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Sample records for affect pregnant women

  1. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  2. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  3. Does Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Affect Laboratory Parameters in the Newborn?

    PubMed Central

    Raguž, Marjana Jerković; Brzica, Jerko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy in laboratory parameters in the serum of the three groups of pregnant women and in their newborns. Methods This prospective study is comparison between the three groups of pregnant women and their newborns categorized according to their BMI. The study included 128 pregnant women and their newborns. In this study, the concentration of blood count, iron, ferritin, and bilirubin were analyzed in the subjects. Results The pregnant women in the three groups significantly differ in the values of blood count (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference in iron and ferritin was not found between individual three studied groups of pregnant women (p = 0.947). The newborn of the first group of pregnant women had significantly lower values of ferritin (p < 0.001), leucocytes (p < 0.001), and bilirubin (p < 0.001). Significant positive correlation between BMI of pregnant women and leucocytes, ferritin, and bilirubin of the newborn was found (p < 0.001). Conclusion In this study, the tested pregnant women do not have biochemical signs of anemia, neither do their newborns. It was noted that there was no negative correlation between individual tested biochemical parameters for anemia in pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:27119047

  4. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  5. [Sexuality of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  6. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  7. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  8. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. PMID:27297000

  9. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  10. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth after changing a litter box, or while gardening without gloves. Fruits and vegetables may have contact ... pregnant. Keep outdoor sandboxes covered. Wear gloves when gardening and during contact with soil or sand because ...

  12. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  13. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  14. Toxoplasmosis in Kosovo pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Putoto, Giovanni; Ramadani, Naser; Bertinato, Luigi; Berisha, Merita; Schinaia, Nicola; Quaglio, Gianluca; Maggi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the initial results of a collaborative project aimed at the evaluation of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a population of Kosovar pregnant women. The serum samples of 334 pregnant women were tested to detect IgG, IgM, IgG avidity for toxoplasmosis. Data regarding age, occupation, area of origin and education were also obtained for the pregnant women examined; 97/334 (29.4%) resulted positive for IgG antibodies, four of whom (4.1%) were also positive for IgM, (1.2% of the total population examined). All four IgM-positive pregnant women also demonstrated low avidity tests. The rate of IgG seroprevalence found in our study was lower than that observed in various European countries, especially those of western Europe. Conversely, the percentage of recent infections was higher than expected. The higher rate of infections could be the result of a recent toxoplasmosis epidemic in Kosovo, most likely due to the altered hygienic conditions caused by the forced transfer of the ethnic-Albanian population from an area of low (Serbia) to high (Kosovo) toxoplasmosis prevalence. PMID:21617833

  15. [Sexuality in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Hamela-Olkowska, Anita; Marcyniak, Marek; Sieńko, Jacek; Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Brandt, Maciej; Jalinik, Katarzyna; Labusiewicz, Wojciech; Romankiewicz, Kamila

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on women's sexuality. The studies were conducted using questionnaires to interview 120 women from 35 weeks' of gestation or just after the delivery. There were no medical contraindications for sexual intercourse in pregnancy in this group. More than half of respondents reported a decrease in libido during gestation. A reduction in coital frequency, oral intercourse, gratification of coitus, caress of breasts or genitals and erotic dreams occurred during pregnancy. Lateral position was mainly used during coitus in pregnancy. Most of women didn't discuss the problems of sexual activity in pregnancy with their obstetricians. PMID:15537259

  16. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  17. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  18. Cancer treatment in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Basta, Pawel; Bak, Anna; Roszkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    In general, strategies for the treatment of cancer in pregnancy should not differ significantly from the treatment regimens in non-pregnant women. However, this is difficult due to either the effects of anticancer drugs on the developing foetus or the possibility of long-term complications after the exposure to drugs and radiation. The decision about the introduction and continuation of treatment in the event of pregnancy should be preceded by a detailed analysis of the potential benefits and risks. There are no data to suggest that pregnancy termination alters the biological behaviour of the tumour or patient prognosis in the presence of appropriate antineoplastic therapy. All patients should be given appropriate advice and informed that there are insufficient scientific data to determine any generally accepted consensus. It is very important to always respect the will of the patient, and the moral judgment of the physician should have no impact on the decisions taken by the woman. If the woman decides to undergo active treatment and maintain her pregnancy, it is necessary to carry out consultations with experts in the field appropriate to the type of cancer. This paper presents a basic review of the literature on the targeted therapies currently used in selected cancers diagnosed during pregnancy: breast cancer, cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, melanoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. PMID:26793018

  19. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  20. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  1. Relationship Between Quality of Life and Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Kafaei Atrian, Mahboobe; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Bagheri, Azam; Sadat, Zohreh; Karimian, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Quality of life is affected by health status. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnant women in Kashan city. Patients and Methods: A Case - control study was performed on 112 depressed pregnant women (Case Group) and 353 Non-depressed pregnant women (Control Group) who referred to the prenatal health care centers of Kashan University of Medical Sciences .They completed Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) to assess the quality of life and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the level of depressive symptoms. T-test, chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests were used for data analysis. Results: The findings showed that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnancy (P = 0.0001). Average scores in all eight domains of quality of life were significantly lower in depressed pregnant women compared to non- depressed women. The strongest relationship was observed between depression and vitality (r =-0.52, P = 0.0001), mental health (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and social functioning (r =-0.38, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Depressed pregnant women had a lower quality of life. The proper management of depression during pregnancy can improve the quality of life in women. It is recommended that antenatal services integrate screening for depression into routine antenatal care. PMID:25414858

  2. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration than longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration than shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared with longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy. PMID:25070097

  4. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees. PMID:8194968

  5. Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications arising from an influenza infection. It is suggested that physiological changes such as immunological changes, increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption, as well as lung tidal volume might increase the susceptibility to influenza complications if infection occurs during pregnancy. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries and has been proven to be safe and effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Influenza vaccination is also cost-effective. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage remains low in pregnant women. This might stem from the lack of healthcare workers' education, a feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious disease and a failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. In order to protect pregnant women and infants from influenza related morbidity and mortality an educational programme targeting healthcare workers in charge of pregnant women should be implemented. PMID:25195141

  6. Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses from Malaria in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157683.html Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses From Malaria in Study Findings ... widely used to treat malaria in adults also protects pregnant women and their fetuses from the disease, ...

  7. Advising pregnant women on miminising travel risks.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Rosemary

    Pregnant women may face additional risks when travelling overseas, which must be considered with assessment and travel health advice before they decide to travel. A careful risk assessment should be completed to identify the key risks and strategies for staying safe while travelling. PMID:24772798

  8. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  9. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  10. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  11. [Young children, pregnant women and travelling abroad].

    PubMed

    Sandbu, Synne; Nøkleby, Hanne

    2002-06-20

    Pregnant women and parents of young children travelling to non-western countries should consider the risks to which they expose themselves and their children. Travelling during these periods of life needs to be particularly well planned. Travel insurance should cover the whole family, and for pregnant women also the risk of premature birth. Travelling long distances during pregnancy involves a certain amount of risk in itself. This risk could be increased if complications were to occur in areas with a lower standard of health service. As a rule, infants and young children easily adapt to new environments but children abroad should be expected to need a doctor at least as often as at home. Some vaccines and antimalarials must not be used for children below a certain age. Only a few vaccines and antimalarials have been systematically studied in pregnant women in order to exclude teratogenicity. We present some aspects of vaccination and malaria prevention, transport, climate and environment, nutrition, food and drinking water hygiene. PMID:12119785

  12. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ≥4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

  13. Evaluation of selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Mohammadzadeh Vatanchi, Atieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Pourali, Leila; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications during pregnancy with considerable maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hypercoagulability due to thrombophilic factors is discussed as the etiology involved in this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 pregnant women at third trimester of pregnancy between 2012 and 2013. 100 pregnant women admitted to Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals of Mashhad, due to preeclampsia, were selected as case group and 100 pregnant women without preeclampsia referred to OB/GYN clinic of these hospitals as control group. Blood samples were taken from two groups for evaluation of the coagulation factors including factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Results: Two groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal age and parity (p>0.05). Levels of factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant antibodies were compared between two groups. The number of patients with abnormal factor V Leiden and protein C was significantly higher in case group than in the control group (p<0.01 respectively), but other factors were not significant different between two groups. Thrombophilia disorders were significantly more in case group compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The risk of thrombophilia disorders is higher in preeclamptic patients than normal pregnant women. PMID:25709635

  14. Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T; Solnordal, C B

    2012-06-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women is an uncommon but life-threatening event. The aims of this review are to address why pulmonary oedema occurs in pregnant women and to discuss immediate management. We performed a systematic literature search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, using the key words obstetrics, pregnancy, acute pulmonary oedema, pregnancy complications, maternal, cardiac function and haemodynamics. We present a simple clinical classification of acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy into pulmonary oedema occurring in normotensive or hypotensive women (i.e. without hypertension), and acute pulmonary oedema occurring in hypertensive women, which allows focused management. Pre-eclampsia remains an important cause of hypertensive acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy and preventive strategies include close clinical monitoring and restricted fluid administration. Immediate management of acute pulmonary oedema includes oxygenation, ventilation and circulation control with venodilators. Pregnancy-specific issues include consideration of the physiological changes of pregnancy, the risk of aspiration and difficult airway, reduced respiratory and metabolic reserve, avoidance of aortocaval compression and delivery of the fetus. PMID:22420683

  15. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  16. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  17. [Pregnant women, children and international travel].

    PubMed

    Høgh, Birthe; Rønn, Anita Mandrup

    2005-10-17

    Pregnant women and children have special needs and vulnerabilities that should be addressed when preparing for travel abroad. The most stable time for travel during pregnancy is the second trimester. Live vaccines should be avoided during pregnancy. Children should be up to date on both routine and travel-related vaccines. Elective travel to malarious areas, especially where chloroquine-resistant malaria is endemic, should be avoided, as some vaccines and antimalarial drugs may not be used during pregnancy and for children below a certain age. Guidelines on preventive measures are given. PMID:16232399

  18. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's α was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  19. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. Material/Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. Results The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Conclusions Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM. PMID:26084958

  20. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  1. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in...

  2. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Perquin, D A; Kloet, A; Tans, J T; Witte, G N; Dörr, P J

    1999-03-01

    Three women, aged 27, 32 and 30 years, respectively, suffered from headache, nausea and neurological abnormalities and were found to have an intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM). One of them after diagnosis had two pregnancies, both ended by caesarean section with good results. Another woman was 32 weeks pregnant when the AVM manifested itself with a haemorrhage; she recovered well and was delivered by caesarean section. After the AVM proved radiologically to have been obliterated, she delivered after her subsequent pregnancy by the vaginal route with vacuum extraction. The third woman was 15 weeks pregnant when major abnormalities developed. There was a large intracerebral haematoma with break-through to the ventricular system; this patient died. Intracranial haemorrhage during pregnancy is rate. It can result in maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It appears that pregnancy does not increase the rate of first cerebral haemorrhage from an AVM. The management of AVM rupture during pregnancy should be based primarily on neurosurgical rather than on obstetric considerations. Close collaboration with a team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists is mandatory. PMID:10321255

  3. Suicidality and associated factors in pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; da Costa Ores, Liliane; Jansen, Karen; da Silva Moraes, Inácia Gomes; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Magalhães, Pedro; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2012-06-01

    Is important to evaluate suicidal potential and related factors during pregnancy among women who have attended public health services. To determine the suicidal potential, question 10 from Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used. In this sample (N = 1,334), 8.1% of pregnant women demonstrated suicidal potential. The potential risk factors for suicide in depressed pregnant women were being single, divorced or widowed, thinking about having an abortion, and having anxiety symptoms; in nondepressed pregnant women were lower age, low education level, low socioeconomic class, thoughts about having an abortion and anxiety symptoms. PMID:22447343

  4. Emotional memory in pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marissa E; Becker, Suzanna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Wong, Queenie; Cudney, Lauren E; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2015-10-30

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with debilitating effects on mothers and their infants. A previous history of depression is considered the strongest risk factor for PPD. Depressed individuals recall more negative than positive content and higher levels of stress hormones released during encoding are associated with enhanced recall of emotional stimuli. This study examined the impact of a previous history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and pregnancy on emotional memory. Seventy-seven participants completed the study [44 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy with and without a lifetime history of MDD and 33 non-pregnant women with and without a lifetime history of MDD]. All completed an encoding task and provided salivary cortisol (sCORT) and alpha-amylase (sAA) samples. Participants returned one week later for a surprise incidental recognition memory task. Women with a history of MDD had worse recognition than women without a history of MDD for negative, but not positive images; this effect was independent of sCORT and sAA levels. Pregnancy did not affect emotional memory. Considering that several previous studies found enhanced memory bias for negative content during depressive states, our results suggest that clinical remission may be associated with an opposite cognitive processing of negative emotional content. PMID:26272023

  5. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  6. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  7. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

  8. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  9. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  10. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding public health needs and coping mechanisms among pregnant women during and shortly after the typhoon. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs). Participants were 53 women (mean age: 26.6 years old; 42 had children) from four affected communities who were pregnant at the time of the typhoon. FGDs were conducted 4 months after the typhoon, from March 19 to 28, 2014, using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. Result: Three themes were identified regarding problems and concerns during and after the typhoon: 1) having no ideas what is going to happen during the evacuation, 2) lacking essentials to survive, and 3) being unsure of how to deal with health concerns. Two themes were identified as means of solving issues: 1) finding food for survival and 2) avoiding diseases to save my family. As the pregnant women already had several typhoon experiences without any major problems, they underestimated the catastrophic nature of this typhoon. During the typhoon, the women could not ensure their safety and did not have a strong sense of crisis management. They suffered from hunger, food shortage, and poor sanitation. Moreover, though the women had fear and anxiety regarding their pregnancy, they had no way to resolve these concerns. Pregnant women and their families also suffered from common health problems for which they would usually seek medical services. Under such conditions, the

  11. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers. PMID:26643277

  12. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  13. [Specific features of emergency dental care in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, E N; Axamit, L A; Manukhina, E I; Letunova, N Yu; Golikova, A M; Fedotova, T M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the algorithm of safe emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Eighty-five pregnant women aged 20-35 were included in the study. The paper presents elaborated state-of-the-art guidelines for emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 is recommended as a choice agent for local anesthesia in these patients. PMID:27239992

  14. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  15. Asymptomatic Chlamydia infection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hagley, M T; Costa, A J

    1989-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is currently among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. A review of three textbooks of obstetrics reveals that none of them recommend routine chlamydia screening in prenatal patients, although two recommend routine screening for gonorrhea. A study was done at the Barberton Citizens Hospital Family Practice Residency Program to determine the incidence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection in pregnant women and to compare this to the incidence of asymptomatic Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in the same population. A total of 69 patients were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis as part of their routine prenatal evaluations at the first prenatal visit and the visit of 36 weeks gestation. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected by growth on standard Martin-Lewis culture plates. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by positive immunofluorescence using a standardized specimen kit (Syva Company, Palo Alto, California). The data were collected over a 12-month period from July of 1987 through July of 1988. There were no positive cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (0%) in this group of patients. On the other hand, five patients tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (7.2%). The results of this study indicate that routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be considered as part of the routine prenatal care. A larger, multi-centered study could be done in the future to confirm these results, as well as to determine if any regional differences exist. PMID:2601940

  16. Scientists Assess Risk to Pregnant Women Infected with Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientists Assess Risk to Pregnant Women Infected With Zika A woman infected in 1st trimester has 1 ... there's more evidence supporting a link between the Zika virus and a serious birth defect. Researchers report ...

  17. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  18. Industry Perspective of Drug Development for Pregnant/Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Korth-Bradley, J M

    2016-07-01

    As part of drug development, drug companies conduct experiments to gather data about the potential toxicity of medications in pregnant and lactating animals. Increasingly, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are developed to simulate drug concentrations in pregnant and lactating women. As these women are not usually included in clinical trials, targeted postapproval safety monitoring, registries, or clinical studies may be performed to gather safety and efficacy information about drug use in these special populations. PMID:27082822

  19. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  20. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices. PMID:20229702

  1. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  2. Maternal outcomes among pregnant women receiving live attenuated influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Toback, Seth L.; Beigi, Richard; Tennis, Patricia; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Calingaert, Brian; Ambrose, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Toback et al. (2012) Maternal outcomes among pregnant women receiving live attenuated influenza accine. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 44–51. Background  Although the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) prescribing information contains warnings/precautions against use during pregnancy, administration of LAIV to pregnant women does occur. Data regarding maternal outcomes after LAIV administration during pregnancy are limited. Objectives  Maternal outcomes after LAIV vaccination during pregnancy were examined. Methods  Data from a health insurance claims database that covers approximately 50 million individuals were analyzed for the six influenza seasons from 2003–2004 through 2008–2009. Emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations occurring within 42 days of vaccination were analyzed by primary diagnosis; outcomes were categorized as cardiopulmonary, obstetric, and other. Cohort characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results  Of 834 999 pregnancies identified, 138 (0·017%) were among women who received LAIV vaccinations. Of the 138 pregnant women, 13% were ≤19 years, 67% were 20–34 years, and 20% were ≥35 years of age. Eight events occurred within 42 days of vaccination: one ED visit for bronchitis, two hospitalizations for hyperemesis gravidarum and premature labor, and five ED visits/hospitalizations for common medical conditions. All outcomes identified after LAIV exposure occurred at rates similar to rates in unvaccinated pregnant women reported in the medical literature. Conclusions  Administration of LAIV to pregnant women is rare; the rate has remained constant since 2004–2005. In this cohort, there was no evidence of significant maternal adverse outcomes after receipt of LAIV. These data may offer some reassurance to providers and pregnant women in the event of inadvertent LAIV administration, but do not support the routine use of LAIV in

  3. A Changing Landscape: Implications of Pregnant Women's Internet Use for Childbirth Educators

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Amy M.

    2007-01-01

    Internet use among pregnant women is common and frequent, while attendance at childbirth education classes appears to be on the decline. This article explores why women turn to the Internet in pregnancy and how Internet use may affect their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It suggests strategies for engaging women's interest in the Internet and describes how doing so may help increase the effectiveness of “traditional” childbirth education while mitigating the potentially overwhelming and confusing aspects of Internet use. PMID:18769519

  4. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, İstanbul

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Şükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

  5. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  6. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the ...

  7. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  8. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  9. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  10. Health Care Resources for Children and Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Janet D.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews evidence about health care resources currently available to children and pregnant women in the United States. Evidence suggests that the maldistribution of resources remains a serious threat to health care access for women and children at greatest risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and child morbidity and mortality. (SLD)

  11. [Oral hygiene in pregnant women versus cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Gogacz, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Proper oral hygiene is an essential element of dental caries prophylaxis and periodontitis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the oral health state and the state of periodontal in pregnant women in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Survey and clinical studies were conducted in the group of 100 women--80% pregnant women and 20% in the first week of puerperium remaining at the gynaecological and obstetric hospital wards in Lublin and its region. The mean age of the investigated was 27.94. Study results revealed no correlation between the frequency of pregnant women tooth-brushing and the status of cigarette smoking or non-smoking. The average oral hygiene evaluated on the basis of API index was stated essentially more frequently in the group of non-smoking women (50%) in comparison with the smoking women (24.14%),, whereas improper oral hygiene was stated essentially more frequently in the group of smoking women (31.03%) in comparison with non-smokers (11.29%) (chi = 7.82, p < 0.05). No correlation was stated between the state of periodontal in smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. PMID:24501798

  12. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection

    PubMed Central

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  13. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Moos, Merry-K; Carrier, Kathryn; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood. The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total of 1535 pregnant women (27–30 weeks’ gestation) enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study were asked an open-ended question about their primary barrier to physical activity; responses were coded into categories according to the socioecologic framework. To further elucidate, 13 focus groups of a total of 58 pregnant women (20–37 weeks’ gestation) were conducted among Hispanic, African American, and White participants. Results Among the 1535 pregnant women participating in the survey, 85% reported an intrapersonal barrier to physical activity, of which almost two-thirds were health related. Only 2% of the women reported their main barrier to physical activity as interpersonal and 3% reported a neighborhood or environmental barrier. These results were supported by the focus group data, overall and by race/ethnicity and body mass index. Although women discussed barriers to physical activity at a variety of levels, the intrapersonal level was the most frequently cited and discussed factor in both studies. Conclusions Since pregnancy may trigger the development of obesity and since physical activity is recommended for healthy pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity in a more relevant way. These quantitative and qualitative studies revealed many barriers to physical activity among pregnant women and some suggestions for interventions. PMID:18478322

  14. Prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Hogan, K; Hankins, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked seroprevalence study. SETTING: Newfoundland. PATIENTS: A total of 14911 women receiving prenatal care or undergoing an abortion, representing nearly all pregnancies in Newfoundland from Nov. 1, 1991, to Oct. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, as determined by enzyme immunoassay of leftover serum samples (initially obtained for routine screening) and confirmation of reactive samples by the Western blot technique, health region of residence, and age group. RESULTS: Of the 14911 serum samples 13 were positive for HIV, for an overall crude prevalence rate of 1 per 1147 or 8.7 per 10000 pregnant women (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7 to 14.9). Seven of the positive samples were from women residing in the Eastern Health Region of the province, for a crude prevalence rate of 1 per 376 or 26.6 per 10000 pregnant women (95% CI 10.7 to 54.8) for that region. All women found to be HIV positive were 15 to 29 years of age, the peak prevalence (20.8 per 10000 pregnant women [95% CI 9.5 to 39.4]) was observed among those 20 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence rate of 8.7 per 10 000 pregnant women in Newfoundland is the highest provincial rate recorded among those from similar studies in Canada. Although it may be concluded that there are an estimated 125 HIV-positive women of childbearing age in Newfoundland (95% CI 67 to 213), the age-adjusted estimate is 84 (95% CI 36 to 131). This study provides an independent confirmation of an outbreak of HIV infection among women in the Eastern Health Region of the province. PMID:8625023

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  16. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Aim To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. Methods We searched hospital databases for women who were 37–41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. Conclusion The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population. PMID:26208169

  17. Parenting and Concerns of Pregnant Women in Buprenorphine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Rachel A; Neumann, Anne M; King, Stella OC; Hoey, Robert F; Finnell, Deborah S; Blondell, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-dependent pregnant women are characterized by drug use during pregnancy and deficits in knowledge of newborn care and feeding, and of child development. We assessed parenting skills and concerns among pregnant women in buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid-dependence. Study Design and Methods We interviewed 32 pregnant women who received buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid dependence in a primary care setting and administered questionnaires, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory version 2 (AAPI-2) and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results AAPI-2 scores revealed medium risk of abuse for all five scales: inappropriate expectations of the child, low level of empathy, strong belief in corporal punishment, reversal of parent-child roles, and oppression of children’s power and independence. Primary concerns of participants were neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and their child’s health. Pregnant women who received buprenorphine for treatment of prescription opioid dependence showed a lack of appropriate parenting skills, but did not express concern about their ability to parent. Clinical Implications Our findings suggest need for nurses to assist prescription opioid-dependent pregnant women in acquiring additional parenting skills, to refer for educational parenting intervention, and to educate patients about NAS. PMID:25137081

  18. Working memory in pregnant women: Relation to estrogen and antepartum depression.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Phillips, Shauna-Dae; Duff-Canning, Sarah J; Evans, Kelly L; Merrill, Mia; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Sadée, Wolfgang; Soares, Claudio N; Steiner, Meir

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Subjective changes in concentration and memory are commonly reported by women during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy, but the nature of the problem is poorly understood. We hypothesized that these self-reports might reflect difficulties in working memory (WM). It was further hypothesized that antepartum depression (depression arising during pregnancy) may play an etiological role, either on its own or due to secondary changes in endocrine function or sleep. Using WM tasks that emphasized executive control processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) we compared pregnant women tested at 34-36 weeks of gestation (n = 28) with age- and education-matched non-pregnant controls (n = 26). All pregnant women were screened for depression. Evidence of a WM disturbance was found, and was evident only among pregnant women showing depressive symptoms. In contrast, pregnant women who were not depressed showed WM performance that equalled, or even significantly exceeded, non-pregnant controls. No significant differences were observed on control tests of other cognitive functions. Multiple regression revealed that serum estradiol concentrations, along with severity of depressive affect but not sleep disruption, significantly predicted variation in the WM scores. In agreement with studies of estradiol and WM in other contexts, higher estradiol was associated with better WM, while higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted poorer WM. We conclude that memory disturbance during gestation might not be as widespread as commonly believed, but can be seen among women experiencing antepartum depression. The high level of WM performance found in healthy, non-depressed, pregnant women is discussed from an adaptationist perspective. PMID:26187710

  19. How well are pregnant women in Croatia informed about the oral glucose tolerance test?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical errors still constitute the largest source of errors in laboratory work. Proper patient preparation and patient’s knowledge about a particular procedure affects its accuracy and reliability. We hypothesized that most of pregnant women are not well enough informed about the proper procedure for the OGTT. The aims of this study were to investigate: (i) how well pregnant women are informed about the OGTT; (ii) the most common way to inform pregnant women about OGTT and (iii) whether pregnant women’s level of knowledge about the OGTT differ regarding source of information. Materials and methods The anonymous questionnaire was conducted across the country in 23 Croatian primary and secondary healthcare centres. The questionnaire contained 9 questions on certain demographic data and familiarity with OGTT procedure. All 343 participants filled the questionnaire before the first blood draw. Results 42% of the participants demonstrated high and 38% adequate level of knowledge about the OGTT procedure. Majority of participants were informed about the procedure by gynaecologist (56%). The level of knowledge differed among participants with different sources of information (P = 0.030). Further analysis showed that the level of knowledge was lower in pregnant women having received information from their gynaecologist compared to pregnant women who received information from the laboratory staff. Conclusions In general, pregnant women are familiar with OGTT procedure, main source of information about the OGTT procedure is their gynaecologist, but the level of knowledge was higher in women who received information about the OGTT procedure from the laboratory staff. PMID:26110035

  20. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Drewery, M L; Gaitán, A V; Thaxton, C; Xu, W; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8-12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  1. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  2. Cluster Sampling with Referral to Improve the Efficiency of Estimating Unmet Needs among Pregnant and Postpartum Women after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Horney, Jennifer; Zotti, Marianne E.; Williams, Amy; Hsia, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background Women of reproductive age, in particular women who are pregnant or fewer than 6 months postpartum, are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, which may create stressors for caregivers, limit access to prenatal/postpartum care, or interrupt contraception. Traditional approaches (e.g., newborn records, community surveys) to survey women of reproductive age about unmet needs may not be practical after disasters. Finding pregnant or postpartum women is especially challenging because fewer than 5% of women of reproductive age are pregnant or postpartum at any time. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted three pilots of a sampling strategy that aimed to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women of reproductive age who were included in postdisaster reproductive health assessments in Johnston County, North Carolina, after tornadoes, Cobb/Douglas Counties, Georgia, after flooding, and Bertie County, North Carolina, after hurricane-related flooding. Results Using this method, the percentage of pregnant and postpartum women interviewed in each pilot increased from 0.06% to 21%, 8% to 19%, and 9% to 17%, respectively. Conclusion and Discussion Two-stage cluster sampling with referral can be used to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women included in a postdisaster assessment. This strategy may be a promising way to assess unmet needs of pregnant and postpartum women in disaster-affected communities. PMID:22365134

  3. Analysis of self-reported problematic tasks for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P L; Dumas, G A; Smith, J T; Leger, A B; Plamondon, A; McGrath, M J; Tranmer, J E

    2006-02-22

    The objective of this study was to identify major components of, and influential factors in, problematic tasks performed by pregnant women employed in education, health care and service areas. Seventy-two pregnant women were surveyed using specially designed questionnaires consisting of an Initial Survey, a Job Analysis Questionnaire and a Task Description Questionnaire. Forty-four subjects (60%) had difficulty performing at least one work task and reported 105 tasks that were problematic at work. Reaching above the head, bending forward, bending and twisting, pushing, repeating actions and working at a fast pace were identified as the task components requiring the greatest level of effort. Excessive effort, excessive time, getting tired, repetitive actions, stress and fear of injury were identified as factors that had strong associations with the six major task components. Findings of this study suggest that these task components and factors should be considered when designing, assigning or analysing tasks for working pregnant women. PMID:16540440

  4. [Antiparasitic treatments in pregnant women and in children in 2003].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lenoble, D; Chandenier, J; Duong, T H

    2003-01-01

    Like antibacterial agents, antiparasite drugs for pregnant women and children must be chosen in function of the stage of pregnancy, age of the child, and expected benefit-risk ratio. While no agent is totally safe, there are few absolute contraindications. Most zones of serious endemic parasite disease are located in developing countries where parasite, bacterial, or viral conditions combined with poor nutrition treatment make it necessary to treat disease in a complex pathogenic environment that weakens pregnant women and children with multiple parasite infections. In both temperate and tropical zones, there have been few real therapeutic advances involving release of new products on the market or development of new indications for existing products. Constant appearance and extension of hematozoa resistance to conventional and even more recent antimalarial agents have prompted research to find new active drugs and long-lasting treatment combinations. Real therapeutic breakthroughs have resulted from the need to develop safe drugs without substantial side-effects for single-dose use in control programs against endemic parasite diseases in mass populations including pregnant women and young children in tropical zones. There are several notable examples in the field of major verminous diseases. Ivermectin is a versatile drug that can be used against filariasis as well as for management of intestinal worms or ectoparasitosis in temperate and tropical countries. Praziquantel is an important advance in platyhelminthiasis, especially bilharziais. Triclabendazole, the latest addition to the benzimidazole family, has shown promise as a substitute for bithionol, that is difficult to procure and not recommended in pregnant women, for treatment distomiasis occurring in pregnant women and children. Other examples include albendazole against giardiasis, nitazoxamide against cryptosporidiosis, artemisinine against bilharziasis, and paramomycine, not recommended in pregnant women

  5. Pregnant Mothers’ Perceptions of how Intimate Partner Violence affects Their Unborn Children

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Rahman, Damali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perceptions of pregnant women on the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) as it affects maternal and fetal health. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting Individual interviews conducted within three urban obstetric and gynecologic clinics Participants Our sample included a subset of eight pregnant women experiencing IPV during the current pregnancy. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included qualitative data from 13 women. Methods We analyzed in-depth individual interview transcripts in which participants discussed how they perceived IPV to affect their health as well as the health of their unborn children. Constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology were used in analysis. Results Three themes emerged to illustrate mothers’ perceptions of how IPV influenced maternal and fetal outcomes: protection, fetal awareness, and fetal well-being. Conclusions This analysis provides important insights into concerns that pregnant women experiencing IPV shared about maternal attachment and fetal well-being. Health care providers can use these findings to better assess the physical and psychological concerns of pregnant women experiencing IPV. Further research is needed to better understand how IPV contributes to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly from a biological perspective. PMID:25651808

  6. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers. PMID:25455431

  7. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  8. Studies of dental and oral changes of pregnant diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G

    1987-01-01

    The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women. PMID:3497504

  9. [Impact of nutritional deficiencies on anemia in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Leke, L; Kremp, D

