Atkinson, Melissa J.; Wade, Tracey D.
Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received…
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855
Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan
This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…
Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.
The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011
Blow, Julie; Cooper, Theodore V
This study assessed the impact of demographic, mood, acculturation, weight, and accurate weight feedback on body dissatisfaction and satisfaction. One hundred and sixty Hispanic college students completed measures assessing depressive symptoms, acculturation, affect, and body image. Participants were randomized to receive immediate or delayed weight feedback. Three multiple regression analyses assessed predictors of body dissatisfaction, body weight and fitness happiness, and perceived attractiveness. A hierarchical regression model assessed body dissatisfaction after receiving feedback. Results indicate that greater body dissatisfaction was associated with females, greater depressive symptomatology, and higher weight. Body weight and fitness happiness was associated with males and greater positive affect. Perceived attractiveness was related to smoking, greater positive affect, and greater importance placed on weight. Body dissatisfaction was not impacted by accurate weight feedback. Studies assessing the impact of these predictors in weight loss and/or body acceptance interventions are warranted, particularly in Hispanic college students. PMID:24411740
Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan
We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image) was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only. PMID:26500567
Background Body dissatisfaction is a robust risk factor for disordered eating and is thought to be especially problematic in the presence of high levels of perfectionism. The aim of the current study was to investigate what types of perfectionism were associated with body dissatisfaction. Participants were 1083 women aged 28 to 40 years, with a mean age of 35 years (SD=2.11). Self-reports on perfectionism (using the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), weight, height, desired weight, and current and ideal figural stimuli were analysed for the current study. Two measures of body dissatisfaction were utilised: discrepancy between the current and desired weight, and discrepancy between the current and ideal figural stimuli. Results Linear regressions controlling for current body mass index (BMI)/current silhouette examined the relationship between desired BMI/silhouette and simultaneous entry of the 6 subscales of the perfectionism measure. A lower desired BMI was associated with higher levels of Concern over Mistakes and Organisation, and a smaller ideal silhouette was associated with higher levels of Concern over Mistakes and Doubt about Actions and Organisation. Conclusions These findings confirm the pertinence of different dimensions of perfectionism to body dissatisfaction, and suggest avenues to explore in terms of universal prevention work. PMID:24764525
Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare
This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…
Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Cass, Kamila M; Ford, Jennifer A
This study examined biopsychosocial factors related to body dissatisfaction in young men within multivariate and moderator contexts. A female sample was included as a gender comparison. Male (n=111) and female (n=236) undergraduates filled out self-report questionnaires assessing body mass index (BMI), media influence, a history of weight-related teasing, and socially prescribed perfectionism, along with various indices of body dissatisfaction. Perceived pressure from the media was consistently related to body dissatisfaction in men whereas multiple biopsychosocial variables accounted for body dissatisfaction in women. Socially prescribed perfectionism and a history of weight teasing each moderated the relationship between BMI and male body dissatisfaction, identifying men low in body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate that applying a biopsychosocial framework to the study of body dissatisfaction in men is useful and suggest the need for including other factors, such as male peers and sports involvement, in understanding contributors to male body image. PMID:18463012
Leahey, Tricia M; Crowther, Janis H; Ciesla, Jeffrey A
This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and compensatory cognitions and behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, women with high body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (EPHB), high body dissatisfaction (HB), or low body dissatisfaction (LB) recorded their reactions to appearance-focused social comparisons. EPHB and HB women made more upward appearance comparisons than LB women. All women experienced negative emotions and cognitions after upward comparisons, including increased guilt, body dissatisfaction, and thoughts of dieting. EPHB women were most negatively affected by comparisons; they experienced more intense negative emotions, more thoughts of dieting/exercising, and an increase in eating-disordered behavior after upward comparisons. HB women experienced more negative affective consequences and thoughts of dieting than LB women. Results are consistent with social comparison theory and provide important information that may be used to inform eating disorder treatment and prevention efforts. PMID:21496506
Stice, Eric; Whitenton, Kathryn
This longitudinal study tested whether a set of sociocultural, biological, interpersonal, and affective factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. Findings indicated that elevated adiposity, perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, and social support deficits predicted body dissatisfaction increases,…
You, Sukkyung; Shin, Kyulee
For many years, body dissatisfaction and mental health were thought of as Western phenomena and were studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and mental health outcomes, with personality traits and neuroticism playing possible predictive roles, using a Korean sample. A total of 545 college students, from five private universities in South Korea, completed assessment measures for depression, self-esteem, neuroticism, and body esteem scales. After controlling for covariates including body mass index and exercise time, body dissatisfaction was seen to play a mediating role between neuroticism and mental health outcomes. Differences between the sexes were also found in this relationship. For men, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and depression. For women, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and both depression and self-esteem. PMID:27173851
Bearman, Sarah Kate; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine
The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant decreases for boys during early adolescence. For both genders parental support deficits, negative affectivity, and self-reported dietary restraint, but not Ideal body internalization, body mass index, and eating pathology, showed significant relations to future increases in body dissatisfaction; peer support deficits showed a marginal relation to this outcome. Gender did not moderate these relations, despite adequate power to detect interactive effects. PMID:16912810
Martinelli, Mary K; Holzinger, Jayne B; Chasson, Gregory S
Currently, research on interpretation bias and body dissatisfaction is limited. The few experimental paradigms that have been used to explore this phenomenon utilized a method that may not accurately capture the nature of interpretation bias as explained by cognitive theory. The present study investigated the reliability and validity of a novel computerized assessment of interpretation bias (WSAP) for body dissatisfaction, which may more accurately reflect the cognitive processing involved in such bias by implementing the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP), a previously established method of measuring interpretation bias in other clinical populations. Undergraduate females (n=214) completed the WSAP and other measures. Results indicate initial support for the WSAP as a valid, reliable measure of interpretation bias for body dissatisfaction. Although preliminary, this study contributes to the minimal research in this area and serves as the first psychometric investigation of the WSAP to measure such interpretation bias for body dissatisfaction. PMID:25218691
Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Amiri, Samira; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila
The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is considered high in both developed and developing countries. It has been shown that many factors affect the body image dissatisfaction. However, because of the economical and cultural differences, it seems that these affecting factors should be determined in each region. So, the present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women. Body image perception was analyzed in 500 women through the Stunkard figure rating system. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for assessing physical activity level. The information about age, marital status and socioeconomic status was recorded by general questionnaire. The one-way ANOVA and regression were used for statistical analysis. By increasing the BMI categories from underweight to obesity, participants tended to perceive their body size thinner than real body size. The regression models indicated that the body image distortion was significantly increased with increasing the BMI (p=0.002) and physical activity level (p=0.008). Besides, dissatisfaction by being heavier than ideal was significantly associated with higher BMI (OR (95% CI). 1.21 (1.03, 1.17)). Considering the high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among Iranian women, for preventing psychological problems and eating disorders, appropriate public health programs for increasing awareness about healthy body size were needed. PMID:27046301
Wade, Tracey; George, Wing Man; Atkinson, Melissa
The authors examined the relative effectiveness of 3 different approaches to the experience of body dissatisfaction compared to a control and ruminative attention control condition, with respect to increasing weight and appearance satisfaction. One hundred female undergraduates (mean age = 24.38, SD = 9.39) underwent a body dissatisfaction…
Mellor, David; Hucker, Alice; Waterhouse, Monique; binti Mamat, Norul Hidayah; Xu, Xiaoyan; Cochrane, Jamie; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina
This study investigated how dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the body was associated with overall body dissatisfaction among male adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. One hundred and six Malaysian Malays, 55 Malaysian Chinese, 195 Chinese from China, and 45 non-Asian Australians aged 12 to 19 years completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their overall body and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Dissatisfaction with the face, height, and hair was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays after body mass index, age and dissatisfaction with body areas typically included in measures (weight/shape, upper, middle, and lower body, and muscles) had been controlled for. Dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Chinese. These findings demonstrate the differences in body focus for males from different cultures and the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus. PMID:24707036
Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy
Globally there is increasing advocacy for the implementation of laws requiring disclaimer labels to be attached to media images that have been digitally altered, with the goal of reducing the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal imagery for women. The current study used eye tracking technology to establish how digital alteration disclaimer labels affect women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements, and the interrelationship with body dissatisfaction and state appearance comparison. Participants were 120 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a more detailed specific disclaimer. It was found that women did attend to the disclaimers. Specifically worded disclaimers directed visual attention towards target body areas, which resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, while state appearance comparison predicted increased body dissatisfaction. Further research is imperative to provide guidance on the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:26498728
Schneider, Sven; Weiss, Melanie; Thiel, Ansgar; Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Hoffmann, Holger; Diehl, Katharina
This study aimed to assess the extent, patterns, and predictors of feelings of body dissatisfaction experienced by female German adolescents. Using 3D-avatar software, a sample population of 144 girls between 14 and 17 years of age was asked to estimate their actual body image, their desired body image (individual ideal), and the body image they believed their parents and their best female friend considered to be the ideal body image for them. The participants estimated their actual body mass index (BMI) to be 18.82 ± 3.01. The individual ideal body shape reported was significantly thinner, with a BMI score of 16.84 ± 2.51. Given a girl who stands 1.65 m and weighs 55 kg, this corresponds to a difference in weight of about 5.5 kg. After adjustment for the participant's self-reported BMI, participating in an esthetic sport was correlated with a significantly lower body dissatisfaction. Conversely, low socio-economic status and the amount of time spent watching TV was correlated with a significantly higher body dissatisfaction. Negative body image-related comments made by parents were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. The girls who participated in this study would like to be an average of 1.97 BMI units thinner. The findings presented here suggest that future intervention measures should focus on the risk groups of physically inactive girls, those who smoke, and those with a lower social status and high rates of TV consumption. Intervention measures would be especially effective in German schools which offer lower education levels and should include the pupils' parents, who should be informed about the negative effects weight- and diet-related comments have on their children's body images. PMID:23207738
Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.
The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…
Nishina, Adrienne; Ammon, Natalie Y.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Graham, Sandra
The present study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and adjustment, and the role physical development plays in this association, in an ethnically diverse sample of over 1100 urban, ninth grade boys and girls (M age = 14). More similarities than differences were found across ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Latino,…
Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina
This study aimed to examine the protective role of positive body image against negative effects produced by viewing thin-idealised media. University women (N=68) completed trait measures of body appreciation and media protective strategies. At a subsequent session, participants viewed 11 thin-ideal advertisements. Body dissatisfaction was assessed before and after advertisement exposure, and state measures of self-objectification, appearance comparison, and media protective strategies were completed. Results indicated that body appreciation predicted less change in body dissatisfaction following exposure, such that participants with low body appreciation experienced increased body dissatisfaction, while those with high body appreciation did not. Although state appearance comparison predicted increased body dissatisfaction, neither state self-objectification nor appearance comparison accounted for body appreciation's protective effect. Trait and state media protective strategies positively correlated with body appreciation, but also did not account for body appreciation's protective effect. The results point to intervention targets and highlight future research directions. PMID:26311661
Maxwell, Melissa A.; Cole, David A.
One community sample (N = 607) of youths generated self-reported responses to body dissatisfaction, from which the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction (ARBD) inventory was constructed. A 2nd, similar sample (N = 830) completed this measure as well as measures of coping, body dissatisfaction, body mass index, depressive symptoms, and…
Tatangelo, Gemma; McCabe, Marita; Mellor, David; Mealey, Alex
This systematic review examines body dissatisfaction and the influence of sociocultural messages related to body image among preschool children. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and 16 studies were included in the final analysis. Findings suggest that children under the age of 6 years old experience body dissatisfaction, however, the proportion of children who are dissatisfied varied from around 20% to 70%, depending on the method of assessment. The literature was divided on whether preschool aged girls experience more body dissatisfaction than boys. Parental influence appears to be an important factor in the development of preschool children's body dissatisfaction and attitudes. However, more research is needed to understand the influences of children's peers and the media. The need for more sensitive measures of body dissatisfaction and prevention programs for preschool children is discussed. PMID:27352102
McKinley, Nita Mary
Fat women who endorsed fat acceptance (N=128) were recruited from Radiance Magazine. Relationships between objectified body consciousness (OBC), body esteem, and psychological well-being for the mostly European American sample were similar to those found in other samples. OBC was independently related to body esteem when weight dissatisfaction was controlled. Those who endorsed the need for social change in attitudes towards fat people had higher body esteem and self-acceptance, and lower body shame, than those who endorsed personal acceptance of body size only. PMID:18089154
Lev-Ari, Lilac; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar; Zohar, Ada H
Extensive research indicates that exposure to media as well as pressure and modeling by sociocultural agents, such as peers and family, are predictive of the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID). This influence is mediated by social comparison and internalization of the thin-ideal. In the current study we assessed comparisons between participants and other women with whom they were in close relationships, (e.g. mother, sister and close female friend), and hypothesized that these would influence women's BID and drive-to-thinness. 283 women between the ages of 18-42 (mean=25.04; SD=3.53) sampled through social networking completed an online self-report which included the original Figure Rating Scale, which yielded self-ideal disparity, as well as a modified version comparing self to mother, self to sister closest-in-age, and self to best friend and then were asked to directly compare themselves to these women. In addition they completed the EDI-2's drive-for-thinness and body dissatisfaction subscales, and reported on Body Mass Index (BMI). Results indicate that comparisons to mothers, sisters, and best friend, were all associated with self-ideal disparity. BMI only slightly mediated this effect. Comparison to sister and to best friend, but not to mother, influenced drive-for-thinness and body dissatisfaction. Positive correlations were found between direct and indirect comparisons to others. Comparison to best friend was the most influential on body ideal. We conclude that comparison to others in close proximity greatly influences women's body ideal and may have a formative role in the development of women's body dissatisfaction. While women cannot choose their mother and sister closest in age, they do choose their best friend; and it is interesting that the comparison to the best friend is so influential. PMID:25064289
Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice
Research suggests that negative affect is an important mediator in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. This study examines the mediational role of specific emotion regulation processes (i.e., negative emotionality, poor awareness of emotion, nonconstructive coping with negative emotion) in bulimic symptoms. In…
Tylka, Tracy L.
Although body dissatisfaction is a strong predictor of disordered eating among women, a majority of women report substantial body dissatisfaction but do not concomitantly report severe levels of eating disorder symptomatology. Third variables, then, may interact with body dissatisfaction to influence its relation to eating disorder symptomatology.…
Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus
With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843
Galioto, Rachel; Crowther, Janis H
This research examined the effects of appearance-based comparisons to muscular and slender idealized male bodies and the contribution of internalization and social comparison to change in body dissatisfaction. Participants were 111 male undergraduates who completed measures of body dissatisfaction, internalization, and social comparison and viewed images of either muscular or slender men in advertisements or product-only advertisements. Results indicated that exposure to both muscular and slender images was associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction, with no significant differences in the change in body dissatisfaction between the two image conditions. Internalization and trait social comparison were each associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction; however, upward social comparison was only a significant predictor of a change in body dissatisfaction for the males who viewed muscular images. These results highlight the impact of slender models on young men's body dissatisfaction and support the examination of media literacy interventions with this population. PMID:24008185
Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle
Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…
Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Unikel, Claudia; Mendoza, Maria-Eugenia; de Lachica, Fabiola
In this article, we examine the bodily experiences of Mexican women, to investigate their acceptance of the thin ideal and resulting body dissatisfaction. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 30 adult participants in Mexico City. Interviewees accepted the thin body ideal, but experiencing their bodies as signifiers of motherhood protected them from body dissatisfaction. Instead of a personal body project, they engaged in a project of caring for their children's bodies. We suggest that health campaigns directed to adult women should consider the relational aspects of their lives. PMID:23682056
van den Berg, Patricia; Paxton, Susan J; Keery, Helene; Wall, Melanie; Guo, Jia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study examined the role of media body comparison as a mediator of the relationships between psychological factors and sociocultural pressures to be thin and body dissatisfaction in both females and males. Participants were 1,386 females (mean age = 19.37 years) and 1,130 males (mean age = 19.46) from diverse backgrounds who completed a self-report questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test a cross-sectional model in which media body comparison mediated the impact of self-esteem, depressive mood, parent dieting environment, friend dieting, TV exposure, magazine message exposure, weight teasing and body mass index (BMI) on body dissatisfaction. In females, media body comparison partially or fully mediated relationships between self-esteem, depressive mood, friend dieting, magazine message exposure and BMI, and body dissatisfaction. In males, media body comparison was not a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction. This research particularly highlights the need to further examine processes that are involved in the development of body dissatisfaction in males. PMID:18089272
Research suggests that young men's body dissatisfaction increases when they see images of attractive muscular men. This article provides the first extensive review of experimental studies exposing men to advertisements or commercials featuring idealized male bodies. Impacts on body dissatisfaction were evaluated by calculating and analyzing effect sizes from 15 studies. The effect sizes indicate that exposure to images of idealized male bodies has a small but statistically significant negative impact on men's body dissatisfaction. Three studies suggest that young men who are dissatisfied with their bodies are at increased risk for negative self-evaluations when exposed to idealized images. Two studies suggest that men who are satisfied with their bodies may be protected against negative impacts from seeing such images. PMID:18424245
Dunkley, Tracy L.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Paxton, Susan J.
