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Sample records for affect serum lipids

  1. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet. PMID:20668250

  2. PreImplantation factor prevents atherosclerosis via its immunomodulatory effects without affecting serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung Chih; Rivera, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Melissa; Hausding, Christian; Ying, Ya-Lan; Wang, Xiaowei; Todorova, Krassimira; Hayrabedyan, Soren; Barnea, Eytan R; Peter, Karlheinz

    2016-05-01

    PreImplantation factor (PIF) is a 15-amino acid peptide endogenously secreted by viable embryos, regulating/enabling maternal (host) acceptance/tolerance to the "invading" embryo (allograft) all-while preserving maternal immunity to fight infections. Such attributes make PIF a potential therapeutic agent for chronic inflammatory diseases. We investigated whether PIF's immunomodulatory properties prevent progression of atherosclerosis in the hyper-cholesterolaemic ApoE-deficient murine model. Male, high-fat diet fed, ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were administered either PBS, scrambled PIF (0.3-3 mg/kg) or PIF (0.3-3 mg/kg) for seven weeks. After treatment, PIF (3 mg/kg)-treated ApoE-/- mice displayed significantly reduced atherosclerosis lesion burden in the aortic sinus and aortic arch, without any effect on lipid profile. PIF also caused a significant reduction in infiltration of macrophages, decreased expression of pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines in the plaque, and reduced circulating IFN-γ levels. PIF preferentially binds to monocytes/neutrophils. In vitro, PIF attenuated monocyte migration (MCP-1-induced chemotaxis assay) and in vivo in LPS peritonitis model. Also PIF prevented leukocyte extravasation (peritonitis thioglycollate-induced model), demonstrating that PIF exerts its effect in part by modulation of monocyte function. Inhibition of the potassium channel KCNAB3 (Kv1.3) and of the insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) was demonstrated as potential mechanism of PIF's immunomodulatory effects. In conclusion, PIF regulates/lowers inflammation and prevents atherosclerosis development without affecting circulating lipids. Overall our findings establish PIF as a strong immunomodulatory drug candidate for atherosclerosis therapy. PMID:26842698

  3. SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sandeep; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, H.; Dalal, P.K.; Asthana, O.P.; Srivastava, J.S.; Mishra, Rakesh; Ramakant; Sinha, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Practical difficulties associated with assessment of central parameters necessitates the development of peripheral markers of suicidal risk. Recent research suggest that serum lipid profile may be a useful indicator of suicidal behaviour. Serum lipid profiles of forty suicide attempters were compared with forty age, sex and BMI matched controls. Total serum cholesterol, serum Triglyceride, LDL levels and HDL levels were found to be lower in suicide attempters but were not statistically significant. Statistically significant negative con-elation was seen between risk-rescue score and above mentioned parameters. No statitically significant difference was observed when various diagnostic break-up groups of patients were compared. PMID:21430801

  4. Smoking and Serum Lipid Profiles in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    An, Hui-Mei; Tan, Yun-Long; Tan, Shu-Ping; Shi, Jing; Wang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Fu-De; Huang, Xu-Feng; Soars, Jair C; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a high prevalence of cigarette-smoking and abnormal lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the profiles differ between schizophrenic smokers and non-smokers and whether the lipid profiles are related to psychopathological symptoms. Serum lipid profiles were measured in 130 male inpatients with DSM-IV-defined schizophrenia: 104 smokers and 26 non-smokers. Symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Our results showed that positive PANSS symptoms were fewer in smokers than in non-smokers, while the negative symptoms were fewer in those who smoked more cigarettes. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly lower in the smokers than in the non-smokers. However, there was no significant difference in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, or apolipoprotein B between the smokers and non-smokers. However, the PANSS positive subscale had a significant negative correlation with the HDL-c levels (a protective factor) in the smokers but not in the non-smokers. Our findings suggest that schizophrenic patients who smoke have fewer psychotic symptoms, but contrary to expectation, smoking does not alter lipid profile levels. PMID:27017941

  5. Biliary lipids support serum-free growth of Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed Central

    Gillin, F D; Gault, M J; Hofmann, A F; Gurantz, D; Sauch, J F

    1986-01-01

    Giardia lamblia has been grown in vitro only in media containing serum or serum fractions. How this pathogen can grow in the human small intestinal lumen without serum is not known. We found that samples of human hepatic or gall bladder bile maintained G. lamblia survival for 24 to 48 h in medium without serum but did not support growth. By contrast, an artificial biliary lipid dispersion containing six bile salts, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and cholesterol, in the ratios characteristic of human bile, supported parasite growth in medium without serum or serum fractions. To define the requirements, we showed that 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-PC or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC (which predominate in human bile) satisfied the requirement for PC. Moreover, either glycocholate or glycodeoxycholate could be substituted for the bile salt mixture. The finding that biliary lipids can support serum-free growth of G. lamblia may help explain why this parasite colonizes the upper small intestine. PMID:3744557

  6. Schistosoma mansoni: modulation of schistosomular lipid composition by serum.

    PubMed

    Rumjanek, F D; McLaren, D J

    1981-08-01

    Human serum and foetal calf serum have been compared in terms of their ability to modify the biochemical and immunological properties of the schistosomular surface. Artificially transformed schistosomula were incubated in the presence of serum for 24 h and then radioiodinated using the chloramine T method. With this method only lipids are labelled. Foetal calf serum produces a net loss of lipids from the schistosomula, particularly of mono- and diglycerides. Human serum however, promotes not only a loss of mono- and diglycerides, but also a substantial uptake of cholesterol and triglycerides. Schistosomula recovered from the lungs of mice could also be labelled and contained besides triglycerides, an increased amount of cholesterol esters. The modulation of surface lipids in worms cultured with human serum correlates with the observation that such schistosomula develop significantly greater protection against eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro than do individuals incubated with foetal calf serum. On the other hand, schistosomula cultured in the presence of either human serum or foetal calf serum develop the same degree of protection against complement-dependent lethal antibody; this result indicates that resistance against complement-mediated damage may be independent of the uptake of cholesterol and/or triglycerides, and might involve only limited alterations in the surface configuration of the schistosomulum. PMID:7278882

  7. Associations between serum lipids and hepatitis C antiviral treatment efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ramcharran, Darmendra; Wahed, Abdus S.; Conjeevaram, Hari S.; Evans, Rhobert W.; Wang, Tianyi; Belle, Steven H.; Yee, Leland J.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one half of patients who undergo antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection will not respond to treatment. African Americans (AAs) are less responsive to treatment than Caucasian Americans (CAs) and the reasons for this disparity are largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that serum lipids may be associated with treatment response. The aims of this study were to evaluate baseline and changes in serum lipids during therapy, determine if serum lipids are associated with virological response, and assess if these measures explain the racial difference in efficacy. Participants were from Virahep-C, a prospective study of treatment naïve participants with type 1 HCV infection who received peginterferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin therapy for up to 48 weeks. Fasting serum lipids were analyzed at baseline, during, and after therapy in 160 AAs and 170 CAs. A relative risk (RR) model was employed to evaluate characteristics associated with sustained virological response (SVR). Antiviral therapy was associated with changes in serum lipids during and after antiviral therapy, with the changes differing by race and the amount of PEG-IFN taken. Baseline lipid measures independently associated with a higher rate of SVR were lower TG and higher LDLc, with an interaction between high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and gender. Lipid measures did not contribute significantly to explaining the racial difference in SVR. Conclusion Lipid levels are associated with SVR, although lipid parameters did not explain the racial difference in treatment response. Results are compatible with proposed biological mechanisms of HCV entry, replication, and secretion, and may underscore new potential therapeutic targets for HCV eradication. PMID:20690192

  8. Serum lipid pattern unifies following renal transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Koeppe, Silvie; Arbeiter, Klaus; Luckner, Doris; Salzer, Urike; Balzar, Egon; Aufricht, Christoph

    2003-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a common problem in solid organ transplant recipients. In this study we evaluated the role of pre-transplant renal replacement therapy on early and late changes of serum lipid levels in children following renal transplantation. In 46 children with chronic renal failure (median age 10.3 years) and 12 children with heart failure (median age 5.0 years), cholesterol and triglycerides were measured before and during follow-up after transplantation. Children with renal failure had significantly higher serum lipids than controls ( n=34, median age 9.2 years) and patients with heart failure. Pre transplantation, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly lower in the hemodialysis than in the peritoneal dialysis population, whereas conservatively treated children had intermediate levels. After transplantation, serum cholesterol converged towards a mean level of 208 mg/dl and triglyceride levels converged towards a uniform level of 195 mg/dl at 9 months post transplant. The ratio of cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein significantly decreased from 4.7 to 3.8. The pattern of "post-transplant hyperlipidemia" was similar in both renal and cardiac allograft recipients. Hence, the early post-transplant changes of serum lipid pattern are markedly dependent on the mode of pre-transplant renal replacement therapy. Later, serum lipid levels were no longer influenced by prior renal replacement therapy and showed a new pattern of "post-transplant hyperlipidemia" in all children. PMID:12883978

  9. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  10. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    KARABUDAK, EFSUN; TÜRKÖZÜ, DUYGU; KÖKSAL, EDA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels. PMID:26136902

  11. The role of developing breast cancer in alteration of serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Kamal Eldin A.; Hassan, Ikhlas K.; Sadig, Isam A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The major aim of this study is to examine the role of alterations in lipid profile in women developing breast cancer. This study was carried out between May 2009 and December 2010. Background: The relationship between lipids and breast cancer is undistinguished. Until now, conflicting results have been reported on the association between lipids and risk of breast cancer development in women. Materials and Methods: Plasma lipids (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides [TG] were analyzed from 60 controls and 120 untreated breast cancer patients with clinical and histopathological evidence, under aseptic conditions. Venous blood was drawn from the cases and controls and estimations of lipid profile were done utilizing the standard procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent sample t-test to compare the mean serum levels of lipid profile and TC/HDL ratio between patients and controls. Results: A significant rise in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol values, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected significantly by the breast cancer. Conclusions: The developing breast cancer might be considered as one of the factors in alterations in lipid profile levels. PMID:23626635

  12. Serum lipid levels and cognitive change in late life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret; Prince, Jonathan A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the importance of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex which may clarify conflicting prior evidence. Design A 16-year prospective cohort study of health and cognitive aging. Participants 819 adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), 50 years and older at the first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. Measurements Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span. Baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including HDL, apoA1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident prior to age 65. In women higher HDL and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities over age, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction: i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline. In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. Conclusions Elevated lipids may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, while for men the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. PMID:20398119

  13. Effects of midazolam on glycemia and serum lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Cuparencu, B; Horák, J; Horák, A; Lenghel, A

    1996-01-01

    Midazolam administered ip. in albino rats (each group consisted from 10 animals rendered hyperdyslipidemic by the administration of Triton WR-1339) induced at most doses a significant reduction of glycemia (p < 0.001). However, the reduction of blood glucose level was outside of the dangerous level. Midazolam elicited also very significant decrease of the elevated serum lipids (p < 0.001). The pharmacological analysis of these phenomena by using the peripheral type benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors antagonist PK 11105, the central BZD receptor antagonist flumazenil and the purinergic P1 receptors antagonist aminophylline has shown that the effects on serum lipids were due, very probably to the stimulation of the peripheral type BZD receptors. Aminophylline seems to have the property to block the peripheral type BZD receptors. The effects on blood glucose level were very variable. PMID:9328611

  14. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  15. Relationship between exposure to industrial noise and serum lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Bahabad, Afshin Malek; Moghaddam, Azadeh Nahan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of our study was to investigate the effects of exposure to industrial noise on serum lipid profile among workers who are exposed to noise at work. In a historical cohort study, we recruited 154 and 146 male workers as high and low level noise exposure groups respectively. We defined workers with at least one year exposure to noise level more than 90 dB as high exposure group, and those with exposure to less than 80 dB as low exposure group. Afterwards, in the fasting blood specimens of participants we measured serum Triglyceride (TG), total Cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL). Mean of TG, TC, HDL and LDL for low exposure group were 148, 189, 38 and 103 mg/dl and for high exposure group were 237, 189, 37 and 104 mg/dl respectively. Mean serum TG between two groups was different. Even after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and work hours per week, serum TG among high exposure group was 89 mg/dl higher than low exposure group and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). There was no significant difference between two groups in TC, LDL and HDL levels. This study did not find a statistically significant relationship between exposure to noise and serum TC, LDL and HDL, but TG in two groups was different and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:22131242

  16. Quercetin Induces Hepatic Lipid Omega-Oxidation and Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F.; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J. M.; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C. H.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9–15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD. PMID:23359794

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  18. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  19. Serum lipids and acyl group composition of alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Rush, A; Chin, P C; Gorka, C; Lahiri, S; Wood, W G

    1988-01-01

    The lipid content and acyl group composition of serum from a group of alcoholic patients at a VA Medical Center were compared to control subjects sampled either from University of Missouri personnel or from subjects who were undergoing a preemployment physical examination at the same VA Medical Center. Plasma of alcoholic patients indicated an elevated triacylglycerol level (24-35%) as compared to both control groups. In addition, the acyl groups of triacylglycerols of alcoholic patients showed a markedly lower proportion of 18:2 and a higher proportion of 18:0 and 18:1 as compared to the control groups. The level of phosphatidylcholines in the plasma of alcoholic patients was not different from controls. However, acyl group composition of phosphatidylcholines from alcoholics indicated a lower proportion of 22:6 (n-3) as compared to controls. Although the cholesteryl ester level in serum was higher in alcoholics than in controls, the difference did not reach a level of significance. There was a similar decrease in 18:2 and an increase in 18:0 in cholesteryl esters of alcoholics as compared to controls. Results indicate that alcoholics in the United States show a similar change in certain serum lipids as reported for the Swedish alcoholics. This study also shows the complexities involved in selecting appropriate control groups to be compared with alcoholic patients. PMID:3395462

  20. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  1. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C

    1996-03-01

    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p < 0.05). In view of the close association between hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  2. Reductions in Serum Lipids with a 4-year Decline in Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Fletcher, Tony; Luster, Michael I.; Steenland, Kyle; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Armstrong, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. Methods We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 2005–2006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Results Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.5–5.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.5–7.4%). Conclusions Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol. PMID:23685825

  3. Design and characterization of a novel lipid-DNA complex that resists serum-induced destabilization.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tianshun; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2003-12-01

    Ineffectiveness of cationic lipids to enhance DNA transfection has been attributed to serum-mediated dissociation and perhaps complement activation of lipid-DNA complexes. To overcome these problems, we have developed a novel lipid-DNA complex that greatly reduces serum-mediated dissociation. The complexes were prepared by mixing cationic liposomes containing 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine and DNA in ethanolic (20% v/v ethanol) solution containing 5% sucrose followed by dehydration via rotating evaporation. Upon hydration in H(2)O, the lipid-DNA complexes [ethanol-dried lipid-DNA (EDL) complexes] were formed. The complexes exhibit a low positive zeta potential and enhanced transfection efficiency in contrast to the suppressed efficiency detected with admixed lipid-DNA complexes in the presence of serum across several cell lines. This result may be attributed to the inability of serum to dissociate DNA from lipids in EDL complexes. Using displacement of ethidium bromide intercalation analysis, we found that in serum, only 50% of DNA was exposed in the EDL complexes, compared with 100% in the admixed lipid-DNA complexes. The EDL complexes also showed increased resistance to DNase digestion in the presence of negatively charged lipid, while reducing complement activation in serum. The EDL complexes may improve the transfection activity of lipid-DNA complexes in serum and, perhaps, in vivo. PMID:14603483

  4. The relationship of drinking water chlorination and serum lipids in human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Zeighami, E.A.; Watson, A.P.; Craun, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    This research tests hypotheses concerning the relationship between drinking water characteristics and the cardiovascular disease risk factors blood pressure and serum lipids, as well as thyroid function. The study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine the characteristics of the cardiovascular disease risk factors in residents of forty-six small communities in central Wisconsin. Twenty of the communities chlorinated the water supply, and twenty-six did not. Within each of the chlorination groups, approximately half the communities had hard water and the other half had soft drinking water. This report examines the relationship of chlorination to serum lipid levels in the forty-six communities. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in chlorinated communities for females. Levels of serum cholesterol were also higher in chlorinated communities for males, but the difference was not as great, nor was it statistically significant. LDL levels were higher in chlorinated communities, but did not reach statistical significance for either sex. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were related to calcium level of the drinking water within the hardness categories, but only in the chlorinated communities. Thus chlorine and calcium level in the drinking water may interact in some way which affects levels of HDL cholesterol. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of cobalt chloride on content of lipids and lipoproteins in serum and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Shalamov, R V; Zagaiko, A L

    1997-07-01

    Lipids and the composition of lipoproteins in blood serum and liver cytosol, total lipid, and phospholipid contents in liver subcellular fractions and the spectrum of microsomal liver lipids were studied in male Wistar rats after a single injection of cobalt chloride. Virtually all lipid and lipoprotein fractions in blood and liver were increased and lipoprotein composition was changes. The lipid composition of liver microsomes did not change under these conditions. Thus, microsomal membranes are stable under developing oxidative stress. PMID:9331964

  6. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  7. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum lipids: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Huma; Ismail, Rabia; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan; Alam, M Tanweer; Sarwar, Ghulam

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the effects of using hormonal contraceptives on serum lipoprotein levels. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and afterward at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. 1391 Pakistani females taking COCs, DMPA, or non hormonal (NH) contraceptives. The results were calculated by repeated measure ANOVA subsequent to tukey's post hoc test for the multiple comparisons. Statistical examination revealed that differences in lipid profile were significant (p <0.001) among all treated group in comparison with control. DMPA also caused significant rise in Castelli index-I and Castelli index-II as compared to COCs group and control group. This study demonstrated raise in total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) as well as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Whereas, an obvious decrease was observed in high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the DMPA-treated group. We concluded that, this inductive study specifies atherogenic cardiovascular risk in women using DMPA on long term basis. PMID:27592475

  8. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  9. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Aqueous Extracts on Serum Lipids, Aminotransferases, and Lipid Peroxidation in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Roghani, Mehrdad; Maleki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with high levels of total cholesterol (TCH), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH), and triglyceride (TG) are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. Studies have shown that flavonoids and antioxidant compounds have beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of extract of Hypericum perforatum (EHP) on the serum lipid profile (TCH, TG, and LDL-CH), aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male rats weighting 200 ± 10 g were randomly divided into four experimental groups: 1) control, 2) control + EHP, 3) hyperlipidemia, and 4) hyperlipidemia + EHP. The rats in the hyperlipidemic groups were fed a high-fat diet for 60 days, and EHP (300 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 2 weeks in the rats in the second and fourth groups. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples from each group were analyzed. Results: There was a significant reduction in LDL-CH in the control + EHP group and the hyperlipidemia + EHP group (P < 0.05). TCH was significantly reduced in the control + EHP group (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the levels of TG and HDL-CH. Malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were significantly reduced in the hyperlipidemia + EHP group (P < 0.05), with no significant change in alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions: EHP was able to both reduce LDL-CH and to significantly decrease markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by hyperlipidemia. Therefore, this herb, as a new pharmacological component, could be used to reduce certain blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, and aminotransferase markers. PMID:26949689

  10. Lipid Cross-Linking of Nanolipoprotein Particles Substantially Enhances Serum Stability and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Sean F; Blanchette, Craig D; Scharadin, Tiffany M; Hura, Greg L; Rasley, Amy; Corzett, Michele; Pan, Chong-Xian; Fischer, Nicholas O; Henderson, Paul T

    2016-08-17

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) consist of a discoidal phospholipid lipid bilayer confined by an apolipoprotein belt. NLPs are a promising platform for a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, size, definable composition, and amphipathic characteristics. However, poor serum stability hampers the use of NLPs for in vivo applications such as drug formulation. In this study, NLP stability was enhanced upon the incorporation and subsequent UV-mediated intermolecular cross-linking of photoactive DiynePC phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, forming cross-linked nanoparticles (X-NLPs). Both the concentration of DiynePC in the bilayer and UV exposure time significantly affected the resulting X-NLP stability in 100% serum, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of fluorescently labeled particles. Cross-linking did not significantly impact the size of X-NLPs as determined by dynamic light scattering and SEC. X-NLPs had essentially no degradation over 48 h in 100% serum, which is a drastic improvement compared to non-cross-linked NLPs (50% degradation by ∼10 min). X-NLPs had greater uptake into the human ATCC 5637 bladder cancer cell line compared to non-cross-linked particles, indicating their potential utility for targeted drug delivery. X-NLPs also exhibited enhanced stability following intravenous administration in mice. These results collectively support the potential utility of X-NLPs for a variety of in vivo applications. PMID:27411034

  11. Spastin Binds to Lipid Droplets and Affects Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Chrisovalantis; Orso, Genny; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Herholz, Marija; Gumeni, Sentiljana; Tadepalle, Nimesha; Jüngst, Christian; Tzschichholz, Anne; Schauss, Astrid; Höning, Stefan; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Daga, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in SPAST, encoding spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). HSP is characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, owing to progressive retrograde degeneration of the long corticospinal axons. Spastin is a conserved microtubule (MT)-severing protein, involved in processes requiring rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in concert to membrane remodeling, such as neurite branching, axonal growth, midbody abscission, and endosome tubulation. Two isoforms of spastin are synthesized from alternative initiation codons (M1 and M87). We now show that spastin-M1 can sort from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pre- and mature lipid droplets (LDs). A hydrophobic motif comprised of amino acids 57 through 86 of spastin was sufficient to direct a reporter protein to LDs, while mutation of arginine 65 to glycine abolished LD targeting. Increased levels of spastin-M1 expression reduced the number but increased the size of LDs. Expression of a mutant unable to bind and sever MTs caused clustering of LDs. Consistent with these findings, ubiquitous overexpression of Dspastin in Drosophila led to bigger and less numerous LDs in the fat bodies and increased triacylglycerol levels. In contrast, Dspastin overexpression increased LD number when expressed specifically in skeletal muscles or nerves. Downregulation of Dspastin and expression of a dominant-negative variant decreased LD number in Drosophila nerves, skeletal muscle and fat bodies, and reduced triacylglycerol levels in the larvae. Moreover, we found reduced amount of fat stores in intestinal cells of worms in which the spas-1 homologue was either depleted by RNA interference or deleted. Taken together, our data uncovers an evolutionarily conserved role of spastin as a positive regulator of LD metabolism and open up the possibility that dysfunction of LDs in axons may contribute to the pathogenesis of HSP. PMID:25875445

  12. Fast Transmethylation of Serum Lipids using Microwave Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu Hong; Loewke, James D.; Hyun, Duk Y.; Leazer, Jay; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave irradiation as the energy source for one–step direct transesterification of fatty acids in human serum lipids was examined in solvent system of methanol: hexane: acetyl chloride based on Lepage & Roy assay. Innovative and explosion proof single–mode or multimode microwave accelerate reaction system was employed. Recoveries were calculated as the percentage of fatty acid concentrations measured by microwave assay to those by reference method Lepage & Roy assay that utilized conductive heating at 100 °C for 60 min. At conditions of 100 °C for 1 min in Single–mode (S4–100×1), or 125 °C for 5 min in Multimode (M5–125×5), the recoveries were 100–103% for the total fatty acids and 96–106% for each categorized fatty acid, including saturates, monounsaturates, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA. For individual PUFA, the mean recoveries were 102–105% for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3; 99, 109, and 95% for 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, respectively. Thus, fatty acid concentrations determined by microwave fatty acid assay were accurate to those results by the reference method, when the microwave conditions were optimal. In summary, the microwave irradiation could replace conductive heating in one–step direct transesterification, and reduce duration from 60 min to 5 min or less. This methodology may be applied in both the absolute and relative quantification of serum total fatty acids. PMID:23015312

  13. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease. PMID:27040277

  14. Modifications in dietary fat quality are associated with changes in serum lipids of older adults independently of lipid medication.

