regulated by environmental factors, including temperature and light intensities.

  15. Vaccination of channel catfish with extracellular products of Aeromonas hydrophila provides protection against infection by the pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium, is one of the economically-important pathogens in modern aquaculture. Among various traits, extracellular products (ECP) secreted by the bacterium are considered to be essential factors for virulence. Whether vaccination with the ECP could produce imm...

  16. Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulence of three 2009 West Alabama isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila in the presence or absence of extracellular products (ECP) from overnight bacterial culture to channel catfish fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3g) was investigated by both bath immersion and intraperitoneal ...

  17. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum and Metallo β-Lactamase Production in AmpC β-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates From Burns

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Roya; Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Tabatabaei, Seyyed Ahmad; Minaee Tehrani, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. Resistance of P. aeruginosa to β-lactam antibiotics may be the result of acquired resistance through mutation and over production of various antibiotic inactivating enzymes. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and metallo β-lactamase (MBL) production as well as the presence of their related genes among AmpC β-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa isolated from burns. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of class A ESBL and MBL production in relation to the presence of their related genes among AmpC β-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa isolated from burns. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial susceptibility of 51 P. aeruginosa isolates from patients with burns was examined against 13 antibiotics by the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for imipenem and ceftazidime were measured by the microdilution method. AmpC production was detected by AmpC disc and the modified three-dimensional extract tests. ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disc synergy test (DDST). Presence of β-lactamase genes was detected by specific primers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: All isolates were multidrug resistant. AmpC, ESBL and MBL production were observed in 35 (68.6%), 20 (39.2%) and 19 (37.3%) isolates, respectively. Overall, 43 isolates (84.3%) carried β-lactamase genes, out of which 31 (60.8%) harbored blaAmpC, 20 (39.2%) had blaTEM and 11 (21.6%) carried blaPER-1 genes. Among the AmpC producers, two isolates (6.5%) carried blaAmpC + blaESBL, 13 (41.9%) had blaAmpC + blaMBL and six (19.4%) produced the three enzymes. Conclusions: A high prevalence of multiple β-lactamase production was observed among the AmpC producers (60%), of which the majority co-produced AmpC and MBL. The current study results showed correlation between β-lactamase production and the

  18. Production of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa neuraminidase is increased under hyperosmolar conditions and is regulated by genes involved in alginate expression.

    PubMed Central

    Cacalano, G; Kays, M; Saiman, L; Prince, A

    1992-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex process attributed to specific characteristics of both the host and the infecting organism. In this study, the properties of the PAO1 neuraminidase were examined to determine its potential role in facilitating Pseudomonas colonization of the respiratory epithelium. The PAO1 neuraminidase was 1000-fold more active than the Clostridium perfringens enzyme in releasing sialic acid from respiratory epithelial cells. This effect correlated with increased adherence of PAO1 to epithelial cells after exposure to PAO1 neuraminidase and was consistent with in vitro studies demonstrating Pseudomonas adherence to asialoganglioside receptors. The regulation of the neuraminidase gene nanA was examined in Pseudomonas and as cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. In hyperosmolar conditions neuraminidase expression was increased by 50% (P less than 0.0004), an effect which was OmpR dependent in E. coli. In Pseudomonas the osmotic regulation of neuraminidase production was dependent upon algR1 and algR2, genes involved in the transcriptional activation of algD, which is responsible for the mucoid phenotype of Pseudomonas and pathognomonic for chronic infection in CF. Under the hyperosmolar conditions postulated to exist in the CF lung, nanA is likely to be expressed to facilitate the initial adherence of Pseudomonas to the respiratory tract. Images PMID:1601994

  19. Growth-dependent alterations in production of serotype-specific and common antigen lipopolysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed Central

    McGroarty, E J; Rivera, M

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was grown in various media and at different temperatures, and the heterogeneity of the extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The size distributions of the serotype-specific LPS and the common antigen LPS were analyzed on Western blots (immunoblots). Cells grown at high, near-growth-limiting temperatures, at low pH, in low concentrations of phosphate, or in high concentrations of NaCl, MgCl2, glycerol, or sucrose produced decreased amounts of the very long chain population of O-antigen LPS molecules. Lower temperatures and lowered glycerol, lowered sucrose, low sulfate, lower salt concentrations, and elevated pH did not significantly affect the level of this LPS population. The size and amount of common antigen LPS was either unaffected or increased slightly when the cells were grown under the above stress conditions. Cells grown under normal, nonstressed conditions were agglutinated only by serotype-specific antibodies. In contrast, cells grown under stress conditions, in which the long-O-polymer LPS was absent, were agglutinated by both serotype-specific and common antigen-specific antibodies. The results indicate that the long O polymers cover and mask the shorter common antigen. However, specific growth conditions limit the production of the long O polymer, allowing the exposure and reactivity of the common antigen on the cell surface. Images PMID:2108085

  20. Production of Lysozyme by Staphylococci and Its Correlation with Three Other Extracellular Substances1

    PubMed Central

    Jay, James M.

    1966-01-01

    Jay, James M. (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.). Production of lysozyme by staphylococci and its correlation with three other extracellular substances. J. Bacteriol. 91:1804–1810. 1966.—Lysozyme production was determined on plates containing 1 mg/ml of Lysozyme Substrate in Heart Infusion Agar with incubation at 37 C for 48 hr. Its production was compared with that of α-hemolysin and sheep hemolysin and egg-yolk precipitation, by use of both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative strains of staphylococci. Of 126 coagulase-positive strains tested, 120 or 95.2% produced lysozyme, 117 or 92.9% produced α-hemolysin, 108 or 85.7% precipitated egg yolk, and 102 or 81% produced sheep hemolysin. Of the 49 coagulase-negative strains (which included 22 pathogens), only 4 or 8.1% produced lysozyme, 14 or 28.6% produced α-hemolysin, 13 or 26.5% produced sheep hemolysins, and 5 or 10.2% precipitated egg yolk. Only two of the six coagulase-positive strains which failed to produce lysozyme showed any consistent patterns in relation to the four characteristics determined. The four coagulase-negative strains which produced lysozyme were inconsistent for the other characteristics measured. It is suggested that lysozyme production is more a property of coagulase-positive staphylococci, and therefore a better ancillary test of pathogenicity, than either production of α-hemolysin or egg-yolk precipitation, because the incidence of lysozyme producers is higher among this group than among those producing the other substances and because fewer coagulase-negative staphylococci produced lysozyme than hemolysins or egg-yolk precipitation. Of 16 other species of bacteria and yeasts tested, all were found negative except Bacillus subtilis. Lysozyme production by staphylococci in heavily contaminated foods was not inhibited on plates containing sodium azide, whereas media containing 7.5% salt and sorbic acid were unsuitable. The possible relationship of lysozyme production to

  1. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  2. Inquisition of Microcystis aeruginosa and Synechocystis nanowires: characterization and modelling.