Examined the perceived role of sociocultural agents (peers, parents, and media) in influencing body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. While current body size strongly predicted ideal body size and dissatisfaction, perceived influence of sociocultural agents also had a direct relationship with body ideal and…
de Guzman, Natalie S; Nishina, Adrienne
In a 7-year study, adolescents' body dissatisfaction (N=1370) was examined across four high school years as a function of pubertal development (perceived timing relative to peers and self-reported physical changes measured during Grades 6-10) in the context of the high school transition. Boys and girls who, during early high school, perceived themselves to be late relative to peers were at risk for body dissatisfaction across the high school years. Boys who were late in pubertal development reported more body dissatisfaction in early high school than on-time boys, but then decreased over time. African-American girls reported less body dissatisfaction across the high school years relative to other girls. Asian girls reported more dissatisfaction in early high school than African-American, Latina, and Multiethnic girls, and increased over time. Results highlight the importance of considering late development within context as a risk factor in body dissatisfaction research. PMID:24331829
Barker, Erin T.; Galambos, Nancy L.
Examined factors predicting body dissatisfaction for seventh- and tenth-grade girls and boys in the second wave of a 3-year study of psychosocial maturity. Identified high body mass index, greater figure management, and being teased about appearance as risk factors for girls' body dissatisfaction. Being teased was boys' only significant risk…
Dunkley, T L; Wertheim, E H; Paxton, S J
This study examined the perceived role of three types of sociocultural agents (peers, parents, and media) in influencing body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. Participants were 577 grade 10 girls from six schools who completed questionnaires in class and had height and weight measured. Two path analyses resulted in a similar pattern. While current body size strongly predicted ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, perceived influence of multiple sociocultural agents regarding thinness also had a direct relationship with body ideal and dissatisfaction. Dietary restraint was predicted directly from body dissatisfaction and sociocultural influences. Peers, parents, and media varied in their perceived influence. The findings support the idea that those girls who show the most body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint live in a subculture supporting a thin ideal and encouraging dieting. PMID:11572305
Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Blashill, Aaron J; Tomassilli, Julia; Biello, Katie; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H
Body dissatisfaction is common among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) men; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychosexual health variables among this population. The data that do exist are exclusively cross-sectional, casting uncertainty regarding temporal associations. Thus, the aims of the current study were to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological and sexual health outcomes. Participants were 131 gay and bisexual men who completed a battery of self-report measures across two time points (baseline and 3-month follow-up), including assessment of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and sexual health variables (sexual self-efficacy and sexual anxiety). Generalized linear modeling was employed to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and outcomes variables, accounting for non-normal distributions. Body dissatisfaction significantly predicted elevated depressive symptoms (B = .21, p = .01), lower sexual self-efficacy (B = -.22, p = .04), and elevated sexual anxiety (B = .05, p = .03). Elevated body dissatisfaction is prospectively associated with negative psychological and sexual health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of body image concerns in sexual minority men, depression and/or HIV/STI prevention programs may benefit from routinely assessing for body dissatisfaction among this population, and addressing those who report concerns. PMID:26857379
Bearman, Sarah Kate; Presnell, Katherine; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric
The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for…
Strong, Scott M.; Singh, Devendra; Randall, Patrick K.
Employed a measure of recalled childhood gender nonconformity to examine gender role behaviors in association with body dissatisfaction among ethnically diverse, homosexual and heterosexual, predominantly college-aged males. Gay males reported more body dissatisfaction and recalled more childhood gender atypical behaviors. Group differences in…
Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika
Aim: This study aimed to explore the role of peer influences in the development of body dissatisfaction and dieting awareness in young girls. Method: A sample of 81 girls (aged 5-8 years) were recruited from the first 3 years of formal schooling. Girls were individually interviewed. Body dissatisfaction was assessed by means of figure rating…
Kostanski, Marion; Fisher, Adrian; Gullone, Eleonora
Background: This study addresses limitations of previous research by examining the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction within two developmental periods: childhood and adolescence. Methods: A sample of 448 boys and 508 girls completed self-report measures of global body image dissatisfaction. Weight and height of all participants were also…
James, Kimberly A.; Phelps, LeAdelle; Bross, Andrea L.
Evaluates African American undergraduate females (N=95) for body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and on four dimensions of self-concept. Results indicate body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness at levels commensurate with Caucasian samples. A hierarchical multiple regression found a combination of physical self-concept, drive for…
Andrist, Linda C
This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318
Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth
Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and internalization of appearance ideals to body dissatisfaction among adolescents. The sample was comprised of 239 (54% female) adolescents, with a mean age of 16 years. Self-report questionnaires were completed on body dissatisfaction, peer appearance conversations and criticism, internalization of appearance ideals, height and weight. For girls and boys, body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and internalized appearance ideals emerged as significant predictors of body dissatisfaction. Gender moderated the effect of body mass on body dissatisfaction. Internalization mediated the relationship between peer appearance conversations and criticism, and body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that while body mass exerts a differential risk for body dissatisfaction among boys and girls, internalisation may represent a key psychological process that underpins body dissatisfaction among both boys and girls. PMID:20058058
Y. Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Latifi, Noor Ahmad
BACKGROUND Elective aesthetic surgeries are increasing in the Iranian population with reasons linked to body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms. This study compared the body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms among invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery patients and a control group. METHODS Data from 90 participants (invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, minimally invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, and control group=30 Ss) were included. Subjects were assessed on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms to provide an evidence for a continuum of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery clients. RESULTS Between the three groups of invasive, minimally invasive aesthetic surgeries and control on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity), there was a significant difference. CONCLUSION These findings have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions at first step.
Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S
Emerging research suggests that ethnic identity and American identity are associated with mental health in ethnic minorities and European Americans, respectively. Furthermore, although ethnic identity is associated with diminished body dissatisfaction in minority women, the relationship between American identity and body dissatisfaction is unexplored in all ethnic groups. Accordingly, this study examined the relationships among ethnic identity, American identity, thin-ideal internalization, pressures for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in 1018 ethnically diverse college women. Ethnic identity negatively predicted body dissatisfaction for African Americans, and attenuated the relationship between pressures for thinness and body dissatisfaction for African Americans and Asian Americans, but not European Americans or Latina Americans. Results for American identity were inconclusive. Findings suggest that ethnic identity may be a protective factor against eating pathology for Asian American and African American women. PMID:26609942
Bell, Beth T; Lawton, Rebecca; Dittmar, Helga
Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this relationship. Implications and future research are discussed. PMID:18089259
Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie
Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…
Rhondali, Wadih; Chisholm, Gary B.; Filbet, Marilene; Kang, Duck-Hee; Hui, David; Cororve Fingeret, Michelle
Abstract Background Cancer and its treatment can significantly affect appearance and body integrity. A number of studies have explored the impact of cancer and its treatment on body image, primarily in head and neck and breast cancer. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the construct of body image dissatisfaction and its measurement using a single question in patients with advanced cancer. Methods Outpatients with advanced cancer were recruited (n=81). Assessments included Body Image Scale (BIS), Appearance Schema Inventory (ASI-R), Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) with a total symptom distress score (TSDS) and two subscales scores (physical distress [PHS] and psychological distress [PSS]), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), and one question assessing the overall appearance satisfaction from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). We also asked patients to rate the body image changes importance compared with five symptoms (pain, fatigue, depression, insomnia, lack of appetite). Results Forty-seven (58%) patients had a BIS score >10 (body image dissatisfaction) with a median of 11 (first–third quartiles, Q1–Q3; 5–16) and a median ASI-R of 3.1 (Q1–Q3; 2.8–3.5). Sensitivity and specificity of ≤3 for body image dissatisfaction in the single overall appearance question using the BIS as a standard was 0.70 and 0.71, respectively. BIS score was significantly correlated with ASI-R (r=0.248; p=0.025), age (r=−0.225; p=0.043), HADS-A (r=0.522, p<0.001), HADS-D (r=0.422, p<0.001), PSS score (r=0.371, p=0.001), PHS score (r=0.356, p=0.001), TSDS score (r=0.416, p<0.001), and the overall appearance question (MBSRQ; r=−0.449, p<0.001). Conclusion Body image dissatisfaction was frequent and associated with symptom burden. A single item ≤3 has a sensitivity of 70% for body image satisfaction screening. PMID:25188590
Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon
High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170
Dakanalis, Antonios; Zanetti, Assunta M; Riva, Giuseppe; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Volpato, Chiara; Madeddu, Fabio; Clerici, Massimo
Body dissatisfaction is recognized as a robust risk factor for eating disorders. Despite over 80% of college men being body dissatisfied, not all men report several levels of eating disorder symptoms. In this study, we examined poor impulse control, social anxiety and internalization of media ideals as potential moderators. Data collected from 405 college-aged men were analysed, using latent variable structural equation modelling approach. All variables investigated have been found to moderate the body dissatisfaction-eating disorder symptomatology, such that male body dissatisfaction was strongly related to men's eating disorder symptomatology when each moderator was at its highest level. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:23988683
Ochner, Christopher N; Gray, James A; Brickner, Katrina
The purpose of this research was to develop, and establish the initial psychometric properties of, the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS). Ninety-five male students were recruited over three phases. An item-remainder analysis was performed in phase I, convergent and discriminant validity assessed in phase II, and test-retest reliability and factor structure assessed in phase III. The MBDS achieved an alpha level of 0.93 and was inversely related to body esteem (p=0.02) and self-esteem (p=0.03), and positively related to how much participants' opinion of themselves was based on their body shape and weight (p<0.01). The MBDS was not related to measures of affect, and was able to distinguish between males endorsing, and not endorsing, elevated body shape and weight concerns (p<0.05). Finally, the MBDS displayed a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.96 (p<0.01). Findings suggest that the MBDS may fill the need for a reliable and valid measure of body dissatisfaction that allows men to weight particular aspects of their body image according to personal importance. PMID:19778747
Clancy, Sara Elysia
Previous research on the Objectification Theory suggests that woman may experience self-objectification and body dissatisfaction. Research has demonstrated that yoga is associated with lower self-objectification and lower body dissatisfaction (Daubenmeir, 2005; Impett, Daubenmeir, & Hirschman, 2006) and thus may be a key intervention toward…
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri
This study examined a sociocultural model of the influence of parental comments on body shape and eating concerns among males and females. Questionnaires were completed by 338 undergraduates. Participants reported levels of perceived parental comments, internalization of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimia. Results revealed that, regardless of gender, internalization and appearance comparison only partially mediated the relationship between parental comments and the outcome variables. The final model for females explained a larger proportion of the variability in body shape and eating concerns than in males, with positive and negative parental comments directly related to body dissatisfaction and through it to eating outcomes. In males, only negative comments were directly related to body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the role of parental influences in sociocultural models of the development of body dissatisfaction and eating concerns, and the gender-specific patterns of sociocultural influence. PMID:19464242
Cheney, Ann M
In this article, I present the findings from an ethnographic study of 18 women college students living in the northeastern United States. I examine how ethnically diverse women dealt with the messages of the dominant White society's obsession with thinness, and whether it affected their perceptions of an ideal body image. From the analysis of the interviews, I identified and extracted several themes related to ethnicity, aesthetic body ideals, body dissatisfaction, and disturbed eating. Grounded in the women's narratives, I found that ethnically diverse women coming of age in American society experience anxieties and emotional stress as they related to others in their daily lives. Their stories shed light on how the body is a vehicle for social mobility and is used by women from marginalized identities to strategically negotiate social inequalities embedded in daily social relationships and interactions that more privileged women do not encounter. PMID:21148325
Cho, Ara; Lee, Jang-Han
Attentional bias toward idealized bodies (men: muscular; women: thin) may cause upward comparisons and increase body dissatisfaction (BD). We investigated attentional biases of 39 men and 41 women with high and low BD toward muscular male bodies and thin female bodies. An eye-tracker measured gaze durations and fixation frequencies while exposing participants to images of thin, normal, muscular, and fat bodies of the same gender. Results revealed longer and more frequent attention toward muscular bodies in high BD men, and toward thin bodies in high BD women. High BD men and women also rated muscular and thin bodies as more attractive than those with low BD. Although men attended to muscular and women attended to thin bodies, both showed an attentional bias toward body types they rated as more attractive. These findings could provide indirect evidence in explaining the relationship between BD and the social comparison theory with attentional bias. PMID:23122552
Hardit, Saroj K; Hannum, James W
The tripartite model of influence proposes that three primary core sources of influence-parents, peers and media-contribute to the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. In the current study, this model was examined in a sample of 205 undergraduate women. This study added to previous research by investigating mother and father criticism separately and by examining the potential moderating effects of parental attachment in the pathway to body dissatisfaction. Results indicated partial support for the tripartite model of influence. Sociocultural influences (media) were found to be a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction, but not parental or peer criticism. Anxious attachment was found to be a significant moderator on the effects of sociocultural attitudes in body dissatisfaction. Limitations and future research implications are discussed. PMID:22795652
Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica
This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels. PMID:24094477
Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Couturier, Jennifer; Jack, Susan M; Wahoush, Olive
Immigrant adolescents represent a significant and growing proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, little is known about their experiences of body image distortion. This is particularly concerning given that body image distortion has been identified as a significant and modifiable risk factor for a number of mental illnesses, including depression and eating disorders. This study uses multi-level modeling to examine the associations between immigrant generational status, neighborhood immigrant concentration, sex, body dissatisfaction and risk for body image distortion. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and includes 10,962 11-19 year olds (49.6 % female). First generation immigrant females were significantly more likely than 3rd generation-or-later adolescents to experience underweight body image distortion. There was no association between neighborhood immigrant concentration and risk for body image distortion. Body dissatisfaction was associated with greater risk for underweight and overweight body image distortion, with the magnitude of underweight distortion risk significantly greater among 1st generation immigrants. Interventions that encourage the development of a healthy body image have the potential to reduce the onset and duration of body image distortion among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents. PMID:26194338
Javier, Sarah J; Moore, Melanie P; Belgrave, Faye Z
Although once thought primarily to affect White women, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating exist among all racial groups. In the current study, the authors determined whether the relationship between participants' perceived maternal/peer attitudes toward appearance and the outcomes of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology varied by race. Self-reported data, including measures of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of maternal/peer attitudes, were collected from December 2012 to May 2013 at a large Mid-Atlantic university. BMI (β = 0.20, p = .01), perceptions of peers' attitudes toward appearance (β = 0.23, p = .02), and White race (β = 0.33, p < .001) were independently associated with body dissatisfaction. Additionally, race interacted with perceptions of peers' attitudes toward appearance such that at high perceptions, African American women reported high levels of body dissatisfaction (β = -0.20, p = .04), but this was not true for White women. Higher perceived peer concern about weight and shape (β = 0.32, p < .001), increased BMI (β = 0.30, p < .001), and White race (β = 0.21, p = .002), also were associated with disordered eating. The results of this study have implications for prevention programs that address disordered eating for racially diverse groups of women. PMID:26583765
Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina; Merino, Maria Eugenia
With interest in body image and body change behaviors growing around the world, there has been surprisingly little research conducted in Latin America on these issues. In order to gain some understanding of them in this context, this study investigated body image and body change behaviors, and the sociocultural factors that may influence them, among 337 Chilean adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed BMI, body dissatisfaction, strategies to lose weight and strategies to increase muscle bulk. In addition, perceived pressure from family, peers, and the media to change body shape was evaluated. Results were partially consistent with those reported in Western nations. Girls were found to report greater body dissatisfaction than boys, but no difference was found between males and females in perceived pressure from adults in the family or from older siblings/cousins to lose weight. However, girls experienced higher levels of perceived pressure to lose weight from the media than boys, and boys reported greater perceived pressure from peers to lose weight than girls, and more pressure than girls from all sources to increase muscle bulk. These findings are discussed in relation to research conducted in other contexts, and it is concluded that findings from other locations may not be applied universally. PMID:18463011
Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M R; Gigante, D P
Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI, 62.7–65.6); 42% (95% CI, 40.6–43.6) of the subjects reported feeling larger than the desired body size, and 22% (95% CI, 20.7–23.3) reported feeling smaller than desired. Underweight subjects, subjects with less schooling, poor and sedentary male subjects with low psychological well-being and female subjects who were already mothers were more likely to express body dissatisfaction, perceiving their body as smaller than the desirable body size. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was also high among overweight subjects, subjects with a high socioeconomic status and married female subjects, who perceived their body size as too large. Minor psychiatric disorders were associated with body dissatisfaction in all subjects, regardless of perceiving themselves as larger or smaller than the desired body size. Most women perceived themselves as larger, but similar proportions of men perceived themselves as too small or too large. Conclusions: Body dissatisfaction was observed among men and women with normal weight, but it was more evident in the obese individuals. Regardless of the nutritional status, both men and women should be appropriately counseled because body size perception can lead to unhealthy behaviors in relation to diet and physical activity. PMID:25074390
The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image. PMID:20653188
Rodgers, Rachel F; McLean, Siân A; Marques, Mathew; Dunstan, Candice J; Paxton, Susan J
Clarifying the trajectories of body image and eating concerns in adolescents is critical. We examined longitudinal patterns of development of body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction among early adolescent girls within a sociocultural framework. A sample of 259 school girls (M age = 12.76 years, SD = 0.44) reported on sociocultural influences, body dissatisfaction and dietary restriction at baseline, 8, and 14 months. A subsample provided height and weight. Analyses identified four trajectories of body dissatisfaction: low, moderate-increasing, moderate-decreasing, and high. Three trajectories of dietary restriction emerged: low, moderate, and high. Baseline and 8-month sociocultural variables and BMI differed between the trajectories. A subgroup of girls displays high levels of body image and eating concerns by early adolescence. Sociocultural variables influence these trajectories. PMID:26386562
Pastore, Lisa M.; Patrie, James T.; Morris, Wendy L.; Dalal, Parchayi; Bray, Megan J
Objective One publication reported that lower body satisfaction and lower education were independent predictors of depression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. This study replicates that analysis using different instruments, and adds androgen levels to the model. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of questionnaires (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report, Body Esteem Scale) and serum androgens from a community cohort with (n=94) and without (n=96) PCOS, matched by BMI category. Non-parametric tests, Spearman correlations, and negative binomial regression models were analyzed. Results Depression symptoms were common (40–60% in lean, overweight and obese BMI categories) in the PCOS cohort, albeit generally of mild severity. The PCOS women had similar depression symptom severity (P > 0.20) and similar body dissatisfaction (P ≥ 0.25) as the regularly cycling women in total and stratified by BMI category. In both the PCOS and non-PCOS cohorts, depression symptom severity was positively correlated with dissatisfaction with physical appearance and physical conditioning (P < 0.02). Body dissatisfaction (especially perception of physical conditioning) was strongly associated with more severe depression symptoms in non-obese PCOS women (BMI<30, P < 0.04) before and after controlling for age, testosterone and free testosterone. In contrast, for obese women with PCOS, depression was unrelated to body dissatisfaction after controlling for age. Conclusions Among non-obese PCOS women, their subjective body image was strongly associated with the severity of their depression symptoms. Most of the obese PCOS cohort had low body satisfaction and depression symptoms, therefore individual differences in the body dissatisfaction scores were not helpful in identifying depression symptom severity. Neither testosterone nor free testosterone were associated with depression symptom severity in PCOS women after controlling for body dissatisfaction and age. US
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive influence that internalization of society and media messages has on body dissatisfaction, as well as the prediction influence that body dissatisfaction has on disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. A total of 324 participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 2001 ), the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995 ) for women, and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-Revised-Male-Version (Cusumano & Thompson, 1997 ) for men, and the locus of control (Rotter, 1966 ). The results of this study found that high internalization leads to body dissatisfaction, in turn, leading to disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. This study proposes the implementation of media literacy and education programs that teach college women and men, girls and boys, to think more critically about the media. PMID:26086885
Rodgers, Rachel F; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J
Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media-ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. A sample of 277 Grade 7 school girls (M age = 12.77 years, SD = 0.44) completed measures of internalization of the media ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 8 months, and 14 months. Path analyses indicated that baseline internalization of the media ideal predicted social appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction at 8 months, and social appearance comparison at 8 months predicted body dissatisfaction at 14 months. A reciprocal effect emerged with body dissatisfaction at 8 months predicting internalization of the media ideal at 14 months. The findings inform sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction, suggesting that internalization of the media ideal precedes and predicts appearance comparison and that body image interventions that target internalization of the media ideal, and social appearance comparison as well as body dissatisfaction are likely to be effective. PMID:25751099
Lykins, Amy D; Ferris, Tamara; Graham, Cynthia A
The proliferation of "idealized" (i.e., very thin and attractive) women in the media has contributed to increasing rates of body dissatisfaction among women. However, it remains relatively unknown how women attend to these images: does dissatisfaction predict greater or lesser attention to these body regions on others? Fifty healthy women (mean age=21.8 years) viewed images of idealized and plus-size models; an eye-tracker recorded visual attention. Participants also completed measures of satisfaction for specific body regions, which were then used as predictors of visual attention to these regions on models. Consistent with an avoidance-type process, lower levels of satisfaction with the two regions of greatest reported concern (mid, lower torso) predicted less attention to these regions; greater satisfaction predicted more attention to these regions. While this visual attention bias may aid in preserving self-esteem when viewing idealized others, it may preclude the opportunity for comparisons that could improve self-esteem. PMID:25047004
Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Moeller, Robert W.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Kupprat, Sandra A.; Kingdon, Molly J.; Halkitis, Perry N.
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at greater risk for body dissatisfaction, compared to their heterosexual peers. However, differences within YMSM populations are understudied, precluding the identification of YMSM who are at greatest risk. This study examined body dissatisfaction in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of YMSM ages 18–19 in New York City. Using cross-sectional data from the baseline visit of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM (N = 591), body dissatisfaction was assessed using the Male Body Attitudes Scale. Three outcomes were modeled using linear regression: (1) overall body dissatisfaction, (2) muscularity dissatisfaction, and (3) body fat dissatisfaction. Covariates in the models included race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, BMI, gay community affiliation, and internalized homonegativity. White YMSM experienced greater body dissatisfaction across the three models. Internalized homonegativity was a statistically significant predictor of dissatisfaction across the three models, though its association with body dissatisfaction was relatively small. The findings point to future avenues of research, particularly qualitative research to explore demographic and cultural nuances in body attitudes among YMSM. PMID:26370403
Joiner, T E; Schmidt, N B; Singh, D
We examined the interrelationships of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body dissatisfaction, gender, and depressed and eating disordered symptoms cross-sectionally among 131 male and female undergraduates. Based on past findings on physical and mental health, attractiveness, and depressive realism, we predicted that the WHR x Depression x Gender interaction would be significantly related to body dissatisfaction, such that the correspondence between WHR and body dissatisfaction would be more pronounced among depressed than among nondepressed women and men. This hypothesis received support. Implications of our results for work on body dissatisfaction were discussed. PMID:7987354
Siconolfi, Daniel E; Kapadia, Farzana; Moeller, Robert W; Eddy, Jessica A; Kupprat, Sandra A; Kingdon, Molly J; Halkitis, Perry N
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at greater risk for body dissatisfaction, compared to their heterosexual peers. However, differences within YMSM populations are understudied, precluding the identification of YMSM who are at greatest risk. This study examined body dissatisfaction in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of YMSM ages 18-19 in New York City. Using cross-sectional data from the baseline visit of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM (N = 591), body dissatisfaction was assessed using the Male Body Attitudes Scale. Three outcomes were modeled using linear regression: (1) overall body dissatisfaction, (2) muscularity dissatisfaction, and (3) body fat dissatisfaction. Covariates in the models included race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, BMI, gay community affiliation, and internalized homonegativity. White YMSM experienced greater body dissatisfaction across the three models. Internalized homonegativity was a statistically significant predictor of dissatisfaction across the three models, though its association with body dissatisfaction was relatively small. The findings point to future avenues of research, particularly qualitative research to explore demographic and cultural nuances in body attitudes among YMSM. PMID:26370403
Koskina, Nefeli; Giovazolias, Theodoros
The present study examined the effects of insecure attachment on the development of negative body image as a contributing factor to the development of disturbed eating patterns in male and female university students. Participants were nonclinical male (n = 100) and female (n = 381) university students. Administering self-report questionnaires, the authors assessed demographic information (gender, age), anthropometric data (Body Mass Index [BMI], age), romantic attachment (ECRS-R; R. C. Fraley, N. G. Waller, & K. A. Brennan, 2000), body dissatisfaction (BSQ), and disturbed eating (EAT-26). The authors found body dissatisfaction to fully mediate the relationship between attachment anxiety and disordered eating in women. Body dissatisfaction mediated anxious attachment and dieting in men. In addition, attachment avoidance had a direct impact on eating behaviors for both genders, without the mediation of any variables measured in this study. The findings of the present study suggest that the anxiety and avoidance dimensions of attachment insecurity affect eating behaviors differently, and the effects are different across genders. The authors discuss results in the context of therapeutic interventions design. PMID:20806850
Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice
To understand whether difficulties in emotional functioning distinguish between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, a set of emotion regulation (i.e., negative emotion, emotional awareness, coping), demographic (i.e., age), and physical (i.e., BMI (Body Mass Index)) factors were assessed in 234 early adolescent girls, grades six to eight.…
Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.
Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…
Brannan, Megan E.; Petrie, Trent A.
In this study, research conducted by T. L. Tylka (2004) was replicated and extended by examining perfectionism (self-oriented and socially prescribed), ego goal orientation, body surveillance, and neuroticism as moderators of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic and anorexic symptomatology among female undergraduates (N =…
Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.
Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…
Kichler, Jessica C.; Crowther, Janis H.
The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image…
Stevens, Heath R.
Adolescents confront a plethora of physical and emotional changes, especially those alterations surrounding puberty. Body image disturbances have become commonplace with high school students, and school personnel seem to have had little success in fighting this problem. Teenagers with body dissatisfaction may also be at risk for mental health…
Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. PMID:21354882
Kelly, N. R.; Bulik, C. M.; Mazzeo, S. E.
Silhouette measures are one approach to assessing body dissatisfaction in children, although little is known about their use among racially diverse, overweight girls seeking weight-loss treatment. This study assessed racial differences in body dissatisfaction and body size perceptions of 58 girls (ages 6–11, 66% Black, 34% White) participating in a randomized trial for pediatric overweight. Body dissatisfaction did not differ between races; 99% of girls reported an ideal figure smaller than their current one. Black girls selected a larger silhouette to represent their ideal body size, and most girls in both racial groups underestimated their actual size. Outcomes strengthen the argument that, despite an overall preference for a larger body size, obesity might mitigate cultural factors that protect Black girls from body dissatisfaction. Additional research is needed to enhance understanding of children’s body size perceptions and dissatisfaction to inform assessment and treatment of pediatric obesity and associated disordered eating symptoms. PMID:21700518
Yagil, Yaron; Geller, Shulamit; Sidi, Yael; Tirosh, Yael; Katz, Paulina; Nakache, Richard
The role that body image plays in the psychological adjustment of kidney-transplant recipients is an understudied issue. In the current study, the association between three variables - (a) body-image dissatisfaction, (b) quality of life (QOL), and (c) psychological distress - was investigated. The research participants were 45 kidney-transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at the Transplant Unit of the Tel-Aviv Medical Center (Israel). Body image, psychological distress, and QOL were measured using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and SF-12]. Medical and background data were collected from medical and administrative records. The findings indicated an association between higher level of body-image dissatisfaction and a decrease in several quality-of-life dimensions (role emotional, physical pain, general health, and social functioning), and with an increase in psychological distress. These findings highlight the importance of body-image dissatisfaction as a factor that is associated with QOL and psychological distress among kidney-transplant recipients. Body image warrants further attention and should be screened and treated among those who demonstrate high levels of dissatisfaction. PMID:25343489
The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666
Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth
Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…
Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. PMID:25574864
Krawczyk, Ross; Thompson, J Kevin
Experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to idealized images of women increases state body image disturbance. However, little work has experimentally examined the effects of exposure to images that sexually objectify women, especially as it relates to women and men's state body dissatisfaction and judgments of women. In the current study, 437 women and men were randomly assigned to view advertisements that sexually objectify women and portray appearance ideals, or to view non-appearance-related advertisements. Results indicated that state body dissatisfaction increased for women and men exposed to advertisements that sexually objectified women, although this effect was larger for women. Trait internalization of appearance ideals moderated this effect, indicating that women and men with higher internalization exhibited greater state body dissatisfaction after viewing women sexually objectified in advertisements. Exposure to women sexually objectified in advertisements did not affect women's or men's attractiveness or competence ratings of women in university advertisements. PMID:26363356
Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Neves, Clara Mockdece; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Berbert; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
The body image of pregnant women is an issue that should be further investigated by professionals in the area, especially in view of the fact that maternal and infant health has gained such prominence. The scope of this integrative review is to analyze the literature relating to body image and body dissatisfaction among pregnant women. Research was based on articles extracted from the Scopus, PubMed, BVS and PsycINFO databases, by cross-referencing "pregnancy" with the keywords "body image" and "body dissatisfaction." Once the inclusion and exclusion criteria had been adopted, forty studies were analyzed. These produced inconclusive data about body dissatisfaction during pregnancy. Symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, an inadequate approach towards healthy eating and weight gain above recommended limits have been associated with a negative body image. The contradictory findings could be related to the different instruments used to measure body image. In view of the possible impact that a negative body image can have on maternal and infant health during pregnancy, it is recommended that further investigations are made, in particular related to the development of a specific tool to evaluate the body image of pregnant women. PMID:26132248
Rodgers, Rachel F.; McLean, Siân A.; Paxton, Susan J.
Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal…
Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.
Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…
Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny
Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:22947622
Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia
Decentering has been defined as the ability to deal with thoughts and emotions as subjective and ephemeral inner events. Since it implies a non-judging and present focused attitude towards thoughts and emotions, decentering has been considered as an important protective process against psychopathology, as it has been empirically shown to decrease depressive relapse rates. Nevertheless, its role in eating disordered attitudes and behaviours has not been fully uncovered. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the moderator effect of decentering on the relationship between eating psychopathology and one of its main risk factors, body image dissatisfaction. The sample comprised 279 female students, aged between 14 and 21 years-old. Results revealed that decentering abilities were negatively linked to body image dissatisfaction and to the global score of eating psychopathology. Through a path analysis, the buffer effect of decentering was confirmed. The findings suggest that the ability to take a non-judgmental and accepting stance towards internal experiences diminishes the impact of one's body dissatisfaction on disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. This study seems especially pertinent since it uncovers a mechanism to lessen the pervasive impact of body image dissatisfaction, which is highly prevalent in women from Western societies. PMID:25064288
Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Phelps, LeAdelle
This study attempted to identify risk factors that are implicated in the body dissatisfaction of college women and the factors that may facilitate effective prevention and treatment efforts. Data collected from 215 female college students indicated that participants with (a) greater physical self-concept, (b) less drive for thinness, and (c)…
Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent
The first purpose of this study was to investigate direct links between body image dissatisfaction (BID) in college women and their memories of either parent as cold and emotionally aloof. Theory, clinical case evidence, and a small (but growing) number of studies support these links. After estimating the strength of the associations between…
Patton, Sarah C.; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Benedict, Helen E.