    PubMed

    Buyken, Anette E; Flood, Victoria; Rochtchina, Elena; Nestel, Paul; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Prospective evidence on the extent to which serum lipid concentrations in older persons respond to dietary modification is scarce. It is not clear whether such behavioral changes are relevant in the context of more commonly initiated treatments with lipid-lowering drugs. We therefore examined whether individual changes in the consumption of dietary fatty acids or main food sources were associated with changes in the serum lipid profile of older Australians. A total of 903 participants (> or =49 y) in the Blue Mountains Eye Study had complete data on fasting lipids and dietary intake from a validated FFQ at baseline (1992-1994) and 5- and 10-y follow-up examinations. Decreasing consumption of SFA and butter during the 10-y period were associated with moderate decreases in serum total cholesterol independently of initiation of lipid-lowering drug treatment [adjusted estimates were 0.018 +/- 0.007 mmol/(L x % energy (%en) from SFA (P = 0.01) and 0.055 +/- 0.015 mmol/(L x 5 g butter) (P = 0.0003), respectively]. Increased consumption of (n-3) fatty acids and fish was independently related to modest increases in serum HDL-cholesterol [0.067 +/- 0.026 mmol/(L x %en from (n-3) fatty acids) (P = 0.01) and 0.010 +/- 0.004 mmol/(L x 20 g fish) (P = 0.02)] and decreases in log-transformed serum triglyceride concentrations [P = 0.02 for (n-3) fatty acids and P = 0.02 for fish intake]. Hence, 10-y changes in the intake of dietary fatty acids and their food sources appear to have contributed to concurrent improvements in the serum lipid profile of older Australians, independent of concomitantly initiated lipid-lowering drug treatment. PMID:19923396

  15. Influence of minor plant constituents on porcine hepatic lipid metabolism. Impact on serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A A; Crenshaw, T D; Abuirmeileh, N; Peterson, D M; Elson, C E

    1987-04-01

    The effects of plant constituents on lipid metabolism were examined in swine that had been fed for 4 weeks a standard diet containing, in addition, (per kg diet) 3.15 g of the methanol serial solvent fraction garlic bulbs or 3.5 g of the petroleum ether solubles high-protein barley flour or 5 mg of the plant growth regulator, AMO 1618. All treatments suppressed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activities. Modest increases in serum triglycerides were associated with significantly increased hepatic lipogenic activities in response to all treatments except that of the barley extract. The methanol solubles of a second lot of garlic were fractionated by HPLC and tested in an avian hepatocyte system. One component, an isoprenoid metabolite, MW 358, suppressed HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:3606707

  16. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. PMID:27179108

  17. An increase of serum lipids after cumulative doses of doxorubicin and epirubicin in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, G P; Papadopoulos, N G; Stephanopoulou, A; Dontas, I; Kotsarelis, D; Karayannacos, P E

    1996-01-01

    A wide range of pharmacological actions has been attributed to the anthracyclins. In this study we examined their effect on serum lipids in experimental animals in parallel with histological alterations. Three Wistar rat groups were injected with doxorubicin, epirubicin or normal saline once a week for 12 weeks. Total serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, transaminases, proteins and alkaline phosphatase were assayed weekly. A proportion of the animals were sacrificed at the same time points and the cardiac muscle, large vessels, liver and abdominal muscle were stained and examined under light microscopy. Serum lipids were found to increase gradually, starting after 8 weeks of drug administration, until the end of the experiment. Tissue damage was noted in the cardiac muscle, abdominal muscle and large vessels, also following an increasing trend. Doxorubicin had a more pronounced effect than epirubicin on both serum lipid increase and tissue destruction. These alterations may contribute to anthracyclin-related cardiac damage. PMID:9042202

  18. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27432092

  19. Effects of Oxidized Tallow on the Rabbit Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Activity of the In-vitro Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Waheed ur

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of thermally oxidized tallow on the serum lipids profile and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the lipids extracted from the different tissues of the rabbits. Tallow was thermally oxidized at 130℃ for 9, 18, 27, 36 and 45 h respectively. Thermally oxidized tallow was fed to the local strain of Himalayan rabbits for one week. Results show that oxidation increases the formation of hydroperoxides and decrease the level of radical scavenging activity of the tallow. The rabbit serum lipids profile showed a dose dependent increase in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. However, no statistically significant increase was observed in the HDL-cholesterol with an increase of oxidation time. Serum glucose and rabbits body weight decrease significantly (p < 0.05) and was highly correlated with the serum lipids profile. The percent RSA of the lipids extracted from the liver, brain and muscles tissues showed a significant decrease with respect to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/body weight as well as oxidation time. Data suggests that thermal oxidation and use of thermally oxidized beef tallow is harmful and therefore an alternative way of cooking should be used. PMID:24278604

  20. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Khalatbari Soltani, Saman; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Tabibi, Hadi; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Atabak, Shahnaz; Loh, Su-Peng; Rahmani, Leila

    2013-04-01

    Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to either a flaxseed or control group. Patients in the flaxseed group received 40 g/day ground flaxseed for 8 weeks, whereas patients in the control group received their usual diet, without any flaxseed. At baseline and at the end of week 8, 7 mL of blood was collected after a 12- to 14-hour fast and serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Serum concentrations of triglyceride (P < 0.01), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), LDL-C (P < 0.01), and CRP (P < 0.05) decreased significantly in the flaxseed group at the end of week 8 compared with baseline, whereas serum HDL-C showed a significant increase (P < 0.01). These changes in the flaxseed group were significant in comparison with the control group. The study indicates that flaxseed consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. PMID:22998533

  1. BILIARY LIPIDS SUPPORT SERUM-FREE GROWTH OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia has only been grown in vitro in media containing serum or serum fractions. How this pathogen can grow in the human small intestinal lumen without serum is not known. The authors found that samples of human hepatic or gall bladder bile maintained G. lamblia surviva...

  2. Resistin gene polymorphisms are associated with acne and serum lipid levels, providing a potential nexus between lipid metabolism and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Younis, Sidra; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Javed, Qamar

    2016-05-01

    Acne vu lgaris is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease causing social stigma and psychological effect on patients. We hypothesized that the genes that can affect both lipid metabolism and inflammation may be central for acne formation and present targets for treatment. Pro-inflammatory adipokine resistin, one such likely target, activates NFkB and JNK pathways inducing TLR-2, IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα genes. The polymorphisms in promoter and intron region of the resistin gene affect its expression levels. Therefore, we explored the association of resistin polymorphisms (RETN +299G > A and -420C > G) with pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We used PCR-RFLP method to genotype at the two single nucleotide polymorphisms at RETN promoter in 530 acne patients vs. 550 age- and sex-matched control subjects. We also measured serum lipid levels in acne patients and associated these with RETN genotypes. We found that the RETN gene polymorphisms are strongly associated with acne vulgaris and the severity of acne symptoms. In females the variant allele frequencies of both SNPs are statistically higher in patients than in controls; in males frequency distribution does not reach significance. The haplotype containing both variant alleles is significantly more common in patients than in controls. We find no association of RETN SNPs with the acne types. Importantly, we found that the levels of HDL-C were significantly decreased in variant genotype of RETN. Our results show that the RETN polymorphisms expected to boost resistin expression increase the risk of developing acne. We suggest that resistin may provide an attractive target for treatment. PMID:26858108

  3. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Shabestari, Mahmoud M.; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Bafandeh, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control). The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation. PMID:27486375

  4. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Shabestari, Mahmoud M; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Bafandeh, Fereshteh

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control). The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation. PMID:27486375

  5. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values.

    PubMed

    Münstedt, Karsten; Hoffmann, Sven; Hauenschild, Annette; Bülte, Michael; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P < .001) as were BMI and a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P < .001), meaning that subjects with a high BMI had a lower HDL cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation. PMID:19627212

  6. HIGH SERUM PCBs ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATION OF SERUM LIPIDS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN A NATIVE AMERICAN POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Haase, Richard F.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the relationships among the concentration of total serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), various PCB congener groupings, and three pesticides to total serum lipids in humans with and without self-reported cardiovascular disease. Blood samples were obtained from 335 adult Akwesasne Mohawks, and were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, mirex, DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), as well as serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Structural equation modeling, following the definition of latent variables by means of confirmatory factor analysis, was used to analyze the relationships between serum lipids with PCBs and heart disease. There were significant associations among PCBs, lipids, age, and body mass index (BMI), a fact which justified the application of the structural equation model. Gender of the participant was unrelated to any of the remaining study variables. The results of this study are consistent with a model in which age is considered as both an exogenous explanatory variable and a biological driving mechanism for the acquisition of PCBs. Moreover, the results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that PCBs, acting through P450 enzymes, are directly responsible for increased synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides, substances known to be major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:18054906

  7. How Lipid Membranes Affect Pore Forming Toxin Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojko, Nejc; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-12-15

    , events associated with pore formation can modulate properties of the lipid membrane and affect its organization. Model membranes do not necessarily reproduce the physicochemical properties of the native cellular membrane, and caution is needed when transferring results from model to native lipid membranes. In this context, the utilization of novel approaches that enable studying PFTs on living cells at a single molecule level should reveal complex protein-lipid membrane interactions in greater detail. PMID:26641659

  8. The Valuable Role of Measuring Serum Lipid Profile in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremanfard, Farahnaz; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Shahnazari, Banafsheh; Gholami, Golnaz; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum lipid levels are not only associated with etiology, but also with prognosis in cancer. To investigate this issue further, we aimed to evaluate the serum levels of lipids in association with the most important prognostic indicators in cancer patients at the start of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective cross-sectional study, using existing medical records obtained from 2009–2014, the data of all incident cancer cases in Iranian patients referred to the Semnan oncology clinic for chemotherapy were analyzed. Data on demographics, cancer type, prognostic indicators (e.g. lymph node involvement, metastasis, and stage of disease), as well as the patient’s lipid profile were collected. We used multiple logistic regression models to show the relationship between prognosis indicators and lipid profile adjusting for age, gender, and type of cancer. Results The data of 205 patients was gathered. We found a significant difference in the lipid profile between different types of cancers (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian). With the exception of high-density lipoprotein levels in women, which were higher than in men, the means of other lipid profiles were similar between the genders. There was a significant association between higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL >110mg/dL) in the serum and metastasis (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–3.5). No significant association was reported between lipid profile and lymph nodes involvement and stage of the disease. Conclusion Our study suggested a benefit of measuring serum levels of lipids for predicting cancer progression. Increased LDL levels can be considered a predictive factor for increasing the risk of metastasis. PMID:26421116

  9. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  10. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria. PMID:27461878

  11. Phosphoethanolamine substitution of lipid A and resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cationic antimicrobial peptides and complement-mediated killing by normal human serum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa A; Choudhury, Biswa; Balthazar, Jacqueline T; Martin, Larry E; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A; Stephens, David S; Carlson, Russell; Shafer, William M

    2009-03-01

    The capacity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cause disseminated gonococcal infection requires that such strains resist the bactericidal action of normal human serum. The bactericidal action of normal human serum against N. gonorrhoeae is mediated by the classical complement pathway through an antibody-dependent mechanism. The mechanism(s) by which certain strains of gonococci resist normal human serum is not fully understood, but alterations in lipooligosaccharide structure can affect such resistance. During an investigation of the biological significance of phosphoethanolamine extensions from lipooligosaccharide, we found that phosphoethanolamine substitutions from the heptose II group of the lipooligosaccharide beta-chain did not impact levels of gonococcal (strain FA19) resistance to normal human serum or polymyxin B. However, loss of phosphoethanolamine substitution from the lipid A component of lipooligosaccharide, due to insertional inactivation of lptA, resulted in increased gonococcal susceptibility to polymyxin B, as reported previously for Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast to previous reports with N. meningitidis, loss of phosphoethanolamine attached to lipid A rendered strain FA19 susceptible to complement killing. Serum killing of the lptA mutant occurred through the classical complement pathway. Both serum and polymyxin B resistance as well as phosphoethanolamine decoration of lipid A were restored in the lptA-null mutant by complementation with wild-type lptA. Our results support a role for lipid A phosphoethanolamine substitutions in resistance of this strict human pathogen to innate host defenses. PMID:19114544

  12. [Study on effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus MG2-1 on serum lipid metabolism in rats].

    PubMed

    Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, He-Ping; Chen, Yong-Fu; Guan, Hong; Zhou, Dong-Po

    2005-12-01

    Wistar rats were fed with a high lipid diet supplemented with living or thermal death bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus MG2-1 which was isolated from koumiss in Mongolia and was of good ability of acid tolerance and decreasing the level of cholesterol in vitro. The effect of Lb. acidophilus MG2-1 on the metabolism of serum cholesterol was discussed. It was showed that it was on the 14th day of experiment that the inhibiting effects of the increase of serum cholesterol level of rat groups fed with living bacteria and heat-killed bacteria was significantly (p > 0.05) and very significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of the high lipid diet group respectively; at the same time, the level of serum HDL-C of the thermal death bacteria group was significantly higher than that of the high lipid diet group (p < 0.05), also arteriosclerosis index of wistar rats in experimental group is significantly lower than that of the high lipid diet group (p < 0.01). The total bile acid level of the thermal death bacteria group in fecal is significantly higher than that of the high lipid diet group (p < 0.05). It is suggested that the increase of serum cholesterol level in rats can be inhibited and arteriosclerosis can also be prevented by this strain. During the period of tests, the effect of the strain on serum lipid in rats weaken with the time going, while the dose of bacteria fed was not changed. PMID:16496693

  13. Characterization of cationic lipid DNA transfection complexes differing in susceptability to serum inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background Cationic lipid DNA complexes based on DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethyammonium) propane) and mixtures of DOTAP and cholesterol (DC) have been previously optimized for transfection efficiency in the absence of serum and used as a non-viral gene delivery system. To determine whether DOTAP and DC lipid DNA complexes could be obtained with increased transfection effciency in the presence of high serum concentrations, the composition of the complexes was varied systematically and a total of 162 different complexes were analyzed for transfection efficiency in the presence and absence of high serum concentrations. Results Increasing the ratio of DOTAP or DC to DNA led to a dose dependent enhancement of transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations up to a ratio of approximately 128 nmol lipid/μg DNA. Transfection efficiency could be further increased for all ratios of DOTAP and DC to DNA by addition of the DNA condensing agent protamine sulfate (PS). For DOTAP DNA complexes with ratios of ≤ 32 nmol/μg DNA, peak transfection efficiencies were obtained with 4 μg PS/μg DNA. In contrast, increasing the amount of PS of DC complexes above 0.5 μg PS /μg DNA did not lead to significant further increases in transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations. Four complexes, which had a similar high transfection efficiency in cell culture in the presence of low serum concentrations but which differed largely in the lipid to DNA ratio and the amount of PS were selected for further analysis. Intravenous injection of the selected complexes led to 22-fold differences in transduction efficiency, which correlated with transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations. The complex with the highest transfection efficiency in vivo consisted of 64 nmol DC/ 16 μg PS/ μg DNA. Physical analysis revealed a predicted size of 440 nm and the highest zeta potential of the complexes analyzed. Conclusions Optimization of

  14. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  15. Effects of Indoor Cycling Associated with Diet on Body Composition and Serum Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Valle, Valeria S.; de Mello, Danielli B.; Fortes, Marcos de Sa R.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women. Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at…

  16. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  17. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  18. Mechanisms by which botanical lipids affect inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Floyd H; Rudel, Lawrence L; Parks, John S; Arm, Jonathan P; Seeds, Michael C

    2008-02-01

    Changes in diet over the past century have markedly altered the consumption of fatty acids. The dramatic increase in the ingestion of saturated and n-6 fatty acids and concomitant decrease in n-3 fatty acids are thought to be a major driver of the increase in the incidence of inflammatory diseases such as asthma, allergy, and atherosclerosis. The central objective of the Center for Botanical Lipids at Wake Forest University School of Medicine and the Brigham and Women's Hospital is to delineate the mechanisms by which fatty acid-based dietary supplements inhibit inflammation leading to chronic human diseases such as cardiovascular disease and asthma. The key question that this center addresses is whether botanical n-6 and n-3 fatty acids directly block recognized biochemical pathways or the expression of critical genes that lead to asthma and atherosclerosis. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil, borage oil, and echium oil affects the biochemistry of fatty acid metabolism and thus the balance of proinflammatory mediators and atherogenic lipids. Supplementation studies have begun to identify key molecular and genetic mechanisms that regulate the production of lipid mediators involved in inflammatory and hyperlipidemic diseases. Echium oil and other oils containing stearidonic acid as well as botanical oil combinations (such as echium and borage oils) hold great promise for modulating inflammatory diseases. PMID:18258646

  19. Associations between Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Lipids, Lipoprotein Cholesterols, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Glueck, Charles J.; Jetty, Vybhav; Rothschild, Matan; Duhon, Gregory; Shah, Parth; Prince, Marloe; Lee, Kevin; Goldenberg, Michael; Kumar, Ashwin; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, mediated in part by independent positive relationships with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and inverse relationships with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride, and homocysteine. Aims: In this study, we assessed relationships between fasting serum vitamin D and lipids, lipoprotein cholesterols, and homocysteine. Materials and Methods: We studied 1534 patients sequentially referred to our center from 2007 to 2016. Fasting serum total 25(OH) vitamin D, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, HDLC, LDLC, and homocysteine were measured. Stepwise regression models were used with total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDLC, LDLC, and homocysteine as dependent variables and explanatory variables age, race, gender, body mass index (BMI), and serum vitamin D levels. Relationships between quintiles of serum vitamin D and triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and homocysteine were assessed after covariance adjusting for age, race, gender, and BMI. Results: Fasting serum vitamin D was positively correlated with age, HDLC, and White race, and was inversely correlated with BMI, total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting serum homocysteine (P ≤ 0.0001 for all). Serum vitamin D was a significant independent inverse explanatory variable for total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol, and accounted for the largest amount of variance in serum total cholesterol (partial R2 =3.6%), triglyceride (partial R2 =3.1%), and LDLC (partial R2 =2.9%) (P < 0.0001 for all). Serum vitamin D was a significant positive explanatory variable for HDLC (partial R2 = 1.4%, P < 0.0001), and a significant inverse explanatory variable for homocysteine (partial R2 = 6.0–12.6%). Conclusions: In hyperlipidemic patients, serum vitamin D was a significant independent inverse determinant of total cholesterol, LDLC, triglyceride, and homocysteine, and a significant

  20. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Ragunath; Lyn, Rodney K.; Srinivasan, Prashanth; Delcorde, Julie; Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Pezacki, John P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  1. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  2. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  3. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  4. Effects of electromagnetic fields on serum lipids in workers of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaopin; Wang, Lijuan; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Ding, Zheyuan; Liu, Hui; Jin, Wen; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Fei, Ying; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping; Yu, Yunxian

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure on levels of serum lipids in workers of an electric power plant. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an electric power plant in Zhejiang province, China, from August to September 2011. All participants were divided into two groups with high occupational EMF exposure and low occupational EMF exposure. The occupational EMF exposure included radiofrequency EMF and extremely low-frequency EMF. Occupational EMF exposure was associated with an increased level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; β = 0.17 mmol/L, P = 0.022). High EMF exposure group with longer employment duration, longer daily EMF exposure duration, and more mobile phone or electric fee per month had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, or triglyceride than the corresponding reference group. However, significantly decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was only observed in high EMF exposure group with more mobile phone fee per month. Similar results were also found in 544 participants with available data of serum lipids in 2010. The findings showed that chronic EMF exposure was associated with the change of serum lipid levels. EMF exposure might modulate the process of lipid metabolism. PMID:26423285

  5. Serum lipids and proteins during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing desogestrel.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, I M; Bergink, E W; Holma, P; Hulkko, S; Makkonen, M; Pyörälä, T; Castrén, O

    1983-12-01

    The present study was carried out to measure lipid and protein levels in serum of healthy women during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing 0.075 mg desogestrel (Org 2969, 17 alpha-ethinyl-18-methyl-11-methylene-4-estren-17-ol) plus 0.050 mg ethinyloestradiol per tablet. All 30 volunteers took 1 tablet daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by a tablet-free period of 7 days. Treatment lasted 3 months. At the end of treatment serum total cholesterol had increased by 0.26 mmol/l (5.0%), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 0.22 mmol/l (15.2%) and triglycerides by 0.43 mmol/l (50%); the calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased by 0.16 mmol/l (4.9%). All lipid concentrations had returned to initial levels 2 months after treatment stopped. After 3 months treatment serum ceruloplasmin, cortisol-binding globulin capacity, sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity and thyroxine-binding globulin had significantly increased by 85.2, 133, 206 and 101%, respectively. All protein levels returned to normal 2 months after treatment stopped. The relationship between serum lipids and hormone-binding proteins has been discussed, as well as the significance of the high-density lipoprotein level with regard to contraceptive treatment. PMID:6232161

  6. Serum lipid profile spectrum and delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage: Is there a relation?

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Aggarwal, Ashish; Srinivasan, Anirudh; Meena, Rajesh; Gaudihalli, Sachin; Singh, Harnarayan; Dhandapani, Manju; Mukherjee, Kanchan K.; Gupta, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serum lipid abnormalities are known to be important risk factors for vascular disorders. However, their role in delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), the major cause of morbidity after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. This study was an attempt to evaluate the spectrum of lipid profile changes in SAH compared to matched controls, and their relation with the occurrence of DCI. Methods: Admission serum lipid profile levels were measured in patients of SAH and prospectively studied in relation to various factors and clinical development of DCI. Results: Serum triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly lower among SAH patients compared to matched controls (mean [±standard deviation (SD)] mg/dL: 117.3 [±50.4] vs. 172.8 [±89.1], P = 0.002), probably because of energy consumption due to hypermetabolic response. Patients who developed DCI had significantly higher TG levels compared to those who did not develop DCI (mean [±SD] mg/dL: 142.1 [±56] vs. 111.9 [±54], P = 0.05). DCI was noted in 62% of patients with TG >150 mg/dL, compared to 22% among the rest (P = 0.01). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) neither showed a significant difference between SAH and controls and nor any significant association with DCI. Multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression adjusting for the effects of age, sex, systemic disease, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, Fisher grade, and clipping/coiling, revealed higher TG levels to have significant independent association with DCI (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Higher serum TG levels appear to be significantly associated with DCI while other lipid parameters did not show any significant association. This may be due to their association with remnant cholesterol or free fatty acid-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:26664869

  7. Serum lipid antibodies are associated with cerebral tissue damage in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Rohit; Yeste, Ada; Patel, Bonny; Tauhid, Shahamat; Tummala, Subhash; Rahbari, Roya; Chu, Renxin; Regev, Keren; Kivisäkk, Pia; Weiner, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral immune responses as measured by serum antigen arrays are linked to cerebral MRI measures of disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples were obtained from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 21) and assayed using antigen arrays that contained 420 antigens including CNS-related autoantigens, lipids, and heat shock proteins. Normalized compartment-specific global brain volumes were obtained from 3-tesla MRI as surrogates of atrophy, including gray matter fraction (GMF), white matter fraction (WMF), and total brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). Total brain T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV) was quantified from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Results: We found serum antibody patterns uniquely correlated with BPF, GMF, WMF, and T2LV. Furthermore, we identified immune signatures linked to MRI markers of neurodegeneration (BPF, GMF, WMF) that differentiated those linked to T2LV. Each MRI measure was correlated with a specific set of antibodies. Strikingly, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to lipids were linked to brain MRI measures. Based on the association between IgG antibody reactivity and each unique MRI measure, we developed a lipid index. This comprised the reactivity directed against all of the lipids associated with each specific MRI measure. We validated these findings in an additional independent set of patients with MS (n = 14) and detected a similar trend for the correlations between BPF, GMF, and T2LV vs their respective lipid indexes. Conclusions: We propose serum antibody repertoires that are associated with MRI measures of cerebral MS involvement. Such antibodies may serve as biomarkers for monitoring disease pathology and progression. PMID:26894204

  8. [Effect of nuts enrich in monounsaturated acid on serum lipid of hyperlipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaofang; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Junbo; Liang, Xuejun

    2003-03-01

    In order to observe the regulatory effect of monounsaturated acid-enriched almond and macadamia nuts on blood lipid-level (TC, TG, HDL-C), the hyperlipidemia Wistar rats were used as the model and a diet containing almond and macadamia at the doses of between 12.5% and 25.0% was given for six weeks. The results showed that the level of the serum TC and TG in each study group was significantly lower than that of high fat chow control group (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum HDL-C level in the high fat chow group with high-dose macadamias compared with that in the high fat chow control group. The findings suggested that nuts enrich in monounsaturated acid could decrease the level of serum TC and TG and macadamias could increased the level of serum HDL-C in the hyperlipidemia rats. PMID:12793000

  9. [Gene polymorphism at apoB locus and the serum lipids profile in children].