    PubMed

    Sure, Sandeep; Torriero, Angel A J; Gaur, Aditya; Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Ackland, M Leigh; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-11-01

    Identification of extracellular conductive pilus-like structures (PLS) i.e. microbial nanowires has spurred great interest among scientists due to their potential applications in the fields of biogeochemistry, bioelectronics, bioremediation etc. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we identified microbial nanowires in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 which is an aerobic, photosynthetic microorganism. We also confirmed the earlier finding that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 produces microbial nanowires. In contrast to the use of highly instrumented continuous flow reactors for Synechocystis reported earlier, we identified simple and optimum culture conditions which allow increased production of nanowires in both test cyanobacteria. Production of these nanowires in Synechocystis and Microcystis were found to be sensitive to the availability of carbon source and light intensity. These structures seem to be proteinaceous in nature and their diameter was found to be 4.5-7 and 8.5-11 nm in Synechocystis and M. aeruginosa, respectively. Characterization of Synechocystis nanowires by transmission electron microscopy and biochemical techniques confirmed that they are type IV pili (TFP) while nanowires in M. aeruginosa were found to be similar to an unnamed protein (GenBank : CAO90693.1). Modelling studies of the Synechocystis TFP subunit i.e. PilA1 indicated that strategically placed aromatic amino acids may be involved in electron transfer through these nanowires. This study identifies PLS from Microcystis which can act as nanowires and supports the earlier hypothesis that microbial nanowires are widespread in nature and play diverse roles. PMID:26319534

  3. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K.L.N.; Siva Raju, K.; Ravisankar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  4. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  5. High-yield production of extracellular type-I cellulose by the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chi; Li, Zhongkui; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yingjiao; Bryant, Donald A; Zhao, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose synthase, encoded by the cesA gene, is responsible for the synthesis of cellulose in nature. We show that the cell wall of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 naturally contains cellulose. Cellulose occurs as a possibly laminated layer between the inner and outer membrane, as well as being an important component of the extracellular glycocalyx in this cyanobacterium. Overexpression of six genes, cmc-ccp-cesAB-cesC-cesD-bgl, from Gluconacetobacter xylinus in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 resulted in very high-yield production of extracellular type-I cellulose. High-level cellulose production only occurred when the native cesA gene was inactivated and when cells were grown at low salinity. This system provides a method for the production of lignin-free cellulose from sunlight and CO2 for biofuel production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:27462405

  6. High-yield production of extracellular type-I cellulose by the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chi; Li, Zhongkui; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yingjiao; Bryant, Donald A; Zhao, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose synthase, encoded by the cesA gene, is responsible for the synthesis of cellulose in nature. We show that the cell wall of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 naturally contains cellulose. Cellulose occurs as a possibly laminated layer between the inner and outer membrane, as well as being an important component of the extracellular glycocalyx in this cyanobacterium. Overexpression of six genes, cmc–ccp–cesAB–cesC–cesD–bgl, from Gluconacetobacter xylinus in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 resulted in very high-yield production of extracellular type-I cellulose. High-level cellulose production only occurred when the native cesA gene was inactivated and when cells were grown at low salinity. This system provides a method for the production of lignin-free cellulose from sunlight and CO2 for biofuel production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:27462405

  7. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa E03-12.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy-polyols are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...

  8. Regulation of Motility and Phenazine Pigment Production by FliA Is Cyclic-di-GMP Dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Ling; Shen, Lunda; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Bhuwan, Manish; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Hwan-You

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor FliA, also called sigma 28, is a major regulator of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis genes. Growing evidence suggest that in addition to motility, FliA is involved in controlling numerous bacterial behaviors, even though the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. By using a transcriptional fusion to gfp that responds to cyclic (c)-di-GMP, this study revealed a higher c-di-GMP concentration in the fliA deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in its wild-type strain PAO1. A comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its fliA deletion mutant revealed an altered expression of several c-di-GMP-modulating enzyme-encoding genes in the fliA deletion mutant. Moreover, the downregulation of PA4367 (bifA), a Glu-Ala-Leu motif-containing phosphodiesterase, in the fliA deletion mutant was confirmed using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene assay. FliA also altered pyocyanin and pyorubin production by modulating the c-di-GMP concentration. Complementing the fliA mutant strain with bifA restored the motility defect and pigment overproduction of the fliA mutant. Our results indicate that in addition to regulating flagellar gene transcription, FliA can modulate the c-di-GMP concentration to regulate the swarming motility and phenazine pigment production in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27175902

  9. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir.

    PubMed

    Huang, Winn-Jung; Lai, Chun-Hsi; Cheng, Yung-Ling

    2007-05-15

    The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test. PMID:17391736

  10. Fractionation and characterization of the immunosuppressive substance in crude extracellular products released by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed Central

    Arala-Chaves, M P; Porto, M T; Arnaud, P; Saraiva, M J; Geada, H; Patrick, C C; Fudenberg, H H

    1981-01-01

    The noncytotoxic immunosuppressive substance detected in crude extracellular products of Streptococcus intermedius (CEP-SI) was fractionated by two steps of preparative isoelectric focusing in sucrose gradients using ampholytes of pH range from 3.5 to 6 and 4 to 5, respectively. The in vitro and in vivo suppressor effects of the most highly purified fraction of CEP-Si, designated fraction 3' (F3'EP-Si), corresponded well with those of the original CEP-Si. F3'EP-Si was sensitive to the effects of alpha, gamma, and delta chymotrypsin, trypsin, and heating. It contained approximately 1% of the total amount of protein found in the original CEP-Si, corresponding to a single band on analytical isoelectric focusing, stainable by Coomassie Blue and of isoelectric point of 4.25. The absorption spectrum of F3'EP-Si had a maximum at 260 nm but its biological activity was resistant to deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease A and it did not contain material stainable by methylene blue. It was also resistant to neuraminidase and did not contain material stainable by periodic acid schiff. We conclude that the substance responsible for the suppressor activity of CEP-Si is a protein of molecular weight approximately 90,000, which adheres to Sephadex of cellulose acetate and forms complexes with other, nonactive constituents of CEP-Si. Images PMID:6454698

  11. Lipolytic Potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01: Production, Partial Purification, and Characterisation of an Extracellular Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Lívia Tereza Andrade; Oliveira, Jamil S.; dos Santos, Vera L.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Santoro, Marcelo M.; Resende, Rodrigo R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01 was investigated by describing the catalytic properties and stability of a secreted extracellular lipase. Enzyme production was considered high under room temperature after 4 days using sunflower oil and a combination of casein with sodium nitrate. Lipase was partially purified by 3.9-fold, resulting in a 44.2% yield using ammonium sulphate precipitation (60%) quantified with Superose 12 HR gel filtration chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was maximised at pH 8.5, and the enzyme demonstrated stability under alkaline conditions. The optimum temperature was found to be 45°C, and the enzyme was stable for up to 100 minutes, with more than 80% of initial activity remaining after incubation at this temperature. Partially purified enzyme showed reasonable stability with triton X-100 and was activated in the presence of organic solvents (toluene, hexane, and methanol). Among the tested ions, only Cu2+, Ni2+, and Al3+ showed inhibitory effects. Substrate specificity of the lipase was higher for C14 among various p-nitrophenyl esters assayed. The KM and Vmax values of the purified enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 0.13 mM and 12.58 umol/(L·min), respectively. These features render a novel biocatalyst for industrial applications. PMID:25530954