    1989-12-01

    Dietary deficiency in iron and to a lesser extent folic acid is the principle cause of anemia in the world. Reproductive aged women and growing children are the principle groups at risk of anemia. About half of nonpregnant reproductive aged women in tropical countries have hemoglobin levels lower than 12 g/100 ml, the level used by the World Health Organization to define anemia. Nutritional anemia is even more widespread among pregnant and lactating women because of the increased needs for iron during those periods. Pregnant women need almost 500 mg of iron for their increased red blood cell mass, 220 mg for routine iron loss through the urine, bile, sweat, and other routes; 290 mg for the fetus, and almost 25 mg for the placenta. In all, the pregnant women theoretically requires over 1000 mg of iron through diet or bodily reserves. Healthy, well-nourished women have total iron reserves of 2500 mg, but according to published data almost 2/3 of pregnant women even in favorable circumstances end their pregnancies with no remaining iron reserves. In tropical regions the lack of iron reserves is aggravated by parasites and infections, closely spaced pregnancies that do not allow restoration of reserves, and poor dietary availability of iron. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with elevated risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and tachycardia, vertigo, loss of appetite and cravings for soil or other inappropriate substances are frequently observed in anemic women. The risks of prematurity and low weight are increased for infants of anemic women. Fetal malformation may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Nutrition education is needed for pregnant women. Local foods may be enriched with iron, and pregnant women may be given iron and vitamin B12 supplements directly. Iron supplements may rapidly increase iron reserves, but they are poorly tolerated by many women. The supplements should be avoided if possible early in the

  10. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood. PMID:22066293

  11. Is pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychoses ethically permissible?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-07-01

    There is a consistent view in the literature that research on pregnant woman with psychoses is ethically questionable or impermissible. This paper provides a critical appraisal of these views by asking whether pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychosis for maternal, fetal, and newborn benefit is ethically permissible. We examine separately the documented clinical benefits and risks to the pregnant patient, the fetal patient, and the neonatal and pediatric patient. The outcomes reported in the pertinent literature do not support the conclusion that pharmacologic management of psychosis during pregnancy results in documented, unacceptable risk to the pregnant, fetal, or neonatal patient and is therefore ethically ruled out. Claims that research on the pharmacologic management of psychosis during pregnancy is ethically impermissible because of unacceptable risk of harm to pregnant, fetal, neonatal, or pediatric patients cannot therefore be supported. Having shown that such research is permissible, we then ask what ethical considerations should guide study design. We show that Phase I studies are appropriate and can meet the requirements of the Common Rule, which are more specific than international guidance. As a matter of professionally responsible obstetric practice, pregnant women with psychoses should be included, and not be neglected, in research for both maternal and fetal benefit. PMID:25389981

  12. Acute aortic dissection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaohua; Yang, Shouguo; Wang, Fangshun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic dissection occurring during pregnancy represents a lethal risk to both the mother and fetus. Management of parturient with acute aortic dissection is complex. We report our experience of two pregnancies with type A acute aortic dissection. One patient is a 31-year-old pregnant woman (33rd gestational week) with a bicuspid aortic valve and the other is a 32-year-old pregnant woman (30th gestational week) with the Marfan syndrome. In both cases, a combined emergency operation consisting of Cesarean section, total hysterectomy prior to corrective surgery for aortic dissection was successfully performed within a relatively short period of time after the onset. Both patients' postoperative recovery was uneventful, and we achieved a favorable maternal and fetal outcome. PMID:25085319

  13. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  14. The meaning of the rubella vaccine for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Lúcia Maria Tonzar Ristori; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2007-01-01

    The research was aimed at describing the meaning of the rubella vaccine to women who were discovered pregnant after having received the measles-rubella vaccine during the 2001 campaign against rubella, and who lived in 10 cities within the region of DIR XX from São João da Boa Vista. The theory of Social Representation was used as a reference framework for the research, and data were collected through the Collective Subject Discourse technique, involving 18 women who either were pregnant or became pregnant within 30 days after having received the vaccine. Through their discourse, it was possible to unveil the diversity of meanings the rubella vaccine has when dispensed during pregnancy, characterized as a threat to their and their children's physical integrity and to their conjugal relationship. The meanings constitute an important source of information that allows health professionals and administrators to reflect, so they can reconsider their role as health promoters. PMID:17923966

  15. Iodine status among pregnant women after mandatory salt iodisation.

    PubMed

    Anaforoğlu, İ; Algün, E; İnceçayır, Ö; Topbaş, M; Erdoğan, M F

    2016-02-14

    I is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development. Various changes occur in thyroid hormone metabolism during pregnancy and I requirements increase significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate I status among pregnant women in Trabzon, formerly a severely I-deficient area but shown to have become I sufficient following mandatory iodisation of table salt based on monitoring studies among school-age children (SAC) in the area. A total of 864 healthy pregnant women with a median age of 28 (25th-75th percentile 17-47) years participated in the study. None of them were using I-containing supplement. All of them were screened for use of iodised salt, obstetric history, thyroid function tests and urinary I concentrations (UIC), and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Median UIC was 102 (25th-75th percentile=62-143) μg/l. Median UIC of the patients according to trimesters were 122 µg/l at the 1st, 97 µg/l at the 2nd and 87 µg/l at the 3rd trimester. UIC in the 1st trimester was higher compared with the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (P<0·017). Nodules were present in 17·7% of women (n 153). The rate of iodised salt usage among pregnant women was 90·7%. Our study demonstrates that, although the I status among SAC has been rectified, I deficiency (ID) is still prevalent among pregnant women. Current knowledge is in favour of I supplementation in this group. Until the effects of maternal I supplementation in mild ID have been clarified by large-scale prospective controlled trials, pregnant women living in borderline defficient and I-sufficient areas, such as Trabzon city, should receive 100-200 µg/d of I-containing supplements in addition to iodised salt. PMID:26596695

  16. Haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations of pregnant women at term

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, A; Gbadegesin, A; Adeyemo, T A; Akinbami, A A; Akanmu, A S; Osunkalu, V; Ogbenna, A A; Oremosu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is defined as haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of less than 11 g/dL while low ferritin is defined as serum ferritin (SR) levels of less than 10 µg/L. Hb and ferritin concentrations of pregnant women at term were determined to establish their mean values and to determine the prevalence of anaemia in our locality. Methods Haemoglobin and ferritin levels of 170 non-smoking and HIV-negative pregnant women were determined at term. The majority 143 of 170 (84.1%) of the pregnant women recruited for the study, booked at the beginning of the second trimester and received 200 mg elemental iron in three divided doses and 5 mg folic acid daily which were commenced at booking. Five millilitres of blood were collected from each patient at term into EDTA bottles for full blood count analysis and another 5 mL into plain bottles for SR assay. Results The mean Hb and ferritin values were 10.9 ± 1.9 and 47.84 ± 98.39 µg/L, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia at term was 46.4%. Only 11.2% (19 of 170) of pregnant women at term had low SR (iron stores). A statistically significant relationship was found between women's education and SR (P = 0.032). Booking status also correlated directly with SR and haemoglobin concentrations, while increasing age and parity did not. Conclusion About half of the patients were anaemic. Iron deficiency is not the major cause of anaemia in pregnancy in this study because the majority of the pregnant women had normal iron stores. Education and booking status are possible factors that contribute to anaemia.

  17. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  18. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H.; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31–32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity. PMID:26679622

  19. Seroprevalence of erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Johargy, Ayman K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that range from mild to severe. The common clinical presentation of B19 virus (B19V) infection is erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, aplastic crisis, and fetal infection. Infection in seronegative pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 364 blood (serum) samples were tested for erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Results: Erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibodies were detected in 182/364 (50%) of Saudi pregnant women of different age groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that B19V is clearly circulating in the community in a way that is similar to what is found in most nontemperate countries. PMID:27186157

  20. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  1. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-04-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31-32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity. PMID:26679622

  2. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  3. [Laparoscopic splenectomy in immune thrombocytopenic purpura in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Danishyan, K I; Soboleva, O A; Galstyan, G M; Zvereva, A V; Sorkina, O M

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes 4 cases of laparoscopic splenectomy in pregnant women with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. No complications of surgery were noted in all the patients. The postoperative period was marked by sustained clinical and hematological remission that made it possible to discontinue prednisolone therapy and to ensure an uncomplicated course of pregnancy and labor. PMID:27459624

  4. Cardiorespiratory responses of pregnant and nonpregnant women during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bgeginski, Roberta; Almada, Bruna P; Martins Kruel, Luiz F

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cardiorespiratory responses in pregnant and nonpregnant women during the execution of resistance exercises for upper and lower body. Twenty healthy women (10 pregnant: 22-24 weeks, 25.20 ± 4.44 years, 69.80 ± 9.52 kg, 161.60 ± 5.21 cm and 10 nonpregnant: 25.20 ± 3.73 years, 62.36 ± 8.60 kg, 162.40 ± 3.97 cm) performed 5 experimental sessions. Session 1: familiarization with the equipments and the determination of 1 estimated maximum repetition. Sessions 2, 3, 4, and 5: determination of the cardiorespiratory responses during the execution of resistance exercise on the bilateral leg extension and pec-deck fly, with 1 and 3 sets of 15 repetitions, 50% of 1 estimated maximum repetition. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (BP) responses were lower (p = 0.029, 0.018, 0.009, respectively) in the pregnant group. When the exercises were performed with a single set, heart rate showed increased values for bilateral leg extension (pregnant: 109.40 ± 10.75 b·min, nonpregnant: 108.51 ± 19.05 b·min) compared with pec-deck (pregnant: 101.59 ± 14.83 b·min, nonpregnant: 100.37 ± 12.36 b·min); however, when the exercises were performed with 3 sets, bilateral leg extension showed increased values for the heart rate (pregnant: 114.70 ± 13.58 b·min, nonpregnant: 121.29 ± 10.86 b·min), systolic (pregnant: 124.50 ± 17.32 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 136.00 ± 17.79 mm Hg), diastolic (pregnant: 68.10 ± 8.23 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 77.89 ± 15.25 mm Hg), and mean BP (pregnant: 86.90 ± 10.38 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 97.73 ± 12.64 mm Hg), ventilation (pregnant: 12.88 ± 4.05 L·min, nonpregnant: 15.02 ± 4.19 L·min), and oxygen consumption (pregnant: 0.41 ± 0.08 L·min, nonpregnant: 0.42 ± 0.09 L·min) compared with pec-deck fly exercise. We concluded that the pressure response was unaffected by pregnancy and showed to be safe during the performance of resistance exercises. PMID:25226315

  5. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    residing in Puerto Rico. As of May 12, 2016, the surveillance systems were monitoring 157 and 122 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection from participating U.S. states and territories, respectively. Tracking and monitoring clinical presentation of Zika virus infection, all prenatal testing, and adverse consequences of Zika virus infection during pregnancy are critical to better characterize the risk for congenital infection, the performance of prenatal diagnostic testing, and the spectrum of adverse congenital outcomes. These data will improve clinical guidance, inform counseling messages for pregnant women, and facilitate planning for clinical and public health services for affected families. PMID:27248295

  6. Prevalence and Risk Indicators for Anal Incontinence among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of anal incontinence in an unselected pregnant population at second trimester. A survey of pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination was conducted in a university hospital in Oslo, Norway. A questionnaire consisting of 105 items concerning anal incontinence (including St. Mark's score), urinary incontinence, medication use, and comorbidity was posted to women when invited to the ultrasound examination. Results. Prevalence of self-reported anal incontinence (St. Mark's score ≥ 3) was the lowest in the group of women with a previous cesarean section only (6.4%) and the highest among women with a previous delivery complicated by obstetric anal sphincter injury (24.4%). Among nulliparous women the prevalence of anal incontinence was 7.7% and was associated to low educational level and comorbidity. Prevalence of anal incontinence increased with increasing parity. Urinary incontinence was associated with anal incontinence in all parity groups. Conclusions. Anal incontinence was most frequent among women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Other obstetrical events had a minor effect on prevalence of anal incontinence among parous women. Prevention of obstetrical sphincter injury is likely the most important factor for reducing bothersome anal incontinence among fertile women. PMID:23819058

  7. [Pollution and smoking in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    André, E

    1988-01-01

    For nine months the pregnant woman, and indirectly her fetus, is exposed to an aerosol composed of different pollutants. With some of these, as for smoking, it has been possible to define objectively and statistically an alteration of the health status and of the satisfactory outcome of pregnancy; with others it has not been possible at present to define a dose relation effect or a threshold of risk. In this study, known connections were studied between pregnancy and smoking (specific risks, perinatal mortality, childhood cancer and breastfeeding), industrial pollution and particularly those related to lead, fertilisers and pesticides, opiates and cannabis derivatives (in particular their effect on reproductive function), radioactivity and its correlation with the genetic code and the risk of cancer and pollution by micro-organisms. If these risks exist, even it they are not all assessable objectively, the short term action of the most benefit is certainly a change in individual behaviour, for example with tobacco consumption. PMID:2840722

  8. Pessary use in pregnant women with short cervix

    PubMed Central

    Yüce, Tuncay; Konuralp, Bahar; Kalafat, Erkan; Söylemez, Feride

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case series is to provide preliminary evidence on the efficacy of pessary application in women with short cervix and at risk for preterm labor. Between May 2015 and July 2015, four pregnant women were followed-up with Arabin pessaries. The gestational age at the time of diagnosis was between the 23th and 29th weeks. Pessary application was associated with a prolongation of pregnancy lasting between 28 and 98 days. The gestational age at the time of delivery was between the 33rd and 39th weeks. Pessary use is non-invasive for the prolongation of pregnancy in pregnant women with shortened cervix. The major advantage of pessary use is its easy application without requiring anesthesia.

  9. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; Kirkland, Elizabeth; Schulkin, Jay; Lynfield, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care. Methods: Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study was a nationalmore » survey of 403 women from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents. Results: In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey ( p = 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products. Conclusions: Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed.« less

  10. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  11. Rural pregnant women's stressors and priorities for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Tina L; Bullock, Linda F C; Parsons, Lindsay

    2012-12-01

    Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women's predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women's own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions. PMID:23215982

  12. Beliefs About Exercise and Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Bradley, Chyrise B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs about physical activity and exercise among pregnant women. Methods: The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN3) Study asked 1306 pregnant women about beliefs regarding physical activity and exercise at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Results: While 78% of women agreed that most women can continue their regular exercise during pregnancy, fewer (68%) agreed that most women who never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Most (89%) agreed that regular exercise was better than irregular exercise during pregnancy. While almost all women agreed with the benefits of light activity (98%), fewer agreed that there were benefits with moderate (73%) or vigorous exercise (13%). Differences in beliefs were most notable by educational level, race/ethnicity, and whether they participated in regular exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion: Future studies can better elucidate the reasons behind the differences in beliefs, to explore whether cultural reasons are contributing to these differences and whether tailored messages would be more effective than general educational approaches. Practice Implications: This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women understand concepts regarding the safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:19699603

  13. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion. PMID:26385413

  14. THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL AND OPIOID DEPENDENCE IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Leggio, Lorenzo; Stichtenoth, Dirk; Thomas, Hillemacher

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review This article addresses the question of “best treatment options,” which clinicians face when treating pregnant women with alcohol and/or opioid dependence. Recent findings Alcohol Studies show that alcohol consumption is associated with fetal abnormalities and long-term cognitive problems depending on amount consumed, drinking pattern, and time of gestation. Screening and evaluation of specific interventions are important to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy and associated problems in infants. Opioids Withdrawal-induced fetal distress and the risk of relapse are the primary reasons why opioid detoxification is only recommended in the second or third trimesters and only in those pregnant women who refuse opioid maintenance therapy (OMT). Methadone is the most established treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women, but recent investigations suggest that substitution with buprenorphine may have advantages over methadone in terms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Promising results have been also reported for slow-release oral methadone and the heroin equivalent diamorphin. Summary Data regarding the pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse and/or dependence is limited in pregnant women. So far, benzodiazepines seem to be the most recommendable option for managing alcohol withdrawal, and psychosocial interventions succeed in reducing alcohol consumption or in maintaining abstinence in alcohol-dependent pregnant women. Recent data, albeit preliminary, support the use of naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol-dependent pregnant women. Regarding opioid dependence meta-analyses do not clearly support the superiority of one substitute over the other during pregnancy owing to the presence of interfering factors (such as illicit drug use) in the studies conducted. Current results suggest that factors like the health status of the mother, the need for additional medications (e.g. treatment for HIV), comorbid drug dependence, and

  15. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  16. Getting Older Women Pregnant: Contemporary Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-10-01

    For women of advanced age with abnormally increased FSH levels, standardized hormonal stimulation often represents a cost-intensive procedure with a low success rate. It is well established now that with mild ovarian stimulation, there is a greater percentage of good-quality eggs (although a smaller number) than with higher-dose conventional stimulation. Mild stimulation protocols reduce the mean number of days of stimulation, the total amount of gonadotropins used and the mean number of oocytes retrieved. The proportion of high-quality and euploid embryos seems to be higher compared with conventional stimulation protocols, and the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer is comparable. Moreover, the reduced costs, the better tolerability for patients and the less time needed to complete an IVF cycle make mild approaches clinically and cost-effective over a given period of time. The low number of embryos available for transfer poses a great challenge in the management of older women going in for IVF. A potential management of these older women is to create a sufficient pool of embryos by accumulating vitrified good-grade embryos over several minimal stimulation and natural cycles. At the end of the accumulation process, these embryos can be subjected to a preimplantation genetic screening using next-generation sequencing and then the pool would have only chromosomal normal embryos with maximal chances of implantation. This would potentially make the chances of success for older women similar to normal responders. This management, however, is unthinkable without an outstanding vitrification program. The option of accumulating embryos has become a promising reality with the advent of vitrification technologies. PMID:27486273

  17. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. PMID:27137830

  18. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Background There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Methods Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. Results The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48–13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9–1501) Gy/cm2. The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59–5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095–0.80) mSv. Conclusions Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  19. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the

  20. Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

  1. Acute coronary syndrome in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Mohammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Gehani, Abdulrazzak; Sulaiman, Kadhim

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the available information on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) during all stages of pregnancy. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus and EBSCO host research databases from 1980 through to August 2010 using the indexing terms 'pregnancy', 'ante-,peri-, and postpartum', 'acute coronary syndrome', 'myocardial infarction', 'STEMI' and 'NSTEMI'. Symptomatic coronary artery disease is still infrequent in women of childbearing age, but the recent increase in its prevalence in pregnancy has been attributed to the modern trend of childbearing in older years because many young working women are postponing having children. Although rare, acute pregnancy-related MI is a devastating event that may claim the life of a mother and her fetus. The incidence of MI is estimated at 0.6-1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The case fatality rate has been reported to be 5-37%. Owing to the rarity of the event, information related to MI in pregnancy is derived from case reports and, therefore, is subject to considerable reporting bias. Treatment needs to be prompt and urgent because of the very high mortality rate. Current guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MI should be expanded to include pregnancy-related MI. Screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors should be achieved before pregnancy. PMID:21517733

  2. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    PubMed

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  3. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B.; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  4. Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.

    PubMed

    Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

    2013-11-01

    The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids. PMID:24319740

  5. Tuberculosis in Pregnant and Postpartum Women: Epidemiology, Management, and Research Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Mathad, Jyoti S.; Gupta, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is most common during a woman's reproductive years and is a major cause of maternal–child mortality. National guidelines for screening and management vary widely owing to insufficient data. In this article, we review the available data on (1) the global burden of tuberculosis in women of reproductive age; (2) how pregnancy and the postpartum period affect the course of tuberculosis; (3) how to screen and diagnose pregnant and postpartum women for active and latent tuberculosis; (4) the management of active and latent tuberculosis in pregnancy and the postpartum period, including the safety of tuberculosis medications; and (5) infant outcomes. We also include data on HIV/tuberculosis coinfection and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Finally, we highlight research gaps in tuberculosis in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:22942202

  6. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    PubMed

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

  7. Effect of Thiocyanate on Iodine Status of Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Bivolarska, Anelia; Gatseva, Penka; Nikolova, Julia; Argirova, Mariana; Atanasova, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the thyroid status of pregnant women on the basis of biochemical indicators and to evaluate the potential risk of developing iodine deficiency as a result of tobacco smoke exposure by assessing the association between urinary thiocyanate levels and the manifestation of iodine deficiency. The study included 219 pregnant women from the town of Plovdiv and Plovdiv District in Southern Bulgaria. The levels of urinary iodine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and urinary thiocyanate as indicators of tobacco smoke exposure were measured. Most of the pregnant women (60.1 %) were found to have iodine deficiency, 10.6 % of them had TSH values greater than 4 mIU/L, and 16.4 % had FT4 below 9 pmol/L. There were negative correlations between urinary iodine levels and thiocyanate/creatinine ratio (R = -0.148, р = 0.034) and between thiocyanate/creatinine ratio and FT4 (R = -0.379, p < 0.0001); thiocyanate/creatinine ratio and serum TSH were positively correlated (R = 0.169, p = 0.019). Logistic regression analysis showed that pregnant women in whom the thiocyanate/creatinine ratio was greater than the median value of 3.57 mg/g had a 3.882-fold higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (urinary iodine <150 μg/L) than the pregnant women with lower thiocyanate levels (OR = 3.882, 95 % CI 1.402-10.751, p = 0.009). Higher levels of urinary thiocyanate were found in women exposed to tobacco smoke, and quantification of these ions in urine provided a fast non-invasive method to monitor thiocyanate load. Due to the competitive inhibition of iodine intake by thiocyanates, their levels should be carefully monitored, especially in cases of severe iodine deficiency. PMID:26676231

  8. Cytomegalovirus infection in a cohort of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    El Sanousi, S M; Osman, Z A; Mohmed, A B S; Al Awfi, M S H

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 300 pregnant women. Seventeen (5.7%) and 274 (91.3%) women were seropositive for IgM and IgG, respectively. There was significant increase in seroprevalence of CMV IgG and no significant increase in seroprevalence of CMV IgM among tested age groups. CMV IgM and IgG seroprevalence differed nonsignificantly by type of residence, the stage of pregnancy, and the level of education. PMID:26810886

  9. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  10. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of cephradine and cefazolin in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Philipson, A; Stiernstedt, G; Ehrnebo, M

    1987-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cephradine, a cephalosporin with a low degree of protein binding, was studied in 12 women after oral and intravenous administration of the drug during and after pregnancy. Six of the 12 women also received a cephalosporin with a high degree of protein binding, cefazolin, intravenously during and after pregnancy. For both drugs most pharmacokinetic parameters were altered in pregnancy. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) following intravenous administration was smaller for both drugs during as compared to after pregnancy (mean change 39% for cephradine and 31% for cefazolin). Half-lives of both drugs were significantly shorter during compared with after pregnancy (mean change 26% for cephradine and 35% for cefazolin). Consequently, total body clearance was increased during pregnancy. A significant negative correlation between length of gestation and total clearance per kg bodyweight was seen for cephradine. The bioavailability of oral cephradine did not differ significantly during compared with after pregnancy. It is concluded that the dosage of both cefazolin and cephradine should be increased when treating infections in pregnant women in order to obtain the same antibacterial effect as when treating non-pregnant women. PMID:3829560

  11. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank. PMID:9718543

  12. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Khadijeh; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant women particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test). Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential. PMID:25276689

  13. Blood transfusion in obstetrics: the pregnant women's point of view.

    PubMed

    Abu-Salem, A N; Qublan, H S

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the views and compliance of a group of pregnant women regarding obstetric-related blood transfusion. In this prospective questionnaire-based analysis, a total of 300 pregnant women who attended the antenatal care clinic were included. The mean age and gestational age of patients were 31.6 years and 27.4 weeks, respectively. All demographic and questionnaire data were recorded and analysed. A total of 41% of participants were aware of the possible need for blood transfusion in pregnancy and 88% of all women would accept blood transfusion when necessary. The remaining 12% would refuse blood transfusion, even if it was life-saving, because of the fear of blood transfusion complications. It is concluded that counselling and a management plan should be scheduled for pregnancy, and management protocols should be developed for women who refuse blood transfusion. Transfusion alternatives should be discussed with women who will not accept the allogenic blood transfusion. PMID:19358029

  14. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-01

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. PMID:24182770

  15. Quality of Life of Pregnant Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; Müller, Cristina Heloisa

    2016-05-01

    Objective to evaluate the quality of life of HIV positive (HIV+) pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS Target Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. Methods cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015, with HIV+ pregnant women selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected through interviews, and the HAT-QoL questionnaire was applied. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from medical records. Results twenty-seven pregnant women participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years (standard deviation - SD: 7.3). The majority (59%) had up to 8 years of education, 52% identified themselves as white, 56% were unemployed, and 59% had a household income higher than the minimum wage. The mean infection time by the virus was 68.4 months (5.7 years). The majority (74%) were contaminated with HIV through sexual intercourse, and 67% declared not having a HIV+ relative. Regarding the use of condoms, 41% reported using them sporadically, and the same number did not have proper knowledge about them. Only 23 patients (85%) reported having been prescribed antiretrovirals. Fourteen (64%) had a CD4 count higher than 500 cells/mm(3), and 13 pregnant women (59%) had an undetectable viral load. The scores from the quality of life questionnaire dimensions that were more affected are: infection "disclosure concerns" (mean: 39.8; SD: 27.1), followed by "financial concerns" (mean: 49.1; SD: 36), and "HIV acceptance" (mean: 49.1; SD: 35.8). The dimension with the best score was "medication concerns" (mean: 80.8; SD: 26.5). Conclusion quality of life has been increasingly used as a clinical outcome evaluation parameter. The results of this study contribute to the establishment of interventions based on the needs of HIV+ pregnant women. PMID:27187928

  16. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  17. Prevalence of anaemia, syphilis and hepatitis B in pregnant women in Nausori, Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Tayler-Smith, K.; Khogali, M.; Marks, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: An antenatal clinic serving a population of 47 604 in Nausori, Fiji. Objective: 1) To estimate the prevalence of anaemia, syphilis and hepatitis B in pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit; and 2) to estimate the uptake of treatment for syphilis and for the prevention of hepatitis B transmission in affected individuals. Design: Retrospective review of the clinic register and patient records for the year 2011. Results: The prevalence of anaemia, hepatitis B and syphilis were respectively 22%, 2% and 5%. Among women with syphilis, 78% of those for whom data were available received a complete course of three doses of penicillin during their pregnancy, and 83% of babies born to women with hepatitis B received hepatitis B immunoglobulin. Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women has declined but remains high, and further research is required to identify the major causes of this condition in Fiji. The prevalence of syphilis has remained static, while hepatitis B has decreased over the past decade. There are some gaps in the implementation of effective interventions to manage these conditions in pregnant women. PMID:26393000

  18. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  19. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  20. Treatment of sexually transmitted bacterial diseases in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Donders, G G

    2000-03-01

    Testing for and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women deserves special attention. Treatment possibilities are limited because of potential risks for the developing fetus, and because effects can differ in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women, re-infection may be missed because of the intrinsic delicacy of contact-tracing during pregnancy and because pregnant women are more reluctant to take the prescribed medication in its full dose, if at all. However, the devastating effects of some of these genital infections far outweigh any potential adverse effects of treatment. Although active syphilis has become a rarity in most Western countries, it is still prevalent in South America, Africa and South-East Asia. Benzathine benzylpenicillin (2.4 million units once or, safer, twice 7 days apart) is the treatment of choice, although patients with syphilis of longer standing require 3 weekly injections as well as extensive investigation into whether there has been any damage due to tertiary syphilis. Despite declining rates of gonorrhea, the relative rate of penicillinase-producing strains is increasing, especially in South-East Asia. The recommended treatment is intramuscular ceftriaxone (125 or 250 mg) or oral cefixime 400 mg. Despite good safety records after accidental use, fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy. An alternative to a fluoroquinolone in pregnant women with combined gonorrhea and chlamydial infection is oral azithromycin 1 or 2 g. Azithromycin as a single 1 g dose is also preferable to a 7 day course of erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day for patients with chlamydial infection. Eradication of Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with chancroid can also be achieved with these regimens or intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg. Trichomonas vaginalis, which is often seen as a co-infection, has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth. Patients infected with this parasite should therefore received metronidazole 500 mg

  1. Post-disaster health indicators for pregnant and postpartum women and infants.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Marianne E; Williams, Amy M; Wako, Etobssie

    2015-06-01

    United States (U.S.) pregnant and postpartum (P/PP) women and their infants may be particularly vulnerable to effects from disasters. In an effort to guide post-disaster assessment and surveillance, we initiated a collaborative process with nationwide expert partners to identify post-disaster epidemiologic indicators for these at-risk groups. This 12 month process began with conversations with partners at two national conferences to identify critical topics for P/PP women and infants affected by disaster. Next we hosted teleconferences with a 23 member Indicator Development Working Group (IDWG) to review and prioritize the topics. We then divided the IDWG into three population subgroups (pregnant women, postpartum women, and infants) that conducted at least three teleconferences to discuss the proposed topics and identify/develop critical indicators, measures for each indicator, and relevant questions for each measure for their respective population subgroup. Lastly, we hosted a full IDWG teleconference to review and approve the indicators, measures, and questions. The final 25 indicators and measures with questions (available online) are organized by population subgroup: pregnant women (indicators = 9; measures = 24); postpartum women (indicators = 10; measures = 36); and infants (indicators = 6; measures = 30). We encourage our partners in disaster-affected areas to test these indicators and measures for relevancy and completeness. In post-disaster surveillance, we envision that users will not use all indicators and measures but will select ones appropriate for their setting. These proposed indicators and measures promote uniformity of measurement of disaster effects among U.S. P/PP women and their infants and assist public health practitioners to identify their post-disaster needs. PMID:25476606

  2. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of substance-abusing pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hans, S L

    1999-03-01

    Women who abuse drugs and alcohol during pregnancy are an elusive population who often remain unidentified to practitioners and researchers and hence have not been well studied. In trying to understand better the characteristics of women who use drugs during pregnancy, the present article relies extensively on information gathered in studies of women in substance abuse treatment who, as epidemiologic studies show, may be more severely impaired than other substance-abusing women and, therefore, may not be typical of substance-abusing women identified in the course of obstetric practice. Yet, those pregnant women who are actually identified by medical providers as substance users are often those whose behavior raises concerns with health providers (such as presenting for labor having had no prenatal care) and thus also may represent only a relatively impaired group of substance-abusing women. The most objective picture available of the universe of women who use drugs during pregnancy comes from blinded urine toxicology screens conducted at samples of representative hospitals across states and across the country. The startling finding to emerge from these studies is that common perceptions of substance abuse as a problem of poor, ethnic minority, and young individuals is inaccurate and that this perception may all too often be acted on by medical providers in a prejudicial manner. These studies show similar rates of substance use during pregnancy by women of different racial, social class, and age categories. Demographic features are only related to type of substance used, with black women and poorer women more likely to use illicit substances, particularly cocaine, and white women and better educated women more likely to use alcohol, the substance whose teratogenic effects have been most clearly documented. Despite the even distribution of substance use across demographic categories, poor women and women of color are far more likely to be reported to health and child

  3. Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

  4. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world’s population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  5. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  6. Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Zimmermann, Ivan R.; Lopes, Luiz Antonio B.; Bernardo, Eneida F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. We included eight studies out of 1,967 retrieved records. Influenza vaccination in pregnant women significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness in mothers and their infants when compared with control groups (high-quality evidence) and reduced the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants (moderate-quality evidence). No difference was found with regard to influenza-like illness with fever higher than 38°C (moderate-quality evidence) or upper respiratory infection (very-low-quality evidence) in mothers and infants. Conclusions. Maternal vaccination against influenza was shown to prevent influenza-like illness in women and infants; no differences were found for other outcomes. As the quality of evidence was not high overall, further research is needed to increase confidence and could possibly change these estimates. PMID:24971194

  7. [Herpes zoster in immunocompetent pregnant women and their perinatal outcome].