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Feng, N; Wang, Y; Ye, G

    2001-09-01

    The relations of gene polymorphism at the apolipoprotein B locus and serum lipid profile in children was studied in 308 normal 7-11 year-old children, including 151 boys and 157 girls. Blood samples were collected for all subjects, and then the serum and blood clot were separated. Serum lipids, including TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoB, apoA I and Lp(a) were detected. Genome DNA was extracted from blood clot, then apoB-Xba I gene polymorphism were tested by PCR-RFLP method. The results showed that the distribution of apoB-Xba I genotype in 308 children accorded with Hardy-Weiberg inheritance equilibrium law. The frequency of heterozygote(+/-) was 13.3%, allele(+) was 0.067. The frequency of allele(+) was closed to the internal and Japanese reports (0.033 and 0.04), but much less than the Caucasians (0.50). This showed a ethnic and population difference in the inheritance variation. The average LDL-C levels of the heterozygotes(+/-) were 2.17 mmol/L, no difference compared with homozygotes(-/-) (2.21 mmol/L, P > 0.05). There was also no difference for the genotype distribution between the hyperlipidemia group and control group, which may be the results of no enough sample size and the sample selection, and so on. On the other hand, in normal children, serum lipids controlled by many genes, the effect of a single gene might be small. More studies and analysis on the relationship between serum lipids and multiple genes in multisites should be the next step. PMID:12561593

  10. Serum metabolites of proanthocyanidin-administered rats decrease lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Ligia; Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Quiñones, Mar; Arola, Lluis; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2013-12-01

    The regular consumption of flavonoids has been associated with reduced mortality and a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The proanthocyanidins found in plasma are very different from the original flavonoids in food sources. The use of physiologically appropriate conjugates of proanthocyanidins is essential for the in vitro analysis of flavonoid bioactivity. In this study, the effect of different proanthocyanidin-rich extracts, which were obtained from cocoa (CCX), French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol extract, PYC) and grape seed (GSPE), on lipid homeostasis was evaluated. Hepatic human cells (HepG2 cells) were treated with 25 mg/L of CCX, PYC or GSPE. We also performed in vitro experiments to assess the effect on lipid synthesis that is induced by the bioactive GSPE proanthocyanidins using the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of GSPE-administered rats. For this, Wistar rats were administered 1 g/kg of GSPE, and serum was collected after 2 h. The semipurified serum of GSPE-administered rats was fully characterized by liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS(2)). The lipids studied in the analyses were free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG). All three proanthocyanidin-rich extracts induced a remarkable decrease in the de novo lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, GSPE rat serum metabolites reduced the total percentage of CE, FC and particularly TG; this reduction was significantly higher than that observed in the cells directly treated with GSPE. In conclusion, the bioactivity of the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of rats after their ingestion of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract was demonstrated in Hep G2 cells. PMID:24231101

  11. Co-treatment of chlorpyrifos and lead induce serum lipid disorders in rats: Alleviation by taurine.

    PubMed

    Akande, Motunrayo G; Aliu, Yusuf O; Ambali, Suleiman F; Ayo, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine (TA) on serum lipid profiles following chronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CP) and lead acetate (Pb) in male Wistar rats. Fifty rats randomly distributed into five groups served as subjects. Distilled water (DW) was given to DW group, while soya oil (SO; 1 mL kg(-1)) was given to SO group. The TA group was treated with TA (50 mg kg(-1)). The CP + Pb group was administered sequentially with CP (4.25 mg kg(-1); 1/20th median lethal dose (LD50)) and Pb at 233.25 mg kg(-1) (1/20th LD50), while the TA + CP + Pb group received TA (50 mg kg(-1)), CP (4.25 mg kg(-1)), and Pb (233.25 mg kg(-1)) sequentially. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanised, and the blood samples were collected at the termination of the study. Sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and malondialdehyde, and also the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were analyzed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index were calculated. The results showed that CP and Pb induced alterations in the serum lipid profiles and evoked oxidative stress. TA alleviated the disruptions in the serum lipid profiles of the rats partially by mitigating oxidative stress. It was concluded that TA may be used for prophylaxis against serum lipid disorders in animals that were constantly co-exposed to CP and Pb in the environment. PMID:25537622

  12. Serum lipid concentrations in six canid and four ursid species in four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Slifka, Kerri A; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann M

    2004-03-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in healthy captive wild canids and ursids, and the values were compared with previously published data. Serum lipid levels were evaluated in blood samples collected from eight African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), three arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), nine gray wolves (Canis lupus), four maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), two Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baleiyi), nine red wolves (Canis rufus), two brown bears (Ursus arctos), six polar bears (Ursus maritimus), six spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus), and five sun bears (Ursus malayanus). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Although the results showed a great variation among species, circulating lipids appeared especially high, sometimes extremely so, in the spectacled bears, polar bears, sun bears, and maned wolves compared with all other species sampled. The study provides a substantial basis for comparing lipid levels in presumed healthy animals and indicates a need for controlled study of the effects of diet on circulating lipid levels. PMID:15193071

  13. Hepatic and serum lipid signatures specific to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Chiappini, Franck; Desterke, Christophe; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Guettier, Catherine; Le Naour, François

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a precursor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Markers for diagnosis of NASH are still lacking. We have investigated lipid markers using mouse models that developed NAFL when fed with high fat diet (HFD) or NASH when fed using methionine choline deficient diet (MCDD). We have performed a comprehensive lipidomic analysis on liver tissues as well as on sera from mice fed HFD (n = 5), MCDD (n = 5) or normal diet as controls (n = 10). Machine learning approach based on prediction analysis of microarrays followed by random forests allowed identifying 21 lipids out of 149 in the liver and 14 lipids out of 155 in the serum discriminating mice fed MCDD from HFD or controls. In conclusion, the global approach implemented allowed characterizing lipid signatures specific to NASH in both liver and serum from animal models. This opens new avenue for investigating early and non-invasive lipid markers for diagnosis of NASH in human. PMID:27510159

  14. Hepatic and serum lipid signatures specific to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in murine models.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Franck; Desterke, Christophe; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Guettier, Catherine; Le Naour, François

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a precursor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Markers for diagnosis of NASH are still lacking. We have investigated lipid markers using mouse models that developed NAFL when fed with high fat diet (HFD) or NASH when fed using methionine choline deficient diet (MCDD). We have performed a comprehensive lipidomic analysis on liver tissues as well as on sera from mice fed HFD (n = 5), MCDD (n = 5) or normal diet as controls (n = 10). Machine learning approach based on prediction analysis of microarrays followed by random forests allowed identifying 21 lipids out of 149 in the liver and 14 lipids out of 155 in the serum discriminating mice fed MCDD from HFD or controls. In conclusion, the global approach implemented allowed characterizing lipid signatures specific to NASH in both liver and serum from animal models. This opens new avenue for investigating early and non-invasive lipid markers for diagnosis of NASH in human. PMID:27510159

  15. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. PMID:25461561

  16. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors. PMID:26889364

  17. Lipidome analysis reveals antifungal polyphenol curcumin affects membrane lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni; Singh, Ashutosh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that antifungal curcumin (CUR), significantly depletes ergosterol levels in Candida albicans. CUR while displaying synergy with fluconazole (FLC) lowers ergosterol. However, CUR alone at its synergistic concentration (lower than MIC50), could not affect ergosterol contents. For deeper insight of CUR effects on lipids, we performed high throughput mass spectroscopy (MS) based lipid profiling of C. albicans cells. The lipidome analysis revealed that there were no major changes in phosphoglycerides (PGLs) composition following CUR treatment of Candida, however, significant differences in molecular species of PGLs were detected. Among major SPLs, CUR treatment resulted in the reduction of ceramide and accumulation of IPCs levels. The lipidome of CUR treated cells confirmed a dramatic drop in the ergosterol levels with a simultaneous accumulation of its biosynthetic precursors. This was further supported by the fact that the mutants defective in ergosterol biosynthesis (ERG2 and ERG11) and those lacking the transcription factor regulating ergosterol biosynthesis, UPC2, were highly susceptible to CUR. Our study first time shows that CUR, for its antifungal activity, targets and down regulates delta 5, 6 desaturase (ERG3) resulting in depletion of ergosterol. This results in parallel accumulation of ergosterol biosynthetic precursors, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. PMID:22201946

  18. [Long-term effect of hormonal contraceptives on the behavior of serum lipids].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Carol, W; Hoppe, H; Müller, B; Bonow, A

    1977-01-01

    In order to check the long-term effects of oral contraceptives used in the GDR on certain serum-lipid-fractions, triglycerides, phospholipids, total and free cholesterol, and beta-lipoproteins were determined in four groups of 15 women each, taking the contraceptive preparations Ovosiston, Nonovlon, Gravistat, and Deposiston. Determinations were carried out before and following 3, 6, 12, and 18 month of drug administration. Statistically significant increases of triglycerides occurred under the combined preparations, of phospholipids under Ovosiston and Deposiston and of the beta-lipoproteins under Ovosiston and Gravistat. Total cholesterol showed a slight decrease under all preparations tested. At present the prognostic significance of these slight alterations of serum-lipid-concentrations cannot be estimated completely. PMID:194435

  19. Alexithymia, suicide risk and serum lipid levels among adult outpatients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Campanella, Daniela; Serroni, Nicola; Moschetta, Francesco Saverio; Di Emidio, Fabiola; Conti, Chiara; Carano, Alessandro; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Siracusano, Alberto; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    To elucidate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation and serum lipid levels in drug-naïve adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Panic Disorder (PD), 72 patients were evaluated. Measures were the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on all rating scales and altered serum lipid levels than non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of lower HDL-C and higher VLDL-C levels and Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher suicide ideation. In conclusion, alexithymic individuals with PD may show a cholesterol dysregulation that may be linked to suicide ideation. The authors discuss study limitations and future research needs. PMID:23332553

  20. Apolipoprotein serum amyloid A down-regulates smooth-muscle cell lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, B M; Veverbrants, M; Fine, R E; Blusztajn, J K; Salmona, M; Patel, A; Sipe, J D

    1999-01-01

    The addition of acute-phase apolipoprotein serum amyloid A (SAA) to cultured aortic smooth-muscle cells caused a decrease in the incorporation of [(14)C]acetate into lipids. Optimal inhibition of lipid biosynthesis was achieved with 2 microM SAA, and the effect was maintained for up to 1 week when SAA was included in the culture medium. Lipid extracts were subjected to TLC and it was determined that the SAA-induced decrease in [(14)C]acetate incorporation into lipids was attributable to decreases in cholesterol, phospholipid and triglyceride levels. The accumulated mass of cholesterol and phospholipid in SAA-treated cultures was significantly less than that of controls, with no change in the accumulated protein. Moreover, SAA had no effect on either protein synthesis or DNA synthesis, suggesting that SAA specifically alters lipid synthesis. By using a peptide corresponding to the cholesterol-binding domain of acute-phase SAA (amino acids 1-18), it was shown that this region of the molecule was as effective as the full-length protein in decreasing lipid synthesis and the accumulation of cholesterol and phospholipid. The implications of these findings for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease are discussed. PMID:10548527

  1. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and the risk factors in two isolated Chinese minorities

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pei-Juan; Xie, Rui-Bin; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Dai-Xun; Huang, Jian; Huang, Feng; Li, Hui; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Both Jing and Mulao nationalities are the isolated minorities in China. Little is known about the prevalence of dyslipidemia between the two ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the differences in serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors between the Jing and Mulao populations. A cross-sectional study of dyslipidemia was conducted in Dongxing city, Guangxi, China, during Dec 2011 and Jan 2012. A total of 1254 subjects of Jing and 1251 participants of Mulao were surveyed by a stratified randomized sampling. Information on demography, diet and lifestyle was collected with standardized questionnaire. Serum lipid levels were detected using the commercially available kits. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower but the levels of ApoB were higher in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (32.38% vs. 24.38%), high ApoB (35.25% vs. 15.35%) and low ApoA1/ApoB ratio (22.65% vs. 16.87%) was higher and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.48% vs. 2.16%), high LDL-C (17.54% vs. 40.53%) and low ApoA1 (5.98% vs. 11.43%) was lower in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The risk factors for serum lipid parameters and hyperlipidemia were different between the two ethnic groups. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors are different between the Jing and Mulao populations. These differences may result from the combined effects of different diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors. PMID:26770556

  2. Acute effects of moderate exercise on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in sedentary young women.

    PubMed

    Imamura, H; Katagiri, S; Uchid, K; Miyamoto, N; Nakano, H; Shirota, T

    2000-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of moderate exercise on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in seven sedentary young women under controlled conditions. 2. The subjects exercised on separate days for 30 or 60 min at an intensity of 60% of maximal oxygen uptake on a cycle ergometer. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and B were measured in the serum at the end of the 60 min rest period before each exercise, immediately after the performance of each exercise and at 30 min and 1, 2 and 24 h after each exercise. 3. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the pre- and postexercise samples for any of the parameters tested. 4. The results of the present study suggest that a single bout of exercise designed to simulate a typical training workout has no noticeable effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in normal sedentary young women who have normal lipid profiles, are in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and who consume a relatively low-fat diet. PMID:11117233

  3. Serum lipid profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma: alterations and association with some clinicopathological parameters and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Rai, P; Hallikeri, K; Anehosur, V; Kale, J

    2016-06-01

    Hypocholesterolemia has been observed in patients with cancers of various organs; however the potential role of alterations in serum lipid profile in oral cancer remains controversial. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the serum lipid profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its prognostic significance. Ninety untreated OSCC patients, who reported to the craniofacial unit for treatment between 2011 and 2014, were identified to obtain clinicopathological data and preoperative blood investigations including lipid profile. The fasting blood lipid profile, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL), was evaluated using a fully automated biochemistry analyser. Data were analyzed statistically using the Student's t-test, analysis of variance, and post hoc tests. Statistically significant decreases in serum TC, HDL, and LDL levels were observed in OSCC patients as compared to healthy controls (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in mean lipid profile values in terms of stage, grade, or lymph node metastasis. This study identified changes in lipid profiles in OSCC. The results suggest that during the development and progression of OSCC, levels of serum lipids are decreased. A review of the literature confirmed that OSCC patients exhibit aberrant serum lipid patterns. PMID:26899131

  4. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in malaria - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum lipid profile changes have been observed during malaria infection. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on those serum lipid profile changes, and to discuss possible underlying biological mechanisms and the role of lipids in malaria pathogenesis. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine lipid profile changes during malaria was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines. Without language restrictions, Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, Biosis Previews and the African Index Medicus were searched for studies published up to 11 July, 2013, that measured serum lipid parameters in malaria patients. Also, major trial registries were searched. Mean differences in lipid profile parameters were combined in fixed and random effects meta-analysis, with a separate analysis for different groups of controls (healthy, other febrile illnesses or very low parasitaemia). These parameters were also compared between severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Funnel plots were used to test for publication bias. Results Of 2,518 studies reviewed, 42 met the criteria for inclusion in the qualitative analysis, and of these, 15 reported the necessary data for inclusion in the meta-analysis for cholesterol; nine for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), eight for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and nine for triglycerides, respectively. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL concentrations were lower in malaria and other febrile diseases compared to healthy controls. The decline was more pronounced and statistically significant during malaria compared to other febrile diseases. These results were consistent across included studies. Triglycerides were raised compared to healthy controls, but not statistically significant when compared to symptomatic controls. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the observed lipid profile changes are characteristic

  5. Serum lipid and fatty acid profiles in adriamycin-treated rats after administration of L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Mi; Kim, Hae Soon; Yoon, Hye-Ran

    2002-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy induced by Adriamycin (ADR) is a cause of congestive heart failure. Recently, it has been suggested that ADR inhibits the carnitine palmitoyltransferase system (CPT I) and consequently the transport of long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes. This study was devised to ascertain how ADR affects serum lipid and fatty acid metabolism in rats given ADR with and without L-carnitine supplementation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group was the control. The second group was given intraperitoneal injections of ADR (5 mg/kg) twice a week over a period of 2 wk. The third group received the same dose of ADR plus L-carnitine (200 mg/kg). The fourth group was injected with L-carnitine only. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol) and fatty acid levels were determined on the first, eighth, and 15th d after injection of ADR. ADR caused an increase of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol compared with the control group. HDL cholesterol was similar between two groups. Similarly, total fatty acids, especially C16-C18 fatty acids, were significantly elevated after injection of ADR. Striking reduction in these substances was observed when L-carnitine was added (p < 0.05). This study is the first report regarding the reversal effect of L-carnitine in connection with FFA profiles (C6-C18) in the serum of ADR-induced cardiomyopathic rats. This study also supports the view that ADR causes cardiomyopathy because it interferes with fatty acid metabolism, and we hypothesize that there is a possible protective effect of L-carnitine. PMID:11809922

  6. Cholesterol derived cationic lipids as potential non-viral gene delivery vectors and their serum compatibility.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jia; Huan, Meng-Lei; Wan, Ning; Hou, Yi-Lin; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jia, Yi-Yang; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-05-15

    Cholesterol derivatives M1-M6 as synthetic cationic lipids were designed and the biological evaluation of the cationic liposomes based on them as non-viral gene delivery vectors were described. Plasmid pEGFP-N1, used as model gene, was transferred into 293T cells by cationic liposomes formed with M1-M6 and transfection efficiency and GFP expression were tested. Cationic liposomes prepared with cationic lipids M1-M6 exhibited good transfection activity, and the transfection activity was parallel (M2 and M4) or superior (M1 and M6) to that of DC-Chol derived from the same backbone. Among them, the transfection efficiency of cationic lipid M6 was parallel to that of the commercially available Lipofectamine2000. The optimal formulation of M1 and M6 were found to be at a mol ratio of 1:0.5 for cationic lipid/DOPE, and at a N/P charge mol ratio of 3:1 for liposome/DNA. Under optimized conditions, the efficiency of M1 and M6 is greater than that of all the tested commercial liposomes DC-Chol and Lipofectamine2000, even in the presence of serum. The results indicated that M1 and M6 exhibited low cytotoxicity, good serum compatibility and efficient transfection performance, having the potential of being excellent non-viral vectors for gene delivery. PMID:27072908

  7. Association of rs2072183 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Niemann-pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a key protein for intestinal cholesterol transportation. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPC1L1 gene have been associated with cholesterol absorption and serum lipid levels. The present study was undertaken to explore the possible association of NPC1L1 rs2072183 1735 C > G SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Methods Genotyping of the rs2072183 SNP was performed in 688 subjects of Mulao and 738 participants of Han Chinese. The interactions between NPC1L1 1735 C > G polymorphism and several environmental factors on serum lipid phenotypes were tested using the factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders. Results The frequency of G allele was lower in Mulao than in Han (29.72% vs. 37.26%, P < 0.001). The frequency of CC, CG and GG genotypes was 49.85%, 40.84% and 9.31% in Mulao, and 39.30%, 46.88% and 13.82% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) B and the ratio of ApoAI/ApoB in Han but not in Mulao were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with GG and CG genotypes had higher LDL-C, ApoB levels and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio than the subjects with CC genotype. Subgroup analysis showed that the G allele carriers in Han had higher total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and ApoB levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Mulao had higher TC and LDL-C levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. Serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio were correlated with genotypes in Han males (P < 0.05) but not in females. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental

  8. The Relationship Between Serum Lipid Profile and Selected Trace Elements for Adult Men in Mosul City

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabaawy, Osama M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the correlations of the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese with lipid profile parameters of adult men in Mosul City, Iraq. Methods The study included 51 apparently healthy adult men as a control group aged 34-62 years (group 1), and 31 hyperlipidemic patients aged 37-60 years (group 2). Trace elements copper, zinc and manganese were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined using enzymatic method. Indirect serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were calculated via the Friedewald formula. Data were evaluated as mean and standard deviation by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test. Results The results indicated that there is a significant lower level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic patients compared with the control group, while copper and manganese showed no significant differences between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was found between serum zinc and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; while a significant positive correlation was found between serum zinc and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, a significant positive correlation between copper and triglyceride existed in the patient group, while the control group showed no such correlation. Conclusion Hyperlipidemia may possibly be related to a decrease in the level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic adult men. The data also supports the concept that zinc supplementation might be useful in improving metabolic complications in subjects with hyperlipidemia. PMID:23071882

  9. Mechanics of lipid bilayer junctions affecting the size of a connecting lipid nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Roger; Kurczy, Michael; Grzhibovskis, Richards; Adams, Kelly L.; Ewing, Andrew G.; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Voinova, Marina V.

    2011-06-01

    In this study we report a physical analysis of the membrane mechanics affecting the size of the highly curved region of a lipid nanotube (LNT) that is either connected between a lipid bilayer vesicle and the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (tube-only) or between a lipid bilayer vesicle and a vesicle that is attached to the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (two-vesicle). For the tube-only configuration (TOC), a micropipette is used to pull a LNT into the interior of a surface-immobilized vesicle, where the length of the tube L is determined by the distance of the micropipette to the vesicle wall. For the two-vesicle configuration (TVC), a small vesicle is inflated at the tip of the micropipette tip and the length of the tube L is in this case determined by the distance between the two interconnected vesicles. An electrochemical method monitoring diffusion of electroactive molecules through the nanotube has been used to determine the radius of the nanotube R as a function of nanotube length L for the two configurations. The data show that the LNT connected in the TVC constricts to a smaller radius in comparison to the tube-only mode and that tube radius shrinks at shorter tube lengths. To explain these electrochemical data, we developed a theoretical model taking into account the free energy of the membrane regions of the vesicles, the LNT and the high curvature junctions. In particular, this model allows us to estimate the surface tension coefficients from R( L) measurements.

  10. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, W. Y.; Palomaki, G. E.; Haddow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    To examine the association between cigarette smoking in adults and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations the results of 54 published studies were analysed. Overall, smokers had significantly higher serum concentrations of cholesterol (3.0%), triglycerides (9.1%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (10.4%), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.7%) and lower serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (-5.7%) and apolipoprotein AI (-4.2%) compared with nonsmokers. Among non-smokers and light, moderate, and heavy smokers a significant dose response effect was present for cholesterol (0, 1.8, 4.3, and 4.5% respectively), triglycerides (0, 10.7, 11.5, and 18.0%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, 7.2, 44.4, and 39.0%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -1.1, 1.4, and 11.0%), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -4.6, -6.3, and -8.9%), and apolipoprotein AI (0, -3.7 and -5.7% in non-smokers and light and heavy smokers). These dose response effects may provide new evidence for a causal relation between exposure to cigarette smoke and changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations whether as a direct result of physiological changes or of dietary changes induced by smoking. Adequate prospective data to estimate the excess risk of coronary artery disease existed only for cholesterol concentration. When that information was combined with data from the present study, and given that smokers as a group face an average overall excess risk of coronary artery disease of 70%, it was estimated that the observed increased serum cholesterol concentration in smokers may account for at least 9% of that excess risk. Furthermore, the dose response effect of smoking on serum cholesterol concentration suggests a gradient of increased absolute risk of coronary artery disease between light and heavy smokers. PMID:2496857

  11. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  12. Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. )

    1991-03-15

    An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

  13. Ethanol-Induced Alterations in Fatty Acid-Related Lipids in Serum and Tissues in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenwen; Yu, Menggang; Crabb, David; Xu, Yan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol consumption is a major factor for several human diseases and alcoholism is associated with a host of societal problems. One of the major alcohol- induced metabolic changes is the increased NADH levels, which reduces glucose synthesis and increases fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Probably more important is the induction of FA synthesizing enzymes under the control of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP), plus increased malonyl-CoA which blocks FA entry to the mitochondria for oxidation. The changes in FA-related lipids, particularly lysophospholipids (LPLs) and ceramides (Cers), in different tissues in ethanol-fed have not been reported. Methods We systematically determined the levels of FA-related lipids, including FAs, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), sphingomyelins (SMs), and ceramides (Cers) in the serum and different tissues by high-performance-liquid-chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The study was performed in C57BL/6J mice fed with Lieber DeCarli diet; in which ethanol was added to account for 27.5% of total calories. The serum and tissues were collected at the time of sacrifice in these mice and the results were compared to pair-fed controls. Results The important observation was that ethanol induced tissue-specific changes, which were related to different FA chains. Several 22:6 FA, 18:0 FA, 18:0 to 18:3 FA-containing lipids were significantly increased in the serum, liver, and skeletal muscle, respectively. In the kidney, all 22:6 FA-containing lipids detected were increased. In addition, alterations of other lipids in tissues, except adipose tissue, were also observed. Conclusions We found tissue-specific alterations in the levels of FA-related lipids after ethanol administration. The implications of these findings

  14. Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an

  15. Mass Spectrometric Collisional Activation and Product Ion Mobility of Human Serum Neutral Lipid Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Joseph A.; Barkley, Robert M.; Zemski-Berry, Karin; Deng, Yiming; Murphy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for lipid analysis called CTS (collisional activation and traveling wave mass spectrometry) involving tandem mass spectrometry of all precursor ions with ion mobility determinations of all product ions was applied to a sample of human serum. The resulting four dimensional data set (precursor ion, product ion, ion mobility values, and intensity) was found to be useful for characterization of lipids as classes as well as identification of specific species. Utilization of ion mobility measurements of the product ions is a novel approach for lipid analysis. The trends and patterns of product mobility values when visually displayed yield information on lipid classes and specific species independent of mass determination. The collection of a comprehensive set of data that incorporates all precursor-product relationships combined with ion mobility measurements of all products enables data analysis where different molecular properties can be juxtaposed and analyzed to assist with class and species identification. Overall, CTS is powerful, specific, and comprehensive method for lipid analysis. PMID:27213895

  16. The effect of modern Balinese Baris dancing exercise (MBBDE) on serum lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Djojonegoro, S; Soekarman; Manuaba, A

    1992-12-01

    There is still a lack of information on the effect of regular dancing exercise on lipid profiles. On the other hand, many studies have been carried out on the effect of aerobic exercise on lipid profiles. This study tried to find out the effects of Modern Balinese Baris Dancing Exercise (MBBDE) on serum lipid profiles. Subjects of the study were 30 healthy young male Balinese as an experimental group, and another 30 healthy young Balinese as control group. The MBBDE involved exercise intensity at 70-80% of targeted heart rate, for 50 min period, 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-control group design was applied. Total cholesterol and triglyceride were measured enzymatically. Following MBBDE 3 x 50 min/week for 8 weeks duration, serum level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration increased significantly from 55.3 +/- 2.32 mg/dl to 63.2 +/- 2.82 mg/dl (p < 0.001). It was also associated with the decrease of total cholesterol concentration from 195.5 +/- 21.10 mg/dl to 161.8 +/- 21.29 mg/dl (p < 0.001); triglyceride concentration from 132.2 +/- 9.65 mg/dl to 110.6 +/- 9.08 mg/dl (p < 0.001); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration from 113.8 +/- 21.68 mg/dl to 76.9 +/- 20.76 mg/dl (p < 0.001). No significant differences were found in the above parameters in the control group. It is concluded that MBBDE is an aerobic, endurance exercise, and therefore produces beneficial effect on the serum lipid profiles. PMID:1340496