  12. A process for extracellular thermostable lipase production by a novel Bacillus thermoamylovorans strain.

    PubMed

    Deive, Francisco J; Álvarez, María S; Morán, Paloma; Sanromán, M Angeles; Longo, María A

    2012-08-01

    A lipolytic enzyme-producing thermophilic microorganism, recently isolated from a hot spring in Galicia (North Western Spain), has been investigated. First, the strain was genetically identified and tentatively named Bacillus thermoamylovorans CH6B. It produced significant levels (around 450 U/L) of extracellular lipolytic activity in shake flask cultures, and the most suitable conditions for this biological process were found at temperatures between 50 and 55 °C, and an initial pH value around 7.0. Next, a preliminary scaling up of the process was carried out in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor, and it was concluded that operation at agitation and aeration rates of 300 rpm and 0.33 vvm, respectively, were advisable. In both type of cultures, the results were successfully fitted to logistic equations, and the relationship between lipase production and cell growth was investigated. Furthermore, some relevant properties of the crude lipolytic enzyme extracts were assessed. The crude biocatalyst preferentially hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl esters of medium and long-chain fatty acids. Thermal stability in aqueous solution of the produced enzyme was also promising, and the deactivation profiles were fitted to a series-type deactivation model. PMID:22237683

  13. Bioremediation of Direct Blue 14 and Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzyme Production by White Rot Fungi: Pleurotus Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. P.; Vishwakarma, S. K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, four species of white rot fungi (Pleurotus), that is, P. flabellatus, P. florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju were used for decolorization of direct blue 14 (DB14). Among all four species of Pleurotus, P. flabellatus showed the fastest decolorization in petri plates on different concentration, that is, 200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 600 mg/L. All these four species were also evaluated for extracellular ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production and it was observed that the twelve days old culture of P. flabellatus showed the maximum enzymatic activity, that is, 915.7 U/mL and 769.2 U/mL of laccase and manganese peroxidase, respectively. Other three Pleurotus species took more time for dye decolorization and exhibited less enzymatic activities. The rate of decolorization of DB14 dye solution (20 mg/L) by crude enzymes isolated from P. flabellatus was very fast, and it was observed that up to 90.39% dye solution was decolorized in 6 hrs of incubation. PMID:23841054

  14. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Suppresses Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and MPO-ANCA Production

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Daigo; Shida, Haruki; Hattanda, Fumihiko; Miyoshi, Arina; Masuda, Sakiko; Nishio, Saori; Tomaru, Utano; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis, wherein, MPO-ANCA plays a critical role in the pathogenesis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released from activated neutrophils are composed of extracellular web-like DNA and antimicrobial proteins, including MPO. Diverse stimuli, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ligands of toll-like receptors (TLR), induce NETs. Although TLR-mediated NET formation can occur with preservation of living neutrophilic functions (called vital NETosis), PMA-stimulated neutrophils undergo cell death with NET formation (called suicidal NETosis). In the process of suicidal NETosis, histones are citrullinated by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Since this step is necessary for decondensation of DNA, PAD4 plays a pivotal role in suicidal NETosis. Although NETs are essential for elimination of microorganisms, excessive formation of NETs has been suggested to be implicated in MPO-ANCA production. This study aimed to determine if pan-PAD inhibitors could suppress MPO-ANCA production in vivo. At first, NETs were induced in peripheral blood neutrophils derived from healthy donors (1 × 106/ml) by stimulation with 20 nM PMA with or without 20 μM propylthiouracil (PTU), an anti-thyroid drug. We then determined that the in vitro NET formation was inhibited completely by 200 μM Cl-amidine, a pan-PAD inhibitor. Next, we established mouse models with MPO-ANCA production. BALB/c mice were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of PMA (50 ng at days 0 and 7) and oral PTU (2.5 mg/day) for 2 weeks. These mice were divided into two groups; the first group was given daily i.p. injection of PBS (200 μl/day) (n = 13) and the other group with daily i.p. injection of Cl-amidine (0.3 mg/200 μl PBS/day) (n = 7). Two weeks later, citrullination as an indicator of NET formation in the peritoneum and serum MPO-ANCA titer was compared

  15. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Suppresses Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and MPO-ANCA Production.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Daigo; Shida, Haruki; Hattanda, Fumihiko; Miyoshi, Arina; Masuda, Sakiko; Nishio, Saori; Tomaru, Utano; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis, wherein, MPO-ANCA plays a critical role in the pathogenesis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released from activated neutrophils are composed of extracellular web-like DNA and antimicrobial proteins, including MPO. Diverse stimuli, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ligands of toll-like receptors (TLR), induce NETs. Although TLR-mediated NET formation can occur with preservation of living neutrophilic functions (called vital NETosis), PMA-stimulated neutrophils undergo cell death with NET formation (called suicidal NETosis). In the process of suicidal NETosis, histones are citrullinated by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Since this step is necessary for decondensation of DNA, PAD4 plays a pivotal role in suicidal NETosis. Although NETs are essential for elimination of microorganisms, excessive formation of NETs has been suggested to be implicated in MPO-ANCA production. This study aimed to determine if pan-PAD inhibitors could suppress MPO-ANCA production in vivo. At first, NETs were induced in peripheral blood neutrophils derived from healthy donors (1 × 10(6)/ml) by stimulation with 20 nM PMA with or without 20 μM propylthiouracil (PTU), an anti-thyroid drug. We then determined that the in vitro NET formation was inhibited completely by 200 μM Cl-amidine, a pan-PAD inhibitor. Next, we established mouse models with MPO-ANCA production. BALB/c mice were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of PMA (50 ng at days 0 and 7) and oral PTU (2.5 mg/day) for 2 weeks. These mice were divided into two groups; the first group was given daily i.p. injection of PBS (200 μl/day) (n = 13) and the other group with daily i.p. injection of Cl-amidine (0.3 mg/200 μl PBS/day) (n = 7). Two weeks later, citrullination as an indicator of NET formation in the peritoneum and serum MPO-ANCA titer was compared

  16. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa oxidative stress regulator OxyR influences production of pyocyanin and rhamnolipids: protective role of pyocyanin.

    PubMed

    Vinckx, Tiffany; Wei, Qing; Matthijs, Sandra; Cornelis, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) OxyR orchestrates the defence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa against reactive oxygen species. In previous work we also demonstrated that OxyR is needed for the utilization of the ferrisiderophore pyoverdine, stressing the importance of this regulator. Here, we show that an oxyR mutant is unable to swarm on agar plates, probably as a consequence of absence of production of rhamnolipid surfactant molecules. Another obvious phenotypic change was the increased production of the phenazine redox-active molecule pyocyanin in the oxyR mutant. As already described, the oxyR mutant could not grow in LB medium, unless high numbers of cells (>10( 8) ml(-1)) were inoculated. However, its growth in Pseudomonas P agar (King's A), a medium inducing pyocyanin production, was like that of the wild-type, suggesting a protective action of this redox-active phenazine compound. This was confirmed by the restoration of the capacity to grow in LB medium upon addition of pure pyocyanin. Although both rhamnolipid and pyocyanin production are controlled by quorum sensing, no obvious changes were observed in the production of N-acylhomoserine lactones or the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Complementation of rhamnolipid production and motility, and restoration of normal pyocyanin levels, was only possible when the oxyR gene was in single copy, while pyocyanin levels were increased when oxyR was present in a multicopy vector. Conversely, plating efficiency was increased only when the oxyR gene was present in multicopy, but not when in single copy in the chromosome, due to lower expression of oxyR compared with the wild-type, suggesting that some phenotypes are differently affected in function to the levels of OxyR molecules in the cell. Analysis of transcripts of oxidative stress-response enzymes showed a strong decrease of katB, ahpC and ahpB expression in the oxyR mutant grown in LB, but this was not the case when the