    PubMed

    Casanova Román, Gerardo; Reyna Figueroa, Jesús; Figueroa Damián, Ricardo; Ortiz Ibarra, Javier

    2004-02-01

    A prospective and descriptive study was done in pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster, to know the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations as well as maternal and/or neonatal complications to cause by this viral infection during pregnancy. The study included all pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia México, between 1994 and 2002. A total of 17 women were included in the study. All were given clinical and ultrasound follow-up to discard any maternal or fetal complications also at the moment of birth. A review in the newborn was made to establish the demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics; also the data collected included mother's age, gestational age at the moment of diagnosis with herpes zoster, anatomical lesion site, treatments administered, ultrasound characteristics, newborn's gestational age, weight, height, Apgar at birth and type of delivery. The most frequent site (58.8%) for herpes zoster lesions on the mother was the intercostal area, followed by the scapular region, the lumbar region and the limbs. None of the patients experienced complications during pregnancy, including post-herpetic pain. Sixteen of the newborns had no complications and one was a stillborn due to 60% of placental separation. These findings suggest a benign evolution of herpes zoster during pregnancy, supporting similar findings in the literature. No complications during pregnancy are suggested, and no phenotypical alterations occurred in the child at the moment of birth. PMID:15216903

  8. Urinary organophosphate metabolite levels in Palestinian pregnant women: results of the Middle East Regional Cooperation Project.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Berman, Tamar; Azmi, Kifaya; Abu Seir, Rania; Agha, Hazem; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Göen, Thomas; Stein, Yael; Richter, Elihu; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure urinary organophosphate (OP) metabolites in Palestinian pregnant women, and to compare levels with those in pregnant women in Jerusalem and women from the general population in Israel. We measured six dialkyl phosphates in urine samples collected from 148 pregnant women from the West Bank area. Median total dimethyl phosphate (DMtotal) levels were significantly lower in Palestinian women compared to Jerusalem pregnant women and women in Israel (p = 0.041). In Palestinian women reporting that their place of residence was near an agricultural field, DMtotal levels were significantly higher (p = 0.037). Lower urinary excretion of dimethyl phosphate pesticide metabolites in Palestinian women compared to Israeli women may result from lower consumption of fruits and vegetables in the Palestinian population. Our findings highlight differences in OP pesticide exposure in populations with close geographical proximity but with differences in culture, diet, lifestyle, and regulatory oversight of pesticides. PMID:26578062

  9. Pregnant Women and the Use of Corrections Restraints and Substance Use Commitment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C H; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Jain, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    Recent evolving trends in the United States legal system regarding how policies and laws are applied to pregnant women include concerns over the use of restraints or shackles in pregnant inmates and forced treatment or commitment of pregnant women for substance abuse. These topics raise many questions, such as: how violent are women, particularly pregnant women; what are the informed consent and treatment implications; and who is at risk of harm? In addition, questions have been raised regarding maternal versus fetal rights, especially when the mother uses substances during a pregnancy. We review legal decisions and organizational position statements and highlight ethics-related concerns. PMID:26438814

  10. Selenium status in U.K. pregnant women and its relationship with hypertensive conditions of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Bath, Sarah C; Westaway, Jacob; Williams, Peter; Mao, Jinyuan; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G

    2015-01-28

    Dietary intake/status of the trace mineral Se may affect the risk of developing hypertensive conditions of pregnancy, i.e. pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PE/PIH). In the present study, we evaluated Se status in U.K. pregnant women to establish whether pre-pregnant Se status or Se supplementation affected the risk of developing PE/PIH. The samples originated from the SPRINT (Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention) study that randomised 230 U.K. primiparous women to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at 12 and 35 weeks, toenail Se concentration at 16 weeks, plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity at 12, 20 and 35 weeks. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Participants completed a FFQ. U.K. pregnant women had whole-blood Se concentration lower than the mid-range of other populations, toenail Se concentration considerably lower than U.S. women, GPx3 activity considerably lower than U.S. and Australian pregnant women, and low baseline SEPP1 concentration (median 3.00, range 0.90-5.80 mg/l). Maternal age, education and social class were positively associated with Se status. After adjustment, whole-blood Se concentration was higher in women consuming Brazil nuts (P= 0.040) and in those consuming more than two seafood portions per week (P= 0.054). A stepwise logistic regression model revealed that among the Se-related risk factors, only toenail Se (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17, 0.87, P= 0.021) significantly affected the OR for PE/PIH. On excluding non-compliers with Se treatment, Se supplementation also significantly reduced the OR for PE/PIH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09, 1.00, P= 0.049). In conclusion, U.K. women have low Se status that increases their risk of developing PE/PIH. Therefore, U.K. women of childbearing age need to improve their Se status. PMID:25571960

  11. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  12. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    PubMed Central

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005–2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n = 20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding/pregnant (NBP), and pregnant women (n = 3,409) matched within households and five-year age bands. We tested whether breastfeeding women had greater advantages in the 18 high-focus states of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Results Vegetarianism, caste, and religion were the strongest predictors of breastfeeding women's nutrition. Breastfeeding women had no nutritional advantage compared to NBP women, and were disadvantaged in their consumption of milk (b = −0.14) in low-focus states. Pregnant women were similarly disadvantaged in their consumption of milk in low-focus states (b = −0.32), but consumed vegetables more frequently (b = 0.12) than NBP women in high-focus states. Conclusions Breastfeeding women do not receive nutritional advantages compared to NBP women. Targeted effort is needed to assess and improve nutritional adequacy for breastfeeding Indian women. PMID:26826049

  13. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregnant and non-pregnant women seems very limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the GBS ‎molecular capsular serotype ‎and genotype distribution of pregnant and non-pregnant carrier ‎women at Yazd university hospital, in Iran.‎ Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 GBS strains isolated from 237 pregnant and 413 non-pregnant women were investigated for molecular capsular serotypes and surface protein genes using the multiplex PCR assay. The Chi-square method was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 650 samples, 100 (15.4%) were identified as GBS, with a predominance of capsular serotypes III (50%) [III-1 (49), III-3 (1)], followed by II (25%), Ia (12%), V (11%), and Ib (2%), which was similar with another study conducted in Tehran, Iran, but they had no serotype Ia in their report. The surface protein antigen genes distribution was rib (53%), epsilon (38%), alp2/3 (6%), and alpha-c (3%). Conclusions: The determination of serotype and surface proteins of GBS strains distribution would ‎be ‎relevant ‎for the future possible formulation of a GBS vaccine. PMID:27127592

  14. Safety of Tdap vaccine in pregnant women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Walls, Tony; Watson, Donna; Paynter, Janine; Graham, Patricia; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Actively recruit and intensively follow pregnant women receiving a dose of acellular pertussis vaccine for 4 weeks after vaccination. Design and settings A prospective observational study conducted in 2 New Zealand regions. Participants Women in their 28th–38th week of pregnancy, recruited from primary care and antenatal clinics at the time of Tdap administration. Telephone interviews were conducted at 48 h and 4 weeks postvaccination. Main outcomes measures Outcomes were injection site reactions, systemic symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs). Where available, data have been classified and reported according to Brighton Collaboration definitions. Results 793 women participated with 27.9% receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly. 79% of participants reported mild or moderate pain and 2.6% severe pain. Any swelling was reported by 7.6%, induration by 12.0% (collected from 1 site only, n=326), and erythema by 5.8% of participants. Fever was reported by 17 (2.1%) participants, 14 of these occurred within 24 h. Headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia or arthralgia was reported by <4% of participants, respectively, and fatigue by 8.4%. During the study period, there were 115 adverse events in 113 participants, most of which were minor. At the end of the reporting period, 31 events were classified as serious (eg, obstetric bleeding, hypertension, infection, tachycardia, preterm labour, exacerbation of pre-existing condition and pre-eclampsia). All had variable onset time from vaccination. There were two perinatal deaths. Clinician assessment of all SAEs found none likely to be vaccine related. Conclusions Vaccination with Tdap in pregnant women was well tolerated with no SAE likely to be caused by the vaccine. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:27091823

  15. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  16. Pharmacological Management of Opioid Use Disorder in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Christine M; Winhusen, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Opioid misuse during pregnancy is associated with negative outcomes for both mother and fetus due not only to the physiological effects of the drug but also to the associated social, medical and mental health problems that accompany illicit drug use. An interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of opioid use disorder during pregnancy is most effective. Ideally, obstetric and substance use treatment are co-located and ancillary support services are readily available. Medication-assisted treatment with methadone or buprenorphine is intrinsic to evidence-based care for the opioid-using pregnant woman. Women who are not stabilized on an opioid maintenance medication experience high rates of relapse and worse outcomes. Methadone has been the mainstay of maintenance treatment for nearly 50 years, but recent research has found that both methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatments significantly improve maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Although methadone remains the current standard of care, the field is beginning to move towards buprenorphine maintenance as a first-line treatment for pregnant women with opioid use disorder, because of its greater availability and evidence of better neonatal outcomes than methadone. However, there is some evidence that treatment dropout may be greater with buprenorphine relative to methadone. PMID:26315948

  17. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the

  18. Evaluation of Low Blood Lead Levels and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Anemic Women: A Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Amit Kumar Mani; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Sharma, Sudarshna; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh

    2012-07-01

    To correlate blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress parameters in pregnant anemic women. A total of 175 pregnant women were found suitable and included for this study. Following WHO criteria, 50 each were identified as non-anemic, mild anemic and moderate anemic and 25 were severe anemic. The age of all study subjects ranged from 24-41 years. At admission, BLLs and oxidative stress parameters were estimated as per standard protocols and subjected with ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Results showed significantly (p < 0.01) high BLLs, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxide (LPO) levels while low delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell (RBC) count, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in all groups of anemic pregnant women as compared with non anemic pregnant women. In all groups of pregnant women, BLLs showed significant (p < 0.01) and direct association with ZPP, GSSG and LPO while inverse relation with δ-ALAD, Fe, Se, Zn, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC, GSH, SOD, CAT and TAC. Study concluded that low BLLs perturb oxidant-antioxidant balance and negatively affected hematological parameters which may eventually Pb to Fe deficiency anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26405382

  19. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  20. Tdap vaccine attitudes and utilization among pregnant women from a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Sarah E; Sevick, Carter; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Mazzoni, Sara; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-04-01

    Infants infected with Bordatella pertussis experience high morbidity and significant mortality. Vaccinating pregnant mothers with the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is a recommended strategy for preventing infant pertussis. This is especially important for mothers living in poverty and from racial and ethnic minority populations as these groups are at increased risk of having a pertussis-affected infant. Using the Health Belief Model as a framework, we surveyed a convenience sample of pregnant mothers representing these high-risk populations to understand factors associated with Tdap vaccine uptake during their pregnancy. Among the 316 mothers surveyed, 82% had gotten or planned to get Tdap that same day even though 63% of the sample had concerns about the safety of the vaccine during pregnancy. Perceived benefits and norms were the Health Belief Model constructs most consistently associated with Tdap vaccination. Although 32% of women reported prior Tdap vaccine receipt, this factor was not associated with Tdap vaccination during the current pregnancy, contrasting studies of vaccination done in non-pregnant populations. Important variations in attitudes were apparent, with Spanish-speaking women significantly more likely to have concerns about the vaccine's safety and efficacy than English-speaking women. This study indicates that among this high-risk population acceptance of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy is high. However, our results suggest that it may be important to modify information conveyed about the safety and importance of Tdap during pregnancy based on individual level factors such as language or acculturation. PMID:26430729

  1. Ondansetron Pharmacokinetics in Pregnant Women and Neonates: Towards a New Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Elkomy, Mohammed H.; Sultan, Pervez; Carvalho, Brendan; Peltz, Gary; Wu, Manhong; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffery L.; Drover, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Ondansetron is the drug of choice to prevent nausea in women undergoing cesarean surgery and can be used to prevent neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Pharmacokinetics of ondansetron has not been characterized in pregnant women or in newborns. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was used to analyze plasma samples obtained from 20 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant women following single administration of 4 or 8 mg ondansetron, from umbilical cord blood at delivery, and from neonates after birth. The analysis indicates that: ondansetron disposition is not affected by pregnancy (p>0.05), but influenced by dose (p<0.05), and is characterized by rapid transplacental transfer and longer elimination half-life in neonates compared to their mother. A dosing regimen for prevention of NAS was designed based on the model. The regimen involves IV administration of 4 mg to the mothers shortly before cord clamping, or oral administration of 0.07 mg/kg (or equivalently 0.04 mg/kg IV) to neonates. PMID:25670522

  2. Impact of specialization in gynecology and obstetrics departments on pregnant women's choice of maternity institutions.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yoshimi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Shen, Junyi; Ban, Kanami; Fukui, On; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Takako; Morishige, Kenichiro; Saijo, Tatuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In April 2008, specialization in gynecology and obstetrics departments was introduced in the Sennan area of Osaka prefecture in Japan that aimed at solving the problems of regional provisions of obstetrics services (e.g., shortage of obstetricians, overworking of obstetricians, and provision of specialist maternity services for high-risk pregnancies). Under this specialization, the gynecology and obstetrics departments in two city hospitals were combined and reconstructed into two centers, i.e., the gynecological care center in Kaizuka City Hospital and the prenatal care center in Izumisano City Hospital. This paper investigates to what extent and how this specialization affected pregnant women's choices of the prenatal care center and other maternity institutions. We used birth certificate data of 15,927 newborns from the Sennan area between April 1, 2007 and March 30, 2010, for Before and After Analysis to examine changes in pregnant women's choices of maternity institutions before and after the specialization was instituted. Our results indicated that this specialization scheme was, to some extent, successful on the basis of providing maternity services for high-risk pregnancies at the prenatal care center (i.e., Izumisano City Hospital) and having created a positive effect by pregnant women to other facilities in the nearby area. PMID:24364885

  3. Treatment of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women with cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins: Outcome and safety

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LI-JUAN; ZHU, DONG-NING; DANG, YAN-LING; ZHAO, XIONG

    2016-01-01

    Patients with condyloma acuminata (CA) during pregnancy represent a special risk group. The outcomes of many treatment methods for such cases are not satisfactory. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment outcome and safety of cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins (PCs) for CA in pregnant women. In this study, 46 pregnant women with CA were treated with cryotherapy combined with PCs. The lesions were sprayed with liquid nitrogen until the color of the wart changed from flesh colored to purple. A PC-containing formulation was then sprayed onto a non-woven fabric or single-layer gauze and applied to the affected area. The PC treatment was applied for 20 min, 2 or 3 times per day. All patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months. No visible warts remained after the cryotherapy and PC treatment. At the 1-month follow-up, only 1 case of recurrence was identified. At 3 months, 5 cases of recurrence were identified, and the recurrence rate was 10.9%. The satisfaction rate of the patients was 94% at 1 month and 87% at 3 months after treatment. All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications. Cryotherapy combined with PCs is indicated to be a safe and effective procedure and may serve as a treatment option for pregnant women with CA. PMID:27284325

  4. Psychosocial aspects of pregnant women living with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant woman is exposed to a number of stress factors that can affect the pregnancy, maternal health and well-being of the foetus. Among these are the biological, social/environmental and psychological factors. The biological factors include medical condition of the pregnant woman, most notable is the gestational diabetes. The increased glucose levels can cause detrimental effect on the foetus and also cause maternal distress. This factor becomes more complicated if the woman is exposed to environmental stressors. The result is evident in the form of complications during pregnancy and psychological effects like depression and anxiety. Appropriate steps are important to address these issues in order to maintain the mother and prospective child\\'s well-being. PMID:27582167

  5. Blood lead levels in children and pregnant women living near a lead-reclamation plant.

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, P; Lavoie, M; Goulet, L; Nantel, A J; Gingras, S

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of lead contamination around a lead-reclamation plant on the blood lead levels of children and pregnant women living in the area. DESIGN: Prevalence study. SETTING: Residents living 150 m or less (high-exposure area), 151 to 400 m (intermediate-exposure area) or 401 to 800 m (low-exposure area) southeast from the plant. PARTICIPANTS: All children aged 10 years or less and all pregnant women living in the designated area. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of venous blood lead levels with soil lead concentrations in the areas in which the subjects lived and with sociodemographic and behavioural factors. MAIN RESULTS: Of the estimated 57 pregnant women 38 (67%) participated: 20 were in the high-exposure area and 18 in the other two areas; their geometric mean blood lead levels were low (0.15 and 0.13 mumol/L respectively). Of the 625 eligible children 510 (82%) participated: 169 were in the high-exposure area, 179 in the intermediate-exposure area and 162 in the low-exposure area; their geometric mean lead levels were 0.43, 0.30 and 0.26 mumol/L respectively. Within each age group children in the high-exposure area had the highest levels. The mean levels for children aged 6 months to 5 years were 0.49, 0.35 and 0.28 mumol/L in the three areas respectively. Within each exposure group children aged 1 to 2 years had the highest levels. No potential confounding variables could explain the relation between blood lead level and soil lead concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant women's blood lead levels did not seem to be affected by exposure level, but the children's levels were primarily related to the soil lead concentration. PMID:2007239

  6. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  7. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  8. HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women's perspectives about Option B+ in Malawi: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Katirayi, Leila; Namadingo, Hazel; Phiri, Mafayo; Bobrow, Emily A; Ahimbisibwe, Allan; Berhan, Aida Yemane; Buono, Nicole; Moland, Karen Marie; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The implementation of lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant women (Option B+) in Malawi has resulted in a significant increase in the number of HIV-positive pregnant women initiating treatment. However, research has highlighted the challenge of retaining newly initiated women in care. This study explores barriers and facilitators that affect a woman's decision to initiate and to adhere to Option B+. Methods A total of 39 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted. Eligible women were ≥18 years old, living with HIV and either pregnant and receiving antenatal care from a study site or had delivered a child within the last 18 months, breastfed their child and received services at one of the study sites. Eligible women were identified by healthcare workers (HCWs) in the antenatal clinic and ART unit. Focus groups were also conducted with HCWs employed in these departments. Qualitative data were analyzed using Maxqda version 10 (VERBI Software, Berlin, Germany). Results The general perception towards the drug regimen used in Option B+ was positive; women reported fewer side effects and acknowledged the positive benefits of ART. Women felt hopeful about prolonging their life and having an HIV-uninfected baby, yet grappled with the fact that ART is a lifelong commitment. Women and HCWs discussed challenges with the counselling services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission under the new Option B+ guidelines, and many women struggled with initiating ART on the same day as learning their HIV status. Women wanted to discuss their circumstances with their husbands first, receive a CD4 count and obtain an HIV test at another facility to confirm their HIV status. HCWs expressed concern that women might just agree to take the drugs to please them. HCWs also discussed concerns around loss to follow-up and drug resistance. Conclusions Although Option B+ has significantly increased the number of women initiating

  9. Cases of Pregnant U.S. Women with Zika Triple Under New Counting Method

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158953.html Cases of Pregnant U.S. Women With Zika Triple Under New Counting Method Two registries will ... women in the United States infected with the Zika virus has just tripled because cases are now ...

  10. Multiple antenatal bookings among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwogu-Ikojo, E E; Okafor, I I; Ezegwui, H U

    2010-04-01

    Some pregnant women do book concurrently with multiple antenatal care providers. Structured questionnaires were administered to women attending antenatal clinics in 12 facilities in Enugu, Nigeria. A total of 535 women responded: 372 (69.5%) were booked into more than one facility and 163 (30.5%) were booked into a single facility; 280 (52.3%) booked into the two Teaching Hospitals and 91 (12.5%) booked with a traditional birth attendant. Reasons for multiple bookings included selecting a facility with affordable prices (43.9%); selecting a facility promising vaginal delivery (35.3%); avoiding HIV testing (17.9%); avoiding caesarean section (10.8%); avoiding being regarded as unbooked (10.1%) and booking into a facility where they were not known. Possible disadvantages were confusion in deciding where to deliver (53.1%); default on expert advice (27.5%); mismanagement (18.7%); delays, complications and death (12.5%). Multiple bookings were common in this study. Disadvantages of this practice, including risk of death, were identified by the women. PMID:20373923

  11. Dental status of pregnant women attending a Brisbane maternity hospital.

    PubMed

    Jago, J D; Chapman, P J; Aitken, J F; McEniery, T M

    1984-12-01

    A sample of 314 consecutive women attending for their first antenatal visit at a public hospital were examined according to the WHO survey procedure. The women's age ranged from 16 to 42 yr with a mean of 23.5 yr. Only 3% were edentulous in both jaws, but 13% had some form of denture. A quarter had pocketing in at least one sextant and only 16% were free of gingivitis. The average number of DMF teeth was 15.8, comprising 2.7 decayed, 4.5 missing and 8.6 filled teeth; 70% had teeth needing restoration and 10% had at least one tooth needing extraction. There were significant relationships between DMF score and age (positive) and between number of teeth needing restoration and age, educational level, and the woman's own perception of her dental health (all inverse). Some form of dental attention was needed by 86% of the women; 12% had conditions needing immediate attention. By comparison with a 1971 study of pregnant women in Brisbane, there has been a marked decline in DMFT score (from 19.1 to 15.8). PMID:6597062

  12. Relational trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Krause, Kylene; Ahlfs-Dunn, Sarah; Gallagher, Erin; Scott, Syreeta

    2013-01-01

    Women experience remarkably high rates of relational trauma including childhood abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence (IPV) during adulthood, and the childbearing years are no exception. The meaning of past and current relational trauma perpetrated by primary caregivers and significant others may be unique during pregnancy, in particular, because pregnancy is a salient time when mothers' important relationships are reworked and reorganized to "make room" for the relationship with the baby. The present study examined associations between different forms of relational trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms in 120 women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Women were between the ages of 18 and 42 years and came from diverse economic and ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated that severity of childhood maltreatment was significantly related to severity of IPV during pregnancy, and both types of trauma made unique, significant contributions to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, emotional/psychological violence had the largest associations with posttraumatic stress symptoms compared to other forms of violence. Findings indicate that it is critically important for clinicians working with pregnant women to conduct a thorough assessment of current and past relational trauma, including emotional/psychological trauma, in order to improve the well-being of the mother, the infant, and the mother-infant relationship. PMID:23713621

  13. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  14. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p < 0.001). Low birth weight (2,620 g versus 3,333 g on average, p < 0.001) and maternal syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. PMID:27088708

  15. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  16. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-08-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  17. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  18. Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

  19. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-01-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Substance-Using Pregnant and Parenting Women: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laken, Marilyn Poland; Hutchins, Ellen

    According to current estimates, approximately 5.5 percent of all American pregnant women use an illicit drug during pregnancy. National concern for drug-exposed infants prompted interest in the needs of substance using pregnant women and in the development of drug treatment programs for them. A total of 147 comprehensive programs have been funded…

  1. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  2. [The perception of domestic violence of pregnant and not pregnant women in the city of Campinas, São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Corrêa, Ana Maria Segall; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Rodrigues, Maria Socorro Pereira

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare the perception of domestic violence of women, victims of this kind of violence, with the perception of pregnant women, victims or not of domestic violence, as well as to search for elements allowing for the planning and execution of a cohort study on domestic violence among pregnant women. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted using the technique of convenience sampling for selecting a focal group. The subjects were twenty four women divided into two groups: (1) thirteen women from a follow-up group from a Referral Center for victims of domestic violence, and (2) eleven pregnant women that were participating in the pre-natal care program in a primary care unit, selected independently of suffering domestic violence or not. The data collected were transcribed, conceptually decoded and qualified for qualitative analysis. The contents of the women's discourse were analyzed on the basis of thematic categories. It was observed that domestic violence was perceived in a similar way by both studied groups, independently from the fact of having or not experienced a situation of this kind. The understanding and discussion of the topics proposed for the groups allowed developing a more appropriate approach to the studied women. The way the questions were formulated in the questionnaire was considered of easy understanding by both groups of women. PMID:19197433

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic comparison of ESBL production by Vaginal Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaginal Escherichia coli is a reservoir along the fecal-vaginal-urinary/neonatal course of transmission in extraintestinal E. coli infections. They also causes genital tract infections especially vaginitis, so that detection of their antibiotic resistance is an important approach to control these infections. One important mechanism of resistance is ESBL production by Enterobacteriaceae especially Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, which is now a worldwide problem that limits therapeutic options. Methods Sixty one vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women, were detected phenotypically and genotypically for ESBL production. Results Most of pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates, were resistant to cefotaxime (100% vs. 81.5%, respectively) and more than half of them to ceftazidime (56.5% vs. 71.0%, respectively). One hundred percent each, 52.1% vs. 68.4%, and 73.9% vs. 60.5%%, were ESBL producers by screening, confirmatory, and PCR tests, respectively. Pregnant women's isolates had: CTX-M- (69.5%), SHV- and OXA-type (each 4.3%) ESBLs. Only one isolate (4.3%) had two types of ESBLs. All 16 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Non-pregnant women's isolates were predominated by SHV and CTX-M -type (44.7% vs. 39.4%, respectively), followed by OXA- (15.7%), and TEM-type (2.6%). Of these isolates, 42.1% had two types of ESBL genes. All 15 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) regarding the expression of SHV- (4.3% vs. 44.7%, respectively) and CTX-M-type (69.5% vs. 39.4%, respectively) ESBLs. In both, CTX-M-1 was the predominant CTX-M group (each 100%). All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, while the highest rate of resistance was against β-lactams. Multidrug resistance was noted in 56.2% of ESBL-producing isolates. Conclusions Ggenital tracts of pregnant and non-pregnant women represent different environments for

  4. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening for incarcerated pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Resch, Stephen; Altice, Frederick L; Paltiel, A David

    2005-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated on a prenatal basis in HIV-infected pregnant women is a highly effective method for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. We developed a decision analytic model to project the clinical and economic outcomes of alternative HIV screening strategies (voluntary prenatal screening [VPS], routine prenatal screening [RPS], and mandatory newborn screening [MNS]) for a high-risk population of incarcerated pregnant women. Data for the decision model came from the HIV voluntary counseling and testing program at Connecticut's sole correctional facility for women and a comprehensive anonymously linked serosurvey of all inmates who entered the facility during the 2-year period beginning in October 1994. Based on serosurvey results, in the absence of any HIV screening program, 2.5 cases of pediatric HIV infection would be expected per 1000 pregnancies. Multiplied by the discounted lifetime cost per case of $247,000, this translates to a cost of $624 per testing-eligible prison entrant. Entrants were considered eligible if they were pregnant and their HIV status was unknown. MNS would save money, cost $364 per eligible entrant, and simultaneously reduce the rate of infections to 1.1 per 1000 pregnancies. Doing both MNS and RPS is most effective in reducing the rate of new infections (down to 0.2 per 1000 pregnancies). It would, however, increase costs to $430 per eligible entrant. This would result in an incremental cost of $73,603 per additional pediatric HIV case averted when compared with MNS alone. If mandatory newborn testing was not considered a feasible option, RPS would dominate VPS and would be cost-saving compared with no screening. RPS compares favorably with alternative uses of HIV prevention and treatment resources. In correctional facilities where voluntary newborn screening is already in place, our findings show that there remains a small marginal benefit to be realized from switching to RPS. In settings where HIV

  5. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Nahid, Abdullah Al; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H.

    2015-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in

  6. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-10-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  7. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  8. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz and Treatment of HIV-1 Among Pregnant Women With and Without Tuberculosis Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Kelly E.; Denti, Paolo; Martinson, Neil; Cohn, Silvia; Mashabela, Fildah; Hoffmann, Jennifer; Haas, David W.; Hull, Jennifer; Msandiwa, Regina; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Chaisson, Richard E.; McIlleron, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and tuberculosis treatment or prophylaxis can affect efavirenz pharmacokinetics, maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment outcomes, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk. Methods We evaluated a prospective cohort of pregnant, HIV-infected women with and without tuberculosis in Soweto, South Africa. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed at gestation week 37 and during the postpartum period. Efavirenz trough concentrations (Cmin) were predicted using population pharmacokinetic models. HIV-viral load was measured at delivery for mothers and at 6 weeks of age for infants. Results Ninety-seven women participated; 44 had tuberculosis. Median efavirenz Cmin during pregnancy was 1.35 µg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 0.90–2.07 µg/mL; 27% had an efavirenz Cmin of < 1 µg/mL), compared with a median postpartum value of 2.00 µg/mL (IQR, 1.40–3.59 µg/mL; 13% had an efavirenz Cmin of < 1 µg/mL). A total of 72% of pregnant women with extensive CYP2B6 genotypes had an efavirenz Cmin of <1 µg/mL. Rifampin did not reduce the efavirenz Cmin. Isoniazid (for prophylaxis or treatment), though, reduced the rate of efavirenz clearance. At delivery, median durations of ART were 13 weeks (IQR, 9–18 weeks) and 21 weeks (IQR, 13–64 weeks) for women with and those without tuberculosis, respectively; 55% and 83%, respectively, had a viral load of <20 copies/mL (P = .021). There was 1 case of MTCT. Conclusions Pregnancy increased the risk of low efavirenz concentrations, but MTCT was rare. A detectable HIV-viral load at delivery was more common among pregnant women with tuberculosis, in whom ART was generally initiated later. PMID:25081933

  10. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, SMOKING, AND CORTISOL IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, William D; Seng, Julia S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the United States is higher among pregnant women than women generally. PTSD is related to adverse birth outcomes via physiological and behavioral alterations, such as smoking. We utilize salivary cortisol measures to examine how traumatic stress, smoking and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis interact. Pregnant women (n =395) gave cortisol specimens as part of a cohort study of PTSD and pregnancy at three health systems in the Midwestern United States. Women were divided into three groups: nonsmokers, quitters (who stopped smoking during pregnancy), and pregnancy smokers. Mean cortisol values at three points, sociodemographics, trauma history, and PTSD were compared across groups. We assessed the association of smoking group and PTSD with late afternoon cortisol levels. Smokers, quitters, and nonsmokers differed on demographic risk factors and PTSD symptom load. Late afternoon and bedtime cortisol measures were significantly positively correlated with smoking in pregnancy, with smokers with PTSD presenting the highest cortisol levels. Regression analysis showed that smoking in pregnancy was associated with higher late afternoon cortisol in an additive manner with PTSD symptoms. Smoking appears to have a different relationship with cortisol level for those with and without PTSD. This is the first study to show additive effects of smoking and PTSD on cortisol levels in pregnant women. Since high cortisol, smoking, and PTSD have been shown to adversely affect perinatal outcomes, and since those continuing to smoke in pregnancy had the highest PTSD symptom load, PTSD-specific smoking cessation programs in maternity settings are warranted. PMID:24926909

  11. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  12. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Frohman, N.; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 – 28 weeks gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89%. In the fully adjusted model antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95% CI 2.10 – 38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95% CI 3.41 – 25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19% experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  13. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  14. Should pregnant women with substance use disorders be managed differently?

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Verena; Köchl, Birgit; Fischer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pregnant women with substance use disorders have multiple special needs, which might be best managed within a multiprofessional treatment setting involving medical, psychological and social care. Adequate treatment provision remains a challenge for healthcare professionals, who should undergo special training and education when working with this patient population. Careful assessment and screening is necessary to tailor interventions individually to the woman's needs in order to achieve beneficial clinical outcomes for mothers and newborns, whereas the choice of treatment options highly depends on the type of substance of abuse and evidence-based treatment interventions available. Economic considerations have shown that early multiprofessional treatment might yield better clinical outcomes and save healthcare costs over the lifespan. PMID:23243466

  15. Food Insecurity and Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women at Alcohol Serving Establishments in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. DESIGN Women completed computed assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. SETTING Women attending alcohol serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. PARTICIPANTS Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. RESULTS High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65% of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29% consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty four percent of the women reported having 6 or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87%) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g. food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  16. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  17. Magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia: evidence from rural, community-based setting.