  17. Scoparone affects lipid metabolism in primary hepatocytes using lipidomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aihua; Qiu, Shi; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Tianlei; Guan, Yu; Han, Ying; Yan, Guangli; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, could provide valuable insights about disease mechanisms. In this study, we present a nontargeted lipidomics strategy to determine cellular lipid alterations after scoparone exposure in primary hepatocytes. Lipid metabolic profiles were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a novel imaging TransOmics tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. Chemometric and statistical analyses of the obtained lipid fingerprints revealed the global lipidomic alterations and tested the therapeutic effects of scoparone. Identification of ten proposed lipids contributed to the better understanding of the effects of scoparone on lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. The most striking finding was that scoparone caused comprehensive lipid changes, as represented by significant changes of the identificated lipids. The levels of identified PG(19:1(9Z)/14:0), PE(17:1(9Z)/0:0), PE(19:1(9Z)/0:0) were found to be upregulated in ethanol-induced group, whereas the levels in scoparone group were downregulated. Lipid metabolism in primary hepatocytes was changed significantly by scoparone treatment. We believe that this novel approach could substantially broaden the applications of high mass resolution mass spectrometry for cellular lipidomics. PMID:27306123

  18. Scoparone affects lipid metabolism in primary hepatocytes using lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Qiu, Shi; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Tianlei; Guan, Yu; Han, Ying; Yan, Guangli; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, could provide valuable insights about disease mechanisms. In this study, we present a nontargeted lipidomics strategy to determine cellular lipid alterations after scoparone exposure in primary hepatocytes. Lipid metabolic profiles were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a novel imaging TransOmics tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. Chemometric and statistical analyses of the obtained lipid fingerprints revealed the global lipidomic alterations and tested the therapeutic effects of scoparone. Identification of ten proposed lipids contributed to the better understanding of the effects of scoparone on lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. The most striking finding was that scoparone caused comprehensive lipid changes, as represented by significant changes of the identificated lipids. The levels of identified PG(19:1(9Z)/14:0), PE(17:1(9Z)/0:0), PE(19:1(9Z)/0:0) were found to be upregulated in ethanol-induced group, whereas the levels in scoparone group were downregulated. Lipid metabolism in primary hepatocytes was changed significantly by scoparone treatment. We believe that this novel approach could substantially broaden the applications of high mass resolution mass spectrometry for cellular lipidomics. PMID:27306123

  19. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Leo; Salonen, Anne; Kekkonen, Riina A; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Jalanka-Tuovinen, Jonna; Palva, Airi; Orešič, Matej; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae). These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and

  20. Identification of albumin-bound fatty acids as the major factor in serum-induced lipid accumulation by cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, C G; Mackenzie, J B; Reiss, O K; Wisneski, J A

    1970-11-01

    Factors responsible for the high lipogenic activity of rabbit serum were investigated using an assay procedure based on the gravimetric determination of the 24 hr increase in cell lipid. Cellular synthesis of fatty acids was inhibited by the presence of serum in the assay medium. Approximately 90% of the increase in cell lipid produced by serum fractions was due to triglyceride accumulation. Fractionation of rabbit serum by precipitation with ammonium sulfate or by ultracentrifugation in high density medium, both indicated that three-quarters of its lipogenic activity was associated with albumin. The lipoproteins prepared by ultracentrifugation also exhibited about one-half the activity of whole serum. The lipogenic activity of albumin was confirmed by the high potency of the albumin isolated in a nearly pure form from proteins of d>1.21 by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and extraction with ethanol. As judged from chemical and isotopic analysis, neither the lipid content nor the lipid composition of the albumin was appreciably altered during its isolation. Of the albumin-bound lipids, only the free fatty acids, as determined by DEAE column chromatography, were present in an amount sufficient to account for the observed increase in cell triglycerides. In control experiments with horse serum of low lipogenic activity, the proteins of d>1.21 also possessed low activity in conjunction with a low content of free fatty acid. However, the albumin isolated from the latter preparation exhibited the high lipogenic activity of rabbit serum albumin. Chemical and isotopic analysis of the recovered horse serum albumin revealed that its free fatty acid content was the same as that of rabbit serum albumin. These results indicated that the isolation of horse serum albumin was attended by a substantial increase in its free fatty acid content. When the rabbit serum and horse serum content of media were adjusted to provide equivalent concentrations of albumin-bound fatty

  1. Mangiferin supplementation improves serum lipid profiles in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Na, Lixin; Zhang, Qiao; Jiang, Shuo; Du, Shanshan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao; Niu, Yucun

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that mangiferin decreased serum triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFAs) by increasing FFAs oxidation in both animal and cell experiments. This study sought to evaluate the effects of mangiferin on serum lipid profiles in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia. Overweight patients with hyperlipidemia (serum triglyceride ≥ 1.70 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥ 5.2 mmol/L) were included in this double-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to groups, either receiving mangiferin (150 mg/day) or identical placebo for 12 weeks. The lipid profile and serum levels of mangiferin, glucose, L-carnitine, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were determined at baseline and 12 weeks. A total of 97 participants completed the trial. Compared with the placebo control, mangiferin supplementation significantly decreased the serum levels of triglycerides and FFAs, and insulin resistance index. Mangiferin supplementation also significantly increased the serum levels of mangiferin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, L-carnitine, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, and increased lipoprotein lipase activity. However, there were no differences in the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum glucose, and insulin between groups. Mangiferin supplementation could improve serum lipid profiles by reducing serum triglycerides and FFAs in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia, partly due to the promotion of FFAs oxidation. PMID:25989216

  2. Absence of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation affects lipid metabolism in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Sylvain; Uzbekov, Rustem; Elis, Sébastien; Sanchez, Laura; Kireev, Igor; Lardic, Lionel; Dalbies-Tran, Rozenn; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2013-03-15

    Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO. By Nile Red staining, a significant reduction in total lipid level was evidenced in DO. Global transcriptomic analysis revealed differential expression of genes regulating energy metabolism, transcription, and translation between CEO and DO. By Western blot, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive phospholipase (HSL) proteins were detected in oocytes and in CC, indicating a local lipogenesis and lypolysis. FAS protein was significantly less abundant in DO that in CEO and more highly expressed in CC than in the oocytes. On the contrary, HSL protein was more abundant in oocytes than in CC. In addition, active Ser⁵⁶³-phosphorylated HSL was detected in the oocytes only after IVM, and its level was similar in CEO and DO. In conclusion, absence of CC during IVM affected lipid metabolism in the oocyte and led to suboptimal cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, CC may influence the oocyte by orienting the consumption of nutritive storage via regulation of local fatty acid synthesis and lipolysis to provide energy for maturation. PMID:23321473

  3. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  4. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  5. Serum lipid and antioxidant responses in hypercholesterolemic men and women receiving plant sterol esters vary by apolipoprotein E genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant sterol esters reduce serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but with striking inter-individual variability. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled study, serum lipid, plant sterol, fat-soluble vitamin, and carotenoid responses to plant sterols were studied according to...

  6. Analysis of polar lipids in the serum from rats fed shiitake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/sass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a shiitake mushroom diet has been reported to have effects on serum phospholipids. However, much less is known about the effect on serum polar lipids, including lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. In the present study, the effects of a shiitake diet were evaluated on the basis of ...

  7. Beneficial effects of raloxifene and atorvastatin on serum lipids and HDL phospholipids levels of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Piperi, Christina; Kalofoutis, C; Skenderi, Katerina; Economidou, Olga; Kalofoutis, A

    2004-06-01

    Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene) and statins (atorvastatin) have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the postmenopausal status. Their beneficial effects may be mediated partly by favourable changes in serum lipids and particular on HDL phospholipid composition. In the present study, individual administration of either raloxifene (Group A) or atorvastatin (Group B) or both (Group C) was compared for a period of 3 months and their effects on total lipids and HDL phospholipids were evaluated. The combined treatment of raloxifene and atorvastatin resulted in profound changes in the majority of serum lipids, including a significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides (P<0.001), a rise in total phospholipids (P<0.01) and a reduction in LDL-C and Apo B levels (P<0.001). Furthermore, Apo A-I was elevated (P<0.001) whereas total HDL phospholipids were significantly increased (P<0.05). Specifically, HDL phosphatidylcholine levels were markedly increased (P<0.001) and HDL lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylinositol levels were reduced (P<0.05). A further attempt to evaluate each treatment group was performed and the significance of these results is discussed. PMID:15203583

  8. Serum chemistry and lipid profiles in neonatal beagle puppies fed homemade milk replacer formulas.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Miller, E; Olson, P N; Ralston, S L

    1993-04-01

    Milk replacer formulas based on cow's milk and egg yolks are frequently recommended for use in neonatal puppies. These formulas are lower in protein, kilocalories, calcium, and phosphorus than bitch's milk. In addition, the cholesterol content is greater than bitch's milk. The effect of feeding these formulas on serum chemistry profiles, lipid profiles, and alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme profiles of 5-week-old beagle puppies was studied. Three groups of beagle puppies were fed bitch's milk (control) (n = 18), a homemade milk-egg-oil formula (Formula 1) (n = 18), or a homemade milk-egg-oil formula supplemented with additional calcium and phosphorous (Formula 2) (n = 18). Concentrations of serum urea nitrogen, albumin, and total CO2 were lower (P < 0.05), and concentrations of serum phosphorus, globulins, sodium, chloride, and cholesterol were higher (P < 0.05) in formula-fed puppies than bitch-fed puppies. Serum potassium concentration was lower in the puppies fed Formula 1 than in the control puppies (P < 0.05), and serum potassium concentration in the puppies fed Formula 2 was not significantly different from that in puppies fed Formula 1 or the control puppies. Total triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein2 cholesterol (HDL2) concentrations were similar in all three groups of puppies but the combined high density lipoprotein1 (HDL1) plus low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in the formula-fed puppies and accounted for the majority of the increase in cholesterol. There were no differences (P < 0.05) in total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or bone-derived ALP (BALP) concentrations among the groups, however there was a higher (P < 0.05) serum concentration of liver-derived ALP (LALP) in the Formula 1-fed puppies. Feeding homemade egg and cow's milk-based puppy replacement formulas is not recommended for long term use. PMID:8467696

  9. Interactions of the LIPG 584C>T polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ying; Yin, Rui-Xing; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dong-Feng; Htet Aung, Lynn Htet; Hu, Xi-Jiang; Cao, Xiao-Li; Miao, Lin

    2011-11-01

    Both endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T (rs2000813) polymorphism and alcohol consumption modulate serum lipid levels. But their interactions on serum lipid profiles are not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of LIPG 584C>T polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels. Genotyping of the LIPG 584C>T was performed in 763 unrelated nondrinkers and 520 drinkers aged 15-85 years. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P<.01 for all). There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between nondrinkers and drinkers. The levels of TC, HDL-C, and ApoAI in nondrinkers were different among the three genotypes (P<.05-.01), the subjects with CT genotype had higher TC, HDL-C, and ApoAI levels than the subjects with CC genotype. The levels of HDL-C and ApoAI in drinkers were different among the three genotypes (P<.001 and P<.05; respectively), the individuals with TT genotype had higher HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the individuals with CT and CC genotypes. The interactions between LIPG 584C>T genotypes and alcohol consumption on serum HDL-C (P<.01) and ApoAI levels (P<.05) were also detected by using a factorial regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders. The levels of TC in nondrinkers were correlated with LIPG 584C>T alleles (P<.05), whereas the levels of TG and HDL-C were associated with LIPG 584C>T alleles (P<.05) and genotypes (P<.05), respectively. These results suggest that the subjects with TT genotype benefit more from alcohol consumption than the subjects with CT and CC genotypes in increasing serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels. PMID:21816559

  10. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  11. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Lalitha, Gurusamy; Shirony, Nicholson Puthanveedu; Baskaran, Rathinasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane. PMID:23569870

  12. Effects of Vaccinium Berries on Serum Lipids: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yitong; Miao, Ya; Meng, Zheying; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of anthocyanins consumption on cardiovascular risk are supported by mechanistic and epidemiologic evidence. In order to explore the effects of Vaccinium berries rich in anthocyanins on serum lipids, we conducted a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Sixteen studies with 1109 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Significant heterogeneity confirmed differential effects between Vaccinium subclasses. The whortleberry group is significantly superior to placebo in lipids improvement. Besides, bilberry groups show significant differences in reducing LDL-C and increasing HDL-C in comparison with other treatments. For many of the other subgroups and comparison arms, there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about efficacy. PMID:26345230

  13. Effect of Gymnema montanum Leaves on Serum and Tissue Lipids in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Latha, M.; Ramkumar, K. M.; Pari, L.; Baskar, C.; Bai, V. Narmatha

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Gymnema montanum leaves on alloxaninduced hyperlipidemia was studied in male Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of G. montanum leaves was administered orally and different doses of the extract on blood glucose, serum and tissue lipids, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, and glutathione in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were studied. G. montanum leaf extract (GLEt) at doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks suppressed the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. GLEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be comparable to glibenclamide, a reference drug. These data indicate that G. montanum represents an effective antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic adjunct for the treatment of diabetes and a potential source of discovery of new orally active agent for future therapy. PMID:15061646

  14. Serum lipid profile and clinical characteristics of patients with xanthelasma palpebrarum*

    PubMed Central

    Kavoussi, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rezaei, Mansour; Ramezani, Mazaher; Najafi, Behnaz; Kavoussi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many factors are involved in the etiology of xanthelasma palpebrum, lipid disorder is strongly associated with its induction. Xanthelasma palpebrum, the most common type of xanthoma, usually presents in middle-aged females and results in aesthetic problems. Objective To evaluate thelipid profile and important clinical aspects of xanthelasma palpebrum patients. Methods In this descriptive study, we enrolled 42xanthelasma palpebrumpatients, and 42 cases of non-inflammatory skin disorders as thecontrol group, matched for age and gender.The clinical characteristics of the patients and fasting serum lipid profile were recorded for both groups. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS-16. Results Xanthelasma palpebrum was found more commonly in middle-aged females with disease onset of less than 1 year, and without significant familial history of xanthoma. Furthermore,xanthelasma lesionswere most often seen in the upper lid with mild extension and was rarely associated with systemic disease. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding hypertriglyceridemia (p= 0.231) and hypercholesterolemia (p= 0.302). The mean serum levels of cholesterol (221.51±60.4 mg/dl), triglyceride (185.98±71.1 mg/dl) and VLDL (37.7±17.6 mg/dl) were significantly higher and themedian HDL (36.2 (31, 41) mg/dl) level was lower in thepatient group. Conclusion In our study, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia did not reveal a significant difference between thepatient and control groups; however, mean serum values for cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and HDL showed a significant difference between the two groups. Therefore, in addition to lipid abnormality, other factors could be involved in the pathogenesis of xanthelasma palpebrum. PMID:27579742

  15. Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association

  16. Environmentally Relevant Dose of Bisphenol A Does Not Affect Lipid Metabolism and Has No Synergetic or Antagonistic Effects on Genistein’s Beneficial Roles on Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ying; Li, Hongyu; Zhao, Nana; Yang, Huiqin; Ye, Xiaolei; He, Dongliang; Yang, Hui; Jin, Xin; Tian, Chong; Ying, Chenjiang

    2016-01-01

    Both bisphenol A (BPA, an endocrine disrupting chemicals) and genistein (a phytoestrogen mainly derived from leguminosae) are able to bind to estrogen receptors, but they are considered to have different effects on metabolic syndrome, surprisingly. We here investigate the effects of an environmentally relevant dose of BPA alone and the combined effects with genistein on lipid metabolism in rats. Eight groups of adult male Wistar rats, fed with either standard chow diet or high-fat diet, were treated with BPA (50μg/kg/day), genistein (10mg/kg/day), and BPA plus genistein for 35 weeks, respectively. Metabolic parameters in serum and liver were determined; the hematoxylin/eosin and oil Red O staining were used to observe liver histologically; gene expressions related to hepatic lipid metabolism were analyzed by Real-time PCR; protein expressions of PPARγ, PPARα and LC3 in liver were analyzed by western blotting. No difference of body weight gain, total energy intake, liver weight/body weight or body fat percentage in both STD- and HFD-fed sub-groups was observed after treatment with BPA, genistein, or BPA plus genistein (P>0.05). Genistein alleviated lipid metabolism disorder and decreased the mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ (P<0.05), and increased the protein expression of LC3II (P<0.05) in liver of HFD-fed rats. However, BPA treatment had no effect on lipid metabolism in rats alone (P>0.05) or combined with genistein. Our findings suggest that long-term environmentally relevant dose of BPA did not affect lipid metabolism, and had no synergetic or antagonistic roles on genistein’s beneficial function on hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:27171397

  17. Serum Copper, Zinc and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25400710

  18. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein "corona" has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology.

  19. Comparison of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV Positive Patients on ART with ART Naïve Patients

    PubMed Central

    V, Vijay; Shekhanawar, M.S.; Rajeshwari; M, Amareshwaras; D, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients has coincided with increasing reports of complications like HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and the metabolic alterations, affecting the lipid and glucose metabolism. Evidences in support of lipodystrophy and dyslipidaemia associated with First- line HAART in our area is scarce. The aim of the present study was 1) to study and compare Lipid profile in HIV positive patients on ART with that of freshly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART. 2) To assess lipodystrophy syndrome in patients on ART. Materials and Methods: Hundred newly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART were taken as controls (ART-Naïve).Hundred randomly selected HIV+ patients who were already on First-line ART regimen (Stavudine/Zudovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) for more than 12 months were taken as cases (ART). This study was conducted for a period of 12 months at the VIMS ART centre, Bellary, Karnataka, India. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, VLDL, Non-HDL -C & TC/HDL-C ratio in ART patients compared to ART-naïve patients. Of the 100 ART patients 23 had lipodystrophy syndrome (buffalo hump, abnormal fat deposition around neck & back, buccal fat resorption, increase in abdominal fat). Conclusion: To conclude, it is evident from our study that there is increase in lipid profile (except HDL) in ART patients compared to ART Naïve group and 23 ART patients showed lipodystrophy syndrome. Hence it appears reasonable to measure fasting lipid levels before and 3-6 months after antiretroviral therapy is initiated or when ART regimen is changed. PMID:25478335

  20. A diurnal serum lipid integrates hepatic lipogenesis and peripheral fatty acid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sihao; Brown, Jonathan D.; Stanya, Kristopher J.; Homan, Edwin; Leidl, Mathias; Inouye, Karen; Bhargava, Prerna; Gangl, Matthew R.; Dai, Lingling; Hatano, Ben; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Saghatelian, Alan; Plutzky, Jorge; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Food intake increases the activity of hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which mediates the conversion of glucose to fats for storage or utilization. In mice, this program follows a circadian rhythm that peaks with nocturnal feeding1,2 and is repressed by Rev-erbα/β and an HDAC3-containing complex3–5 during the day. The transcriptional activators controlling rhythmic lipid synthesis in the dark cycle remain poorly defined. Disturbances in hepatic lipogenesis are also associated with systemic metabolic phenotypes6–8, suggesting that lipogenesis in the liver communicates with peripheral tissues to control energy substrate homeostasis. Here we identify a PPARδ-dependent de novo lipogenic pathway in the liver that modulates fat utilization by muscle via a circulating lipid. The nuclear receptor PPARδ controls diurnal expression of lipogenic genes in the dark/feeding cycle. Liver-specific PPARδ activation increases, while hepatocyte-Ppard deletion reduces, muscle fatty acid (FA) uptake. Unbiased metabolite profiling identifies PC(18:0/18:1), or 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC), as a serum lipid regulated by diurnal hepatic PPARδ activity. PC(18:0/18:1) reduces postprandial lipid levels and increases FA utilization through muscle PPARα. High fat feeding diminishes rhythmic production of PC(18:0/18:1), whereas PC(18:0/18:1) administration in db/db mice improves metabolic homeostasis. These findings reveal an integrated regulatory circuit coupling lipid synthesis in the liver to energy utilization in muscle by coordinating the activity of two closely related nuclear receptors. These data implicate alterations in diurnal hepatic PPARδ-PC(18:0/18:1) signaling in metabolic disorders including obesity. PMID:24153306

  1. Oral Fat Exposure Pattern and Lipid Loading Effects on the Serum Triacylglycerol Concentration of Humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2009-12-01

    Orosensory exposure to dietary fat elicits an early, transient spike (first phase; minutes 0-60) and augmented, more sustained postprandial (second phase; minutes 120-360) elevation of serum triacylglycerol (TAG) in humans. To assess the physiological significance of these effects, TAG concentrations were monitored following manipulation of the oral exposure pattern and accompanying lipid load. Fifteen healthy adults participated in a randomized, 6-arm, crossover design study. Conditions consisted of ingestion of 30-g loads of safflower oil, provided as capsules to bypass oral stimulation, followed by 15 min of oral stimulation (mastication and expectoration) with full-fat or nonfat cream cheese (conditions 1 and 2); the same oral load ingested intermittently with oral stimulation by both food forms (conditions 3 and 4); and 10-g lipid loads ingested with intermittent oral stimulation by both food forms (conditions 5 and 6). Blood was collected via an indwelling catheter and TAG was measured at minutes -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, and 360 relative to the onset of sensory stimulation. Testing was conducted weekly. Sequential (lipid loading followed by oral stimulation) and intermittent (intermixed lipid loading and oral stimulation) conditions led to comparable TAG responses. Significant first- and second-phase TAG concentration increases were observed with the 30-g loads, but not the 10-g loads. TAG responses to the full-fat and nonfat stimuli were similar. These data support the veracity of the earlier literature based on sequential oral exposure regimens and indicate that TAG responses reflect an interaction between oral fat signaling and gut lipid content. The augmentation of TAG associated specifically with dietary fat exposure, as compared to a nonfat food matched on other sensory properties, may only occur with higher fat loads. PMID:20352072

  2. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  3. Effects of the Cynanchum wilfordii Ethanol Extract on the Serum Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Eon; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on the blood lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to either a normal diet (AIN-93 diet), or 1% high-cholesterol diet with or without 0.5% or 1% ECW for 5 weeks. After sacrifice, the rat serum lipid profile was analyzed. The diets containing ECW decreased body weight gains compared to the normal diet. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels of ECW-fed groups were significantly increased in the hypercholesterolemic groups and normal groups (P<0.05). When 1% ECW was fed to the normal group, total cholesterol level was increased. Moreover, treatment of ECW in hypercholesterolemic groups yielded a dose-dependent and highly significant decrease in the atherogenic index as compared to the control. These results suggest that intake of Cynanchum wilfordii may help reduce the risks of hypercholesterolemia by increasing blood HDL-cholesterol and lowering the atherogenic index. PMID:24471126

  4. Effects of the Cynanchum wilfordii Ethanol Extract on the Serum Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Eon; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on the blood lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to either a normal diet (AIN-93 diet), or 1% high-cholesterol diet with or without 0.5% or 1% ECW for 5 weeks. After sacrifice, the rat serum lipid profile was analyzed. The diets containing ECW decreased body weight gains compared to the normal diet. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels of ECW-fed groups were significantly increased in the hypercholesterolemic groups and normal groups (P<0.05). When 1% ECW was fed to the normal group, total cholesterol level was increased. Moreover, treatment of ECW in hypercholesterolemic groups yielded a dose-dependent and highly significant decrease in the atherogenic index as compared to the control. These results suggest that intake of Cynanchum wilfordii may help reduce the risks of hypercholesterolemia by increasing blood HDL-cholesterol and lowering the atherogenic index. PMID:24471126

  5. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  6. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  7. Serum insensitive, intranuclear protein delivery by the multipurpose cationic lipid SAINT-2.

    PubMed

    van der Gun, Bernardina T F; Monami, Amélie; Laarmann, Sven; Raskó, Tamás; Slaska-Kiss, Krystyna; Weinhold, Elmar; Wasserkort, Reinhold; de Leij, Lou F M H; Ruiters, Marcel H J; Kiss, Antal; McLaughlin, Pamela M J

    2007-11-20

    Cationic liposomal compounds are widely used to introduce DNA and siRNA into viable cells, but none of these compounds are also capable of introducing proteins. Here we describe the use of a cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-2:DOPE for the efficient delivery of proteins into cells (profection). Labeling studies demonstrated equal delivery efficiency for protein as for DNA and siRNA. Moreover, proteins complexed with Saint-2:DOPE were successfully delivered, irrespective of the presence of serum, and the profection efficiency was not influenced by the size or the charge of the protein:cationic liposomal complex. Using beta-galactosidase as a reporter protein, enzymatic activity was detected in up to 98% of the adherent cells, up to 83% of the suspension cells and up to 70% of the primary cells after profection. A delivered antibody was detected in the cytoplasm for up to 7 days after profection. Delivery of the methyltransferase M.SssI resulted in DNA methylation, leading to a decrease in E-cadherin expression. The lipid-mediated multipurpose transport system reported here can introduce proteins into the cell with an equal delivery efficiency as for nucleotides. Delivery is irrespective of the presence of serum, and the protein can exert its function both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Furthermore, DNA methylation by M.SssI delivery as a novel tool for gene silencing has potential applications in basic research and therapy. PMID:17884225

  8. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  9. NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Seth; Agrawal, Prashansa; Jain, Nitin U.

    2009-01-23

    Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a serum glycoprotein that binds to the Lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity as part of the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxins. In order to investigate structural interactions of Lipid A with sCD14, we have prepared an isotopically labeled form of a fully active and chemically defined endotoxin, Kdo{sub 2}-Lipid A, which allowed us to carry out detailed NMR spectral mapping of this agonist ligand bound to sCD14 and identify for the first time structural regions that are strongly affected during complex formation with sCD14. These map to two adjacent areas comprising the lower portions of the sugar headgroup and upper half of the acyl chains I, III, and V, which are spatially proximal to the 1- and 4'-phosphate ends. Additionally, we have detected for the first time, presence of differential dynamic behavior for the affected resonances, suggesting a likely role for dynamics in the mechanism of Lipid A pattern recognition by sCD14.