  17. Blow fly Lucilia sericata nuclease digests DNA associated with wound slough/eschar and with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Brown, A; Horobin, A; Blount, D G; Hill, P J; English, J; Rich, A; Williams, P M; Pritchard, D I

    2012-12-01

    In chronic wounds, it may be clinically important to remove extracellular bacterial and patient DNA as its presence may impede wound healing and promote bacterial survival in biofilm, in which extracellular DNA forms part of the biofilm architecture. As medicinal maggots, larvae of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) have been shown to efficiently debride wounds it became of interest to investigate their excretions/secretions (ES) for the presence of a deoxyribonuclease (DNAse) activity. Excretions/secretions products were shown to contain a DNAse, with magnesium, sodium and calcium metal ion dependency, and a native molecular mass following affinity purification of approximately 45 kDa. The affinity purified DNAse degraded genomic bacterial DNA per se, DNA from the slough/eschar of a venous leg ulcer, and extracellular bacterial DNA in biofilms pre-formed from a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The latter finding highlights an important attribute of the DNAse, given the frequency of P. aeruginosa infection in non-healing wounds and the fact that P. aeruginosa virulence factors can be toxic to maggots. Maggot DNAse is thus a competent enzyme derived from a rational source, with the potential to assist in clinical wound debridement by removing extracellular DNA from tissue and biofilm, and promoting tissue viability, while liberating proteinaceous slough/eschar for debridement by the suite of proteinases secreted by L. sericata. PMID:22827809

  18. High Throughput Screen Identifies Natural Product Inhibitor of Phenylalanyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanmei; Palmer, Stephanie O; Munoz, Hector; Bullard, James M

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae are causative agents in a wide range of infections. Genes encoding proteins corresponding to phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) were cloned from both bacteria. The two forms of PheRS were kinetically evaluated and the K(m)'s for P. aeruginosa PheRS with its three substrates, phenylalanine, ATP and tRNA(Phe) were determined to be 48, 200, and 1.2 µM, respectively, while the K(m)'s for S. pneumoniae PheRS with respect to phenylalanine, ATP and tRNA(Phe) were 21, 225 and 0.94 µM, respectively. P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae PheRS were used to screen a natural compound library and a single compound was identified that inhibited the function of both enzymes. The compound inhibited P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae PheRS with IC50's of 2.3 and 4.9 µM, respectively. The compound had a K(I) of 0.83 and 0.98 µM against P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae PheRS, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compound was determined against a panel of Gram positive and negative bacteria including efflux pump mutants and hyper-sensitive strains. MICs against wild-type P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae cells in culture were determined to be 16 and 32 µg/ml, respectively. The mechanism of action of the compound was determined to be competitive with the amino acid, phenylalanine, and uncompetitive with ATP. There was no inhibition of cytoplasmic protein synthesis, however, partial inhibition of the human mitochondrial PheRS was observed. PMID:25601215

  19. Impact of quorum sensing on fitness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Heurlier, Karin; Dénervaud, Valérie; Haas, Dieter

    2006-04-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell-cell communication based on N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules (termed quorum sensing) is known to control the production of extracellular virulence factors. Hence, in pathogenic interactions with host organisms, the quorum-sensing (QS) machinery can confer a selective advantage on P. aeruginosa. However, as shown by transcriptomic and proteomic studies, many intracellular metabolic functions are also regulated by quorum sensing. Some of these serve to regenerate the AHL precursors methionine and S-adenosyl-methionine and to degrade adenosine via inosine and hypoxanthine. The fact that a significant percentage of clinical and environmental isolates of P. aeruginosa is defective for QS because of mutation in the major QS regulatory gene lasR, raises the question of whether the QS machinery can have a negative impact on the organism's fitness. In vitro, lasR mutants have a higher probability to escape lytic death in stationary phase under alkaline conditions than has the QS-proficient wild type. Similar selective forces might also operate in natural environments. PMID:16503417

  20. Indole and 7-hydroxyindole diminish Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jintae; Attila, Can; Cirillo, Suat L G; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Wood, Thomas K

    2009-01-01

    Indole is an extracellular biofilm signal for Escherichia coli, and many bacterial oxygenases readily convert indole to various oxidized compounds including 7-hydroxyindole (7HI). Here we investigate the impact of indole and 7HI on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence and quorum sensing (QS)-regulated phenotypes; this strain does not synthesize these compounds but degrades them rapidly. Indole and 7HI both altered extensively gene expression in a manner opposite that of acylhomoserine lactones; the most repressed genes encode the mexGHI-opmD multidrug efflux pump and genes involved in the synthesis of QS-regulated virulence factors including pyocyanin (phz operon), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) signal (pqs operon), pyochelin (pch operon) and pyoverdine (pvd operon). Corroborating these microarray results, indole and 7HI decreased production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, PQS and pyoverdine and enhanced antibiotic resistance. In addition, indole affected the utilization of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and 7HI abolished swarming motility. Furthermore, 7HI reduced pulmonary colonization of P. aeruginosa in guinea pigs and increased clearance in lungs. Hence, indole-related compounds have potential as a novel antivirulence approach for the recalcitrant pathogen P. aeruginosa. PMID:21261883

  1. Experimental investigation and optimization of process variables affecting the production of extracellular lipase by Kluyveromyces marxianus IFO 0288.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Foukis, Athanasios; Sklivaniti, Helen; Zacharaki, Paraskevi; Papagianni, Maria; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the production and optimization of extracellular lipase from Kluyveromyces marxianus IFO 0288 was investigated by using optimized nutritional and cultural conditions in a yeast medium containing glucose as the carbon source in fully aerobic batch fermentation (150 rpm). The influence of four fermentation parameters (type of lipidic source, initial culture pH, temperature, and length of fermentation) on growth and lipase production was investigated and evaluated using the conventional "one variable at a time" approach and response surface methodology. An 18-fold increase in lipase production during 65 h of fermentation was obtained with optimized nutritional (0.5 % olive oil) and cultivation (pH 6.5, 35 °C) conditions by employing the conventional optimization method. By applying the response surface methodology technique the initial pH value of 6.4 and temperature of 32.5 °C were identified as optimal and led to further improvements (up to 18-fold) of extracellular lipase production. The results provide, for the first time, evidence that K. marxianus has the potential to be used as an efficient producer of extracellular lipase with prospective application in a variety of industrial and biotechnological areas. PMID:22843062