The developmental trajectory of body image dissatisfaction is unclear. Researchers have investigated sociocultural and developmental risk factors; however, the literature needs an integrative etiological model. In 2009, Cheng and Mallinckrodt proposed a dual mediation model, positing that poor-quality parental bonds, via the mechanisms of…
Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The prevailing view in popular culture and the psychological literature is that White women have greater body dissatisfaction than women of color. In this meta-analysis, 6 main effect sizes were obtained for differences among Asian American, Black, Hispanic, and White women with a sample of 98 studies, yielding 222 effect sizes. The average d for…
Roberts, Alan; Cash, Thomas F.; Feingold, Alan; Johnson, Blair T.
Proponents of the sociocultural model of eating disorders have suggested that ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction may be diminishing as the thin ideal of beauty becomes more widely disseminated among minority women. In a meta-analysis, the authors examined temporal trends in Black-White differences and also examined whether these…
Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Dakanalis, Antonios
Different studies, including longitudinal studies, suggest a link between body dissatisfaction, unhealthful weight-control behaviors and obesity in both male and female adolescents. Here we suggest that body dissatisfaction in obese adolescents may be driven by an allocentric negative body image that is no more updated by contrasting egocentric representations driven by perception. In other words, subjects are locked to an allocentric negative representation of their body (allocentric lock hypothesis - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2011.10.039) that their sensory inputs are no more able to update even after the dramatic body changes following a successful diet. More, the possible role of virtual reality in the prevention and treatment of obesity in adolescence is presented and discussed. PMID:23400184
Vocks, S; Hechler, T; Rohrig, S; Legenbauer, T
The effects of a physical exercise session on state body image and mood were examined. In a cross-over design, participants were randomised to two groups starting either with physical exercise (PE; experimental condition) or with reading a newspaper (RN; control condition). Before and after PE and RN, participants (N = 65) rated their body dimensions using a digital photo distortion technique and indicated their attitudinal body image and mood. Participants' judgements of their 'felt' body dimensions and attitudes toward their own body were affected differently by PE and RN, indicating that participants felt slightly slimmer and were more satisfied with their bodies after PE. Exercise-induced changes in body perception were greater, the higher the pre-experimental drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concerns were. Especially in those participants with higher body image disturbances, physical exercise can have a reinforcing effect on immediate body image and mood improvement. PMID:20205022
van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin
The current study was an investigation of the self-schema and social comparison theories of body dissatisfaction. The social comparison manipulation consisted of exposure to one of three levels of comparison figure: upward, downward, or no comparison. Two different imagery exercises served to prime either a participants' appearance self-schema, or a non-appearance schema. Participants completed state measures of body image and mood at pre- and posttest. Results indicated no significant interaction between priming and social comparison and no significant main effect for priming. However, there was a significant effect of social comparison, such that those in the downward comparison condition showed an increase in body satisfaction and positive mood. Results are discussed in the context of self-schema theory and social comparison, and suggestions are given for future research that might further shed light on these theoretical approaches for understanding body dissatisfaction. PMID:18089249
Homan, Kristin J; Sedlak, Brittany L; Boyd, Elizabeth A
Gratitude has robust associations with multiple aspects of well-being. However, little research has explored whether the psychological benefits of gratitude extend to body image. We used a repeated measures experimental design to test whether a brief period of grateful reflection would buffer the adverse effect of exposure to thin-ideal media. Female undergraduates (N=67) completed three sessions one week apart. The conditions were specifically designed to isolate (a) the effects of viewing thin models on body dissatisfaction and (b) the moderating effect of grateful contemplation. Results showed that body dissatisfaction scores were lower for women who engaged in a brief period of grateful contemplation before viewing photographs of thin models than for women who reflected upon life hassles before viewing the same photographs. The magnitude of this decrease depended on BMI. Gratitude offers an innovative direction for future research directed toward helping women to accept their bodies. PMID:24958659
Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don
Body dissatisfaction is particularly prevalent during adolescence and has recently been linked to stress in females and males. However, prospective studies are needed to better understand the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction. The present study investigates the direction of this association and the mediating role of self-esteem and body image importance. A sample of 298 adolescent females and males in Grades 7 to 10 (ages 12 to 17 years) were surveyed at two time points over a one-year period. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that stress significantly predicted body dissatisfaction one year later. Furthermore, a multiple mediation analysis controlling for gender revealed a significant indirect effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, indicating that stress predicts reductions in self-esteem and increases in body importance, which in turn predict body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that stress, self-esteem, and body importance should be included in programmes aimed at improving body dissatisfaction. PMID:23993480
Malete, L.; Motlhoiwa, K.; Shaibu, S.; Wrotniak, B. H.; Maruapula, S. D.; Jackson, J.; Compher, C. W.
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine linkages between obesity, physical activity, and body image dissatisfaction, with consideration of socioeconomic status (SES) and urbanization in adolescents in Botswana. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey in 707 secondary school students included measured height and weight to determine overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) using World Health Organization standards; physical activity (PA) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and body image satisfaction using the Body Ideals Questionnaire. SES was described by private school versus public school attendance. Results and Discussion. OW/OB students felt farther from ideal and greater dissatisfaction with their weight and body proportions than optimal weight students. Boys felt greater difference from ideal and more dissatisfaction with muscle tone, chest size, and strength than girls. Lower SES students and those from rural villages had more minutes of PA than higher SES or urban students. In this rapidly developing African country, these trends reflect the nutrition transition and offer opportunity to motivate OW/OB students and boys for PA as a health promotion obesity prevention behavior. Conclusions. As urbanization and improved SES are desirable and likely to continue, the public health system will be challenged to prevent obesity while preserving a healthy body image. PMID:23634296
Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and…
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Glashouwer, Klaske A; Jonker, Nienke C; Thomassen, Karen; de Jong, Peter J
Women with high body dissatisfaction look less at their 'beautiful' body parts than their 'ugly' body parts. This study tested the robustness of this selective viewing pattern and examined the influence of positive body exposure on body-dissatisfied women's attention for 'ugly' and 'beautiful' body parts. In women with high body dissatisfaction (N = 28) and women with low body dissatisfaction (N = 14) eye-tracking was used to assess visual attention towards pictures of their own and other women's bodies. Participants with high body dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to 5 weeks positive body exposure (n = 15) or a no-treatment condition (n = 13). Attention bias was assessed again after 5 weeks. Body-dissatisfied women looked longer at 'ugly' than 'beautiful' body parts of themselves and others, while participants with low body dissatisfaction attended equally long to own/others' 'beautiful' and 'ugly' body parts. Although positive body exposure was very effective in improving participants' body satisfaction, it did not systematically change participants' viewing pattern. The tendency to preferentially allocate attention towards one's 'ugly' body parts seems a robust phenomenon in women with body dissatisfaction. Yet, modifying this selective viewing pattern seems not a prerequisite for successfully improving body satisfaction via positive body exposure. PMID:27236075
Rayner, Kathryn E; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rapee, Ronald M; Taylor, Alan; Hutchinson, Delyse M
Previous research has shown that adolescent girls tend to resemble their friends in their level of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, no studies to date have attempted to disentangle the underlying peer selection and socialization processes that may explain this homophily. The current study used longitudinal stochastic actor-based modeling to simultaneously examine these two processes in a large community sample of adolescent girls (N = 1,197) from nine Australian girls' high schools. Friendship nominations and measures of body dissatisfaction, dieting and bulimic behaviors were collected across three annual waves. Results indicated that selection rather than socialization effects contributed to similarity within friendship groups when both processes were examined simultaneously. Specifically, girls tended to select friends who were similar to themselves in terms of body dissatisfaction and bulimic behaviors, but dissimilar in terms of dieting. Network and individual attribute variables also emerged as significant in explaining changes in adolescents' friendships and behaviors. As well as having important clinical implications, the findings point to the importance of controlling for friendship selection when examining the role of peers in adolescent body image and eating problems. PMID:22867115
Menzel, Jessie E; Schaefer, Lauren M; Burke, Natasha L; Mayhew, Laura L; Brannick, Michael T; Thompson, J Kevin
A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between appearance and weight-based teasing and three outcome measures: body dissatisfaction, restrictive eating, and bulimic behaviors. Four meta-analyses were conducted. Fifty effect sizes (N=10,618) resulted in a moderate effect size of .39 for the relationship between weight teasing and body dissatisfaction; 24 effect sizes (N=7190) resulted in an effect size of .32 for the relationship between appearance teasing and body dissatisfaction; 20 effect sizes (N=4792) resulted in an effect size of .35 for the relationship between weight teasing and dietary restraint; and 22 effect sizes (N=5091) resulted in an effect size of .36 for the relationship between weight teasing and bulimic behaviors. Significant moderators that emerged were teasing measure type, publication type, study type, age group, and gender. The findings offer further support for the inclusion of strategies in body image and eating disorders' prevention and intervention programs that focus on handling negative, appearance-related commentary. PMID:20655287
Niide, Tiffany K.; Davis, James; Tse, Alice M.; Derauf, Chris; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Yates, Alayne
Introduction Body dissatisfaction (BD), a risk factor for eating disorders, is occurring at younger ages and among a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural groups. Objective To describe body ideals and prevalence of body satisfaction among an ethnically diverse population of male and female students in Hawaii. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey including biographical information and the figure drawing screen was distributed to 7th through 12th grade students. Results Of the 1330 completed surveys, 19% of students were significantly dissatisfied with their bodies. Males were at greater risk than females for total BD (25.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) and for BD in the direction of wanting to be larger (11.3% vs. 2.3%; p<0.001). Males and females were at similar risk for BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner (14.6% vs. 11.6%; p=0.11). Prevalence of BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner was significantly different (p<0.05) among ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in BD based on grade level or SES. Conclusions BD exists among nearly 1 out of 5 adolescents, with differing patterns for males and females, and with certain ethnic groups being at higher risk. Implications Studies to understand risk and protective factors by sex and among different ethnic groups may help generate tailored prevention strategies. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the bidirectional BD seen in males and potential outcomes.
McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H
This study examined in young adolescent girls the fit of a theoretical model of the contribution of media literacy to body dissatisfaction via the mediating influences of internalisation of media ideals and appearance comparisons. Female Grade 7 students (N=469) completed self-report assessments of media literacy, internalisation, appearance comparisons, body dissatisfaction, and media exposure. Strong, significant inverse associations between media literacy and body dissatisfaction, internalisation, and appearance comparisons were observed. Path analysis revealed that a slightly modified revision of the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, body dissatisfaction was influenced directly by appearance comparisons, internalisation, and body mass index, and indirectly by media literacy and media exposure. Indirect pathways were mediated by appearance comparisons and internalisation. Thus, a relationship between media literacy and eating disorder risk factors was observed. Findings may explain positive outcomes of media literacy interventions in eating disorder prevention. PMID:23465878
Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.
This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…
Blashill, Aaron J.; Safren, Steven A.
The consistent use of condoms is the most effective behavior for reducing the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and condom use self-efficacy has been shown to be a key construct related to condom use. However, the examination of modifiable psychosocial and behavioral correlates of condom use self-efficacy is lacking. Recent investigations have highlighted the association of body dissatisfaction with condom use self-efficacy, and the current study conducted a meta-analysis on all available data addressing this relationship. Eleven individual effect-size parameters from nine studies yielded a total sample of 2,495 men and women participants. A random-effects model revealed an average effect-size of r = −0.25, Cohen’s d = −0.52, which is moderate in strength. As body dissatisfaction increases, ones’ self-efficacy regarding the use of condoms diminishes. Integrating interventions to decrease body dissatisfaction and sexual risk behaviors may prove to be an effective strategy to decrease STIs. PMID:25462884
Sharpe, Helen; Damazer, Katharine; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike
Body dissatisfaction and dieting are risk factors for eating disorders. Understanding young people's views about factors underlying body dissatisfaction and dieting may be helpful for those designing preventative interventions. This study explored adolescents' views on causes of body dissatisfaction and dieting and recommendations for prevention. Four 1-h focus groups were conducted with 22 female adolescents (aged 13-15 years). Transcripts were explored using thematic analysis. Body dissatisfaction and dieting was explained by four themes: peer acceptance; social comparison online; pressure from family; and pressure from the media and fashion industries. There were seven areas of recommendation for prevention: building sources of support; learning to be critical of the media; monitoring the school gym; working with parents; educating about signs and symptoms of eating disorders; working with people who have suffered from eating disorders; and providing help from professionals. Implications of these findings for the development of prevention programmes are discussed. PMID:23760841
Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K
Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. PMID:21775227
The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being. PMID:11432599
Karazsia, Bryan T; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Wong, Kendal; Crowther, Janis H
Internalization of societal standards of physical attractiveness (i.e., internalization of the thin ideal for women and internalization of the mesomorphic ideal for men) is a widely studied and robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and maladaptive body change behaviors. Substantial empirical research supports internalization as both a mediator and a moderator of the relation between societal influences and body dissatisfaction. In this paper, a primer on mediation and moderation is followed by a review of literature and discussion of the extent to which internalization can theoretically fulfill the roles of both mediation and moderation. The literature review revealed a stark contrast in research design (experimental versus non-experimental design) when alternate conceptualizations of internalization are adopted. A meta-theoretical, moderated mediation model is presented. This model integrates previous research and can inform future empirical and clinical endeavors. PMID:23871195
Lokken, Kristine; Ferraro, F Richard; Kirchner, Tara; Bowling, Margo
The authors designed the present study to test whether women reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction than did men even when the 2 genders were matched on a measure of degree of body focus. Sixty undergraduates (30 men, 30 women) were screened on attention-to-body-shape scores and divided into high, medium, and low body-shape-focus groups. The participants also completed questionnaires that provided information on age, education, vocabulary ability, levels of depression, and body-image assessment. The groups did not differ (ps > .05) on age, education, vocabulary ability, or levels of depression. However, women in all 3 body-shape-focus categories indicated a larger discrepancy between their real vs. ideal body images (p < .01) than did the men. In the high-body-focus group, there was an 11:1ratio between women's and men's reported real-ideal body-shape discrepancies. Women showed greater body dissatisfaction than did men, even when the genders were matched on a measure of body focus. PMID:12926515
Ramme, Robin A; Donovan, Caroline L; Bell, Hayley S
The tripartite model has been an important and empirically supported theoretical model positing that the influence of peers, family, and media leads women to internalise the thin societal body ideal. This internalisation in turn leads women to experience body dissatisfaction. Recently, a new societal 'athletic ideal' for women has emerged, which promotes a body frame with pronounced lean muscle mass. This study tested the role of the athletic ideal in the tripartite model of influence with a sample of 421 women aged 17-40 years. Athletic ideal internalisation was neither found to be associated with body dissatisfaction, nor act as a mediator in the relationship between sociocultural influences and body dissatisfaction. Although more research is required, the results of this study suggest that for this cross-sectional sample of women, internalisation of an athletic and muscular, rather than thin ideal, may be less detrimental to body satisfaction. PMID:26828821
Background In order to elucidate the individual and community health burden of body dissatisfaction (BD), we examined impairment in quality of life associated with BD in a large, general population sample of women. Methods Self-report measures of BD, health-related quality of life (SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scales) and subjective quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF Psychological Functioning and Social Relationships subscales) were completed by 5,255 Australian women aged 18 to 42 years. Results Most participants (86.9%) reported some level of dissatisfaction with their weight or shape and more than one third (39.4%) reported moderate to marked dissatisfaction. Higher levels of BD were associated with poorer quality of life for all items of both quality of life measures, the degree of impairment being proportional to the degree of BD. Associations were strongest for items tapping mental health and psychosocial functioning, although greater BD was associated with substantially increased risk of impairment in certain aspects of physical health even when controlling for body weight. Post-hoc analysis indicated that the observed associations between BD and quality of life impairment were not accounted for by an association between BD and eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions In women, BD is associated with marked impairment in aspects of quality of life relating to mental health and psycho-social functioning and at least some aspects of physical health, independent of its association with body weight and eating disorder symptoms. Greater attention may need to be given to BD as a public health problem. The fact that BD is “normative” should not be taken to infer that it is benign. PMID:24088248
Greydanus, Donald E; Apple, Roger W
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a common though often hidden condition in children and adolescents that may result in suicide. This discussion covers several aspects of DSH including its prevalence, etiology, and management. The relationships of DSH to body dissatisfaction and suicide are specifically considered. Even though most cases of DSH do not end in overt suicide, DSH reflects that potential underlying psychological pathophysiology, and likelihood of eventual death from self-murder, cannot always be predicted or prevented. It is important to take all acts of DSH as serious, and to offer comprehensive management to prevent future acts of DSH and potential suicide. PMID:21811385
Rastmanesh, Reza; Gluck, Marci E; Shadman, Zhaleh
Objective The relationship between Islamic veiling, body dissatisfaction and desire for cosmetic rhinoplasty (CR) has not been studied. We therefore compared body dissatisfaction (BD), depression, self-esteem, and prevalence and desire to have CR in 1771 Iranian females. Method A battery of questionnaires was administered and participants were categorized into three groups of Islamic veil practicing: voluntarily and ideologically (IVP), non-complete (NCIVP) and Inconsiderate (IIVP). Results Despite a similar BMI, the IVP group scored significantly lower on BD, prevalence of dieting and exercising in order to be sexually appealing, and depression, higher on self-esteem, and had a lower desire for a CR than the two other groups. Prevalence of CR was significantly higher in the IIVP group than the other groups. Conclusions Women who practiced more strict Islamic veiling techniques had increased body satisfaction and self esteem, and decreased depression scores and desire for CR. Consistent with other studies, our findings show that observance of a strict religious practice has a protective effect on psychological health. PMID:19115373
Sepúlveda, A R; Carrobles, J A; Gandarillas, A; Poveda, J; Pastor, V
A pilot study was carried out in university students to evaluate the effect of a health promotion program for eating disturbances and body dissatisfaction. A subgroup of 135 medical students of both sexes in their second year was selected. There were divided in three groups, high-risk students (EDI >40) and low-risk students (EDI <40) who participated in the program and nonparticipants as comparison group. Program had a total of 16 workshops of 90 min. A year later the different assessment measurements were compared, body image, attitudes and eating behaviours, psychopathological levels and self-esteem. Differences by gender were found on the impact of the intervention. The program presented a statistical significant improvement in body-image satisfaction, eating attitudes only in high-risk female students in the intervention group. This pilot program for eating disorder prevention in university populations can be considered effective, mainly in female populations at risk for developing an eating disorder. PMID:18089278
Francisco, Rita; Espinoza, Paola; González, Marcela L; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M
The aim of this study was to explore the differences in patterns of risk factors for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes in both female and male adolescents from Portugal and Spain. The sample included 455 adolescents aged 12-16 years (M = 13.28, SD = 0.65) from two urban areas of each country. Body mass index, self-reported self-esteem, perfectionism, internalisation of sociocultural ideals, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were assessed. Path analyses provided partial support for a cross-cultural model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in Western countries due to the presence of certain differences in the patterns of relationships across sex and country. The findings suggest the importance not only of identifying cultural specificities, even in "neighbouring" countries, but also of developing a global and comprehensive preventive approach that focuses on the influence of the ideal of beauty transmitted by Western societies. PMID:25754193
Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.