  10. Reduced plasma fibrinogen, serum peroxides, lipids, and apolipoproteins after a 3-week vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Vellar, O D; Hovi, K; Berg, J E

    1993-01-01

    The influence of a 3-week vegetarian diet and fasting on serum concentration of peroxides, lipids, apolipoproteins, and plasma fibrinogen was studied in ten middle-aged fibromyalgia/fibrositis patients (eight women, two men). Mean serum peroxide concentration (estimated as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) was reduced from 3.60 +/- 0.14 to 2.82 +/- 0.15 umol/l (p = 0.01) and plasma fibrinogen from 3.33 +/- 0.25 to 2.74 +/- 0.15 g/l (p = 0.02). Serum total cholesterol fell from 6.61 +/- 0.50 to 4.83 +/- 0.35 mmol/l (p < 0.0001), apolipoprotein B from 1.77 +/- 0.14 to 1.31 +/- 0.11 g/l (p < 0.0001), and apolipoprotein A from 1.41 +/- 0.09 to 1.23 +/- 0.05 g/l (p = 0.03). High density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration also decreased somewhat (from 1.26 +/- 0.09 to 1.07 +/- 0.04 mmol/l, p = 0.03) An atherogenic index, reflecting the balance between low and high density lipoproteins, was reduced by 31% (from 5.74 +/- 0.79 to 3.97 +/- 0.60, p = 0.02). The results suggest that vegetarian diet/fasting may have a beneficial influence on the concentration of serum peroxides and plasma fibrinogen concentration, and on the serum level of several lipoprotein-related coronary risk factors. PMID:8464845

  11. Serum lipid profiles are associated with disability and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL and reduced HDL may increase progression by activating inflammatory processes at the vascular endothelium. Objective To assess the associations of serum lipid profile variables (triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) and total cholesterol) with disability and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This study included 492 MS patients (age: 47.1 ± 10.8 years; disease duration: 12.8 ± 10.1 years) with baseline and follow-up Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) assessments after a mean period of 2.2 ± 1.0 years. The associations of baseline lipid profile variables with disability changes were assessed. Quantitative MRI findings at baseline were available for 210 patients. Results EDSS worsening was associated with higher baseline LDL (p = 0.006) and total cholesterol (p = 0.001, 0.008) levels, with trends for higher triglyceride (p = 0.025); HDL was not associated. A similar pattern was found for MSSS worsening. Higher HDL levels (p < 0.001) were associated with lower contrast-enhancing lesion volume. Higher total cholesterol was associated with a trend for lower brain parenchymal fraction (p = 0.033). Conclusions Serum lipid profile has modest effects on disease progression in MS. Worsening disability is associated with higher levels of LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher HDL is associated with lower levels of acute inflammatory activity. PMID:21970791

  12. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet. PMID:26700799

  13. Association between the DOCK7, PCSK9 and GALNT2 Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Huang, Feng; Yao, Li-Mei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the dedicator of cytokinesis 7 (DOCK7), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2) and serum lipid levels. Genotyping of 9 SNPs was performed in 881 Jing subjects and 988 Han participants. Allele and genotype frequencies of the detected SNPs were different between the two populations. Several SNPs were associated with triglyceride (TG, rs10889332, rs615563, rs7552841, rs1997947, rs2760537, rs4846913 and rs11122316), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (rs1997947), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (rs1168013 and rs7552841), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 (rs1997947), ApoB (rs10889332 and rs7552841), and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs7552841) in Jing minority; and with TG (rs10889332, rs615563, rs7552841, rs11206517, rs1997947, rs4846913 and rs11122316), HDL cholesterol (rs11206517 and rs4846913), LDL cholesterol (rs1168013), ApoA1 (rs11206517 and rs4846913), ApoB (rs7552841), and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4846913) in Han nationality. Strong linkage disequilibria were noted among the SNPs. The commonest haplotype was G-C-G-C-T-G-C-C-G (>10%). The frequencies of C-C-G-C-T-G-T-C-G, G-C-A-C-T-G-C-C-G, G-C-G-C-T-A-C-C-A, G-C-G-C-T-G-C-C-A, G-C-G-C-T-G-T-C-A haplotypes were different between the two populations. Haplotypes could explain much more serum lipid variation than any single SNP alone especially for TG. Differences in lipid profiles between the two populations might partially attribute to these SNPs and their haplotypes. PMID:26744084

  14. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs. Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73–1.16) for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.06) for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.00) for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.93) but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women. PMID:26554382

  15. Effect of synbiotic supplementation and dietary fat sources on broiler performance, serum lipids, muscle fatty acid profile and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, H A; Shivazad, M; Mirzapour Rezaei, S S; Karimi Torshizi, M A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a synbiotic supplement to diets containing two different types of fat on performance, blood lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat in broilers. A total of 800 one-d-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 treatments with 4 replicates of 25 birds per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 4 concentrations of synbiotic (0, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and 2 types of fat [sunflower oil (SO) or canola oil (CO)] at an inclusion rate of 50 g/kg diet. Dietary fat type did not affect body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period (0-42 d). However, fat type modified serum lipid profile and FA composition and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in breast and thigh meat. The addition of synbiotic to the diet linearly improved overall BWG and FCR and also decreased serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The TBARS value in thigh meat after 30 d of storage at 4°C was linearly decreased as the synbiotic inclusion concentrations in the diets increased. Dietary synbiotic also decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in thigh meat, whereas the FA profile of breast meat was not affected by synbiotic supplementation. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio in the breast meat was linearly increased when synbiotic was included in the CO-containing diets. In conclusion, the addition of synbiotic to broiler diets had a positive effect on growth performance, blood lipid profile and meat quality. The results also support the use of synbiotic to increase the capacity of canola oil for enhancing PUFA/SFA ratio of breast meat in broilers. PMID:26654967

  16. Investigation of the roles of the substances in serum lipids and their constitutive fatty acids in chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S

    1989-06-01

    The newly-generated lipid mediators include products of arachidonate metabolism, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In this study, serum lipids and fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (C20:4) were examined in 12 normal subjects (6 males and 6 females) and 23 subjects with chronic urticaria (6 males and 17 females), including 17 who made an excellent or good recovery (4 males and 13 females). The results indicated a relationship between chronic urticaria and serum lipids and fatty acids. The omega 6 (n-6) and omega 3 (n-3) series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation were suggested that may be one of the mediators in chronic urticaria. Pantethine, glutathione and ascorbic acid were effective in controlling chronic urticaria. PMID:2794222

  17. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  18. Serum amyloid a gene polymorphism and its association with lipid profile in Saudi females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdu-Allah, Azza M.; Tarhouny, Shereen A. El; Baghdadi, Hussam Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Osteoporosis can be defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural decline of bone tissue. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of protein that increases up to 1,000-fold in blood during inflammation. In this study, we aimed to study the relationship between SAA1 gene polymorphism (rs12218) and lipid profile and osteoporosis. Methods: The study was performed on the female students of Taibah University in Al Medina, KSA during June 2014 to April 2015. According to BMD; osteoporosis group (138 students) and control group (128 students). All groups were subjected to; BMI, BMD, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, lipid profile and SAA. Polymerase chain reaction and Real Time were done to determine the distribution of allele and genotype frequency of SAA (rs12218) C/T polymorphism. Results: This study shows that the TT genotype of rs12218 was more frequent in osteoporosis group than control group (P<0.001). Also, TT genotype and T allel was found to be associated with plasma total cholesterol, TG, LDLc, HDLc, Tscore, Zscore and SAA1 level in osteoporosis group (P=0.000, P=0.05, and P=0.000, P=0.000, P=0.01, P=0.02, P=0.000 respectively). The logistic regression analysis with and without lipid disorders in the osteoporosis group also show that the TT genotype of rs12218 still differed significantly between these two groups (P=0.001, OR=1.814, 95% CI: 0.719-4.577). Conclusion: The results of this study shows a significant association between TT genotype of rs12218 and both lipid level and osteoporosis in Saudi female population. PMID:26648999

  19. Several genetic polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on serum lipid profiles is still scarce. The present study was undertaken to detect ten SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on serum lipid levels. Methods A total of 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects of Bai Ku Yao were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) < 24, 24–28, and > 28 kg/m2; respectively. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and ApoB levels were measured. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions were detected by factorial design covariance analysis. Results The genotypic and allelic frequencies of LIPC and PCSK9 were different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects, the genotypic frequency of LIPG and allelic frequency of MYLIP were also different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of TC, ApoA1 (ABCA-1); TC, LDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TG, HDL-C, and ApoA1 (LIPG); TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and Apo

  20. In vitro lipid peroxidation of human serum catalyzed by cupric ion: Antioxidant rather than prooxidant role of ascorbate

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Zdunek, T. )

    1992-01-01

    Ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting human serum from lipid peroxidation induced by azo dye-generated free radicals. On the other hand, ascorbate is readily oxidized in the presence of transition metal ions, (especially cupric ion) and accelerates lipid peroxidation in tissue homogenates by producing free radicals. Interestingly, the authors observed an antioxidant rather than an expected prooxidant role of ascorbate when human serum supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L ascorbate underwent lipid peroxidations initiated by 2mmol/L copper sulfate. The antioxidant role of ascorbate was confirmed by studying the conventional thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as well as by observing the protective effect of ascorbate on the copper-induced peroxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The antioxidation protection provided by ascorbate was comparable to that of equimolar {alpha}-tocopherol when incubated for 24h. However, lipid peroxidation products were lower in serum supplemented with {alpha}-tocopherol after 48h of incubation. This effect may be attributed to the binding of copper by serum proteins, thus preventing direct interaction between cupric ions and ascorbate. This proposed mechanisms is based on the observation that the concentration of ascorbate decreased more slowly in serum than in phosphate buffer at physiological pH.

  1. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Kent, Tera R; Bar, Haim Y; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. PMID:25367051

  2. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  3. Gender and Age Impact on the Association Between Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Serum Lipids.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hyperlipidemia is still a topic of debate. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on the association between serum TSH and lipid profile in a large cohort of Chinese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,915 participants (8565 male, 5350 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and other serum parameters were collected. The associations between TSH and hyperlipidemia of males and females were analyzed separately after dividing TSH and age into subgroups. Odds ratio for hyperlipidemia was calculated by binary logistic regression models.Young males had significantly higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. TSH was positively associated with hyperlipidemia independent of thyroid hormones. Males showed more reduced risks of hyperlipidemia in low TSH concentrations, while females demonstrated more enhanced risks of hyperlipidemia in high TSH concentrations. For instance, if TSH was lower than 0.3 μIU/mL, the risks of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in males were only 0.198 (P < 0.01) and 0.425 (P < 0.05) of the reference TSH risks (between 2.0 and 3.0 μIU/mL), while in females the risks were 0.553 (P < 0.05) and 0.642 (P > 0.05), respectively. If TSH was higher than 4.0 μIU/mL, women displayed significantly higher risks of developing hypertriglyceridemia than the reference TSH risks (P < 0.05), yet, men did not demonstrate such significances.Our results showed thyroid hormone independent positive associations between serum TSH and lipids, which were substantially influenced by gender and age. Males demonstrated more protective effects of low TSH against hyperlipidemia, while females showed

  4. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein “corona” has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. PMID:22271932

  5. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  6. [Effects of high- and low-intensity training on cardiorespiratory system and serum lipids].

    PubMed

    Yanagibori, R; Aoki, K; Suzuki, Y; Gunji, A

    1991-08-01

    The differences between the effects of high- and low-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory system and serum lipid levels were examined under conditions in which the total work load was same. Twenty-two healthy, untrained female students, aged 18 to 24 years, participated in the 8-week training experiment. Two training groups exercised on bicycle ergometers 4-5d/wk for 8 wk with high-intensity (H: 70% VO2 max 13 min/session; N = 8) or in low-intensity (L: 36% VO2 max 33 min/session; N = 8). The control group (C: N = 6) continued its sedentary life style. Data of 6 students (H: N = 2, L: N = 2, C: N = 2) were excluded from the analysis, because they did not carry out their duties. The results of this study were as follows; 1) Aerobic capacity increased in both training groups. 2) After training, both heart rates and oxygen uptake during submaximal work loads significantly decreased in group H, but only heart rates significantly decreased in group L. 3) Heart rates with a same oxygen-uptake load during submaximal work seemed to increase in group H, but significantly decreased in group L. 4) The mechanical efficiency during the submaximal work load significantly increased in group H, but not in group L. 5) DBP and MBP during the submaximal work load in group L significantly decreased compared with those before the training. SBP with a same oxygen-uptake load during submaximal work increased in group H, but decreased in group L. 6) Rate pressure products both at rest and during submaximal exercise decreased significantly in group L. 7) Serum lipid levels remained in all groups. These results suggested that when the amount of exercise is the same, low-intensity exercise training with 35% VO2 max was more effective to increase endurance capacity and was safer than high-intensity exercise training. PMID:1956126

  7. Influence of nandrolone decanoate administration on serum lipids and liver enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Samieinasab, Mohammad Reza; Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samieinasab, Fatemah; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anabolic-androgenic steroids have been associated with several side effects range. This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND, an anabolic steroid) on lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats in Iran. METHODS Forty adult male and female of Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 animals each: male control, female control, ND-male treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day), and ND-female treated (15 mg/kg b.w./day). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in all studied groups. RESULTS Treating rats with ND (case group) resulted in a significant elevation of TC (69.4 ± 8.7), TG (101.6 ± 32.9) and ALT (72.2 ± 13.8) and significant reduction of LDL (6.4 ± 2.6) and AST (138.7 ± 19.4) as compared to control group in female rats. ND supplementation (case group) significantly increased TC (64.4 ± 6.2), AST (255.0 ± 32.0), and ALT (84.3 ± 3.8) in comparison with the control group in male rats. CONCLUSION Overall, our result indicated that the ND use can cause a negative effect on lipid profile and liver enzyme in rats. PMID:26478734

  8. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: influence on serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, Barbara C; Leung, Katherine; Van Buskirk, Susan; Reed, George; Zurier, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    The gap in mortality between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the general population (1.5-3.0 fold risk) is increasing. This disparity is attributable mainly to cardiovascular disease (CVD), as the CVD risk is comparable to patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether borage seed oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid, fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or the combination of both oils are useful treatments for dyslipidemia in patients with RA. We randomized patients into a double blind, 18 month trial. Mixed effects models were used to compare trends over time in serum lipids. No significant differences were observed between the three groups: All three treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful improvement in the lipid profile at 9 and 18 months. When all groups were combined, these treatments significantly reduced total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol, and improved the atherogenic index. All improvements observed at 9 months persisted at 18 months (P < 0.001 verses baseline). Conclusion. Marine and botanical oils may be useful treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared to the general population. PMID:22007257

  9. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  10. Effect of alpha-linolenic acid-rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Henna M; Aro, Antti; Tapola, Niina S; Salminen, Irma; Uusitupa, Matti I j; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2002-10-01

    Camelina sativa-derived oil (camelina oil) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. The proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in serum fatty acids is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effects of camelina oil on serum lipids and on the fatty acid composition of total lipids in comparison to rapeseed and olive oils in a parallel, double-blind setting. Sixty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 28 to 65 years were randomly assigned after a 2-week pretrial period to 1 of 3 oil groups: camelina oil, olive oil, and rapeseed oil. Subjects consumed daily 30 g (actual intake, approximately 33 mL) of test oils for 6 weeks. In the camelina group, the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in fatty acids of serum lipids was significantly higher (P <.001) compared to the 2 other oil groups at the end of the study: 2.5 times higher compared to the rapeseed oil group and 4 times higher compared to the olive oil group. Respectively the proportions of 2 metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid (eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids) increased and differed significantly in the camelina group from those in other groups. During the intervention, the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration decreased significantly by 12.2% in the camelina oil group, 5.4% in the rapeseed oil group, and 7.7% in the olive oil group. In conclusion, camelina oil significantly elevated the proportions of alpha-linolenic acid and its metabolites in serum of mildly or moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Camelina oil's serum cholesterol-lowering effect was comparable to that of rapeseed and olive oils. PMID:12370843

  11. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  12. Bioavailability of Fullerene under Environmentally Relevant Conditions: Effects of Humic Acid and Fetal Bovine Serum on Accumulation in Lipid Bilayers and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yeonjeong; Wang, Xianzhe; Liljestrand, Howard M; Maynard, Jennifer A; Katz, Lynn E

    2016-07-01

    Carbon fullerene (C60) has emerged at the forefront of nanoscale research and application due to its unique properties. As the production of this nanoparticle rapidly increases, it can be released into natural aquatic environments and can accumulate in biological systems. This research examined the effects of humic acid and fetal bovine serum (FBS), which are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and representative of blood plasma in living organisms, respectively, on bioavailability of fullerene. Bioavailability was investigated using in vitro methods for lipid membrane accumulation and cellular uptake studies. Humic acid and FBS significantly changed the characteristics of fullerene including its particle size and surface charge. The effects of humic acid on lipid accumulation of fullerene depended on the lipid head charge. FBS also significantly decreased the lipid accumulation when positively charged and zwitterionic head groups were present on the lipids, possibly due to the higher steric repulsion of the protein coated nanoparticles. In addition, both humic acid and FBS protein effectively lowered the amounts of fullerene taken up by Caco-2 cells, which are derived from a human colorectal adenocarcinoma and have similar functions to the small intestinal epithelium. Results of this study suggest that surface modification of fullerene by environmentally relevant matrices can significantly affect the biological transport, as well as the possible toxicity of this nanomaterial. PMID:26943027

  13. Higher serum lipids and oxidative stress in patients with normal tension glaucoma, but not pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Necat; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Bayindir, Asli; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Giray, Ozlem; Sayrac, Suha; Tekeli, Seckin Ozgur; Eren, Esin

    2016-01-01

    This study entailed a cross-examination of oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-linked paraoxonase 1 (PON1) phenotypes, and levels of serum routine lipids among patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) compared with healthy control groups. We aimed to investigate the links between oxidative stress (OS), HDL-related antioxidant enzyme activities and dyslipidemia in distinct subtypes of glaucoma. The study included 32 patients with NTG, 31 patients with PEXG, and 40 control subjects. Levels of PON1 and arylesterase enzymatic activity, total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status were measured by spectrophotometry and OS indexes (OSI) were calculated. The phenotype distribution of PON1 was determined using the dual substrate method. Blood serum levels of HDL, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were measured. The TOS and OSI values in the NTG group were significantly higher compared with the other groups (both p < 0.01). The phenotype distribution found in the glaucoma and control groups were NTG: QQ, 59.4%; QR, 37.5%; RR, 3.1%; PEXG: QQ, 45.1%; QR, 48.4%; RR, 6.5%; and in the control group: QQ, 42.5%; QR, 50.0%; RR, 7.5%. Serum TC levels were significantly higher than the control in both NTG and PEXG groups, whereas TG was significantly higher in NTG only (p < 0.01 and p < 0.02, respectively). Hyperlipidemia, OS and variations in phenotype distribution of PON1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of different types of glaucoma. PMID:26773174

  14. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Huang, Ke-Ke; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  15. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  16. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  17. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type. PMID:25198797

  18. Evaluation of Serum, Urine, and Hair Chromium Levels as Indices of Chromium Exposure and the Relationship of these Indices to Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Janis Avril

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr) in hair, serum, and urine, and serum concentrations of insulin and lipids of a selected group of men exposed to trivalent Cr (Cr III) were compared with those of men not exposed to Cr. Seventy -three tannery workers (TW) (mean age 37 +/- 12 years) from four Southern Ontario tanneries and fifty-two control subjects (CS) (mean age 41 +/- 13 years), matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status, from the Guelph and Toronto areas participated. The median hair and serum Cr concentrations for the TW were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for the CS (hair Cr 453 vs 124 ng/g; serum Cr 0.49 vs 0.15 ng/ml). Median urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (Cr/Cre) for the TW on Monday morning (0.83 ng/mg) and Friday afternoon (0.68 ng/mg) were also significantly higher (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively) than the median urinary Cr/Cre ratio for the urine samples collected on a Friday afternoon from the CS (0.18 ng/mg). For the TW, the median Friday urinary Cr/Cre ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than the corresponding Monday Cr/Cre ratio. For the TW, urinary Cr/Cre ratios (Monday and Friday) were correlated significantly and positively with both Cr concentrations in serum (r = 0.45, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.01, respectively) and in hair (r = 0.43, p < 0.01; r = 0.64, p < 0.01, respectively). Concentrations of Cr in hair and in serum were also significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the TW and CS in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides, or in calculated values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, %HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Likewise, no significant differences in serum insulin concentrations were noted between the two groups. Results of this study indicate that Cr III, from compounds used in the leather tanning industry, is absorbed and retained. Absorption of Cr III had no significant effect on serum insulin

  19. Association between serum level of vitamin D and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is suggested that vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its effect on lipid profiles. The objective of this study was to determine the association between fasting serum levels of 25(OH) D and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 108 type 2 diabetics. Patients were selected randomly among members of the Iranian Diabetes Association according to study criteria. Fasting concentration of 25(OH) D, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lipid profiles (including triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol) were measured. Results The mean serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) and PTH were 53.41 ± 33.25 nmol/l and 40.24 ± 18.24 pmol/l, respectively, in type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 58.34% and vitamin D sufficiency and insufficiency combined was 41.66%. Although in diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency, serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, and LDL were higher and HDL was lower compared to patients with vitamin D sufficiency, this association was statistically significant only for serum level of TG (145.91 ± 79.00 vs. 122.95 ± 55.82 mg/dl). Conclusions The results of present study show that serum concentrations of 25(OH) D were inversely associated with TG. More interventional studies are needed to confirm the relationship between serum concentration of vitamin D and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24398023

  20. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state. PMID:27474003

  1. Comparison of serum lipid management between elderly and non-elderly patients with and without coronary heart disease (CHD).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Rumiko; Torii, Haruki; Yasuda, Daisuke; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Furukawa, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Akihiro; Iwakura, Toshio; Matsuoka, Naoki; Tomii, Keisuke; Kohara, Nobuo; Hashida, Tohru; Kume, Noriaki

    2016-12-01

    Serum lipid management in patients aged ≥ 75 has not been precisely explored. We, therefore, compared the serum lipid management between the two age groups with and without coronary heart disease (CHD). We, therefore, retrospectively reviewed medical charts of patients who were hospitalized in the departments of internal medicine during a period of 14 months. Serum lipid goal attainment was explored by applying the lipid goals for patients aged < 75 to those aged ≥ 75. In 1988 enrolled patients, 717 subjects (36.1%) were aged ≥ 75. Among them, 41.3% and 32.4% of the patients had CHD, 44.2% and 41.0% were primary prevention at high-risk, and 14.5% and 14.6% were primary prevention at moderate-risk in patients aged ≥ 75 and aged < 75, respectively. Serum LDL-C goal achievement rates in CHD were 66.9% and 65.0% in patients aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p = 0.334). In the primary prevention at high-risk, these rates were 73.5% and 63.3%, in patients aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p = 0.001). They were 77.9% and 58.1% in primary prevention at moderate-risk aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p < 0.001). In CHD, lipid-lowering medication subscription rates were significantly lower in patients aged ≥ 75 (60.1%) than those aged < 75 (73.8%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, in CHD, serum lipid goal attainment was comparable between the two age groups although the lipid-lowering drugs were less frequently prescribed in patients aged ≥ 75. Without CHD, it was significantly better in patients aged ≥ 75 than those aged < 75 although the lipid-lowering drug subscription rates were comparable between the two age groups. PMID:27413682

  2. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P Reed; Holst, Jens J; Badman, Michael K; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B

    2009-09-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 +/- 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 +/- 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P < 0.05). Total bile acids were inversely correlated with 2-h post-meal glucose (r = -0.59, P < 0.003) and fasting triglycerides (r = -0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = -0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB. PMID:19360006

  3. Culturing of HepG2 cells with human serum improve their functionality and suitability in studies of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pramfalk, Camilla; Larsson, Lilian; Härdfeldt, Jennifer; Eriksson, Mats; Parini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the “gold standard” in studies of lipid metabolism despite a number of disadvantages like large inter-donor differences and inability to proliferate. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells retain many hepatocyte-specific functions but do also exhibit disadvantages like secretion of lipoproteins and bile acids that do not emulate human hepatocytes in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation of the culturing media with human serum could improve the functionality of HepG2 cells and thereby make them more apposite in studies of lipid metabolism. The cells were cultured with human sera (2%) from three healthy individuals or with fetal bovine serum (10%). Lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, bile acid, albumin, and proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 (Pcsk9) concentrations in the cell media, as well as gene and protein expressions were then measured. We found apoB-containing LDL-sized but also apoA1-containing HDL-sized particles, increased bile acid and Pcsk9 concentrations in the cell media, as well as increased expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and differentiation in HepG2 cells cultured with human sera. Thus, supplementation of the culturing media with human serum improves the functionality of HepG2 cells and makes them more apposite in studies of lipid metabolism. PMID:26515253

  4. Sex-specific association of the SPTY2D1 rs7934205 polymorphism and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Nie, Rong-Jun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs7934205 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the Suppressor of Ty, domain containing 1 gene (SPTY2D1) and serum lipid levels between males and females in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of SPTY2D1 rs7934205 SNP was performed in 933 of Mulao and 865 of Han participants using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The T allele frequency was different between Mulao males and females (23.2% vs. 27.9%, P = 0.018). The genotype and allele frequencies were also different between Han males and females (P = 0.020 and P = 0.004; respectively). Serum levels of apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 in Mulao males; and total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ApoA1 and ApoB in Mulao females were different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05). Serum TC, ApoB levels in Han males, and ApoB levels in Han females were different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05). The subjects with CT/TT genotype in both Mulao and Han males and females have more favorable lipid profiles than those with CC genotype. These findings suggest that the association between the SPTY2D1 rs7934205 SNP and serum lipid levels might have ethnic- and/or sex-specificity. PMID:25755761

  5. Growth Status and Its Relationship with Serum Lipids and Albumin in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Gholam Hossein; Latifi, Sahar; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Kushki, Davood; Haghhi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Morteza, Afsaneh; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease, which affects many organs as it impairs chloride channel. This study was performed to evaluate growth status and its relationship with some laboratory indices such as Cholesterol (chol), Triglyceride (TG), albumin and total protein in children with CF referred to pediatrics center. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study in one year section. Demographic features were compared with standard percentiles curves. Chol, TG, albumin, total protein, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin were measured. Stool exams were also performed. A questionnaire was designed to obtain a history of the first presentation of disease, birth weight, type of labor and parent relativity. In 52% of patients, failure to thrive (FTT) was the first presentation. Steatorrhea and respiratory infections were the first presentations, which were seen in 13.7% and 33% of the cases, respectively. The weight of 88% of patients was below the 15th percentile while 82% had a height percentile below 15th. Head circumference in 53% of patients was below the 15th percentile. There was a significant association between weight percentile and serum albumin and total protein (P=0.03 and P=0.007, respectively). There was also a significant relationship between height percentile and serum albumin and total protein (P<0.001 and P<0.000, respectively). The relationships between head circumference and serum albumin and total protein were also significant (P=0.006 and P<0.000, respectively). There was also a significant association between height percentile and hemoglobin. The decrease in anthropometric percentiles leads to decreased serum albumin and total protein. PMID:27309270

  6. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Kenny, Anne M; Walsh, Stephen J; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2013-12-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (-5.9%, P = .02; -7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability

  7. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  8. Antibody-independent activation of the classical pathway of human serum complement by lipid A is restricted to re-chemotype lipopolysaccharide and purified lipid A.