  2. How do fibroblasts translate mechanical signals into changes in extracellular matrix production?

    PubMed

    Chiquet, Matthias; Renedo, Ana Sarasa; Huber, François; Flück, Martin

    2003-03-01

    Mechanical forces are important regulators of connective tissue homeostasis. Our recent experiments in vivo indicate that externally applied mechanical load can lead to the rapid and sequential induction of distinct extracellular matrix (ECM) components in fibroblasts, rather than to a generalized hypertrophic response. Thus, ECM composition seems to be adapted specifically to changes in load. Mechanical stress can regulate the production of ECM proteins indirectly, by stimulating the release of a paracrine growth factor, or directly, by triggering an intracellular signalling pathway that activates the gene. We have evidence that tenascin-C is an ECM component directly regulated by mechanical stress: induction of its mRNA in stretched fibroblasts is rapid both in vivo and in vitro, does not depend on prior protein synthesis, and is not mediated by factors released into the medium. Fibroblasts sense force-induced deformations (strains) in their ECM. Findings by other researchers indicate that integrins within cell-matrix adhesions can act as 'strain gauges', triggering MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways in response to changes in mechanical stress. Our results indicate that cytoskeletal 'pre-stress' is important for mechanotransduction to work: relaxation of the cytoskeleton (e.g. by inhibiting Rho-dependent kinase) suppresses induction of the tenascin-C gene by cyclic stretch, and hence desensitizes the fibroblasts to mechanical signals. On the level of the ECM genes, we identified related enhancer sequences that respond to static stretch in both the tenascin-C and the collagen XII promoter. In the case of the tenascin-C gene, different promoter elements might be involved in induction by cyclic stretch. Thus, different mechanical signals seem to regulate distinct ECM genes in complex ways. PMID:12714044

  3. Extracellular heat shock protein 90 binding to TGFβ receptor I participates in TGFβ-mediated collagen production in myocardial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    García, Raquel; Merino, David; Gómez, Jenny M; Nistal, J Francisco; Hurlé, María A; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Villar, Ana V

    2016-10-01

    The pathological remodeling heart shows an increase in left ventricular mass and an excess of extracellular matrix deposition that can over time cause heart failure. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is the main cytokine controlling this process. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been shown to play a critical role in TGFβ signaling by stabilizing the TGFβ signaling cascade. We detected extracellular Hsp90 in complex with TGFβ receptor I (TGFβRI) in fibroblasts and determined a close proximity between both proteins suggesting a potential physical interaction between the two at the plasma membrane. This was supported by in silico studies predicting Hsp90 dimers and TGFβRI extracellular domain interaction. Both, Hsp90aa1 and Hsp90ab1 isoforms participate in TGFβRI complex. Extracellular Hsp90 inhibition lessened the yield of collagen production as well as the canonical TGFβ signaling cascade, and collagen protein synthesis was drastically reduced in Hsp90aa1 KO mice. These observations together with the significant increase in activity of Hsp90 at the plasma membrane pointed to a functional cooperative partnership between Hsp90 and TGFβRI in the fibrotic process. We propose that a surface population of Hsp90 extracellularly binds TGFβRI and this complex behaves as an active participant in collagen production in TGFβ-activated fibroblasts. We also offer an in vivo insight into the role of Hsp90 and its isoforms during cardiac remodeling in murine aortic banding model suffering from pathological cardiac remodeling and detect circulating Hsp90 overexpressed in remodeling mice. PMID:27418101

  4. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-γ. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection. PMID:26646682

  5. Macromolecularly crowded in vitro microenvironments accelerate the production of extracellular matrix-rich supramolecular assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Satyam, Abhigyan; Fan, Xingliang; Collin, Estelle; Rochev, Yury; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Gorelov, Alexander; Dillon, Simon; Joshi, Lokesh; Raghunath, Michael; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies based on the principles of tissue engineering by self-assembly put forward the notion that functional regeneration can be achieved by utilising the inherent capacity of cells to create highly sophisticated supramolecular assemblies. However, in dilute ex vivo microenvironments, prolonged culture time is required to develop an extracellular matrix-rich implantable device. Herein, we assessed the influence of macromolecular crowding, a biophysical phenomenon that regulates intra- and extra-cellular activities in multicellular organisms, in human corneal fibroblast culture. In the presence of macromolecules, abundant extracellular matrix deposition was evidenced as fast as 48 h in culture, even at low serum concentration. Temperature responsive copolymers allowed the detachment of dense and cohesive supramolecularly assembled living substitutes within 6 days in culture. Morphological, histological, gene and protein analysis assays demonstrated maintenance of tissue-specific function. Macromolecular crowding opens new avenues for a more rational design in engineering of clinically relevant tissue modules in vitro. PMID:25736020

  6. Macromolecularly crowded in vitro microenvironments accelerate the production of extracellular matrix-rich supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Satyam, Abhigyan; Fan, Xingliang; Collin, Estelle; Rochev, Yury; Rodriguez, Brian J; Gorelov, Alexander; Dillon, Simon; Joshi, Lokesh; Raghunath, Michael; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies based on the principles of tissue engineering by self-assembly put forward the notion that functional regeneration can be achieved by utilising the inherent capacity of cells to create highly sophisticated supramolecular assemblies. However, in dilute ex vivo microenvironments, prolonged culture time is required to develop an extracellular matrix-rich implantable device. Herein, we assessed the influence of macromolecular crowding, a biophysical phenomenon that regulates intra- and extra-cellular activities in multicellular organisms, in human corneal fibroblast culture. In the presence of macromolecules, abundant extracellular matrix deposition was evidenced as fast as 48 h in culture, even at low serum concentration. Temperature responsive copolymers allowed the detachment of dense and cohesive supramolecularly assembled living substitutes within 6 days in culture. Morphological, histological, gene and protein analysis assays demonstrated maintenance of tissue-specific function. Macromolecular crowding opens new avenues for a more rational design in engineering of clinically relevant tissue modules in vitro. PMID:25736020

  7. Lipase-induced Production of 7, 10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic Acid from Triolein by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from different f...

  8. Production of 7, 10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from triolein via lipase induction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained important attentions because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The new bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids f...

  9. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as ...

  10. Alkaline Phosphatase, Soluble Extracellular Adenine Nucleotides, and Adenosine Production after Infant Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jesse A.; Urban, Tracy; Tong, Suhong; Twite, Mark; Woodruff, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Decreased alkaline phosphatase activity after infant cardiac surgery is associated with increased post-operative cardiovascular support requirements. In adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, alkaline phosphatase infusion may reduce inflammation. Mechanisms underlying these effects have not been explored but may include decreased conversion of extracellular adenine nucleotides to adenosine. Objectives 1) Evaluate the association between alkaline phosphatase activity and serum conversion of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine after infant cardiac surgery; 2) assess if inhibition/supplementation of serum alkaline phosphatase modulates this conversion. Methods and Research Pre/post-bypass serum samples were obtained from 75 infants <4 months of age. Serum conversion of 13C5-adenosine monophosphate to 13C5-adenosine was assessed with/without selective inhibition of alkaline phosphatase and CD73. Low and high concentration 13C5-adenosine monophosphate (simulating normal/stress concentrations) were used. Effects of alkaline phosphatase supplementation on adenosine monophosphate clearance were also assessed. Changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were strongly correlated with changes in 13C5-adenosine production with or without CD73 inhibition (r = 0.83; p<0.0001). Serum with low alkaline phosphatase activity (≤80 U/L) generated significantly less 13C5-adenosine, particularly in the presence of high concentration 13C5-adenosine monophosphate (10.4μmol/L vs 12.9μmol/L; p = 0.0004). Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase led to a marked decrease in 13C5-adenosine production (11.9μmol/L vs 2.7μmol/L; p<0.0001). Supplementation with physiologic dose human tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase or high dose bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase doubled 13C5-adenosine monophosphate conversion to 13C5-adenosine (p<0.0001). Conclusions Alkaline phosphatase represents the primary serum ectonucleotidase after infant cardiac surgery and low post