    PubMed

    Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting a high proportion of pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1731 pregnant women selected by a cluster random sampling method. Data on maternal anthropometry and other factors were gathered by trained data collectors. Mid-upper arm circumference < 22 cm defined malnutrition. Mixed-effect, multilevel logistic regression was used to control clustering effect. On average, 19.06% of subjects were malnourished, while 23.3% study participants were underweight (body mass index < 19.8 kg m(-2)). In the final adjusted analysis, the risk of malnutrition was more than twofold higher in pregnant women with low (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-4.34) and medium (adjusted odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-5.35) autonomy of household decision-making than those who had high level of autonomy in household decision-making. Husband illiteracy and not owning livestock were associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Women in the second and third trimester had a 66% and nearly twofold increased risk of malnutrition compared with their counterparts in the first trimester, respectively. Women who improved their eating habits had a 53% lower risk of malnutrition than those who did not. The risk of malnutrition was 39% lower in respondents who received prenatal dietary advice than in those who did not. Malnutrition affects at least one of every five pregnant women studied, calling for priority attention. Interventions that improve maternal involvement in household decision-making autonomy and provision of prenatal dietary advice are recommended. PMID:24985910

  18. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  19. Anthropometric equations for studying body fat in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paxton, A; Lederman, S A; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, J; Thornton, J C; Pierson, R N

    1998-01-01

    Anthropometric data from 200 pregnant women were used to estimate body fat at gestation weeks 14 and 37 and changes in body fat from week 14 to week 37 with four formulas from the literature. The resulting estimates were evaluated against the estimation of fat by a four-compartment model that determined fat from weight, total body water, bone mineral mass, and body density. The estimates of fat by existing anthropometric models were statistically different from those by the four-compartment model in both early and late pregnancy. Most importantly, the change in body fat estimated by the anthropometric models (all > 4 kg) was considerably higher than that estimated by the four-compartment model (3.3 kg). Two new anthropometric equations were developed, both of which used the four-compartment model as the reference method. The equation for predicting change in fat mass from week 14 to 37 of pregnancy was as follows: 0.77 (change in weight, kg)+ 0.07 (change in thigh skinfold thickness, mm)-6.13 (r2 = 0.73). The equation for determining fat (kg) at term was as follows: 0.40 (weight at week 37, kg)+ 0.16 (biceps skinfold thickness at week 37, mm) + 0.15 (thigh skinfold thickness at week 37, mm)-0.09 (wrist circumference at week 37. mm)+ 0.10 (prepregnancy weight.kg)-6.56 (r2 = 0.89). Both equations were derived on a randomly selected half of the total sample and validated on the remaining half. Both equations were found to be valid for use in studying pregnant women with different prepregnancy body mass indexes, different gestational weight gains, different ethnicities, and different socioeconomic status. PMID:9440383

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Objectively Measured Walking Among US Pregnant Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunhee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine population-based prevalence of walking in the United States among pregnant women. Objectively measured walking data on 197 pregnant women who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 were analyzed. In general, pregnant women showed a level of walking below the recommendation; most walking was at low-intensity levels. These findings suggest that walking, particularly at higher intensity than usual, should be promoted among pregnant women. PMID:26652217

  1. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Efetie, E R; Salami, H A

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified

  2. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  3. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  4. Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Interventions Among Pregnant Women in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496

  5. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  6. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911

  7. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439

  8. Implementation of guidelines for HIV counseling and voluntary HIV testing of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Joo, E; Carmack, A; Garcia-Buñuel, E; Kelly, C J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed HIV counseling and testing among pregnant women. METHODS: A survey was administered to 9115 women who gave birth at 66 Chicago-area hospitals in 1997 and 1998. RESULTS: Fifty-eight percent of the women received HIV counseling, and 65% were offered testing. Fifty-six percent were tested for HIV. Among the women tested, 88% were given their test result. Women were more likely to be tested if they received HIV counseling and were more likely to be offered testing if they received such counseling. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of HIV counseling for, and offers of testing to, pregnant women need to be increased. PMID:10667191

  9. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  10. Urinary ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Klapec, T; Sarkanj, B; Banjari, I; Strelec, I

    2012-12-01

    This study determined exposure of pregnant women to ochratoxin A (OTA). Forty samples of first-void urine samples from Croatian women in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for OTA and its major metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OTα). The subjects filled a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Analysis was performed by HPLC-FLD following liquid-liquid extraction. All samples were subjected in parallel to enzymatic treatment (β-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase) to release OTA and OTα from the conjugates. The median urinary levels of OTA and OTα before treatment were 0.02 (range: nd-1.07) ng/mL and 0.16 (nd-1.86) ng/mL; the concentrations after enzyme hydrolysis were 0.02 (nd-1.11) ng/mL and 1.18 (0.11-7.57) ng/mL. While OTα levels increased significantly following enzymatic treatment, evidence for OTA conjugation was weak. The ratio of urinary OTα medians after and before hydrolysis was 1.5 times higher than previously reported for nonpregnant female subjects, possibly indicating upregulated metabolism and/or elimination of the mycotoxin and metabolites in pregnancy. The mean daily dietary OTA intake calculated from FFQs (1.08±0.57 ng/kg body weight) was well below the provisional tolerable daily intake and the greatest contributors to intake were cereal products, fruit juices, chocolate and coffee. PMID:23041474

  11. [Dietary and hygienic aspects of fluoride exposure in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pregnant women to fluoride on the basis of diet preferences and hygienic habits revealed with a questionnaire. The group included 59 women aged 22-39, living in a large urban agglomeration. Questions concerned sources of fluoride such as diet (tap water, tea, fish, poultry), use of fluoride-containing preparations for oral hygiene and substances containing fluoride for additional prophylaxis. The oral health status was clinically examined and caries intensity was assessed with the mean DMF-t index. According to the clinical examination, the mean DMF-t index was 13.64 and ranged from 1 to 23. Consumption of tap water averaged 0.73 L (max. 2.5 L), including 0.55 L (max. 2.5 L) of tea. Poultry was a regular part of the diet in only 14 of the respondents (24%) and only 3 (5%) sporadically (once a week) ate ocean fish. All the respondents used toothpaste containing fluoride, but only 15.3% applied professional prophylaxis with fluoride preparations. As far as the diet is concerned, individual differences in the intake of fluorides were significant. Interestingly, despite the declared everyday use of fluorine-containing toothpaste, the caries intensity index was rather high, suggesting the need for special dental care in this group of patients. PMID:16892578

  12. The Influence of Subjective Social Status on Vulnerability to Postpartum Smoking Among Young Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Li, Yisheng; Mullen, Patricia D.; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Greisinger, Anthony; Wetter, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Associations between subjective social status, a subjective measure of socioeconomic status, and predictors of risk for postpartum smoking were examined among 123 pregnant women (aged 18–24 years) who stopped smoking because of pregnancy. The goal was to identify how subjective social status might influence the risk for postpartum smoking and to elucidate targets for intervention. Methods. We used multiple regression equations to examine the predictive relations between subjective social status and tobacco dependence, self-rated likelihood of postpartum smoking, confidence, temptations, positive and negative affect, depression, stress, and social support. Adjusted analyses were also conducted with control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and whether participant had a partner or not (partner status). Results. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, subjective social status predicted tobacco dependence, likelihood of postpartum smoking, confidence, temptations, positive affect, negative affect, and social support. Adjusted analyses predicting depression and stress approached significance. Conclusions. Among young pregnant women who quit smoking because of pregnancy, low subjective social status was associated with a constellation of characteristics indicative of increased vulnerability to postpartum smoking. Subjective social status provided unique information on risk for postpartum smoking over and above the effects of race/ethnicity, objective socioeconomic status, and partner status. PMID:17600249

  13. HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women in Brazil: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa de; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-08-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 36,713 included women, 35,444 (96.6%) were tested for HIV during delivery admission. The overall HIV prevalence was of 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.48), and it was highest in: the 30 to 39 year-old age group (0.60% [0.40-0.88]), in the Southern region of Brazil (0.79% [0.59-1.04]), among women who had not completed primary (0.63% [0.30-1.31]) or secondary (0.67% [0.49-0.97]) school education, and among women who self-reported as Asian (0.94% [0.28-3.10]). The HIV testing coverage during prenatal care was of 86.6% for one test and of 38.2% for two tests. Overall, 98.5% of women attended at least 1 ANC visit, 90.4% attended at least 4 visits, 71% attended at least 6 visits, and 51.7% received ANC during the 1st trimester. HIV testing coverage and ANC uptake indicators increased with increasing age and education level of education, and were highest in the Southern region. Conclusions Brazil presents an HIV prevalence of less than 1% and almost universal coverage of ANC. However, gaps in HIV testing and ANC during the first trimester challenge the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. More efforts are needed to address regional and social disparities. PMID:27608165

  14. Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

  15. Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981

  16. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394) were examined at baseline (≤20 weeks of pregnancy) of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p<0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take. PMID:25994096

  17. Rationale and design for an investigation to optimize selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment for pregnant women with depression.

    PubMed

    Avram, M J; Stika, C S; Rasmussen-Torvik, L J; Ciolino, J D; Pinheiro, E; George, A L; Wisner, K L

    2016-07-01

    The physiological changes of pregnancy can affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug, thereby affecting its dose requirements. Because pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in pregnant women have rarely been conducted, evidence-based dosing adjustments are seldom available. In particular, despite the fact that the use of antidepressants has become increasingly common, pregnancy-associated PK changes of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are largely unknown. PMID:27037844

  18. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Nikki; Schalkwijk, Stein; Best, Brookie M.; Colbers, Angela; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Moltó, José; Stek, Alice M.; Taylor, Graham; Smith, Elizabeth; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Chakhtoura, Nahida; van Kasteren, Marjo; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Mirochnick, Mark; Burger, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12-h pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 and 0.026 mcg/mL). Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily. Etravirine AUC0–12 was higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 34% (median 8.3 vs. 5.3 mcg*h/mL, p = 0.068). Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data by 52% (median 24 vs. 38 L/h, p = 0.025). The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.52 (range: 0.19–4.25) and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. Clinical Trial registration: The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929. PMID:27540363

  19. Ondansetron pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and neonates: towards a new treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elkomy, M H; Sultan, P; Carvalho, B; Peltz, G; Wu, M; Clavijo, C; Galinkin, J L; Drover, D R

    2015-02-01

    Ondansetron is the drug of choice to prevent nausea in women undergoing cesarean surgery and can be used to prevent neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The pharmacokinetics of ondansetron have not been characterized in pregnant women or in newborns. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was used to analyze plasma samples obtained from 20 nonpregnant and 40 pregnant women following a single administration of 4 or 8 mg ondansetron, from umbilical cord blood at delivery, and from neonates after birth. The analysis indicates that: ondansetron disposition is not affected by pregnancy (P > 0.05), but influenced by dose (P < 0.05), and is characterized by rapid transplacental transfer and longer elimination half-life in neonates compared to their mother. A dosing regimen for prevention of NAS was designed based on the model. The regimen involves IV administration of 4 mg to the mothers shortly before cord clamping, or oral administration of 0.07 mg/kg (or equivalently 0.04 mg/kg IV) to neonates. PMID:25670522

  20. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  1. Cholera in pregnant women: the 2012 epidemic at the reference center at the Donka National Hospital in Conakry.

    PubMed

    Sako, F B; Traoré, F A; Camara, M K; Sylla, M; Bangoura, E F; Baldé, O

    2016-05-01

    Cholera is an epidemic diarrheal disease transmitted through the digestive tract; it can cause obstetric complications in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of cholera in pregnant women, as well as its course, during the 2012 epidemic in Conakry. This retrospective, descriptive studied examined the records of this epidemic over a 7-month period (from May 15 to December 15, 2012). Of 2,808 cholera patients at our hospital, 80 were pregnant, that is, 2.85%. Their mean age was 30 years [range: 15-45 years], 94% were from Conakry (94%), and 69% were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Choleriform diarrhea and vomiting were the main signs, found respectively in 100% and 95% of the women; dehydration was mild for 16%, moderate for 45%, and severe for 39%. Support consisted of rehydration, by plans A (16%), B (45%) or C (39%) and antibiotic treatment based on erythromycin (85%), doxycycline (14%), or azithromycin (1%). Other drugs that were used included phloroglucinol-trimethylphloroglucinol (Spasfon(®)) for 45%, acetaminophen for 65%, and iron/folic acid for 1% of cases. The major obstetric complications were 4 intrauterine deaths (5%), 2 cases of threatened abortion (2%), 1 preterm delivery (1%), and 1 maternal death. The cholera outbreak in 2012 affected a large number of pregnant women in Conakry, most during their third trimester. The classic clinical manifestations were associated with obstetric complications and maternal-fetal risks. PMID:27412979

  2. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. Results: At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as ‘positive’ for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). Conclusion: These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further. PMID:22878591

  3. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  4. Clinical guides to preventing ethical conflicts between pregnant women and their physicians.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    1990-02-01

    We provide a justification for preventive ethics in obstetric practice. Four clinical guides to resolving ethical conflicts between pregnant women and their physicians can be identified: (1) informed consent as an ongoing dialogue between the pregnant woman and her physician, (2) negotiation as a clinical strategy, (3) respectful persuasion as a clinical strategy, and (4) the proper use of ethics committees. PMID:2309810

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1%) of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5%) were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR = 5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p < 0.05). Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was high among the pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women. PMID:23216887

  6. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  7. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy. PMID:26809074

  8. Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England: results from an online survey of NHS stop smoking services for pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English SSSP. Methods SSSP managers were invited to participate in this survey by email. Data were then collected via an online questionnaire; one survey was completed for each SSSP. Up to four reminder emails were sent over a two month period. Results 86% (121 of 141) of services completed the survey. Responding services were, on average, larger than non-responding services in terms of the number of pregnant women setting quit dates and successfully quitting (p < 0.01). In line with the 2010 NICE guidelines, Stop Smoking in Pregnancy and following Childbirth, one in five SSSP identified pregnant smokers using carbon monoxide (CO) testing and refer via an opt-out pathway. All services offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to pregnant women and 87% of services also offered dual therapy NRT, i.e. combination of a patch and short acting NRT product.. The 2010 NICE guidelines note that services should be flexible and client-centred. Consistent with this, SSSP offer pregnant women a range of support types (median 4) including couple/family, group (open or closed) or one-to-one. These are available in a number of locations (median 5), including in community venues, clinics and women’s homes. Conclusions English Stop Smoking Services offer behavioural support and pharmacotherapy to pregnant women motivated to quit smoking. Interventions provided are generally evidence-based and delivered in a variety of both social and health care settings. PMID:24593130

  9. Responses of serum neurotrophic factors to exercise in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sandra Rojas; Kleinert, Jens; Sulprizio, Marion; Hollmann, Wildor; Bloch, Wilhelm; Strüder, Heiko K

    2011-02-01

    It was recently shown in humans that exercise affects the neurotrophic factors known to function as neurogenesis regulators. No data related to exercise and pregnancy, however, is yet available. Thus, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on pregnant women during late pregnancy and women postpartum, on the serum concentration of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (COR). Twenty women with uncomplicated pregnancies underwent a graded submaximal exercise test during pregnancy (weeks 32-36 of gestation; T(1)) and postpartum (10-12 weeks after childbirth; T(2)). On two of these test days the women carried out an intensifying exercise test (25 W steps) on a cycle ergometer until a heart rate of 150 bpm was reached. Blood samples were taken in the rest period before beginning the exercise, immediately at the end of the exercise and after recovery periods of 5 and 10 min, respectively. Basal maternal IGF-1, PRL and COR were found to be higher during T(1) (p<.01), while the BDNF was higher during T(2) (p=.00). VEGF was not detectable in the serum of the pregnant women. During T(2), VEGF, which was found to be within the normal range before exercise, was at a higher level after exercise (p<.01). Exercise increased the BDNF and IGF-1 during T(1) and T(2) (p<.01). This study also shows that exercise increases the serum concentrations of IGF-1 and BDNF during pregnancy and postpartum as well as VEGF postpartum. Thus, exercise might be a beneficial lifestyle factor with therapeutic/public health implications i.e. with regard to maternal mood and cognitive performance. PMID:20692101

  10. Is Routine Iron Supplementation Necessary in Pregnant Women With High Hemoglobin?

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Leila; Salehi, Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iron supplementation is a chief component in prenatal care, with the aim of preventing anemia; however, extreme maternal iron status may adversely affect the birth outcome. Given the negative consequences of high maternal iron concentrations on pregnancy outcomes, it seems that iron supplementation in women with high hemoglobin (Hb) should be limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of iron supplementation on iron status markers in pregnant women with high Hb. Patients and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 pregnant women with Hb > 13.2 g/dL and ferritin > 15 μg/l in the 16th - 20th week of pregnancy were randomized into experimental and control groups. From the 20th week until the end of pregnancy, the experimental group received one ferrous sulfate tablet containing 50 mg of elemental iron daily, while the control group received a placebo. Hb and ferritin levels at 37 - 39 weeks of pregnancy were evaluated and compared. In addition, after delivery the birth weight was measured in two groups and compared. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in Hb (p = 0/03) and ferritin (p = 0/04) levels at the end of pregnancy, but the incidence of anemia exhibited no difference in either group (p < 0/001). In addition, the mean of birth weight in experimental group and control group were 3391/56 ± 422, 3314/06 ± 341, respectively and it was not significant difference (p = 0.2). Conclusions: Not using iron supplementation did not cause of anemia in women with Hb concentrations greater than 13.2 g/dL during pregnancy; thus, the systematic care and control of iron status markers without iron supplementation is recommended for these women. PMID:26889391

  11. Iron status in pregnant women: which measurements are valid?

    PubMed

    van den Broek, N R; Letsky, E A; White, S A; Shenkin, A

    1998-12-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries continues to be a public health problem of significant proportion. At least 50% of the anaemia has been blamed on iron deficiency. In populations where chronic inflammation and iron deficiency anaemia coexist, the criteria to accurately define iron status are not always clear. Similarly, in pregnancy, with marked physiological changes, cut-off points for biochemical parameters need to be re-examined. In this study we examined the diagnostic accuracy of iron parameters including mean cellular volume (MCV), serum iron, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and its saturation, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), ferritin and serum transferrin receptor (TfR) for the assessment of iron status in a population of anaemic pregnant women in Malawi. Stained bone marrow aspirates were used as the standard for comparison. Results show that for the purpose of screening, serum ferritin is the best single indicator of storage iron provided a cut-off point of 30 microg/l is used. A number of other commonly used parameters of iron status were shown to have limited diagnostic accuracy. Logistic regression was used to obtain mathematical models for the prediction of bone marrow iron status using a combination of available parameters. PMID:9858238

  12. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy. PMID:27012975

  13. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  14. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  15. CDC Advises Pregnant Women to Avoid Miami Beach Due to Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant women, due to the virus' link to microcephaly, a devastating birth defect where babies are born ... the vast majority of cases of Zika-linked microcephaly. U.S. officials said they don't expect to ...

  16. Pandemic Influenza and Pregnant Women: Summary of a Meeting of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Denise J.; MacFarlane, Kitty; Cragan, Janet D.; Williams, Jennifer; Henderson, Zsakeba

    2009-01-01

    Pandemic Influenza: Special Considerations for Pregnant Women was a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2008 to obtain input from experts and key partners regarding clinical management of pregnant women and related public health actions to be taken during a pandemic. Meeting goals were to discuss issues specific to pregnant women, identify gaps in knowledge, and develop a public health approach for pregnant women in the event of a pandemic. The meeting focused on 4 main topics: prophylaxis and treatment with influenza antiviral and other medications, vaccine use, nonpharmaceutical interventions and health care planning, and communications. Participants reviewed the available evidence to guide action in each of these areas and identified areas of critical needs for future research. PMID:19461110

  17. Cases of Pregnant U.S. Women with Zika Triple Under New Counting Method

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Developmental Disabilities, said during a Friday morning media briefing. Using the new registries will provide a more complete picture of the effects of Zika on pregnant women in the United ...

  18. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  19. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  20. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

  1. [Effect of respiratory and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive potential of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Krivonogova, T S; Gerget, O M; Agarkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the most promising methods for the assessment of the health status of pregnant women and their children based on information criteria in the framework of an intelligent system. Inter-relations between the revealed adaptation strategies and functional disturbances in the organism are considered with special reference to various types of adaptive reactions in pregnant women and adaptational capacities of their children. PMID:21381327

  2. Cortisol level and perinatal outcome in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Low, Lisa Kane; Ben-Ami, Dorit; Liberzon, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 12% of women in the United States and could affect childbearing via behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms. This pilot study collected preliminary data about the extent to which the low cortisol profile found in patients with PTSD also occurs in the hormonal context of pregnancy, as well as the association between PTSD and less optimal processes and outcomes of pregnancy. Standardized psychiatric diagnostic telephone interviews, salivary cortisol assays, and medical records review were evaluated in a community sample of 25 women pregnant with their first child. Higher PTSD symptom counts correlated with worse overall perinatal outcomes summarized by an Optimality Index Score (n = 22; r = -.725; P < .001). The women whose symptoms met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or partial PTSD had lower peak basal salivary cortisol concentrations (n = 14; mean = .4584 versus .8123; P = .010). Further research on the effects of PTSD on pregnancy processes and outcomes is warranted. Differences in cortisol levels were consistent with the pattern seen in nonpregnant women with PTSD. This finding suggests that salivary cortisol would be a useful biological measure to include in perinatal research on PTSD and childbearing. PMID:16154066

  3. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  5. Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emily E; Staples, J Erin; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Fischer, Marc; Ellington, Sascha R; Callaghan, William M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-22

    CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended. PMID:26796813

  6. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  7. Early gestation screening of pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency in urban centre in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, K; Nair, S; Khade, C; Rajan, M G R

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age <15 weeks) in urban Vadodara, Gujarat. n = 256 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were selected. The thyroid hormone was estimated by RIA, UIE using simple microplate technique and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration by acid hematin method. Median thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and UIE concentrations were 1.88 μIU/ml, 0.83 ng/dl, 10.24 μg/dl and 297.14 mcg/l, respectively. There was a significant correlation between TSH, FT4 and month of gestation. Mean Hb concentration was 9.27 ± 1.09 g/dl. The prevalence of iodine insufficiency (based on UI) was 16.79% and iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women. PMID:24847692

  8. Influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Guszkowska, Monika; Langwald, Marta; Dudziak, Diana; Zaremba, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the research was to define the influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women and to establish the socio-demographic and personality predictors of mood changes. The sample was comprised of a total of 109 pregnant women aged 19-37 years. Of the group, 62 women participated in physical exercise for pregnant women (the experimental group) and 47 women participated in traditional childbirth education classes (the control group). Emotional states were assessed with the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist; personality traits were measured with the NEO-FFI, LOT-R and STAI questionnaires. Socio-demographic data were collected with a survey developed by the authors. A single physical exercise class improved the emotional state of pregnant women significantly more than a traditional childbirth education class. Within the experimental group, a significant improvement of mood was observed in all dimensions, while in the control group only hedonic tone increased. Greater improvements in mood can be expected in a group of women who are younger, less optimistic, and who evaluate their health better but physical fitness worse. As a single session of exercise helps improve the mood of pregnant women, this may be an effective strategy to prevent the deterioration of mood state during pregnancy. PMID:23646888

  9. [POLYGYNAX IN THE TREATMENT OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN--CLINICAL EXPERIENCE].

    PubMed

    Popovski, N; Popovski, K; Nedelkovski, V

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal infections /VI/ represent some of the most common diseases by infection of FGS. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Polygynax in the treatment of vaginal infections and to take into account the correlation between the results of microbiological controls and reduction of clinical symptoms. The study included 100 patients, including 50 pregnant and non-pregnant 50 for a period of 3 months. All of them was diagnosed with vaginitis clinical examination, taken material from vagina for microbiological testing. The studied women was conducted targeted therapy Polygynax 12 capsules, in the form of vaginal capsules for 12 days, after which the sample control microbiology. Behind the subjective complaints of the patient and to reduce them as a result of treatment. The effective implementation of Polygynax 12 capsules is equally good as in non-pregnant and pregnant women. In a summary of the survey data to make relevant analyzes and conclusions from the results. PMID:27509660

  10. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve

  11. Risk Factors for Stress During Antenatal Period Among Pregnant Women in Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Manisha Madhai; Abraham, Anuja; Kurian, Suja; Regi, Annie; Rebekah, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Background The well-being of an infant may be affected when the mother is subjected to psychosocial stress during her pregnancy. Mothers exposed to stressful conditions were more prone for preterm birth than those without any stress. In this study perceived stress has been used as an indicator of levels of stress. There are very few studies published from developing countries on the levels of perceived stress and its causes in pregnant women. Materials and Methods This study employed a cross-sectional assessment of pregnant women attending the outpatient services of a tertiary care hospital for regular antenatal check-up. Women not known to have any risk factors at 28 weeks to 34 weeks of pregnancy who agreed to participate in the study were interviewed to assess the perceived stress score. Results Among the total patients 57.7% were primigravida and the mean score on perceived stress scale was 13.5±5.02. The majority of the group (102; 65.4%) scored higher than the mean value of total score on the perceived stress scale. Unplanned pregnancy and husband’s employment status were associated with high levels of perceived stress in multivariate analysis in this set of women. Conclusion Individual as well as pregnancy related factors can contribute to perceived stress in pregnant women. With the established relationship between maternal mental health, pregnancy outcome and infant growth, the assessment and management of stress early in the pregnancy is crucial. PMID:26557568

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among immigrant and native pregnant women in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Milla, Afredo; Rodríguez, Juan C; Padilla, Sergio; Masiá, Mar; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2011-11-01

    In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. For each immigrant woman, one Spanish pregnant woman of the same age cared for in the same day was recruited (Spanish control group). A total of 1,627 migrant pregnant women participated in this study. The adherence to screening among migrants was 91.9% (95% CI, 90.5-93.1%), similar than that found in Spaniards (92.2%; 95% CI, 90.8-93-4%). Among migrant women, 619 were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies (41.4%; 95% CI, 38.9-43.9%), compared with 12.0% (95% CI, 10.5-13.8%) among Spaniards (odds ratio (OR), 5.2 (95% CI, 4.3-6.3). Seroprevalence in pregnant women from Latin America, northern Africa, Eastern Europe, Africa Sub-Saharan and Western Europe was higher than in the Spanish control group (OR, 5.4, 5.8, 6.5, 5.4, and 2.4, respectively; p < 0.001). No Asian pregnant woman was immune. Seroprevalence increased with increasing age in migrant pregnant women: 15-25 years, 38.2%; 26-35 years, 40.7%; and 36-45 years, 52.8%. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in migrant pregnant women living in Spain was higher than in the native population. However, no cases were found in Asian immigrants, highlighting the importance of primary prevention of this infection in pregnant women coming from that geographic region. PMID:21541753

  13. Influenza 2014-2015 among pregnant Japanese women: primiparous vs multiparous women.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Kawakami, S; Yoshida, Y; Kawamura, H; Ohta, S; Abe, K; Hamada, H; Dohi, S; Ichizuka, K; Takita, H; Baba, Y; Matsubara, S; Mochizuki, J; Unno, N; Maegawa, Y; Maeda, M; Inubashiri, E; Akutagawa, N; Kubo, T; Shirota, T; Oda, Y; Yamada, T; Yamagishi, E; Nakai, A; Fuchi, N; Masuzaki, H; Urabe, S; Kudo, Y; Nomizo, M; Sagawa, N; Maeda, T; Kamitomo, M; Kawabata, K; Kataoka, S; Shiozaki, A; Saito, S; Sekizawa, A; Minakami, H

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to determine whether multiparous pregnant women are prone to influenza. A questionnaire survey was conducted at 19 centres located throughout Japan, targeting all 6,694 postpartum women within 7 days after birth before leaving the hospital. All women gave birth during the study period between March 1, 2015, and July 31, 2015. Data regarding vaccination and influenza infection in or after October 2014, age, previous experience of childbirth, and number and ages of cohabitants were collected. Seventy-eight percent (n = 51,97) of women given questionnaires responded. Of these, 2,661 (51 %) and 364 (7.0 %) women reported having been vaccinated and having contracted influenza respectively. Multiparous women had a higher risk of influenza regardless of vaccination status (8.9 % [121/1362] vs 5.7 % [74/1299], relative risk [95 % confidence interval], 1.80 [1.36 to 2.38] for vaccinated and 9.3 % [112/1198] vs 4.3 % [57/1328], 2.18 [1.60 to 2.97] for unvaccinated women) compared to primiparous women. The risk of influenza increased with increasing number of cohabitants: 4.8 % (100/2089), 7.5 %, (121/1618), 9.0 %, (71/785), and 10.4 % (58/557) for women with 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 cohabitants respectively. Family size is a risk factor for influenza infection in pregnancy. PMID:26864040

  14. Placental Microparticles and MicroRNAs in Pregnant Women with Plasmodium falciparum or HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Laura; Bardají, Azucena; Macete, Eusebio; Barrios, Diana; Morales-Prieto, Diana M.; España, Carolina; Mandomando, Inacio; Sigaúque, Betuel; Dobaño, Carlota; Markert, Udo R.; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara; Mayor, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background During pregnancy, syncytiotrophoblast vesicles contribute to maternal tolerance towards the fetus, but also to pathologies such as pre-eclampsia. The aim of the study was to address whether Plasmodium falciparum and HIV infections in pregnancy affect the secretion, microRNA content and function of trophoblast microparticles. Methods Microparticles were isolated and characterized from 122 peripheral plasmas of Mozambican pregnant women, malaria- and/or HIV-infected and non-infected. Expression of placenta-related microRNAs in microparticles was analysed by qPCR and the effect of circulating microparticles on dendritic cells assessed by phenotype analysis and cytokine/chemokine measurement. Results Concentrations of total and trophoblast microparticles detected by flow cytometry were higher in HIV-positive (P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively) compared to non-infected mothers, as well as in women delivering low birthweight newborns (P = 0.032 and P = 0.021, respectively). miR-517c was overexpressed in mothers with placental malaria (P = 0.034), compared to non-infected. Microparticles from HIV-positive induced a higher expression of MHCII (P = 0.021) and lower production of MCP1 (P = 0.008) than microparticles from non-infected women. Conclusions In summary, alterations in total and trophoblast microparticles associated with malaria and HIV in pregnant women may have an immunopathogenic role. The potential for placental-derived vesicles and microRNAs as biomarkers of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and malaria infection should be confirmed in future studies. PMID:26757431

  15. The impact of citizenship documentation requirements on access to medicaid for pregnant women in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Joanna; Angus, Lisa; Fischler, Nurit; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Gipson, Teresa F; Devoe, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The federal Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 mandated citizenship documentation from all Medicaid applicants as a condition of eligibility and was implemented in Oregon on September 1, 2006. We assessed whether new citizenship documentation requirements were associated with delays in Medicaid authorization for newly pregnant eligible applicants during the first nine months of DRA implementation in Oregon. We conducted a pre-post analysis of administrative records to compare the length of time between Medicaid application and authorization for all newly pregnant, Medicaid-eligible applicants in Oregon (n = 29,284), nine months before and after September 1, 2006. We compared mean days from application to authorization (McNemar's), and proportion of eligible applicants who waited over 7, 30 and 45 days to be authorized (Pearson's coefficient). The mean number of days women waited for authorization increased from 18 days in the 9 months before DRA implementation to 22.6 days in the post-implementation 9 month period (P ≤ .001). The proportion of eligible applicants who waited 7, 30 and 45 days increased significantly following DRA implementation (P ≤ .001). The proportion of eligible applicants who were not authorized within the standard 45-day period increased from 6.9 to 12.5% following the DRA. Implementation of new citizenship documentation requirements was associated with significant delays in Medicaid authorization for eligible pregnant women in Oregon. Such delays in gaining insurance coverage can detrimentally affect access to early prenatal care initiation among a vulnerable population known to be at higher risk for certain preventable pregnancy-related complications. PMID:20602160