This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641
Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M
This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641
Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Hunter, Gary R; Bush, Nikki C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Roy, Jane L; Byrne, Nuala M; Gower, Barbara A
European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfaction and dietary control before, after, and one year following, a controlled weight-loss intervention. While EA women reported a more extensive dieting history than AA women, this difference did not contribute to ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction and perceived dietary control. During weight loss, body satisfaction improved more for AA women, and during weight regain, dietary self-efficacy worsened to a greater degree for EA women. Ethnic differences in dieting history did not contribute significantly to these differential changes. Although ethnic differences in body image and dietary control are evident prior to weight loss, and some change differentially by ethnic group during weight loss and regain, differences in dieting history do not contribute significantly to ethnic differences in body image and dietary control. PMID:19778748
Myers, Taryn A; Crowther, Janis H
Theory and research suggest that sociocultural pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and self-objectification are associated with body dissatisfaction, while feminist beliefs may serve a protective function. This research examined thin-ideal internalization and self-objectification as mediators and feminist beliefs as a moderator in the relationship between sociocultural pressures to meet the thin-ideal and body dissatisfaction. Female undergraduate volunteers (N=195) completed self-report measures assessing sociocultural influences, feminist beliefs, thin-ideal internalization, self-objectification, and body dissatisfaction. Multisample structural equation modeling showed that feminist beliefs moderate the relationship between media awareness and thin-ideal internalization, but not the relationship between social influence and thin-ideal internalization. Research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18089276
Dion, Jacinthe; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Auclair, Julie; Laberge, Luc; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudreault, Marco; Vachon, Patrick; Perron, Michel; Touchette, Évelyne
This longitudinal study aims to describe the development of body dissatisfaction (BD), measured with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, between the ages of 14 and 18, and to identify factors associated with BD at age 18, among 413 adolescents. Between the ages of 14 and 18, the proportion of girls wanting to be thinner increased, although it remained unchanged among boys. A ratio of 1:2 girls and 1:5 boys reported having seriously tried to lose weight. Factors associated with BD in girls at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner, (2) body mass index (BMI), (3) weight control behaviours and (4) negative comments about weight. Factors associated with BD in boys at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner or bigger, (2) BMI, (3) having experienced sexual intercourse and (4) negative comments about weight. The high prevalence of BD and weight-related concerns suggest a need for early interventions. PMID:25931646
Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Jeppesen, Pia; Micali, Nadia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette
Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11-12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent psychiatrists. Height and weight were measured at a face-to-face assessment. The results showed that restrained eating was significantly associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and emotional disorders in both genders. Emotional eating showed similar associations with overweight and body dissatisfaction in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can be identified in preadolescence, and co-exist with weight problems and mental disorders. Thus restrained, emotional and external eating was, in different ways, associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and mental disorders. Our findings point to significant eating behaviours in preadolescence, which could constitute potential predictors of later eating disorder risk. PMID:26896837
Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J
The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859
Lynch, Wesley C.; Heil, Daniel P.; Wagner, Elise; Havens, Michael D.
The developmental path leading to eating disorders among adolescent girls often proceeds from increasing body size, to increasing body dissatisfaction, to increasing ED risk. To determine whether body dissatisfaction (BD) mediates the association between body size and risky weight control behaviors, we examined data from White (n = 709) and Native American (n = 253) girls, who differ substantially in terms of average body mass and reported weight control behaviors. Measures of BD included weight, shape, and appearance concerns. Measures of ED-risk included dieting, exercising to control weight, binge eating, and vomiting. Results showed body dissatisfaction was a highly significant mediator of the relationship between BMI and ED risk for both ethnic groups; although BD did not mediate the association between BMI and binge eating for either group. BD is apparently an important mediator of the association between body size and some, but not all, risky weight control behaviors. PMID:18342990
Gao, Xiao; Li, Xiaojing; Yang, Xiaoying; Wang, Yang; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
Although attentional biases toward body-related information contribute to the etiology and maintenance of body dissatisfaction (BD) and eating disorders (EDs), attentional disengagement in women with BD and EDs is not clear. The present study investigated the association between weight dissatisfaction and attentional disengagement from body-related pictures and the possible moderating effect of body mass index (BMI) on this relation. Two hundred and four undergraduate women engaged in an experiment using a pictorial spatial cueing paradigm including fat/thin bodies and neutral household photos. Partial correlations and simple slopes regression analyses were conducted with attentional disengagement index scores of each category of cues. Findings suggested that independent of BMI, weight dissatisfaction was directly associated with attentional disengagement from both fat and thin pictures. In addition, among women with low and medium BMIs, the more they were dissatisfied with their bodyweight, the more difficulty they had disengaging their attention from fat body pictures. PMID:23352761
Verplanken, Bas; Tangelder, Yonne
Thinking negatively about one's appearance may be a major source of unhappiness. It was investigated whether the habitual quality of negative body image thinking constitutes an additional vulnerability factor, i.e. when such thinking is repetitive and automatic. The cognitive content of negative body image thinking ('what') was distinguished from the habitual occurrence of such thinking ('how'). The mental habit component uniquely predicted explicit as well as implicit body dissatisfaction (the latter measured by an implicit association test) over and above cognitive content. Mental habit also accounted for eating disturbance propensity, low self-esteem and restrained snacking behaviour over and above cognitive content, even when controlled for body dissatisfaction. The habitual component of negative thinking about appearance thus seems a significant body image construct, has discriminant validity against body dissatisfaction, and constitutes a vulnerability factor for feelings of low self-worth and eating disturbance propensity. Implications for intervention strategies, such as mindfulness-based approaches, are discussed. PMID:21347977
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Koehler, Laura G; Danzi, Lauren E; Riddell, Margaret K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M
Sociocultural models of disordered eating lack comprehensive explanations as to how thin ideal internalization leads to body dissatisfaction. This study examined two social psychological theories as explanations of this relation, namely social comparison and objectification theories, in a sample of 265 women attending a Southeastern university. Social comparison (both general and appearance-related) and body surveillance (the indicator of objectification) were tested as mediators of the relation between thin ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction using bootstrapping analyses. Results indicated that body surveillance was a significant specific mediator of this relation; however, neither operationalization of social comparison emerged as such. Results serve to elaborate upon the sociocultural model of disordered eating by providing a more comprehensive understanding of the processes by which thin ideal internalization manifests itself in body dissatisfaction. The current findings also highlight the importance of targeting body surveillance in clinical settings. PMID:21992811
Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan
The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…
Ward, Rose Marie; Hay, M Cameron
The objective was to explore what predicts first-year college women's disordered eating tendencies when they arrive on campus. The 215 first-year college women completed the surveys within the first 2weeks of classes. A structural model examined how much the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale, the Brief COPE, the Brief College Student Hassle Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire predicted eating disordered tendencies (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test). The Body Shape Questionnaire, the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale (inversely), and the Denial subscale of the Brief COPE significantly predicted eating disorder tendencies in first-year college women. In addition, the Planning and Self-Blame subscales of the Brief COPE and the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale predicted the Body Shape Questionnaire. In general, higher levels on the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale and higher levels on the Brief College Student Hassle Scale related to higher levels on the Brief COPE. Coping seems to remove the direct path from stress and depression to disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. PMID:25528718
Pearson, Adria N.; Follette, Victoria M.; Hayes, Steven C.
Body image dissatisfaction is a source of significant distress among non-eating-disordered women, but because it is subclinical it is generally not treated. It remains stable throughout adulthood, and has proven resistant to many prevention interventions. This study presents a pilot test of a practical alternative: a 1-day Acceptance and…
Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Richey, J. Anthony; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
Although the latent structure of various eating disorders has been explored in previous studies, no published studies have examined the latent structure of theoretically relevant variables that have been shown to cut across eating disorder diagnoses. The current study examined 3 such variables (dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive…
Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika
Little research has investigated sociocultural factors in the development of body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls. This study examined the combined influence of media and peer factors. The participants were 100 girls aged nine to 12 years. The girls completed questionnaire measures of media exposure (television and magazines), peer…
Quick, Virginia; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study identified longitudinal risk factors for body dissatisfaction (BD) over a 10-year period from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants (N = 2134; age at baseline: M =15.0, SD =1.6 years) provided two waves of survey data. A 6-step hierarchical linear regression analysis examined the predictive contribution of Time 1 BD, weight status, demographics, family and peer environmental factors, and psychological factors. Among females, Asian race/ethnicity, low self-esteem, greater BD, and higher body mass index during adolescence contributed significantly to predicting greater BD at 10-year follow up (R2 = 0.27). Among males, demographics (i.e., Asian, other-mixed ethnicity, education attainment), depressive symptoms, greater BD, higher body mass index, more parent communication, and less peer weight teasing during adolescence contributed to BD at follow-up (R2 = 0.27). Findings indicate who may be at greatest risk for BD in young adulthood and the types of factors that should be addressed during adolescence. PMID:25045599
Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Paxton, Susan J
The aim of the study was to compare levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating and risk factors, and to examine the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance among French and Australian young adult females. Participants were 188 Australian (mean age=19.6 years, SD=1.0) and 190 French (mean age=20.7 years, SD=2.6) students. Media, peer and family influences, internalisation of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia and self-esteem were assessed. Australian participants reported perceiving more peer and media influence, and higher levels of appearance comparison, internalisation of media ideals and bulimic symptoms than French participants (p<.001). Path analyses revealed that the tripartite model was a good fit in both samples, with similarities and differences. Findings suggest the importance of identifying cultural specificities, and developing a global framework of body image and eating disturbance with a view to prevention. PMID:21664887
Morrison, Todd G.; Sheahan, Emer E.