    PubMed Central

    Vukajlovich, S W

    1986-01-01

    Incubation of most bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with normal human sera at 37 degrees C activates the serum complement system, resulting in decreased levels of hemolytic complement. A panel of R-chemotype LPS preparations isolated from Salmonella minnesota rough mutant strains, as well as smooth wild-type LPS from S. minnesota, Escherichia coli O55-B5, Serratia marcescens, and Yersinia enterolitica, were used to examine the effect of LPS polysaccharide chain length on LPS lipid (lipid A)-dependent activation of the classical pathway of complement (CPC). To examine specific lipid A-dependent activation of the CPC, sera deficient in alternative pathway of complement activity were prepared by the removal of factor D. Absorption of normal human sera with formalinized rabbit erythrocytes was found to remove natural antibodies, factors capable of forming LPS complexes which activate the CPC, or both. By using such factor D-depleted formalinized rabbit erythrocyte-absorbed normal human sera, only isolated lipid A and Re-chemotype LPS (R595 LPS) were found to activate the CPC. Thus, the presence of the additional monosaccharide L-glycero-D-mannoheptose in the Rd2 LPS oligosaccharide chain compared with the L-glycero-D-mannoheptose-deficient Re-chemotype LPS structure is sufficient to block lipid A-dependent activation of the CPC by LPS. PMID:3744547

  9. The importance of serum lipids in exudative diabetic macular edema in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Uçgun, Nil Irem; Yildirim, Zuhal; Kiliç, Nedret; Gürsel, Emin

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between serum lipid levels and exudative diabetic maculopathy in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 27 patients with exudative diabetic macular edema were included in group A and 27 patients without exudative diabetic macular edema were included in group B. All 54 patients have nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and hemoglobin levels were measured in patients in group A and group B. The mean concentration of cholesterol in group A (224.30 +/- 49.49 mg/dL), in group B (197.78 +/- 41.49 mg/dL); triglyceride in group A (199.11 +/- 90.51 mg/dL), in group B (160.78 +/- 65.30 mg/dL); HDL in group A (43.48 +/- 10.62 mmol/L), in group B (42.37 +/- 10.92 mmol/L); LDL in group A (150.59 +/- 43.96 mg/dL), in group B (124.37 +/- 40.28 mg/dL); VLDL in group A (40.52 +/- 16.54 mg/dL), in group B (37.89 +/- 23.70 mg/dL); HbA1c in group A (9.62 +/- 2.50), in group B (7.36 +/- 1.62 g/dL); and hemoglobin in group A (13.46 +/- 1.6 g/dL), in group B (13.90 +/- 1.77 g/dL). Serum cholesterol (P = 0.38), LDL (P = 0.026), and HbA1c (P = 0.000) levels were different between the two groups. Triglyceride, HDL, VLDL, and hemoglobin levels were not different between the two groups. We must consider regulation of high blood sugar and elevated total serum cholesterol or LDL levels in patients with macular edema and high hard exudates. PMID:17460181

  10. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P < 0.001) in birds fed the PO diets compared with birds fed the SO diets. The diets containing PO increased abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat

  11. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels. PMID:20945636

  12. Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

  13. [Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants. PMID:26402939

  14. TCDD-Elicited Effects on Liver, Serum, and Adipose Lipid Composition in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zacharewski, Timothy Richard

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates alterations in hepatic lipid composition elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to further investigate the effects of TCDD, liver, serum, and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and lipids were examined in fasted 4-week-old female mice orally gavaged with 30 µg/kg TCDD at 24, 72, and 168h postdose. Mean hepatic FAME levels increased (236.7 µmol/g in controls compared with 392.2 µmol/g in TCDD treated) with minimal changes in gWAT and serum. In the liver, TCDD decreased saturated fatty acids (SFAs 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0) and increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs 16:1n7, 18:1n9, and 20:1n9). Hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 20:2n6, 20:3n6, 18:3n3, and 22:5n3 also increased, whereas 20:4n6 and 22:6n3 levels decreased. gWAT PUFAs 20:2n6 and 20:3n6 exhibited modest increases, whereas serum 18:0 decreased and 18:1n9 increased. Serum analyses also identified a ~25% decrease in total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein following TCDD treatment. The decrease in serum CHOL was consistent with the induction of hepatic reverse CHOL transport genes Lcat (2.0-fold), Apoa1 (1.7-fold), and Ldlr (3.6-fold), and the repression of CHOL biosynthesis genes Hmgcs1 (−2.1-fold) and Hmgcr (−2.3-fold). In addition, TCDD decreased serum Apob100 (4.4-fold) and Apob48 (2.2-fold) protein levels, suggesting serum lipid clearance and decreased hepatic efflux. Collectively, the TCDD-elicited decreases in serum lipid levels are consistent with AhR-mediated enhancement of dietary fat distribution to the liver. PMID:22977169

  15. Correlation of serum triglyceride and its reduction by omega-3 fatty acids with lipid transfer activity and the neutral lipid compositions of high-density and low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Brauchi, D; Kilinç, C; Osmundsen, K; Pao, Q; Payton-Ross, C; Gotto, A M; Ballantyne, C M

    1999-04-01

    Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are inversely correlated and mechanistically linked by means of lipid transfer activities. Phospholipid transfer activity (PLTA) moves phospholipids among serum lipoproteins; cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA), which exchanges cholesteryl esters (CE) and TG among lipoproteins, is stimulated by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The aims of this study were (a) to develop a quantitative model that correlates the neutral lipid (NL = CE + TG) compositions of HDL and LDL with serum TG concentration; (b) identify the serum lipid determinants of CETA and PLTA, and; (c) identify the effects of serum TG reductions on the neutral lipid compositions of HDL and LDL, serum NEFA concentrations, and on PLTA and CETA. These aims were addressed in 40 hypertriglyceridemic subjects before and after treatment with an 85% concentrate of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor) and in 16 untreated normolipidemic subjects. In vivo, the NL compositions of LDL and HDL were described by a mathematical model having the form of adsorption isotherms: HDL - (TG/NL) = (0.90 +/- 0.07) serum TG/(7.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l + serum TG) and LDL - (TG/NL) = (0.65 +/- 0.08) serum TG/(4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/l + serum TG). Reduction of serum TG was associated with reductions in HDL - (TG/NL), serum NEFA concentration, and serum CETA but not PLTA. These data suggest that both hypertriglyceridemia and the attendant elevated serum CETA but not PLTA are determinants of HDL and LDL composition and structure and that serum TG concentrations are good predictors of the NL compositions of HDL and LDL. PMID:10217357

  16. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    PubMed

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (≤250µM) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125µM; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-α-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50µM, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl. PMID:26057938

  17. Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Qi; Yin, Rui-Xing; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Huang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels. PMID:26722494

  18. The Effect of Walking Exercise on Physical Fitness and Serum Lipids in Obese Middle-aged Women: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Seo, Byoung-Do; Chung, Sang-Mi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to identify the effects of walking on the body composition, health-related physical fitness, and serum lipids as part of efforts to encourage middle-aged people to participate in walking as a regular and sustainable exercise. [Methods] This study was conducted as a pretest-posttest control group study. The study period was for 12 weeks from January to March 2010. The participants were 43 middle-aged women (age range: 40–55 years) with body fat rates over 30%. Subjects in the experiment group participated in the walking exercise (n = 38), the control group did not participate in the exercise (n = 23). [Results] In the exercise group, statistically significant reductions in weight and body fat were observed among the body composition measurement variables, and statistically significant increases in flexibility and cardiopulmonary endurance were observed among the physical fitness measurement variables. TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in the serum lipid measurement variables showed a statistically significant reduction in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that 12 weeks of walking exercise influenced middle-aged women in a positive way by effecting changes in their body composition, physical fitness, and serum lipids. We believe that these positive changes result in positive effects on the factors for prevention of various adult diseases that can occur in middle-aged women. PMID:24409014

  19. Effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on serum levels of coenzyme Q10 and other lipid-soluble antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Palan, Prabhudas R; Connell, Kathleen; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Inegbenijie, Christian; Gavara, Rachana Y; Ouseph, Jacob A; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on serum levels of coenzyme Q(10) and other lipid-soluble antioxidants in normal women. Serum levels of coenzyme Q(10), alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene in 50 premenopausal women (not using oral contraceptives), 33 healthy postmenopausal and 15 postmenopausal women on HRT ("Prempo"; combination of 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate) were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lipid profiles were also analyzed. Significantly higher serum coenzyme Q(10) and alpha-tocopherol levels were detected in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women (P < 0.05, and < 0.001); whereas, in postmenopausal subjects on HRT, we detected a significant decrease in coenzyme Q(10) and gamma-tocopherol levels (P < 0.001, and < 0.05) and increased alpha-tocopherol levels (P < 0.05). Serum levels of beta-carotene, lycopene, LDL, HDL, cholesterol and triglyceride were comparable among the study groups. Coenzyme Q(10) is postulated to be involved in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) because of its bioenergetics role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and its antioxidant properties at the mitochondrial and extramitochondrial levels. The decrease in serum concentrations of coenzyme Q(10), produced by HRT, may promote oxygen free radical-induced membrane damage and may, thus alter cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. HRT-induced reductions in lipid-soluble antioxidant(s) levels, and its potential consequences on CVD, needs to be further investigated. PMID:16873930

  20. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  1. Prospective associations between serum biomarkers of lipid metabolism and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    His, Mathilde; Zelek, Laurent; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Blacher, Jacques; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-02-01

    Experimental studies provided evidence about mechanisms by which cholesterol, especially high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), could influence carcinogenesis, notably through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, prospective studies that investigated the associations between specific lipid metabolism biomarkers and cancer risk provided inconsistent results. The objective was to investigate the prospective associations between total cholesterol (T-C), HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1 (apoA1) and B, and triglycerides and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk. Analyses were performed on 7,557 subjects of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants Study, a nationwide French cohort study. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism were measured at baseline and analyzed regarding the risk of first primary incident cancer (N = 514 cases diagnosed during follow-up, 1994-2007), using Cox proportional hazards models. T-C was inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.82-1.00; P = 0.04) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.69-0.99; P = 0.04) cancer risk. HDL-C was also inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.61, 95 % CI 0.46-0.82; P = 0.0008) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.28-0.83; P = 0.009) cancer risk. Consistently, apoA1 was inversely associated with overall (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.39-0.82; P = 0.003) and breast (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.36, 95 % CI 0.18-0.73; P = 0.004) cancer risk. This prospective study suggests that pre-diagnostic serum levels of T-C, HDL-C and ApoA1 are associated with decreased overall and breast cancer risk. The confirmation of a role of cholesterol components in cancer development, by further large prospective and experimental studies, may have important implications in terms of public health, since cholesterol is already crucial in cardiovascular prevention. PMID:24519551

  2. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  3. Comparison of Serum Apolipoproteins and Traditional Lipids in Eyes with Diabetic Retinopathy in Indian Population: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gunjan; Agrawal, Rachit; Satsangi, S. K.; Prakash, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To review the associations of serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients of DR. DR was graded according to modified Airlie House Classification system. Traditional serum lipids (total, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol and triglycerides [TGs]), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apoB-to-apoAI ratios were assessed. The analysis of variance test was applied. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, and P < 0.001 was considered highly significant. Results: Twenty-four patients with DR were evaluated. Serum apoAI was statistically significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of having more severe DR levels (P < 0.001). Increasing levels of apoB (P < 0.001) and apoB-to-apoAI ratio (P < 0.001) were statistically significantly associated with increasing DR severity levels. The association of total (P > 0.05) and LDL cholesterol (P > 0.05) with severity of DR was not statistically significant. HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the severity of DR (P < 0.05). TGs were also statistically significantly associated with the severity of DR (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum apolipoprotein levels may be stronger biomarkers of DR than traditional lipids. PMID:27162455

  4. Domains of surfactant protein A that affect protein oligomerization, lipid structure and surface tension.

    PubMed

    Palaniyar, N; Ikegami, M; Korfhagen, T; Whitsett, J; McCormack, F X

    2001-05-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an abundant protein found in pulmonary surfactant which has been reported to have multiple functions. In this review, we focus on the structural importance of each domain of SP-A in the functions of protein oligomerization, the structural organization of lipids and the surface-active properties of surfactant, with an emphasis on ultrastructural analyses. The N-terminal domain of SP-A is required for disulfide-dependent protein oligomerization, and for binding and aggregation of phospholipids, but there is no evidence that this domain directly interacts with lipid membranes. The collagen-like domain is important for the stability and oligomerization of SP-A. It also contributes shape and dimension to the molecule, and appears to determine membrane spacing in lipid aggregates such as common myelin and tubular myelin. The neck domain of SP-A is primarily involved in protein trimerization, which is critical for many protein functions, but it does not appear to be directly involved in lipid interactions. The globular C-terminal domain of SP-A clearly plays a central role in lipid binding, and in more complex functions such as the formation and/or stabilization of curved membranes. In recent work, we have determined that the maintenance of low surface tension of surfactant in the presence of serum protein inhibitors requires cooperative interactions between the C-terminal and N-terminal domains of the molecule. This effect of SP-A requires a high degree of oligomeric assembly of the protein, and may be mediated by the activity of the protein to alter the form or physical state of surfactant lipid aggregates. PMID:11369537

  5. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...

  6. Association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 rs2278426 polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    GUO, TAO; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, JIAN; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; LI, HUI; LIN, WEI-XIONG; YANG, DE-ZHAI

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 individuals of the Mulao ethnic group and 865 individuals of the Han Chinese ethnic group were included. The serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B level was higher, however the serum ApoA1 level was lower in the Mulao individuals than in the Han individuals (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The genotypic and allelic frequencies, and the association with the ANGPTL8 rs2278426 SNP were different between the Mulao and Han populations. The frequency of the A allele was 17.80% in Han individuals and 23.04% in Mulao individuals (P<0.001). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 68.79, 26.82 and 4.39% in the Han population, and 60.64, 32.65 and 6.71% in the Mulao population (P<0.005), respectively. A significant association between the SNP and serum lipid traits was only detected in Han females and not in Han males or in the Mulao population. The subjects with GA/AA genotypes had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels, and higher ApoA1 levels with a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in the Han population. Subgroup analyses revealed that the subjects with the GA/AA genotype had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and ApoB, and a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in Han females (P<0.05-P<0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors, including dietary patterns, lifestyle, obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be an ethnic- and gender-specific association of the rs2278426 SNP and serum lipid parameters. PMID:26004022

  7. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Steenland, Kyle; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS have been positively associated with serum lipids. Our objective is to interrogate the association between PFOA and PFOS and serum lipids in children. Design Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting Mid-Ohio river valley. Participants 12,476 children included in the C8 Health Project, resultant from the pre-trial settlement of a class action lawsuit pursuant to PFOA contamination of the drinking water supply. Main Outcome Measures Serum lipids (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides). Results Mean serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations were 69.2±111.9 ng/mL and 22.7±12.6 ng/mL. In linear regression after adjustment for covariables, PFOA was significantly associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol, and PFOS was significantly associated with increased total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. In GLM ANCOVA analysis, between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOA there was a 4.6 mg/dL and 3.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean of total and LDL cholesterol, and an 8.5 mg/dL and 5.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean for total and LDL cholesterol between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOS. Increases were 10 mg/dL for some age- and gender-group strata. Observed effects were non-linear, with larger increases in total and LDL cholesterol occurring the lowest range of particularly PFOA. Conclusions While the epidemiologic and cross-sectional nature of the current study limit causal inferences, the consistent observed associations between increasing PFOA and PFOS and elevated total and LDL cholesterol warrant further study. PMID:20819969

  8. Quantitative analysis of polar lipids in the nanoliter level of rat serum by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polar lipids in serum, including lysophospholipids (LPLs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), have a broad range of biological activities and require a suitable method for their quantitative analysis. Conventional methods use multistep procedures to simultaneously purify and analyze polar lipids and non-po...

  9. Effects of cafestol and kahweol from coffee grounds on serum lipids and serum liver enzymes in humans.

    PubMed

    Urgert, R; Schulz, A G; Katan, M B

    1995-01-01

    The diterpenes cafestol and kahweol are present in unfiltered coffee in oil droplets and floating fines. They elevate serum cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). We measured fines in coffee brews, and examined diterpene availability from spent grounds in healthy volunteers. Turkish or Scandinavian boiled coffee contained 2-5 g fines/L and French press coffee contained 1.5 g fines/L. An intake of 8 g fine grounds/d for 3 wk increased cholesterol by 0.65 mmol/L (95% CI 0.41-0.89 mmol/L) and ALT by 18 U/L (95% CI 4-32 U/L) relative to control subjects (n = 7/group). In a crossover study (n = 15), mean serum cholesterol was 4.9 mmol/L after consumption of both fine and coarse grounds for 10 d (P = 0.43). Serum ALT activities were 29 U/L on fine and 21 U/L on coarse grounds (P = 0.02). Floating fines could contribute substantially to the hyperlipidemic and ALT-elevating effect of unfiltered coffee. Diterpene measurements in coffee brews should include the contribution of fines. PMID:7825527

  10. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  11. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  12. Influence of Sorghum Kafirin on Serum Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats (In Vitro and In Vivo Studies)

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz Cruz, Raquel A.; Cárdenas López, José L.; González Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Astiazarán García, Humberto; Gorinstein, Shela; Canett Romero, Rafael; Robles Sánchez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract. Diets supplemented with sorghum kafirin extract have improved lipid metabolism and increased the serum antioxidant potential (67%) especially in rats fed with added cholesterol. The bioactive peptides generated from kafirin in vivo hydrolysis appear to be associated with the positive effect on serum lipids and antioxidant activity. According to these results, sorghum kafirin extract at the levels used in this study apparently could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases. PMID:26634202

  13. Monoolein-based cubosomes affect lipid profile in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Murgia, Sergio; Putzu, Danilo; Meli, Valeria; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2015-10-01

    Monoolein-based cubosomes are promising drug delivery nanocarriers for theranostic purposes. Nevertheless, a small amount of research has been undertaken to investigate the impact of these biocompatible nanoparticles on cell lipid profile. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore changes in lipid components occurring in human carcinoma HeLa cells when exposed to short-term treatments (2 and 4h) with monoolein-based cubosomes stabilized by Pluronic F108 (MO/PF108). A combination of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC with DAD and ELSD detection was performed to analyze cell total fatty acid profile and levels of phospholipids, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. The treatments with MO/PF108 cubosomes, at non-cytotoxic concentration (83μg/mL of MO), affected HeLa fatty acid profile, and a significant increase in the level of oleic acid 18:1 n-9 was observed in treated cells after lipid component saponification. Nanoparticle uptake modulated HeLa cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of oleic acid in the phospholipid and triacylglycerol fractions, whereas no changes were observed in the cellular levels of free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate. Moreover, cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplet content were assessed on cubosome-treated cells with an alternative technique using Nile red staining. A significant increase in the amount of the intracellular membranes and mostly in the cytoplasmic lipid droplets was detected, confirming that monoolein-based cubosome treatment influences the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of lipid droplets. PMID:26341749

  14. Effect of fasting during Ramadan on serum lithium level and mental state in bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Saeed; Nazar, Zahid; Akhtar, Javaid; Akhter, Javed; Irfan, Muhammad; Irafn, Mohammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Zia; Khan, Ejaz Hassan; Khatak, Ijaz Hassan; Naeem, Farooq

    2010-11-01

    The Muslims fast every year during the month of Ramadan. A fasting day can last 12-17 h. The effects of fasting on serum lithium levels and the mood changes in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder during Ramadan are not well studied. We aimed to compare the serum lithium levels, side effects, toxicity and mental state in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder and on prophylactic lithium therapy before, during and after Ramadan. Sixty-two patients meeting the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Research Diagnostic Criteria of bipolar affective disorder receiving lithium treatment for prophylaxis were recruited in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Serum lithium, electrolytes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were assessed at three points, 1 week before Ramadan, midRamadan and 1 week after Ramadan. The side effects and toxicity were measured by a symptoms and signs checklist. There was no significant difference in mean serum lithium levels at three time points (preRamadan=0.45±0.21, midRamadan=0.51±0.20 and postRamadan=0.44±0.23 milli equivalents/litre, P=0.116). The scores on HDRS and YMRS showed significant decrease during Ramadan (F=34.12, P=0.00, for HDRS and F=15.6, P=0.000 for YMRS). The side effects and toxicity also did not differ significantly at three points. In conclusion, the patients who have stable mental state and lithium levels before Ramadan can be maintained on lithium during Ramadan. Fasting in an average temperature of 28°C for up to 12 h per day did not result in elevated serum lithium levels or more side effects and did not have adverse effects on mental state of patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder. PMID:20827213

  15. Effect of Omega-3 fatty acids on blood pressure and serum lipids in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Naini, Afsoon Emami; Keyvandarian, Nooshin; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Taheri, Shahram; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are two major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This study was designed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on blood pressure (BP) and serum lipids in CAPD patients. Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind clinical trial in which 90 CAPD patients were randomly assigned to either the omega-3 or the placebo group. Patients in omega-3 group received 3 g/day omega-3 for 8 weeks, whereas patients in the control group received placebo. At baseline and at the end of 8 weeks, the patients’ BP was controlled, and serum biochemistry was measured. Findings: Mean systolic BP decreased (–22.2 ± 14.2 mmHg) in the omega-3 group at the end of the study while in the placebo group increased (+0.5 ± 30.2 mmHg) (P < 0.0001). Mean diastolic BP of the omega-3 group decreased more (–11.95 ± 11.9 mmHg) comparing with the placebo group (–1.1 ± 17.3 mmHg) (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean changes in serum triglyceride, and total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that omega-3 reduced BP significantly but had no effect on lipid profile in our CAPD patients. PMID:26312252

  16. Comparison of effect of cafetière and filtered coffee on serum concentrations of liver aminotransferases and lipids: six month randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Urgert, R.; Meyboom, S.; Kuilman, M.; Rexwinkel, H.; Vissers, M. N.; Klerk, M.; Katan, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of prolonged intake of cafetière coffee, which is rich in the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, on serum aminotransferase and lipid concentrations. DESIGN: Randomised parallel controlled trial. SUBJECTS: 46 healthy men and women aged 19 to 69. INTERVENTION: Consumption of five to six strong cups (0.9 litres) a day of either cafetière (22 subjects) or filtered coffee (24 subjects) for 24 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean changes in serum aminotransferase and lipid concentrations. RESULTS: Cafetière coffee raised alanine aminotransferase concentration by up to 80% above baseline values relative to filtered coffee. After 24 weeks the rise was still 45% (9 U/l (95% confidence interval 3 to 15 U/l), P = 0.007). Alanine aminotransferase concentration exceeded the upper limit of normal in eight of the 22 subjects drinking cafetière coffee, being twice the upper limit of normal in three of them. Cafetière coffee raised low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 9-14%. After 24 weeks the rise was 0.26 mmol/l (0.04 to 0.47 mmol/l) (P = 0.03) relative to filtered coffee. Triglyceride concentrations initially rose by 26% with cafetière coffee but returned close to baseline values within six months. All increases were reversible after the intervention was stopped. CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of five to six cups of strong cafetière coffee affects the integrity of liver cells as suggested by small increases in serum alanine aminotransferase concentration. The effect does not subside with prolonged intake. High intakes of coffee brews rich in cafestol and kahweol may thus be responsible for unexplained increases in this enzyme activity in apparently healthy subjects. Cafetière coffee also raises low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and thus the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:8956701