  16. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part II. Periodontal state].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-06-01

    A great number of clinical studies focused on the periodontal health of the pregnant women in the last decades, since an association has been presumed between the pregnant women's periodontal disease and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Altogether 161 healthy women were examined soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The periodontal status of the patients was recorded by the Silness-Löe Plaque index (0.67), frequency of calculus (21.07%), mean probing pocket depth (1.67 mm) and the frequency of bleeding on probing (37.8%). A significant correlation was found between the state of the periodontium and the educational level and the pregnant women's profession. The periodontal state of women with higher education and the intellectuals was much better, than of the less educated patients and the manual workers. PMID:16108413

  17. [Ampicillin pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Akhtamova, Z M; Kholodov, L E; Dorokhov, V V; Gurtovoĭ, B L

    1985-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin was studied in 38 patients with acute pyelonephritis in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy after the first and the last (28th-32nd) intramuscular injections of the antibiotic. The ampicillin levels in the blood and urine were determined with the agar diffusion method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in a one-compartmental model by computer The ampicillin levels in the blood and urine of the patients did not practically differ at all the investigation periods (0.5-6 hours after the antibiotic administration) in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. During the treatment, the rate of ampicillin elimination from the host increased and the period of half-elimination from the blood decreased. The antibiotic levels in the urine within 4-6 hours after the last injection were practically lower in the second trimester of pregnancy as compared with the second trimester. The therapy resulted in an increase in the antibiotic renal clearance, which returned to normal in the second trimester of pregnancy and remained under normal in the third trimester of pregnancy. The increase was due to an approximately 2-fold acceleration of the rate of ampicillin secretion by the renal tubules. The total clearance of ampicillin practically increased in the second trimester of pregnancy and remained decreased in the third trimester of pregnancy. The estimation performed in accordance with the Krueger-Timmer principles on the basis of the characteristic features of the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin shown in the study provides recommendation of the following scheme for pyelonephritis treatment in pregnant women: 500 mg of ampicillin injected intramuscularly every 6 hours followed by gradual decreasing of the intervals between the injections to 4 hours as the rate of ampicillin elimination increases. PMID:4015063

  18. Suicidality among pregnant women in Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Castro e Couto, Tiago; Brancaglion, Mayra Yara Martins; Cardoso, Mauro Nogueira; Faria, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes P; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Corrêa, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of preventable death. We evaluated suicidality among pregnant women who participated in prenatal care in Brazil. A total of 255 patients were assessed using semi-structured interviews as well as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Thereafter, Stata 12 was used to identify the significant predictors of current suicide risk (CSR) among participants using univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05). According to MINI Plus module C, the lifetime suicide attempt rate was 12.55%. The overall CSR was 23.53%, distributed across risk levels of low (12.55%), moderate (1.18%), and high (9.80%). Our rates approximate those found in another Brazilian study (18.4%). Antenatal depression (AD), lifetime bipolar disorder, and any current anxiety disorder (as measured using the MINI) as well as BDI scores ≥15 and EPDS scores ≥11 were identified as positive risk factors in a univariate analysis (p < 0.001). These factors changed after a multivariate analysis was employed, and only years of education [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.21-0.99], AD (OR = 3.42; 95% CIs = 1.37-8.53), and EPDS scores ≥11 (OR = 4.44; 95% CIs = 1.97-9.97) remained independent risk factors. AD and other psychiatric disorders were the primary risk factors for suicidality, although only the former remained an independent factor after a multivariate analysis. More than 10 years of education and EPDS scores ≥11 were also independent factors; the latter can be used as a screening tool for suicide risk. PMID:26189445

  19. Risk factors on hypertensive disorders among Jordanian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Amal K

    2014-03-01

    Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373

  20. Vaccines in pregnancy: The dual benefit for pregnant women and infants.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H; McMillan, M; Andrews, R M; Macartney, K; Edwards, K

    2016-04-01

    Maternal immunization has the potential to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the pregnant woman and her infant. Many countries now recommend immunization against influenza at any stage of pregnancy and against pertussis in the third trimester. Despite evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines when administered during pregnancy, uptake generally remains low for influenza and moderate for pertussis vaccine. Enhancing confidence in both immunization providers and pregnant women by increasing the evidence-base for the safety and effectiveness of vaccines during pregnancy, improving communication and access by incorporating immunization into standard models of antenatal care are likely to improve uptake. Developing a framework for implementation of vaccines for pregnant women which is cognizant of local and national cultural, epidemiological, behavioral and societal factors will enable a smooth transition and high uptake for new vaccines currently in development for pregnant women. PMID:26857450

  1. Association of Low-Protein Supplemented Diets with Fetal Growth in Pregnant Women with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Filomena; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Ferraresi, Martina; Clari, Roberta; Ghiotto, Sara; Biolcati, Marilisa; Giuffrida, Domenica; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Women affected by CKD increasingly choose to get pregnant. Experience with low-protein diets is limited. The aim of this study was to review results obtained from pregnant women with CKD on supplemented vegan–vegetarian low-protein diets. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a single-arm, open intervention study between 2000–2012 of a low-protein diet in pregnant patients with stages 3–5 CKD or severe proteinuria (>1 g/d in the first trimester or nephrotic at any time). Stages 3–5 CKD patients who were not on low-protein diets for clinical, psychologic, or logistic reasons served as controls. The setting was the Obstetrics-Nephrology Unit dedicated to kidney diseases in pregnancy. The treated group included 24 pregnancies—21 singleton deliveries, 1 twin pregnancy, 1 abortion, and 1 miscarriage. Additionally, there were 21 controls (16 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet was a vegan–vegetarian low-protein diet (0.6–0.8 g/kg per day) with keto-acid supplementation and 1–3 protein-unrestricted meals allowed per week. Results Treated patients and controls were comparable at baseline for median age (35 versus 34 years), referral week (7 versus 8), eGFR (59 versus 54 ml/min), and hypertension (43.5% versus 33.3%); median proteinuria was higher in patients on the low-protein diet (1.96 [0.1–6.3] versus 0.3 [0.1–2.0] g/d; P<0.001). No significant differences were observed in singletons with regard to gestational week (34 versus 36) or Caesarean sections (76.2% versus 50%). Kidney function at delivery was not different, but proteinuria was higher in the diet group. Incidence of small for gestational age babies was significantly lower in the diet group (3/21) versus controls (7/16; chi-squared test; P=0.05). Throughout follow-up (6 months to 10 years), hospitalization rates and prevalence of children below the third percentile were similar in both groups. Conclusion Vegan–vegetarian supplemented

  2. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  3. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women with Sleep Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Rajendiran, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Ananthanarayanan, P. H.; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Objective The quality and duration of sleep is impaired during pregnancy. Our study aimed to determine whether maternal sleep deprivation occurring during the second and third trimester of pregnancy could alter fetal well-being with respect to birth weight and APGAR score by altering the inflammatory status and oxidative stress in the mothers.  Methods Sleep adequacy was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We investigated the inflammatory status and oxidative stress at term in the blood of pregnant subjects with and without sleep deprivation by measuring the levels of protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO). Homocysteine (Hcy) and its vitamin determinants were also measured. Fetal outcome with respect to birth weight and APGAR score were compared between study subjects.  Results A significant increase was observed in the levels of hsCRP, PBSA, Hcy, MDA, and PCO, in the sleep-deprived group when compared to the control group. Fetal outcome at birth showed a significant difference between the cases with high sleep deprivation and those with low sleep deprivation.  Conclusion Sleep deprivation in pregnancy leads to an increase in the inflammatory parameters, oxidative stress, and Hcy levels. Fetal outcome at birth was affected more in mothers with high sleep deprivation than those with low sleep deprivation. Follow-up in these babies are needed to reveal any differences in their growth and development. PMID:26366260

  4. Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Masoumeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Simbar, Masoumeh; Seyed Mosaavi, Hassan; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life is affected by electromagnetic field exposure in each person everyday life. However, this is extremely controversial issue. Objective: Investigation of the associations between electromagnetic field exposure and miscarriage among women of Tehran. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 462 pregnant women with gestational age <12 wks from seven main regions of Tehran city in Iran with similar social and cultural status were participated. Women were interviewed face-to face to collect data. Reproductive information was collected using medical file recorded in those hospitals the subjects had delivery. The measuring device measured electromagnetic waves, Narda safety test solutions with valid calibration date at the entrance door of their houses. Results: A significant likelihood of miscarriage in women who exposed to significant level of electromagnetic wave. However, this association was not confirmed by Wald test. Conclusion: This study may not provide strong or consistent evidence that electromagnetic field exposure is associated or cause miscarriage. This issue may be due to small sample size in this study. PMID:27326421

  5. Registration and monitoring of pregnant women in Tamil Nadu, India: a critique.

    PubMed

    Gaitonde, Rakhal

    2012-06-01

    In 2008 a pregnancy registration system was introduced in rural Tamil Nadu, India, which is now being scaled up. It will collect data on antenatal, delivery and post-partum care in pregnant women and infant health. This is seen as an important public health intervention, justified for its potential to ensure efficiency in provision and use of maternity services. However, from another perspective, it can be seen as a form of control over women, reducing the experience of safe pregnancy and delivery to a few measurable variables. The burden of implementing this task falls on Village Health Nurses, who are also women, reducing their time for interacting with and educating people and visiting communities, which is their primary task and the basis on which they are evaluated. In addition, they face logistical constraints in rural settings that may affect the quality of data. In a health system with rigid internal hierarchies and power differentials, this system may become more of a supervisory and monitoring tool than a tool for a learning health system. It may also lead to a victim-blaming approach ("you missed two antenatal visits") rather than health system learning to improve maternal and infant health. The paper concludes by recommending ways to use the system and the data to tackle the broader social determinants of health, with women, health workers and communities as partners in the process. PMID:22789089

  6. Depression, Social Support, and Coping Styles among Pregnant Women after the Lushan Earthquake in Ya’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianrong; Li, Xirong; Liu, Xinghui; Pang, Meiche

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to assess the depression of pregnant women in the aftermath of an earthquake, and to identify the social support that they obtained, their coping styles and socio-demographic factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 128 pregnant women from three hospitals in the epicenter area were recruited immediately after the Ya’an earthquake. Their depression was investigated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff score of 14; the social support that they obtained was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire; and their coping styles were assessed using the Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results Immediately after the earthquake, the incidence rate of depression in pregnant women was 35.2%, higher than that of the general pregnant population (7%-14%). The EPDS scores were significantly correlated with gestation age at the time of the earthquake, objective support, subjective support, use of support, negative coping style, and positive coping style. The regression analysis indicated that risk factors of prenatal depression include the number of children, relatives wounded, subjective support, and coping styles. A further analysis of the interaction between social support and two types of coping styles with depression showed that there was interaction effect between subjective social support and positive coping styles in relation to EPDS scores. There was an inverse relationship between low EPDS scores and positive coping styles and high social support, and vice versa. Conclusion The timing of the occurrence of the earthquake may not necessarily affect the progress of the illness and recovery from depression, and psychological intervention could be conducted in the immediate aftermath after the earthquake. The impact of coping styles on prenatal depression appeared to be linked with social support. Helping pregnant women to adopt positive coping styles with good social support after a recent major

  7. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600) PMID:23268736

  9. [Basic and metabolic therapy of hypertensive disease in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Leshchinskiĭ, L A; Gaĭsin, I R; Maksimov, N I

    2008-01-01

    This open non-randomized study had the objective to analyse the course of pregnancy and labor as well as their outcomes in 62 women with hypertensive disease (essential hypertention). The patients were allocated to two groups, one (group 1) comprising 32 the other (group 2, control) 30 women. All patients in group 1 underwent pregravid preparation and remained under observation throughout the pregnancy period in specialized cardiological departments. They were given treatment that included intake of antihypertensive drugs (methyldopa, long-acting nifedipin, metoprolol), desaggregant (dipyridamole, pentoxifllin), and metabolically active agent (vitamin E, folic acid, magnesium orotate, actovegin, cocarboxylase, and inosin). Gestosis developed in 25% of the patients in group 1 within 37 weeks and in 56.7% of the women (p < 0.05) in group 2 within 23-37 weeks of pregnancy. Circulatory disturbances in the mother-placenta-fetus system were recorded in 25% and 50% of the women in groups 1 and 2 respectively (p < 0.05), intrauterine fetal hypoxia in 18.8 and 50% (p < 0.05), chronic fetoplacental insufficiency in and fetal growth retardation syndrome in 12.5 and 40% (p < 0.05). In group 2, the perinatal mortality rate was 66.7% and perinatal losses amounted to 100.0% compared with their absence in group 1 (p < 0.05). Premature delivery occurred in 30% of the women in group 2 and was absent in group 1 (p < 0.05). In group 1, 9.4 of the newborn infants had low birth weight compared with 33.3% of the live full-term infants in group 2 (p < 0.05). Conjugated jaundice prevailed among the diseases affecting newborns in group 1 whereas intrauterine infections and posthypoxic encephalopathies were most common in group 2 It is concluded than combined therapy of hypertensive disease in women delayed the development of gestosis and made it possible to maintain pregnancy till normal outcome for both the mother and the child. PMID:19048832

  10. Cadmium levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, P.M.; Kuhnert, B.R.; Bottoms, S.F.; Erhard, P.

    1982-04-15

    Previous studies have reported that cigarette smoking is a major source of exposure to cadmium (Cd). This study was carried out to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the disposition of the Cd in the maternal-fetoplacental unit. Our data reveal that pregnant women who smoke expose themselves and their placentas to levels of Cd higher than those to which they would normally be exposed. The percentage increase in Cd due to smoking was 32% in the placenta and 59% in maternal blood; these increases are statistically significant. The mean levels of Cd in maternal blood, cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoked were all higher than the mean levels of Cd in the same tissues and blood of pregnant women who did not smoke. In addition, the levels of Cd in the maternal blood of smokers were significantly higher than levels of Cd in the cord blood of their infants; this relationship was not found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses of pregnant women who smoke apparently receive very little additional exposure to Cd; however, this does not lessen concern for the fetus. The presently reported increase in exposure to Cd of pregnant women due to smoking must be viewed as undesirable because Cd has been shown to alter placental function in animals, and because Cd has no known biologic function.

  11. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  12. The First Serological Study of Coxiella burnetii among Pregnant Women in Iran

    PubMed Central

    KHAYYAT KHAMENEIE, Maryam; ASADI, Javad; KHALILI, Mohammad; ABIRI, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. There is no information about this disease in pregnant women in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection among pregnant women in southwestern (Ahvaz) and northern (Parsabad) Iran and further to comparison its prevalence in normal and abnormal pregnancies. Methods: A total of 400 samples were collected randomly from pregnant women who referred to diagnostic laboratories of Ahvaz and Parsabad in 2014. An indirect ELISA kit, designed in Veterinary Faculty, was used to detect the specific antibodies against phase II humanC. burnetii in serum samples. Results: The overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sera from pregnant women was 29.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25–34%). The prevalence of C. burnetii infection was significantly different in Ahvaz and Parsabad with, respectively, 22 (95% CI: 16–28%) and 36.5% (95% CI: 30–43%). Total prevalence of C. burnetii infection in serum was significantly higher in women with abnormal pregnancy history (39.8%) compared with normal pregnancies (23.8%). Furthermore, maternal age had significant association with seropositivity and the prevalence increased with maternal age. This could be due to higher probability of encountering C. burnetii in older women. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated ahigh seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection among pregnant women in Iran for the first time. Seropositivity was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal age. The pregnant women who experienced abnormal pregnancy had higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii compared to women with normal pregnancy. PMID:27252922

  13. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Nigerian Women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, EI; Famurewa, AC; Ikaraoha, CI

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of normotensive pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional subjects of eighty pregnant women living in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state, South-East Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The present study compared serum calcium and magnesium in forty preeclamptic (cases) and forty normotensive (control) pregnant women matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20 statistical software. Differences between means were compared using Student's t-test with P < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: While the mean serum calcium was comparable between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women (13.99 [3.29] vs. 14.02 [5.68] μg/dl), the preeclamptic pregnant women have significantly (P < 0.001) lower serum magnesium in comparison to their normotensive counterparts (3.22 [1.05] vs. 4.15 [0.78]). Conclusion: It may be concluded that serum magnesium seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:27144074

  14. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

  15. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  16. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  17. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  18. Positive Attitudes towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) in a Swedish Cohort of 1,003 Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Gustavsson, Peter; Wincent, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The clinical utilization of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for identification of fetal aneuploidies is expanding worldwide. The aim of this study was to gain an increased understanding of pregnant women’s awareness, attitudes, preferences for risk information and decision-making concerning prenatal examinations with emphasis on NIPT, before its introduction into Swedish healthcare. Method Pregnant women were recruited to fill in a questionnaire, including multiple-choice questions and Likert scales, at nine maternity clinics located in different areas of Stockholm, Sweden. Results In total, 1,003 women participated in the study (86% consent rate). The vast majority (90.7%) considered examinations aiming to detect fetal abnormalities to be good. Regarding NIPT, 59.8% stated that they had heard about the method previously, yet 74.0% would like to use the test if available. The main factor affecting the women’s decision to undergo prenatal chromosomal screening was worry about the baby’s health (82.5%), followed by the urge to have as much information as possible about the fetus (54.5%). Most women (79.9%) preferred to receive NIPT information orally. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of a cohort of 1,003 pregnant women considered prenatal examinations good. Moreover, the majority had a positive attitude towards NIPT and would like to use the test if available. PMID:27195496

  19. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL) of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae). Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011). Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005). Conclusions There was no difference in generic QOL of pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women

  20. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  1. Promoting positive motherhood among nulliparous pregnant women with an intense fear of childbirth: RCT intervention.

    PubMed

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Rouhe, Hanna; Halmesmäki, Erja; Toivanen, Riikka Maria; Tokola, Maiju Ilona; Saisto, Terhi

    2012-05-01

    This RCT intervention among nulliparous pregnant women with an intense fear of childbirth sought to promote preparedness for childbirth and to enhance positive parenting. Pregnant women (n = 8,611) filled in a 'fear of childbirth' questionnaire. Nulliparous women with severe fear of childbirth (n = 355) were randomized into intervention (n = 131; 41 refused) and control (n = 224) groups. They rated themselves on a preparedness scale in middle and late pregnancy, and on a motherhood scale three months after childbirth. The intervention included six psycho-education group sessions during pregnancy and one after childbirth. This intervention increased the mothers' preparedness for childbirth, which predicted an increase in positive motherhood. PMID:21963681

  2. Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exercise in Pregnant Women on Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Dawndra M; Tiongco, Cynthia Gorter; Whisner, Sandra M; Geddie, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an Aquatic Exercise Program (AEP) provided by an occupational therapist for pregnant women on hospitalized bed rest. Researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized pregnant women comparing those who attended an AEP (n = 19) to a control group who received no AEP (n = 12). Statistical tests were used to assess evidence of differences in length of gestation as well as blood pressure and amniotic fluid index (AFI) at discharge. Women who received an AEP had increased AFI and length of gestation compared to the control group. This study supports the use of an AEP as an intervention for pregnant women on prescribed bed rest. Further research is recommended to validate these findings with a larger sample. PMID:25924026

  3. [HIV in indigenous pregnant women: a challenge for peruvian public health].

    PubMed

    Portocarrero, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review addresses the issue of indigenous pregnant women with HIV, recounting the main findings on the issue at the international level and then reviewing the status of research in Peru. Research at the international level on indigenous pregnant women focuses on the health of the unborn and the prevention of vertical transmission. There is little information about their conceptions of the disease, care practices and prevention of vertical transmission, and their perceptions of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and the role of traditional medicine in the care of their health condition. At the national level only one bibliographic reference was found. There is evidence for the need of an urgent medical anthropological focus to investigate and deal with cases of HIV in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:26580939

  4. Nausea in pregnancy: attitudes among pregnant women and general practitioners on treatment and pregnancy care

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Kristine; Svendsen, Hans Christian; Sporsheim, Ingvild H.; Holst, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and may have great impact on a woman’s life. The aim of this study was to explore thoughts and attitudes among Norwegian pregnant women and GPs on treatment of NVP and pregnancy care. Design Focus-group study. Setting and subjects Separate focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and GPs. Results Two focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and two with GPs. The GPs thought it was important to normalize NVP symptoms. However, the women felt their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. The women were sceptical towards the use of medicines while pregnant, and avoidance was sought despite being ill. The GPs appeared uncertain with respect to medical treatment of NVP, which was stated to be considered only after progression to quite severe symptoms. Sick leave seemed to be an important part of the treatment regime applied by the GPs. The women had good experiences with graded sick leave. Conclusion This Norwegian study identifies attitudes among GPs and pregnant women that may act as obstacles to appropriate care for women with NVP. The pregnant women and the GPs seemed to talk at cross-purposes; GPs’ normalization of the symptoms made the women feel that their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. Our results indicate that pregnant women with NVP requiring medical treatment probably need comprehensive and reassuring information about treatment options before considering using any medicines. Key pointsNausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and considered to be of clinical significance for 35% of women. While the GPs agreed on the importance of normalizing the symptoms, the women felt their distress was trivialized, and missed being properly evaluated.Both the GPs and the women showed a reluctant attitude to medical treatment of NVP.The GPs gave the impression of considering medical treatment only after progression of

  5. The Quality of Life in Pregnant Women Conceiving Through in Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    GLOBEVNIK VELIKONJA, Vislava; LOZEJ, Tina; LEBAN, Gaja; VERDENIK, Ivan; VRTAČNIK BOKAL, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine whether pregnant women conceiving through in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those conceiving spontaneously in terms of psychological well-being and the quality of life. Methods In a prospective study we included 75 women conceived after IVF and 78 who conceived spontaneously in the same time period (control group). All the women were sent a self-report questionnaire about demographic and reproductive history, health, pregnancy concerns, containing Subjective Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Zung Self-Assessment Anxiety Scale (SAS); obstetric and newborn’s data were obtained from medical records. Response rate was 66.6% in the IVF and 83.3% in control group. Results The mean women’s age was 33.8 years in the IVF, and 32.5 years in the control group (NS). There were no significant differences between groups on the most of the outcome measures assessing psychological status. IVF mothers were just less satisfied in “friend/acquaintances” (P=0.03), a higher percentage had sexual problems prior to conception (P=0.03); the length of hospitalization during pregnancy was longer (P=0.02), and the preterm delivery rate was higher (P=0.01). Withingroup changes over gestation time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in positive affect (P=0.04) and purpose in life (P=0.05). Conclusions IVF women are inclined to social isolation. Despite more medical problems during pregnancy, they reported improved positive emotions and purpose in life as the pregnancy progressed.

  6. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth. PMID:26785702

  7. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  8. Candida isolates from pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility in a Malaysian tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Siti Norbaya; Noor, Sabariah Md; Nor, Lailatul Akmar Mat; Osman, Malina; Rahman, MM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Pregnant women are susceptible to vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of Candida spp in high vaginal swabs of pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility. Methods: High vaginal swab samples received from Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia during 2011 initially had microscopic examination, Gram-staining and fungal culture. These were finally confirmed by growth in chromogenic medium (CHROMagarCandida; Difco BBL, USA) and commercial biochemical identification kit (API 20C AUX; bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Antifungal susceptibility was performed by E-test method. Results: Out of 1163 specimens 200 (17.2%) candida spp were confirmed from high vaginal swabs of pregnant women. Candida albicans (83.5%) is the most common species detected followed by Candida glabrata (16%) and Candida famata (0.05%). All C. albicans and C.famata isolates were susceptible to fluconazole while C.glabrata isolates were dose dependent susceptibility. First and second trimester, and diabetes were considered significant factors in patients for the vaginal candidiasis (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In pregnant women, C. albicans was the frequently isolated yeast from high vaginal swabs. Routine screening and treatment are important of pregnant women regardless of symptoms. PMID:26150863

  9. The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

    2014-10-01

    Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p < 0.05). The lowest value of FSH was in the second week of Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p < 0.1). Leptin decreased significantly 2 weeks after Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

  10. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  11. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  12. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  13. Examining Intimate Partner Violence and Health Factors Among Rural Appalachian Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Lisa; Nash, Shondrah; Jackson, Afton

    2016-09-01

    Among pregnant women, intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized as a critical risk factor in adverse health outcomes for the mother and newborn alike. This pilot study examined IPV and health for rural Appalachian pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable high-risk and high-needs group. Participants were 77 rural, Appalachian pregnant women entering a hospital-based inpatient detoxification unit primarily for Opiate Dependence. Study participants gave informed consent to a face-to-face interview and secondary data abstraction from hospital medical records. IPV was measured via questions from the National Violence Against Women Survey, the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). The majority of the sample reported lifetime psychological (89.6%) and physical (64.9%) violence. A little over three fourths (75.3%) experienced IPV in the past year. Furthermore, over one third (39.0%) experienced stalking, physical, or sexual violence in the past year. Most participants (71.4%) experienced psychological abuse in the past year. IPV experiences, in conjunction with pervasive substance use, mental and physical health problems, and poverty present in rural Appalachia, culminate in a particularly high-risk and high-needs group of pregnant women. These women present unique opportunities and challenges for prevention, intervention, and treatment. PMID:25846757

  14. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al Harrasi, Yusra; Al-Duhli, Maymoona; Al-Rubkhi, Ikhlass; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Pathare, Anil V.; Gowri, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD) antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. 
Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history. PMID:26813962

  15. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women. PMID:11302356

  16. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  17. Identifying Insomnia in Early Pregnancy: Validation of the Insomnia Symptoms Questionnaire (ISQ) in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although a substantial number of pregnant women report symptoms of insomnia, few studies have used a validated instrument to determine the prevalence in early gestation. Identification of insomnia in pregnancy is vital given the strong connection between insomnia and the incidence of depression, cardiovascular disease, or immune dysregulation. The goal of this paper is to provide additional psychometric evaluation and validation of the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) and to establish prevalence rates of insomnia among a cohort of pregnant women during early gestation. Methods: The ISQ was evaluated in 143 pregnant women at 12 weeks gestation. The internal consistency and criterion validity of the dichotomized ISQ were compared to traditional measures of sleep from sleep diaries, actigraphy, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV), and likelihood ratio (LR) tests. Results: The ISQ identified 12.6% of the sample as meeting a case definition of insomnia, consistent with established diagnostic criteria. Good reliability was established with Cronbach α = 0.86. The ISQ had high specificity (most > 85%), but sensitivity, PPV, NPV, and LRs varied according to which sleep measure was used as the validating criterion. Conclusions: Insomnia is a health problem for many pregnant women at all stages in pregnancy. These data support the validity and reliability of the ISQ to identify insomnia in pregnant women. The ISQ is a short and cost-effective tool that can be quickly employed in large observational studies or in clinical practice where perinatal women are seen. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 593. Citation: Okun ML, Buysse DJ, Hall MH. Identifying insomnia in early pregnancy: validation of the insomnia symptoms questionnaire (ISQ) in pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):645–654. PMID:25766716

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women, and Their Awareness Regarding Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Mohan, Sugandha; Bhaskar, Nandini; Walia, Prabhjot Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes are undesirable events occurring during pregnancy and childbirth in mother or child, such as Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) and preeclampsia. There is growing evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth even after adjusting for known risk factors. Aim 1. To determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant females about oral health. 2. To evaluate the oral hygiene practices of pregnant females. 3. To evaluate their awareness regarding effect of oral health on adverse pregnancy outcomes. 4. To assess whether there was any significant difference from their non pregnant counter parts. 5. To evaluate whether their awareness towards dental treatment had increased after conceiving. Materials and Methods 200 pregnant and 200 non-pregnant women filled up a validated questionnaire which comprised of questions on personal data, oral hygiene knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and their awareness regarding the correlation of oral health to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical Analysis Analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The results indicate no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed in both the groups, indicating that no further knowledge had been imparted to the women after they conceived. 96% women of both groups (p>0.05) had received no knowledge from the gynaecologist regarding the impact of oral health on pregnancy outcomes. 93.9% of pregnant women, and 89.5% of non pregnant women (p>0.05) did not go for routine dental check-ups. Only 3% of pregnant women were aware of oral health having a correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In our study, pregnancy did little to change future attitudes to dental care. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. PMID:26674176

  19. In vivo response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Siaya District, Kenya*

    PubMed Central

    Steketee, R. W.; Brandling-Bennett, A. D.; Kaseje, D. C. O.; Schwartz, I. K.; Churchill, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Chemoprophylaxis using chloroquine (CQ) in suppressive doses has been recommended to protect pregnant women in malarious areas from the adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy. In a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya with CQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, we determined the prevalence and density of falciparum infection in gravid and nulligravid women and compared the in-vivo parasite response to CQ using two regimens: 25 mg/kg body weight (CQ25) divided over a period of three days (for high-density parasitaemias) and 5 mg/kg body weight (CQ5) weekly for 4 weeks (for low-density parasitaemias). P. falciparum infections were present in 102 (42%) of 244 pregnant women. A greater proportion of primigravidae were parasitaemic (68%) than nulligravidae (50%, P=0.02) or multigravidae (33%, P <10-6). Primigravidae showed a higher geometric mean parasite density. In the CQ25 treatment group, failure to clear parasites by day 7 was more common in primigravidae than nulligravidae (P=0.008) or multigravidae (P=0.15). In the CQ5 treatment group, primigravidae were more likely to show increasing parasite density than nulligravidae or multigravidae. In this area of Kenya, virtually all women in their first pregnancy are exposed to malaria and are at greatest risk for malaria infection; compared with other women, they show higher parasite densities and are least likely to respond to chloroquine treatment in areas of chloroquine resistance. Malaria control strategies might be targeted to this group of women, but we are pessimistic about the efficacy of weekly CQ5 where there is chloroquine resistance. PMID:3325186

  20. HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuping; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Wu, Qiang; Yu, Jiang; Guo, Zhiqiu; Han, Yali; Fan, Yujiang; Qin, Xianfang; Xu, Ping; Bolatihan, Janati; Hoshaerbai, Mayinuer; Yuan, Luping; Hong, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has increased in recent years. HIV screening for pregnant women was performed in a remote area in Xinjiang, as an effort to promote universal HIV screening in pregnant women and to help prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women in Burqin and Jeminay Counties in Xinjiang were offered free voluntary HIV screening. Local mid-level medical workers were trained to use Determine® HIV-1/2 kit for HIV screening. All the tested pregnant women signed a consent form, received HIV education material, and participated in an HIV knowledge survey. Results: All the 890 pregnant women receiving HIV test had negative result. Among these women, 67.6% were Kazakh and 40.9% were farmers. Survey of HIV knowledge showed that these women's awareness about mother-to-child transmission was limited. The levels of HIV knowledge were related with ethnic background, age, education and profession of the pregnant women. Conclusion: The results suggested that HIV infection had not become a significant problem among the pregnant women in this remote area of Xinjiang, but continued efforts to improve the awareness of HIV, especially the knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV, in pregnant women were needed. PMID:22207891

  1. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442

  2. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  3. Addressing health concerns of pregnant African American women using the lens of complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Sims, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant African American women are at higher risk for multiple complex health issues, including depression, than their European American counterparts (Canady, Bullen, Holzman, Broman, & Tian, 2008; Martin et al, 2011; Mathews & MacDorman, 2007; Orr, Blazer, & James, 2006; Segre, Losch, & O'Hara, 2006). Various strategies must be used to address depression through preventive care and promotion of access to appropriate mental health services. Nurses and other health care providers need to examine the relationships between the multifactorial problems to improve the health and well-being of pregnant African American women and their unborn children. This article presents a case study demonstrating the use of complexity science theory to understand and prevent poor health outcomes for pregnant African American women with depression and their unborn children. PMID:26050422