  11. Involvement of proton-sensing TDAG8 in extracellular acidification-induced inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Chihiro; Tobo, Masayuki; Tomura, Hideaki; Murata, Naoya; He, Xiao-dong; Sato, Koichi; Kimura, Takao; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Sasaki, Takehiko; Sato, Takashi; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Harada, Akihiro; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular acidification inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein production, which was associated with an inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA expression, in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The LPS-induced cytokine production was also inhibited by G(s) protein-coupled receptor agonists prostaglandin E(1) and isoproterenol. Among OGR1 family proton-sensing GTP-binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors, TDAG8, OGR1, and G2A are expressed in the cells. The inhibitory action by acidic pH on TNF-alpha production was significantly attenuated in macrophages from TDAG8(Tp/Tp) mice but not in those from OGR1(geo/geo) mice. Moreover, small interfering RNA specific to TDAG8, but not to G2A, clearly attenuated the acidification-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production. On the other hand, the down-regulation or deficiency of TDAG8 hardly affected prostaglandin E(1)- or isoproterenol-induced actions. LPS-induced IL-6 production was also inhibited by extracellular acidification in a manner that was sensitive to TDAG8 expression. The acidic pH-induced inhibitory action on the cytokine production was significantly reversed either by a small interfering RNA specific to G(s) proteins or by a protein kinase A (PKA)-specific inhibitor H89. Indeed, a PKA-specific cAMP derivative inhibited LPS-induced cytokine production. Moreover, acidification induced cAMP accumulation in a TDAG8-specific way. We conclude that TDAG8, at least partly, mediates the extracellular acidification-induced inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production through the G(s) protein/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in mouse macrophages. PMID:19234222

  12. Production, purification, and characterization of an extracellular acid protease from the marine Antarctic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa L7.

    PubMed

    Lario, Luciana Daniela; Chaud, Luciana; Almeida, María das Graças; Converti, Attilio; Sette, Lara Durães; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-11-01

    The production, purification, and characterization of an extracellular protease released by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa L7 were evaluated in this study. This strain was isolated from an Antarctic marine alga and previously selected among others based on the capacity to produce the highest extracellular proteolytic activity in preliminary tests. R. mucilaginosa L7 was grown in Saboraud-dextrose medium at 25 °C, and the cell growth, pH of the medium, extracellular protease production and the glucose and protein consumption were determined as a function of time. The protease was then purified, and the effects of pH, temperature, and salt concentration on the catalytic activity and enzyme stability were determined. Enzyme production started at the beginning of the exponential phase of growth and reached a maximum after 48 h, which was accompanied by a decrease in the pH as well as reductions of the protein and glucose concentrations in the medium. The purified protease presented optimal catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. Finally, the enzyme was stable in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl. These characteristics are of interest for future studies and may lead to potential biotechnological applications that require enzyme activity and stability under acidic conditions and/or high salt concentrations. PMID:26466885

  13. Environmental conditions associating microcystins production to Microcystis aeruginosa in a reservoir of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Parkpian, Preeda; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Ruchirawat, Khunying Mathuros; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2002-08-01

    Three heptapeptide toxins, microcystin-RR, microcystin-RY and microcystin-LR, which can cause health problems in animals and humans were monitored in Bang Phra Reservoir, Thailand using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations of the three toxins in the reservoir varied greatly depending on location and time water samples were collected. Water quality parameters such as light intensity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, suspended solid, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a were also measured in parallel with microcystin determinations. Relationships among water quality parameters, toxins and chlorophyll-a were established. Toxin concentration increased in proportion to increases in total phosphorus, fraction of dissolved phosphorus, but was inversely correlated with water pH and total suspended solids. The other measured parameters in the study showed no correlations to toxin level in reservoir water. Significant correlations between chlorophyll-a and suspended solids, phosphate, nitrate and ammonia were observed suggesting that nitrogen and phosphorus are the two major nutrients governing growth of algae in the reservoir. This relationship suggests that algal production as well as toxin concentration are dependant on nutrient levels in the water body, since both measured light intensity and temperature level was favorable for algal growth. A small algal bloom observed in the rainy season of each year (lasting for only a couple of months) paralleled measured increases in toxin concentration, chlorophyll-a, TP and TN in the water column. Toxin level in the water column remain detectable for 3-4 months period following the initiation of algal bloom. Results indicate that major blooms are likely to occur following the raining season which usually occurs near the end of October when runoff

  14. Advances in time course extracellular production of human pre-miR-29b from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Pedro, Augusto Q; Tomás, Joana; Maia, Cláudio J; Queiroz, João A; Figueiras, Ana; Sousa, Fani

    2016-04-01

    The present study reports the successful production of human pre-miR-29b both intra- and extracellularly in the marine phototrophic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum using recombinant RNA technology. In a first stage, the optimal transformation conditions (0.025 μg of plasmid DNA, with a heat-shock of 2 min at 35 °C) were established, in order to transfer the pre-miR-29b encoding plasmid to R. sulfidophilum host. Furthermore, the extracellular recovery of this RNA product from the culture medium was greatly improved, achieving quantities that are compatible with the majority of applications, namely for in vitro or in vivo studies. Using this system, the extracellular human pre-miR-29b concentration was approximately 182 μg/L, after 40 h of bacterial growth, and the total intracellular pre-miR-29b was of about 358 μg/L, at 32 h. At the end of the fermentation, it was verified that almost 87 % of cells were viable, indicating that cell lysis is minimized and that the extracellular medium is not highly contaminated with the host intracellular ribonucleases (RNases) and endotoxins, which is a critical parameter to guarantee the microRNA (miRNA) integrity. These findings demonstrate that pre-miRNAs can be produced by recombinant RNA technology, offering novel clues for the production of natural pre-miRNA agents for functional studies and RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. PMID:26860940

  15. Application of repeated aspartate tags to improving extracellular production of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase isozyme II.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Min, Won-Ki; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Asparaginase isozyme II from Escherichia coli is a popular enzyme that has been used as a therapeutic agent against acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here, fusion tag systems consisting of the pelB signal sequence and various lengths of repeated aspartate tags were devised to highly express and to release active asparaginase isozyme II extracellularly in E. coli. Among several constructs, recombinant asparaginase isozyme II fused with the pelB signal sequence and five aspartate tag was secreted efficiently into culture medium at 34.6 U/mg cell of specific activity. By batch fermentation, recombinant E. coli produced 40.8 U/ml asparaginase isozyme II in the medium. In addition, deletion of the gspDE gene reduced extracellular production of asparaginase isozyme II, indicating that secretion of recombinant asparaginase isozyme II was partially ascribed to the recognition by the general secretion machinery. This tag system composed of the pelB signal peptide, and repeated aspartates can be applied to extracellular production of other recombinant proteins. PMID:26320714

  16. Effect of light on growth, intracellular and extracellular pigment production by five pigment-producing filamentous fungi in synthetic medium.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Yong Hoon; Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, Perumalsamy; Chae, Jong-Chan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2010-04-01

    The competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. The effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers Monascus purpureus, Isaria farinosa, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. Incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment production in all the fungi. Extracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 36.75 + or - 2.1 OD and minimum in white unscreened light 5.90 + or - 1.1 OD. Similarly, intracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 18.27 + or - 0.9 OD/g and minimum in yellow light 8.03 + or - 0.6 OD/g of substrate. The maximum biomass production was also noticed in darkness 2.51 g/L and minimum in yellow light 0.5 g/L of dry weight. In contrast, growth of fungi in green and yellow wavelengths resulted in low biomass and pigment yield. It was found that darkness, (red 780-622 nm, blue 492-455 nm) and white light influenced pigment and biomass yield. PMID:20226375

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellum Confers Resistance to Pulmonary Surfactant Protein-A by Impacting the Production of Exoproteases Through Quorum-Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Hwang, Sunghei; Zhang, Shiping; Kim, Eunice; Akinbi, Henry T; Schurr, Michael J.; Irvin, Randall T.; Hassett, Daniel J; Lau, Gee W.

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is an important antimicrobial protein that opsonizes and permeabilizes membranes of microbial pathogens in mammalian lungs. Previously, we have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellum-deficient mutants are preferentially cleared in the lungs of wild-type mice by SP-A-mediated membrane permeabilization, and not by opsonization. In this study, we report a flagellum-mediated mechanism of P. aeruginosa resistance to SP-A. We discovered that flagellum-deficient (ΔfliC) bacteria are unable to produce adequate amounts of exoproteases to degrade SP-A in vitro and in vivo, leading to its preferential clearance in the lungs of SP-A+/+ mice. In addition, ΔfliC bacteria failed to degrade another important lung antimicrobial protein lysozyme. Detailed analyses showed that ΔfliC bacteria are unable to upregulate the transcription of lasI and rhlI genes, impairing the production of homoserine lactones necessary for quorum-sensing, an important virulence process that regulates the production of multiple exoproteases. Thus, reduced ability of ΔfliC bacteria to quorum-sense attenuates production of exoproteases and limits degradation of SP-A, thereby conferring susceptibility to this major pulmonary host defense protein. PMID:21205009

  18. Effect of clindamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and tetracycline on growth and extracellular lipase production by propionibacteria in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Unkles, S E; Gemmell, C G

    1982-01-01

    Two propionibacteria identified as Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum were grown anaerobically in the presence of growth subinhibitory concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 minimal inhibitory concentrations) of clindamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and tetracycline. Viable counts and assays of extracellular lipase were performed on samples taken at 24-h intervals over a 96-h period. The results showed that lincomycin and clindamycin could inhibit the production of the enzyme by both strains with little effect on their growth rates. Tetracycline caused inhibition of lipase production by P. granulosum only. Although production of the enzyme by P. acnes was delayed in the presence of tetracycline, the final titer was the same as the control. Erythromycin had little effect on growth and enzyme production of either strain. It is possible, therefore, that certain antibiotics used in acne therapy may act not only as bactericidal agents but also as inhibitors of enzyme production under non-growth-limiting conditions. PMID:7081974

  19. Extracellular Polysaccharide Production in a Scytonemin-Deficient Mutant of Nostoc punctiforme Under UVA and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Soule, Tanya; Shipe, Dexter; Lothamer, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Some cyanobacteria can protect themselves from ultraviolet radiation by producing sunscreen pigments. In particular, the sheath pigment scytonemin protects cells against long-wavelength UVA radiation and is only found in cyanobacteria which are capable of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The presence of a putative glycosyltransferase encoded within the scytonemin gene cluster, along with the localization of scytonemin and EPS to the extracellular sheath, prompted us to investigate the relationship between scytonemin and EPS production under UVA stress. In this study, it was hypothesized that there would be a relationship between the biosynthesis of scytonemin and EPS under both UVA and oxidative stress, since the latter is a by-product of UVA radiation. EPS production was measured following exposure of wild-type Nostoc punctiforme and the non-scytonemin-producing strain SCY59 to UVA and oxidative stress. Under UVA, SCY59 produced significantly more EPS than the unstressed controls and the wild type, while both strains produced more EPS under oxidative stress compared to the controls. The results suggest that EPS secretion occurs in response to the oxidative stress by-product of UVA rather than as a direct response to UVA radiation. PMID:27301251

  20. An Assay to Quantify Chemotactic Properties of Degradation Products from Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Sicari, Brian M.; Zhang, Li; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous chemotaxis of cells toward sites of tissue injury and/or biomaterial implantation is an important component of the host response. Implanted biomaterials capable of recruiting host stem/progenitor cells to a site of interest may obviate challenges associated with cell transplantation. An assay for the identification and quantification of chemotaxis induced by surgically placed biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix is described herein. PMID:24155230

  1. Adaptation of iron homeostasis pathways by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyoverdine mutant in the cystic fibrosis lung.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Angela T; O'Neill, Maura J; Watts, Annabelle M; Robson, Cynthia L; Lamont, Iain L; Wilks, Angela; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G

    2014-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic bacterial lung infections, most notably by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which persists for decades in the lungs and undergoes extensive evolution. P. aeruginosa requires iron for virulence and uses the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdine to scavenge and solubilize ferric iron during acute infections. Pyoverdine mutants accumulate in the lungs of some CF patients, however, suggesting that the heme and ferrous iron acquisition pathways of P. aeruginosa are more important in this environment. Here, we sought to determine how evolution of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung affects iron acquisition and regulatory pathways through the use of longitudinal CF isolates. These analyses demonstrated a significant reduction of siderophore production during the course of CF lung infection in nearly all strains tested. Mass spectrometry analysis of one of these strains showed that the later CF isolate has streamlined the metabolic flux of extracellular heme through the HemO heme oxygenase, resulting in more-efficient heme utilization. Moreover, gene expression analysis shows that iron regulation via the PrrF small RNAs (sRNAs) is enhanced in the later CF isolate. Finally, analysis of P. aeruginosa gene expression in the lungs of various CF patients demonstrates that both PrrF and HemO are consistently expressed in the CF lung environment. Combined, these results suggest that heme is a critical source of iron during prolonged infection of the CF lung and that changes in iron and heme regulatory pathways play a crucial role in adaptation of P. aeruginosa to this ever-changing host environment. PMID:24727222