This study examined whether the gender-related discourses of self-objectification, self-silencing, and anger suppression mediated the association between internalization of the thin-body ideal and body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. We employed a cross-sectional design to study both university (n = 140) and community (n = 76) samples of…
de Vries, Dian A; Peter, Jochen; de Graaf, Hanneke; Nikken, Peter
Previous correlational research indicates that adolescent girls who use social network sites more frequently are more dissatisfied with their bodies. However, we know little about the causal direction of this relationship, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, and whether this relationship also occurs among boys to the same extent. The present two-wave panel study (18 month time lag) among 604 Dutch adolescents (aged 11-18; 50.7% female; 97.7% native Dutch) aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge. Structural equation modeling showed that social network site use predicted increased body dissatisfaction and increased peer influence on body image in the form of receiving peer appearance-related feedback. Peer appearance-related feedback did not predict body dissatisfaction and thus did not mediate the effect of social network site use on body dissatisfaction. Gender did not moderate the findings. Hence, social network sites can play an adverse role in the body image of both adolescent boys and girls. PMID:25788122
Although internalization of the thin ideal has been extensively researched and is now regarded as a risk factor for eating disturbance, endorsement of the firm, athletic body ideal has received only minimal attention. This short-term longitudinal study explored whether internalization of two aspects of the current cultural ideal (thinness and athleticism) prospectively predicted three potentially deleterious outcomes: body dissatisfaction, dieting, and compulsive exercise. Undergraduate women (N=231) completed self-report measures at the beginning of the academic year and again 7 months later (N=156 at Time 2). Athletic-ideal internalization predicted change in compulsive exercise over the 7-month study period but not body dissatisfaction or dieting; thin-ideal internalization predicted change in all three outcomes. When both internalization measures were tested simultaneously, neither contributed unique variance. Results suggest that athletic-ideal internalization is not as detrimental as thin-ideal internalization. PMID:20226748
Boone, Liesbet; Soenens, Bart; Luyten, Patrick
Although research has shown that perfectionism is associated with eating disorder pathology, the role of body dissatisfaction in this association is less clear. In this study, we examined the possible moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction in the relation between perfectionism and increases in eating disorder pathology. Both possible roles were tested in a sample of 455 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.25 years) using a 3-wave longitudinal study. We only found support for the moderation hypothesis, with girls high on both perfectionism and body dissatisfaction exhibiting the highest levels of eating disorder symptoms. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24886015
Green, Melinda A; Scott, Norman A; Cross, Susan E; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Hallengren, Jada J; Davids, Christopher M; Carter, Lindsey P; Kugler, David W; Read, Katherine E; Jepson, Amanda J
Existing literature fails to comprehensively identify factors contributing to the comorbid relationship between eating disorder (ED) behaviors and unipolar depression. Maladaptive social comparison, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem are disruptive psychological patterns common to both constructs. It is unclear whether a unique relationship exists between depression and eating disorder behaviors beyond the effects exerted by this negative cognitive triad. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether a unique relationship exists between depression and ED behaviors after controlling for maladaptive social comparison, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem. We predict minimal unique variance in ED behaviors will be explained by depression after controlling for this negative cognitive triad. PMID:19388056
Servián-Franco, Fátima; Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; del Paso, Gustavo A. Reyes
Background Weight and shape concerns are widespread in the general population. Mirror exposure has been used to reduce body dissatisfaction but little is known about the mechanisms which underlie this therapeutic technique. The present study examined emotional, cognitive, and psychophysiological responses, in women with high and low levels of body dissatisfaction, exposed to their own bodies in a mirror. Method Forty-two university-attending women (21 high body-dissatisfied (HBD) and 21 low body-dissatisfied (LBD)), were confronted with their own body during four 5-min trials in which participants were instructed to focus their attention on different parts of their body under standardized conditions. Emotional and cognitive measures were taken after each exposure trial. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded continuously. Results HBD women experienced more negative emotions and cognitions following body exposure compared to LBD women but, conversely, showed a reduced physiological reaction in terms of HR and SC. In both groups greater physiological responses were observed looking at the thighs, buttocks, and abdomen. Extent of negative emotions and cognitions were positively associated with HR and/or SC in LBD women but no associations were observed in HBD women. Conclusion The dissociation between self-report and psychophysiological measures in HBD women supports the existence of a passive-behavioral inhibited coping style in HBD women and suggests deficiencies in the generation of physiological correlates of emotion related to body dissatisfaction. PMID:25830861
Stein, Karen Farchaus; Riley, Barth Brian; Hoyland-Domenico, Lisa; Lee, Chia-Kuei
Measures of body dissatisfaction have not been validated for Mexican American (MA) women, who evaluate their bodies differently than Caucasian women. In this study, the psychometric properties of the EDI-III, Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (BDS) were examined in a sample of college-enrolled MA women using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Criterion validity was also addressed. BDS evidenced good item fit, person and item reliability, once poorly correlated items were removed. Two qualitatively distinct dimensions of body dissatisfaction were identified: (1) overall body shape and stomach, and (2) the lower body. Validity of the scales was supported. Results suggest: MA women's satisfaction with overall body shape is not synonymous with attitudes toward their lower body. PMID:26164669
Scime, Melinda; Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Kane, Linda; Watson, Tracy
This study investigated the impact of a primary prevention program for eating disorders aimed at fifth-grade females. The curriculum was based on empirically validated risk and protective factors and incorporated interactive discourse, yoga, and relaxation into 10 weekly sessions. Pre- and post-test data from three groups conducted over the course of 13 months were combined for a total of 45 participants. Results indicate completion of the group resulted in a significant decrease on scales measuring body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, as well as media influence. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:16777811
Stapleton, Peta; McIntyre, Timothy; Bannatyne, Amy
With research highlighting the increasing prevalence and severity of body image and eating disturbances in males, particularly athletes and regular gymnasium users, the current study examined body image and eating disturbances in a sample of male gym users and non-gym users (N = 180). Based on previous research, it was predicted that male gym users would report greater body image disturbance (e.g., body image avoidance and body dissatisfaction) and eating pathology, compared with non-gym users. Results of the study partially supported hypotheses, revealing body dissatisfaction and eating pathology were significantly increased in male gym users. However, no significant differences were observed in body image avoidance behaviors, though this is likely because of methodological limitations associated with psychometric measures selected. The study provides preliminary evidence that male gym users do experience subclinical eating and body image concerns, with some also experiencing clinically significant symptoms that could be precursors to the later development of an eating disorder. Results of the current study highlight the importance of educating key stakeholders within health and fitness centers, through community-based interventions, to increase awareness regarding male body image and eating disturbances. PMID:25389214
Suzuki, Wendy A
Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory. PMID:27508865
Ferreira, Cláudia; Fortunato, Patrícia; Marta-Simões, Joana; Trindade, Inês A
Literature has demonstrated the negative impact of body image dissatisfaction on women's quality of life. Nonetheless, it has been suggested that the relationship between body dissatisfaction and women's well-being is not linear, and that the processes that mediate this association remain unclear. This study aims to clarify the mediator role of self-judgment in the association between negative body image and psychological quality of life, in two groups: normal-weight and overweight women. This cross-sectional study comprised 200 normal-weight and 92 overweight female college students, aged between 18 and 24 years old, that completed self-report instruments of body dissatisfaction, self-judgment, and quality of life. Results showed that women who presented harsher self-judgment about their perceived failures tended to present lower levels in all quality of life domains. Also, results from mediation analyses indicated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological quality of life was significantly mediated by the mechanisms of self-judgment in the two BMI groups (95% CI [-2.41 to -0.04]; 95% CI [-6.35 to -.89]). This mediational model accounted for 28.3% and 40.7% of psychological quality of life in the normal-weight and overweight groups, respectively. These results suggest that a lower ability to deal with one's failures or inadequacies (e.g., negative evaluation of body image) in a kind and accepting manner may significantly increase the negative impact of body dissatisfaction on one's psychological quality of life. In this way, it seems that, the focus of interventions should go beyond body dissatisfaction and also target the development of adaptive attitudes (opposed to self-critical attitudes) to deal with negative body-related experiences. PMID:27000420
Poloskov, Elizabeth; Tracey, Terence J G
The relationships among acculturation, internalization of U.S. sociocultural standards of female beauty, and body dissatisfaction were examined in a sample of 211 Mexican American college women. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the paths among these three factors. Results demonstrated that there are two distinct types of body dissatisfaction: global evaluations and composite site-specific evaluations. The relationships between acculturation toward dominant U.S. culture and both types of body dissatisfaction were found to be fully mediated by internalization of U.S. standards of female beauty. There were no relationships between Mexican orientation and any of the study variables. The results from this study imply that it is important for therapists working with Mexican American female clients to assess the client's level of acculturation, examine the cultural (U.S. and Mexican) messages the client receives, and explore how these messages impact her body image. PMID:23809859
Klemchuk, Helen P.; And Others
Administered Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) to 1,506 female undergraduates. Found very high rates of body dissatisfaction. EDI factor analysis yielded six-factor structure accounting for 41 percent of variance. Two risk groups were identified on basis of extreme EDI factor scores: body-dissatisfied group and binge-purge group with poor…
Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.
Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating were compared across groups of college women from China (n = 109), South Korea (n = 137), and the United States (n = 102). Based on cultural differences in the amount of exposure to Western appearance standards, particularly the thin-body ideal, sociocultural theory (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, &…
Paxton, S J
This study evaluated an intervention program to reduce moderate and extreme weight loss behaviors, disordered eating and low body image. The Body Image and Eating Behavior Intervention Program consisted of five specialized classes addressing media images of women, determinants of body size, healthy and unhealthy weight control methods, and emotional eating. The program was conducted in year 9 in Schools 1 (n = 80) and 2 (n = 27), while students from the same year in School 3 (n = 29) were control subjects. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating behavior and body image attitudes prior to the program, 1 months after the program and at 12 months follow-up, while control subjects completed the questionnaires at the same time but did not receive the program. Data were analyzed using groups (Schools 1, 2 and 3) by testing occasion (pre, post and follow-up) analyses of variance with repeated measures on testing occasion. Measures of disordered eating and frequency of use of extreme weight loss behaviors were constant over testing occasion and showed no effect of the intervention program. Body dissatisfaction was consistently lower in School 1 but increased across all subjects over the year. The implications of these data for school-based intervention programs in this area are examined. PMID:11067184
Bair, Carrie E; Kelly, Nichole R; Serdar, Kasey L; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
Research has identified a relation between exposure to thin-ideal magazine and television media images and eating disorder pathology. However, few studies have examined the potential influence of Internet media on eating disorder behaviors and attitudes. This study investigated associations among image-focused media exposure, body dissatisfaction, eating pathology and thin-ideal internalization in a sample of 421 female undergraduates. Undergraduate women spent significantly more time viewing online appearance-oriented media, rather than reading image-focused magazines. Appearance-oriented Internet and television use were associated with eating pathology. Moreover, the association between image-focused Internet use and BD was mediated by thin-ideal internalization. These findings are consistent with those of previous research, and highlight the vulnerability individuals high in thin-ideal internalization might have to media exposure. They also suggest that Internet media use is an important topic to attend to in eating disorders prevention and treatment. PMID:23121797
Guðnadóttir, Unnur; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B
Exposure to media images of the 'body-perfect' ideal has been partly blamed for the pursuit of thinness among women and muscularity among men. Research has largely overlooked the materialistic messages frequently associated with these images. We present findings from two studies with Icelandic students aged 18-21, one focusing on young women (n = 303) and one on young men (n = 226), which test associations of materialistic and body-perfect ideals with body dissatisfaction and excessive body shaping behaviors. In both studies, the internalization of materialistic values is strongly linked to the internalization of body-perfect ideals: the thin-ideal for young women, and the muscular-ideal for young men. A materialist value orientation also predicted body dissatisfaction in both studies, and was linked to body shaping behaviors, albeit differently for young women and men. Thus, the research identifies materialism as a further correlate of both body dissatisfaction and excessive body-shaping behaviors. The findings support Dittmar's (2008) Consumer Culture Impact Model, which proposes that the body-perfect and 'material good life' ideals jointly impact well-being. PMID:24611622
Gilbert, Stefanie C.; Crump, Stacey; Madhere, Serge; Schutz, William
This study, conducted at a historically Black university, evaluated the impact of awareness and internalization of the Western thin ideal of beauty on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia in African-American, African, and Caribbean women. The relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and disordered eating was…
Hillard, Erin E; Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Morrissey, Rebecca A
Mothers' influence on their daughters is important for understanding girls' disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. Direct maternal encouragement of daughters to lose weight is linked to daughters' development of bulimic symptoms, and additional findings indicate that daughters whose mothers merely talk about dieting and body dissatisfaction are more likely to be diagnosed with an eating disorder. The current study extends such research by examining the interactive contributions of maternal encouragement to lose weight and maternal dieting discussions to the prediction of early adolescent daughters' body dissatisfaction and disordered eating over the middle school period. Participants were 89 adolescent girls who were in the 6th grade at Time 1. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactive effects of mother encouragement to diet and talk of weight concerns on daughter body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and dieting behavior. Results suggest an interactive effect in which mothers' dieting talk may act as a buffer against the negative effects of direct encouragement to lose weight. PMID:26551484
Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika
The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…
Fox, Claire L.; Farrow, Claire V.
Research has found evidence of a link between being overweight or obese and bullying/peer victimisation, and also between obesity and adjustment problems such as low self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Studies have also found that adjustment problems can put children at an increased risk of being bullied over time. However, to date the factors…
Leone, James E.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Kittleson, Mark; Welshimer, Kathleen J.; Partridge, Julie A.; Robertson, Stacia L.
Background: Adolescent males are more likely to sustain intentional and unintentional injuries, be involved in a physical confrontation, and be successful in suicide attempts. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) has been linked as a possible contributing factor to these negative health behaviors and risks; however, research is limited with males. The…
DeLeel, Marissa L.; Hughes, Tammy L.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Hipwell, Alison; Theodore, Lea A.
Eating disorder research has predominantly focused on White adolescent females. More recent research suggests that eating disorders occur in various racial and age groups. The current study examines prevalence and stability of body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in 9- and 10-year-old girls and whether there is variability by racial…
Barker, Erin T.; Galambos, Nancy L.
The current study explored how body dissatisfaction and challenges associated with the transition to university predicted symptoms of binge eating. Participants were 101 female full-time first-year university students (M=18.3 years of age; SD=0.50) who completed a background questionnaire and a web-based daily checklist assessing binge eating.…
Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A
The current study evaluated associations between sport-performance-related body dissatisfaction (BD), general-appearance-related BD, and their relation to EAT-26 scores among a sample of adult runners who participated in middle- and long-distance races in the northeastern United States (N=400, 46.5% male). Women reported elevated BD and eating disorder symptoms, as compared to men. Ridge regression was used to analyze correlations between appearance- and performance-related BD with EAT-26 scores. Results demonstrated that appearance- and performance-related BD positively correlated with EAT-26 scores in women (βs=0.18 and 0.13, respectively). Race length was a significant covariate for women, such that those who ran middle-distance race events were more likely to report higher EAT-26 scores (β=-3.12). These associations were not demonstrated in men. Results suggest that it is beneficial to address sport-specific body image concerns, in addition to more general appearance-related body image concerns in female runners. PMID:26952015
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza
The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure. PMID:23344652
Siever, Michael D.
Investigated hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness based on desire to please men. Findings from 53 lesbian, 59 gay, 62 heterosexual female, and 63 heterosexual male college students generally confirmed…
Harris, Natalie; Gee, David; D’Acquisto, Debra; Ogan, Dana; Pritchett, Kelly
Background and Aims Past research has examined eating disorder risk among college students majoring in Nutrition and has suggested an increased risk, while other studies contradict these results. Exercise Science majors, however, have yet to be fully examined regarding their risk for eating disorders and exercise dependence. Based on pressures to fit the image associated with careers related to these two disciplines, research is warranted to examine the potential risk for both eating disorder and exercise dependence. The purpose of this study is to compare eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) between Nutrition and Exercise Science majors, compared to students outside of these career pathways. Methods Participants (n = 89) were divided into three groups based on major; Nutrition majors (NUTR; n = 31), Exercise Science majors (EXSC; n = 30), and other majors (CON; n = 28). Participants were given the EAT-26 questionnaire and the Exercise Dependence Scale. BWD was calculated as the discrepancy between actual BMI and ideal BMI. Results The majority of participants expressed a desire to weigh less (83%) and EXSC had significantly (p = .03) greater BWD than NUTR. However, there were no significant differences in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence among majors. Discussion and Conclusions This study suggested there was no significant difference in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence between the three groups (NUTR, EXSC, and CON). PMID:26551912
Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.
Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Berge, Jerica M.
Objectives To learn about parent weight talk, parent dieting, and family weight-teasing in the homes of adolescent girls at risk for obesity and weight-related problems. To examine associations between these family variables and girls’ weight status, body satisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods Data were collected at baseline from girls participating in a school-based intervention to prevent weight-related problems. Participants included 365 adolescent girls from 12 high schools. The girls’ mean age was 15.8 years; 46% were overweight or obese; and over 75% were racial/ethnic minorities. Results A high percentage of girls reported parent weight talk (i.e., comments about one’s own weight and encouragement of daughter to diet), parent dieting, and family weight-teasing. For example, 45% of the girls reported that their mothers encouraged them to diet and 58% reported weight-teasing by family members. Weight-teasing was strongly associated with higher BMI, body dissatisfaction, unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, and binge eating with loss of control in the girls. Parent weight talk, particularly by mothers, was associated with a number of disordered eating behaviors. Mother dieting was associated with girls’ unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. In no instances were family weight talk and dieting variables associated with better outcomes in the girls. Conclusions Parent weight-related comments and dieting behaviors, and family weight-teasing, may contribute to disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Health care providers can help parents provide a supportive home environment by discouraging weight-based comments, which may be intended to be helpful, but can have unintentional harmful consequences. PMID:20708566
Franko, Debra L; Coen, Emilie J; Roehrig, James P; Rodgers, Rachel F; Jenkins, Amy; Lovering, Meghan E; Dela Cruz, Stephanie
Latina women are vulnerable to poor body image, eating disorders, and obesity, particularly during the college years. This study sought to identify common cultural antecedents of these concerns in order to inform the development of prevention programs for this population. Six groups of university students who identified as Latina (N=27) discussed cultural aspects of body image, eating disorders, and obesity. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) cultural disparities in body-ideal, including the influence of the media and acculturation issues; (b) messages about body shape and weight received by family, peers, and society; (c) difficulties making healthy eating and physical activity choices as a function of college life; and (d) the influence of peers and potential male partners on body satisfaction and body-ideals. These results have implications for the development of programs targeting body dissatisfaction and risk for eating disorders and obesity in Latina college women. PMID:22609033
Keery, Helene; Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective This population-based study examined mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors (weight status, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and encouraging child to diet) at baseline, as assessed by both mothers and adolescents, and associations with adolescents’ body dissatisfaction and weight control practices 5 years later. Methods Adolescents and their mothers (n = 443 pairs) were surveyed in 1998–1999; adolescents were resurveyed in 2003–2004. Results Baseline maternal report of higher levels of her weight-related concerns/behaviors was associated with greater body dissatisfaction in girls 5 years later, controlling for adolescent weight status and other covariates. Baseline maternal report of weight-related concerns/behaviors was also associated with greater prevalence of trying to lose weight in both boys and girls 5 years later. Baseline adolescent report of higher maternal weight-related concerns/behaviors was associated with a higher prevalence of trying to lose weight 5 years later in girls. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors for adolescents’ weight-related outcomes. PMID:20498008
Lev-Ari, Lilac; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar; Zohar, Ada H
Women with attachment insecurity have greater eating disorder symptoms and poorer prognosis. Socio-cultural agents, such as peers and family, are predictive of the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID). The present study examines the association of insecure attachment styles and direct and indirect social comparisons of body image to women's BID and drive to thinness. Two hundred and eighty three women aged 18-42 years completed online self-reports concerning attachment styles, body mass index (BMI), drive for thinness, body image satisfaction, the Figure Rating Scale (FRS), as well as a modified FRS comparing self to mother, to sister closest in age and to best friend. Hierarchical Linear Models reveal that anxious-ambivalent, but not avoidant attachment style, along with indirect and direct comparisons to best friend and to sister influence drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, even after controlling for BMI and age. Of all social comparisons, feeling one's best friend is thinner than yourself is the most detrimental to body ideal. PMID:25257536
Maphis, Laura E; Martz, Denise M; Bergman, Shawn S; Curtin, Lisa A; Webb, Rose Mary
Sixty-eight percent of U.S. adults are overweight/obese, and this epidemic has physical, psychosocial, and behavioral consequences. An internet sample of adults (N=2997) perceiving themselves as larger than ideal in clothing size reported their body mass index (BMI), relative clothing size (RS; discrepancy between current and ideal size), and avoidance behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis of 10 avoidance items produced social avoidance and body display avoidance factors. A relative importance analysis revealed RS as a better predictor than BMI for avoidance. A hierarchical multivariate analysis of covariance found RS to predict both avoidance constructs. The relationship between RS and both avoidance constructs was stronger for women than men, and for younger as compared to older participants. Caucasians reported more body display avoidance than African Americans. This suggests that personal dissatisfaction with body size may deter involvement in varied life events and that women are especially avoidant of activities that entail displaying their bodies. PMID:23540887
Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cox, Rebecca; Ebesutani, Chad; Wall, David
Although self-harm has been observed among patients with eating disorders, the effects of such tendencies on treatment outcomes are unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling to (a) evaluate the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in a large sample of patients (n = 2061) who underwent inpatient treatment, and (b) to examine whether the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness during inpatient treatment remains significant when controlling for change in negative affect during treatment. Results revealed that patients with a history of self-harm reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness following treatment. Patients experiencing less change in negative affect also reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after discharge from treatment. However, the association between history of self-harm and reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after treatment became non-significant when controlling for change in negative affect. This pattern of findings was also replicated among patients with a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (n = 845), bulimia nervosa (n = 565), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (n = 651). The implications of these findings for delineating the specific role of self-harm in the nature and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. PMID:25868550
Góngora, Vanesa C
This study aimed to investigate the relationship among three potential protective factors: satisfaction with life, three routes to well-being and meaning in life, and eating disorder symptoms and body dissatisfaction in male and female adolescents. The sample was composed of 247 adolescent students aged 13 to 18 years. The findings of this study support the protective roles of satisfaction with life and engagement as routes to well-being in male adolescents and particularly in female adolescents. Positive interventions to promote satisfaction with life and engagement in activities in school are highly recommended. PMID:24983397
Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.
Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in
The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children. PMID:19447694
Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa
The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…
Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.
States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…
Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.
This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…
DeBate, Rita; Lewis, Melissa; Zhang, Yan; Blunt, Heather; Thompson, Sharon H.
Background: Although females have a higher incidence of eating disorders than males, there is evidence that among college students both males and females are vulnerable to risk factors associated with eating disorders. Purpose: To explore the relationship between sociocultural attitudes towards appearance (SCATA), body shape (dis)satisfaction…
Maister, Lara; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Tsakiris, Manos
Research on stereotypes demonstrates how existing prejudice affects the way we process outgroups. Recent studies have considered whether it is possible to change our implicit social bias by experimentally changing the relationship between the self and outgroups. In a number of experimental studies, participants have been exposed to bodily illusions that induced ownership over a body different to their own with respect to gender, age, or race. Ownership of an outgroup body has been found to be associated with a significant reduction in implicit biases against that outgroup. We propose that these changes occur via a process of self association that first takes place in the physical, bodily domain as an increase in perceived physical similarity between self and outgroup member. This self association then extends to the conceptual domain, leading to a generalization of positive self-like associations to the outgroup. PMID:25524273
Lebowitz Elkoubi, Allison
Research on body image and body image disturbance has met with great debate and inconsistency regarding definition, conceptualization, and measurement. The fundamental understanding of body image ranges from being a perceptual or visual concept to actually representing attitudes or judgments individuals hold regarding their bodies. The present…
Armitage, Christopher J.
Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…
Background Physical activity (PA) shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS). Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS) was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%). Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78). The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56). No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75). BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies. PMID:22032266
The majority of body image research has studied younger women and girls, ignoring older age groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore body image among retirement-age women. The sample included 13 women aged 60 to 69. Data collection occurred in two phases. Participants completed individual in-depth interviews and attended follow-up focus groups. Transcripts from both phases of data collection were analyzed thematically using the constant comparison method. Themes emerged regarding the participants' definitions of body image, their attitudes about appearance, and their current perceptions of their bodies. Findings highlighted the complexity of older women's body image as characterized by the dual existence of contentment and desire for physical change. Participants offered explanations for this seeming contradiction, including consideration of age, prioritization of preferred aspects of the body or the self, and focus on aspects of appearance that are perceived to be within the individual's control. PMID:22256879
Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle. PMID:16594989
Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Gleaves, David H.
We explored sociocultural, feminist, and psychological influences on women's body dissatisfaction by examining the manner in which awareness and internalization of appearance standards, feminist ideology, and self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction. A main goal of the study was to test a model of potential protective mechanisms against…
Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.
To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…
Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M
The present study examines the protective role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors (AREB) on the relationship between trait body dissatisfaction and women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions in response to "thin ideal" media. Undergraduate women (n=138) were randomly assigned to view a "thin ideal" video or a neutral video. As hypothesized, trait body dissatisfaction predicted more negative affect and size dissatisfaction following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed less AREB. Conversely, trait body dissatisfaction predicted greater intentions to monitor food intake and limit unhealthy foods following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed more AREB. PMID:21783443
Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.
At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.
Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael
Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…
Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of digital alteration disclaimer labels appended to fashion magazine advertisements, as well as instructional condition, on women's social comparison and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 378 female undergraduate students who viewed 11 thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a more detailed specific disclaimer. There were three instructional conditions: neutral, distractor, and social comparison. Disclaimer labels did not affect appearance comparison or body dissatisfaction, but instructional condition did, with the social comparison instructions producing the highest appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction. In addition, there was a three-way interaction with trait appearance comparison, such that women high on trait appearance comparison who saw specifically worded disclaimers in the distractor instructional condition experienced increased body dissatisfaction, whereas women low on this trait experienced decreased body dissatisfaction. It seems that both instructions and individual differences may influence responses to disclaimer labels. PMID:27061258
Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin
We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…
The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society. PMID:17340854
Jones, Michelle D; Crowther, Janis H; Ciesla, Jeffrey A
Fat talk is a style of verbal expression among young women involving negative self-statements, complaints about physical appearance, and weight management. This research used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of naturalistic fat talk experiences on body dissatisfaction, body checking, negative affect, and disordered eating behaviors. We examined trait self-objectification as a moderator. Sixty-five female college students completed a baseline questionnaire and responded to questions when randomly prompted by palm pilot devices for five days. Results indicated fat talk is common and associated with greater body dissatisfaction, body checking, negative affect, and disordered eating behaviors. Fat talk participation was associated with greater body checking than overhearing fat talk. Greater trait self-objectification was associated with greater body dissatisfaction and body checking following fat talk. These results suggest that fat talk negatively impacts the cognitions, affect, and behavior of young women and has increased negative effects for women higher in self-objectification. PMID:24976570
McFarland, Michael B.; Petrie, Trent A.
Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of eating, exercise, and affective disturbances in men, measurement of this construct becomes essential. Across 2 studies with male undergraduates (Ns = 189 and 188), the psychometric properties, including incremental validity and factor structure, of the 25-item Body Parts…
Based on the psychosocial factor that life dissatisfactions may be associated with physical illnesses, this research examines the relationship between job dissatisfaction and its causal link to premature death from heart disease. (Author/RK)
Responses from 566 college faculty (51.4%) indicated that teaching and research each contribute about 25% to job satisfaction and 16% to dissatisfaction. Results do not support Herzberg's theory that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct; findings reveal the influence of situation. (SK)
Doherty, William J.
Studied the relationship between spouses' individual expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcements (locus of control), and their level of marital dissatisfaction. Results indicated that only a marital pattern in which the wife was more external and the husband more internal was associated with marital dissatisfaction. (Author)
Brunello, Giorgio; D'Hombres, Béatrice
We use data from the European Community Household Panel to investigate the impact of body weight on wages in nine European countries. When we pool the available data across countries and years, we find that a 10% increase in the average body mass index reduces the real earnings of males and females by 3.27% and 1.86%, respectively. Since European culture, society and labour market are heterogeneous, we estimate separate regressions for Northern and Southern Europe and find that the negative impact of the body mass index on earnings is larger--and statistically significant--in the latter area. PMID:17174614
Drawing on the poststructuralist notions of the body and affect by Gilles Deleuze, the author will show that bodies and affects in the classroom may be redefined as intensities and energies that "produce" new affective and embodied "connections". What he suggests is that reconceiving teaching and learning as a plane for the production of intense…
Pathi, Jugajyoti; Mishra, Pallavi; Kumar, Harish; Panda, Abikshyeet
Parry-Romberg syndrome, which is also known as progressive hemifacial atrophy, is a poorly understood rare condition. In this condition, the face shows unilateral, slowly progressive atrophy. Disturbance in fat metabolism, viral infection, trauma, heredity, endocrinal disturbances, and autoimmunity are few possible factors in its pathogenesis. Rarely, only this syndrome progresses and involves one half of the body. Our attempt is to present a case of Parry-Romberg syndrome involving one half of the body, which is a rarity in itself. PMID:27583230
Pathi, Jugajyoti; Mishra, Pallavi; Kumar, Harish; Panda, Abikshyeet
Parry-Romberg syndrome, which is also known as progressive hemifacial atrophy, is a poorly understood rare condition. In this condition, the face shows unilateral, slowly progressive atrophy. Disturbance in fat metabolism, viral infection, trauma, heredity, endocrinal disturbances, and autoimmunity are few possible factors in its pathogenesis. Rarely, only this syndrome progresses and involves one half of the body. Our attempt is to present a case of Parry–Romberg syndrome involving one half of the body, which is a rarity in itself. PMID:27583230
Ackland, Timothy; Elliott, Bruce; Richards, Joanne
National and state representative female gymnasts (n = 37), aged initially between 10 and 12 years, completed a mixed longitudinal study over 3.3 years, to investigate the effect of body size on gymnastic performance. Subjects were tested at four-monthly intervals on a battery of measures including structural growth, strength and gymnastic performance. The group were divided into 'high growers' and 'low growers' based on height (> 18 cm or < 14 cm/37 months, respectively) and body mass (> 15 kg or < 12 kg/37 months, respectively) for comparative purposes. Development of gymnastic performance was assessed through generic skills (front and back rotations, a twisting jump and a V-sit action) and a vertical jump for maximum height. The results show that the smaller gymnast, with a high strength to mass ratio, has greater potential for performing skills involving whole-body rotations. Larger gymnasts, while able to produce more power and greater angular momentum, could not match the performance of the smaller ones. The magnitude of growth experienced by the gymnast over this period has a varying effect on performance. While some activities were greatly influenced by rapid increases in whole-body moment of inertia (e.g. back rotation), performance on others like the front rotation and vertical jump, appeared partly immune to the physical and mechanical changes associated with growth. PMID:14737925
Gennemark, Peter; Jansson-Löfmark, Rasmus; Hyberg, Gina; Wigstrand, Maria; Kakol-Palm, Dorota; Håkansson, Pernilla; Hovdal, Daniel; Brodin, Peter; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Antonsson, Madeleine; Ploj, Karolina; Gabrielsson, Johan
Body composition and body mass are pivotal clinical endpoints in studies of welfare diseases. We present a combined effort of established and new mathematical models based on rigorous monitoring of energy intake (EI) and body mass in mice. Specifically, we parameterize a mechanistic turnover model based on the law of energy conservation coupled to a drug mechanism model. Key model variables are fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), governed by EI and energy expenditure (EE). An empirical Forbes curve relating FFM to FM was derived experimentally for female C57BL/6 mice. The Forbes curve differs from a previously reported curve for male C57BL/6 mice, and we thoroughly analyse how the choice of Forbes curve impacts model predictions. The drug mechanism function acts on EI or EE, or both. Drug mechanism parameters (two to three parameters) and system parameters (up to six free parameters) could be estimated with good precision (coefficients of variation typically <20 % and not greater than 40 % in our analyses). Model simulations were done to predict the EE and FM change at different drug provocations in mice. In addition, we simulated body mass and FM changes at different drug provocations using a similar model for man. Surprisingly, model simulations indicate that an increase in EI (e.g. 10 %) was more efficient than an equal lowering of EI. Also, the relative change in body mass and FM is greater in man than in mouse at the same relative change in either EI or EE. We acknowledge that this assumes the same drug mechanism impact across the two species. A set of recommendations regarding the Forbes curve, vehicle control groups, dual action on EI and loss, and translational aspects are discussed. This quantitative approach significantly improves data interpretation, disease system understanding, safety assessment and translation across species. PMID:24158456
Bhadra, P; Hart, A J; Hall, M J R
Criminals have been known to dispose of bodies in zipped suitcases in an attempt to conceal murder. In order to investigate the forensic implications of this mode of disposal on calculating time of death, it is necessary to study the accessibility of bodies in suitcases to blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the possibility of oviposition and infestation under these circumstances. An experimental apparatus was designed that incorporated different zips (toothed and coil) of various gauges (4-6 mm) above a chicken liver bait. Gravid Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina females were attracted to and oviposited on and through these zips, both under laboratory and field conditions. Egg laying was significantly more frequent and with greater numbers of eggs when zips were in contact with the bait than when they were placed approximately 6cm above the bait. In the absence of bait, adult females could be stimulated to lay eggs on moistened zips, although the presence of blood accelerated egg laying compared to water alone. No eggs were laid on dry zips in the absence of bait. Of the first instar larvae tested, 89% were able to colonise the bait below the zips by passing through gaps between the teeth. Preliminary field studies using suitcases baited with a pig's head indicated that there was a delay of 1-3 days in oviposition when compared to laboratory conditions. This information has practical value in explaining the presence of larvae on enclosed bodies in suitcases and will help forensic entomologists estimate a more accurate minimum time since death. PMID:24747669
Fiori, Patrizia; Giannetti, Luigi Maria
Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments. Methods and results We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models. PMID:19777069
Hayes, Sharon; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey
The current study investigated the effects of brief exposure to appearance-related media on young girls' body image. One hundred and twenty-one girls aged 3-6 years old participated. Results indicated that exposure did not affect body dissatisfaction or engagement in appearance-related play behaviours. This is the first empirical study to provide…
Cash, Thomas F.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Perry, April A.
Body-image dissatisfaction is not uncommon and can adversely affect individuals' psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Various oft-cited surveys and a meta-analysis implicate a worsening of body image over the past several decades, especially among women and possibly among men. The present cross-sectional study examined changes in multiple…
Guo, Bin; Zhou, Shasha
This study attempts to re-examine the role of attitude in voluntary information system (IS) acceptance and usage, which has often been discounted in the previous technology acceptance research. We extend the unidimensional view of attitude into a bidimensional one, because of the simultaneous existence of both positive and negative evaluation towards IS in technology acceptance behaviour. In doing so, attitude construct is divided into two components: satisfaction as the positive attitudinal component and dissatisfaction as the negative attitudinal component. We argue that satisfaction and dissatisfaction will interactively affect technology usage intention. Besides, we explore the predictors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on the disconfirmation theory. Empirical results from a longitudinal study on bulletin board system (BBS) usage confirm the interaction effect of satisfaction and dissatisfaction on usage intention. Moreover, perceived task-related value has a significant effect on satisfaction, while perceived personal value has a significant effect on dissatisfaction. We also discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of our findings.
Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Sherratt, Thomas N.
Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats). PMID:25964333
Hossie, Thomas John; Skelhorn, John; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Sherratt, Thomas N
Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a phylogenetically controlled analysis of hawkmoth caterpillars, we show that eyespots are associated with large body size. This relationship could arise because (i) large prey are innately conspicuous; (ii) large prey are more profitable, and thus face stronger selection to evolve such defenses; and/or (iii) eyespots are more effective on large-bodied prey. To evaluate these hypotheses, we exposed small and large caterpillar models with and without eyespots in a 2 × 2 factorial design to avian predators in the field. Overall, eyespots increased prey mortality, but the effect was particularly marked in small prey, and eyespots decreased mortality of large prey in some microhabitats. We then exposed artificial prey to naïve domestic chicks in a laboratory setting following a 2 × 3 design (small or large size × no, small, or large eyespots). Predators attacked small prey with eyespots more quickly, but were more wary of large caterpillars with large eyespots than those without eyespots or with small eyespots. Taken together, these data suggest that eyespots are effective deterrents only when both prey and eyespots are large, and that innate aversion toward eyespots is conditional. We conclude that the distribution of eyespots in nature likely results from selection against eyespots in small caterpillars and selection for eyespots in large caterpillars (at least in some microhabitats). PMID:25964333
Marshall, George Robert Ellison; Hooker, Claire
While there has been much interest in the apparent benefits of empathy in improving outcomes of medical care, there is continuing concern over the philosophical nature of empathy. We suggest that part of the difficulty in coming to terms with empathy is due to the modernist dichotomies that have structured Western medical discourse, such that doctor and patient, knower and known, cognitive and emotional, subject and object are situated in oppositional terms, with the result that such accounts cannot coherently encompass an emotional doctor, or a patient as knower, or empathy as other than a possession or a trait. This paper explores what, by contrast, a radical critique of the Cartesian world view, in the form of a Deleuzean theoretical framework, would open up in new perspectives on empathy. We extend the framework of emotional geography to ask what happens when people are affected by empathy. We suggest that doctors and patients might be more productively understood as embodied subjects that are configured in their capacities by how they are affected by singular 'events' of empathy. We sketch out how the Deleuzean framework would make sense of these contentions and identify some possible implications for medical education and practice. PMID:26856355
The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors’ sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one’s own living breathing body. PMID:27390549
Gravenhorst, J Bennebroek; Engberts, D P
During the last century the patient-doctor relationship has changed considerably. This change becomes particularly visible when the relationship between the two parties is disturbed. this is usually caused by patient dissatisfaction with the doctor or other workers in the medical profession. Handling dissatisfaction should be part of a doctor's professional skills. The most important advice in dealing with dissatisfaction is to react fast. A doctor should have the good sense to raise the issue for discussion as soon as he/she senses signs of dissatisfaction. If this is not possible and the issue results in a written complaint, the plaintiff can lodge a complaint within the framework of a special law. The complaint is then handled by a complaints committee. Over the past years, mediation has been used increasingly. This procedure has a low threshold, works fast and often results in reconciliation of both parties. If the intervention of a complaints committee is not desired and mediation is not realistic or rejected, the case sometimes progresses to the disciplinary board or civil judge. This often leads to protracted procedures and is stressful to both parties. It is important to prevent these kinds of procedures as much as possible by reacting swiftly and appropriately to signs of dissatisfaction. PMID:12448961
Edge, Roberta M
Through an employee survey administered at Kaweah Delta Health Care District (KDHCD) in Visalia, Calif., several sources of dissatisfaction were noted, including communication, equipment, staffing and rapid growth. Perceiving no real movement toward resolving these issues, employees vented their frustrations to administration. As director of imaging services, I enlisted the help of two inside consultants, KDHCD's director of education and the director of the Employee Assistance Program (EAP). We initiated a process that is ongoing, to move the department toward working together as a team to solve problems within their control. We three directors decided to work with a leadership group to: assess the history of the department clarify the current reality create a vision of the future learn the Covey Habit 4, "Think Win-Win" capture agreements that lead staff and managers to work in self-motivated, self-directed work teams have the director of education present the work to the staff at large, and encourage the leadership team to continue to learn tools that would help the group to improve. The two inside consultants held a series of training meetings with the leadership group of 15, which included a staff member from each modality, site and support service. Participation was optional, and all who were asked agreed to participate. The meetings were held weekly for four weeks for two hours before regular work hours. At the conclusion of the training, the group agreed to continue to meet weekly. After the first four meetings, a summary of the training was presented at a meeting of the full imaging staff plus the vice president of professional services at KDHCD. Through this program, imaging services staff members at KDHCD have achieved an increased sense of cohesion in the group, learned that we have control over some things and not others, and are learning to hold each other accountable with kindness. We are giving each other the benefit of the doubt. We have not
... Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... NCI) funded a study of 94 women whose breast cancer had spread (metastatic) or returned (recurrent). Researchers asked ...
... Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter ... traumatic life events. The categories ranged from traumatic stress to some stress to no significant stress. According ...
Shaver, Harold C.
A survey of the degree of job satisfaction felt by 404 news/editorial and advertising graduates indicates that journalism graduates develop satisfaction and dissatisfaction with jobs in a manner usually consistent with Frederick Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory of job satisfaction. (GW)
This case study uses two theoretical lenses to analyze political events in a Southern California school district: dissatisfaction theory and groupthink. The case study technique of pattern matching was used to frame the analysis (Yin, 2009). Data for 1992-2008 was gathered from interviews, the Orange County Registrar of Voters, newspapers,…
Pan, Jay; Liu, Dan; Ali, Shehzad
Patient satisfaction is a focal concern of health-care delivery and an expected outcome of medical care. Recently, the violent conflict between doctors and patients in China has intensified. Patient dissatisfaction has been recognized as an important concern and an urgent issue in the reform of China's health care. The objectives of this study are to investigate the determinants of patient dissatisfaction attributed to patient, hospital, and health-care market characteristics, as well as to explore the major determinants in the context of China. Data from 2007 to 2010 Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance Survey (URBMIS) are used in this study. A total of 13,336 patients are selected conditional on health-care utilization. Analysis of satisfaction is based on outpatient utilization (last 2 weeks' reference, 6393 individuals) and inpatient utilization (last 1-year reference, 6943 individuals). Satisfaction was measured as ordinal variables (scales 1-5). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and an ordered probit model are applied to investigate the determinants. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition is further employed to detect the proportion each predictor's contribution. The results indicate that patients' gender, education, and insurance status are significantly related to patient satisfaction. Higher-level hospitals are found to negatively correlate with patient satisfaction. Lower competition in providers' market and a higher market share of private hospitals are found to positively correlate with patient dissatisfaction. Meanwhile, the survey indicates that "medical charges too expensive" is chiefly responsible for patient dissatisfaction. Our study provides empirical evidence on the determinants of patient dissatisfaction in China. In particular, the results indicate that establishing a high competition among various providers in the health-care market will act as a "double-edged sword," with great policy implications. PMID:26356826
Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger
The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs’ somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants’ body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303
Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger
The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs' somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants' body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303
Galgan, Richard J.; And Others
Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…
Loosemore, Douglas J.; And Others
Examined satisfaction with body image in sample of 18 male college hockey players, 18 male college body builders, and 18 college students in a psychology class using measures of body image distortion and body image dissatisfaction. Found marked levels of distortion and dissatisfaction in body builders, but not in other two groups. (Author/ABL)
Koch, Sabine C.
Body feedback is the proprioceptive feedback that denominates the afferent information from position and movement of the body to the central nervous system. It is crucial in experiencing emotions, in forming attitudes and in regulating emotions and behavior. This paper investigates effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes, focusing on the impact of movement rhythms with smooth vs. sharp reversals as one basic category of movement qualities. It relates those qualities to already explored effects of approach vs. avoidance motor behavior as one basic category of movement shape. Studies 1 and 2 tested the effects of one of two basic movement qualities (smooth vs. sharp rhythms) on affect and cognition. The third study tested those movement qualities in combination with movement shape (approach vs. avoidance motor behavior) and the effects of those combinations on affect and attitudes toward initially valence-free stimuli. Results suggest that movement rhythms influence affect (studies 1 and 2), and attitudes (study 3), and moderate the impact of approach and avoidance motor behavior on attitudes (study 3). Extending static body feedback research with a dynamic account, findings indicate that movement qualities – next to movement shape – play an important role, when movement of the lived body is an independent variable. PMID:24959153
Koch, Sabine C
Body feedback is the proprioceptive feedback that denominates the afferent information from position and movement of the body to the central nervous system. It is crucial in experiencing emotions, in forming attitudes and in regulating emotions and behavior. This paper investigates effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes, focusing on the impact of movement rhythms with smooth vs. sharp reversals as one basic category of movement qualities. It relates those qualities to already explored effects of approach vs. avoidance motor behavior as one basic category of movement shape. Studies 1 and 2 tested the effects of one of two basic movement qualities (smooth vs. sharp rhythms) on affect and cognition. The third study tested those movement qualities in combination with movement shape (approach vs. avoidance motor behavior) and the effects of those combinations on affect and attitudes toward initially valence-free stimuli. Results suggest that movement rhythms influence affect (studies 1 and 2), and attitudes (study 3), and moderate the impact of approach and avoidance motor behavior on attitudes (study 3). Extending static body feedback research with a dynamic account, findings indicate that movement qualities - next to movement shape - play an important role, when movement of the lived body is an independent variable. PMID:24959153
Christensen, Julia F; Gomila, Antoni; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Sivarajah, Nithura; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz
The present study shows how motor expertise increases individuals' sensitivity to others' affective body movement. This enhanced sensitivity is evident in the experts' behavior and physiology. Nineteen affective movement experts (professional ballet dancers) and 24 controls watched 96 video clips of emotionally expressive body movements while they performed an affect rating task (subjective response), and their galvanic skin response was recorded (physiological response). The movements in the clips were either sad or happy, and in half of the trials, movements were played in the order in which they are learned (forward presentation), and in the other half, movements were played backward (control condition). Results showed that motor expertise in affective body movement specifically modulated both behavioral and physiological sensitivity to others' affective body movement, and that this sensitivity is particularly strong when movements are shown in the way they are learnt (forward presentation). The evidence is discussed within current theories of proprioceptive arousal feedback and motor simulation accounts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882181
Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Pick, Cari M
Fat talk is not merely correlated with, but appears to be one of the causes of body dissatisfaction in other women. Moderators of fat talk's deleterious effects, however, have not yet been identified. This experiment tested whether the body type of the fat-talker affects listeners' body satisfaction. Women viewed photos of either noticeably thin or overweight women making either fat talk or positive body statements. Fat talk by thin and overweight women both had a negative impact on women's body satisfaction, but dissatisfaction was highest after exposure to photos of thin women making fat talk statements. Statistically indistinguishable from this latter effect, however, was the negative effect of thin women making positive body statements. Results are considered within a social comparison framework. Theoretical implications for the thin-ideal and fat talk literatures are presented, as are clinical implications for work with clients. PMID:24320716
McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.
Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…
We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...
Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D
Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790
Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.
Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014
Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Cable, Noriko; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael
This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20-65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40-2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76-1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14-1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79-1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed. PMID:25055848
Laursen, Karsten; Asferg, Karen S.; Frikke, John; Sunde, Peter
Although the Danish Wadden Sea is of international importance for several bird species, large-scale blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishing took place from 1984-1987, ceasing thereafter due to low mussel stocks. Mussel fishing removes much of the blue mussel biomass, especially larger individuals. Hence we predict that intensive mussel fishing will affect their predators, such as the Eider Somateria mollissima, which is predominantly a blue mussel feeder by, 1) reducing the amount of blue mussels in their diet relative to alternative prey items, 2) exploitation of smaller blue mussel shell classes, 3) loss of body condition, 4) changing feeding distribution to aggregate to the remaining mussel stocks, and 5) decreasing numbers. Before winter 1986/87 blue mussel biomass was estimated at 40,600 tons, decreasing to 15,400 tons in 1987/88 due to mussel fishery. We collected Eiders in both periods to monitor their diet and body mass and used aerial surveys to determine changes in numbers and distribution. Between the two periods, blue mussels declined in the Eiders diet, numbers of Eiders with empty stomachs increased and the mean length of blue mussel taken by Eiders decreased. Eider body condition declined from 1986/87 to 1987/88, mostly the result of the reduction in numbers of individuals with blue mussel remains in their gizzards and in better body condition compared to those taking alternative food items or having empty gizzards. Eiders shifted their distribution from the southern part of the Danish Wadden Sea to the northern part, where the remaining blue mussel stocks were situated. Eider numbers were lowest in 1987/88, the year of lowest blue mussel stocks. We conclude that intensive mussel fishery affected the Eider's diet, reduced their body condition and affected distribution and abundance. The results also showed that availability of blue mussels may have a key role in building up and maintaining body condition in Eiders during winter.
Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…
Christians, Julian K; Rance, Kellie A; Knott, Sara A; Pignatelli, Pat M; Oliver, Fiona; Bünger, Lutz
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a QTL in different genetic backgrounds. A QTL affecting body mass on chromosome 6 was identified in an F2 cross between two lines of mice that have been divergently selected for this trait. The effect of the QTL on mass increased between 6 and 10 weeks of age and was not sex-specific. Body composition analysis showed effects on fat-free dry body mass and fat mass. To examine the effect of this QTL in different genetic backgrounds, the high body mass sixth chromosome was introgressed into the low body mass genetic background and vice versa by repeated marker-assisted backcrossing. After three generations of backcrossing, new F2 populations were established within each of the introgression lines by crossing individuals that were heterozygous across the sixth chromosome. The estimated additive effect of the QTL on 10-week body mass was similar in both genetic backgrounds and in the original F2 population (i.e., ~0.4 phenotypic standard deviations); no evidence of epistatic interaction with the genetic background was found. The 95% confidence interval for the location of the QTL was refined to a region of approximately 7 cM between D6Mit268 and D6Mit123. PMID:15339634
Tylka, Tracy L
Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. PMID:21664886
Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen
Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.
Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Fuchs, Thomas
Objectives In 1950, Kurt Schneider proposed that a considerable number of schizophrenia patients develop first-rank symptoms (FRS). In such cases, patients report made experiences, replaced control of will, thought insertion, broadcast or withdrawal and delusional perception, respectively. Although a number of recent studies tend to explain FRS in terms of neurobiological and neuropsychological processes, the origin of these symptoms still remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the subjective experience of patients with the following two FRS: (1) "made" impulses and (2) “made" volitional acts. Method The method applied for the study of two FRS consists first in the overview of psychiatric and philosophical literature and second in the further investigation of subjective experience in patients with FRS. Psychopathological and phenomenological aspects of FRS are discussed by means of patient cases. Results We discovered a profound transformation of intentionality and agency in schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS. This concept offers an insight into the interrelatedness between particular FRS. Conclusion We propose that the subjective experience of schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS is rooted in the disturbance of intentionality and diminished sense of agency. This theoretical account of body-affecting FRS will open up new directions in both phenomenological and neurobiological psychiatric research. PMID:24019932
Miller, Jennifer M.; Feldman, Maryann P.
Dissatisfaction with postdoctoral appointments is associated with demographics, career goals, types of research, postdoc-advisor interaction, and program quality. Rather than a simple inverse relationship to dissatisfaction, the effect of program quality depends on the postdoc's autonomy to shape a research project, interaction with an advisor,…
Jodlbauer, Susanne; Selenko, Eva; Batinic, Bernad; Stiglbauer, Barbara
The high rates of training transfer failure that prevail still puzzle practitioners as well as researchers. The central aim of the present study is to analyze the relatively under-researched role of job dissatisfaction in the training transfer process. Specifically, we expect that job dissatisfaction would have a negative effect on transfer but…
Discusses a study undertaken to evaluate perceptions of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among 100 graduates trained to teach in primary schools. Weighs findings in light of a hypothesis (Herzberg's two-factor hypothesis) which states that causes of job satisfaction are substantially independent of those determining job dissatisfaction.…
Houpt, Jessica Jean
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to (a) identify sources of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in selected nonpublic schools that serve exceptional special education students in California; (b) identify the sources of dissatisfaction; (c) ascertain any significant difference between male and female perceptions of the…