  4. Oral health status and treatment needs of pregnant women in Lagos State.

    PubMed

    Agbelusi, G A; Akinwande, J A; Shutti, Y O

    2000-09-01

    The oral health status and treatment needs of 250 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Randle Health Centre was investigated. A coded questionnaire was administered to the pregnant women followed by their oral examination in the dental clinic. The mean oral hygiene index score increased progressively throughout pregnancy viz 1st trimester 0.72, second trimester 1.06 and third trimester 1.23. Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) revealed that 50% required scale and polish and oral hygiene instruction, 13.60% required oral hygiene instruction only and 32.2% did not require any treatment. Decayed Missing and Filled (DMF) recorded was 1.54. 51.72% of the pregnant women required amalgam fillings, 23.27% required extraction due to caries and 16.38% required partial dentures. PMID:11257922

  5. [The local prevalence of group B streptococcus in pregnant women and newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Celebi, S; Tuncel, E; Babacan, M

    1992-04-01

    In this study, group B streptococcus (GBS) were investigated in vaginal swabs obtained from 76 pregnant women and in samples of newborn infants obtained from different areas of their bodies. GBS were determined in 5.2% of women and 3.96% of infants. GBS were recovered in 15.4% of the women in their first pregnancy and in 13.3% of women in their second pregnancy. GBS could not isolated from the women in their third and more pregnancies. All eight species of GBS were sensitive to AMP + Sulbactam, Clavulanic acid + Amox, Lincomycin, Clindamycin, Penicillin G and SMZ + TMP. PMID:1588850

  6. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2010-02-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  7. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  8. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment. PMID:26137793

  9. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minsun; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  10. [Methodology for Estimating the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Pregnant Women: Analysis of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takamasa; Ohtsu, Fumiko; Sekiya, Yasuaki; Mori, Chiyo; Sakata, Hiroshi; Goto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Safety information regarding drug use during pregnancy is insufficient. The present study aimed to establish an optimal signal detection method to identify adverse drug reactions in pregnant women and to evaluate information in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database between April 2004 and November 2014. We identified reports on pregnant women using the Standardised MedDRA Queries. We calculated the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and reporting odds ratio (ROR) of the risk factors for the two known risks of antithyroid drugs and methimazole (MMI) embryopathy, and ritodrine and fetal/infant cardiovascular events. The PRR and ROR values differed between all reports in the JADER database and those on pregnant women, affecting whether signal detection criteria were met. Therefore we considered that reports on pregnant women should be used when risks associated with pregnancy were determined using signal detection. Analyses of MMI embryopathy revealed MMI signals [PRR, 159.7; ROR, 669.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 282.4-1588.7] but no propylthiouracil signals (PRR, 1.98; ROR, 2.0; 95%CI, 0.3-15.4). These findings were consistent with those of reported risks. Analyses of fetal/infant cardiovascular events revealed ritodrine signals (PRR, 2.1; ROR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.3). These findings were also consistent with reported risks. Mining the JADER database was helpful for analyzing adverse drug reactions in pregnant women. PMID:26935093

  11. Preliminary buprenorphine sublingual tablet pharmacokinetic data in plasma, oral fluid and sweat during treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Jones, Hendreé E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Choo, Robin; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine is currently under investigation as a pharmacotherapy to treat pregnant women for opioid dependence. This research evaluates buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenophine (NBUP), buprenorphine-glucuronide (BUP-Gluc) and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (NBUP-Gluc) pharmacokinetics after high dose (14–20 mg) BUP sublingual tablet administration in three opioid-dependent pregnant women. Methods Oral fluid and sweat specimens were collected in addition to plasma specimens for 24 h during gestation weeks 28 or 29 and 34, and 2 months after delivery. Tmax was not affected by pregnancy; however, BUP and NBUP Cmax and AUC0–24h tended to be lower during pregnancy compared to postpartum levels. Results Statistically significant but weak positive correlations were found for BUP plasma and OF concentrations, and BUP/NBUP ratios in plasma and OF. Conclusion Statistically significant negative correlations were observed for times of specimen collection and BUP and NBUP OF/plasma ratios. BUP-Gluc and NBUP-Gluc were detected in only 5% of OF specimens. In sweat, BUP and NBUP were detected in only 4 of 25 (12 or 24 h) specimens in low concentrations (<2.4 ng/patch). These preliminary data describe BUP and metabolite pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and suggest that, like methadone, upward dose adjustments may be needed with advancing gestation. PMID:21860340

  12. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  13. Clinical care for opioid-using pregnant and postpartum women: the role of obstetric providers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Deppen, Krisanna; Hudak, Mark L; Leffert, Lisa; McClelland, Carol; Sahin, Leyla; Starer, Jacquelyn; Terplan, Mishka; Thorp, John M; Walsh, James; Creanga, Andreea A

    2014-04-01

    We review clinical care issues that are related to illicit and therapeutic opioid use among pregnant women and women in the postpartum period and outline the major responsibilities of obstetrics providers who care for these patients during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Selected patient treatment issues are highlighted, and case examples are provided. Securing a strong rapport and trust with these patients is crucial for success in delivering high-quality obstetric care and in coordinating services with other specialists as needed. Obstetrics providers have an ethical obligation to screen, assess, and provide brief interventions and referral to specialized treatment for patients with drug use disorders. Opioid-dependent pregnant women often can be treated effectively with methadone or buprenorphine. These medications are classified as pregnancy category C medications by the Food and Drug Administration, and their use in the treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant patients should not be considered "off-label." Except in rare special circumstances, medication-assisted withdrawal during pregnancy should be discouraged because of a high relapse rate. Acute pain management in this population deserves special consideration because patients who use opioids can be hypersensitive to pain and because the use of mixed opioid-agonist/antagonists can precipitate opioid withdrawal. In the absence of other indications, pregnant women who use opioids do not require more intense medical care than other pregnant patients to ensure adequate treatment and the best possible outcomes. Together with specialists in pain and addiction medicine, obstetricians can coordinate comprehensive care for pregnant women who use opioids and women who use opioids in the postpartum period. PMID:24120973

  14. The Effect of Fish Consumption on Blood Mercury Levels of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euy Hyuk; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Sang Wun; Park, Yong Won

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationship between average fish consumption, as well as the type of fish consumed and levels of mercury in the blood of pregnant women. We also performed follow-up studies to determine if blood mercury levels were decreased after counseling and prenatal education. To examine these potential relationships, pregnant women were divided into two groups: a study group was educated to restrict fish intake, whereas a control group did not receive any prenatal education regarding fish consumption. We measured blood mercury level and performed follow-up studies during the third trimester to examine any differences between the two groups. Out of the 63 pregnant women who participated in our study, we performed follow-up studies with 19 pregnant women from the study group and 12 pregnant women from control group. The average initial blood mercury level of both groups was 2.94 µg/L, with a range of 0.14 to 10.75 µg/L. Blood mercury level in the group who ate fish more than four times per month was significantly higher than that of the group who did not consume fish (p = 0.02). In follow-up studies, blood mercury levels were decreased in the study group but slightly increased in the control group (p = 0.014). The maternal blood mercury level in late pregnancy was positively correlated with mercury levels of cord blood (r = 0.58, p = 0.047), which was almost twice the level found in maternal blood. Pregnant women who consume a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury levels. Further, cord blood mercury levels were much higher than that of maternal blood. Because the level of fish intake appears to influence blood mercury level, preconceptual education might be necessary in order decrease fish consumption. PMID:17066506

  15. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  16. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  17. Thyroid antagonists and thyroid indicators in U.S. pregnant women in the Vanguard Study of the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Mary E; Birch, Rebecca; Wong, Lee-Yang; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Boyle, Elizabeth B; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Merrill, Lori S; Moye, John; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-08-01

    The sodium iodide-symporter (NIS) mediates uptake of iodide into thyroid follicular cells. This key step in thyroid hormone synthesis is inhibited by perchlorate, thiocyanate (SCN) and nitrate (NO3) anions. When these exposures occur during pregnancy the resulting decreases in thyroid hormones may adversely affect neurodevelopment of the human fetus. Our objectives were to describe and examine the relationship of these anions to the serum thyroid indicators, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), in third trimester women from the initial Vanguard Study of the National Children's Study (NCS); and to compare urine perchlorate results with those in pregnant women from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Urinary perchlorate, SCN, NO3, and iodine, serum TSH, FT4, and cotinine were measured and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to pregnant women enrolled in the initial Vanguard Study. We used multiple regression models of FT4 and TSH that included perchlorate equivalent concentration (PEC, which estimates combined inhibitory effects of the anions perchlorate, SCN, and NO3 on the NIS). We used multiple regression to model predictors of each urinary anion, using FFQ results, drinking water source, season of year, smoking status, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were calculated for pregnant women in NHANES 2001-2012. The geometric mean (GM) for urinary perchlorate was 4.04µg/L, for TSH 1.46mIU/L, and the arithmetic mean for FT4 1.11ng/dL in 359 NCS women. In 330 women with completed FFQs, consumption of leafy greens, winter season, and Hispanic ethnicity were significant predictors of higher urinary perchlorate, which differed significantly by study site and primary drinking water source, and bottled water was associated with higher urinary perchlorate compared to filtered tap water. Leafy greens consumption was associated with higher urinary NO3 and higher urinary SCN. There was

  18. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  19. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  20. Psychological violence against pregnant women in a prenatal care cohort: rates and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence against pregnant women has been associated with gestational and perinatal disorders. Psychological violence is the type least investigated and its associated factors have been little studied. The present study was conducted in order to estimate prevalence rates and analyze the factors associated with exclusive and recurrent psychological violence in the municipality of São Luís, Brazil. Methods Data regarding 982 pregnant women, aged from 14 to 45 years, interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in a prenatal cohort were used. A self-applied questionnaire was used to screen for violence. Pregnant women submitted to physical and sexual violence were excluded from the analysis of factors associated with exclusive psychological violence. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by a Poisson regression model with a hierarchical approach at three levels. At level 1 of the theoretical-conceptual model, we analyzed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and variables that express gender inequalities; at level 2, we analyzed social support received by the women, and at level 3, the life experiences of the pregnant women. Results Prevalence rate of exclusive psychological violence was 41.6% and of recurrent violence was 32.6%. Exclusive psychological violence was associated with pregnant women’s age of 14 to 18 years (PR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.04 – 1.70), pregnant women’s schooling superior to that of her intimate partner (PR: 1.54 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.16), inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.34 95% CI: 1.11 – 1.62), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 1.80 95% CI: 1.16 – 2.81) and having had six or more intimate partners in life (PR: 1.52 95% CI: 1.18 – 1.96). Recurrent exclusive psychological violence was associated with inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.87), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 2,28 95% CI: 1

  1. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to

  2. A psychometric analysis of the functional social support questionnaire in low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kathy B; Hall, Lynne A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) in pregnant women. A secondary analysis of data from 186 low-income pregnant women in their third trimester was conducted to assess the internal consistency reliability, dimensionality, and concurrent validity of the FSSQ. Cronbach's alpha was .83. Factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the FSSQ. Correlations with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) supported concurrent and construct validity. This secondary analysis provided evidence of the psychometric soundness of the FSSQ in this sample. PMID:22077749

  3. [Music dynamics: New methodological proposal at work with pregnant women during prenatal care].

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Ana Paula Xavier; da Motta, Maria Graça Corso

    2004-12-01

    It is qualitative research, using and Creative and Sensible Method and Content Analysis. It aimed to find out how pregnant women experience the use of music to understand the gestational process. Participants were seven primiparous pregnant women, during the third trimester of pregnancy. The study happened in the Basic Health Center in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. For data collection, creativity and sensitivity dynamics were employed, called musical dynamics, as well as a semi-structured interviews and observation. Results have showed that music can be employed as a facilitating resource in the teaching/learning process, favoring educators/nurses in their educational activities. PMID:15712807

  4. Distribution of Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osaro, Erhabor; Ladan, Malami Aisha; Zama, Isaac; Ahmed, Yakubu; Mairo, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kell antigen is highly immunogenic and is the common cause of antibody production in mismatched blood transfusions, haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) and maternal alloimmunization, which causes severe anaemia in neonates. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and ethnic variation of the Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods Kell antigen status of 150 pregnant women aged 18-45 years and mean age 27.19 ±4.69 years attending antenatal clinic in UDUTH Sokoto Nigeria was determined using the conventional tube method and anti-Kell reagents (Lorne Laboratories, UK). Results Among the 150 subjects studied, 3 (2.0%) of subjects were positive and 147 (98.0) were negative for K antigen. Of the 150 pregnant subjects; 32 (21.3%) were primigravidae while 118 (78.7%) were multigravidae. Kell phenotype was more prevalent among primigravidae (3.1%) compared to multigravidae (1.7%) women. The distribution of Kell phenotype among the pregnant subjects was compared based on ethnicity. The prevalence of Kell antigen was significantly higher among the Hausa ethnic group (3.2%) compared to other ethnic groups which indicated zero prevalence (p = 0.001). Kell negative phenotype was ≥ 96.8% among all the ethnic groups. Conclusion Our observed prevalence of Kell phenotype is consistent with previous studies among Blacks and Asians but significantly lower than values observed in previous studies among Caucasians. We recommend that all pregnant women should be screened for the presence clinically significant red cell antigens including Kell antigen on their first antenatal visit. Kell negative red cell should be routinely provided for all pregnant women and women with child bearing potential to reduce the risk of Kell-associated HDFN. There is need to introduce routine screening of pregnant women for clinically significant red cell antibodies to facilitate the effective management of HDFN as well as prevent HTR. There is also need

  5. Serum Copper, Zinc and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25400710

  6. Asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigerian pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, S T; Fehintola, F A; Adeyanju, O A; Adedeji, A A

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium falciparum is increased in pregnant women. In sub-Saharan Africa, the consequences of maternal malaria include preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and increased infant mortality. Malaria transmission requires the circulation of viable gametocytes that can be ingested by the female mosquito taking a blood meal. This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of asexual and sexual stages of P. falciparum in pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinics in south-western Nigeria, an area hyper-endemic for malaria. Gametocyte carriage was about 13%, similar to that documented for children symptomatic for malaria in our area of study.

  7. Prospective evaluation of hemostatic system activation and thrombin potential in healthy pregnant women with and without factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, S; Weltermann, A; Philipp, K; Hafner, E; Kaider, A; Kittl, E M; Brenner, B; Mannhalter, C; Lechner, K; Kyrle, P A

    1999-10-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with alterations of the hemostatic system towards a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The risk of venous thrombosis is higher in pregnant women with factor V Leiden (FVL) than in those with wildtype factor V. Routine laboratory assays are not useful to detect hypercoagulable conditions. A prospective and systematic evaluation of hemostatic system activation in women with and without FVL during an uncomplicated pregnancy employing more sensitive markers of hypercoagulability, such as prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), D-Dimer, or the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), an indicator of the plasma's potential to generate thrombin, has not been performed. We prospectively followed 113 pregnant women with (n = 11) and without (n = 102) FVL and measured F1+2. TAT, D-Dimer and the ETP at the 12th, 22nd and 34th gestational week as well as 3 months after delivery (baseline) in each subject. None of the women developed clinical signs of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum. Pregnant women with and without FVL exhibited substantial activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system as indicated by a gradual increase of F1+2, TAT and D-Dimer throughout uncomplicated pregnancy up to levels similar to those found in acute thromboembolic events (p < 0.0001 by analysis of variance for each parameters). Levels of F1+2 and TAT were comparable between women with and without FVL, but levels of D-Dimer were significantly higher in women with FVL than in those without the mutation (p = 0.0005). The ETP remained unchanged in both women with and without FVL at all timepoints. Our data demonstrate a substantial coagulation and fibrinolytic system activation in healthy women with and without FVL during uncomplicated pregnancy. An elevated F1+2, TAT or D-Dimer level during pregnancy is not necessarily indicative for an acute thromboembolic event. The normal ETP in both

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 ± 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0

  9. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF

  10. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447

  11. Urine and serum biomonitoring of exposure to environmental estrogens I: Bisphenol A in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Despite its very low oral bioavailability and rapid elimination, multiple reports of unexpectedly high bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in the serum of pregnant mothers or cord blood have raised questions about BPA exposures during pregnancy. Thirty healthy pregnant women recruited to the study were evaluated for total BPA exposure over a 30-h period comprising one-half day in the field and one day in a clinical setting. BPA and its metabolites were measured in serum and total BPA was measured in matching urine samples. The mean total exposure was similar to the 50(th) percentile of exposure for U.S. women and pregnant women in a large North American cohort. Twenty volunteers had total daily exposures equal to or exceeding the U.S. mean, and six volunteers had exposures exceeding the 75th percentile. Women working as cashiers did not have higher total BPA exposure. BPA was detected in some serum samples (0.25-0.51 ng/ml), but showed no relationship to total BPA in corresponding urine samples, no relationship to total BPA exposure, and had unconjugated BPA fractions of 60-80%, consistent with established criteria for sample contamination. We conclude that typical exposures of North American pregnant women produce internal exposures to BPA in the picomolar range. PMID:27038865

  12. Development and validation of a new tool to measure Iranian pregnant women's empowerment.

    PubMed

    Borghei, N S; Taghipour, A; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Keramat, A

    2016-12-01

    Empowering pregnant women improves their health and reduces maternal mortality, but there is a lack of suitable tools to measure women's empowerment in some cultures. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. After a literature review, and face and content validity testing, a 38-item questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 161 pregnant women. Factor analysis grouped the items into 3 subscales: educational empowerment (e.g. prenatal training), autonomy (e.g. financial independency and mental ability) and sociopolitical empowerment (e.g. involvement in social and political activities). Criterion validity testing showed a strong positive correlation of the total scale and subscales scores with the Kameda and the Spritzer empowerment scales. Cronbach alpha was 0.92 for total empowerment. A total of 32 items remained in the Self-Structured Pregnancy Empowerment Questionnaire, which is a valid new tool to measure the dimensions of pregnant women's empowerment. PMID:26996363

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kloprogge, F; Piola, P; Dhorda, M; Muwanga, S; Turyakira, E; Apinan, S; Lindegårdh, N; Nosten, F; Day, N P J; White, N J; Guerin, P J; Tarning, J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether–lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous lumefantrine samples. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics was best described by a flexible absorption model with multiphasic disposition. Pregnancy and body temperature had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine. Simulations from the final model indicated 27% lower day 7 concentrations in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women and a decreased median time of 0.92 and 0.42 days above previously defined critical concentration cutoff values (280 and 175 ng/ml, respectively). The standard artemether–lumefantrine dose regimen in P. falciparum malaria may need reevaluation in nonimmune pregnant women. PMID:24226803

  14. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action.

    PubMed

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  15. Patient-centered prenatal counseling: aligning obstetric healthcare professionals with needs of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ruth M; Nutter, Benjamin; Agatisa, Patricia K

    2015-01-01

    The first trimester aneuploidy screen (FTS) continues to be a leading approach to identify the risk of fetal aneuploidy. This study evaluated how obstetric (OB) professionals counsel women about FTS as one of a growing number of options to assess fetal health. A survey was completed by OB professionals (board-certified obstetrician/gynecologists and certified nurse midwives) between February and March 2011: (1) to identify knowledge and practice patterns with regard to FTS, and (2) to compare pregnant women's educational needs and decision-making preferences with clinicians' perceptions of these factors. A total of 216 surveys (11 percent) were completed by OB professionals and analyzed. Several barriers to effective patient counseling were identified, including gaps in obstetric professionals' mastery of the screening test characteristics and variable approaches to discuss concepts of aneuploidy risk. OB participants reported limited confidence in discussing patient-valued topics, specifically post-screen options and pregnancy termination. Discordance was identified between OB professionals' perceptions of pregnant women's educational needs and decision-making preferences specific to FTS and historical data recently collected from 139 pregnant women who underwent the FTS. Study findings illustrate the need for clinician-targeted strategies to support pregnant women as they formulate informed decisions about the tests that may have a salient impact on their prenatal care decisions. PMID:25794055

  16. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  17. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates...

  18. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates...

  19. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  20. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  1. Cystic fibrosis heterozygote screening in 5,161 pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, D.R.; Hallam, P.; Blumberg, B.; Fishbach, A.

    1996-04-01

    A screening program for cystic fibrosis (CF) heterozygotes was conducted in a large HMO prenatal population, to evaluate the level of interest among eligible patients, the effectiveness of prescreening education, attitudes toward the screening process, psychological effects, and utilization of prenatal diagnosis and its outcomes. The heterozygote identification rate and frequency of specific CFTR mutations were also assessed. Identified carriers were offered genetic counseling and testing of male partners. Prenatal diagnosis was offered if both partners were identified as carriers. A total of 5,161 women underwent carrier testing; 947 others completed survey instruments only. The acceptance rate of screening was high (78%), and pretest education by videotape was generally effective. Adverse psychological effects were not reported. Participants generally found screening to be desirable and useful. Screening identified 142 female heterozygotes, 109 couples in which the male partner was not a carrier, and 7 high-risk couples. The incidence of R117H mutations was much higher than expected. The number of identified carriers was much lower in Hispanics than in Caucasians. We conclude that large-scale prenatal screening for CF heterozygotes in the absence of a family history of CF is an acceptable method for identifying couples at risk for affected fetuses. Sufficient pretest education can be accomplished efficiently, test insensitivity is well accepted, adverse psychological events are not observed, and general patient satisfaction is high. 66 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  2. Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnant women worldwide consume alcohol. Current research suggests that alcohol intake of seven or more standard drinks (one standard drink = 13.6 grams of absolute alcohol) per week during pregnancy places the baby at risk of serious, lifelong developmental and cognitive disabilities. Psychological and educational interventions may help women to reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy in pregnant women or women planning pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (August 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2007), CINAHL (1982 to November 2007), Counsel.Lit (1980 to November 2007), PsycLIT (1974 to November 2007) and PsycINFO (1967 to November 2007) and checked cited references from retrieved articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for reducing consumption of alcohol among pregnant women, or women planning for pregnancy. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted information from the results sections of the included studies. Main results Four studies met the inclusion criteria (715 pregnant women), and reported on at least one of the outcomes of interest. We performed no meta-analyses as the interventions and outcomes measured in the studies were not sufficiently similar. For most outcomes there were no significant differences between groups; and results relating to abstaining or reducing alcohol consumption were mixed. Results from individual studies suggest that interventions may encourage women to abstain from alcohol in pregnancy. There was very little information provided on the effects of interventions on the

  3. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (<27 years vs. ≥27 years) with regard to the median age. Region groups for comparison were West, Disko Bay, South, North and East. Results Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women <27 years were more in doubt regarding planned breastfeeding period and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland

  4. Assessment of noninvasive, percutaneous hemoglobin measurement in pregnant and early postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Atsushi; Saito, Keiko; Ishii, Kenji; Azuma, Isao; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using the Pronto-7® analyzer, we measured percutaneous hemoglobin (SpHb) noninvasively in pregnant and early postpartum women, and assessed the accuracy of the measurements by comparing them with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. Methods We obtained SpHb measurements from 193 pregnant women, 269 early postpartum women, and 76 nonpregnant women. A laboratory total hemoglobin (tHb) measurement, from venous blood sampling, was obtained immediately prior to the SpHb measurement. The total number of measurements obtained from the nonpregnant, pregnant, and postpartum women was 76, 438, and 347, respectively. Results The mean biases (SpHb − tHb) among the nonpregnant, first trimester, second trimester, third trimester, and early postpartum women were −0.20, 0.19, 1.01, 1.32, and 1.10 g/dL, respectively. The Bland–Altman comparison showed neither the tendency of a fixed bias nor proportional biases among the measurements in the category of nonpregnant and first trimester women. But in the second and third trimester and postpartum category, a significant fixed bias was noted, without any tendencies of proportional bias. Conclusion In this study, we found higher hemoglobin values with the Pronto-7 analyzer than were measured in the laboratory. We consider that the device has certain limitations in obstetrical utility and requires further modifications for use in the perinatal period. PMID:24470779

  5. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Kent, Tera R; Bar, Haim Y; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. PMID:25367051

  6. Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant Women Into Clinical Research Trials: An Overview of Challenges, Facilitators, and Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25425718

  7. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. PMID:21541069

  8. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  9. A qualitative exploration of HIV-positive pregnant women's decision-making regarding abortion in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orner, Phyllis; de Bruyn, Maria; Harries, Jane; Cooper, Diane

    2010-08-01

    HIV-positive women's abortion decisions were explored by: (i) investigating influencing factors; (ii) determining knowledge of abortion policy and public health services; and (iii) exploring abortion experiences. In-depth interviews were held with 24 HIV-positive women (15 had an abortion; 9 did not), recruited at public health facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. Negative perceptions towards HIV-positive pregnant women were reported. Women wanted abortions due to socio-economic hardship in conjunction with HIV-positive status. Respondents were generally aware that women in South Africa had a right to free abortions in public health facilities. Both positive and negative abortion experiences were described. Respondents reported no discrimination by providers due to their HIV-positive status. Most respondents reported not using contraceptives, while describing their pregnancies as 'unexpected'. The majority of women who had abortions wanted to avoid another one, and would encourage other HIV-positive women to try to avoid abortion. However, most felt abortions were acceptable for HIV-positive women in some circumstances. Data suggested that stigma and discrimination affect connections between abortion, pregnancy and HIV/AIDS, and that abortion may be more stigmatised than HIV/AIDS. Study results provide important insights, and any revision of reproductive health policy, services, counselling for abortion and HIV/AIDS care should address these issues. PMID:21409294

  10. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  11. Scorpion stings in pregnant women: an analysis of 11 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kaplanoglu, M; Helvaci, M R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion sting is one of the most important public health problem in many regions of the world. But there is not enough medical data about scorpion stings in pregnant women in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical findings and treatment modalities of scorpion stings in pregnant women. This study was performed in the Southeast Region of Turkey, retrospectively. Eleven pregnants were studied, totally. All of the patients were detected as class I according to the scorpion envenomization system. They were in different weeks of gestation. Local pain, hyperemia, swelling, and itching were the most frequent complaint in these cases. None of our patients received antivenom, and all of them were treated, symptomatically. Complication of pregnancy was observed in none of them. PMID:26054125

  12. How do I manage tick bites and Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Maraspin, Vera; Strle, Franc

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we present basic data pertinent to the current understanding of borrelial infection in pregnancy, and propose a rationale for the management of Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women. We advocate early detection of attached ticks and their prompt removal. We do not recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in pregnant women but support the 'wait and watch' strategy, including early treatment with antibiotics if signs/symptoms of the disease arise. We encourage the approach that antibiotic treatment of pregnant patients is restricted to those having a reliable clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and propose intravenous antibiotic treatment with penicillin, or preferably ceftriaxone 2 g daily for 14 days, not only for patients with early disseminated disease but also for those with solitary erythema migrans. PMID:19367103

  13. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  14. Low pertussis toxin antibody levels in two regional cohorts of Canadian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bigham, Mark; Konrad, Stephanie; Van Buynder, Paul; Van Buynder, Jan; Isaac-Renton, Judy; ElSherif, May; Halperin, Scott A

    2014-11-12

    Infants under 6 months of age are at greatest risk of mortality and severe morbidity from pertussis disease. Interventions that increase pertussis protection in newborns are therefore a clear public health imperative. The objective of this study was to assess maternal pertussis toxin antibody (anti-PT) level as a potential source of mother-to-child transfer of pertussis-associated antibodies that may reduce neonatal risk of pertussis disease. Anti-PT level was assessed in a 2013 cohort of pregnant women from two regions in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Basic demographics, health, and pertussis immunization history were collected, along with blood specimens. Anti-PT levels were compared for self-reported vaccination status and prior pertussis disease. To assess secular trend, a parallel analysis was also undertaken, using anonymized residual sera from a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia. A total of 169 pregnant women participated in the study - 50 from Nova Scotia and 119 from British Columbia. The mean and median age of participants from both sites was 31 years of age (range 16-42 years). The lower limit of quantification of the anti-PT assay was 10 ELISA units per milliliter (EU/ml). Overall, 59% of women had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml and anti-PT level did not differ with time since last self-reported pertussis vaccination (χ(2)(2)=3.166, p=0.205). Among a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia, 101 of 200 (51%) had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml. Our study found that most pregnant women in two geographically disparate health regions in Canada have low residual anti-PT levels, may be vulnerable to pertussis infection themselves, and would unlikely be a source of passive ante- or postnatal transfer of anti-PT to their newborn. PMID:25269092

  15. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001). Keeping pet cats was not common and poorly associated with infections (OR = 1.15, p ≥ 0.64). Consumption of undercooked meat was reported frequently and only slight risk was associated with sheep/goat meat (OR = 1.39, p = 0.15). Eating outside the home at restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age. PMID:26924348

  16. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  17. Attitudes of pregnant women towards collection of biological specimens during pregnancy and at birth.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological investigations of maternal and child health may involve the collection of biological specimens, including cord blood and the placenta; however, the attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in the collection of biological specimens have been studied rarely. We evaluated attitudes towards collection and storage of biological specimens, and determined whether attitudes differed by maternal characteristics, in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women residing in Kent County, Michigan. Women were interviewed at their first visit for prenatal care between April and October 2006 (n = 311). Willingness to participate was highest for maternal blood collection (72%), followed by storage of biological specimens (68%), placenta collection (64%), and cord blood collection (63%). About one-quarter of women (25-28% by procedure) would not participate even if compensated. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with unwillingness to participate in maternal blood collection (OR = 2.16 [95% CI 1.15, 4.04]). Primiparity was associated with unwillingness to participate in cord blood collection (OR = 1.72 [95% CI 1.23, 2.42]). Among women willing to participate, Hispanic women were less likely to require compensation; while higher educated, married and primiparous women were more likely to require compensation. In conclusion, while many pregnant women were willing to participate in biological specimen collection, some women were more resistant, in particular Hispanic and primiparous women. Targeting these groups of women for enhanced recruitment efforts may improve overall participation rates and the representativeness of participants in future studies of maternal and child health. PMID:22471686

  18. Describing the use of the internet for health, physical activity, and nutrition information in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; Beets, Michael W; Coleman, Jason

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how pregnant women in the Midwestern United States use the internet for health information during pregnancy including information related to physical activity and nutrition, and to determine the impact of the internet on women's confidence in making decisions about physical activity participation and eating behaviors during pregnancy. This was a descriptive, exploratory study using a convenient, non-probabilistic sample. Women were recruited through handouts provided in person, fliers posted at venues, or local websites that cater to women who are pregnant or up to 1 year post-partum. Overall, 293 women (28.5 years ± 4.9) completed the survey online (Survey Monkey) or in-print. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t tests, and analyses of covariance. Almost all women used the internet for health information during their pregnancy. Half of women used the internet for information related to physical activity during their pregnancy and some increased their physical activity as a result. Women reported an increase in their confidence for making decisions related to physical activity during pregnancy after using the internet for physical activity information. Women that reported increases in physical activity during pregnancy, had greater increases in confidence for making decisions from using the internet compared to women who decreased or did not change their physical activity. Findings related to nutrition were similar to physical activity. However, there were no significant differences in increases in confidence between those who did or did not change the foods they ate. This study provides health promotional professionals useful information to consider when designing future physical activity and/or nutrition interventions for pregnant women. PMID:23090284

  19. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Álvarez, Antonio; Narro-Duarte, Sergio Guadalupe; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Díaz-García, Juan Humberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo; Canales-Molina, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA), respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1%) women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84), residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49), and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44). Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection. PMID:16839423

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B markers among pregnant Hispanic women in migrant/seasonal work in Oregon.

    PubMed Central

    Fehrs, L J; Eisele, L; Conrad, R; Foster, L R; Fleming, D

    1988-01-01

    We screened 303 Hispanic pregnant women who were migrant or seasonal agricultural workers in Oregon for the presence of Hepatitis B serological markers. One carrier was identified (0.3 per cent, 95% confidence interval [CI] .02%, 2.1%). Evidence of previous HB infection was present in 5.3 per cent (16/303) of the women (95% CI 3.2%, 8.6%), rates similar to those for the general US population. PMID:3389437

  1. Perceptions of guided imagery for stress management in pregnant African American women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. PMID:26165981

  2. Programs for Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, Single Pregnant Women. A Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhaven Coll., Farmers Branch, TX.

    This guide contains information about academic support services available to single parents, displaced homemakers, and single pregnant women at community, junior, and technical colleges throughout Texas. Over three-fourths of the guide is devoted to program information in the form of brochures, flyers, and forms supplied by representatives of…

  3. Assessing Long-Term Outcomes of an Intervention Designed for Pregnant Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Schmittel, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 25% of women are pregnant or postpartum when they enter prison. This study assesses a system-level intervention that prevented the separation of mothers and infants at birth, allowing them to reside together in an alternative community setting. Method: Longitudinal analysis of several state-level administrative databases…

  4. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viral Infection Among Pregnant Women in Peshawar, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Irshad

    2016-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal complications. The virus has a high risk of vertical transmission and it has been reported as the leading cause of maternal death. Objectives To study the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections among pregnant women in the Peshawar district of Pakistan. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study took place between July 2013 and April 2014. A total of 10,288 samples were collected from pregnant women living in different areas of the Peshawar district. The samples were centrifuged at a high speed in order to obtain a clear supernatant serum. All samples were screened for HBV and HCV using the immunochromatographic technique. Results The overall prevalence of HBV was found to be 1.16%, although it varied throughout the study period. The highest prevalence of HBV (1.69%) was observed during January 2014. The overall prevalence of HCV infection among the pregnant women was observed to be 1.42%. The highest prevalence of HCV infection (2.22%) was found during March 2014. Conclusions The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 1.16% and 1.42%, respectively. The incidence of HCV infection among the pregnant women was higher than that of HBV infection.

  5. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in an Urban Area of Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi

    2014-01-01

    This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230

  6. Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

    2008-01-01

    Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

  7. The Association between Influenza Vaccination and Other Preventative Health Behaviors in a Cohort of Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheminske, Megan; Henninger, Michelle; Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Williams, Jenny; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah W.; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are poorly…

  8. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  9. Translation and adaptation of smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Cruz, Ligia M; Brandon, Thomas H; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse-prevention booklets; however, there is a dearth of materials available in Spanish for Hispanic smokers. The goal of the present study was to translate and adapt existing, theoretically based, smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. This article describes the transcreation approach used to ensure the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets were linguistically and culturally relevant for the heterogeneous populations of Hispanic women. The authors conducted multistage formative research to adapt the booklets and modify vignettes and graphics. Compared with previous research conducted with pregnant non-Hispanic women, results revealed the following: (a) a lack of association or concern about smoking and weight gain, (b) the importance of family approval of behavior, and (c) stress related to difficulties surrounding the immigration experience. The authors' qualitative findings confirm and extend past research that has suggested ways to enhance the cultural relevance and acceptability of a health intervention. PMID:21120739

  10. Effects of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Rigi, Shahindokht Navabi; Soltani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital relationships may fluctuate due to physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women. Methods This was a quasiexperimental intervention study. Among the pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015 for routine care during pregnancy, 100 individuals were chosen and randomly categorized into two groups: intervention (n=50) and control (n=50). Variables were the participant’s attitudes and beliefs on sexual activity during pregnancy. The data were collected during pregnancy using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed before and 6 weeks after five sessions of group sexual counseling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 20) with descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The mean of score changes for sexual attitudes and traditional perceptions in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001). Analysis of covariance also showed that the mean score of the participant’s traditional perceptions and sexual attitudes in both groups was significantly different after the group sexual counseling. Discussion Due to the positive effect of group sexual counseling on improving the attitudes of pregnant women about sexual issues and reframing the traditional perceptions over sexual activities during pregnancy, it is recommended that this educational intervention should be integrated into counseling and prenatal care for pregnant women. PMID:27366105

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis Isolated From Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Azizmohammadi, Sima; Azizmohammadi, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum bring with them an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as premature membrane rupture, vaginitis and preterm birth. Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in pregnant women and to study their resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifty high vaginal swabs were taken from pregnant women. Commercial Mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for bacterial isolation. The results of the kits were confirmed using the PCR. The pattern of antibiotic resistance was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Of 350 samples collected, 32 samples (9.14%) were positive for U. urealyticum and 10 samples (2.85%) were positive for M. hominis (P = 0.025). Both U. urealyticum and M. hominis were simultaneously detected in 1.14% of samples. In addition, 40 - 45-year-old pregnant women had the highest levels of U. urealyticum (27.5%), M. hominis (12.5%), and both bacteria (7.5%). U. urealyticum and M. hominis isolates harbored the highest levels of resistance against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Both isolates were susceptible to pefloxacin, clarithromycin, josamycin, and pristinamycin. Conclusions: According to the direct correlation between the increase in the prevalence rate of genital mycoplasmas and increased age of pregnancy, initially, it is better to prevent pregnancy at older ages, and then, should a pregnancy occur, the highest levels of health cares should be provided to older pregnant women. PMID:26756001

  12. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Hassan, Nayereh; Lotfi, Peyman; Esmaeili Rastaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    We report Toxoplasma IgG seroprevalence of 34.4% among 419 pregnant women in Mashhad, northeast Iran. Soil contact, living in rural environment, and level of education were associated with infection. The prevalence did not increase with age, suggesting high infection rate during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24006138

  13. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  14. [10-years caries incidence and intensity dynamics in pregnant women of Derbent city].

    PubMed

    Bakhmudov, B R; Alieva, Z B; Bakhmudov, M B

    2012-01-01

    Caries incidence was assessed in pregnant women in 1998, 2003 an 2008 showing the values to be stable. DMF was almost the same in 1998 and 2003, but in 2008 the rate of "F" (filled) element was significantly higher thus confirming growth in motivation for dental treatment after introduction of private dental practices. PMID:23011338

  15. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in pregnant women: A cross-sectional survey in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shoghli, Alireza; Nabavi, Seyed Mahmood; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Namazi, Roshanak; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Mohajeri, Mansor; Mousavinasab, Nouraldin; Zanjani, Rahim Sorouri; Saeini, Mohammad Reza; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from infected mothers to their neonates is one of the most important routes of infection. The exact prevalence rate of HBV in Iranian pregnant mothers is not well known but based on different studies it is estimated between 0.35% and 6.5%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women of selected provinces in Iran. Methods: At this cross-sectional study, seven provinces supposed to be of high and low prevalence of hepatitis B in the general population selected. Multistage sampling was used to enroll 5261 parturient women who attended the target provinces birth facilities, during January to March of 2011, were recruited to study. To determine the statistically significant mean and proportion differences, t-test and χ2 test were used, respectively. Results: Overall 1.2% was positive HBsAg of which 11% of them were hepatitis B e-antigen positive as well. The eastern and north eastern provinces were considerably higher in HBsAg seropositivity than the west and northwest of the country. Conclusions: In view of the considerable prevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women, screening all pregnant women prioritizing the eastern and north-eastern provinces is strongly recommended. PMID:26622992

  16. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day of the pregnancy, ends....

  17. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day of the pregnancy, ends....

  18. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day...

  19. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day...

  20. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  1. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day of the pregnancy, ends....

  2. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... needy Medicaid eligibility for an extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a...

  3. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day...

  4. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day...

  5. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... needy Medicaid eligibility for an extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a...

  6. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day...

  7. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-02-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE/sub 2/ anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes.

  8. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on Streptococcus mutans counts in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral environment stabilization (OES) on the counting of Streptococcus mutans in high-caries-risk pregnant women participants of a prevention program in a public teaching institution. The sample was composed of 30 pregnant women aged 18 to 43 years, who looked for treatment at the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Araraquara Dental School, UNESP. Saliva samples were collected before and after the OES procedures and were forwarded to the pathology for observation and quantification of S. mutans CFU. There was a decrease in the number of S. mutans CFU, which was significantly different (p<0.0001) between samples. Considering the age group, 70.0% were between 18 to 30 years old and 30.0% belonged to the 31-43-year-old age group. Data related to the pregnancy period showed that 73.4% were in the second trimester, 13.3% in the first and 13.3% in third trimester. OES showed to be an effective clinical procedure in diminishing the number of S. mutans CFU in the saliva of high-caries-risk pregnant women. This management is simple and effective, corresponding to the basic treatment needs of pregnant women that search dental care in this public service. PMID:21861025

  9. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  10. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  11. Reasons Why Some Japanese Pregnant Women Choose Trial of Labor After Cesarean

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Ikeda, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether or not the Japanese pregnant women with a history of a cesarean section have the knowledge about the benefits and harms of trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) and elective repeat cesarean delivery (ERCD). Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 121 Japanese women with a prior cesarean section who visited our hospital for reservation of their second delivery between January and December 2013. Results Forty-five (37%) of them wanted to perform TOLAC at the first interview. Of these, 14 women (31%) with a history of an urgent cesarean chose TOLAC because of the insufficient anesthetic effect during cesarean, while 11 women (24%) with a history of an elective cesarean did not have the knowledge of the risks of TOLAC and urgent cesarean. Nineteen of those (76%) selected ERCD following the counseling. Conclusions Some Japanese pregnant women with TOLAC hope seemed to have insufficient knowledge about the benefits and harms of TOLAC and ERCD. Therefore, the improvement of the process of counseling and decision making may be needed for pregnant women with a history of a cesarean section in Japan. PMID:26124912

  12. Symbolic expression of feelings and depressive symptoms in high-risk pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wobie, K; Eyler, F D; Behnke, M; Conlon, M

    1997-01-01

    Pregnant women using rural health departments for prenatal care often experience chronic stressors (minority status, poor education, low income, young age, and single parenting of young children) that contribute to depression. Yet these same women may be reluctant to express their feelings. Because depression has been related to negative patterns of motherchild interaction and even newborn irritability, it is important to identify symptoms in high-risk mothers. For years, symbolic methods of expression have been used to reveal psychological traits or to identify clinical diagnoses, but few have been used to evaluate pregnant women. Women attending a rural health department were administered a comprehensive health and psychosocial questionnaire, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). They were then asked to complete a drawing expressing their feelings regarding their pregnancy. The relationship between CES-D scores and drawing ratings determined by two different methods of interpretation (expert, non-expert) was then examined. Non-expert art analysis was able to distinguish those women with the highest scores on the depression index, while expert analysis was able to discern racial differences consistent with risk status. Suggestions for the use of this drawing measure in the clinical setting are discussed. Alternative (non-verbal) methods of assessment that may improve communication with pregnant women are important for optimizing maternal and infant health and well-being and child development. PMID:9379164

  13. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  14. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis among HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi

    PubMed Central

    Marx, G; John-Stewart, G; Bosire, R; Wamalwa, D; Otieno, P; Farquhar, C

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV-infected women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or bacterial vaginosis (BV) during pregnancy are at increased risk for poor obstetric outcomes. In resource-limited settings, diagnostic testing for STIs and BV is often not available and most pregnant women are managed using syndromic algorithms. As part of a Nairobi perinatal cohort, HIV-1-infected pregnant women were interviewed and samples were collected for STIs and BV testing. Diagnostic accuracy of STIs and BV by syndromic algorithms was evaluated with comparison to the reference standard. Among 441 women, prevalence of BV was 37%, trichomoniasis 16%, chlamydia 4%, syphilis 3% and gonorrhoea 2%. Significantly more women with STIs were aged 21-years-old, had not attended secondary school and had a history of STIs. Syndromic diagnosis of STIs and BV demonstrated a sensitivity of 45% and 57%, and positive predictive value of 30% and 42%, respectively. Among these HIV-infected, pregnant women, STIs and vaginal infections were common and syndromic diagnosis was insensitive, resulting in missed opportunities to intervene and improve infant and maternal health. PMID:20975086

  15. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in pregnant women with prior pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Mayes, Linda C.; Magriples, Urania; Epperson, Cynthia Neill

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant women with prior pregnancy complications. Methods Seventy-six pregnant women at a maternal–fetal medicine referral clinic were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Fifty-six women had a prior pregnancy complication (study group), and the remaining 20 had none (comparison group). Subjects were assessed with a questionnaire consisting of a modified patient-rated version of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The modified CAPS was used to approximate the prevalence of full or partial PTSD related to a prior pregnancy complication using two scoring rules, the rule-of-3 (original rule) and rule-of-4 (more stringent rule). Results The prevalence of full PTSD among women with prior pregnancy complications was 12.5% and 8.9% based on the rule-of-3 and rule-of-4, respectively. For partial PTSD, the prevalence was 28.6% based on the rule-of-3 versus 17.9% based on the rule-of-4. The most common type of complication was miscarriage, accounting for 73.5% of the reported complications. None of the women in the comparison group met criteria for full or partial PTSD. Conclusions The prevalence of PTSD in pregnant women with a prior pregnancy-related complication is considerable. These findings provide additional evidence that pregnancy complications can be experienced as traumatic, and as such lead to partial or full PTSD symptoms. PMID:19488936

  16. Severity of abuse to pregnant women and associated gun access of the perpetrator.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, J; Soeken, K; Campbell, J; Parker, B; Reel, S; Silva, C

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between abuse to pregnant women and gun access by the abuser, an ethnically stratified cohort of 199 pregnant abused women (70 African-Americans, 63 non-Hispanic Anglo-American, and 66 Hispanic women were interviewed using: (1) The Index of Spouse Abuse, a measure of the severity of physical and nonphysical abuse; (2) The Danger Assessment Scale, a measure of potential danger of homicide; and (3) The Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, a measure of threats of violence and actual violence. There were no significant differences by ethnicity among the 41.2% of the abused women who reported that their male partner had access to a gun. Among these same women reporting gun access, 17% reported the abuser kept the gun on his body. Women reporting gun access by the abuser reported higher level of abuse on all scaled instruments (P = < 0.01). To protect women's safety and prevent further trauma and potential homicide, routine assessment for abuse and gun access is recommended. Additionally, policy initiatives to remove firearms from abuse perpetrators may reduce the severity of violence experienced by abused women. PMID:9629034

  17. Pilot study of pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Alyson N; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B; Riederer, Anne M

    2012-09-01

    An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers' agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

  18. [Ferro-Folgamma--a drug for treatment and prophylaxis of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Bozhinova, S; Penkov, V; Bogdanova, A

    2004-01-01

    The problem of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in pregnant women is not a new one, but the flashback to it is justified because of the fact that its significance is not appreciated properly. The growing foetus has increased needs of different active for blood formation substances such as iron (Fe), folic acid, vit. B12, which are taken away from the mother. If her supplies are not enough, an anaemic syndrome can be promoted. The only suitable way in the presence of iron deficiency is the administration of drugs for equilibration of iron balance. We used Ferro-Folgamma--a new medicine for our pharmaceutical market, for treatment of IDA in 42 pregnant women and we rendered an account of the results of its administration. All pregnant women had starting data of Hb<110 g/l and Hct<0.33 L/L. One capsule of Ferro-Folgamma contains 100 mg iron sulfate siccatum (that corresponds to 37 mg Fe), folic acid - 5 mg, cyancobalamine 10 mg. It is administered a capsule 3 times daily in 1 to 3 courses of treatment and a course has 20 days duration. After a treatment course was carried out the starting data of Hb were increased with 8.73 g/l, and of Hct with 0.02. In 8 pregnant women after the first therapeutic course, a 20-days - treatment was conducted too and Hb rose with 18.14 g/l in comparison with the starting data, and of Hct - with 0.037. The authors recommend the utilization of Ferro-Folgamma for treatment and prophylaxis of IDA in pregnant women, because of its good gastric acceptance, a few side undesired reactions, and the supplement of Folic acid and vit B12 increases the iron resorbtion. PMID:15341253

  19. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  20. Mental health issues among pregnant women in correctional facilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Incarceration-induced stress makes pregnant women in correctional facilities a high-risk group for mental health problems, resulting in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental health issues among pregnant inmates. Databases searched included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, National Criminal Justice Reference System, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane and Campbell libraries, which were searched for studies published in English from 1950 till July 2013. Eleven studies were included of pregnant women in correctional facilities and addressed at least one mental illness. Quality score was assigned to these eligible articles. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative review was performed. All of the studies were conducted in the United States, with quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 10. Only one of these studies used mixed methods, the rest were quantitative. Tobacco use among pregnant inmates exceeded 50%, with some studies reporting as high as 84%. Alcohol use was common; 36% of the inmates used illicit drugs in one study. Depression and anxiety levels were high-some studies reported depression among 80% of inmates. Findings suggest that mental health among pregnant prisoners is a huge concern that has not been adequately addressed. PMID:25190332

  1. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  2. Can pregnant women be safely placed on cardiopulmonary bypass?

    PubMed Central

    Sepehripour, Amir H.; Lo, Tammy T.; Shipolini, Alex R.; McCormack, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether cardiopulmonary bypass can be used safely with satisfactory maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnant patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 679 papers were found using the reported searches of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. Reported measures were maternal and foetal mortality and complications, mode of delivery, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times, perfusate flow rate and temperature and maternal NYHA functional class. The most recent of the best evidence studies, a retrospective observational study of 21 pregnant patients reported early and late maternal mortalities of 4.8 and 14.3%, respectively, and a foetal mortality of 14.3%. Median cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 53 and 35 min, respectively, and the median bypass temperature was 37°C. Three larger retrospective reviews of the literature reported maternal mortality rates of 2.9–5.1% and foetal mortality rates of 19–29%. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass times ranged from 50.5 to 77.8 min. Another retrospective observational study reported maternal mortality of 13.3% and foetal mortality of 38.5%. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 89.1 and 62.8 min, respectively, with a mean bypass temperature of 31.8°C. A retrospective case series reported no maternal mortality and one case of foetal mortality. Median cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 101 and 88 min, respectively. Eight case reports described 10 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. There were no reports of maternal mortality and one report of foetal mortality. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 105 and 50 min, respectively. We conclude that while the use of cardiopulmonary bypass

  3. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  4. Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300 μg/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150 μg/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC≥500 μg/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150 μg potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

  5. Is ACOG guideline helpful for encouraging pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, Fatemeh; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohseni, Mona; Shariat, Mamak; Ranjbar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate physical activity of pregnant women before and after ACOG guideline study. Four hundred and eighty-five pregnant women enrolled in this before-after study. They were asked to study ACOG guideline. A structured questionnaire filled by women at first visit and the last visit in the prenatal clinic.Type, frequency, duration and anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy period. Before education, 411 did exercises before pregnancy onset, among them, 346 were walking out and 65 did light exercises such as aerobics. After studying the protocol, 434 (89.4%) did walking during pregnancy period in comparison to 71% who did walking before pregnancy (P<0.001). Forty two (56.7%) out of 74 who had not done sport before, went for walking after the protocol reading, and nine continued not doing exercise. Among 74 participants who had not done exercise before the protocol reading, 16 (21%) were doing exercise three times a week and 11 (14%) changed their habit to daily exercise practice (P<0.001). Forty percent (195 women) were anxious about doing exercise during pregnancy before guideline study, while 116 reported that after the protocol reading, they had no anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy (P<0.001). Guidelines providing information about physical activity during pregnancy will help pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy with convenience and less anxiety. PMID:25130154

  6. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  7. [Pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits after the second millennium in South-East Hungary].

    PubMed

    Battancs, Emese; Gorzó, István; Pál, Attila; Novák, Tibor; Eller, József; Kókai, Erzsébet L; Radnai, Márta

    2011-09-01

    Among the predisposing agents for inflammatory periodontal lesion dental plaque is the most important, but different local and systemic factors may influence the seriousness or progression of periodontitis. Hormonal changes during pregnancy belong to the systemic aggravating factors. The aim of the present study was to assess pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits, and if these have a relationship with age, residence, educational level and profession/occupation. Questionnaires were used for the data collection. 275 pregnant women, who underwent prenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Szeged, volunteered to answer the questions. The results showed that almost all the women brushed their teeth daily, but only about one third of them used special oral hygiene tools, like dental floss. Many of the women claimed to have gingival bleeding when brushing their teeth. More then 70% visited a dentist during pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between educational level and the use of dental floss (p=0.004) and gingival bleeding (p=0.023) Oral hygiene education, dental and periodontal treatment of pregnant women need more emphasis during prenatal care. PMID:22039712

  8. [Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn/HDFN/timing in pregnant women and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Kulinska, R

    2014-01-01

    Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn/HDFN/is a condition in which the lifespan of the fetal or newborn infants red cells is shortened by the action of maternal antibodies against antigens present on the infants red cells. The most common routes of maternal sensitization are via blood transfusion or fetomaternal hemorrhage. With the institution of antenatal Rhesus (Rh) D immunoglobulin prophylaxis, the frequency of maternal alloimmunization in Rh D-negative women has decreased significantly. The prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization is a true success story in obstetrics. This article present the reasons for the persistence of the anti-D alloimmunization, protocol for the prevention and diagnosis of HDFN, immunohematological management of all pregnant women, critical titre, protocol and timing in alloimmunized pregnant women. PMID:25098112

  9. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Al-Mukalla district, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A M

    2005-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in pregnant woman. This study examined the frequency of UTI in 137 pregnant women attending Al Mukalla maternity hospital from January to June 2002. Urine samples were examined for UTI microscopically and by culture, and sensitivity tests were done for the organisms isolated using a range of antibiotics. Information on age, trimester, parity and number of pregnancies were also collected for each woman. This study showed that 30% of the women suffered from UTI; Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (41.5%), and it was highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftizoxime and amikacin. Of the variables examined, 53.7% of the infected women were in the age group 15-24 years, 48.8% were in their 3rd trimester and 75.6% had 1-3 children. PMID:16602474

  10. New Zealand needs guidelines for the safe and responsible inclusion of pregnant women in medical research.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a crucial window of time that influences long-term population health. As a matter of justice, pregnant woman are entitled to high quality, evidenced-based care. As a matter of population health, we need to better understand foetal development, particularly the impact of lifestyle, stress, chronic conditions and clinical treatment during pregnancy. Pregnancy continues to be dominated by the precautionary principle, advocating for the routine exclusion of pregnant women from medical research, particularly intervention studies, on the grounds of foetal vulnerability. But this stance simply shifts the risk into the community. Due to a lack of evidence-based data, many pregnant women are refused medically important drugs, are subject to dangerous delays in getting drugs, or are prescribed drugs that are thought 'safe', despite evidence of possible teratogenicity. I argue that New Zealand needs to shift to a default position of inclusion of pregnant women in research; and to develop guidelines to facilitate their safe and responsible inclusion. The uniqueness of pregnancy gives rise to specific questions regarding research ethics. These questions warrant focused debate and the answers cannot simply be deduced from the general principles of research ethics we currently have in New Zealand. PMID:27362600

  11. Should pregnant women be included in phase IV clinical drug trials?

    PubMed

    Briggs, Gerald G; Polifka, Janine E; Wisner, Katherine L; Gervais, Eric; Miller, Richard K; Berard, Anick; Koren, Gideon; Forinash, Alicia; Towers, Craig V

    2015-12-01

    Relatively few drugs, especially those recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, have published human pregnancy experience. Although all drugs contain animal reproduction data, these are usually not predictive of human risk. Clinical trials in pregnant women are rarely conducted because of ethical and legal concerns, and it may be many years before sufficient observational data are collected to guide clinical treatment decisions. Because many of these drugs will be used in pregnancy, human data are needed shortly after the drugs come to the market. Lack of human data leads to uncertainty over whether a drug can be safely prescribed for a pregnant patient. Unless there are compelling scientific and ethical reasons to exclude them, pregnant women should be included in phase IV clinical trials (postmarketing studies to obtain additional information, including the risks, benefits, and optimal use of a drug). This paper examines how physicians currently counsel pregnant women when there are no human data and proposes an alternative method in which knowledge regarding risks associated with the use of drugs during pregnancy can be enhanced in a clinical trial setting. PMID:26008178

  12. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%-39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01-3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03-2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92-5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06-4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional

  13. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and

  14. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Key, Mary E.; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group. PMID:27087804

  15. What's your motivation to be pregnant? Relations between motives for parenthood and women's prenatal functioning.

    PubMed

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal psychological adjustment is a critical predictor of postnatal maternal adjustment, which, in turn, relates to a child's psychological development. As such, it is important to examine possible correlates of women's psychological functioning during pregnancy. Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the present research investigated the link between women's motives for having a child and prenatal maternal psychological adjustment. Specifically, in a sample of 208 pregnant women, we examined the relation between women's intensity (i.e., quantity) and quality of motivation for having a child and both women's social adjustment (i.e., relationship satisfaction) and personal well-being (i.e., vitality and depressive symptoms). Further, we examined psychological need satisfaction as an explanatory mechanism underlying these associations. Results showed that both intensity and quality of motivation related, either directly or indirectly via psychological need satisfaction, to women's personal well-being and relationship satisfaction during pregnancy. PMID:26147933

  16. Depressed serum erythropoietin in pregnant women with elevated blood lead.

    PubMed

    Graziano, J H; Slavkovic, V; Factor-Litvak, P; Popovac, D; Ahmedi, X; Mehmeti, A

    1991-01-01

    During the course of a prospective study of lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in 1,502 women, we tested the hypothesis that environmental lead exposure is associated with depressed serum erythropoietin concentration. At mid-pregnancy and at delivery, blood samples were stratified by hemoglobin concentration; within each hemoglobin stratum, sera of women with the lowest and highest whole blood lead concentrations were selected for serum erythropoietin analysis. Analysis of variance revealed that women with higher blood lead levels had inappropriately low serum erythropoietin at both mid-pregnancy and at delivery. Thus, depressed serum erythropoietin appears to indicate lead nephrotoxicity, and it may also be responsible for the anemia associated with lead poisoning. PMID:1772259

  17. Male Partner’s Role during Pregnancy, Labour and Delivery: Expectations of Pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Abiodun S.; Aboyeji, Abiodun P.; Fawole, Adegboyega A.; Balogun, Olayinka R.; Adesina, Kikelomo T.; Adeniran, Peace I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the expectations of pregnant women on the role of the male partner during conception and delivery. Methodology A prospective multi-centre observational study comprising 506 pregnant women at eight health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Consenting women were recruited at antenatal clinics using multistage purposive sampling and a self-administered questionnaire was administered with provision for interpreters in local dialects for those without western education. The data was analyzed using SPSS using percentages and chi-square test; p <0.05 was termed significant. Results Participants were aged 17 to 49 years (mean 30.23±4.81), 82.4% desire male partners company during antenatal clinic visits and 59.1% experienced this in index pregnancy. During labour and delivery, 427(84.4%) want company; 345(80.8%) chose the male partner with 211(57.7%) hoping men will appreciate the value of females afterwards although 27.9% feared the men may disturb the health workers, 72(14.2%) male partners attended previous delivery and 84.8% of the women were satisfied with the experience. Significant predictors of support for male partner’s presence at delivery were maternal age (p=0.001), secondary or higher education (p=0.001) and parity less than four (p=0.001); religion (x21.010; p>0.001) and social status (p>0.001) were statistically insignificant. Pregnant women wanted education for male partners on care of pregnant women (77.0%) and sex during conception (25.2%). Conclusion Parturient desire male partners’ presence at deliveries but their past participation was low; health facility modifications and education for men are required to meet the desires. PMID:26609295

  18. Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

  19. Predictors of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners among HIV-positive pregnant women in Morogoro, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has been scaled, to more than 90% of health facilities in Tanzania. Disclosure of HIV results to partners and their participation is encouraged in the program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, patterns and predictors of HIV sero-status disclosure to partners among HIV positive pregnant women in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in March to May 2010 among HIV-positive pregnant women who were attending for routine antenatal care in primary health care facilities of the municipality and had been tested for HIV at least one month prior to the study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on possible predictors of HIV disclosure to partners. Results A total of 250 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled. Forty one percent (102) had disclosed their HIV sero-status to their partners. HIV-disclosure to partners was more likely among pregnant women who were < 25 years old [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2–4.1], who knew their HIV status before the current pregnancy [AOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.7–8.3], and discussed with their partner before testing [AOR = 6.9; 95% CI: 2.4–20.1]. Dependency on the partner for food/rent/school fees, led to lower odds of disclosure to partners [AOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1–0.7]. Nine out of ten women reported to have been counseled on importance of disclosure and partner participation. Conclusions Six in ten HIV positive pregnant women in this setting had not disclosed their results of the HIV test to their partners. Empowering pregnant women to have an individualized HIV-disclosure plan, strengthening of the HIV provider initiated counseling and testing and addressing economic development, may be some of the strategies in improving HIV disclosure and partner involvement in this setting. PMID:23641927

  20. Metformin versus Placebo in Obese Pregnant Women without Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mustafa; Corapcioglu, Demet

    2016-06-23

    To the Editor: Syngelaki et al. (Feb. 4 issue)(1) describe the efficacy of metformin in reducing gestational weight gain in women with a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 35. Although their study does not show a reduction in the neonatal birth weight, their results underscore the ability of metformin to reduce gestational weight gain in women with moderate-to-severe obesity without diabetes. One question is whether the exclusion of patients who were started on insulin after the oral glucose-tolerance test would alter the results of the study. . . . PMID:27332919

  1. Metformin versus Placebo in Obese Pregnant Women without Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Fatima C; Alfaris, Nasreen; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-06-23

    To the Editor: Syngelaki et al. (Feb. 4 issue)(1) describe the efficacy of metformin in reducing gestational weight gain in women with a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 35. Although their study does not show a reduction in the neonatal birth weight, their results underscore the ability of metformin to reduce gestational weight gain in women with moderate-to-severe obesity without diabetes. One question is whether the exclusion of patients who were started on insulin after the oral glucose-tolerance test would alter the results of the study. . . . PMID:27332918

  2. Metformin versus Placebo in Obese Pregnant Women without Diabetes.

    PubMed

    2016-06-23

    To the Editor: Syngelaki et al. (Feb. 4 issue)(1) describe the efficacy of metformin in reducing gestational weight gain in women with a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 35. Although their study does not show a reduction in the neonatal birth weight, their results underscore the ability of metformin to reduce gestational weight gain in women with moderate-to-severe obesity without diabetes. One question is whether the exclusion of patients who were started on insulin after the oral glucose-tolerance test would alter the results of the study. . . . PMID:27332917

  3. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Duguna Fango District, Wolayta Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care, especially during childbirth, based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduces delays in obtaining this care. Objective This study was conducted to assess birth preparedness and complication readiness and its associated factors among pregnant woman in Duguna Fango District in Wolayta Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 578 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 16.0. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least three steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 578 pregnant women only one tenth (10.7%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 103 (18.1%) arranged transportation to health facility. Two hundred forty eight (43.6%) identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. more than half (54.1%) of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. only few 17(3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Two hundred sixty four (46.4%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and more than half (53.6) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall less than one fifth 18.3% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (AOR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.62–5.37), being pregnant for the first time (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.45–7.82), having knowledge of at least two danger signs during

  4. Factors associated with pregnant women's anticipations and experiences of HIV-related stigma in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cuca, Yvette P; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women's empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

  5. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  6. Back pain of working pregnant women: identification of associated occupational factors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei Lai; Pantel, Martin; Smith, J Terry; Dumas, Geneviève A; Leger, Andy B; Plamondon, André; McGrath, Michael J; Tranmer, Joan E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify major occupational factors that were significantly correlated with back pain in pregnant women working in higher education, health care and service areas. A total of 73 working pregnant women were surveyed using questionnaires specifically designed for evaluating correlations between occupational factors and severity of back pain; 37 women were interviewed at both 20 and 34 weeks of pregnancy, 17 at 20 weeks only, and 19 were interviewed at 34 weeks only. "Rest breaks allowed" and "job autonomy" were negatively correlated with severity of back pain at 20 weeks of pregnancy. "Staying in a confined area" and "having restricted space" were positively correlated with severity of back pain at 34 weeks of pregnancy. The study suggests that allowing pregnant women to take more rest breaks and to have more job autonomy may reduce the severity of back pain during early pregnancy, and that allowing movement outside the working area and providing less restricted space may reduce back pain during late pregnancy. PMID:19084818

  7. Monitoring HIV Epidemic in Pregnant Women: Are the Current Measures Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Sarkate, Purva; Paranjpe, Supriya; Mehta, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Burden of HIV in pregnant women follows overall epidemic in India. Hence, it is imperative that prevalence calculations in this group be accurate. The present study was carried out to determine prevalence of HIV in pregnant women attending our hospital, to determine trend of HIV infection and to compare our results with reported prevalence. Methods. All pregnant women are routinely counselled for HIV testing using opt-out strategy. Year-wise positivity and trend were determined in these patients over a period of five years. The positivity in different age groups was determined. Results. 31,609 women were tested of which 279 (0.88%) were positive. Positivity showed a declining trend over study period and significant quadratic trend (biphasic, P < 0.05) was observed. The positivity in older age group ≥35 years (1.64%) was significantly more than younger age groups (0.76% in 15–24-year and 0.94% in 25–34-year age group) (P = 0.0052). Conclusion. A significant decline in HIV positivity was seen over the study period. Taking into account heterogeneous nature of HIV epidemic even within the same district, analysis at local levels especially using the prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV program data is critical for HIV programming and resource allocation. PMID:26316980

  8. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

    1988-10-01

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

  9. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887

  10. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS).