  17. Serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein changes in gestational diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional and prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Koukkou, E; Watts, G F; Lowy, C

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To compare serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations during and six to 12 months after pregnancy in control and diabetic women. METHODS: The serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 20 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 22 women with normal glucose tolerance (controls) during the third trimester of pregnancy and six to 12 months after delivery. RESULTS: During pregnancy the women with GDM had higher serum triglyceride (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)), 2.91 (2.22-3.51) v 2.1 (1.75-2.52)) but lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations compared with controls (mean (SD), 3.08 (1.2) v 4.01 (1.1). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. After pregnancy, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein A1 and B decreased in a parallel manner, resulting in lower concentrations, comparable between the two groups. LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased after pregnancy in the controls (mean (SD), 4.01 (1.1) v 2.69 (0.6)) but not in those with GDM (3.08 (1.2) v 2.72 (0.7)). The change in lipid concentrations was not related to change in weight. CONCLUSION: Development of diabetes during pregnancy induces a state of dyslipidaemia characterised by elevated triglyceride concentrations, as seen in other insulin resistance states. However, GDM seems to blunt the increase in LDL cholesterol during pregnancy and this requires further investigation. Whether the changes in lipoprotein metabolism in GDM are significant for the health status of the mother and the foetus requires further study. PMID:8881912

  18. The effect of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Khadir, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Joorsaraee, Seyyed Gholamali; Feizi, Farideh; Sorkhi, Hadi; Yousefi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressant drug with therapeutic and toxic actions. The use of CsA is limited by its toxicity. Several researchers had proposed that oxidative stress could play an important role in CsA-induced toxicity. Arbutin has recently been shown to possess antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine treated rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n=8/group): (I) control (no CsA and arbutin administration), (II and III) were treated subcutaneously (Sc) with arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw), respectively, (IV) administered CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) intraperitoneally (IP), (V and VI) received the combination of CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) i.p and arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw) Sc daily, respectively. At the end of the treatment (after3 weeks), serum lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and serum total antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) was assayed based on spectrophotometric method. Results: TBARS had been significantly increased by CsA administration compared with control rats. Arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) completely prevented this effect, but arbutin (100 mg/kg/bw) alone or in combination with CsA significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with controls. Conclusion: Our data indicate that arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) had protective effect in the CsA-induced toxicity but high concentration of arbutin (100mg/kg/bw) showed meaningful oxidative and lipoperoxidative effects. PMID:26644892

  19. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amrita Das; Das, Swastika N.; Dhundasi, Salim A.; Das, Kusal K.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garlic administration with nickel sulfate showed improvement in serum LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C and TG level. But in case of potassium dichromate, garlic administration did not show satisfactory improvement in lipid profile except VLDL-C and TG level. The results indicate that garlic (Allium sativum) has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal (nickel and chromium VI) induced alteration of lipid profile. PMID:19139532

  20. Use of cycloheximide to study independent lipid metabolism of Chlamydia trachomatis cultivated in mouse L cells grown in serum-free medium.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, S I; Anderson, L E; Jenkin, H M

    1981-01-01

    A system for measuring chlamydial lipid synthesis was developed with mouse L cells grown in serum-free modified Waymouth 752/l medium in a shaker culture. Host lipid synthesis was reduced approximately 90% when cells were incubated for 24 h in medium containing cycloheximide (2 micrograms/ml). Lipid metabolism was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]isoleucine into the total lipid of normal and infected cells. The results suggested that lipid synthesis of Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV-404L) was not inhibited by cycloheximide treatment when the chlamydiae were grown in L cells, whereas host lipid synthesis was inhibited. Chlamydial lipid metabolism began about 6 to 12 h after infection when the noninfectious reticulate body was found and continually increased until the beginning of the appearance of intracellular infectious elementary bodies at 24 to 30 h. PMID:7216466

  1. Prostate Cancer Associated Lipid Signatures in Serum Studied by ESI-Tandem Mass Spectrometryas Potential New Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Duscharla, Divya; Bhumireddy, Sudarshana Reddy; Lakshetti, Sridhar; Pospisil, Heike; Murthy, P. V. L. N.; Walther, Reinhard; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one amongst the most common cancersin western men. Incidence rate ofPCa is on the rise worldwide. The present study deals with theserum lipidome profiling of patients diagnosed with PCa to identify potential new biomarkers. We employed ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS for identification of significantly altered lipids in cancer patient’s serum compared to controls. Lipidomic data revealed 24 lipids are significantly altered in cancer patinet’s serum (n = 18) compared to normal (n = 18) with no history of PCa. By using hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) we could clearly separate cancer patients from control group. Correlation and partition analysis along with Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) have identified that PC (39:6) and FA (22:3) could classify samples with higher certainty. Both the lipids, PC (39:6) and FA (22:3) could influence the cataloging of patients with 100% sensitivity (all 18 control samples are classified correctly) and 77.7% specificity (of 18 tumor samples 4 samples are misclassified) with p-value of 1.612×10−6 in Fischer’s exact test. Further, we performed GC-MS to denote fatty acids altered in PCa patients and found that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) levels are altered in PCa. We also performed an in vitro proliferation assay to determine the effect of ALA in survival of classical human PCa cell lines LNCaP and PC3. We hereby report that the altered lipids PC (39:6) and FA (22:3) offer a new set of biomarkers in addition to the existing diagnostic tests that could significantly improve sensitivity and specificity in PCa diagnosis. PMID:26958841

  2. Serum levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, leptin, and lipids during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period in mares.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, F; Giannetto, C; Rizzo, M; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and leptin levels as well as of lipid and lipoprotein profiles in mares during the peripartum period. Ten pregnant mares (group A) were monitored from 15 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 15 days after foaling, and 10 nonpregnant nonlactating mares constituted the control (group B). In group A, blood sampling was performed on Days 15 ± 3 and 7 ± 3 before foaling, on the day of foaling, and on Days 7 and 15 after foaling. In group B, blood sampling was performed on the same days as in group A. Serum levels were determined for UCP1, leptin, total lipids, phospholipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol (Total-Chol), high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied to evaluate the effects of peripartum period and group membership. All studied parameters except phospholipid levels (P > 0.05) showed significant changes in group A over the peripartum period (P < 0.0001). A significant effect of pregnancy was found on all studied parameters (P < 0.001), which showed lower levels in group A than in group B for most of the time points considered. Significant negative correlations were found between UCP1 and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDL values. Positive correlations were found between leptin and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDLs. These changes observed in mares during the peripartum period could represent a response to hormonal and metabolic adaptations occurring during specific physiological conditions such as late pregnancy and early postpartum. These changes should compensate for the energy loss occurring during these particular life phases and ensure a good body condition to protect mares against negative energy balance. PMID:27165993

  3. Effects of Whole Grain, Fish and Bilberries on Serum Metabolic Profile and Lipid Transfer Protein Activities: A Randomized Trial (Sysdimet)

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Maria; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Joukamo, Laura; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Gylling, Helena; Orešič, Matej; Jauhiainen, Matti; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Objective We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods Altogether 131 subjects (40–70 y, BMI 26–39 kg/m2) with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet), b) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED), or c) refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control). Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites. Results There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable. Conclusions The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly

  4. [Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on serum lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase of the patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Xing, Z Q; Zeng, X C; Yi, C T

    1996-05-01

    Twenty-four patients of coronary heart disease(CHD) were treated with Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) and the change of SM on serum lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) after treatment were observed. The results were compared with that of control group consisted of 20 healthy persons, it showed that before treatment, the serum LPO of patient was significantly higher than that of control group and the SOD of patient was lower than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After treated with SM, the LPO level decreased and SOD activity increased significantly. The mechanism might be correlated with the effect of SM in inhibiting platelets aggregation, reducing blood viscosity, improving myocardial ischemia and protecting cytomembrane. It suggested that SM could be regarded as a good exogenous scavenger of oxygen free radical. PMID:9387721

  5. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  6. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  7. Free fatty acids chain length distribution affects the permeability of skin lipid model membranes.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Masayuki; Oguri, Masashi; Mojumdar, Enamul H; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-09-01

    The lipid matrix in the stratum corneum (SC) plays an important role in the barrier function of the skin. The main lipid classes in this lipid matrix are ceramides (CERs), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of this study was to determine whether a variation in CER subclass composition and chain length distribution of FFAs affect the permeability of this matrix. To examine this, we make use of lipid model membranes, referred to as stratum corneum substitute (SCS). We prepared SCS containing i) single CER subclass with either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs and CHOL, or ii) a mixture of various CER subclasses with either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs and CHOL. In vitro permeation studies were performed using ethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (E-PABA) as a model drug. The flux of E-PABA across the SCS containing the mixture of FFAs was higher than that across the SCS containing a single FA with a chain length of 24 C atoms (FA C24), while the E-PABA flux was not effected by the CER composition. To select the underlying factors for the changes in permeability, the SCSs were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All lipid models demonstrated a similar phase behavior. However, when focusing on the conformational ordering of the individual FFA chains, the shorter chain FFA (with a chain length of 16, 18 or 20 C atoms forming only 11m/m% of the total FFA level) had a higher conformational disordering, while the conformational ordering of the chains of the CER and FA C24 and FA C22 hardly did not change irrespective of the composition of the SCS. In conclusion, the conformational mobility of the short chain FFAs present only at low levels in the model SC lipid membranes has a great impact on the permeability of E-PABA. PMID:27287726

  8. The effects of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and an equivalent dose of cortisol on the serum concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anna-Lena; Rafnsson, Arnar Thor; Johannsson, Magnus; Dallongeville, Jean; Arnadottir, Margret

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown a strong lipid-lowering effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in healthy individuals and in patients with different kinds of dyslipoproteinemia. The mechanism behind this effect has not been established and its direct ACTH-specific nature has been questioned. Therefore, the present study was performed. Thirty healthy young males were randomized into 3 groups of equal size: one group received ACTH1-24 1 mg IM, daily for 4 days, another group was treated with cortisol 150 mg ID (50 mg tid) daily for 4 days, whereas a control group was observed for 4 days. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after treatment or observation. The serum concentrations of cholesterol (12%, P < .05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (24%, P < .01), and apolipoprotein (apo) B (31%, P < .01) decreased significantly in the ACTH group but not in the cortisol and control groups. The statistical workup confirmed that only ACTH had a lowering effect on the apo B-containing lipoproteins. In contrast, the results indicated conformity between the treatment groups with respect to increases in the serum apo E concentrations. There were inconsistent changes in the serum concentrations of the triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apo A, and lipoprotein(a). The main results were clear: the lowering effect of ACTH on the serum concentration of apo B-containing lipoproteins could not be ascribed to cortisol. These, in combination with previous in vitro results, indicated an ACTH-specific effect. PMID:16839845

  9. A spectrophotometric assay for lipid peroxides in serum lipoproteins using a commercially available reagent.

    PubMed

    el-Saadani, M; Esterbauer, H; el-Sayed, M; Goher, M; Nassar, A Y; Jürgens, G

    1989-04-01

    A method is described for measuring lipid peroxides by means of the color reagent of a commercially available test kit for cholesterol estimation. In principle, this assay makes use of the oxidative capacity of lipid peroxides to convert iodide to iodine, which can be measured photometrically at 365 nm. Calibration curves were obtained using peroxides such as H2O2, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. A stoichiometric relationship was observed between the amount of organic peroxides assayed and the concentration of iodine produced. Concentrations of lipid peroxides as small as 1 nmol/ml could be measured. The ability to estimate lipid peroxides of isolated low density lipoprotein was demonstrated. PMID:2754343

  10. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Abbas; Argani, Hassan; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Mahdavi, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr) by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased from 2.4 to1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009) by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03), triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008), MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001) and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03) by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed) had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed) reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic. PMID:15943877

  11. Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin improves the viability and hatching ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Chie; SAKAGUCHI, Yosuke; HOSHI, Hiroyoshi; YOSHIOKA, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipid-rich bovine serum albumin (LR-BSA) on the development of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro were examined. Addition of 0.5 to 5 mg/ml LR-BSA to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) from Day 5 (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization) significantly increased the hatching rates of blastocysts on Day 7 and the total cell numbers in Day-7 blastocysts. When Day-5 blastocysts were cultured with PBM alone, PBM containing LR-BSA, recombinant human serum albumin or fatty acid-free BSA, addition of LR-BSA significantly enhanced hatching rates and the cell number in blastocysts that survived compared with other treatments. The diameter, ATP content and numbers of both inner cell mass and total cells in Day-6 and Day-7 blastocysts cultured with PBM containing LR-BSA were significantly higher than in blastocysts cultured with PBM alone, whereas LR-BSA had no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and β-oxidation (ACSL1, ACSL3, CPT1, CPT2 and KAT) in Day-7 blastocysts were significantly upregulated by the addition of LR-BSA. The results indicated that LR-BSA enhanced hatching ability and quality of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro, as determined by ATP content, blastocyst diameter and expression levels of the specific genes, suggesting that the stimulatory effects of LR-BSA arise from lipids bound to albumin. PMID:26582048

  12. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

  13. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  14. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  15. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  16. Migratory refueling affects non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, but does not increase lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Jönsson, Johanna; Fritzsch, Anna; Wang, Hong-Lei; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    All aerobic organisms are to some degree affected by oxidative stress, which is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former. Pro-oxidants can damage DNA, proteins and lipids, and as such oxidative stress can carry considerably fitness costs. In mammals excessive calorie intake is a known cause of oxidative stress. We investigated whether in migrant birds, which typically engage in over-eating in between flights (refueling), high food intake causes oxidative stress. In an experiment we compared levels of plasmatic total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (AOX) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) between migrants repeatedly fasted and refed (simulating the flight-refuel cycle of wild migrants), and migrants on ad libitum food. We found that refueling increased AOX, an effect mainly attributable to an increase in uric acid level, an antioxidant that is produced during protein metabolism. Accordingly, variation in AOX was mainly explained by the refueling birds' food intake. However, food intake in migrants on ad libitum food did not explain any variation in AOX. Refueling did not affect lipid peroxidation, nor were its levels explained by food intake. We propose that over-eating migrants retain uric acid, which might be a very low cost mechanism to forego oxidative damage. PMID:26921098

  17. Association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 rs4148217 SNP and serum lipid levels in Mulao and Han nationalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 gene (ABCG8) rs4148217 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Mulao nationality is an isolated minority in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 634 subjects of Mulao nationality and 717 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotyping of the ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The genotypic and allelic frequencies of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP were different between the two nationalities (P < 0.01 for each), the frequency of A allele was higher in Mulao than in Han. The A allele carriers in Han had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the A allele carriers in Mulao had lower ApoA1 levels than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers in Han had lower HDL-C and higher triglyceride (TG) levels in females but not in males than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for each), and the A allele carriers in Mulao had lower ApoA1 levels in females but not in males than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05). The levels of TG and HDL-C in Han, and ApoA1 in Mulao were associated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05-0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions The ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP is associated with serum TG, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in our study populations, but this association is different between the Mulao and Han

  18. Serum nitric oxide is associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in women: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tahmasebi Nejad, Zhale; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-07-01

    Background and aim This study was conducted to investigate the association between serum nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We recruited 3462 and 2504 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), for a cross-sectional and prospective analysis, respectively. Serum NOx concentrations were measured at baseline (2006-2008), and demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and again after 3 years (2009-2011). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD were defined. Association between serum NOx and CKD in the cross-sectional phase and the predictability of NOx in CKD occurrence were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with adjustment for confounders. Results Mean age of participants was 45.0 ± 15.9 years at baseline and 40.5% were male. The prevalence of CKD was 17.9% (13.4% in men, 21.0% in women) at baseline, at which point, marginally significant odds of CKD in the highest tertile of serum NOx in men (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.96-2.45, p for trend = 0.047) and a significant odds of CKD in women (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.76-3.49, p for trend = 0.001) were observed. After a 3-year follow-up, in women, risk of CKD was higher in the highest compared to the lowest NOx tertiles (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10-3.14, p for trend = 0.032) but no significant association was observed in men. Conclusion Serum NOx level was found to be an independent predictor of CKD in women; it could be a valuable surrogate for prediction of renal dysfunction in women and help to identify high-risk subjects. PMID:26956540

  19. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

  20. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and the Pro12Ala polymorphisms of PPARG regulate serum lipids through divergent pathways: a randomized crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Kaminska, Dorota; Ågren, Jyrki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Paananen, Jussi; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti

    2015-11-01

    Human and animal studies suggest an interaction between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG and dietary fat. In this randomized crossover clinical trial, we investigated whether subjects with the Pro12Pro and Ala12Ala genotypes of PPARG respond differently to a diet supplemented with high saturated (SAFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA).We recruited non-diabetic men from a population-based METSIM study (including 10,197 men) to obtain men with the Ala12Ala and the Pro12Pro genotypes matched for age and body mass index. Seventeen men with the Pro12Pro genotype and 14 with the Ala12Ala genotype were randomized to both a PUFA diet and a SAFA diet for 8 weeks in a crossover setting. Serum lipids and adipose tissue mRNA expression were measured during the diet intervention. At baseline, subjects with the Ala12Ala genotype had higher levels of HDL cholesterol and lower levels of LDL cholesterol, total triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B compared to those subjects with the Pro12Pro genotype (P < 0.05, FDR < 0.1). The Ala12Ala genotype also associated with higher mRNA expression of PPARG2, LPIN1, and SREBP-1c compared to participants with the Pro12Pro genotype (FDR < 0.001). On the other hand, PUFA diet resulted in lower levels of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B (P < 0.05, FDR < 0.1) but did not affect PPARG2 mRNA expression in adipose tissue. We conclude that individuals with the Pro12Pro genotype, with higher triglyceride levels at baseline, are more likely to benefit from the PUFA diet. However, the beneficial effects of dietary PUFA and the Ala12Ala genotype of PPARG on serum lipids are mediated through divergent mechanisms. PMID:26446033

  1. Orally delivered microencapsulated live probiotic formulation lowers serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bhathena, Jasmine; Martoni, Christopher; Kulamarva, Arun; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Prakash, Satya

    2009-04-01

    Elevated serum cholesterol is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Nutritional therapies such as probiotics have been suggested to manage elevated cholesterol. This study investigates the cholesterol and triglyceride lowering potential of a microencapsulated feruloyl esterase-producing Lactobacillus fermentum 11976 (LF11976) probiotic formulation. Male Bio F(1)B hamsters were assigned to two groups to receive either the microcapsule probiotic formulation (containing LF11976 cells at 12.51 log colony-forming units/mL) or placebo formulation (empty) microcapsules, twice daily, by oral gavage for 18 weeks. For the duration of the study, animals were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and the atherogenic index were 21.36%, 31.43%, and 32.59% lower in the group gavaged with the microencapsulated probiotic formulation than in the placebo control group after 18 weeks (P < .05). Histology studies showed reduced progression of atherosclerotic lesions in animals treated with microencapsulated LF11976 as compared to control animals. Treatment with microencapsulated LF11976 formulation produces significant reductions in serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and serum triglyceride levels in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Findings suggest the potential of the oral microencapsulated probiotic cell formulation as a functional nutritional alternative for managing excessive serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. PMID:19459731

  2. Association between CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in a Latvian population

    PubMed Central

    Radovica, I.; Fridmanis, D.; Silamikelis, I.; Nikitina-Zake, L.; Klovins, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal lipid levels are considered one of the most significant risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, two of the main causes of death worldwide. Apart from monogenic cases of hypercholesterolemia, most of the common dyslipidemias are caused by a number of low-impact polymorphisms. It has recently been reported that frequent polymorphisms at a large number of loci are significantly associated with one or more blood lipid parameters in many populations. Identifying these associations in different populations and estimating the possible interactions between genetic models are necessary to explain the underlying genetic architecture of the associated loci and their ultimate impact on lipid-associated traits. Methods We estimated the association between 144 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from published genome-wide association studies and the levels of total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol, and triglycerides in 1273 individuals from the Genome Database of the Latvian Population. We analyzed a panel of 144 common SNPs with Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assays on the Illumina BeadXpress System. Results Ten SNPs at the CETP locus and two at the MLXIPL locus were associated with reduced high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels; one SNP at the TOMM40 locus was associated with increased low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol; and four SNPs at the MLXIPL locus were associated with increased log triglyceride levels. There was also a significant correlation between the number of risk alleles and all the lipid parameters, suggesting that the coexistence of many low-impact SNPs has a greater effect on the dyslipidemia phenotype than the individual effects of found SNPs. Conclusion We conclude that the CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 loci are the strongest genetic factors underlying the variability in lipid traits in our population. PMID:25606439

  3. Supplementation of broccoli or Bifidobacterium longum-fermented broccoli suppresses serum lipid peroxidation and osteoclast differentiation on alveolar bone surface in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Endo, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Ishikado, Atsushi; Sato, Takehiko; Harada, Kayo; Suido, Hirohisa; Morita, Manabu

    2012-04-01

    High-cholesterol diet enhances osteoclastic activity on alveolar bone by increasing serum lipid peroxidation. We hypothesized that supplementation with dietary antioxidants, such as found in broccoli and its fermented products, might suppress increases in serum lipid peroxidation, contributing to the inhibition of osteoclastic activity after high-cholesterol diet intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of broccoli and fermented broccoli consumption on serum lipid peroxidation and osteoclast differentiation in alveolar bone of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. In this 12-week study, rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group): a control group (fed regular diet) and 3 experimental groups (fed a high-cholesterol [1% wt/wt] diet, or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with either broccoli powder [5% wt/wt] or Bifidobacterium longum-fermented broccoli powder [5% wt/wt]). Serum hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) levels were measured as a parameter of lipid peroxidation. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone was enumerated to evaluate osteoclast differentiation. When compared with regular diet, the high-cholesterol diet increased serum HEL levels and resulted in a higher number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at 12 weeks. The high-cholesterol diet supplemented with broccoli or B. longum-fermented broccoli showed lower levels of serum HEL and fewer TRAP-positive osteoclasts than the high-cholesterol diet at 12 weeks. In conclusion, consumption of broccoli, or its fermented product, inhibited the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on osteoclast differentiation in rat alveolar bone by suppressing serum lipid peroxidation. PMID:22575044

  4. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Duran, Patricia V; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco A; Elias-Viñas, David; Verdugo-Diaz, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h) of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT) or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure). Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026). The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation. PMID:18021407

  5. Serum melatonin is not affected by glucocorticoid replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Waldhauser, F; Frisch, H; Krautgasser-Gasparotti, A; Schober, E; Bieglmayer, C

    1986-03-01

    Recently a hypothesis has been proposed suggesting a negative feedback in the regulation of cortisol (F) and melatonin (Mel). To study a possible influence of F on Mel regulation we examined 13 children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) on two occasions: once 3 days after cessation of F substitution (group 1; n = 13) and once during treatment with dexamethasone (1 mg/m2/day) and fludrocortisone (0.1 mg/m2/day) (group 2; n = 11) 11 children matched by sex and age served as controls (group 3). While serum 17 OH-progesterone levels, an indicator for the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in CAH, were significantly (P less than 0.001) elevated in untreated patients (group 1), serum Mel levels were not different among the 3 groups nor was the diurnal secretion pattern of Mel affected. Nocturnal serum Mel concentrations, however, correlated with the age of the subjects (r = 0.55, P less than 0.001 at 23.00 h), displaying high values in early childhood that declined with progressing age. The presented data do not support the view of a classical feedback mechanism in the regulation of Mel and F in humans. However, it confirms the description of a tremendous fall of nocturnal Mel concentrations during childhood. PMID:3962565

  6. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p < 0.05) egg production. Quality criteria of egg for except shell breaking strength were not affected by supplementing cerium oxide. In particular, supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg cerium oxide to the laying hens feed led to a significant (p < 0. 01) increase in egg shell breaking strength. Calcium and phosphorus concentration of serum increased significantly (p < 0.05) with supplementation of 100 mg/kg cerium oxide to laying hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives. PMID:26847677

  7. Ibuprofen does not affect serum electrolyte concentrations after an ultradistance run

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Charles L; Nieman, David C; Oley, Kevin; Lind, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of ibuprofen on serum electrolyte concentrations after a 160 km running race. Methods Twenty nine subjects (mean (SD) age 47.9 (7.4) years) ingested 600 mg ibuprofen the day before, and 1200 mg ibuprofen during, a 160 km competitive trail running race (approximately every 4 h in 200 mg doses). Twenty five control subjects (mean (SD) age 46.8 (10.3) years) avoided ingestion of ibuprofen before or during the race. Blood was drawn on the day before the race and immediately after the race. Serum biochemical profiles were analysed by a clinical laboratory. Significant effects of treatment and time were determined with a general linear model with repeated measures. Results Subjects in the two groups did not differ by age, training volume, race experience, body mass index, body fat, or finishing time (25.8 (3.3) vs 25.6 (3.9) h). Body weight did not change significantly over the race (measured before, mid‐race (90 km), and after). Ibuprofen ingestion did not significantly affect any of the serum markers including creatine kinase (p = 0.16). A significant decrease in serum sodium (p = 0.006), potassium (p = 0.001), chloride (p<0.001), calcium (p<0.001), albumin (p<0.001) and globulin (p<0.001) was observed after the race. Increases were seen in creatine kinase (p<0.001), creatinine (p<0.001), blood urea nitrogen (p<0.001), uric acid (p<0.001) and glucose (p<0.001) as the result of the race. Conclusions These data suggest that the non‐specific cyclo‐oxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, does not alter serum electrolyte concentrations during ultradistance running. However, the stress of ultradistance running appears to be related to significant changes in certain serum markers. PMID:17331976