  2. Adaptation of Iron Homeostasis Pathways by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pyoverdine Mutant in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angela T.; O'Neill, Maura J.; Watts, Annabelle M.; Robson, Cynthia L.; Lamont, Iain L.; Wilks, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic bacterial lung infections, most notably by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which persists for decades in the lungs and undergoes extensive evolution. P. aeruginosa requires iron for virulence and uses the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdine to scavenge and solubilize ferric iron during acute infections. Pyoverdine mutants accumulate in the lungs of some CF patients, however, suggesting that the heme and ferrous iron acquisition pathways of P. aeruginosa are more important in this environment. Here, we sought to determine how evolution of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung affects iron acquisition and regulatory pathways through the use of longitudinal CF isolates. These analyses demonstrated a significant reduction of siderophore production during the course of CF lung infection in nearly all strains tested. Mass spectrometry analysis of one of these strains showed that the later CF isolate has streamlined the metabolic flux of extracellular heme through the HemO heme oxygenase, resulting in more-efficient heme utilization. Moreover, gene expression analysis shows that iron regulation via the PrrF small RNAs (sRNAs) is enhanced in the later CF isolate. Finally, analysis of P. aeruginosa gene expression in the lungs of various CF patients demonstrates that both PrrF and HemO are consistently expressed in the CF lung environment. Combined, these results suggest that heme is a critical source of iron during prolonged infection of the CF lung and that changes in iron and heme regulatory pathways play a crucial role in adaptation of P. aeruginosa to this ever-changing host environment. PMID:24727222

  3. Proteolytic activity of extracellular products from Arthrobotrys musiformis and their effect in vitro against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Ramírez, Perla María del Carmen; Figueroa-Castillo, Juan Antonio; Ulloa-Arvizú, Raúl; Martínez-García, Luz Gisela; Guevara-Flores, Alberto; Rendón, Juan Luis; Valero-Coss, Rosa Ofelia; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Arthrobotrys musiformis is a nematophagous fungus with potential for the biological control of Haemonchus contortus larvae. This study aimed to identify and demonstrate the proteolytic activity of extracellular products from A musiformis cultured in a liquid medium against H contortus infective larvae. A musiformis was cultured on a solid medium and further grown in a liquid medium, which was then processed through ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The proteolytic activity of the purified fraction was assayed with either gelatin or bovine serum albumin as substrate. Optimum proteolytic activity was observed at pH 8 and a temperature of 37°C. Results obtained with specific inhibitors suggest the enzyme belongs to the serine-dependent protease family. The purified fraction concentrate from A musiformis was tested against H contortus infective larvae. A time-dependent effect was observed with 77 per cent immobility after 48 hours incubation, with alteration of the sheath. It is concluded that A musiformis is a potential candidate for biological control because of its resistant structures and also because of its excretion of extracellular products such as proteases. The present study contributes to the identification of one of the in vitro mechanisms of action of Amusiformis, namely the extracellular production of proteases against H contortus infective larvae. More investigations should be undertaken into how these products could be used to decrease the nematode population in sheep flocks under field conditions, thereby improving animal health while simultaneously diminishing the human and environmental impact of chemical-based drugs. PMID:26392902

  4. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production in a chromosomally non-scar triple-deleted mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa using statistical experimental designs to optimize yield.

    PubMed

    Du, Xilin; Li, Yaqian; Zhou, Wanping; Zhou, Quan; Liu, Haiming; Xu, Yuquan

    2013-09-01

    We constructed a non-scar triple-deleted mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa to improve phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) yield and then optimized the culture conditions for PCA production. Using a non-scar deletion strategy, the 5'-untranslated region of the phz1 gene cluster and two genes, phzM and phzS, were knocked out of the P. aeruginosa strain M18 genome. The potential ability for high-yield PCA production in this triple-deleted mutant M18MSU1 was successfully realized by using statistical experimental designs. A 2(5-1) fractional factorial design was used to show that the three culture components of soybean meal, corn steep liquor and ethanol had the most significant effect on PCA production. Using a central composite design, the concentration of the three components was optimized. The maximum PCA production was predicted to be 4,725.1 mg/L. With the optimal medium containing soybean meal 74.25 g/L, corn steep liquor 13.01 g/L and ethanol 21.84 ml/L, a PCA production of 4,771.2 mg/L was obtained in the validation experiments, which was nearly twofold of that before optimization and tenfold of that in the wild-type strain. This non-scar triple-deleted mutant M18MSU1 may be a suitable strain for industrial production of this biologically synthesized fungicide due to its high PCA production, presumed safety, thermal adaptability and cost-effectiveness. PMID:23636695

  5. Transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotease genes.

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, M J; Jagger, K S; Warren, R L

    1984-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 was used to generate protease-deficient insertion mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The presence of Tn5 in the chromosome of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated by transduction and DNA-DNA hybridization. The altered protease production and kanamycin resistance were cotransduced into a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain. A radiolabeled probe of Tn5 DNA hybridized to specific BamHI fragments isolated from the insertion mutants. Two independently isolated Tn5 insertion mutants had reduced protease production, partially impaired elastase activity, and no immunologically reactive alkaline protease. Images PMID:6317657

  6. Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Kong, Jin-liang; Dong, Bi-ying; Huang, Hong; Wang, Ke; Wu, Li-hong; Hou, Chang-chun; Liang, Yue; Li, Bing; Chen, Yi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS) but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People’s Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it clearly exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26792984

  7. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by Vitexin: A combinatorial study with azithromycin and gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Das, Manash C.; Sandhu, Padmani; Gupta, Priya; Rudrapaul, Prasenjit; De, Utpal C.; Tribedi, Prosun; Akhter, Yusuf; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260 μg/ml. It’s antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110 μg/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis. PMID:27000525

  8. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by Vitexin: A combinatorial study with azithromycin and gentamicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manash C.; Sandhu, Padmani; Gupta, Priya; Rudrapaul, Prasenjit; de, Utpal C.; Tribedi, Prosun; Akhter, Yusuf; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2016-03-01

    Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260 μg/ml. It’s antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110 μg/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis.

  9. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by Vitexin: A combinatorial study with azithromycin and gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Das, Manash C; Sandhu, Padmani; Gupta, Priya; Rudrapaul, Prasenjit; De, Utpal C; Tribedi, Prosun; Akhter, Yusuf; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260 μg/ml. It's antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110 μg/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis. PMID:27000525

  10. Changes in metabolites, antioxidant system, and gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa under sodium chloride stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Mao, Feijian; Kirumba, George Chira; Jiang, Cheng; Manefield, Mike; He, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Microcystis (M.) aeruginosa, one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria, occurs worldwide. The Qingcaosha (QCS) Reservoir is undergoing eutrophication and faces the problem of saltwater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sudden salinity changes on physiological parameters and related gene transcription in M. aeruginosa under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that sodium chloride (50, 200 and 500 mg L(-1) NaCl) inhibited the algal growth and decreased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a, carotenoid and phycocyanin). Sodium chloride increased both the intracellular and extracellular microcystin contents and elevated the mcyD transcript level in M. aeruginosa. It also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and caused cytomembrane damage. This damage caused the release of intracellular toxins into the culture medium. In addition, NaCl decreased the maximum electron transport rate, increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changed the cellular redox status. Consequently, NaCl inhibited the expression of cpcB, psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, NaCl increased the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The transcript levels of sod and reduced glutathione (gsh) were also increased after exposure to NaCl. Our results indicate that a sudden increase in salinity increases the production and excretion of microcystin, changes the cellular redox status, enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibits photosynthesis, and affects transcript levels of related genes in M. aeruginosa. PMID:26232039