    PubMed

    Ding, Helen; Santibanez, Tammy A; Jamieson, Denise J; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Euler, Gary L; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Lu, Peng-Jun; Singleton, James A

    2011-06-01

    We sought to describe vaccination with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent (2009 H1N1) and trivalent seasonal (seasonal) vaccines among pregnant women during the 2009 through 2010 influenza season. A national H1N1 flu survey was conducted April through June 2010. The 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage estimates were 45.7% and 32.1%, respectively, among pregnant women aged 18-49 years. Receipt of a health care provider's recommendation for vaccination, perceived effectiveness of influenza vaccinations, and perceived high chance of influenza infection were independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage. Pregnancy during October 2009 through January 2010 was independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 vaccination coverage. The 2009 H1N1 vaccination level among pregnant women was higher than the seasonal vaccination level during the 2009 through 2010 season; it was also higher than vaccination among nonpregnant women with and without high-risk conditions. Health care providers and public health messaging played important roles in influencing vaccination behavior. PMID:21640233

  11. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onu, Fidelis Agwu; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Ibekwe, Perpetus Chudi; Ajah, Monique Iheoma

    2015-01-01

    Background Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. PMID:26244027

  12. Relationship between blood lead levels and hematological indices in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Lugo-Soto, Rodrigo; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Salas-Pacheco, José-Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Barraza-Salas, Marcel; Vázquez-Alanís, Fernando; García-Vargas, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have revealed a negative association between blood lead levels and hematological impairment. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between blood lead levels and hematological indices in 292 pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. Apparently healthy pregnant women, aged 14-41 years and at 3-41 weeks of gestation, were recruited between June 2007 and May 2008. Blood lead and hematological indices were measured. The mean blood lead was 2.79 ± 2.16 μg/dL, and lead levels ≥ 5 μg/dL were detected in 25 women (8.6%). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells count were significantly higher in pregnant women with a blood lead concentration of ≥ 5 μg/dL than the group with lower blood lead levels (p < .05). Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were not significantly related to lead levels. Hemoglobin and hematocrit showed a non-significant positive correlation with blood lead, but the correlation between red blood cell count and blood lead levels was statistically significant (r = 0.185, p = .002). The findings suggest that a positive association between blood lead and some hematological indices may occur at relatively low blood lead concentration (mean < 5 μg/dL). PMID:25531188

  13. Dietary aspects of pregnant women in rural areas of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Virender P; Taneja, Devender K; Sharma, Nandini; Gupta, Vimal K; Ingle, Gopal K

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this article is to document the current dietary profile of pregnant women in rural areas of Delhi. In order to explore the diet the combination of quantitative (24-h recall method) and qualitative methods (food frequency method) were used. The mean intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, namely, iron, folic acid and Vitamin C which play an important role in the pathophysiology of nutritional anaemia during pregnancy was calculated from the foodstuffs, using Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. The preferences and avoidance of various foods by the pregnant women were also elicited. The data were analysed using Epi Info 3.4. The intake of calories, protein, iron, folic acid and Vitamin C was found to be less than the recommended dietary allowance in 100%, 91.2%, 98.2%, 99.1% and 65.8% of pregnant women respectively. Folic acid intakes were significantly lower in younger, primiparous and poorly educated women from low-income families. Vitamin C intake was lower among non-Hindus only. The overall data suggested the presence of food gap rather than isolated deficiency of any particular nutrient. PMID:18336642

  14. Racial differences in cervical cytokine concentrations between pregnant women with and without bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K.; Williams, Scott M.; Krohn, Marijane A.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the association between cytokine, chemokine and growth factor concentrations with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in pregnant white and black women. A nested case-control analysis was performed to examine twenty-eight cervical cytokine, chemokine and growth factor concentrations in 83 white women (55 with normal flora and 28 with BV) and 81 black women (39 with normal flora and 42 with BV). White women with BV had significantly lower IP10 (P = 0.001) and MCP1 (P = 0.006) concentrations compared to women with normal flora. Black women with BV had higher IL-1α (P < 0.001) concentrations than those with normal flora. In women with normal flora, whites had significantly higher levels of IL-1α (P = 0.047), IL-6 (P = 0.010), IL-10 (P = 0.016) and PDGF-BB (P = 0.010) than blacks. There were no significant concentration differences between white and black women with BV. These results demonstrate significant differences in cytokine and chemokine concentrations between women with and without BV. Ethnic differences in cytokine concentrations were also observed in women with normal flora, indicating that white and black women with normal flora have different cytokine levels, but respond to BV in a similar manner. PMID:18336917

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. PMID:25181400

  16. [Gestational diabetes from the perspective of hospitalized pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Pessoa, Sarah Maria Fraxe; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study aimed to understand the meaning of the experiences lived by women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The sample consisted of 12 patients hospitalized at a maternity hospital in the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil, which expressed their feelings and perceptions through open interviews and drawings. The empirical material was fully transcribed and then organized and analyzed by the phenomenological method. The results revealed two themes: (1) Living experiences that bring happiness and well-being, and (2) Living experiences that cause suffering. This phenomenological study showed the experience of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, thus enabling to plan and to implement intervention programs based on a participatory model of health in order to prioritize the subjective aspects involved in high-risk pregnancy. PMID:23743842

  17. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2015-08-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363

  18. Assessment Scales, Associated Factors and the Quality of Life Score in Pregnant Women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Farideh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kariman, Nourossadat

    2016-01-01

    Women experience physical, chemical, endocrine gland and organ changes during pregnancy that limit their activities and reduce their quality of life. The present study was conducted to investigate the quality of life in pregnant women in Iran, the assessment scales used to measure this variable and the factors associated with it.The present study searched databases including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, Mahiran, IranDoc and Google Scholar using keywords such as pregnant women, Iran, quality of life, pregnancy and prenatal and their Persian equivalents to find relevant articles conducted in Iran and ultimately found 20 articles to review without any regard for their time, language and publication site.Studies conducted in Iran to assess the quality of life in pregnant women have used four tools, including the SF-36, the WHOQOL-BRIEF, the SF-12 and the Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. The mean quality of life score obtained using these different tools varied from 61.18±13.21 to 66.48±15.57. Social support, socioeconomic status, the pregnancy being wanted, satisfaction with life and sexual function were related directly to the quality of life, while prenatal mental disorders, the severity of pregnancy nausea and vomiting and sleep disorders were related inversely to it.Given the lack of a specific tool designed to assess the quality of life in pregnant women, general tools were used for its assessment. Further studies are thus required to design a specific localized tool and to also assess the relationship between the quality of life and its associated factors. PMID:27241421

  19. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption. PMID:20655095

  20. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  1. Longitudinal changes in maternal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin like growth factor I levels in pregnant women who developed preeclampsia: comparison with normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Halhali, Ali; Villa, Antonio R; Madrazo, Elsie; Soria, María Celina; Mercado, Erendira; Díaz, Lorenza; Avila, Euclides; Garabédian, Michèle; Larrea, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the longitudinal changes of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)(2)D) and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels at 20.7, 27.6, and 35.5 week periods of gestation in 40 pregnant women who remained normotensive (NT) and in 10 women who developed preeclampsia (PE). As compared with the first period, significant increases (P < 0.01) in maternal serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D and IGF-I were observed in the NT group. In the PE group, a similar increase in serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D was observed. In contrast, significant (P < 0.05) lower IGF-I levels were observed in the PE group at the moment of diagnosis. In addition a high incidence of subjects with low increase in IGF-I levels (women before they developed PE. In the opposite, the high percentage of PE women with low increase in circulating IGF-I levels between the 20th and 35th week of pregnancy suggests early alterations of IGF-I synthesis in women developing PE. PMID:15225837

  2. Perspectives of pregnant and postpartum latino women on diabetes, physical activity, and health.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Willis, Sharla K; Arellano, Natalia; Guzman, Ricardo

    2002-10-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are prevalent among Latino women of childbearing age. Physical activity during and after pregnancy may contribute to weight control and improved metabolic status, but recommended activities may not be perceived as appropriate or feasible. To plan realistic and acceptable interventions, pregnant and postpartum Latino women in Detroit met in a focus group series to discuss their beliefs about diabetes and factors influencing their participation in regular physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum. Women believed that diabetes was primarily related to heredity and diet but not to physical activity. Exercise was believed to reduce stress and improve general health. Women suggested an organized group intervention, in a respected location, that offered safe physical activities within the context of a variety of activities for women and children. This strategy reduced concerns about safety and social acceptability while addressing their primary interest in social support. PMID:12238699

  3. Development of an educational/support group for pregnant women in prison.

    PubMed

    Ferszt, Ginette G; Erickson-Owens, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 6-10% of women are pregnant when they enter the prison system. The majority have had little, if any, prenatal care and/or childbirth education. Given economic constraints, the educational and support needs of this population are often not met. In response to these needs, an educational/support group was developed and led by a social worker, a mental health clinical nurse specialist, and a nurse midwife in a women's correctional facility in the Northeast. Women in various stages of pregnancy and early postpartum voluntarily attended. The need for education and psychosocial support was overwhelming. This group fostered a safe space for women to discuss real-life issues in a supportive environment. Meeting the educational and support needs of incarcerated women is paramount. PMID:18522603

  4. Pregnant Women Experiencing IPV: Impact of Supportive and Non-Supportive Relationships with their Mothers and Other Supportive Adults on Perinatal Depression: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Bair-Merritt, Megan; Rose, Linda; Marcantonio, Kristin; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the views of women experiencing interpersonal violence (IPV) and their relationship with their mothers or other supportive adult, and determines how this relationship affected perinatal depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 30 urban and rural pregnant women enrolled in a larger ongoing randomized controlled trial. Data from quantitative instruments that measured depressive symptoms were examined in combination with qualitative interview data collected at baseline and six months post-natal. Women describing positive relationships with their mothers or another supportive adult reported statistically significant lower depressive symptoms scores (p < .05). PMID:23215984

  5. Food intake and serum persistent organic pollutants in the Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT sub-study.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-10-01

    The Greenlandic Inuit have high blood concentrations of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). High POP concentrations have been associated with age, smoking and consumption of marine mammals. Studies have indicated that exposure to POPs during pregnancy may adversely affect fetal and child development. To assess geographical differences in diet, lifestyle and environmental contaminant exposure among pregnant women in Greenland, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected from 207 pregnant women in five Greenlandic regions (North, Disco Bay, West, South and East). Blood samples were analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and 63 metals. A trend of higher intake of marine mammals in the East and North regions was reflected by a higher n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Participants in the East region tended also to have higher intake of terrestrial species. A significant higher seabird intake was seen for pregnant women in the West region. Significant regional differences were found for blood concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, PFASs and mercury, with higher levels in the North and East regions. PFASs were significantly associated with PCBs and OCPs in most of the regions. In the North region, PFASs were associated with both selenium and mercury. No significant regional difference was observed for PBDEs. The regional differences of blood levels of POPs and mercury were related to differences in intake of the traditional food. Compared to earlier reports, decreased levels of legacy POPs, Hg and Pb and perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were observed, but the levels of PFAS congeners perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were sustained. The detection of POPs and heavy metals in maternal blood indicates fetal exposure to these compounds possibly influencing fetal development. PMID:26011616

  6. Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Searle, Elizabeth; Kelly, Lynne; Johnsen, Sigurd; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Bath, Sarah C; Mao, Jinyuan; Redman, Christopher W G

    2014-07-14

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Se intake or status has been linked to the occurrence of pre-eclampsia by our own work and that of others. We hypothesised that a small increase in the Se intake of UK pregnant women of inadequate Se status would protect against the risk of pre-eclampsia, as assessed by biomarkers of pre-eclampsia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial, we randomised 230 primiparous pregnant women to Se (60 μg/d, as Se-enriched yeast) or placebo treatment from 12 to 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at baseline and 35 weeks, and plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the present study was serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor linked with the risk of pre-eclampsia. Other serum/plasma components related to the risk of pre-eclampsia were also measured. Between 12 and 35 weeks, whole-blood Se concentration increased significantly in the Se-treated group but decreased significantly in the placebo group. At 35 weeks, significantly higher concentrations of whole-blood Se and plasma SEPP1 were observed in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group. In line with our hypothesis, the concentration of sFlt-1 was significantly lower at 35 weeks in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group in participants in the lowest quartile of Se status at baseline (P= 0·039). None of the secondary outcome measures was significantly affected by treatment. The present finding that Se supplementation has the potential to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women of low Se status needs to be validated in an adequately powered trial. PMID:24708917

  7. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Its Related Factors in Pregnant Women in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pratumvinit, Busadee; Wongkrajang, Preechaya; Wataganara, Tuangsit; Hanyongyuth, Sithikan; Nimmannit, Akarin; Chatsiricharoenkul, Somruedee; Manonukul, Kotchamol; Reesukumal, Kanit

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few data focusing on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries. Objectives We determined the vitamin D status in pregnant women and examined the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 pregnant Thai women aged 18–45 years at Siriraj Hospital (a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand) was undertaken. Clinical data and plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, albumin, phosphate and magnesium were obtained in pregnant women at delivery. Results The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [defined as 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L] in pregnant women at delivery was 75.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 67.7–82.2%). Of these, vitamin D insufficiency [defined as 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L] was found in 41.5% (95% CI, 33.4–49.9%) and vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was found in 34.0% (95% CI, 26.4–42.3%) of women. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 61.6±19.3 nmol/L. The correlation between 25(OH)D and iPTH was weak (r = –0.29, P<0.01). Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency by multiple logistic regression were: pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI in kg/m2, odds ratio (OR), 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97, P = 0.01) and season of blood collection (winter vs. rainy, OR, 2.62, 95% CI 1.18–5.85, P = 0.02). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant Thai women. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased in women who had a lower pre-pregnancy BMI and whose blood was collected in the winter. Vitamin D supplementation may need to be implemented as routine antenatal care. PMID:26147381

  8. Association of Bacterial vaginosis and other Sexually Transmitted Infections with HIV among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imade, Godwin E.; Musa, Jonah; Sagay, Atiene S.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Idoko, John; Kanki, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross- sectional study of pregnant women who participated in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV program of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, between April 2002 and July 2004, at the Jos University Teaching Hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Blood, high vaginal and endocervical samples were obtained for diagnosis of HIV, BV and other STIs. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV, BV and other STIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models generated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) as well as 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of BV and other STIs with HIV prevalence. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 4,046 pregnant women were studied and 97.6% (3,950/4,046) had complete laboratory records for analysis. The prevalence of HIV was 8.2% (CI: 7.4–9.1); BV 11.9% (CI: 10.9–12.9); Candida 10.7% (CI: 9.7–11.7); mixed infection of BV and Candida 2.8% (CI: 2.3–3.4); Trichomonads 0.6% (CI: 0.3–0.8) and syphilis 0.35% (0.16–0.54). BV, Candida, mixed BV and Candida; and Trichomonads were independently associated with HIV infection [adjusted OR (95% CI), 2.9 (CI: 2.2–3.9); 2.0 (CI: 1.5–2.9); 3.4 (CI: 2.0–5.6), and 3.3 (CI: 1.1–9.7) respectively]. Conclusion HIV prevalence is higher among pregnant women who have BV, Candida and Trichomonads vaginal infections compared with women who have no evidence of infection. The practice of routine screening for BV and other STIs among pregnant women as a strategy for identifying women at risk for prevalent HIV infection should be sustained/ encouraged and the syndromic management of STIs should be integrated into all antenatal care management protocols in antenatal clinics in order to curb the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission

  9. Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Martha L.; Montoya, Ivan D.; Jansson, Lauren M.; Walters, Vickie; Svikis, Dace; Jones, Hendree E.; Chilcoat, Howard; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Their rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 40.9% for emotional abuse to 20.0% for physical abuse to 7.1% for sexual abuse. Nearly one third of the women reported having physical fights with their current partner (lifetime), and 25% of these women reported that children were present during those physical fights. A total of 30% of the women perceived a need for counseling regarding exposure to violence for themselves and 15% perceived a need for counseling for their children. Study findings confirm previous reports of high rates of abuse and violence exposure among substance-abusing pregnant women and their strong need for counseling for psychosocial sequelae. This study affirmed the value of routine screening for violence exposure in this at-risk population as well as the need to train therapists in specific strategies for helping such women address this complex array of problems. PMID:16377450

  10. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population. PMID:25925718

  11. Prevalence and correlates of female sexual dysfunction among Turkish pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Küçükdurmaz, Faruk; Efe, Erkan; Malkoç, Önder; Kolus, Eyüp; Amasyalı, Akın Soner; Resim, Sefa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of female sexual dysfunction together with the concerns of women about sexuality during pregnancy. Material and methods A total of 207 healthy, sexually active pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Demographic data of all participants were noted and sexual functions were evaluated by Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Each FSFI domain score was calculated and mean scores were noted. Concerns of women about sexuality were also investigated. Results Mean age of participant women was 27.0±5.9 (range 15–44) years. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was found to be 87% in study population. Mean FSFI score was 18.6±1.21. The rate of sexual dysfunction was higher in the first (87%) and third (92.6%) trimesters when compared to the second (80.6%) trimester (p=0.243). Among demographic variables, education levels of partners and preconceptional sexual dysfunction were found to be significantly related to FSD. The most common concerns of women about sexual relationship have been reported as the fear of having pain (35%), risk of abortion (21.3%) and religious factors (10%). Conclusion Prevalence of sexual dysfunction is relatively high among pregnant women. Educational levels and preconceptional sexual functions were found to have an impact on this high rate. Accurate counseling of partners about sexuality during pregnancy may help to reduce misbeliefs, concerns and, thereby, decrease this high rate of female sexual dysfunction.

  12. Preferences and attitudes toward approaches to depression relapse/recurrence prevention among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dimidjian, Sona; Goodman, Sherryl H

    2014-03-01

    Patient preferences are increasingly recognized as important in clinical research and the delivery of evidence based practice in psychology. Although the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence among perinatal women is an important public health goal, little is known about pregnant women's preferences and attitudes toward relapse/recurrence prevention interventions. Such information is important given low rates of care seeking among this population, and the potential for a relapse/recurrence prevention to avert negative outcomes among both vulnerable women and their offspring. Pregnant women seeking routine prenatal care in obstetric clinics (n = 200) were surveyed to assess their preferences for and attitudes about psychotherapy and pharmacological approaches to relapse/recurrence prevention. Women preferred psychotherapy (mindfulness based cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy) more so than pharmacotherapy and reported significantly more favorable perceptions of the psychotherapy as compared to pharmacotherapy approaches to depression relapse/recurrence prevention. Results suggest also that depression history is important to consider in evaluating women's preferences and attitudes. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24440577

  13. [Investigation of subalin effect on urogenital microflora of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Sirokvasha, E A; Paran'ko, S I; Kozitskaia, S N; Vinnikov, A I

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological examination of 30 women with incomplete pregnancy has been conducted. Representatives of 18 genera of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as yeast-like fungi of Candida genus were found. It has been established that spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus genus from subalin preparation have antagonistic activity in respect of the strains of pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria with characteristic zones of growth depression of 12-15 mm. This demonstrates that the agents of infectional urogenital process are effectively suppressed by subalin. PMID:11944342

  14. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L.; McIntyre, Anne F.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010–11 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and 10 deaths reported in the subsequent influenza season (2010–11). A health department survey suggests PFL participants perceived public health benefits and minimum time burdens. PMID:24368408

  15. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L; McIntyre, Anne F; Jamieson, Denise J; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line (PFL) during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010-2011 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and ten deaths reported in the subsequent influenza season (2010-2011). A health department survey suggests PFL participants perceived public health benefits and minimum time burdens. PMID:24368408

  16. [Management of arterial hypertension before 20weeks gestation in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Seguro, Florent; Duly Bouhanick, Béatrice; Chamontin, Bernard; Amar, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In the first 6 months of pregnancy, the primary goal of antihypertensive treatment is to prevent the complications of severe hypertension. Initiation of antihypertensive drug treatment is recommended in pregnant women with severe hypertension (blood pressure>160/110mmHg). Initiation of antihypertensive drug treatment should also be considered in pregnant women at high cardiovascular risk (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, personal history of cardiovascular disease) with moderate hypertension (blood pressure between 140-159/90-109mmHg). A systolic blood pressure goal<160 and a diastolic blood pressure goal between 85 and 100mmHg is recommended in pregnancy. Labetalol, nifedipine, nicardipine and alphamethyldopa should be considered preferential antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy. Salt restriction, physical exercise and weight loss have not demonstrated any effect in the prevention of preeclampsia and serious maternal complications of hypertension. PMID:27554460

  17. Blood lead levels and risk factors in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Manuel Salas-Pacheco, José; Peña-Elósegui, Rocío; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas Rangel, Jorge-Luís; García Vargas, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study the authors determined blood lead levels (BLLs) and some risk factors for lead exposure in pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-nine pregnant women receiving medical attention by the Secretary of Health, State of Durango, Mexico, participated in this study between 2007 and 2008. BLLs were evaluated with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The authors used Student t test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and linear regression as statistical treatments. BLLs ranged from 0.36 to 23.6 μg/dL (mean = 2.79 μg/dL, standard deviation = 2.14). Multivariate analysis showed that the main predictors of BLLs were working in a place where lead is used, using lead glazed pottery, and eating soil. PMID:24484368

  18. A systematic review of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jennifer A.; Lambach, Philipp; Fulton, T. Roice; Narayanan, Divya; Ortiz, Justin R.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Immunization during pregnancy can provide protection for mother and child. However, there have been only a limited number of studies documenting the efficacy and safety of this strategy. Aims: To determine the extent and nature of subject matter related to ethics in maternal immunization by systematically documenting the spectrum of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review of published works pertaining to vaccine and therapeutic studies involving pregnant women through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We selected literature meeting the inclusion criteria published between 1988 and June 2014. We systematically abstracted subject matter pertaining to ethical issues in immunization studies during pregnancy. Immunization-specific ethical issues were matched and grouped into major categories and subcategories. Results: Seventy-seven published articles met the inclusion criteria. Published articles reported findings on data that had been collected in 26 countries, the majority of which were classified as high-income or upper-middle-income nations according to World Bank criteria. Review of these publications produced 60 immunization-specific ethical issues, grouped into six major categories. Notably, many studies demonstrated limited acknowledgment of key ethical issues including the rights and welfare of participants. Additionally, there was no discussion pertaining to the ethics of program implementation, including integration of maternal immunization programs into existing routine immunization programs. Conclusion: This review of ethical issues in immunization studies of pregnant women can be used to help inform future vaccine trials in this important population. Consistent documentation of these ethical issues by investigators will facilitate a broader and more nuanced discussion of ethics in immunization of pregnant

  19. Prevalence and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Pregnant Women in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia I.; Coppolillo, Enrique F.; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; de Torres, Ramón A.; Vay, Carlos A.; Famiglietti, Angela M. R.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid medium. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were assessed considering culture on liquid medium as the "gold standard". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by culture on liquid medium was 4.0% (24/597). The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by direct wet smear, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and sodium acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue staining-fixing technique was 1.8%, 2.3% and 2.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the direct wet smear was 45.8%, that of the prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining was 58.3%, and that of the SAF/methylene blue method was 62.5%. Considering the 3 microscopic examinations altogether, the sensitivity rose to 66.7% and the specificity was 100% for all of them. This is the first time that the prevalence data of T. vaginalis by culture in pregnant women are published in Argentina. Due to the low sensitivity obtained by microscopy in asymptomatic pregnant women, the use of the liquid medium is recommended during pregnancy, in order to provide an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20333287

  20. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences. PMID:25879258

  1. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  2. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  3. The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were measured five times on 0, 7th, 14th and 28th days of Ramadan and on the 14th day post-Ramadan. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5) using repeated measures ANOVA to find whether any changes occurred in the variables of interest during the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relations among the variables. Results: A significant change in fasting blood sugar, neuropeptide Y and leptin was observed during the study (p< 0.05). Fasting blood sugar decreased significantly during Ramadan and increased after Ramadan, with the lowest value at the end of Ramadan. Neuropeptide Y increased both during Ramadan and two weeks after Ramadan. Also, leptin decreased significantly two weeks after Ramadan compared to the end of Ramadan. No significant change was observed in insulin level during the study (p>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed the important role of leptin and neuropeptide Y in the long term regulation of energy balance in pregnant women with chronic diurnal fasting, and it further revealed that Ramadan fasting did not significantly change the serum insulin level. PMID:25664293

  4. Dietary Intake of Choline and Plasma Choline Concentrations in Pregnant Women in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Gossell-Williams, M; Fletcher, H; McFarlane-Anderson, N; Jacob, A; Patel, J; Zeisel, S

    2008-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans and its availability during pregnancy is important for optimal fetal development. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine in the United States of America has set the adequate choline intake during pregnancy at 450 mg/day. There is limited data available on normal plasma choline concentrations in pregnancy. Moreover, there are neither documented studies of choline intake among pregnant women in the Jamaican population nor of free plasma choline concentrations during pregnancy. Sixteen women presenting to the antenatal clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) at 10−15 weeks of gestation were selected for this pilot study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to estimate frequency of consumption of foods rich in choline. Fasting blood samples were collected by venepuncture and plasma assayed for choline using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization isotopic dilution mass spectrometry. Most of the women reported consumption of diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SEM, 278.5 ± 28.9 mg). Mean plasma choline concentration was 8.4 ± 0.4 μmol/L. This falls below the normal concentration (10 μmol/L) reported for individuals that are not pregnant and pregnant (14.5 μmol/L). The results of this study may be an indication that the choline included in the diet of pregnant women in Jamaica may not be adequate to meet both the needs of the mother and fetus and that further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. PMID:16642650

  5. [THE ORGANIZATION OF PREVENTION OF RENAL PATHOLOGY IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAKU].

    PubMed

    Kadimova, Sh G

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing of renal pathology, especially of its chronic forms characterized by long clinical duration and frequent exacerbations is observed in pregnant women. The study was carried out to analyze prevalence and structure of renal pathology in pregnant women with further development of social economic basics of its prevention. The epidemiological analysis established that during 2009-2011 in Baku prevalence of renal pathology in pregnant women amounted to 11%. The analysis of structure and dynamics of renal pathology in pregnant women during the same period revealed that leading positions are taken by chronic pyelonephritis (27.2%), hydronephrosis (14.8%) and eclampsia (12%). The percentage of cystitis amounted to 4.8%, urolithiasis - 3.2%, renal colic - 2.4% and renal anomalies - 0.8%. The study established that under application of scientifically valid preventive measures an effective prevention of disease is achieved. In particular risk of morbidity is decreased up to 4.18 times. After 10-12 months after implementation of explanatory work degree of implementation of preventive measures among female patients with close adherence to these measures attained maximal level (88.6±2.8%) and among female patients attaching no importance to them in many ways implementation remained low (41±5.6%). At the same time, organization and implementation of developed complex of preventive measures are available. They have no requirement in an additional manpower and material technical resources and are applied using sanitary agitation among population. The task-oriented and permanent explanatory work increases responsibility of population for one's own health, activates population to implement complex of preventive measure. On the whole, workable premises both to stabilize level of morbidity of renal pathology and its consistent decreasing are established. PMID:26411170

  6. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care. PMID:26510270

  7. Prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pharephan, Somphon; Sirivatanapa, Pannee; Makonkawkeyoon, Sanit; Tuntiwechapikul, Wirote; Makonkawkeyoon, Luksana

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Alpha-thalassaemias are genetic disorders with high prevalence in northern Thailand. However, common genotypes and current data on the prevalence of α-thalassaemias have not been reported in this region. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of pregnant women who came to Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital during July 2009 to 2010. The common deletion and point mutation genotypes of α-thalassaemia were evaluated by gap- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: Genotypes of 638 pregnant women were: 409 samples (64.11%) being normal subjects (αα/αα) and 229 samples (35.89%) with α-thalassaemias. These 229 samples could be classified into deletional HbH disease (--SEA/-α3.7) for 18 samples (2.82%); heterozygous α0-thalassaemia --SEA type (--SEA/αα)) for 78 (12.23%); heterozygous α+-thalassaemia - α3.7 type (-α3.7/αα) for 99 (15.52%); homozygous α+-thalassaemia - α3.7 type (-α3.7/- α3.7) for five (0.78%); heterozygous α+-thalassaemia - α4.2 type (-α4.2/αα) for two (0.31%); and heterozygous HbCS (αCSα/αα) for 27 (4.23%) cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of α-thalassaemias in pregnant women in northern Thailand was high. This finding supports the implementation of the prevention and control of this common genetic disorder by screening for α-thalassaemia genotypes. PMID:27241645

  8. Prevalence and comparison of diagnostic methods for Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Perazzi, Beatriz E; Menghi, Claudia I; Coppolillo, Enrique F; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; de Torres, Ramón A; Vay, Carlos A; Famiglietti, Angela M R

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid medium. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were assessed considering culture on liquid medium as the "gold standard". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by culture on liquid medium was 4.0% (24/597). The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by direct wet smear, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and sodium acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue staining-fixing technique was 1.8%, 2.3% and 2.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the direct wet smear was 45.8%, that of the prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining was 58.3%, and that of the SAF/methylene blue method was 62.5%. Considering the 3 microscopic examinations altogether, the sensitivity rose to 66.7% and the specificity was 100% for all of them. This is the first time that the prevalence data of T. vaginalis by culture in pregnant women are published in Argentina. Due to the low sensitivity obtained by microscopy in asymptomatic pregnant women, the use of the liquid medium is recommended during pregnancy, in order to provide an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20333287

  9. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We perfo