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Testosterone Gels, Injections, and Pellets on Serum Hormones, Erythrocytosis, Lipids, and Prostate-Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Pastuszak, Alexander W; Gomez, Lissette P; Scovell, Jason M; Khera, Mohit; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous testosterone (T) formulations are available, each with differing effects on serum parameters. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the long-term effects of topical, injectable, and implantable pellet T formulations in hypogonadal men. Methods Retrospective review of hypogonadal men treated with a single T formulation was performed: 47 men on T gels, 57 on injectable T, and 74 on T pellets were identified. Total T (TT), calculated free T (FT), estradiol (E), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), total cholesterol (Tchol), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were evaluated at baseline and every 3–6 months for 3 years. Serum parameters were compared using a mixed model linear regression for repeated measures. Main Outcome Measures Effects of topical, injectable, and pellet T formulations on serum hormone levels, Hgb, Hct, lipid parameters and PSA. Results Men in the injectable T group were younger (42.5 ± 12.3 years) than in the gel (54.1 ± 9.8 years) or pellet groups (53.8 ± 13.0 years), and baseline FT, Hgb, and Hct were higher in the injectable T group than in gel or pellet groups. Increases in TT and FT were observed throughout follow-up in all groups. Increases in E were observed at in all T groups and throughout follow-up in injectable and gel groups. No PSA increases were observed. Erythrocytosis (Hct > 50%) was more common with injectable T (66.7%) than with T gels (12.8%) or pellets (35.1%, P < 0.0001). Transient changes in cholesterol, TG, and LDL were observed, and no significant changes were seen in HDL for any group. Conclusions All T formulations increase serum T and FT. More significant increases in E occur with injectable T and T gels. Changes in Hgb and Hct are most significant with injectable T, and effects on lipids are variable and inconsistent. Selection of T formulations must account for individual

  9. Sebelipase alfa over 52 weeks reduces serum transaminases, liver volume and improves serum lipids in patients with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Malinova, Vera; Honzík, Tomas; Balwani, Manisha; Breen, Catherine; Deegan, Patrick B.; Enns, Gregory M.; Jones, Simon A.; Kane, John P.; Stock, Eveline O.; Tripuraneni, Radhika; Eckert, Stephen; Schneider, Eugene; Hamilton, Gavin; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude; Kessler, Bruce; Bourdon, Christopher; Boyadjiev, Simeon A.; Sharma, Reena; Twelves, Chris; Whitley, Chester B.; Quinn, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency is an autosomal recessive enzyme deficiency resulting in lysosomal accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. LAL-CL04, an ongoing extension study, investigates the long-term effects of sebelipase alfa, a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase. Methods Sebelipase alfa (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg) was infused every-other-week to eligible subjects. Safety and tolerability assessments, including liver function, lipid profiles and liver volume assessment, were carried out at regular intervals. Results 216 infusions were administered to eight adult subjects through Week 52 during LAL-CL04. At Week 52, mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were normal with mean change from baseline of −58% and −40%. Mean change for low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein were −60%, −39%, −36%, and +29%, respectively. Mean liver volume by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic proton density fat fraction decreased (12% and 55%, respectively). Adverse events were mainly mild and unrelated to sebelipase alfa. Infusion-related reactions were uncommon: three events of moderate severity were reported in two subjects; one patient's event was suggestive of hypersensitivity-like reaction, but additional testing did not confirm this, and the subject has successfully re-started sebelipase alfa. Of samples tested to date, no anti-drug antibodies have been detected. Conclusions Long-term dosing with sebelipase alfa in Lysosomal Acid Lipase-Deficient patients is well tolerated and produces sustained reductions in transaminases, improvements in serum lipid profile and reduction in hepatic fat fraction. A randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in children and adults is underway (ARISE: NCT01757184). PMID:24993530

  10. Human serum albumin supported lipid patterns for the targeted recognition of microspheres coated by membrane based on ss-DNA hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaoming; He Qiang; Duan Li; Li Junbai . E-mail: jbli@iccas.ac.cn

    2006-10-27

    Human serum albumin (HSA) patterns have been successfully fabricated for the deposition of lipid bilayer, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sglycerophosphate (DMPA), by making use of the micro-contact printing ({mu}CP) technique and liposome fusion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) results indicate that lipid bilayer has been assembled in HSA patterns with a good stability. Such well-defined lipid patterns formed on HSA surface create possibility to incorporate specific components like channels or receptors for specific recognition. In view of this, microspheres coated with lipid membranes were immobilized in HSA-supported lipid patterns via the hybridization of complementary ss-DNAs. This procedure enables to transfer solid materials to a soft surface through a specific recognition.

  11. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. PMID:26149986

  12. Pyoverdine and Proteases Affect the Response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Gallium in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. PMID:26149986

  13. Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan-Zhen; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:25120796

  14. Drought stress affects chloroplast lipid metabolism in rape (Brassica napus) leaves.

    PubMed

    Benhassaine-Kesri, Ghouziel; Aid, Fatiha; Demandre, Chantal; Kader, Jean-Claude; Mazliak, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L. var. Bienvenue) is a 16:3 plant which contains predominantly prokaryotic species of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol i.e. sn-1 C18, sn-2 C16 (C18/C16 MGDG). Rape plants were exposed to a restricted water supply for 12 days. Under drought conditions, considerable changes in lipid metabolism were observed. Drought stress provoked a decline in leaf polar lipids, which is mainly due to a decrease in MGDG content. Determination of molecular species in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and MGDG indicated that the prokaryotic molecular species of MGDG (C18/C16) decreased after drought stress while the eukaryotic molecular species (C18/C18) remained stable. Drought stress had different effects on two key enzymes of PC and MGDG synthesis. The in vitro activity of MGDG synthase (EC. 2.4.1.46) was reduced in drought stressed plants whereas cholinephosphotransferase (EC. 2.7.8.2) activity was not affected. Altogether these results suggest that the prokaryotic pathway leading to MGDG synthesis was strongly affected by drought stress while the eukaryotic pathway was not. It was also observed that the molecular species of leaf PC became more saturated in drought stressed plants. This could be due to a specific decrease in oleate desaturase activity. PMID:12060239

  15. Sphingosine Kinase 1 Localized to the Plasma Membrane Lipid Raft Microdomain Overcomes Serum Deprivation Induced Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Hengst, Jeremy A.; Francy-Guilford, Jacquelyn M.; Fox, Todd E.; Wang, Xujun; Conroy, Elizabeth J.; Yun, Jong K.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) translocates to the plasma membrane (PM) upon its activation and further suggested the plasma membrane lipid raft microdomain (PMLRM) as a target for SphK1 relocalization. To date, however, direct evidence of SphK1 localization to the PMLRM has been lacking. In this report, using multiple biochemical and subcellular fractionation techniques we demonstrate that endogenous SphK1 protein and its substrate, D-erythro sphingosine, are present within the PMLRM. Additionally, we demonstrate that the PMA stimulation of SphK1 localized to the PMLRM results in production of sphingosine-1-phosphate as well as induction of cell growth under serum-deprivation conditions. We further report that Ser225Ala and Thr54Cys mutations, reported to abrogate phosphatidylserine binding, block SphK1 targeting to the PMLRM and SphK1 induced cell growth. Together these findings provide direct evidence that the PMLRM is the major site-of-action for SphK1 to overcome serum-deprived cell growth inhibition. PMID:19782042

  16. The effects of triiodothyronine, hydrocortisone and insulin on lipid synthesis by cultured fibroblasts preincubated in a serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Amorosa, L F; Khachadurian, A K; Harris, J N; Schneider, S H; Fung, C H

    1984-02-01

    Studies of lipid metabolism in cell cultures are usually carried out after preincubation of cells in media containing lipoprotein-deficient or delipidated serum. The artifacts produced during delipidation prevent the standardization of assays and the study of the role of hormones on lipid metabolism. We studied the effects of triiodothyronine, hydrocortisone, insulin and their combination on cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts preincubated for 24 h in an artificial medium (medium A) consisting of equal volumes of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's and Ham's F-12 media enriched with transferrin, biotin and calcium pantothenate. In cells preincubated in medium A the incorporation of acetate to cholesterol and the activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase were much lower than in cells preincubated in standard medium containing lipoprotein-deficient serum. Addition of the three hormones caused a marked stimulation of the incorporation of acetate to cholesterol (from 3.1 to 17.7 pmol/min per mg protein), an activity similar to that in cells preincubated in lipoprotein-deficient serum plus hormones. The stimulatory effect of the hormones on HMG-CoA reductase activity was smaller, from 11 to 26 pmol/min per mg protein compared to 83 pmol/min per mg protein in cells preincubated in lipoprotein-deficient serum plus hormones. Most of the stimulatory effect was due to insulin. The lack of coordinate response between these two parameters in cells preincubated in artificial medium could not be explained by (a) stimulation of a post-mevalonate step as measured by the incorporation of mevalonate to cholesterol; (b) the in vitro inactivation of HMG-CoA reductase by phosphorylation: incubation of fibroblast microsomes with Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase resulted in a decrease in HMG-CoA reductase activity, in contrast to an increase in hepatic microsomes; (c) the presence of inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase in the microsomal

  17. Salmon Protamine Decreases Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Inhibiting Lipid Absorption in an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Model and in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Miyauchi, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Daiki; Arai, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Protamine has been used as an antiheparin drug and a natural preservative in various food products. However, limited studies have evaluated the physicochemical and functional properties of protamine. Hence, we assessed the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of lipid absorption following salmon protamine intake in in vitro and in vivo studies. In initial experiments, a salmon protamine hydrolyzate (PH) was prepared using in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion suppressed pancreatic lipase activity and micellar cholesterol solubility. This PH had higher bile acid-binding capacity and emulsion breakdown activity than casein hydrolyzate and l-arginine. However, the hypolipidemic functions of protamine were dramatically reduced by pancreatin digestion. In further experiments, groups of male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 5% (wt/wt) salmon protamine or a protamine amino acid mixture. After 4 wk of feeding with experimental diets, reductions in serum and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol contents were observed in the presence of protamine, reflecting inhibition of TAG, cholesterol, and bile acid absorption. These data suggest that the formation of insoluble PH-bile acid complexes is critical before the bile acid-binding capacity is reduced. Therefore, dietary salmon protamine may ameliorate lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. PMID:26352573

  18. Evaluation of serum lipid profile, body mass index, and waistline in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Rongtao; Qi, Zhiming; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke. Glucose intolerance (insulin resistance) is the main feature of type 2 diabetes. Obesity leads to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters and measures of obesity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A total of 2,273 males and 6,547 females previously healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years old) were recruited by open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, was collected by questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profile, liver transaminase, blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were obtained after 12 hours of fasting. Results According to our results, diabetic patients presented serum lipid abnormality. Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels (≥1.7 mmol/L) were noted in 19.69% of males and 20.40% of females, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (≤1.15 mmol/L) were noted in 21.96% of males and 15.74% of females. The combination of elevated TG and reduced HDL-C was the most prevalent of the combined lipid abnormalities. In contrast, no differences were observed in the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in the levels of BMI and waistline between T2DM and non-T2DM participants. After adjustment for BMI, logistic regression analysis revealed that the subjects with BMI ≤20 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2 had a significantly elevated hazard ratio of T2DM compared with participants having a BMI range of 20–30 kg/m2 in both males and females. However, there was a significant difference between T2DM patients and non-T2DM patients in waistline (χ2=8.57, P<0.001) than in BMI parameter (χ2=6.29, P<0.001). Conclusion The

  19. Tragopogon porrifolius improves serum lipid profile and increases short-term satiety in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeeni, Nadine; Daher, Costantine F; Saab, Lea; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Tragopogon porrifolius (white salsify) is an edible plant commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. This study investigates the effect of the aqueous extract of the aerial part of T. porrifolius on lipemia and appetite regulation using a rat model. Food intake, abdominal fat percentage, blood lipid profile, liver weight and liver enzymes were assessed following 4 weeks of extract intake via drinking water (50, 100, or 250 mg/kg body weight) in standard high-carbohydrate and high-fat dietary conditions. In a separate study, the short term effect of a preload of T. porrifolius extract on food intake was evaluated. Results showed that consumption of the plant extract for a period of four weeks resulted in a marked improvement of the lipid profile (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol). Body weight, food intake and intra-abdominal fat were also lower in animals given the plant extract (100 and 250 mg/kg). In addition, T. porrifolius extract preload produced a dose dependent decrease in food intake observed over 24h. The intake of T. porrifolius aqueous extract therefore improved lipemia and increased satiety in rats with no visible adverse effects. PMID:24099703

  20. [Effect of shengmaisan on serum lipid peroxidation in acute viral myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, M H; Rong, Y Z; Lu, B J

    1996-03-01

    The effect of Shengmaisan (SMS) on 62 acute viral myocarditis patients and its peroxidation damage was studied. The results revealed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood were decreased and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma was increased in acute viral myocarditis patients in comparison with the healthy controls (P < 0.001). 62 acute viral myocarditis patients were divided into two groups: SMS group and placebo group. After treatment, both SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased and the level of MDA decreased (P < 0.001) in SMS group, while those in placebo group were not changed (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the myocardial damage of viral myocarditis is closely related with lipid peroxidation SMS acts as an effective free radical scavenger and anti-lipid peroxidation drug. SMS could prevent the damage of myocardia and might be taken as one of the effective therapeutic methods in treatment of acute viral myocarditis. PMID:9208534

  1. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decreased as compared with the eyes of control dark-adapted C57BL/6J mice. In addition, exposure to intense light correlated with higher levels of prostaglandin G2 in the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. Intense light exposure also lowered DHA levels in the eyes of wild-type C57BL/6J mice without discernible retinal degeneration. Analysis of human serum from patients with AMD recapitulated these dysregulated DHA levels and revealed dysregulation of arachidonic acid (AA) levels as well (∼32% increase in patients with AMD compared with average levels in healthy individuals). From these observations, we then built a statistical model that included levels of DHA and AA from human serum. This model had a 74% probability of correctly identifying patients with AMD from controls. Addition of a genetic analysis for one of the most prevalent amino acid substitutions in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene linked to AMD, Ala(69)→Ser, did not improve the statistical model. Thus, we have characterized a reliable method with the potential to detect AMD without a genetic component, paving the way for a larger-scale clinical evaluation. Our studies on mouse models along with the analysis of human serum suggest that our small molecule-based model may serve as an effective tool to estimate the risk of developing AMD. PMID:26187344

  2. Effect of Prebiotic Galacto-Oligosaccharides on Serum Lipid Profile of Hypercholesterolemics.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Arooj; Naeem, Naureen; Farooq, Zubair; Masood, Saima; Iqbal, Sanaullah; Naseer, Rahat

    2016-03-01

    The present study focused on the role of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) against the development of hypercholesterolemia. In the current research, GOS synthesized from lactose solution were fed to hypercholesterolemic female Sprague-Dawley rats. Negative control group (G1) was fed on standard basal diet alone. Positive control group (G5) was fed on inulin (154 mg/250 g body weight), while treatment groups G2, G3 and G4 received 110 mg, 154 mg and 198.4 mg/250 g body weight, respectively, of GOS along with high-fat diet for a period of 60 days. Findings from this study revealed that animals belonging to prebiotic GOS (G2, G3 and G4)-fed group showed significantly decreased serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol as compared to control group (G0). The groups which were fed on different doses of GOS revealed a significant reduction in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL levels and an increase in HDL level corresponding to the reference group that was fed on inulin, while G1 negative control group revealed increased levels of TC, TG, LDL and VLDL. In contrast to positive control group G5 (154 mg inulin), all doses of GOS lowered serum TC, TG and LDL-C and raised HDL-C; however, G4 (198.4 mg) proved to be more effective. Hence, GOS proved to be supportive in preventing hypercholesterolemia leading cause of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. This study reported a significant reduction of serum TC, TG and LDL-C in female rats for 60 days as compared to control. Conclusively, GOS were found to be worthless against hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26905736

  3. Association of rs5888 SNP in the scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 598 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 585 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower but ApoB was higher in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequencies of C and T alleles were 78.3% and 21.7% in Bai Ku Yao, and 73.7% and 26.3% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequencies of CC, CT and TT genotypes were 60.0%, 36.6% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 54.2%, 39.0% and 6.8% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The subjects with TT genotype in both ethnic groups had lower HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the subjects with TT genotype in Bai Ku Yao had lower HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males than the subjects with CC or CT genotype (P < 0.05 for all), and the T allele carriers had higher TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels in females than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all). The participants with TT genotype in Han also had a lower tendency of HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males than the participants with CC or CT genotype, but the difference did not reach statistically significant (P = 0.063 and P = 0.086; respectively). The association of serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels and genotypes was confirmed by

  4. Lung inflammation does not affect the clearance kinetics of lipid nanocapsules following pulmonary administration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aateka; Woods, A; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Babin-Morgan, Anna; Jones, Marie-Christine; Jones, Stuart; Sunassee, Kavitha; Clark, Stephen; T M de Rosales, Rafael; Page, Clive; Spina, Domenico; Forbes, Ben; Dailey, Lea Ann

    2016-08-10

    Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are semi-rigid spherical capsules with a triglyceride core that present a promising formulation option for the pulmonary delivery of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Whilst the biodistribution of LNCs of different size has been studied following intravenous administration, the fate of LNCs following pulmonary delivery has not been reported. We investigated quantitatively whether lung inflammation affects the clearance of 50nm lipid nanocapsules, or is exacerbated by their pulmonary administration. Studies were conducted in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation compared to healthy controls. Particle deposition and nanocapsule clearance kinetics were measured by single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging over 48 h. A significantly lower lung dose of (111)In-LNC50 was achieved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated animals compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). When normalised to the delivered lung dose, the clearance kinetics of (111)In-LNC50 from the lungs fit a first order model with an elimination half-life of 10.5±0.9h (R(2)=0.995) and 10.6±0.3h (R(2)=1.000) for healthy and inflamed lungs respectively (n=3). In contrast, (111)In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), a small hydrophilic molecule, was cleared rapidly from the lungs with the majority of the dose absorbed within 20min of administration. Biodistribution to lungs, stomach-intestine, liver, trachea-throat and blood at the end of the imaging period was unaltered by lung inflammation. This study demonstrated that lung clearance and whole body distribution of lipid nanocapsules were unaffected by the presence of acute lung inflammation. PMID:27180635

  5. Effects of food availability on serum insulin and lipid concentrations in free-ranging baboons.

    PubMed

    Kemnitz, Joseph W; Sapolsky, Robert M; Altmann, Jeanne; Muruthi, Philip; Mott, Glen E; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2002-05-01

    The relationship between food availability and metabolic physiology was studied in groups of free-ranging baboons (Papio spp.) living in the Amboseli National Park and the Masai Mara National Reserve of Kenya. Three groups subsisted entirely on natural forage, while two other groups lived near tourist facilities and often consumed food wastes from these lodges. The refuse provided a very accessible food source with relatively high caloric density. Consumption of the refuse was associated with reduced locomotion. Sexually mature individuals from all five groups were sedated surreptitiously in the early morning and blood samples were collected. Compared to animals foraging exclusively in the wild, animals that supplemented their diet with the refuse items had two- to threefold elevations in serum insulin concentrations, as well as increased total cholesterol (C), HDL-C, and VLDL+LDL-C levels. No sex differences in physiological measures were observed except in body mass. Elevated serum insulin, and cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations influence the development of cardiovascular disease and have been shown to be subject to dietary manipulation and exercise under controlled conditions. The present results suggest potentially deleterious effects of a highly accessible, calorically dense food source, and associated reduction of physical activity for baboons living in an otherwise natural environment. PMID:11977122

  6. Dietary fiber supplements: effects on serum and liver lipids and on liver phospholipid composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, D; Tepper, S A; Satchithanandam, S; Cassidy, M M; Vahouny, G V

    1988-04-01

    Rats (6 per group) were fed semipurified diets containing either particulate fibers (alfalfa, 10%; cellulose, 10%; bran, 10%), a soluble ionic fiber (pectin 5%), soluble, nonionic fibers (guar gum, 5%; Metamucil, 10%), a mixed fiber preparation (Fibyrax, 10%, or an insoluble, ionic bile acid-binding resin (cholestyramine, 2%). The control group was fed the unsupplemented diet. The feeding period, during which diet and water were provided ad libitum, was 28 days. Compared with the control group, serum total cholesterol levels were increased by more than 10% in rats fed alfalfa and decreased by more than 10% in rats fed cellulose, guar gum, Fibyrax and cholestyramine. There were no significant differences in percentage of plasma HDL cholesterol. Serum triglycerides were elevated in the groups fed alfalfa, pectin, guar gum or Fibyrax and reduced in the group fed Metamucil. Plasma phospholipids were elevated in rats fed alfalfa or bran, unaffected in rats fed pectin or Metamucil and reduced in the other groups. Liver total cholesterol was elevated in all groups but those fed wheat bran and cholestyramine. The percentage of liver cholesterol present as ester was elevated in every group except that fed cholestyramine. Liver triglycerides were reduced in rats fed guar gum or Metamucil and elevated in those fed alfalfa. Liver phospholipids were lowered in the group fed cellulose. Liver phospholipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography to give phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (Sph), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylinositol plus phosphatidylserine (PI + PS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2840544

  7. Dietary freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract suppresses accumulation of hepatic lipids and increases in serum cholesterol and aminotransferase activities induced by dietary chloretone in rats.

    PubMed

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Umeki, Miki; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yutaro; Yamada, Koji; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. PMID:25704646

  8. Glutamate supply positively affects serum cholesterol concentrations without increases in total protein and urea around the onset of puberty in goats.

    PubMed

    Meza-Herrera, C A; Calderón-Leyva, G; Soto-Sanchez, M J; Serradilla, J M; García-Martinez, A; Mellado, M; Veliz-Deras, F G

    2014-06-30

    Different neurotransmitter and neuromodulatory systems regulate synthesis and secretion of GnRH. Whereas the endocrine and neural systems are activated in response to the metabolic status and the circulating levels of specific blood metabolites, glutamate receptors have been reported at hepatic level. This study evaluated the possible effect of glutamate supplementation upon changes in serum concentrations across time for total protein (TP), urea (UR) and cholesterol (CL) around the onset of puberty in goats. Prepuberal female goats (n=18) were randomly assigned to: (1) excitatory amino acids group, GLUT, n=10; 16.52±1.04kg live weight (LW), 3.4±0.12 body condition score (BCS) receiving an i.v. infusion of 7mgkg(-1) LW of l-glutamate, and (2) Control group, CONT, n=8; 16.1±1.04kg LW, 3.1±0.12 BCS. General averages for LW (23.2±0.72kg), BCS (3.37±0.10 units), serum TP (65.28±2.46mgdL(-1)), UR (23.42±0.95mgdL(-1)), CL (77.89±1.10mgdL(-1)) as well as the serum levels for TP and UR across time did not differ (P>0.05) between treatments. However, while GLUT positively affected (P<0.05) both the onset (207±9 vs. 225±12 d) and the percentage (70 vs. 25%) of females showing puberty, a treatment×time interaction effect (P<0.05) was observed in the GLUT group, with increases in serum cholesterol, coincident with the onset of puberty. Therefore, in peripuberal glutamate supplemented goats, serum cholesterol profile could act as a metabolic modulator for the establishment of puberty, denoting also a potential role of glutamate as modulator of lipid metabolism. PMID:24811839

  9. Functional UQCRC1 polymorphisms affect promoter activity and body lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kunej, Tanja; Wang, Zeping; Michal, Jennifer J; Daniels, Tyler F; Magnuson, Nancy S; Jiang, Zhihua

    2007-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes constitute leading public health problems worldwide. Studies have shown that insulin resistance affiliated with these conditions is associated with skeletal muscle lipid accumulation, while the latter is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, the initiation and regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis rely heavily on approximately 1000 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial regulatory proteins. In this study, we targeted the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein I gene, a nuclear-encoded component of mitochondrial complex III, for its association with subcutaneous fat depth (SFD) and skeletal muscle lipid accumulation (SMLA) using cattle as a model. Four promoter polymorphisms were identified and genotyped on approximately 250 Wagyu x Limousin F2 progeny. Statistical analysis revealed that two completely linked polymorphic sites, g.13487C>T and g.13709G>C (r2 = 1), were significantly associated with both SFD (p < 0.01) and SMLA (p < 0.0001). The difference between TTCC and CCGG haplotypes was 0.178 cm for SFD and 0.624 scores for SMLA. Interestingly, the former haplotype produced higher promoter activities than the latter by 43% to 49% in three cell lines (p < 0.05). In addition to Rett syndrome and breast/ovarian cancer observed in other studies, we report evidence for the first time, to our knowledge, that overexpression of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein I might affect mitochondrial morphology and/or physiology and lead to development of obesity and related conditions. PMID:18198295

  10. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures.